Science.gov

Sample records for 30m single dish

  1. Single dish gradient screening of small molecule localization.

    PubMed

    Beuzer, Paolo; Axelrod, Joshua; Trzoss, Lynnie; Fenical, Willam; Dasari, Ramesh; Evidente, Antonio; Kornienko, Alexander; Cang, Hu; La Clair, James J

    2016-09-21

    Understanding trafficking in cells and tissues is one of the most critical steps in exploring the mechanisms and modes of action (MOAs) of a small molecule. Typically, deciphering the role of concentration presents one of the most difficult challenges associated with this task. Herein, we present a practical solution to this problem by developing concentration gradients within single dishes of cells. We demonstrate the method by evaluating fluorescently-labelled probes developed from two classes of natural products that have been identified as potential anti-cancer leads by STORM super-resolution microscopy. PMID:27530345

  2. Instrumentation for single-dish observations with The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul K.; Asada, K.; Blundell, R.; Burgos, R.; Chang, H.-H.; Chen, M. T.; Goldie, D.; Groppi, C.; Han, C. C.; Ho, P. T. P.; Huang, Y. D.; Inoue, M.; Kubo, D.; Koch, P.; Leech, J.; de Lera Acedo, E.; Martin-Cocher, P.; Nishioka, H.; Nakamura, M.; Matsushita, S.; Paine, S. N.; Patel, N.; Raffin, P.; Snow, W.; Sridharan, T. K.; Srinivasan, R.; Thomas, C. N.; Tong, E.; Wang, M.-J.; Wheeler, C.; Withington, S.; Yassin, G.; Zeng, L.-Z.

    2014-07-01

    The Greenland Telescope project will deploy and operate a 12m sub-millimeter telescope at the highest point of the Greenland i e sheet. The Greenland Telescope project is a joint venture between the Smithsonian As- trophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). In this paper we discuss the concepts, specifications, and science goals of the instruments being developed for single-dish observations with the Greenland Telescope, and the coupling optics required to couple both them and the mm-VLBI receivers to antenna. The project will outfit the ALMA North America prototype antenna for Arctic operations and deploy it to Summit Station,1 a NSF operated Arctic station at 3,100m above MSL on the Greenland I e Sheet. This site is exceptionally dry, and promises to be an excellent site for sub-millimeter astronomical observations. The main science goal of the Greenland Telescope is to carry out millimeter VLBI observations alongside other telescopes in Europe and the Americas, with the aim of resolving the event horizon of the super-massive black hole at the enter of M87. The Greenland Telescope will also be outfitted for single-dish observations from the millimeter-wave to Tera-hertz bands. In this paper we will discuss the proposed instruments that are currently in development for the Greenland Telescope - 350 GHz and 650 GHz heterodyne array receivers; 1.4 THz HEB array receivers and a W-band bolometric spectrometer. SAO is leading the development of two heterodyne array instruments for the Greenland Telescope, a 48- pixel, 325-375 GHz SIS array receiver, and a 4 pixel, 1.4 THz HEB array receiver. A key science goal for these instruments is the mapping of ortho and para H2D+ in old protostellar ores, as well as general mapping of CO and other transitions in molecular louds. An 8-pixel prototype module for the 350 GHz array is currently being built for laboratory and operational testing on the Greenland Telescope

  3. Design and optimization of a single stage centrifugal compressor for a solar dish-Brayton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Kai; Tong, Zhiting; Lin, Feng; Nie, Chaoqun; Engeda, Abraham

    2013-10-01

    According to the requirements of a solar dish-Brayton system, a centrifugal compressor stage with a minimum total pressure ratio of 5, an adiabatic efficiency above 75% and a surge margin more than 12% needs to be designed. A single stage, which consists of impeller, radial vaned diffuser, 90° crossover and two rows of axial stators, was chosen to satisfy this system. To achieve the stage performance, an impeller with a 6:1 total pressure ratio and an adiabatic efficiency of 90% was designed and its preliminary geometry came from an in-house one-dimensional program. Radial vaned diffuser was applied downstream of the impeller. Two rows of axial stators after 90° crossover were added to guide the flow into axial direction. Since jet-wake flow, shockwave and boundary layer separation coexisted in the impeller-diffuser region, optimization on the radius ratio of radial diffuser vane inlet to impeller exit, diffuser vane inlet blade angle and number of diffuser vanes was carried out at design point. Finally, an optimized centrifugal compressor stage fulfilled the high expectations and presented proper performance. Numerical simulation showed that at design point the stage adiabatic efficiency was 79.93% and the total pressure ratio was 5.6. The surge margin was 15%. The performance map including 80%, 90% and 100% design speed was also presented.

  4. MeerKAT - The South African Array With Composite Dishes and Wide-Band Single Pixel Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, J. L.

    2009-08-01

    The MeerKAT is a precursor for the "small dish plus single-pixel wide-band feed" scenario for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The current goal specification is for an array of 80 12-m dishes operating over a continuous frequency range of 0.7-10 GHz, thus the individual receptors match the SKA draft specification for midband dishes. The proposed array configuration is centrally concentrated with 70% of the collecting area within a 700-m-diameter circle and the remaining 30% extending out to baselines of 10 km. The site for MeerKAT lies within a radio quiet reserve established in the remote and Northern Cape province of South Africa. The technologies and techniques that MeerKAT will develop and evaluate include wide-bandwidth feeds, low-cost dish antennas, instrumentation for high dynamic range observations, packet-switched array processing architectures, shielding of component radio-frequency interference (RFI), mitigation of external RFI, and low-cost and reliable remote telescope operation.

  5. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  6. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  7. Expanding Molecular Bubble Surrounding Tycho’s Supernova Remnant (SN 1572) Observed with the IRAM 30 m Telescope: Evidence for a Single-degenerate Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Safi-Harb, Samar; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Whether the progenitors of SNe Ia are single-degenerate or double-degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems is a highly debated topic. To address the origin of Tycho’s Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR), SN 1572, we have carried out a 12CO J = 2–1 mapping and a 3 mm line survey toward the remnant using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We show that Tycho is surrounded by a clumpy molecular bubble at a local standard of rest velocity of ˜ 61 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which expands at a speed of ˜ 4.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and has a mass of ˜ 220 {M}ȯ (at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Enhanced 12CO J = 2–1 line emission relative to 12CO J = 1–0 emission and possible line broadenings (in velocity range ‑64 to ‑60 km s‑1) are found at the northeastern boundary of the SNR, where the shell is deformed and decelerated. These features, combined with the morphological correspondence between the expanding molecular bubble and Tycho, suggest that the SNR is associated with the bubble at the velocity range ‑66 to ‑57 km s‑1. The most plausible origin for the expanding bubble is the fast outflow (with velocity of hundreds km s‑1) driven from the vicinity of a WD as it accreted matter from a nondegenerate companion star. The SNR has been expanding in the low-density wind-blown bubble, and the shock wave has just reached the molecular cavity wall. This is the first unambiguous detection of an expanding bubble driven by the progenitor of a Type Ia SNR, which constitutes evidence for a single-degenerate progenitor for this SN Ia.

  8. Expanding Molecular Bubble Surrounding Tycho’s Supernova Remnant (SN 1572) Observed with the IRAM 30 m Telescope: Evidence for a Single-degenerate Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Safi-Harb, Samar; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Whether the progenitors of SNe Ia are single-degenerate or double-degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems is a highly debated topic. To address the origin of Tycho’s Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR), SN 1572, we have carried out a 12CO J = 2-1 mapping and a 3 mm line survey toward the remnant using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We show that Tycho is surrounded by a clumpy molecular bubble at a local standard of rest velocity of ˜ 61 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which expands at a speed of ˜ 4.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and has a mass of ˜ 220 {M}⊙ (at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Enhanced 12CO J = 2-1 line emission relative to 12CO J = 1-0 emission and possible line broadenings (in velocity range -64 to -60 km s-1) are found at the northeastern boundary of the SNR, where the shell is deformed and decelerated. These features, combined with the morphological correspondence between the expanding molecular bubble and Tycho, suggest that the SNR is associated with the bubble at the velocity range -66 to -57 km s-1. The most plausible origin for the expanding bubble is the fast outflow (with velocity of hundreds km s-1) driven from the vicinity of a WD as it accreted matter from a nondegenerate companion star. The SNR has been expanding in the low-density wind-blown bubble, and the shock wave has just reached the molecular cavity wall. This is the first unambiguous detection of an expanding bubble driven by the progenitor of a Type Ia SNR, which constitutes evidence for a single-degenerate progenitor for this SN Ia.

  9. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  10. Improving the performance of the single-dish Cherenkov telescope MAGIC through the use of signal timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bartko, H.; Bastieri, D.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bretz, T.; Britvitch, I.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Chilingarian, A.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Curtef, V.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Los Reyes, R.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, M.; de Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dominguez, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsässer, D.; Errando, M.; Fagiolini, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrero, A.; Höhne, D.; Hose, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Huber, S.; Jogler, T.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Meyer, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Otte, N.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Raymers, A.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sartori, P.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shore, S. N.; Sidro, N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tluczykont, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Venturini, A.; Vitale, V.; Wagner, R. M.; Wittek, W.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Cherenkov light flashes produced by extensive air showers are very short in time. A high bandwidth and fast digitizing readout, therefore, can minimize the influence of the background from the light of the night sky, and improve the performance in Cherenkov telescopes. The time structure of the Cherenkov image can further be used in single-dish Cherenkov telescopes as an additional parameter to reduce the background from unwanted hadronic showers. A description of an analysis method which makes use of the time information and the subsequent improvement on the performance of the MAGIC telescope (especially after the upgrade with an ultra fast 2 GSamples/s digitization system in February 2007) will be presented. The use of timing information in the analysis of the new MAGIC data reduces the background by a factor two, which in turn results in an enhancement of about a factor 1.4 of the flux sensitivity to point-like sources, as tested on observations of the Crab Nebula.

  11. Golden dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico was both shaken and stirred this year, but not by an earthquake or a tropical storm. The world's largest curved radio telescope—which is operated by Cornell University and the National Science Foundation—makes a stellar appearance in the climax of Goldeneye, the latest film in the James Bond series. At 300 m in diameter, 8 hectares (20 acres) in area, and 51 m in depth from lip to trough, the giant radio astronomy dish looms large in the film as a satellite antenna that will be used to cause an electromagnetic pulse over London.During shooting of the film, actors raced along the antenna's 129 m-long, 545-metric ton bridge, which is suspended by 12 cables hanging from reinforced concrete towers.

  12. TAPAS, a VO archive at the IRAM 30-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Stephane; Espigares, Victor; Ruíz, José Enrique; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Mauersberger, Rainer; Brunswig, Walter; Kramer, Carsten; Santander-Vela, Juan de Dios; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Astronomical observatories are today generating increasingly large volumes of data. For an efficient use of them, databases have been built following the standards proposed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), providing a common protocol to query them and make them interoperable. The IRAM 30-m radio telescope, located in Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain) is a millimeter wavelength telescope with a constantly renewed, extensive choice of instruments, and capable of covering the frequency range between 80 and 370 GHz. It is continuously producing a large amount of data thanks to the more than 200 scientific projects observed each year. The TAPAS archive at the IRAM 30-m telescope is aimed to provide public access to the headers describing the observations performed with the telescope, according to a defined data policy, making as well the technical data available to the IRAM staff members. A special emphasis has been made to make it Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant, and to offer a VO compliant web interface allowing to make the information available to the scientific community. TAPAS is built using the Django Python framework on top of a relational MySQL database, and is fully integrated with the telescope control system. The TAPAS data model (DM) is based on the Radio Astronomical DAta Model for Single dish radio telescopes (RADAMS), to allow for easy integration into the VO infrastructure. A metadata modeling layer is used by the data-filler to allow an implementation free from assumptions about the control system and the underlying database. TAPAS and its public web interface ( http://tapas.iram.es ) provides a scalable system that can evolve with new instruments and observing modes. A meta description of the DM has been introduced in TAPAS in order to both avoid undesired coupling between the code and the DM and to provide a better

  13. Enchanced interference cancellation and telemetry reception in multipath environments with a single paraboic dish antenna using a focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan (Inventor); Vilnrotter, Victor A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Advanced Focal Plane Array ("AFPA") for parabolic dish antennas that exploits spatial diversity to achieve better channel equalization performance in the presence of multipath (better than temporal equalization alone), and which is capable of receiving from two or more sources within a field-of-view in the presence of multipath. The AFPA uses a focal plane array of receiving elements plus a spatio-temporal filter that keeps information on the adaptive FIR filter weights, relative amplitudes and phases of the incoming signals, and which employs an Interference Cancelling Constant Modulus Algorithm (IC-CMA) that resolves multiple telemetry streams simultaneously from the respective aero-nautical platforms. This data is sent to an angle estimator to calculate the target's angular position, and then on to Kalman filters FOR smoothing and time series prediction. The resulting velocity and acceleration estimates from the time series data are sent to an antenna control unit (ACU) to be used for pointing control.

  14. Rigid collapsible dish structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, William B. (Inventor); Giebler, Martin M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A collapsible dish structure composed of a plurality of rows of rigid radial petal assemblies concentric with the axis of the dish. The petal assemblies consist of a center petal and two side petals, the center petal hinged on an axis tangent to a circle concentric with the axis of the dish and the side petals hinged to the center petal at their mating edge. The center petal is foldable inwardly and the side petals rotate about their hinges such that the collapsed dish structure occupies a much smaller volume than the deployed dish. Means of controlling the shape of the dish to compensate for differential expansion of the deployed dish are also provided.

  15. Parabolic dish photovoltaic concentrator development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beninga, K.; Davenport, R.; Featherby, M.; Sandubrae, J.; Walcott, K.

    1991-05-01

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Tactical Fabs, Inc. (TFI) have fabricated a prototype parabolic dish photovoltaic (PV) concentrator system to demonstrate the functionality of this approach. A 1.5 m diameter parabolic dish was fabricated of a polyester/fiberglass composite, with a silvered polymer reflective surface. An innovative receiver cooling system used outward radial flow of cooling water in a narrow passage. This configuration matches the heat transfer capability of the cooling system to the flux profile on the PV receiver, minimizing temperature variations across the receiver. The photovoltaic cells used in the system were a new, TFI-proprietary design. Interleaved contacts form a bi-polar, rear-contact cell configuration. Because the electrical contacts are made on the rear of the cells, cells can be close-packed to form receiver arrays of arbitrary shape and size. Optical testing of the dish concentrator was performed by SAIC, SERI, and Sandia National Labs. The dish concentrator, designed for solar thermal applications, had a tight focal spot but exhibited flux non-uniformities away from the focal plane. Thermal testing of the receiver cooling system was performed with excellent success. Single PV cells, 4-cell blocks, and 144-cell receiver modules were built and tested. The cells successfully demonstrated the TFI design concept, but due to cell processing problems their efficiency was very low. Sources of the processing problems were identified and solutions were proposed, but funding limitations precluded further cell production. Operation of the complete PV dish system was conducted, and the functionality of the system was demonstrated. However, low cell efficiencies and receiver plane flux non-uniformities caused the system performance to be very low. These problems are not generic to the concept, and solutions to them proposed.

  16. Solar Dish Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehm

    2004-06-06

    (Original wording, now somewhat outdated.) The Nevada Solar Dish Project is designed to deploy at least 1 MW of dish-based, field validation power generation systems in a mini-power plant near Las Vegas, Nevada, as a transitional precursor to the full commercialization of the technology. This will occur over a period of about three years, from 2001 through 2004. The statement of work defines activities that the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) will provide by establishing a test site for two dish/Stirling systems on the UNLV campus and providing operation, test and training, and education in support of the project.

  17. Parabolic dish collectors - A solar option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of several parabolic-dish high temperature solar thermal systems currently undergoing performance trials. A single parabolic dish has the potential for generating 20 to 30 kW of electricity with fluid temperatures from 300 to 1650 C. Each dish is a complete power-producing unit, and may function either independently or as part of a group of linked modules. The two dish designs under consideration are of 11 and 12 meter diameters, yielding receiver operating temperatures of 925 and 815 C, respectively. The receiver designs described include (1) an organic working fluid (toluene) Rankine cycle engine; (2) a Brayton open cycle unit incorporating a hybrid combustion chamber and nozzle and a shaft-coupled permanent magnet alternator; and (3) a modified Stirling cycle device originally designed for automotive use. Also considered are thermal buffer energy storage and thermochemical transport and storage.

  18. Parabolic dish module experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    A development test model of the 8-meter Solar Brayton Parabolic Dish Module has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The test model consists of five major subsystems: Sanders ceramic honeycomb solar receiver; LaJet LEC460 solar concentrator; AiRsearch SABC MKIIIA engine, Abacus 8 kW ac inverter; and a Sanders designed and built system controller. Goals of the tests were to integrate subsystem components into a working module, demonstrate the concept, and generate 5 kWe (hybrid) and 4.7 kWe (solar only) input. All subsystem integration goals were successfully achieved, but system performance efficiency was lower than expected. Contributing causes of the lower performance efficiencies have been identified. Modifications needed to restore performance to the required levels and improve the system life cycle cost have been addressed and are the subject of this final report.

  19. Prototype dish testing and analysis at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, J.W.; Houser, R.M.; Erdman, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    During the past year, Sandia National Laboratories performed on-sun testing of several dish concentrator concepts. These tests were undertaken at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). Two of the tests were performed in support of the DOE Concentrator Receiver Development Program. The first was on-sun testing of the single-element stretched-membrane dish; this 7-meter diameter dish uses a single preformed metal membrane with an aluminized polyester optical surface and shows potential for future dish-Stirling systems. The next involved two prototype facets from the Faceted Stretched-Membrane Dish Program. These facets, representing competitive design concepts, are closest to commercialization. Five 1-meter triangular facets were tested on-sun as part of the development program for a solar dynamic system on Space Station Freedom. While unique in character, all the tests utilized the Beam Characterization System (BCS) as the main measurement tool and all were analyzed using the Sandia-developed CIRCE2 computer code. The BCS is used to capture and digitize an image of the reflected concentrator beam that is incident on a target surface. The CIRCE2 program provides a computational tool, which when given the geometry of the concentrator and target as well as other design parameters will predict the flux distribution of the reflected beam. One of these parameters, slope error, is the variable that has a major effect in determining the quality of the reflected beam. The methodology used to combine these two tools to predict uniform slope errors for the dishes is discussed in this document. As the Concentrator Development Programs continue, Sandia will test and evaluate two prototype dish systems. The first, the faceted stretched-membrane dish, is expected to be tested in 1992, followed by the full-scale single-element stretched-membrane dish in 1993. These tests will use the tools and methodology discussed in this document. 14 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. You Can Dish It Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Mark

    1985-01-01

    Suggests several techniques for using large parabolic detectors (radio and television dishes) to reinforce principles of physics. Includes discussions of: (1) electromagnetic rays, (2) angles of incidence/reflection, and (3) mathematical derivation of focus location. (DH)

  1. Testing Parabolic-Dish Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. Kudret

    1988-01-01

    Report describes test equipment and tests at Parabolic Dish Test Site at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Site established in 1978 for testing point-focusing solar concentrators operating at temperatures above 600 degree F. Used for six years to evaluate parabolic-dish concentrators, receivers, power-conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid units. Report describes evolution of test program at site, lists experiments conducted there in chronological order, and summarizes experimental data.

  2. Some solar dish/heat engine design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1984-11-01

    Tradeoff decisions are an essential feature of solar dish/electric system design. The often competing characteristics of the various subsystems require careful analysis before a designer can create an optimal performance, minimal cost final product. Discussed here are design factors such as the dish concentration ratio as a function of operating temperature; the module performance characteristics of Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling heat engines; hybrid operation economics; optimum module size; and thermodynamic effects. It is shown that for heat engines operating at 1370/sup 0/C or above, the dish concentration ratio needs to be at least 2000 and the optimum dish diameter is between 14 m and 19 m. High engine efficiency as a result of increased temperature is shown to be not always desirable for solar modules. The second-law thermodynamic results indicate single insolation reflection is desired over the use of terminal concentrators or multiple reflections.

  3. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  4. Parabolic dishes: technology and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    The status of parabolic dish technology is described in this paper. The system consists of a dish-shaped concentrator that focuses the sun's rays on a heat transfer fluid. Receivers must be developed to withstand high temperatures. The Brayton engine is recommended by Saunders Associates because it is low cost, has the highest conversion efficiency, uses ordinary atmospheric air, and comes in appropriate sizes. Storage systems can augment periods of solar operation as specified. A true commercial market will not emerge until systems level testing over an extended period has taken place. Federal support of advanced system development is needed.

  5. Numerical dosimetry for cells under millimetre-wave irradiation using Petri dish exposure set-ups.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J X

    2005-07-21

    We carried out a numerical dosimetry study for in vitro experiments on millimetre-wave (MMW) biological effects on cells. The cell layers are cultured in 35 mm Petri dishes placed in the far-field region of a rectangular horn irradiator generating a 50.0 GHz continuous sinusoidal MMW. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the second-order approximation of the absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) are applied in calculating the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the cells. The 0.125 mm and 0.25 mm voxel models of the Petri dish are used. The permittivity and the conductivity of the cells and those of the culture medium are obtained with Debye's dispersion equation. We measured the power pattern of the irradiator using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, and developed a program module to calculate the FDTD-compatible incident field from the irradiator, whose position and orientation are adjustable. The MMW multiple reflection between the Petri dish and the irradiator is evaluated before being neglected. For the single-dish, double-dish and quadruple-dish exposure set-ups, the SAR intensity and the SAR uniformity are analysed and compared. The meniscus effect on the SAR distribution over the cell layer is evaluated for the single-dish set-up. The influence of the Petri dish interaction on the SAR distribution is examined for the double-dish and quadruple-dish set-ups.

  6. Dish Stirling solar receiver program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A technology demonstration of a Dish Stirling solar thermal electric system can be accomplished earlier and at a much lower cost than previous planning had indicated by employing technical solutions that allow already existing hardware, with minimum modifications, to be integrated into a total system with a minimum of development. The DSSR operates with a modified United Stirling p-40 engine/alternator and the JPL Test Bed Concentrator as a completely integrated solar thermal electric system having a design output of 25 kWe. The system is augmented by fossil fuel combustion which ensures a continuous electrical output under all environmental conditions. Technical and economic studies by government and industry in the United States and abroad identify the Dish Stirling solar electric system as the most appropriate, efficient and economical method for conversion of solar energy to electricity in applications when the electrical demand is 10 MWe and less.

  7. Experiments on the dish verification antenna china for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiaoming; Liu, Bin; Yu, Lei; Yu, Shenghua; Wu, Di; Liu, Lijia

    2016-09-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is expected to become the world's most powerful radio telescope at meter and centimeter wavelength in the coming decades. The construction of SKA will be divided into two phases. The first phase (SKA1), scheduled for completion in 2023, will construct 10 % of the whole collecting area. The second phase (SKA2) will build the rest 90 % collecting area. The SKA1 consists of several types of arrays including SKA1-low and SKA1-mid. The latter is a dish array consisting of ~200 medium-size antennas. The integrated dish array in SKA2 will expand to 2500 dishes, spreading 3000 kilometers across the southern part of Africa. The demanding specifications and enormous number of the SKA dish raise challenges in the dish development such as mass production with high performance at low cost, quick installation and high reliability. Dish Verification Antenna China (DVA-C) was built as one of three initial prototypes. A novel single-piece panel reflector made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) was adopted. In this study, an L-band receiver is installed to make DVA-C a complete system for experiments on antenna performance test and preliminary observations. The performance of DVA-C including the system noise temperature, pointing accuracy, antenna pattern, and aperture efficiency has been tested. Preliminary observations such as pulsars and HI are then conducted, which indicates that the DVA-C can not only serve as an educational instrument and key technology test bed, but also be applied for scientific work such as pulsar timing, all-sky HI survey, multi-frequency monitoring of variable sources etc.

  8. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  9. A Brain in a Dish

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Shikha Jain

    2016-01-01

    Ohio State University researchers have made a leap forward in disease research by creating an eraser sized human “brain” in a petri dish1. Although lacking a circulatory system their brain model includes spinal cord, cortex, midbrain, brain stem, and even the beginnings of an eye- aiding in the effectiveness of research on complex neurological disease. To create their new brain model, the researchers converted adult skin cells into pluripotent stem cells, which afforded the opportunity to build the multiple nervous cell types required for such a complex system. Having this tissue model will assist researchers in developing new disease models, and thus, facilitate the development of novel clinical interventions. PMID:27429994

  10. Solar Parabolic Dish Annual Technology Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Parabolic Dish Project for FY 1982 are summarized. Included are discussions on designs of module development including their concentrator, receiver, and power conversion subsystems. Analyses and test results, along with progress on field tests, Small Community Experiment System development, and tests at the Parabolic Dish Test Site are also included.

  11. Solar parabolic dish technology evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Parabolic Dish Project for FY 1983 are summarized. Included are discussions on designs of module development including concentrator, receiver, and power conversion subsystems together with a separate discussion of field tests, Small Community Experiment system development, and tests at the Parabolic Dish Test Site.

  12. Morphological changes in a human scirrhous gastric carcinoma cell line (KATO-III) when cultured in collagen-coated dishes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Tatsuta, M; Nakamura, H; Matsusaka, T; Terada, N; Tamura, H

    1988-01-01

    The morphological differences between cells of a human scirrhous gastric carcinoma cell line (KATO-III) cultured in plastic dishes and in collagen-coated dishes were examined by phase-contrast and electron microscopy. When KATO-III cells were inoculated into plastic dishes, a few cells became attached to the surface of the dishes and the rest remained in suspension. However, when they were inoculated into collagen-coated dishes, they all remained in suspension. In both types of dish, most of the cells in suspension were single although a few were in clusters. The cells in suspension in collagen-coated dishes differed in morphology from those in the plastic dishes. They had abundant cytoplasm, well-developed Golgi complexes, and many microvillus-like cell protrusions. Moreover, they had hemidesmosome-like and desmosome-like structures on their surface and an increased amount of intracytoplasmic desmosome-like structures. The cells in clusters in the collagen-coated dishes were closely connected by junctional complexes, such as tight junctions, desmosomes and interdigitations, whereas those in plastic dishes were linked only by desmosomes. These results suggest that collagen affects the morphology of human scirrhous carcinoma cells. PMID:2900577

  13. Searching for WISPy cold dark matter with a dish antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horns, Dieter; Jaeckel, Joerg; Lindner, Axel; Lobanov, Andrei; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The cold dark matter of the Universe may be comprised of very light and very weakly interacting particles, so-called WISPs. Two prominent examples are hidden photons and axion-like particles. In this note we propose a new technique to sensitively search for this type of dark matter with dish antennas. The technique is broadband and allows to explore a whole range of masses in a single measurement.

  14. 5 MV 30 mA industrial electron processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Y.; Mizusawa, K.

    1991-05-01

    Industrial electron beam processing systems have been in use in various application fields such as: improving heat resistivity of wire insulation; controlling quality of automobile rubber tires and melt index characteristics of PE foams; and curing paintings or printing inks. Recently, there has come up a need for electron beam with an energy higher than 3 MV in order to disinfect salmonella in chicken meat, to kill bugs in fruits, and to sterilize medical disposables. To meet this need we developed a 5 MV 30 mA electron processing system with an X-ray conversion target. The machine was tested in NHV's plant in Kyoto at continuous operation of full voltage and full current. It proved to be very steady in operation with a high efficiency (as much as 72%). Also, the X-ray target was tested in a continuous run of 5 MV 30 mA (150 kW). It proved to be viable in industrial utilization. This paper introduces the process and the results of the development.

  15. Dish stirling solar receiver combustor test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The operational and energy transfer characteristics of the Dish Stirling Solar Receiver (DSSR) combustor/heat exchanger system was evaluated. The DSSR is designed to operate with fossil fuel augmentation utilizing a swirl combustor and cross flow heat exchanger consisting of a single row of 4 closely spaced tubes that are curved into a conical shape. The performance of the combustor/heat exchanger system without a Stirling engine was studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Results show that the combustor may be started under cold conditions, controlled safety, and operated at a constant air/fuel ratio (10 percent excess air) over the required range of firing rates. Furthermore, nondimensional heat transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer are plotted versus Reynolds number and compared with literature data taken for single rows of closely spaced tubes perpendicular to cross flow. The data show enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Analysis of the results shows that the present system meets specified thermal requirements, thus verifying the feasibility of the DSSR combustor design for final prototype fabrication.

  16. Optimization of dish solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for optimizing parabolic dish solar collectors and the consequent effects of various optical, thermal, mechanical, and cost variables are examined. The most important performance optimization is adjusting the receiver aperture to maximize collector efficiency. Other parameters that can be adjusted to optimize efficiency include focal length, and, if a heat engine is used, the receiver temperature. The efficiency maxima associated with focal length and receiver temperature are relatively broad; it may, accordingly, be desirable to design somewhat away from the maxima. Performance optimization is sensitive to the slope and specularity errors of the concentrator. Other optical and thermal variables affecting optimization are the reflectance and blocking factor of the concentrator, the absorptance and losses of the receiver, and, if a heat engine is used, the shape of the engine efficiency versus temperature curve. Performance may sometimes be improved by use of an additional optical element (a secondary concentrator) or a receiver window if the errors of the primary concentrator are large or the receiver temperature is high. Previously announced in STAR as N83-19224

  17. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  18. A deployable, annular, 30m telescope, space-based observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Justin J.; Wirth, Allan; Jankevics, Andrew; Landers, Franklin; Rohweller, David; Chen, C. Bill; Bronowicki, Allen

    2014-08-01

    High resolution imaging from space requires very large apertures, such as NASA's current mission the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which uses a deployable 6.5m segmented primary. Future missions requiring even larger apertures (>>10m) will present a great challenge relative to the size, weight and power constraints of launch vehicles as well as the cost and schedule required to fabricate the full aperture. Alternatively, a highly obscured annular primary can be considered. For example, a 93.3% obscured 30m aperture having the same total mirror area (91m2) as a 10.7m unobscured telescope, can achieve ~3X higher limiting resolution performance. Substantial cost and schedule savings can be realized with this approach compared to fully filled apertures of equivalent resolution. A conceptual design for a ring-shaped 30m telescope is presented and the engineering challenges of its various subsystems analyzed. The optical design consists of a 20X annular Mersenne form beam compactor feeding a classical 1.5m TMA telescope. Ray trace analysis indicates the design can achieve near diffraction limited images over a 200μrad FOV. The primary mirror consists of 70 identical rectangular 1.34x1.0m segments with a prescription well within the demonstrated capabilities of the replicated nanolaminate on SiC substrate technology developed by AOA Xinetics. A concept is presented for the deployable structure that supports the primary mirror segments. A wavefront control architecture consisting of an optical metrology subsystem for coarse alignment and an image based fine alignment and phasing subsystem is presented. The metrology subsystem is image based, using the background starfields for distortion and pointing calibration and fiducials on the segments for measurement. The fine wavefront control employs a hill climbing algorithm operating on images from the science camera. The final key technology required is the image restoration algorithm that will compensate for the highly

  19. Pelvic enthesopathy on CT is significantly more prevalent in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) compared with matched control patients.

    PubMed

    Slonimsky, Einat; Leibushor, Naama; Aharoni, Dvora; Lidar, Merav; Eshed, Iris

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of pelvic enthesopathy on computed tomography (CT) in patients with DISH compared to matched control group. Pelvic CT examinations of patients with DISH (Resnick criteria) were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of enthesophytes at four entheseal sites bilaterally: ischial tuberosity, pubis, greater trochanter, and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). This was compared with age- and gender-matched control group of consecutive patients with <2 flowing osteophytes on CT along the entire spine. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to examine the degree of difference between pelvic enthesopathy in DISH patients and controls and to estimate the potential predictive ability of the different findings. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio of the studied findings. Pelvic CTs of 210 patients (149:61, M:F; average age, 72.3 years) were evaluated: DISH group, 104 patients (74:30, M:F); matched control group, 106 patients (75:31, M:F). Mean total and local enthesopathy scores were significantly higher in the DISH group compared with the control group (total 5.03:1.9; ASIS 1.58:0.55; pubis 0.94:0.36; ischial tuberosity 1.47:0.76; greater trochanter 1.04:0.24; p < 0.001). ASIS and greater trochanter enthesophytes were the most robust contributors that significantly distinguished between patients with DISH and those without DISH. Prominent enthesophytes were more common among DISH patients (DISH:controls, 52:13, p = 0.02). Prominent pelvic enthesophytes detected on CT have a strong discriminating power between DISH and non-DISH patients. Results imply that pelvic enthesopathy may be included in the radiographic criteria for DISH. PMID:26686367

  20. Complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium: IRAM 30 m line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) and (M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.

    2013-11-01

    isotopologues of vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, and hydrogen cyanide. We also report the detection of transitions from within twelve new vibrationally or torsionally excited states of known molecules. Absorption features produced by diffuse clouds along the line of sight are detected in transitions with low rotation quantum numbers of many simple molecules and are modeled with ~30-40 velocity components with typical linewidths of ~3-5 km s-1. Conclusions: Although the large number of unidentified lines may still allow future identification of new molecules, we expect most of these lines to belong to vibrationally or torsionally excited states or to rare isotopologues of known molecules for which spectroscopic predictions are currently missing. Significant progress in extending the inventory of complex organic molecules in Sgr B2(N) and deriving tighter constraints on their location, origin, and abundance is expected in the near future thanks to an ongoing spectral line survey at 3 mm with ALMA in its cycles 0 and 1. The present single-dish survey will serve as a solid basis for the line identification and analysis of such an interferometric survey. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Figures 2-7 and Tables 6-107 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe observed and synthetic 3 mm spectra of Sgr B2(N) and (M), as well as the lists of line identifications corresponding to the blue lab- els in Figs. 2-7, are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/A47

  1. A Deep Dish for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On the 66th martian day, or sol, of its mission, the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit finished a drive and sent back this navigation camera image mosaic revealing 'Bonneville' crater in its entirety.

    Spirit has spent more than 60 sols, two thirds of the nominal mission, en route to the rim of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover stopped on occasion to examine rocks along the way, many of which probably found their resting places after being ejected from the nearly 200-meter-diameter (656-foot) crater.

    The science team sent the rover to 'Bonneville' to find out more about where the rocks they have examined so far originated. Reaching the rim of this deep dish has been a major priority since day one.

    According to science team member Dr. John Grant of Washington D.C.'s National Air and Space Museum, the 'Bonneville' crater could be a giant window into the ancient past of the Gusev landing site. He said, 'The rocks that we see scattered around our landing site may be ejecta from inside 'Bonneville,' but we won't know that for sure until we actually investigate the crater. We can look at the rocks' form and chemistry, but we don't know how they fit into the big picture. If we can find their occurrence within the walls of 'Bonneville' crater, we'll be one step closer to understanding the processes that shaped the entire Gusev area over time.'

    Most scientists agree that a fitting prize for this long drive would be to find an outcrop of bedrock material that was not transported, but formed in the crater. When a meteorite slams into the ground and creates a crater, it throws surface debris out to the sides, revealing the older, mostly buried material, a sort of natural 'road cut.' The real gem would be to find exposed layers of the ancient rock within the 'cut' walls of the crater, which would give scientists a peek into how the area formed. 'The Gusev landing site is at least partially covered in a layer of ejecta material,' said Grant. 'As Mars

  2. Steam engine research for solar parabolic dish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demler, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar concentrator provides an opportunity to generate high grade energy in a modular system. Most of the capital is projected to be in the dish and its installation. Assurance of a high production demand of a standard dish could lead to dramatic cost reductions. High production volume in turn depends upon maximum application flexibility by providing energy output options, e.g., heat, electricity, chemicals and combinations thereof. Subsets of these options include energy storage and combustion assist. A steam engine design and experimental program is described which investigate the efficiency potential of a small 25 kW compound reheat cycle piston engine. An engine efficiency of 35 percent is estimated for a 700 C steam temperature from the solar receiver.

  3. A SU-8 dish for cell irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Auzelyte, V.; Olsson, M. G.; Pallon, J.

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the CELLION project is radiation research at low doses. The main cell responses to low dose irradiation are bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. In order to study these effects it is convenient to make the cells addressable in space and time through locking the cell position. A new alternative dish has been developed for irradiation procedures at the Lund Nuclear Probe. The versatile dish can be used both to cultivate and to hold the cells during the irradiation procedure. The irradiation dish is made of an epoxy-based photopolymer named SU-8 chosen by its flexibility, non-toxicity and biological compatibility to cell attachment. It has been fabricated using a UV lithographic technique. The irradiation dish forms a 2 × 2 mm 2 grid which contains 400 squares. Each square has 80 μm side and is separated from neighbouring ones by 20 μm wide walls. The location of each square is marked by a row letter and column number patterned outside the grid. The Cell Irradiation Facility at the Lund Nuclear Probe utilizes protons to irradiate living cells. A post-cell detection set up is used to control the applied dose, detecting the number of protons after passing through the targeted cell. The transmission requirement is fulfilled by our new irradiation dish. So far, the dish has been used to perform non-targeted irradiation of Hepatoma cells. The cells attach and grow easily on the SU-8 surface. In addition, the irradiation procedure can be performed routinely and faster since the cells are incubated and irradiated in the same surface.

  4. Overview of software development at the parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyazono, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of the data acquisition and data analysis software is discussed. The software development occurred between 1978 and 1984 in support of solar energy module testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Parabolic Dish Test Site, located within Edwards Test Station. The development went through incremental stages, starting with a simple single-user BASIC set of programs, and progressing to the relative complex multi-user FORTRAN system that was used until the termination of the project. Additional software in support of testing is discussed including software in support of a meteorological subsystem and the Test Bed Concentrator Control Console interface. Conclusions and recommendations for further development are discussed.

  5. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  6. Solar Thermal Power Systems parabolic dish project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    The status of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project for FY 1980 is summarized. Included is: a discussion of the project's goals, program structure, and progress in parabolic dish technology. Analyses and test results of concentrators, receivers, and power converters are discussed. Progress toward the objectives of technology feasibility, technology readiness, system feasibility, and system readiness are covered.

  7. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date; concentrator development and progress; economic analyses; and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  8. Dishing It Out: Satellite Services in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdursky, Saul J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the installation of a communication satellite dish at the Bloomington Public Library (Illinois). Highlights include rationale for the purchase, uses of teleconferencing, technical questions, interference and licensing, locating the dish, selecting a vendor, equipment and installation, publicity and use of the dish, and plans for the…

  9. Non-doe-sponsored Domestic Dish Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The parabolic dish development activities being undertaken within the private sector of the United States were addressed. The primary emphasis of these non-DOE-sponsored activities is the development of commercial products that can penetrate the market in the near term. The exchange of information between these activities and the complementary DOE-sponsored work directed toward developing advancements in technology is considered to be of major importance. The experiences and problems encountered in the private sector serve as inputs that will help guide in the planning of the DOE program. In turn, a principal objective of the DOE program is the transfer findings of its technological development activities to the private sector. Activities in the private are characterized by their diversity in terms of both product design and marketing approach. The differences in the design concepts and the sizes of the dish concentrators under development are particularly noteworthy.

  10. Preparation, consumption, and nutritional composition of west African cowpea dishes.

    PubMed

    Madodé, Y E; Houssou, P A; Linnemann, A R; Hounhouigan, D J; Nout, M J R; Van Boekel, M A J S

    2011-01-01

    In Africa, nutrient intake deficiencies are widespread. We, therefore, investigated the potential contribution of cowpea dishes to the ingestion of several macro- and micronutrients. Processors and consumers were interviewed and cowpea dishes analyzed. Energy, protein, iron, zinc, and calcium contents ranged from 1647 to 2570 kJ, 10 to 25 g, 1 to 35 mg, 1.5 to 3.0 mg, 38 to 380 mg per 100 g d.w., respectively. The iron and calcium contents were highest in dishes containing leaves. The consumption of these dishes should be promoted along with research on how to further decrease the associated antinutritional factors of traditional cowpea dishes. PMID:21888592

  11. A compendium of solar dish/Stirling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, W.B.; Diver, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report surveys the emerging dish/Stirling technology. It documents -- using consistent terminology the design characteristics of dish concentrators, receivers, and Stirling engines applicable to solar electric power generation. Development status and operating experience for each system and an overview of dish/Stirling technology are also presented. This report enables comparisons of concentrator, receiver, and engine technologies. Specifications and performance data are presented on systems and on components that are in use or that could be used in dish/Stirling systems. This report is organized into two parts: The first part (Chapters 1 through 4) provides an overview of dish/Stirling technology -- the dish/ Stirling components (concentrator, receiver, and engine/alternator), current technology, basic theory, and technology development. The second part (Chapters 5 through 7) provides a detailed survey of the existing dish/Stirling concentrators, receivers, and engine/alternators.

  12. Developing a 30-m grassland productivity estimation map for central Nebraska using 250-m MODIS and 30-m Landsat-8 observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately estimating aboveground vegetation biomass productivity is essential for local ecosystem assessment and best land management practice. Satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. A 250-m grassland biomass productivity map for the Greater Platte River Basin had been developed based on the relationship between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GSN and Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) annual grassland productivity. However, the 250-m MODIS grassland biomass productivity map does not capture detailed ecological features (or patterns) and may result in only generalized estimation of the regional total productivity. Developing a high or moderate spatial resolution (e.g., 30-m) productivity map to better understand the regional detailed vegetation condition and ecosystem services is preferred. The 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detail for characterizing human-scale processes and have been successfully used for land cover and land change studies. The main goal of this study is to develop a 30-m grassland biomass productivity estimation map for central Nebraska, leveraging 250-m MODIS GSN and 30-m Landsat data. A rule-based piecewise regression GSN model based on MODIS and Landsat (r = 0.91) was developed, and a 30-m MODIS equivalent GSN map was generated. Finally, a 30-m grassland biomass productivity estimation map, which provides spatially detailed ecological features and conditions for central Nebraska, was produced. The resulting 30-m grassland productivity map was generally supported by the SSURGO biomass production map and will be useful for regional ecosystem study and local land management practices.

  13. Global Food Security-support data at 30 m (GFSAD30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring global croplands (GCs) is imperative for ensuring sustainable water and food security to the people of the world in the Twenty-first Century. However, the currently available cropland products suffer from major limitations such as: (1) Absence of precise spatial location of the cropped areas; (b) Coarse resolution nature of the map products with significant uncertainties in areas, locations, and detail; (b) Uncertainties in differentiating irrigated areas from rainfed areas; (c) Absence of crop types and cropping intensities; and (e) Absence of a dedicated webdata portal for the dissemination of cropland products. Therefore, our project aims to close these gaps through a Global Food Security-support data at 30 m (GFSAD30) with 4 distinct products: 1. Cropland extentarea, 2. Crop types with focus on 8 crops that occupy 70% of the global cropland areas, 3. Irrigated versus rainfed, and 4. Cropping intensities: single, double, triple, and continuous cropping. The above 4 products will be generated for GFSAD for nominal year 2010 (GFSAD2010) based on Landsat 30m Global Land Survey 2010 (GLS2010) fused with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m NDVI monthly maximum value composites (MVC) of 2009-2011 data, and suite of secondary data (e.g., long-term precipitation, temperature, GDEM elevation). GFSAD30 will be produced using three mature cropland mapping algorithms (CMAs): 1. Spectral matching techniques; 2. A cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that is rule-based; and 3. Hierarchical segmentation (HSeg) algorithm. Funded by NASA MEaSUREs, GFSAD30 will make significant contributions to Earth System Data Records (ESDRs), Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Agriculture and Water Societal Beneficial Areas (GEO Ag. SBAs), GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative (GEO GLAM), and the recent 'Big Data' initiative by the White House. The project has the support of USGS Working Group on Global Croplands (https://powellcenter.usgs.gov/globalcroplandwater/).

  14. Parabolic dish Stirling module development and test results

    SciTech Connect

    Washom, B.

    1984-08-01

    Private industry and the U.S. Department of Energy are presently cost sharing the design, manufacture and test of a 25 Kwe parabolic dish Stirling module, known as Vanguard. The Vanguard module achieved a world's record sunlight to electric conversion efficiency of 31.6% in February 1984 at the Rancho Mirage, California test site. The module is presently operating daily in sunrise to sunset tests to determine the long term performance and O and M requirements of this distributed receiver system. Each module can be easily integrated into a larger field of modules to provide power generation opportunities from a single 25 Kwe unit for isolated loads to 30 Mwe systems for integrated utility power generation.

  15. Dish antenna having switchable beamwidth. [with truncated concave ellipsoid subreflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A switchable beamwidth antenna includes a concave parabolic main reflecting dish which has a central circular region and a surrounding coaxial annular region. A feed means selectively excites only the central region of the main dish via a truncated subreflector for wide beamwidth or substantially the entire main dish for narrow beamwidth. In one embodiment, the feed means comprises a truncated concave ellipsoid subreflector and separate feed terminations located at two foci of the ellipsoid. One feed termination directly views all of the main dish while the other feed termination, exciting the main dish via the subreflector, excites only the central region because of the subreflector truncation. In the another embodiment, the feed means comprises one feed termination and a convex hyperboloid subreflector via which the feed excites the main dish.

  16. Proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Annual Review are presented. The results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program were emphasized. Among the topics discussed were: overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development along with associated hardware and test results; distributed systems operating experience; international parabolic dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. Solar electric generation was also addressed.

  17. Revised spectroscopic parameters of SH(+) from ALMA and IRAM 30m observations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Holger S P; Goicoechea, Javier R; Cernicharo, José; Agúndez, Marcelino; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Gerin, Maryvonne; Dumas, Gaëlle; Chapillon, Edwige

    2014-09-19

    Hydrides represent the first steps of interstellar chemistry. Sulfanylium (SH(+)), in particular, is a key tracer of energetic processes. We used ALMA and the IRAM 30 m telescope to search for the lowest frequency rotational lines of SH(+) toward the Orion Bar, the prototypical photo-dissociation region illuminated by a strong UV radiation field. On the basis of previous Herschel/HIFI observations of SH(+), we expected to detect emission of the two SH(+) hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the NJ = 10-01 fine structure (FS) component near 346 GHz. While we did not observe any lines at the frequencies predicted from laboratory data, we detected two emission lines, each ~15 MHz above the SH(+) predictions and with relative intensities and HFS splitting expected for SH(+). The rest frequencies of the two newly detected lines are more compatible with the remainder of the SH(+) laboratory data than the single line measured in the laboratory near 346 GHz and previously attributed to SH(+). Therefore, we assign these new features to the two SH(+) HFS components of the NJ = 10-01 FS component and re-determine its spectroscopic parameters, which will be useful for future observations of SH(+), in particular if its lowest frequency FS components are studied. Our observations demonstrate the suitability of these lines for SH(+) searches at frequencies easily accessible from the ground.

  18. Revised spectroscopic parameters of SH(+) from ALMA and IRAM 30m observations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Holger S P; Goicoechea, Javier R; Cernicharo, José; Agúndez, Marcelino; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Gerin, Maryvonne; Dumas, Gaëlle; Chapillon, Edwige

    2014-09-19

    Hydrides represent the first steps of interstellar chemistry. Sulfanylium (SH(+)), in particular, is a key tracer of energetic processes. We used ALMA and the IRAM 30 m telescope to search for the lowest frequency rotational lines of SH(+) toward the Orion Bar, the prototypical photo-dissociation region illuminated by a strong UV radiation field. On the basis of previous Herschel/HIFI observations of SH(+), we expected to detect emission of the two SH(+) hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the NJ = 10-01 fine structure (FS) component near 346 GHz. While we did not observe any lines at the frequencies predicted from laboratory data, we detected two emission lines, each ~15 MHz above the SH(+) predictions and with relative intensities and HFS splitting expected for SH(+). The rest frequencies of the two newly detected lines are more compatible with the remainder of the SH(+) laboratory data than the single line measured in the laboratory near 346 GHz and previously attributed to SH(+). Therefore, we assign these new features to the two SH(+) HFS components of the NJ = 10-01 FS component and re-determine its spectroscopic parameters, which will be useful for future observations of SH(+), in particular if its lowest frequency FS components are studied. Our observations demonstrate the suitability of these lines for SH(+) searches at frequencies easily accessible from the ground. PMID:26525172

  19. Parabolic dish module experiment. Final test report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    A development test model of the 8-meter Solar Brayton Parabolic Dish Module has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The test model consists of five major subsystems: Sanders ceramic honeycomb solar receiver; LaJet LEC460 solar concentrator; AiRsearch SABC MKIIIA engine, Abacus 8 kW ac inverter; and a Sanders designed and built system controller. Goals of the tests were to integrate subsystem components into a working module, demonstrate the concept, and generate 5 kWe (hybrid) and 4.7 kWe (solar only) input. All subsystem integration goals were successfully achieved, but system performance efficiency was lower than expected. Contributing causes of the lower performance efficiencies have been identified. Modifications needed to restore performance to the required levels and improve the system life cycle cost have been addressed and are the subject of this final report.

  20. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array Dish. I. Beam Pattern Measurements and Science Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Bradley, Richard F.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; DeBoer, David R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Aguirre, James E.; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Patra, Nipanjana; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd; Dickenson, Roger; Dillon, Joshua S.; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kohn, Saul A.; Klima, Patricia J.; Moodley, Kavilan; Saliwanchik, Benjamin R. B.; Schaffner, Patrick; Shelton, John; Taylor, H. A.; Taylor, Rusty; Tegmark, Max; Wirt, Butch; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2016-08-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio interferometer aiming to detect the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations from neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionization (EOR). Drawing on lessons from the Murchison Widefield Array and the Precision Array for Probing the EOR, HERA is a hexagonal array of large (14 m diameter) dishes with suspended dipole feeds. The dish not only determines overall sensitivity, but also affects the observed frequency structure of foregrounds in the interferometer. This is the first of a series of four papers characterizing the frequency and angular response of the dish with simulations and measurements. In this paper, we focus on the angular response (i.e., power pattern), which sets the relative weighting between sky regions of high and low delay and thus apparent source frequency structure. We measure the angular response at 137 MHz using the ORBCOMM beam mapping system of Neben et al. We measure a collecting area of 93 m2 in the optimal dish/feed configuration, implying that HERA-320 should detect the EOR power spectrum at z ˜ 9 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12.7 using a foreground avoidance approach with a single season of observations and 74.3 using a foreground subtraction approach. Finally, we study the impact of these beam measurements on the distribution of foregrounds in Fourier space.

  1. Dish/Stirling for Department of Defense applications final report

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, R.B.; Menicucci, D.F.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project to field a dish/Stirling system at a southwestern US military facility. This project entitled ``Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications`` was started in August 1993 and was completed in September 1996. The project`s objective was to assist military facilities to field and evaluate emerging environmentally sound and potentially economical dish/Stirling technology. Dish/Stirling technology has the potential to produce electricity at competitive costs while at the same time providing a secure and environmentally benign source of power. In accordance with the SERDP charter, this project leveraged a US Department of Energy (DOE) cost-shared project between Sandia National Laboratories and Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG). CPG is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cummins Engine Company, a leading manufacturer of diesel engines. To accomplish this objective, the project called for the installation of a dish/Stirling system at a military facility to establish first-hand experience in the operation of a dish/Stirling system. To scope the potential DoD market for dish/Stirling technology and to identify the site for the demonstration, a survey of southwestern US military facilities was also conducted. This report describes the project history, the Cummins dish/Stirling system, results from the military market survey, and the field test results.

  2. A DUAL-BAND MILLIMETER-WAVE KINETIC INDUCTANCE CAMERA FOR THE IRAM 30 m TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Bideaud, A.; Swenson, L.; Cruciani, A.; Camus, P.; Hoffmann, C.; Desert, F. X.; Doyle, S.; Ade, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Tucker, C.; Roesch, M.; Leclercq, S.; Schuster, K. F.; Endo, A.; Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Ferrari, L.; Yates, S. J. C

    2011-06-01

    The Neel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a fully integrated measurement system based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) currently being developed for millimeter wave astronomy. The instrument includes dual-band optics allowing simultaneous imaging at 150 GHz and 220 GHz. The imaging sensors consist of two spatially separated arrays of KIDs. The first array, mounted on the 150 GHz branch, is composed of 144 lumped-element KIDs. The second array (220 GHz) consists of 256 antenna-coupled KIDs. Each of the arrays is sensitive to a single polarization; the band splitting is achieved by using a grid polarizer. The optics and sensors are mounted in a custom dilution cryostat, with an operating temperature of {approx}70 mK. Electronic readout is realized using frequency multiplexing and a transmission line geometry consisting of a coaxial cable connected in series with the sensor array and a low-noise 4 K amplifier. The dual-band NIKA was successfully tested in 2010 October at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain, performing in-line with laboratory predictions. An optical NEP was then calculated to be around 2 x 10{sup -16} W Hz{sup -1/2} (at 1 Hz) while under a background loading of approximately 4 pW pixel{sup -1}. This improvement in comparison with a preliminary run (2009) verifies that NIKA is approaching the target sensitivity for photon-noise limited ground-based detectors. Taking advantage of the larger arrays and increased sensitivity, a number of scientifically relevant faint and extended objects were then imaged including the Galactic Center SgrB2 (FIR1), the radio galaxy Cygnus A, and the NGC1068 Seyfert galaxy. These targets were all observed simultaneously in the 150 GHz and 220 GHz atmospheric windows.

  3. A Dual-band Millimeter-wave Kinetic Inductance Camera for the IRAM 30 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Bideaud, A.; Swenson, L.; Cruciani, A.; Camus, P.; Hoffmann, C.; Désert, F. X.; Doyle, S.; Ade, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Tucker, C.; Roesch, M.; Leclercq, S.; Schuster, K. F.; Endo, A.; Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Ferrari, L.; Yates, S. J. C.; Bourrion, O.; Macias-Perez, J.; Vescovi, C.; Calvo, M.; Giordano, C.

    2011-06-01

    The Néel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a fully integrated measurement system based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) currently being developed for millimeter wave astronomy. The instrument includes dual-band optics allowing simultaneous imaging at 150 GHz and 220 GHz. The imaging sensors consist of two spatially separated arrays of KIDs. The first array, mounted on the 150 GHz branch, is composed of 144 lumped-element KIDs. The second array (220 GHz) consists of 256 antenna-coupled KIDs. Each of the arrays is sensitive to a single polarization; the band splitting is achieved by using a grid polarizer. The optics and sensors are mounted in a custom dilution cryostat, with an operating temperature of ~70 mK. Electronic readout is realized using frequency multiplexing and a transmission line geometry consisting of a coaxial cable connected in series with the sensor array and a low-noise 4 K amplifier. The dual-band NIKA was successfully tested in 2010 October at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain, performing in-line with laboratory predictions. An optical NEP was then calculated to be around 2 × 10-16 W Hz-1/2 (at 1 Hz) while under a background loading of approximately 4 pW pixel-1. This improvement in comparison with a preliminary run (2009) verifies that NIKA is approaching the target sensitivity for photon-noise limited ground-based detectors. Taking advantage of the larger arrays and increased sensitivity, a number of scientifically relevant faint and extended objects were then imaged including the Galactic Center SgrB2 (FIR1), the radio galaxy Cygnus A, and the NGC1068 Seyfert galaxy. These targets were all observed simultaneously in the 150 GHz and 220 GHz atmospheric windows.

  4. Fast Single-Dish Scans of the Sun Using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, N.; Hills, R.; Bastian, T.; Hudson, H.; Marson, R.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have implemented control and data-taking software that makes it possible to scan the beams of individual ALMA antennas to perform quite complex patterns while recording the signals at high rates. We conducted test observations of the Sun in September and December, 2014. The data returned have excellent quality; in particular they allow us to characterize the noise and signal fluctuations present in this kind of observation. The fast-scan experiments included both Lissajous patterns covering rectangular areas, and “double-circle” patterns of the whole disk of the Sun and smaller repeated maps of specific disk-shaped targets. With the latter we find that we can achieve roughly Nyquist sampling of the Band 6 (230 GHz) beam in 60 s over a region 300” in diameter. These maps show a peak-to-peak brightness-temperature range of up to 1000 K, while the time-series variability at any given point appears to be of order 0.5% RMS over times of a few minutes. We thus expect to be able to separate the noise contributions due to transparency fluctuations from variations in the Sun itself. Such timeseries have many advantages, in spite of the non-interferometric observations. In particular such data should make it possible to observe microflares in active regions and nanoflares in any part of the solar disk and low corona.

  5. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  6. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  7. The JPL parabolic dish project. [solar collectors technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar collector is a highly versatile concentrating collector system that can produce heat for many thermal processes and electricity by coupling the collector to a suitable heat engine. This paper discusses a project for the development of these collector systems and summarizes contracts with industry for developing the dish subsystems which include concentrator, receiver, and heat engine. An early market for dishes is the dispersed small community market which depends heavily on oil to operate diesel or steam turbine plants in order to generate electricity. The present contracts with industry for conducting engineering experiments using the developed dish hardware to demonstrate the technology in these early opportunity markets is also discussed.

  8. The French thermo-helio-electricity-KW parabolic dish program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audibert, M.; Peri, G.

    1982-01-01

    The testing and development of parabolic dish solar thermal power plants to produce, thermal mechanical, or electrical energy are discussed. The design, construction, and experiments of prototype collectors to prove the feasibility of such collectors is described.

  9. Parabolic dish systems at work - Applying the concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is given of parabolic dish solar concentrator application experiments being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. The 'engineering experiments' comprise the testing of (1) a small-community powerplant system, in conjunction with a grid-connected utility; (2) stand-alone applications at remote sites such as military installations, radar stations and villages; and (3) dish modules that can deliver heat for direct use in industrial processes. Applicability projections are based on a dish and receiver that use a Brayton engine with an engine/generator efficiency of 25% and a production level of up to 25,000 units per year. Analyses indicate that parabolic-dish power systems can potentially replace small, oil-fired power plants in all regions of the U.S. between 1985 and 1991.

  10. Performance of the Southern California Edison Company Stirling dish

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, C.W.; Stone, K.W.

    1993-10-01

    McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) and United Stirling AB of Sweden (USAB) formed a joint venture in 1982 to develop and produce a Stirling dish solar generating system. In this report, the six year development and testing program continued by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) is described. Each Stirling dish module consists of a sun tracking dish concentrator developed by the MDAC and a Stirling engine driven power conversion unit (PCU) developed by USAB. The Stirling dish system demonstrated twice the peak and daily solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of any other system then under development. This system continues to set the performance standard for solar to electric systems being developed in the early 1990`s. Test data are presented and used to estimate the performance of a commercial system.

  11. Estimating V̄s(30) (or NEHRP site classes) from shallow velocity models (depths < 30 m)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The average velocity to 30 m [V??s(30)] is a widely used parameter for classifying sites to predict their potential to amplify seismic shaking. In many cases, however, models of shallow shear-wave velocities, from which V??s(30) can be computed, do not extend to 30 m. If the data for these cases are to be used, some method of extrapolating the velocities must be devised. Four methods for doing this are described here and are illustrated using data from 135 boreholes in California for which the velocity model extends to at least 30 m. Methods using correlations between shallow velocity and V??s(30) result in significantly less bias for shallow models than the simplest method of assuming that the lowermost velocity extends to 30 m. In addition, for all methods the percent of sites misclassified is generally less than 10% and falls to negligible values for velocity models extending to at least 25 m. Although the methods using correlations do a better job on average of estimating V??s(30), the simplest method will generally result in a lower value of V??s(30) and thus yield a more conservative estimate of ground motion [which generally increases as V??s(30) decreases].

  12. Au-Ge film thermometers for temperature range 30 mK-300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthoux, O.; Brusetti, R.; Lasjaunias, J. C.; Sahling, S.

    After optmization of the Au concentration and the annealing temperature, highly sensitive Au-Ge film thermometers for the temperature range 30 mK-300 K were obtained. The thermometers show good reproducibility, a very short relaxation time constant at low temperatures and are quite insensitive to magnetic field.

  13. Parabolic dish test site: History and operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established for testing point-focusing solar concentrator systems operating at temperatures approaching 1650 C. Among tests run were evaluation and performance characterization of parabolic dish concentrators, receivers, power conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid systems. The PDTS was fully operational until its closure in June, 1984. The evolution of the test program, a chronological listing of the experiments run, and data summaries for most of the tests conducted are presented.

  14. Large scale IRAM 30 m CO-observations in the giant molecular cloud complex W43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-12-01

    We aim to fully describe the distribution and location of dense molecular clouds in the giant molecular cloud complex W43. It was previously identified as one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. To trace the moderately dense molecular clouds in the W43 region, we initiated W43-HERO, a large program using the IRAM 30 m telescope, which covers a wide dynamic range of scales from 0.3 to 140 pc. We obtained on-the-fly-maps in 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1) with a high spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 12''. These maps cover an area of ~1.5 square degrees and include the two main clouds of W43 and the lower density gas surrounding them. A comparison to Galactic models and previous distance calculations confirms the location of W43 near the tangential point of the Scutum arm at approximately 6 kpc from the Sun. The resulting intensity cubes of the observed region are separated into subcubes, which are centered on single clouds and then analyzed in detail. The optical depth, excitation temperature, and H2 column density maps are derived out of the 13CO and C18O data. These results are then compared to those derived from Herschel dust maps. The mass of a typical cloud is several 104 M⊙ while the total mass in the dense molecular gas (>102 cm-3) in W43 is found to be ~1.9 × 106 M⊙. Probability distribution functions obtained from column density maps derived from molecular line data and Herschel imaging show a log-normal distribution for low column densities and a power-law tail for high densities. A flatter slope for the molecular line data probability distribution function may imply that those selectively show the gravitationally collapsing gas. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe final datacubes (13CO and C18O) for the entire survey are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A24

  15. Thermomechanical Properties of 30M HTS Power Cable in DAPAS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, I. S.; Park, I. S.; Jang, H. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, D. W.

    2006-04-01

    The 22.9 kV 3 phase 30 m HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power cable system that contributes to the research for commercial applications was developed as a part of "DAPAS (Dream for Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) Project" in Korea. LS Cable Ltd. has been playing a significant role in design, manufacture, installation, and test of the 30m power cable system. The manufacture and the installation of the cable system were completed in 2004. We performed the initial cool down and the basic operation test of the cable system. We have performed a long period of operation test of the cable system since February 2005. This paper reports the thermo-mechanical properties of the cable system measured during test.

  16. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  17. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  18. Water Cooled TJ Dense Array Modules for Parabolic Dishes

    SciTech Connect

    Loeckenhoff, Ruediger; Kubera, Tim; Rasch, Klaus Dieter

    2010-10-14

    AZUR SPACE Solar Power GmbH has developed a novel type of dense array module for use in parabolic dishes. Such dishes never produce a perfectly homogeneous, rectangular light spot but an inhomogeneous light distribution. A regular module would use this light distribution very inefficiently. Therefore AZUR SPACE developed a dense array module concept which can be adapted to inhomogeneous light spots. It is populated with state of the art triple junction solar cells.The modules are designed for light intensities in the range of 50-100 W/cm{sup 2} and are actively water cooled. Prototypes are installed in 11 m{sup 2} parabolic dishes produced by Zenith Solar. A peak output of 2.3 kW electrical and 5.5 kW thermal power could be demonstrated. The thermal power may be used for solar heating, solar cooling or warm water.

  19. Technical status of the Dish/Stirling Joint Venture Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, J.R.; Diver, R.B.

    1995-06-01

    Initiated in 1991; the Dish/Stirling Joint Venture Program (DSJVP) is a 5-year, $17.2 million joint venture which is funded by Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) of Columbus, Indiana and the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division. Sandia National Laboratories administers and provides technical management for this contract on the DOE`s behalf. In January, 1995; CPG advanced to Phase 3 of this three-phase contract. The objective of the DSJVP is to develop and commercialize a 7-kW. Dish/Stirling System for remote power markets by 1997. In this paper, the technical status of the major subsystems which comprise the CPG 7-kW{sub e} Dish/Stirling System is presented. These subsystems include the solar concentrator, heat pipe receiver, engine/alternator, power conditioning, and automatic controls.

  20. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  1. Development and testing of Parabolic Dish Concentrator No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, E. W.; Thostesen, T. O.

    1984-01-01

    Parabolic Dish Concentrator No. 1 (PDC-1) is a 12-m-diameter prototype concentrator with low life-cycle costs for use with thermal-to-electric energy conversion devices. The concentrator assembly features panels made of a resin transfer molded balsa core/fiberglass sandwich with plastic reflective film as the reflective surface and a ribbed framework to hold the panels in place. The concentrator assembly tracks in azimuth and elevation on a base frame riding on a circular track. It is shown that the panels do not exhibit the proper parabolic contour. However, thermal gradients were discovered in the panels with daily temperature changes. The PDC-1 has sufficient optical quality to operate satisfactorily in a dish-electric system. The PDC-1 development provides the impetus for creating innovative optical testing methods and valuable information for use in designing and fabricating concentrators of future dish-electric systems.

  2. Satellite antenna dish acquired for use by the BAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, T.

    2007-10-01

    The Radio Astronomy Group (RAG) of the BAA is pleased to announce it has obtained the use of the 2.4m diameter, fully-steerable satellite antenna dish residing on the roof of the National Space Centre (NSC) in Leicester (see Figure). The RAG is fortunate in having its assistant coordinator, Jeff Lashley, employed by the NSC as a technical support engineer and Jeff has worked tirelessly with coordinator Dr Laurence Newell in seeking permission for the Group to use the dish for radio astronomy purposes. Support has also been forthcoming via Terry Ashton, our university liaison officer, who works at the University of Leicester's Space Research Centre (SRC) which owns the dish.

  3. Reception of Multiple Telemetry Signals via One Dish Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan; Vilnrotter, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A microwave aeronautical-telemetry receiver system includes an antenna comprising a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal dish reflector that is nominally aimed at a single aircraft or at multiple aircraft flying in formation. Through digital processing of the signals received by the seven feed horns, the system implements a method of enhanced cancellation of interference, such that it becomes possible to receive telemetry signals in the same frequency channel simultaneously from either or both of two aircraft at slightly different angular positions within the field of view of the antenna, even in the presence of multipath propagation. The present system is an advanced version of the system described in Spatio- Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array NPO-43077, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 2 (February 2010), page 32. To recapitulate: The radio-frequency telemetry signals received by the seven elements of the array are digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to a spatio-temporal equalizer that consists mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters (one for each element in the array) plus a unit that sums the outputs of the filters. The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank affords better multipath suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The FIR filter bank adapts itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of frequency-selective multipath propagation like that commonly found at flight-test ranges. The combination of the array and the filter bank makes it possible to constructively add multipath incoming signals to the corresponding directly arriving signals, thereby enabling reductions in telemetry bit-error rates.

  4. GISMO: A Giant (30m) cold (10K) far-Ir and Submm space Observatory using Fresnel optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarden, T. G.; Stevens, J. A.; Cliffe, M. R.; Henry, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have examined the possibility of applying difractive Fresnel optical concepts developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for a possible O/NIR space telescope to the much more relaxed tolerance regimes of the far-IR and sub-millimetre. We conclude that the approach is indeed applicable and that a powerful FIR-submm observatory (GISMO) could be built around a 30m primary lens of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) 2.3mm thick.This would be the main component of a "Lens" Spacecraft (LSC) which would be located 3 km from a second "Instrument" spacecraft (ISC) carrying field optics, a Fresnel corrector lens, re-imaging optics and focal plane instruments. In its Sun-Earth L2 halo orbit, the Lens would cool by radiation to 10K; the ISC optics would be actively cooled to a few K and would resemble a simplified version of current plans for SAFIR, the Single-Aperture Far-IR mission under study by NASA. GISMO could be a good deal cheaper to build than the current 10m, 4K SAFIR concept. Relative positioning of the two spaceraft needs to be accurate to a few millimetres laterally and a tens of centimetres in separation (focus). We highlight some technical uncertainties. For most observations at wavelengths between 20 and 600 microns GISMO should be between 3 and 10 times more sensitive than the 10m, 4K SAFIR concept. The possible exception is spectroscopy betwen 250 and 450 microns, where its sensitivity should be about the same. GISMO's 30m aperture would of course offer a three-fold improvement in spatial resolution at all wavelengths. As a result GISMO is expected to achieve almost complete resolution of the FIR background, reaching sources below 100 micro-Jansky in seconds, and would be an immensely powerful facility throughout its wavelength range of operation.

  5. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five different 30-cm diameter bombardment thrustors to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thrustor discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole-diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. Also investigated were the effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current cathode pole piece length and cathode position.

  6. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were treated on five different 30 cm diameter bombardment thrusters to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thruster discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. The effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current, cathode pole piece length and cathode position were also investigated.

  7. Development of corotational formulated FEM for application to 30m class large deployable reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yuuichi; Tsujihata, Akio

    2010-06-01

    JAXA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is now developing a corotational formulated finite element analysis method and its software "Origami/ETS" for the development of 30m class large deployable reflectors. For the reason that the deployable reflector is composed of beams, cables and mesh, this analysis method is generalized for finite elements with multiple nodes, which are commonly used in linear finite element analyses. The large displacement and rotation are taken into account by the corotational formulation. The tangent stiffness matrix for finite elements with multiple nodes is obtained as follows; the geometric stiffness matrix of two node elements is derived by taking variation of the element's corotational matrix from the virtual work of finite elements with large displacement; similarly the geometric stiffness matrix for three node elements is derived; as the extension of two and three node element theories, the geometric stiffness matrix for multiple node elements is derived; with the geometric stiffness matrix for multiple node elements, the tangent stiffness matrix is obtained. The analysis method is applied for the deployment analysis and static structural analysis of the 30m class large deployable reflector. In the deployment analysis, it is confirmed that this method stably analyzes the deployment motion from the deployment configuration to the stowed configuration of the reflector. In the static analysis, it is confirmed that the mesh structure is analyzed successfully. The 30m class large deployable reflector is now still being developed and is about to undergo several tests with its prototypes. This analysis method will be used in the tests and verifications of the reflector.

  8. Methodology to obtain 30 m resolution of snow cover area from FSCA MODIS and NDSI Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Javier; Vargas, Ximena

    2016-04-01

    In the last years numerous free images and product satellites have been released, with different spatial and temporal resolution. Out of them, the most commonly used to describe the snow area are MODIS and Landsat. Fractional snow cover area (FSCA) is a daily MODIS product with a 500 m spatial resolution; Landsat images have around 16 days and 30 m respectively. In this work we use both images to obtain a new daily 30 m resolution snow distribution product based in probabilistic and geospatial information. This can be useful because a higher resolution can be used to improve the estimation of the accuracy of a physically-based distributed model to represent the snow cover distribution. We choose three basins in central Chile, with an important snow and glacier presence, to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of snow using (1) the mean value between MOD10A1 (terra) and MYD10A1 (aqua) and (2) the corrected images by topography and atmosphere from Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 computing the normalized difference snow index (NDSI). When both satellites data are available in the same day, each MODIS pixel is studied considering the Landsat pixels contained in it. A new matrix is created, covering all MODIS pixels, using a 30 m spatial resolution, where each pixel value represents the probability of snow presence in time from Landsat images, and then each pixel is corrected by its neighbour's pixels, elevation, slope and aspect. Then snow is distributed, for each MODIS pixel, considering the corrected probability matrix and sorted between pixels with high probability until the area from FSCA is completed.

  9. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Global Land Survey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Huang, Chengquan; Tan, Bin; Smith, Sarah Elizabeth; Phillips, Jacqueline; Wang, Panshi; Ling, Pui-Yu; Zhan, James; Li, Sike; Taylor, Michael P.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tilton, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (approx. 2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  10. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Landsat Global Land Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Tan, B.; Tilton, J.; Smith, S.; Phillips, J.; Wang, P.; Ling, P.; Zhan, J.; Xu, X.; Taylor, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (~2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  11. Spaceborne SAR data for global urban mapping at 30 m resolution using a robust urban extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Jacob, Alexander; Gamba, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    With more than half of the world population now living in cities and 1.4 billion more people expected to move into cities by 2030, urban areas pose significant challenges on local, regional and global environment. Timely and accurate information on spatial distributions and temporal changes of urban areas are therefore needed to support sustainable development and environmental change research. The objective of this research is to evaluate spaceborne SAR data for improved global urban mapping using a robust processing chain, the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor. The proposed processing chain includes urban extraction based on spatial indices and Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) textures, an existing method and several improvements i.e., SAR data preprocessing, enhancement, and post-processing. ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-VV data at 30 m resolution were selected over 10 global cities and a rural area from six continents to demonstrate the robustness of the improved method. The results show that the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor is effective in extracting urban areas and small towns from ENVISAT ASAR data and built-up areas can be mapped at 30 m resolution with very good accuracy using only one or two SAR images. These findings indicate that operational global urban mapping is possible with spaceborne SAR data, especially with the launch of Sentinel-1 that provides SAR data with global coverage, operational reliability and quick data delivery.

  12. Cerebral organoids in a dish: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Bershteyn, Marina; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2013-09-26

    A three-dimensional culture of cortical tissues derived from pluripotent stem cells offers an opportunity to model human brain development and disorders. In a recent issue of Nature, Lancaster et al. describe a new method for generating cerebral organoids in a dish and use it to model microcephaly. PMID:24074857

  13. What if stem cells turn into embryos in a dish?

    PubMed

    Pera, Martin F; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Mummery, Christine L; Munsie, Megan; Tam, Patrick P

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show that pluripotent stem cells can undergo self-organized development in vitro into structures that mimic the body plan of the post-implantation embryo. Modeling human embryogenesis in a dish opens up new possibilities for the study of early development and developmental disorders, but it may also raise substantial ethical concerns.

  14. Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Annual Program Review Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The results of activities of the parabolic dish technology and applications development element of DOE's Solar Thermal Energy System Program are presented. Topics include the development and testing of concentrators, receivers, and power conversion units; system design and development for engineering experiments; economic analysis and marketing assessment; and advanced development activities. A panel discussion concerning industrial support sector requirements is also documented.

  15. Using White Dish CMB Anisotropy Data to Probe Open and Flat-A CDM Cosmogonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratra, Bharat; Ganga, Ken; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tucker, G. S.; Griffin, G. S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Peterson, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a similar analysis of the Tucker at al. (1993, hereafter T93) White Dish CMB anisotropy data collected at the South Pole. The white dish detector and telescope are described in Tucker et al. (1994).

  16. [The role of national meat dishes in infecting the population of Azerbaijan with taeniarhynchiasis].

    PubMed

    Nadzhafov, I G; Guseĭnov, G A; Safieva, L A; Kulieva, N S

    1992-01-01

    The survival of taeniorhynchus cysticerci in 12 national meat dishes was studied in Azerbaijan. It was shown that in 7 dishes (sulu hinghal, suzma hinghal, kutab, gyurza, dushbara, dolma, tavah-kebob) the cysticerci died at suitable temperature and continuous cookery treatment. But in the mutton roasted on spits, lulah kabob, kyufta, kutaby and some other dishes 5.7 to 82% of cysticerci survive, and the dishes might be a danger as factors of transmission. PMID:1435531

  17. Microstamped Petri Dishes for Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Analysis of Arrays of Microtissues

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Adithya; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Le Gac, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    While scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a powerful technique for non-invasive analysis of cells, SECM-based assays remain scarce and have been mainly limited so far to single cells, which is mostly due to the absence of suitable platform for experimentation on 3D cellular aggregates or microtissues. Here, we report stamping of a Petri dish with a microwell array for large-scale production of microtissues followed by their in situ analysis using SECM. The platform is realized by hot embossing arrays of microwells (200 μm depth; 400 μm diameter) in commercially available Petri dishes, using a PDMS stamp. Microtissues form spontaneously in the microwells, which is demonstrated here using various cell lines (e.g., HeLa, C2C12, HepG2 and MCF-7). Next, the respiratory activity of live HeLa microtissues is assessed by monitoring the oxygen reduction current in constant height mode and at various distances above the platform surface. Typically, at a 40 μm distance from the microtissue, a 30% decrease in the oxygen reduction current is measured, while above 250 μm, no influence of the presence of the microtissues is detected. After exposure to a model drug (50% ethanol), no such changes in oxygen concentration are found at any height in solution, which reflects that microtissues are not viable anymore. This is furthermore confirmed using conventional live/dead fluorescent stains. This live/dead assay demonstrates the capability of the proposed approach combining SECM and microtissue arrays formed in a stamped Petri dish for conducting cellular assays in a non-invasive way on 3D cellular models. PMID:24690887

  18. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M.

    1997-12-31

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  19. Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

  20. A global, 30-m resolution land-surface water body dataset for 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Song, D. X.; Song, X. P.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. The distribution of surface water in space and its change over time are related to many agricultural, environmental and ecological issues, and are important factors that must be considered in human socioeconomic development. Accurate mapping of surface water is essential for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. Satellite-based remote sensing provides snapshots of Earth's surface and can be used as the main input for water mapping, especially in large areas. Global water areas have been mapped with coarse resolution remotely sensed data (e.g., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)). However, most inland rivers and water bodies, as well as their changes, are too small to map at such coarse resolutions. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) imagery has a 30m spatial resolution and provides decades of records (~40 years). Since 2008, the opening of the Landsat archive, coupled with relatively lower costs associated with computing and data storage, has made comprehensive study of the dynamic changes of surface water over large even global areas more feasible. Although Landsat images have been used for regional and even global water mapping, the method can hardly be automated due to the difficulties on distinguishing inland surface water with variant degrees of impurities and mixing of soil background with only Landsat data. The spectral similarities to other land cover types, e.g., shadow and glacier remnants, also cause misidentification. We have developed a probabilistic based automatic approach for mapping inland surface water bodies. Landsat surface reflectance in multiple bands, derived water indices, and data from other sources are integrated to maximize the ability of identifying water without human interference. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large

  1. External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E-DISH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, J. W.; Introne, Steve; Bedell, Lisa; Credle, Ben; Holp, Graham; Ly, Siao; Tait, Terry

    1994-01-01

    A Mars habitat transport system was designed as part of the NASA Mars exploration program. The transport system, the External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E - DISH), will be used to transport Mars habitats from their landing sites to the colony base and will be detached after unloading. The system requirements for Mars were calculated and scaled for model purposes. Specific model materials are commonly found and recommendations for materials for the Mars design are included.

  2. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in the area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.

  3. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    DOE PAGES

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in themore » area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.« less

  4. Impairment of autophagy by TTR V30M aggregates: in vivo reversal by TUDCA and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Cristina A; Almeida, Maria do Rosário; Saraiva, Maria João

    2016-09-01

    Transthyretin (TTR)-related amyloidoses are diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils and aggregates in tissues composed of insoluble misfolded TTR that becomes toxic. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of small compounds in preventing and reversing TTR V30M deposition in transgenic mice gastrointestinal (GI) tract as well as lowering biomarkers associated with cellular stress and apoptotic mechanisms. In the present study we aimed to study TTR V30M aggregates effect in autophagy, a cellular mechanism crucial for cell survival that has been implicated in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases. We were able to demonstrate in cell culture that TTR V30M aggregates cause a partial impairment of the autophagic machinery as shown by p62 accumulation, whereas early steps of the autophagic flux remain unaffected as shown by autophagosome number evaluation and LC3 turnover assay. Our studies performed in TTR V30M transgenic animals demonstrated that tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and curcumin effectively reverse p62 accumulation in the GI tract pointing to the ability of both compounds to modulate autophagy additionally to mitigate apoptosis. Overall, our in vitro and in vivo studies establish an association between TTR V30M aggregates and autophagy impairment and suggest the use of autophagy modulators as an additional and alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of TTR V30M-related amyloidosis. PMID:27382986

  5. Cryogenic and Electrical Test Results of 30 M Hts Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytnikov, V. E.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Kochkin, V. I.; Kiselev, A. N.; Terentyev, Yu. A.; Patrikeev, V. M.; Zubko, V. V.

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of the Russian R&D Program for HTS power devices, 3×30 m cable with operating current of ˜1.5-2 kA and operating voltage of 20 kV was delivered by Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute as the first stage of the HTS power cables project. Different basic HTS materials, cryostats and current leads were used for the cable design in this essentially research part of the project. The cable is being tested at special test facility for superconducting power devices developed at the R&D Center for Power Engineering. The cryogenic system for the test facility was provided by Stirling. The basic cryogenic system was equipped with a specially developed flow distribution unit. This unit permits variation and control of liquid nitrogen flows, pressures and temperatures in all three cable phases. Dependencies on temperature of critical currents of each phase were measured during cable tests. The results of the project]s first stage were used to develop and produce a 3×200 m cable system for Moscow distribution grid. In the paper results of cryogenic system tests and cable electrical tests are presented.

  6. Performance and calibration of the NIKA camera at the IRAM 30 m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A.; Calvo, M.; Ponthieu, N.; Adam, R.; Adane, A.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Belier, B.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Martino, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Revéret, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Savini, G.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2014-09-01

    The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) instrument is a dual-band imaging camera operating with kinetic inductance detectors (KID) cooled at 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the sky at wavelengths of 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta with an estimated resolution of 13 arcsec and 18 arcsec, respectively. This work presents the performance of the NIKA camera prior to its opening to the astrophysical community as an IRAM common-user facility in early 2014. NIKA is a test bench for the final NIKA2 instrument to be installed at the end of 2015. The last NIKA observation campaigns on November 2012 and June 2013 have been used to evaluate this performance and to improve the control of systematic effects. We discuss here the dynamical tuning of the readout electronics to optimize the KID working point with respect to background changes and the new technique of atmospheric absorption correction. These modifications significantly improve the overall linearity, sensitivity, and absolute calibration performance of NIKA. This is proved on observations of point-like sources for which we obtain a best sensitivity (averaged over all valid detectors) of 40 and 14 mJy s1/2 for optimal weather conditions for the 1.25 and 2.14 mm arrays, respectively. NIKA observations of well known extended sources (DR21 complex and the Horsehead nebula) are presented. This performance makes the NIKA camera a competitive astrophysical instrument.

  7. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Dreyer, M.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2014-04-15

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  8. The effects of 30 mT electromagnetic fields on hippocampus cells of rats

    PubMed Central

    Teimori, Farzaneh; Khaki, Amir A.; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Roshangar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the use of electromagnetic waves in the treatment of some acute and chronic diseases, application of these waves in everyday life has created several problems for humans, especially the nerve system. In this study, the effects of 30mT electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the hippocampus is investigated. Methods: Twenty-four 5-month Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g were divided into two groups. The experimental group rats were under the influence of an EMF at an intensity of 3 mT for approximately 4 hours a day (from 8 AM to 12 PM) during 10 weeks. After the hippocampus was removed, thin slides were prepared for transmission electron microscope (TEM) to study the ultrastructural tissue. Cell death detection POD kits were used to determine the apoptosis rate. Results: The results of the TEM showed that, in the hippocampus of the experimental group, in comparison to the control group, there was a substantial shift; even intracellular organelles such as the mitochondria were morphologically abnormal and uncertain. The number of apoptotic cells in the exposed group compared to the control group showed significant changes. Conclusions: Similar to numerous studies that have reported the effects of EMFs on nerves system, it was also confirmed in this lecture. Hence, the hippocampus which is important in regulating emotions, behavior, motivation, and memory functions, may be impaired by the negative impacts of EMFs. PMID:27453795

  9. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of cells with a plasmonic dish integrally molded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawa, Keiko; Sasakawa, Chisato; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kiyosue, Kazuyuki; Hosokawa, Chie; Nishii, Junji; Oike, Makoto; Kakinuma, Norihiro

    2016-03-01

    A plastic dish with a wavelength-scale periodic structure at a bottom panel was integrally molded and coated with thin metal films. The integrally molded dish called plasmonic dish was applied to bioimaging under a fluorescence microscope. On the plasmonic substrate, the enhanced electric field based on a grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GC-SPR) can provide an enhanced fluorescence. In this study, two kinds of cells, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and neuronal cells, were observed in our plasmonic dish. Fluorescence images of HEK cells were above 10 times brighter than those obtained on a conventional glass-bottomed dish. Neuronal cells were successfully cultured for 10 d on the plasmonic dish integrally molded, and in fluorescence images with transmitted light, a higher contrast was obtained than in epifluorescence images. The plasmonic dish integrally molded, as well as that fabricated by the UV nanoimprint method, was also found to be useful for sensitive bioimaging.

  10. Controlled Growth and the Maintenance of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Cultivation with Defined Medium on Extracellular Matrix-Coated Micropatterned Dishes.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Chiemi; Miyajima, Hiroshi; Yoda, Yusuke; Imazato, Hideo; Yamamoto, Takako; Gomi, Shinichi; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Kenichi; Sasaki, Tetsuji; Kawamata, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Here, we introduce a new serum-free defined medium (SPM) that supports the cultivation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) on recombinant human vitronectin-N (rhVNT-N)-coated dishes after seeding with either cell clumps or single cells. With this system, there was no need for an intervening sequential adaptation process after moving hPSCs from feeder layer-dependent conditions. We also introduce a micropatterned dish that was coated with extracellular matrix by photolithographic technology. This procedure allowed the cultivation of hPSCs on 199 individual rhVNT-N-coated small round spots (1 mm in diameter) on each 35-mm polystyrene dish (termed "patterned culture"), permitting the simultaneous formation of 199 uniform high-density small-sized colonies. This culture system supported controlled cell growth and maintenance of undifferentiated hPSCs better than dishes in which the entire surface was coated with rhVNT-N (termed "non-patterned cultures"). Non-patterned cultures produced variable, unrestricted cell proliferation with non-uniform cell growth and uneven densities in which we observed downregulated expression of some self-renewal-related markers. Comparative flow cytometric studies of the expression of pluripotency-related molecules SSEA-3 and TRA-1-60 in hPSCs from non-patterned cultures and patterned cultures supported this concept. Patterned cultures of hPSCs allowed sequential visual inspection of every hPSC colony, giving an address and number in patterned culture dishes. Several spots could be sampled for quality control tests of production batches, thereby permitting the monitoring of hPSCs in a single culture dish. Our new patterned culture system utilizing photolithography provides a robust, reproducible and controllable cell culture system and demonstrates technological advantages for the mass production of hPSCs with process quality control. PMID:26115194

  11. Actualistic models of mantle metasomatism documented in a composite xenolith from Dish Hill, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, J.E.; Budahn, J.R.; Unruh, D.M.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Major and trace-element whole rock and mineral variations in composite hornblendite-peridotite xenolith Ba-2-1, from Dish Hill, CA, are due to a single event of metasomatism in the mantle. The hornblendite is the crystallized selvage of a dike conduit charged with incompatible-element-enriched hydrous mafic magma. The magma infiltrated the refractory peridotite wallrock, reacted with its constituent minerals, and simultaneously deposited amphibole. The systematic data from this study show considerable variation in isotopic values and trace elements. These data provide insight into a mantle process that was defined previously from samples without context, lacking evidence about the number or source of metasomatic events. In the contact zone of Ba-2-1, peridotite is enriched in Fe, Ti, CO2) and H2O; clinopyroxene and amphibole also are enriched in Fe and Ti, but clinopyroxene appears slightly depleted in CaO. Compared to chondrites, peridotite, clinopyroxene, and probably amphibole are enriched in light rare earth (LREEcn) and other incompatible trace elements. Values of 87Sr 86Sr and 143Nd 144Nd in the contact zone are close to isotopic equilibrium with the dike. Whole rock and constituent clinopyroxene compositions change to those of refractory peridotite with distance from the contact. These compositional variations were modelled using Gresens' equation for whole-rock major and minor elements, and calculations for isotopic ratios and REEs, which emulate the effects of Chromatographic fractionation. The choice of endmembers was restricted to compositions actually present in mantle samples from Dish Hill. Model results indicate that: 1. (1) the variations can be explained as the result of a single metasomatic event, probably a single pulse of previously fractionated liquid; 2. (2) the ratio of total interacting liquid to peridotite was at least 1:3 by weight in the contact zone; and 3. (3) the composition of the metasomatic liquid changed progressively as it

  12. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  13. Storage requirements definition and SRE design for dish Stirling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Stacy, L. E.; Wesling, G. C.

    1981-03-01

    A direct dish Stirling solar receiver (DSSR) and a heat pipe solar receiver with TES (HPSR) are described. Cost effectiveness and thermal performance, analyzed minute by minute over one year of solar insolation are included. Using existing designs of these two receivers, parametric performance and cost studies to determine the influences of adding varying amounts of TES to the DSSR, and of providing fossil fuel combustion, and of varying the levels of TES in the HPSR are discussed. The thermal modeling of the two receivers was completed and the criteria and programming for the economic analysis were documented.

  14. Spondyloarthritis, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and chondrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jácome Brugues; Couto, Ana Rita; Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the main clinical and radiological findings of common enthesopathic disorders-spondylarthritis (SpA), chondrocalcinosis/calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD CDD) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), stressing similarities and differences which may help in the differential diagnosis. They emphasize the clinical presentation of the "pseudoankylosing spondylitis" forms of CPPD CDD. They also review the most relevant genes and molecular mechanisms associated with these conditions and with another enthesopathic disorder with high prevalence in the Japanese population-ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).

  15. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities.

  16. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities. PMID:26930040

  17. A new impulsive seismic shear wave source for near-surface (0-30 m) seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, J. M.; Lorenzo, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Estimates of elastic moduli and fluid content in shallow (0-30 m) natural soils below artificial flood containment structures can be particularly useful in levee monitoring as well as seismic hazard studies. Shear wave moduli may be estimated from horizontally polarized, shear wave experiments. However, long profiles (>10 km) with dense receiver and shot spacings (<1m) cannot be collected efficiently using currently available shear wave sources. We develop a new, inexpensive, shear wave source for collecting fast, shot gathers over large acquisition sites. In particular, gas-charged, organic-rich sediments comprising most lower-delta sedimentary facies, greatly attenuate compressional body-waves. On the other hand, SH waves are relatively insensitive to pore-fluid moduli and can improve resolution. We develop a recoil device (Jolly, 1956) into a single-user, light-weight (<20 kg), impulsive, ground-surface-coupled SH wave generator, which is capable of working at rates of several hundred shotpoints per day. Older impulsive methods rely on hammer blows to ground-planted stationary targets. Our source is coupled to the ground with steel spikes and the powder charge can be detonated mechanically or electronically. Electrical fuses show repeatability in start times of < 50 microseconds. The barrel and shell-holder exceed required thicknesses to ensure complete safety during use. The breach confines a black-powder, 12-gauge shotgun shell, loaded with inert, environmentally safe ballast. In urban settings, produced heat and sound are confined by a detached, exterior cover. A moderate 2.5 g black-powder charge generates seismic amplitudes equivalent to three 4-kg sledge-hammer blows. We test this device to elucidate near subsurface sediment properties at former levee breach sites in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Our radio-telemetric seismic acquisition system uses an in-house landstreamer, consisting of 14-Hz horizontal component geophones, coupled to steel plates

  18. Detail design of a 10.4-m stretched-membrane dish. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report describes efforts conducted under Tasks 3 and 4 of the second phase of the project to develop a single-element stretched-membrane dish concept to reduce the cost of a high-performance concentrating solar collector. We completed the detailed design for such a collector suitable to drive a 25-kWe Stirling motor generator. The design includes the collectors, optical element, the drive, and support systems. The aperture of the optical element was sized to provide the required energy to the engine based on test data and analytical models of the concentrator receiver, and engine. The design of the optical element was improved based on experience gained from the design, fabrication, and testing of several prototypes.

  19. Activity and accomplishments of dish/Stirling electric power system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the solar parabolic-dish/Stirling-engine electricity generating plant known as the dish/Stirling electric power system is described. The dish/Stirling electric power system converts sunlight to electricity more efficiently than any known existing solar electric power system. The fabrication and characterization of the test bed concentrators that were used for Stirling module testing and of the development of parabolic dish concentrator No. 2, an advanced solar concentrator unit considered for use with the Stirling power conversion unit is discussed.

  20. Status of the Boeing Dish Engine Critical Component Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, H.W.; Diver, R.B.; Nelving, H.; Stone, K.W.

    1999-01-08

    The Boeing Company's Dish Engine Critical Component (DECC) project started in April of 1998. It is a continuation of a solar energy program started by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and United Stirling of Sweden in the mid 1980s. The overall objectives, schedule, and status of this project are presented in this paper. The hardware test configuration, hardware background, operation, and test plans are also discussed. A summary is given of the test data, which includes the daily power performance, generated energy, working-gas usage, mirror reflectivity, solar insolation, on-sun track time, generating time, and system availability. The system performance based upon the present test data is compared to test data from the 1984/88 McDonnell Douglas/United Stirling AB/Southem California Edison test program. The test data shows that the present power, energy, and mirror performance is comparable to when the hardware was first manufactured 14 years ago.

  1. Commercialization of dish-Stirling solar terrestrial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Brad; Penswick, Barry; White, Maury; Cooper, Martin; Farbman, Gerald

    The requirements for dish-Stirling commercialization are described. The requirements for practical terrestrial power systems, both technical and economic, are described. Solar energy availability, with seasonal and regional variations, is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of hybrid operation are listed. The two systems described use either a 25-kW free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine or a 5-kW kinematic Stirling engine. Both engines feature long-life characteristics that result from the use of welded metal bellows as hermetic seals between the working gas and the crankcase fluid. The advantages of the systems, the state of the technology, and the challenges that remain are discussed. Technology transfer between solar terrestrial Stirling applications and other Stirling applications is predicted to be important and synergistic.

  2. Solar parabolic dish thermal power systems - Technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W.; Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Activities of two projects at JPL in support of DOE's Small Power Systems Program are reported. These two projects are the Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver (PFDR) Technology Project and the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PFTEA) Project. The PFDR Technology Project's major activity is developing the technology of solar concentrators, receivers and power conversion subsystems suitable for parabolic dish or point-focusing distributed receiver power systems. Other PFDR activities include system integration and cost estimation under mass production, as well as the testing of the hardware. The PFTEA Project's first major activity is applications analysis, that is seeking ways to introduce PFDR systems into appropriate user sectors. The second activity is systems engineering and development wherein power plant systems are analyzed for specific applications. The third activity is the installation of a series of engineering experiments in various user environments to obtain actual operating experience

  3. Genesis of the 1000-foot Dish at Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marshall H.

    2007-12-01

    The Arecibo dish was conceived early in 1958 by William E. Gordon, a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Cornell University. The objective was to design and build a radar sensitive enough to measure the backscattered signal from free electrons in the high ionosphere, the so-called incoherent scatter (IS) signal. Gordon calculated the required size of the antenna by assuming that the thermal velocity of the electrons controlled the width of the spectrum of the echo. Six months later Kenneth L. Bowles, a Cornell graduate now working at NBS in Boulder, Colorado, did a radar experiment that confirmed part of Gordon's ideas. Bowles showed that the strength of the IS signal is roughly as calculated by Gordon, but the spectral width of the echo is much narrower than that calculated by Gordon. This meant that a substantially smaller, cheaper, dish could be used. A year later, however, ARPA gave the money to start the project, still at the original size, 1000 feet. By this time the goals of the project had widened considerably, to include radio and radar astronomy, and most of the new goals did require the 1000 foot diameter. Note that this project went from conception to funding in a year and a half, far quicker than it would at present. The IGY in 1957-1958, and the launch of the Sputnik and Explorer satellites during this period, fueled a great deal of interest in the high ionosphere in both military and civilian circles. I speculate on how this affected the Arecibo project.

  4. Lightweight dual-axis tracker designs for dish-based HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Cuerden, Brian; Whiteside, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Dish-based HCPV holds the promise of solar electricity at lower cost than for flat panel PV, provided that the dual-axis tracker cost can be minimized. Here we outline first and second generation lightweight tracker designs that include supports for a rectangular array of square dish mirrors and receivers located at their foci.

  5. Design and Expected Performance of GISMO-2, a Two Color Millimeter Camera for the IRAM 30 m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Dwek, Eli; Hilton, Gene; Fixsen, Dale J.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Tim; Moseley, S. Harvey; Sharp, Elmer H.; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We present the main design features for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera, which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISMO-2 will operate simultaneously in the 1 and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 × 40 TES-based backshort under grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 × 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISMO-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2mm bolometer camera, which is successfully operating at the 30 m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regularIRAMcall for proposals.

  6. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  7. A New Folding Kinetic Mechanism for Human Transthyretin and the Influence of the Amyloidogenic V30M Mutation.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Catarina S H; Almeida, Zaida L; Vaz, Daniela C; Faria, Tiago Q; Brito, Rui M M

    2016-08-31

    Protein aggregation into insoluble amyloid fibrils is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, chief among them Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Although caused by different proteins, these pathologies share some basic molecular mechanisms with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a rare hereditary neuropathy caused by amyloid formation and deposition by transthyretin (TTR) in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. Among the amyloidogenic TTR mutations known, V30M-TTR is the most common in FAP. TTR amyloidogenesis (ATTR) is triggered by tetramer dissociation, followed by partial unfolding and aggregation of the low conformational stability monomers formed. Thus, tetramer dissociation kinetics, monomer conformational stability and competition between refolding and aggregation pathways do play a critical role in ATTR. Here, we propose a new model to analyze the refolding kinetics of WT-TTR and V30M-TTR, showing that at pH and protein concentrations close to physiological, a two-step mechanism with a unimolecular first step followed by a second-order second step adjusts well to the experimental data. Interestingly, although sharing the same kinetic mechanism, V30M-TTR refolds at a much slower rate than WT-TTR, a feature that may favor the formation of transient species leading to kinetic partition into amyloidogenic pathways and, thus, significantly increasing the probability of amyloid formation in vivo.

  8. Cryogenic Tests of 30 m Flexible Hybrid Energy Transfer Line with Liquid Hydrogen and Superconducting MgB2 Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotsky, V. S.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Firsov, V. P.; Blagov, E. V.; Kostyuk, V. V.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Rachuk, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.

    Recently we reported about first in the world test of 10 m hybrid energy transfer line with liquid hydrogen and MgB2 superconducting cable. In this paper we present the new development of our second hybrid energy transfer line with 30 m length. The flexible 30 m hydrogen cryostat has three sections with different types of thermal insulation in each section: simple vacuum superinsulation, vacuum superinsulation with liquid nitrogen shield and active evaporating cryostatting (AEC) system. We performed thermo-hydraulic tests of the cryostat to compare three thermo-insulating methods. The tests were performed at temperatures from 20 to 26 K, hydrogen flow from 100 to 450 g/s and pressure from 0.25 to 0.5 MPa. It was found that AEC thermal insulation practically eliminated completely heat transfer from room temperature to liquid hydrogen in the 10 m section. AEC thermal insulation method can be used for long superconducting power cables. High voltage current leads were developed as well. The current leads and superconducting MgB2 cable have been passed high voltage DC test up to 50 kV DC. Critical current of the cable at ∼21 K was ∼3500 A. The 30 m hybrid energy system developed is able to deliver up to 135 MW of chemical and electrical power in total.

  9. A New Folding Kinetic Mechanism for Human Transthyretin and the Influence of the Amyloidogenic V30M Mutation.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Catarina S H; Almeida, Zaida L; Vaz, Daniela C; Faria, Tiago Q; Brito, Rui M M

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation into insoluble amyloid fibrils is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, chief among them Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Although caused by different proteins, these pathologies share some basic molecular mechanisms with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a rare hereditary neuropathy caused by amyloid formation and deposition by transthyretin (TTR) in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. Among the amyloidogenic TTR mutations known, V30M-TTR is the most common in FAP. TTR amyloidogenesis (ATTR) is triggered by tetramer dissociation, followed by partial unfolding and aggregation of the low conformational stability monomers formed. Thus, tetramer dissociation kinetics, monomer conformational stability and competition between refolding and aggregation pathways do play a critical role in ATTR. Here, we propose a new model to analyze the refolding kinetics of WT-TTR and V30M-TTR, showing that at pH and protein concentrations close to physiological, a two-step mechanism with a unimolecular first step followed by a second-order second step adjusts well to the experimental data. Interestingly, although sharing the same kinetic mechanism, V30M-TTR refolds at a much slower rate than WT-TTR, a feature that may favor the formation of transient species leading to kinetic partition into amyloidogenic pathways and, thus, significantly increasing the probability of amyloid formation in vivo. PMID:27589730

  10. A New Folding Kinetic Mechanism for Human Transthyretin and the Influence of the Amyloidogenic V30M Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Catarina S. H.; Almeida, Zaida L.; Vaz, Daniela C.; Faria, Tiago Q.; Brito, Rui M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation into insoluble amyloid fibrils is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, chief among them Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Although caused by different proteins, these pathologies share some basic molecular mechanisms with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a rare hereditary neuropathy caused by amyloid formation and deposition by transthyretin (TTR) in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. Among the amyloidogenic TTR mutations known, V30M-TTR is the most common in FAP. TTR amyloidogenesis (ATTR) is triggered by tetramer dissociation, followed by partial unfolding and aggregation of the low conformational stability monomers formed. Thus, tetramer dissociation kinetics, monomer conformational stability and competition between refolding and aggregation pathways do play a critical role in ATTR. Here, we propose a new model to analyze the refolding kinetics of WT-TTR and V30M-TTR, showing that at pH and protein concentrations close to physiological, a two-step mechanism with a unimolecular first step followed by a second-order second step adjusts well to the experimental data. Interestingly, although sharing the same kinetic mechanism, V30M-TTR refolds at a much slower rate than WT-TTR, a feature that may favor the formation of transient species leading to kinetic partition into amyloidogenic pathways and, thus, significantly increasing the probability of amyloid formation in vivo. PMID:27589730

  11. Ultrasonography of peripheral entheses in the diagnosis and understanding of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

    PubMed

    Mader, Reuven; Novofastovski, Irina; Iervolino, Salvatore; Pavlov, Alex; Chervinsky, Leonid; Schwartz, Naama; Pappone, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) as a diagnostic modality in DISH and to explore whether it might help in elucidating its pathogenesis and events that precede the calcification/ossification process. Fifty patients with DISH and 34 patients with osteoarthritis of the lower limbs without DISH were investigated. Data regarding demographics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were collected from all patients. An ultrasonography was performed according to the Glasgow Ultrasound Enthesitis Scoring System (GUESS) by observers who were blinded to the diagnosis or the clinical findings in the patients. The total mean GUESS score for patients with DISH was 14.12 ± 5.2 and for patients without DISH 5.32 ± 4.99 (P < 0.0001). Univariate logistic regression analysis found a strong association between the GUESS and the probability of having DISH (P < 0.0001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) revealed that the GUESS accuracy in diagnosing DISH was 88.53% with sensitivity and specificity of 92 and 70.6%, respectively, at a cutoff value of 6.36. A stepwise logistic regression analysis of the statistically significant items in the GUESS isolated four items, and the presence of either all of them or the first three items yielded the likelihood of having DISH to be 98.8 and 90.6%, respectively. The GUESS and the stepwise logistic regression analysis of the GUESS items demonstrated a high likelihood of having DISH. MSUS might help to identify entheseal changes in DISH. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  12. AIMFAST : an alignment tool based on fringe reflection methods applied to dish concentrators.

    SciTech Connect

    Yellowhair, Julius; Stone, Brad; Myer, Brian; Hunt, Kirby; Trapeznikov, Kirill; Andraka, Charles E.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2010-08-01

    The proper alignment of facets on a dish engine concentrated solar power system is critical to the performance of the system. These systems are generally highly concentrating to produce high temperatures for maximum thermal efficiency so there is little tolerance for poor optical alignment. Improper alignment can lead to poor performance and shortened life through excessively high flux on the receiver surfaces, imbalanced power on multicylinder engines, and intercept losses at the aperture. Alignment approaches used in the past are time consuming field operations, typically taking 4-6 h per dish with 40-80 facets on the dish. Production systems of faceted dishes will need rapid, accurate alignment implemented in a fraction of an hour. In this paper, we present an extension to our Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Technique mirror characterization system that will automatically acquire data, implement an alignment strategy, and provide real-time mirror angle corrections to actuators or labor beneath the dish. The Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing using Fringe Analysis Slope Technique (AIMFAST) has been implemented and tested at the prototype level. In this paper we present the approach used in AIMFAST to rapidly characterize the dish system and provide near-real-time adjustment updates for each facet. The implemented approach can provide adjustment updates every 5 s, suitable for manual or automated adjustment of facets on a dish assembly line.

  13. Optimization of Dish Solar Collectors with and without Secondary Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for optimizing parabolic dish solar collectors and the consequent effects of various optical, thermal, mechanical, and cost variables are examined. The most important performance optimization is adjusting the receiver aperture to maximize collector efficiency. Other parameters that can be adjusted to optimize efficiency include focal length, and, if a heat engine is used, the receiver temperature. The efficiency maxima associated with focal length and receiver temperature are relatively broad; it may, accordingly, be desirable to design somewhat away from the maxima. Performance optimization is sensitive to the slope and specularity errors of the concentrator. Other optical and thermal variables affecting optimization are the reflectance and blocking factor of the concentrator, the absorptance and losses of the receiver, and, if a heat engine is used, the shape of the engine efficiency versus temperature curve. Performance may sometimes be improved by use of an additional optical element (a secondary concentrator) or a receiver window if the errors of the primary concentrator are large or the receiver temperature is high.

  14. Numerical modeling of dish-Stirling reflux solar receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Using reflux solar receivers to collect solar energy for dish-Stirling electric power generation systems is currently being investigated by several organizations, including Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. In support of this program, Sandia has developed two numerical models describing the energy transfer within and thermal performance of pool-boiler and heat-pipe receivers. Both models are applicable to axisymmetric geometries and they both consider the radiative and convective energy transfer within the receiver cavity, the conductive and convective energy transfer within the receiver cavity, the conductive and convective energy transfer from the receiver housing, and the energy transfer to the receiver working fluid. In these models, the radiative transfer within the receiver is analyzed using a two-band (solar and infrared) net-radiation formulation for enclosure radiation. Empirical convective correlations describe the convective heat transfer from the cavity to the surroundings. The primary difference between the models is the level of detail in modeling the heat conduction through the receiver walls. The more detailed model uses a two-dimensional finite control volume method, whereas the simpler model uses a one-dimensional thermal resistance approach. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Recent Solar Measurements Results at the Parabolic Dish Test Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    After the Mexican volcanic eruptions of March 28, April 3 and 4, 1982, the question of its effect on insolation levels at the Parabolic Dish Test Site (PDTS) naturally arose. Clearly, the answer to the original question is that the Mexican volcanic explosion had a significant impact on energy and insolation levels at the PDTS and, furthermore, it has been quite long lasting. The first really significant decrease in energy and insolation levels occurred in June 1982 when the energy level decreased by 19.7% while the peak insolation levels went down by 4.0%. June of 1982 was also the first month (of 13 consecutive months) when peak insolation levels did not equal or exceed 1,000 W/sq m. Signs of a recovery from the effects of the volcanic explosion began to appear in May of 1983, when the energy level exceeded that of May 1981 as well as May 1982. It would appear that energy and insolation levels are improving at the PDTS, but have not quite reached normal or pre-volcanic levels. At this time the data would seem to suggest a return to normal energy and insolation levels will occur in the very near future.

  16. Test results on parabolic dish concentrators for solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish concentrators. The concentrators were mostly designed for the production of electric power using dish-mounted Rankine, Brayton or Stirling cycle engines, intended to be produced at low cost. Measured performance for various dishes included optical efficiencies ranging from 0.32 to 0.86 at a geometric concentration ratio of 500, and from about 0.09 to 0.85 at a geometric concentration ratio of 3000. Some malfunctions were observed. The tests should provide operating information of value in developing concentrators with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  17. A review of test results on parabolic dish solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Rankine engines and for production of process steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies. Most of the tests were at modules and assemblies that used a dish-mounted, organic Rankine cycle turbine for production of electric power. Some tests were also run on equipment for production of process steam or for production of electricity using dish-mounted reciprocating steam engines. These tests indicate that early modules achieve efficiencies of about 18 percent in converting sunlight to electricity (excluding the inverter but including parasitics). A number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other operating experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  18. First Results from Astronomical Observations with the GISMO 2 Millimeter Bolometer Camera at the IRAM 30m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staguhn, Johannes; Allen, C.; Benford, D.; Sharp, E.; Ames, T.; Arendt, R.; Chuss, D.; Dwek, E.; Maher, S.; Miller, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Navarro, S.; Sansigre, A. M.; Schinnerer, E.; Sievers, A.; Walter, F.; Wollack, E.

    2007-12-01

    Title: First Results from Astronomical Observations with the GISMO 2 Millimeter Bolometer Camera at the IRAM 30m Telescope The 2mm bolometer camera GISMO (Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer) was installed for the first time in November 2007 at the IRAM 30m telescope on Pico Veleta in Spain. With its 128 pixel superconducting transition edge sensor bolometer array, this instrument provides unprecedented observational capabilities in terms of its field of view and sensitivity in the 2mm atmospheric window. In particular, observations of dust-enshrouded massive starburst galaxies and quasars can be performed very efficiently with the instrument even at redshifts of z>7. Furthermore GISMO provides important complementary data to observations obtained with other (sub-)millimeter instruments, such as SHARC-2 (350 μm), SCUBA, (450 and 850 μm), AzTEC (1.1 mm), and MAMBO (1.2 mm). Here we present preliminary astronomical results obtained with GISMO during its commissioning observing period.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAM 30m CO-observations in W43 (Carlhoff+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-10-01

    We observed molecular clouds in the giant star forming region W43. For this project we used the IRAM 30m telescope to observe the molecular emission lines 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1), that trace the mid-density (n~103cm-3) molecular gas. The lines were observed with the HERA receiver and the VESPA backend. At the observed frequencies the IRAM 30m has a beam size of 11.7". We include two FITS files containing the data-cubes (pos-pos-vel) of the 13CO and C18O emission lines of the W43 complex. We used equatorial coordinates for the spatial dimensions and vlsr for the spectral dimension. The pixel size is 5.9" in spatial dimension and the spectral resolution is 0.16km/s. All values are in K. The data-cubes span an area of about 1x1.5° (RAxDec) around the center of the maps at 18:46:54.4 -02:14:11 (EQ=J2000) and the velocity range from 30 to 130km/s and include the complete W43 complex and several fore- and background clouds. (2 data files).

  20. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Zhengrong; Liu, Ronghui; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. PMID:26981389

  1. Proposed guidelines for reporting performance of a solar dish/Stirling electric generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, W.B.; Powell, M.A.

    1992-12-31

    Experimental performance data from dish/Stirling system testing can be analyzed to generate a system performance model. An approach to developing an experimentally based performance model of a dish/Stirling system is given. Two methods for analyzing the experimental data are described. To provide information that will permit comparison of dish/Stirling systems, it is necessary to define many of the details involved in calculating system performance data such as the net system output and system solar-to-electric efficiency. This paper describes a set of guidelines for these calculations, based on past experience, especially with the Vanguard dish/Stirling system. Also presented are a set of rating conditions at which a maximum value for system efficiency can be calculated. Comparison between systems of their rated peak solar-to-electric efficiency is made possible when these rating conditions are in common use by manufacturers and testing agencies.

  2. Effect of labeling on new vegetable dish acceptance in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Combris, Pierre; Picard, Delphine; Giboreau, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a food-labeling strategy to introduce new versions of foods to children's diets, in natural lunch settings (school canteens). The proposed food involved two different types of vegetables: carrots (very familiar) and broccoli (less familiar), both being prepared and presented for choice in a 'familiar' (known) versus a 'new' (unknown) version. We assessed whether adding a label (either basic or model-related) to new versions of vegetable dishes would increase the likelihood that 8- to 11-year-old children would select the new dishes rather than the familiar versions. In the first condition (no label/control condition), both the familiar and the new versions of the vegetable dishes were presented with absence of any information. In the second condition (basic label condition), the new dish was presented accompanied by a basic label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe". In the third condition (model-related label condition), the new version of the dish was presented with a model-related label: "new carrot/broccoli recipe, Special Mix for Super Heroes". Results showed that children chose significantly more often the familiar version of the dish when no information was given (control condition). The addition of a descriptive label (whether basic or model-related) led to an increased frequency of choice for the new vegetable dish for carrots only, and not for broccoli. This study suggests that adding a label with the vegetable's name can be used to increase children's willingness to select a new version of a vegetable dish instead of a familiar one, at least when the vegetable is familiar to the children (i.e. carrots). PMID:22664298

  3. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  4. Solar Tests of Aperture Plate Materials for Solar Thermal Dish Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the Sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the Sun moves relative to the Earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  5. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  6. πSPIM: high NA high resolution isotropic light-sheet imaging in cell culture dishes

    PubMed Central

    Theer, Patrick; Dragneva, Denitsa; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), also termed single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables live cell fluorescence imaging with optical sectioning capabilities superior to confocal microscopy and without any out-of-focus exposure of the specimen. However, the need of two objective lenses, one for light-sheet illumination and one for imaging, imposes geometrical constraints that require LSFM setups to be adapted to the specific needs of different types of specimen in order to obtain optimal imaging conditions. Here we demonstrate the use of an oblique light-sheet configuration adapted to provide the highest possible Gaussian beam enabled resolution in LSFM. The oblique light-sheet configuration furthermore enables LSFM imaging at the surface of a cover slip, without the need of specific sample mounting. In addition, the system is compatible with simultaneous high NA wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging of the specimen contained in a glass-bottom cell culture dish. This prevents cumbersome sample mounting and enables rapid screening of large areas of the specimen followed by high-resolution LSFM imaging of selected cells. We demonstrate the application of this microscope for in toto imaging of endocytosis in yeast, showing for the first time imaging of all endocytic events of a given cell over a period of >5 minutes with sub-second resolution. PMID:27619647

  7. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  8. Metabolic profiling directly from the Petri dish using nanoDESI imaging mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie; Roach, Patrick; Heath, Brandi; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin. PMID:24047514

  9. πSPIM: high NA high resolution isotropic light-sheet imaging in cell culture dishes.

    PubMed

    Theer, Patrick; Dragneva, Denitsa; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), also termed single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables live cell fluorescence imaging with optical sectioning capabilities superior to confocal microscopy and without any out-of-focus exposure of the specimen. However, the need of two objective lenses, one for light-sheet illumination and one for imaging, imposes geometrical constraints that require LSFM setups to be adapted to the specific needs of different types of specimen in order to obtain optimal imaging conditions. Here we demonstrate the use of an oblique light-sheet configuration adapted to provide the highest possible Gaussian beam enabled resolution in LSFM. The oblique light-sheet configuration furthermore enables LSFM imaging at the surface of a cover slip, without the need of specific sample mounting. In addition, the system is compatible with simultaneous high NA wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging of the specimen contained in a glass-bottom cell culture dish. This prevents cumbersome sample mounting and enables rapid screening of large areas of the specimen followed by high-resolution LSFM imaging of selected cells. We demonstrate the application of this microscope for in toto imaging of endocytosis in yeast, showing for the first time imaging of all endocytic events of a given cell over a period of >5 minutes with sub-second resolution. PMID:27619647

  10. Efficient, Low Cost Dish Concentrator for a CPV Based Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayet, Haim; Kost, Ori; Moran, Rani; Lozovsky, Ilan

    2011-12-01

    Zenith Solar Ltd has developed efficient electricity and heat co-generation system based on segmented-parabolic dish of total aperture area of 11 m2 and water cooled dense array module combined of triple junction cells. Conventional parabolic dishes are inherently inefficient in the sense that the radiant flux distribution is non uniform causing inefficient generation by the PV array. Secondary optics improves uniformity but introduces additional complexity and losses to the system. Zenith's dish is assembled of 1200 flat mirrors of approximately 100 cm2 each. Every mirror facet has a unique shape such that the geometrical projection from each mirror on the focal plane is essentially the same. When perfectly aligned, the projected radiation from all mirrors overlaps uniformly on the PV surface. The low cost construction of the dish utilizes plastic mount supported by a precise metal frame. The precision of the metal frame affects the overall optical efficiency of the mirror and hence the efficiency of the system. State of the art dish of 11 m2 active aperture results in output of 2.25 kWp (900 W/m2) electrical and 5 kWp thermal power from one dish system representing 21% electrical and 50% thermal conversion efficiency adding to 71% overall system efficiency.

  11. The Fundamental Structure of UV-Irradiated Cloud Edges: Combined ALMA and IRAM-30m Observations of the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Pety, J.; Ag'undez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Joblin, C.; Marcelino, N.; Müller, H. S. P.; Pilleri, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Orion Bar is the prototypical photodissociation region (PDR) exposed to a far-UV radiation field (FUV) of a few 104 times the mean interstellar field. Because of its proximity and nearly edge-on orientation, it provides a unique laboratory to study the physical and chemical gradients of a strongly FUV-illuminated molecular cloud. Using ALMA at ˜350 GHz, we have observed a field-of-view of ˜40”×40” toward the Orion Bar PDR consisting of a mosaic of 27 Nyquist-sampled pointings. These observations provide an unprecedented high angular resolution view (˜1” or ˜414 AU at the distance to Orion) of the most exposed molecular cloud edge. In addition, ACA and IRAM-30m maps were used to produce the short-spacing visibilities filtered out by the ALMA array. These interferometric observations complement a complete line survey we have carried out using the IRAM-30m telescope between ˜80 GHz and ˜360 GHz. Despite being a harsh environment, over 60 species with up to 6 atoms have been identified, including main isotopologues (D, 13C, 18O, 17O, 34S, 33S, and 15N). The first molecular line images of the Orion Bar obtained with ALMA at ˜1” resolution reveal the fundamental structure in density and temperature of the molecular gas as well as its complex kinematics at an unprecedented spatial resolution. This early data set also allowed us to compute corrected line frequencies for SH+, an interesting hydride tracing reactions of S+ with vibrationally excited H2 in the PDR edge.

  12. An Algorithm for the Retrieval of 30-m Snow-Free Albedo from Landsat Surface Reflectance and MODIS BRDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new methodology to generate 30-m resolution land surface albedo using Landsat surface reflectance and anisotropy information from concurrent MODIS 500-m observations. Albedo information at fine spatial resolution is particularly useful for quantifying climate impacts associated with land use change and ecosystem disturbance. The derived white-sky and black-sky spectral albedos maybe used to estimate actual spectral albedos by taking into account the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. A further spectral-to-broadband conversion based on extensive radiative transfer simulations is applied to produce the broadband albedos at visible, near infrared, and shortwave regimes. The accuracy of this approach has been evaluated using 270 Landsat scenes covering six field stations supported by the SURFace RADiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM/SGP) network. Comparison with field measurements shows that Landsat 30-m snow-free shortwave albedos from all seasons generally achieve an absolute accuracy of +/-0.02 - 0.05 for these validation sites during available clear days in 2003-2005,with a root mean square error less than 0.03 and a bias less than 0.02. This level of accuracy has been regarded as sufficient for driving global and regional climate models. The Landsat-based retrievals have also been compared to the operational 16-day MODIS albedo produced every 8-days from MODIS on Terra and Aqua (MCD43A). The Landsat albedo provides more detailed landscape texture, and achieves better agreement (correlation and dynamic range) with in-situ data at the validation stations, particularly when the stations include a heterogeneous mix of surface covers.

  13. Experimental simulation of latent heat thermal energy storage and heat pipe thermal transport for dish concentrator solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Poon, P. T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Test results on a modular simulation of the thermal transport and heat storage characteristics of a heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with thermal energy storage (TES) are presented. The HPSR features a 15-25 kWe Stirling engine power conversion system at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator operating at 827 C. The system collects and retrieves solar heat with sodium pipes and stores the heat in NaF-MgF2 latent heat storage material. The trials were run with a single full scale heat pipe, three full scale TES containers, and an air-cooled heat extraction coil to replace the Stirling engine heat exchanger. Charging and discharging, constant temperature operation, mixed mode operation, thermal inertial, etc. were studied. The heat pipe performance was verified, as were the thermal energy storage and discharge rates and isothermal discharges.

  14. Will Somebody do the Dishes? Weathering Analogies, Geologic Processes and Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P.; Wuotila, S.; Giuliani, M.

    2006-12-01

    A good analogy is one of the most powerful tools in any instructors' arsenal, and encouraging students to explore the links between an analogy and a scientific concept can cement both ideas in a student's mind. A common analogy for weathering and erosion processes is doing the dishes. Oxidation, hydration, and solution reactions can be intimidating on the chalkboard but easily understood in the context of cleaning up after dinner. Rather than present this analogy as a lecture demonstration, students are encouraged to experimentally determine which type of weathering works best on their dirty dishes. The experiment must use at least four identically dirty dishes: three experimental dishes and one control dish. The experimental dishes are subjected to simulated weathering and erosion processes of the student's design. Common techniques developed by students are cold or warm water baths, baths with and without acid (lemon juice or soda), and freeze-thaw cycles. Occasionally creative experiments result in unexpected discoveries, such the inefficiency of abrasion from wind-blown sand, especially when compared to soaking dishes in Canadian Whiskey. The effectiveness of each experimental run is determined by comparison to the control plate after loose debris is removed from each. The dish with the smallest aerial extent of remaining food is the declared the most effective. Discussion sections of the experimental write-up includes a description of which geologic processes were being simulated in each experiment, comparisons of the effectiveness of each techniques, and statements of how these experiments differ from reality. In order to advance this project, a second stage of the assignment, a direct comparison of weathering and erosion techniques on food and on geologic materials, will be added this fall. Ideally, students will empirically derive erosion rates and calculate the time required to remove the volume of material represented by a geologically important feature

  15. Sulphur-bearing molecules in diffuse molecular clouds: new results from SOFIA/GREAT and the IRAM 30 m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, D. A.; Godard, B.; Gerin, M.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Bernier, C.; Falgarone, E.; Graf, U. U.; Güsten, R.; Herbst, E.; Lesaffre, P.; Schilke, P.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-05-01

    We have observed five sulphur-bearing molecules in foreground diffuse molecular clouds lying along the sight-lines to five bright continuum sources. We have used the GREAT instrument on SOFIA to observe the SH 1383 GHz 2Π3/2 J = 5/2 ← 3/2 lambda doublet toward the star-forming regions W31C, G29.96-0.02, G34.3+0.1, W49N and W51, detecting foreground absorption towards all five sources; and the EMIR receivers on the IRAM 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta to detect the H2S 110-101 (169 GHz), CS J = 2-1 (98 GHz) and SO 32-21 (99 GHz) transitions. Upper limits on the H3S+10-00 (293 GHz) transition were also obtained at the IRAM 30 m. In nine foreground absorption components detected towards these sources, the inferred column densities of the four detected molecules showed relatively constant ratios, with N(SH) /N(H2S) in the range 1.1-3.0, N(CS) /N(H2S) in the range 0.32-0.61, and N(SO) /N(H2S) in the range 0.08-0.30. The column densities of the sulphur-bearing molecules are very well correlated amongst themselves, moderately well correlated with CH (a surrogate tracer for H2), and poorly correlated with atomic hydrogen. The observed SH/H2 ratios - in the range 5 to 26 × 10-9 - indicate that SH (and other sulphur-bearing molecules) account for ≪ 1% of the gas-phase sulphur nuclei. The observed abundances of sulphur-bearing molecules, however, greatly exceed those predicted by standard models of cold diffuse molecular clouds, providing further evidence for the enhancement of endothermic reaction rates by elevated temperatures or ion-neutral drift. We have considered the observed abundance ratios in the context of shock and turbulent dissipation region (TDR) models. Using the TDR model, we find that the turbulent energy available at large scale in the diffuse ISM is sufficient to explain the observed column densities of SH and CS. Standard shock and TDR models, however, fail to reproduce the column densities of H2S and SO by a factor of about 10; more elaborate shock

  16. Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics

  17. A self-trained classification technique for producing 30 m percent-water maps from Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rover, Jennifer R.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Small bodies of water can be mapped with moderate-resolution satellite data using methods where water is mapped as subpixel fractions using field measurements or high-resolution images as training datasets. A new method, developed from a regression-tree technique, uses a 30 m Landsat image for training the regression tree that, in turn, is applied to the same image to map subpixel water. The self-trained method was evaluated by comparing the percent-water map with three other maps generated from established percent-water mapping methods: (1) a regression-tree model trained with a 5 m SPOT 5 image, (2) a regression-tree model based on endmembers and (3) a linear unmixing classification technique. The results suggest that subpixel water fractions can be accurately estimated when high-resolution satellite data or intensively interpreted training datasets are not available, which increases our ability to map small water bodies or small changes in lake size at a regional scale.

  18. [Formaldehyde determination in shampoos, bath preparations and dish washing liquids by colorimetric methods].

    PubMed

    Kwast, M; Kiss, E

    1995-01-01

    In the years 1992-1993 in cooperation with Province Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations 2415 samples of shampoos and bath preparations for adults and children as well as of dish washing liquids, imported and produced in Poland, were analysed. The colorimetric method either with the chromotropic acid or acetylacetone was used. Among polish preparations, only in 6% samples of cosmetic products for children the level of formaldehyde exceeded permitted level of 50 mg/kg. In all cosmetic products for adults as well as in all samples of dish washing liquids the content of formaldehyde was below permitted level 500 mg/kg. Among imported products, 40% of samples of cosmetics for children, 3%--for adults and 2% of dish washing liquids revealed formaldehyde level above permitted values. It is advisable to determine periodically formaldehyde content in particular cosmetic products, such as shampoos and bath preparations, mainly used by children.

  19. Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

  20. Dishing Up the Data: The Role of Australian Space Tracking and Radioastronomy Facilities in the Exploration of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, K.; Sarkissian, J.

    2002-01-01

    The recent Australian film, The Dish, highlighted the role played by the Parkes Radio Telescope in tracking and communicating with the Apollo 11 mission. However the events depicted in this film represent only a single snapshot of the role played by Australian radio astronomy and space tracking facilities in the exploration of the Solar System. In 1960, NASA established its first deep space tracking station outside the United States at Island Lagoon, near Woomera in South Australia. From 1961 until 1972, this station was an integral part of the Deep Space Network, responsible for tracking and communicating with NASA's interplanetary spacecraft. It was joined in 1965 by the Tidbinbilla tracking station, located near Canberra in eastern Australia, a major DSN facility that is still in operation today. Other NASA tracking facilities (for the STADAN and Manned Space Flight networks) were also established in Australia during the 1960s, making this country home to the largest number of NASA tracking facilities outside the United States. At the same time as the Island Lagoon station was being established in South Australia, one of the world's major radio telescope facilities was being established at Parkes, in western New South Wales. This 64-metre diameter dish, designed and operated by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), was also well-suited for deep space tracking work: its design was, in fact, adapted by NASA for the 64-metre dishes of the Deep Space Network. From Mariner II in 1962 until today, the Parkes Radio Telescope has been contracted by NASA on many occasions to support interplanetary spacecraft, as well as the Apollo lunar missions. This paper will outline the role played by both the Parkes Radio Telescope and the NASA facilities based in Australia in the exploration of the Solar System between 1960 and 1976, when the Viking missions landed on Mars. It will outline the establishment and operation of the Deep Space Network

  1. Instrument Performance of GISMO, a 2 Millimeter TES Bolometer Camera used at the IRAM 30 m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007 we demonstrated a monolithic Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) 8x16 array in the field using our 2 mm wavelength imager GISMO (Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer) at the IRAM 30 m telescope in Spain for astronomical observations. The 2 mm spectral range provides a unique terrestrial window enabling ground-based observations of the earliest active dusty galaxies in the universe and thereby allowing a better constraint on the star formation rate in these objects. The optical design incorporates a 100 mm diameter silicon lens cooled to 4 K, which provides the required fast beam yielding 0.9 lambda/D pixels. With this spatial sampling, GISMO will be very efficient at detecting sources serendipitously in large sky surveys, while the capability for diffraction limited imaging is preserved. The camera provides significantly greater detection sensitivity and mapping speed at this wavelength than has previously been possible. The instrument will fill in the spectral energy distribution of high redshift galaxies at the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust emission spectrum, even at the highest redshifts. Here1 will we present early results from our observing run with the first fielded BUG bolometer array. We have developed key technologies to enable highly versatile, kilopixel, infrared through millimeter wavelength bolometer arrays. The Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) array consists of three components: 1) a transition-edge-sensor (TES) based bolometer array with background-limited sensitivity and high filling factor, 2) a quarter-wave reflective backshort grid providing high optical efficiency, and 3) a superconducting bump-bonded large format Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. The array is described in more detail elsewhere (Allen et al., this conference). In November of 2007 we demonstrated a monolithic 8x 16 array with 2 mm-pitch detectors in the field using our 2 mm wavelength imager GISMO (Goddard IRAM

  2. Utilization of Satellite Dish Technology and its Application in Taping PeachStar Programming: A Survey of Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razza, Betsy L.

    Through lottery funding, all public schools in Georgia received satellite dish equipment. This study is an assessment of the use of the satellite dish equipment by library media specialists in the DeKalb County School System for taping PeachStar (the satellite channel of Georgia Public Broadcasting) programming. The purpose was four-fold: (1) to…

  3. Performance of the Vanguard Solar Dish-Stirling Engine Module. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Droher, J.J.; Squier, S.E.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes information on the performance of the Vanguard Parabolic Dish/Stirling Engine Module during an 18-month period of operational testing (February 1984 through July 1985) at Rancho Mirage, California. The test module consisted of a 10.7-m-diameter parabolic dish to collect and concentrate solar beam radiation, a solar receiver, a four-cylinder Stirling engine using hydrogen as the working gas, an induction generator, and an air-cooled radiator. Historical beam insolation data are summarized for the Palm Springs area. Gross and net output of electricity, auxiliary power requirements, system availability, and capacity factors are summarized on a monthly and annual basis. Models are presented for predicting electrical output. Operating and maintenance experience is delineated chronologically and by subsystem. The performance of each major subsystem is discussed. An assessment is made of the present and future status of the dish/Stirling system. Recommendations are made for future developmental work involving dish/Stirling applications for the utility industry.

  4. THE MICROGARDENING COOKBOOK, DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING DISHES AND TUBES OF STERILE NUTRIENT AGAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, MARION N.

    THIS BOOKLET WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHER USE IN ASSOCIATION WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT "MICROGARDENING." IT CONTAINS DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING CULTURE DISHES AND TUBES OF NUTRIENT STERILE AGAR FOR FUNGAL AND/OR BACTERIAL GROWTH. IT INCLUDES (1) LISTS OF NEEDED SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, (2) DIRECTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION AND STERILIZATION OF…

  5. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  6. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  7. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  8. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  9. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  10. Membrane dish analysis: A summary of structural and optical analysis capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.R.; Balch, C.D.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Wendelin, T.; Lewandowski, A.

    1991-11-01

    Research at SERI within the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program has focused on the development of membrane dish concentrators for space and terrestrial power applications. As potentially lightweight, inexpensive, high-performance structures, they are excellent candidates for space-deployable energy sources as well as cost-effective terrestrial energy concepts. A thorough engineering research treatment of these types of structures consists primarily of two parts: (1) structural mechanics of the membrane and ring support and (2) analysis and characterization of the concentrator optical performance. It is important to understand the effects of the membrane's structure and support system on the optical performance of the concentrator. This requires an interface between appropriate structural and optical models. Until recently, such models and the required interface have not existed. This report documents research that has been conducted at SERI in this area. It is a compilation of several papers describing structural models of membrane dish structures and optical models used to predict dish concentrator optical and thermal performance. The structural models were developed under SERI subcontract by Dr. Steele and Dr. Balch of Stanford University. The optical model was developed in-house by SERI staff. In addition, the interface between the models is described. It allows easy and thorough characterization of membrane dish systems from the mechanics to the resulting optical performance. The models described herein have been and continue to be extremely useful to SERI, industry, and universities involved with the modeling and analysis of lightweight membrane concentrators for solar thermal applications.

  11. Modelling dishes and exploring culinary 'precisions': the two issues of molecular gastronomy.

    PubMed

    This, Hervé

    2005-04-01

    The scientific strategy of molecular gastronomy includes modelling 'culinary definitions' and experimental explorations of 'culinary precisions'. A formalism that describes complex dispersed systems leads to a physical classification of classical sauces, as well as to the invention of an infinite number of new dishes.

  12. Microscale Chemistry in a Plastic Petri Dish: Preparation and Chemical Properties of Chlorine Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Martin M. F.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates some of the chemistry of chlorine on a microscale about the size of a water droplet. Chlorine gas was prepared from an acidified bleach solution in a plastic petri dish. Provides suitable hands-on experience for students at the secondary-school level. (MM)

  13. Facet development for a faceted stretched-membrane dish by SAIC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The concept for a multi-facet stretched-membrane dish concentrator could reduce the cost and weight of solar thermal dish systems. A stretched-membrane mirror facet for such a multi-facet solar dish concentrator has been developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). Twelve of the 3.7-m diameter facets will be used to form a 115-m{sup 2} dish concentrator, providing 75 kW{sub th} to operate a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine for electric power production. The facet SAIC designed is focused using a vacuum system to elastically deform the thin (0.003-inch thick) stainless steel facet membranes. Elastic focusing was chosen over plastically deforming the membrane to a parabolic shape because it results in a simple manufacturing process. The SAIC facet can be focused from infinity to a minimum focal length-to-diameter ratio of about 2.7. Analytical design studies and experimental tests were performed to evaluate stresses in the ring and membranes during operation, the effects of strain cycling on the reflective surface, and to measure the optical quality of the mirror facets. SAIC produced two prototype mirror facets and they were optically tested at the Solar Energy Research Institute and at Sandia National Laboratories. The first facet showed slope errors ranging from 2.95 to 3.3 mrad over the f/d range of 2.7 to 3.0.

  14. Healthier side dishes at restaurants: an analysis of children’s perspectives, menu content, and energy impacts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children consume restaurant-prepared foods at high rates, suggesting that interventions and policies targeting consumption of these foods have the potential to improve diet quality and attenuate excess energy intake. One approach to encouraging healthier dietary intake in restaurants is to offer fruits and vegetables (FV) as side dishes, as opposed to traditional, energy-dense accompaniments like French fries. The aims of the current study were to examine: children's views about healthier side dishes at restaurants; current side dish offerings on children's menus at leading restaurants; and potential energy reductions when substituting FV side dishes in place of French fries. Methods To investigate children’s attitudes, a survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of U.S. 8- to 18-year-olds (n = 1178). To examine current side dish offerings, children's menus from leading quick service (QSR; n = 10) and full service restaurant chains (FSR; n = 10) were analyzed. Energy reductions that could result from substituting commonly-offered FV side dishes for French fries were estimated using nutrition information corresponding to the children's menu items. Results Two-thirds of children reported that they would not feel negatively about receiving FV sides instead of French fries with kids' meals. Liking/taste was the most common reason that children gave to explain their attitudes about FV side dishes. Nearly all restaurants offered at least 1 FV side dish option, but at most restaurants (60% of QSR; 70% of FSR), FV sides were never served by default. Substituting FV side dishes for French fries yielded an average estimated energy reduction of at least 170 calories. Conclusions Results highlight some healthy trends in the restaurant context, including the majority of children reporting non-negative attitudes about FV side dishes and the consistent availability of FV side dish options at leading QSR and FSR. Yet the minority of

  15. Nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Ponka, Roger; Fokou, Elie; Beaucher, Eric; Piot, Michel; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Cameroon. The research study was conducted to determine nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes. These dishes were Ekomba, prepared from maize flour with roasted peanuts paste; Ekwang, prepared from crushed cocoyam tubers and cocoyam leaves; Tenue militaire, prepared from dried maize flour and cocoyam leaves and Koki, prepared from dried crushed cowpea seeds. The samples were subjected to proximate, minerals, carotenoids, and amino acids analyses. Results showed that the protein content ranged between 1.4 and 5.4 g/100 g edible portion. The mineral content expressed in mg/100 g edible portion ranged between 13.4 and 38.9 (calcium), 12.9-30.7 (magnesium), 336.2-567.9 (sodium), 63.3-182.7 (potassium), 0.5-1.5 (iron), 0.3-1.1 (zinc), 0.1-0.2 (copper), and 0.3-0.4 (manganese). Vitamin A activity content ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 mg Retinol Activity Equivalents/100 g edible portion. Consumption of each dish (100 g) (Ekwang, Tenue militaire, and Koki) by children aged 1-2 years would meet more than 100% of their daily recommended intake for vitamin A. Except in Ekomba, essential amino acids in all dishes represented up to 33% of total amino acids, indicating a good equilibrium between amino acids. This up-to-date appropriate information will contribute for the calculation of accurate energy and nutrient intakes, and can be used to encourage the consumption of these dishes. PMID:27625773

  16. Nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes.

    PubMed

    Ponka, Roger; Fokou, Elie; Beaucher, Eric; Piot, Michel; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Cameroon. The research study was conducted to determine nutrient content of some Cameroonian traditional dishes and their potential contribution to dietary reference intakes. These dishes were Ekomba, prepared from maize flour with roasted peanuts paste; Ekwang, prepared from crushed cocoyam tubers and cocoyam leaves; Tenue militaire, prepared from dried maize flour and cocoyam leaves and Koki, prepared from dried crushed cowpea seeds. The samples were subjected to proximate, minerals, carotenoids, and amino acids analyses. Results showed that the protein content ranged between 1.4 and 5.4 g/100 g edible portion. The mineral content expressed in mg/100 g edible portion ranged between 13.4 and 38.9 (calcium), 12.9-30.7 (magnesium), 336.2-567.9 (sodium), 63.3-182.7 (potassium), 0.5-1.5 (iron), 0.3-1.1 (zinc), 0.1-0.2 (copper), and 0.3-0.4 (manganese). Vitamin A activity content ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 mg Retinol Activity Equivalents/100 g edible portion. Consumption of each dish (100 g) (Ekwang, Tenue militaire, and Koki) by children aged 1-2 years would meet more than 100% of their daily recommended intake for vitamin A. Except in Ekomba, essential amino acids in all dishes represented up to 33% of total amino acids, indicating a good equilibrium between amino acids. This up-to-date appropriate information will contribute for the calculation of accurate energy and nutrient intakes, and can be used to encourage the consumption of these dishes.

  17. 20 and 30 m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, James Roger P.; Burge, James H.; Codona, Johanan L.; Davison, Warren B.; Martin, Buddy

    2003-01-01

    Any future giant ground-based telescope must, at a minimum, provide foci for seeing-limited imaging over a wide field and for diffraction-limited imaging over ~1 arcminute fields corrected by adaptive optics (AO). While this is possible with a number of design concepts, our choices are constrained if we anticipate wanting to later add a second telescope for imaging with still higher resolution, and very high contrast imaging for exoplanet studies. This paper explores designs that allow for such future development. Higher resolution imaging by interferometric combination of the AO-corrected fields of two telescopes is possible without loss of point-source sensitivity or field of view, as long as the baseline can be held perpendicular to the source and can be varied in length. This requirement is made practical even for very large telescopes, provided both can move continuously on a circular track. The 20/20 telescope illustrates this concept. Telescopes so mounted can additionally be operated as Bracewell nulling interferometers with low thermal background, making possible the thermal detection of planets that would have been unresolvable by a sin-gle 20 m aperture. In practice, limits set by funding and engineering experience will likely require a single 20 or 30 m telescope be built first. This would be on a conventional alt-az mount, but it should be at a site with enough room for later addition of a companion and track. In anticipation of future motion it should be compact and stiff, with a fast primary focal ratio. We envisage the use of large, highly aspheric, off-axis segments, manufactured using the figuring methods for strong aspherics already proven for 8 m class primaries. A compact giant telescope built under these guidelines should be able to perform well on its own for a broad range of astronomical observations, with good resistance to wind buffeting and simple alignment and control of its few, large segments. We compare here configurations with

  18. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER

  19. Development of a dish-based, semi-quantitative FFQ for the Korean diet and cancer research using a database approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Kim, Dong Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee; Joung, Hyojee; Song, Won O; Paik, Hee Young

    2011-04-01

    We used a database approach in developing a dish-based, semi-quantitative FFQ for Korean diet and cancer research. Cancer-related dietary factors (CRDF) recognised in the scientific community and dietary intake data from the 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the 2002 Korean National Nutrition Survey by Season were used. The list of dishes (n 993) was those reported to be consumed by individuals over 30 years of age during all four seasons. The resulting 112-dish list was selected using contribution analyses and variability analyses to detect between-person variation for CRDF and non-CRDF nutrients. Variations of each dish were grouped into one dish for the final list of 112 dishes, which were then linked to the nutrient database. The final 112 dish items consisted of nine Korean staple dishes, including rice and noodles, twenty-five soups and stews, fifty-four side dishes, nine beverages, nine fruit dishes and six alcoholic beverages. The percentage coverages of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol intake in the selected 112 dishes were 82·4, 76·4, 68·9, 86·0 and 99·8 %, respectively. Dietary exposure to cancer-related Korean dietary factors can be assessed by this new dish-based, semi-quantitative FFQ. This new instrument can calculate the intake of CRDF along with non-CRDF nutrient intake for cancer research. PMID:21092384

  20. Autonomous Pattern Formation of Micro-organic Cell Density with Optical Interlink between Two Isolated Culture Dishes.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kazunari; Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon; Hara, Masahiko; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-01-01

    Artificial linking of two isolated culture dishes is a fascinating means of investigating interactions among multiple groups of microbes or fungi. We examined artificial interaction between two isolated dishes containing Euglena cells, which are photophobic to strong blue light. The spatial distribution of swimming Euglena cells in two micro-aquariums in the dishes was evaluated as a set of new measures: the trace momentums (TMs). The blue light patterns next irradiated onto each dish were deduced from the set of TMs using digital or analogue feedback algorithms. In the digital feedback experiment, one of two different pattern-formation rules was imposed on each feedback system. The resultant cell distribution patterns satisfied the two rules with an and operation, showing that cooperative interaction was realized in the interlink feedback. In the analogue experiment, two dishes A and B were interlinked by a feedback algorithm that illuminated dish A (B) with blue light of intensity proportional to the cell distribution in dish B (A). In this case, a distribution pattern and its reverse were autonomously formed in the two dishes. The autonomous formation of a pair of reversal patterns reflects a type of habitat separation realized by competitive interaction through the interlink feedback. According to this study, interlink feedback between two or more separate culture dishes enables artificial interactions between isolated microbial groups, and autonomous cellular distribution patterns will be achieved by correlating various microbial species, despite environmental and spatial scale incompatibilities. The optical interlink feedback is also useful for enhancing the performance of Euglena-based soft biocomputing. PMID:25622016

  1. In vitro exposure: Linear and non-linear thermodynamic events in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paffi, Alessandra; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca; Sheppard, Asher; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-10-01

    We conducted an electromagnetic-thermal analysis of Petri dishes filled with different medium volumes under different radio frequency exposure conditions with the aim of identifying linear and non-linear parameters that might explain contradictory results of many in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments. We found that power loss density and temperature depend on shape, size, and orientation of the exposed sample with respect to direction of incident energy, showing that the liquid medium acts as a receiving antenna. In addition, we investigated the possibility of convection from thermodynamic principles within the liquid medium. For a 35 mm diameter Petri dish, a 2 or 4 ml medium volume is too small to support vertical convection. Conversely, horizontal convective motion is possible for H-polarization exposures at 1.8 GHz. PMID:25995097

  2. The CPG 5-kWe dish-Stirling development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Diver, R. B.

    Through a program sponsored by the DOE, Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) and Sandia National Laboratories have entered into a joint venture to develop and commercialize economically competitive dish-Stirling systems for remote power applications. The $14 million Dish-Stirling Joint Venture Program (JVP) is being conducted in three phases over a 3 1/2-year period in accordance with the Cummins Total Quality System for new product development. Sixteen systems representing three generations of technology will be fielded and tested. Following completion of the program, CPG's commercialization effort will continue with limited production expected to start about 1995. In this paper, the program plan and technical approach for the JVP is presented. A technical description and current status of the key components and discussions of the key technical issues are also provided.

  3. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Zhengrong; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Yan; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G + C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370. PMID:26981386

  4. Optical design and optimization of parabolic dish solar concentrator with a cavity hybrid receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blázquez, R.; Carballo, J.; Silva, M.

    2016-05-01

    One of the main goals of the BIOSTIRLING-4SKA project, funded by the European Commission, is the development of a hybrid Dish-Stirling system based on a hybrid solar-gas receiver, which has been designed by the Swedish company Cleanergy. A ray tracing study, which is part of the design of this parabolic dish system, is presented in this paper. The study pursues the optimization of the concentrator and receiver cavity geometry according to the requirements of flux distribution on the receiver walls set by the designer of the hybrid receiver. The ray-tracing analysis has been performed with the open source software Tonatiuh, a ray-tracing tool specifically oriented to the modeling of solar concentrators.

  5. In vitro exposure: Linear and non-linear thermodynamic events in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paffi, Alessandra; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca; Sheppard, Asher; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-10-01

    We conducted an electromagnetic-thermal analysis of Petri dishes filled with different medium volumes under different radio frequency exposure conditions with the aim of identifying linear and non-linear parameters that might explain contradictory results of many in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments. We found that power loss density and temperature depend on shape, size, and orientation of the exposed sample with respect to direction of incident energy, showing that the liquid medium acts as a receiving antenna. In addition, we investigated the possibility of convection from thermodynamic principles within the liquid medium. For a 35 mm diameter Petri dish, a 2 or 4 ml medium volume is too small to support vertical convection. Conversely, horizontal convective motion is possible for H-polarization exposures at 1.8 GHz.

  6. Membrane dish analysis: A summary of structural and optical analysis capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.R.; Balch, C.D.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Wendelin, T.; Lewandowski, A.

    1991-11-01

    Research at SERI within the Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Technology Program has focused on the development of membrane dish concentrators for space and terrestrial power applications. As potentially lightweight, inexpensive, high-performance structures, they are excellent candidates for space-deployable energy sources as well as cost-effective terrestrial energy concepts. A thorough engineering research treatment of these types of structures consists primarily of two parts: (1) structural mechanics of the membrane and ring support and (2) analysis and characterization of the concentrator optical performance. It is important to understand the effects of the membrane`s structure and support system on the optical performance of the concentrator. This requires an interface between appropriate structural and optical models. Until recently, such models and the required interface have not existed. This report documents research that has been conducted at SERI in this area. It is a compilation of several papers describing structural models of membrane dish structures and optical models used to predict dish concentrator optical and thermal performance. The structural models were developed under SERI subcontract by Dr. Steele and Dr. Balch of Stanford University. The optical model was developed in-house by SERI staff. In addition, the interface between the models is described. It allows easy and thorough characterization of membrane dish systems from the mechanics to the resulting optical performance. The models described herein have been and continue to be extremely useful to SERI, industry, and universities involved with the modeling and analysis of lightweight membrane concentrators for solar thermal applications.

  7. Modeling the small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Willem G.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    The small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle (STBC) makes use of a sun-tracking dish reflector, solar receiver, recuperator and micro-turbine to generate power in the range of 1-20 kW. The modeling of such a system, using a turbocharger as micro-turbine, is required so that optimisation and further development of an experimental setup can be done. As a validation, an analytical model of the small-scale STBC in Matlab, where the net power output is determined from an exergy analysis, is compared with Flownex, an integrated systems CFD code. A 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish with open-cavity tubular receiver and plate-type counterflow recuperator is considered, based on previous work. A dish optical error of 10 mrad, a tracking error of 1° and a receiver aperture area of 0.25 m × 0.25 m are considered. Since the recuperator operates at a very high average temperature, the recuperator is modeled using an updated ɛ-NTU method which takes heat loss to the environment into consideration. Compressor and turbine maps from standard off-the-shelf Garrett turbochargers are used. The results show that for the calculation of the steady-state temperatures and pressures, there is good comparison between the Matlab and Flownex results (within 8%) except for the recuperator outlet temperature, which is due to the use of different ɛ-NTU methods. With the use of Matlab and Flownex, it is shown that the small-scale open STBC with an existing off-the-shelf turbocharger could generate a positive net power output with solar-to-mechanical efficiency of up to 12%, with much room for improvement.

  8. Spaceflight hardware allowing unilateral irradiation and chemical fixation in petri dishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, V. D.; Sack, F. D.; White, N. J.; Anderson, K.; Wells, W.; Martin, C.

    1999-01-01

    To accommodate a spaceflight experiment with moss (SPM), experiment-unique equipment (EUE) was developed by engineers at Kennedy Space Center. The hardware allows sterile culture for an extended period of time in commercial petri dishes, lateral illumination of each culture with light of a specific wavelength (660 nm; other wavelengths are possible) and a range of intensities (0.05-5 μMol photons m-2s-1), incubation in complete darkness, and chemical fixation to terminate the experiment under conditions of microgravity. The use of a fixative required triple containment to protect the astronaut crew. An external panel on the experiment container allowed the timing of illumination and fixation to be controlled by the crew. Light quality is provided by light emitting diodes (LEDs) that are located in the lid of the outer container, the BRIC (Biological Research In Canisters)-LED. Each canister accommodates 6 Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs), and each PDFU holds one 6 cm petri dish. All components are autoclavable. LED illumination is piped through a transparent glass rod. Each PDFU contains fixative in a reservoir that is released by the depression of an actuator. This hardware performed well during its first flight, the 16-day STS-87 mission in Nov./Dec., 1997 as part of the Collaborative USA and Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). It supported vigorous and sterile moss growth, cells were maintained in position and were well-fixed, and there was a vigorous and consistent response to light. Although here used for moss, in future flight experiments this unique new hardware can be used for many types of organisms normally grown in petri dishes, with or without a requirement for illumination.

  9. Testing of the prototype facets for the stretched-membrane faceted dish

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, J.W.; Houser, R.M.; Erdman, W.W.

    1991-12-01

    The Faceted Stretched-Membrane Dish Program is part of a DOE-sponsored effort to develop a commercial 25 kWe dish/Stirling system employing a twelve-facet dish concentrator. The facets will utilize the stretched-membrane technology originated in the heliostat development program. Each facet is constructed with a thin metal membrane stretched over both sides of a steel ring. When a small vacuum is induced between the membranes they assume a parabolic contour capable of concentrating sunlight at a predetermined focal length. A reflective polymer film is attached to the face of the facet of the facet to enhance the optical performance. During Phase II of the Faceted Stretched-Membrane Dish Program, Science Applications International Corp. and Solar Kinetics, Inc., constructed prototype 3.5-meter facets utilizing different design approaches to demonstrate their manufacturability and optical performance. Sandia engaged in a program to determine the on-sun performance of the facets (for f/Ds of 2.7 to 3.0). A uniformly distributed slope error was used as the basis for comparison. Flux arrays based on slope error from a computer model were compared to a measured flux array for each facet. The slope error for the facet was determined by the value that would produce a modeled array with the minimum mean square difference to the measured array. The facet produced by SAIC demonstrated uniform slope errors of 2.2 to 3.0 milliradians with peak flux intesities of 334 to 416 kW/m{sup 2}. The SKI facet had slope errors of 1.6 to 1.9 milliradians with peak flux intesities of 543 to 1186 kW/m{sup 2}.

  10. Nutritional value of traditional Italian meat-based dishes: influence of cooking methods and recipe formulation.

    PubMed

    D'Evoli, L; Salvatore, P; Lucarini, M; Nicoli, S; Aguzzi, A; Gabrielli, P; Lombardi-Boccia, G

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a picture of the compositional figure and nutritive value of meat-based dishes typical of Italian culinary tradition. Recipes specific for a bovine meat cut (top-side) were selected among the most widespread ones in Italy: in pan, pizzaiola, cutlet, meat ball, and escalope. The total fat and cholesterol content varied depending on the ingredients utilized (extra-virgin olive oil, parmesan, egg). Meat-based dishes that utilized extra-virgin olive oil showed a significant reduction in palmitic and stearic acids and a parallel increase in oleic acid compared with raw meat; furthermore, the ratio among saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids shifted in favour of monounsaturated fatty acids. B vitamins were affected at different extent by heating; by contrast, vitamin E content increased because of the new sources of this vitamin, which masked losses due to heating. Ingredients (parmesan, discretionary salt) induced significant increases in the calcium and sodium concentrations compared with raw meat. The total iron content did not show marked differences in most of the meat-based dishes compared with raw meat; by contrast, losses in the heme-iron concentration were detected depending on the severity of heating treatments. Our findings suggest that heme iron, because of its important health aspects, might be a useful index of the nutritional quality of cooked meats.

  11. Sky reconstruction from transit visibilities: PAON-4 and Tianlai dish array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao; Ansari, Reza; Chen, Xuelei; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Magneville, Christophe; Wu, Fengquan

    2016-09-01

    The spherical harmonics m-mode decomposition is a powerful sky map reconstruction method suitable for radio interferometers operating in transit mode. It can be applied to various configurations, including dish arrays and cylinders. We describe the computation of the instrument response function, the point spread function, transfer function, the noise covariance matrix and noise power spectrum. The analysis in this paper is focused on dish arrays operating in transit mode. We show that arrays with regular spacing have more pronounced side lobes as well as structures in their noise power spectrum, compared to arrays with irregular spacing, specially in the north-south direction. A good knowledge of the noise power spectrum Cnoise(ℓ) is essential for intensity mapping experiments as non-uniform Cnoise(ℓ) is a potential problem for the measurement of the H I power spectrum. Different configurations have been studied to optimize the PAON-4 and Tianlai dish array layouts. We present their expected performance and their sensitivities to the 21-cm emission of the Milky Way and local extragalactic H I clumps.

  12. Method of manufacturing large dish reflectors for a solar concentrator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Angel, Roger P; Olbert, Blain H

    2011-12-27

    A method of manufacturing monolithic glass reflectors for concentrating sunlight in a solar energy system is disclosed. The method of manufacturing allows large monolithic glass reflectors to be made from float glass in order to realize significant cost savings on the total system cost for a solar energy system. The method of manufacture includes steps of heating a sheet of float glass positioned over a concave mold until the sheet of glass sags and stretches to conform to the shape of the mold. The edges of the dish-shaped glass are rolled for structural stiffening around the periphery. The dish-shaped glass is then silvered to create a dish-shaped mirror that reflects solar radiation to a focus. The surface of the mold that contacts the float glass preferably has a grooved surface profile comprising a plurality of cusps and concave valleys. This grooved profile minimizes the contact area and marring of the specular glass surface, reduces parasitic heat transfer into the mold and increases mold lifetime. The disclosed method of manufacture is capable of high production rates sufficiently fast to accommodate the output of a conventional float glass production line so that monolithic glass reflectors can be produced as quickly as a float glass production can make sheets of float glass to be used in the process.

  13. Carotenoids retention and in vitro iron bioavailability of traditional cowpea leaf dishes of rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mduma, I; Msuya, J; Mwanri, A W; Yang, R Y

    2012-05-01

    Food preparation methods play a role in micronutrient retention and ultimately intake. Analyses for carotenoids retention and in vitro iron bioavailability of five cowpea leaf dishes prepared according to the traditional methods of rural Tanzania were carried out. All the five dishes are commonly eaten as relishes for staple meals of maize or rice. Laboratory analyses were carried out at the Nutrition Laboratory of the World Vegetable Centre in Taiwan. Carotenoids were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography while iron bioavailability was analysed by an in vitro method. Results showed that traditional cowpea leaf dish consisting of sunflower oil, onion, tomatoes and coconut milk cooked for 30 min had the highest retention of β-carotene (40.83 ± 7.00%) and lutein (34.60 ± 3.30%) compared to other traditional recipes (p < 0.05). The highest iron bioavailability (10.04 ± 0.49%) was observed in the traditional recipe which involved boiling fresh cowpea leaves for 15 min. Although recipe variation can affect carotenoids retention and iron bioavailability, simple practices such as reduced cooking time and avoiding direct sun drying also need to be promoted. PMID:21942714

  14. Combining ray tracing and CFD in the thermal analysis of a parabolic dish tubular cavity receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Ken J.; Marsberg, Justin; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the numerical evaluation of a tubular receiver used in a dish Brayton cycle. In previous work considering the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to perform the calculation of the absorbed radiation from the parabolic dish into the cavity as well as the resulting conjugate heat transfer, it was shown that an axi-symmetric model of the dish and receiver absorbing surfaces was useful in reducing the computational cost required for a full 3-D discrete ordinates solution, but concerns remained about its accuracy. To increase the accuracy, the Monte Carlo ray tracer SolTrace is used to perform the calculation of the absorbed radiation profile to be used in the conjugate heat transfer CFD simulation. The paper describes an approach for incorporating a complex geometry like a tubular receiver generated using CFD software into SolTrace. The results illustrate the variation of CFD mesh density that translates into the number of elements in SolTrace as well as the number of rays used in the Monte Carlo approach and their effect on obtaining a resolution-independent solution. The conjugate heat transfer CFD simulation illustrates the effect of applying the SolTrace surface heat flux profile solution as a volumetric heat source to heat up the air inside the tube. Heat losses due to convection and thermal re-radiation are also determined as a function of different tube absorptivities.

  15. Pork in good company? Exploratory analysis of side dishes, beverages, foodscapes and individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2156) in five European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland). Males were found to combine pork more with caloric drinking (odds ratio=1.32) and low levels of vegetable intake (odds ratio=1.32) compared to females. Younger consumers were more likely to combine pork with low levels of vegetable intake but less likely to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks (odds ratio=1.30) as side dishes to pork meat. Substantial cross-cultural differences were revealed in line with typical pork consumption and meal composition habits in the respective countries. Finally, this study found that the company of family plays a significant role when choosing side dishes for pork as meal center, thus constituting a relevant venue for the positioning and marketing of pork, as well as for future public health information about meals with pork as main meal component. PMID:23562715

  16. Modal Analysis and Surface Metrology of the RRI 12m Preloaded Parabolic Dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraichelvan, R.; Modgekar, M. L.; Ateequlla, C. M.; Shankar, N. Udaya

    2005-09-01

    Conventional antennas all over the world have massive back-up structures since they have to withstand very high wind loads and thermal loads for useful operation. A 12m radio telescope adapting an innovative design based on the preloading concept has been fabricated at the Raman Research Institute. The salient features of this dish are (i) it has got a low mass backup structure and (ii) it can be easily assembled and maintained. The poster presented describes the modal analysis and the surface metrology conducted on the dish. The modal analysis is a method to determine the structure's dynamic characteristics like resonant frequencies, damping value and their corresponding pattern of the structural deformation (Mode shapes). These are experimentally determined with the help of impact hammer and modal shaker. The experimentally determined value of resonant frequency is 2.15 Hz as against the analytically estimate value of 2.05 Hz using the NASTRAN FEM software. The rms surface inaccuracy is measured to be 2.3 mm. If 1/16 is taken as the upper limit for the surface inaccuracy, the dish is expected to operated up to a maximum frequency of 8 GHz.

  17. Pork in good company? Exploratory analysis of side dishes, beverages, foodscapes and individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2156) in five European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland). Males were found to combine pork more with caloric drinking (odds ratio=1.32) and low levels of vegetable intake (odds ratio=1.32) compared to females. Younger consumers were more likely to combine pork with low levels of vegetable intake but less likely to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks (odds ratio=1.30) as side dishes to pork meat. Substantial cross-cultural differences were revealed in line with typical pork consumption and meal composition habits in the respective countries. Finally, this study found that the company of family plays a significant role when choosing side dishes for pork as meal center, thus constituting a relevant venue for the positioning and marketing of pork, as well as for future public health information about meals with pork as main meal component.

  18. Mount for continuously orienting a collector dish in a system adapted to perform both diurnal and seasonal solar tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.; Lawson, B. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A collector dish is continuously oriented toward the sun in a system adapted to perform both diurnal and seasonal solar tracking. The mount is characterized by a rigid, angulated axle having a linear midportion supporting a collector dish, and oppositely extended end portions normally related to the midportion of the axle and received in spaced journals. The longitudinal axis of symmetry for the midportion of the axle is coincident with a seasonal axis while the axes of the journals are coincident with a diurnal axis paralleling the earth's polar axis. Drive means are provided for periodically displacing the axle about the diurnal axis at a substantially constant rate, while other drive means are provided for periodically indexing the dish through 1 deg about the seasonal axis whereby the position of the dish relative to the axle is varied for accommodating seasonal tracking as changes in the angle of inclination of the polar axis occurs.

  19. Deployment of a Secondary Concentrator to Increase the Intercept Factor of a Dish with Large Slope Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortabasi, U.; Gray, E.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The testing of a hyperbolic trumpet non-imaging secondary concentrator with a parabolic dish having slope errors of about 10 mrad is reported. The trumpet, which has a concentration ratio of 2.1, increased the flux through a 141-mm focal aperture by 72%, with an efficiency of 96%, thus demonstrating its potential for use in tandem with cheap dishes having relatively large slope errors.

  20. Phage-mediated counting by the naked eye of miRNA molecules at attomolar concentrations in a Petri dish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Ye; Lu, Wuguang; Gu, Ning; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-01

    The ability to count biomolecules such as cancer-biomarker miRNAs with the naked eye is seemingly impossible in molecular diagnostics. Here, we show an ultrasensitive naked-eye-counting strategy for quantifying miRNAs by employing T7 phage-a bacteria-specific virus nanoparticle-as a surrogate. The phage is genetically engineered to become fluorescent and capable of binding a miRNA-capturing gold nanoparticle (GNP) in a one-to-one manner. Target miRNAs crosslink the resultant phage-GNP couple and miRNA-capturing magnetic microparticles, forming a sandwich complex containing equimolar phage and miRNA. The phage is then released from the complex and developed into one macroscopic fluorescent plaque in a Petri dish by plating it in a host bacterial medium. Counting the plaques by the naked eye enables the quantification of miRNAs with detection limits of ∼3 and ∼5 aM for single-target and two-target miRNAs, respectively. This approach offers ultrasensitive and convenient quantification of disease biomarkers by the naked eye.

  1. Phage-mediated counting by the naked eye of miRNA molecules at attomolar concentrations in a Petri dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Ye; Lu, Wuguang; Gu, Ning; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-01

    The ability to count biomolecules such as cancer-biomarker miRNAs with the naked eye is seemingly impossible in molecular diagnostics. Here, we show an ultrasensitive naked-eye-counting strategy for quantifying miRNAs by employing T7 phage--a bacteria-specific virus nanoparticle--as a surrogate. The phage is genetically engineered to become fluorescent and capable of binding a miRNA-capturing gold nanoparticle (GNP) in a one-to-one manner. Target miRNAs crosslink the resultant phage-GNP couple and miRNA-capturing magnetic microparticles, forming a sandwich complex containing equimolar phage and miRNA. The phage is then released from the complex and developed into one macroscopic fluorescent plaque in a Petri dish by plating it in a host bacterial medium. Counting the plaques by the naked eye enables the quantification of miRNAs with detection limits of ~3 and ~5 aM for single-target and two-target miRNAs, respectively. This approach offers ultrasensitive and convenient quantification of disease biomarkers by the naked eye.

  2. Phage-mediated counting by the naked eye of miRNA molecules at attomolar concentrations in a Petri dish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Ye; Lu, Wuguang; Gu, Ning; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-01

    The ability to count biomolecules such as cancer-biomarker miRNAs with the naked eye is seemingly impossible in molecular diagnostics. Here, we show an ultrasensitive naked-eye-counting strategy for quantifying miRNAs by employing T7 phage-a bacteria-specific virus nanoparticle-as a surrogate. The phage is genetically engineered to become fluorescent and capable of binding a miRNA-capturing gold nanoparticle (GNP) in a one-to-one manner. Target miRNAs crosslink the resultant phage-GNP couple and miRNA-capturing magnetic microparticles, forming a sandwich complex containing equimolar phage and miRNA. The phage is then released from the complex and developed into one macroscopic fluorescent plaque in a Petri dish by plating it in a host bacterial medium. Counting the plaques by the naked eye enables the quantification of miRNAs with detection limits of ∼3 and ∼5 aM for single-target and two-target miRNAs, respectively. This approach offers ultrasensitive and convenient quantification of disease biomarkers by the naked eye. PMID:26280226

  3. Cryogenic design and test results of 30-m flexible hybrid energy transfer line with liquid hydrogen and superconducting MgB2 cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, V. V.; Blagov, E. V.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Firsov, V. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Svalov, G. G.; Rachuk, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present the development of a new hybrid energy transfer line with 30 m length. The line is essentially a flexible 30 m hydrogen cryostat that has three sections with different types of thermal insulation in each section: simple vacuum superinsulation, vacuum superinsulation with liquid nitrogen precooling and active evaporating cryostatting (AEC) system. We performed thermo-hydraulic tests of the cryostat to compare three thermo-insulating methods. The tests were made at temperatures from 20 to 26 K, hydrogen flow from 70 to 450 g/s and pressure from 0.25 to 0.5 MPa. It was found that AEC thermal insulation was the most effective in reducing heat transfer from room temperature to liquid hydrogen in ∼10 m section of the cryostat, indicating that it can be used for long superconducting power cables. High voltage current leads were developed as well. The current leads and superconducting MgB2 cable passed high voltage DC test up to 50 kV DC. Critical current of the cable at ∼21 K was 3500 A. It means that the 30 m hybrid energy system developed is able to deliver ∼50-60 MW of chemical power and ∼50-75 MW of electrical power, i.e. up to ∼135 MW in total.

  4. A study testing the usefulness of a dish-based food-frequency questionnaire developed for epidemiological studies in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sang-Ah; Yoon, Young Mi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the usefulness of dish items selected in developing a dish-based FFQ (DFFQ) to be used for epidemiological studies in Korea. The dietary data of 6817 subjects from the 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for the analysis. The 24 h recall method was employed for the dietary survey. Initially, ninety-five dish items were selected in developing the DFFQ based on consumption frequency, contribution of selected nutrients and coverage of between-person variations. The usefulness of the selected ninety-five dish items was tested based on their degree of contribution in supplying nutrients in the cumulative percentage contribution (cPC), as well as on their degree of explanation for between-person variation in the cumulative regression coefficient (cMRC). According to the results, the ninety-five selected dish items accounted for an average of 92.3 % of seventeen nutrients consumed by the study subjects based on cPC estimation. The top twenty items among the ninety-five dish items covered 70 to 91 % of the between-person variation for the seventeen nutrients based on cMRC estimation. Thus, the results suggest that the ninety-five items would be useful in developing a FFQ for use in epidemiological studies of Koreans, within less than 10 % underestimation. PMID:18786277

  5. A new electrical and mechanically detonatable shear wave source for near surface (0-30 m) seismic acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, J. M.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Harris, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    We present a new, impulsive, horizontal shear source capable of performing long shot profiles in a time-efficient and repeatable manner. The new shear source is ground-coupled by eight 1/2″ (1.27 cm) × 2″ (5.08 cm) steel spikes. Blank shotshells (12-gauge) used as energy sources can be either mechanically or electrically detonated. Electrical fuses have a start time repeatability of < 50 μs. This source can be operated by a single individual, and takes only ~ 10 s between shots as opposed to ~ 30 s for six stacked hammer blows. To ensure complete safety, the shotshell holder is surrounded by a protective 6″ (15.24 cm)-thick barrel, a push-and-twist-locked breach, and a safety pin. We conducted field tests at the 17th Street Canal levee breach site in New Orleans, Louisiana (30.017° N 90.121° W) and at an instrumented test borehole at Millsaps College in Jackson, Mississippi (32.325° N 93.182° W) to compare our new source and a traditional hammer impact source. The new shear source produces a broader-band of frequencies (30-100 Hz cf. 30-60 Hz). Signal generated by the new shear source has signal-to-noise ratios equivalent to ~ 3 stacked hammer blows to the hammer impact source. Ideal source signals must be broadband in frequency, have a high SNR, be consistent, and have precise start times; all traits of the new shear source.

  6. Facet development for a faceted stretched-membrane dish by Solar Kinetics, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Schertz, P.T.; Brown, D.C.; Konnerth, A. III )

    1991-07-01

    A 3.6-meter diameter stretched-membrane optical facet for a parabolic dish has been successfully designed and demonstrated under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. Twelve facets identical to them will be used to make the lightweight reflector of the dish. The project goal of 2.5-mrad surface accuracy was met with each of the two full-sized prototypes, and accuracies of as low as 1.1 mrad were achieved. The facet weight is 11.7 kg/m{sup 2} (2.4lbs/ft{sup 2}). The facet is similar in construction to the successful stretched-membrane heliostat; it has two thin metal membranes attached to a ring. However, the front membrane for this facet is plastically formed at the factor in order to achieve a shorter facet f/D (approximately 3.0). A passive tether restrains the from membrane when not in operation, that is, when the stabilizing vacuum is off. The optical surface is achieved with a silvered-acrylic film laminated to the metal membrane. The facet is expected to cost $55.40/m{sup 2} at a production rate of 10,000 facets per year and $115, 000/m{sup 2}-at a production rate of 500 facets a year. Several key issues have been resolved. Stress concentrations due to seams in the reflective laminate did not cause membrane rupture during forming as they have for dishes with lower focal length-to-diameter ratios. The laminate survived the forming process and simulated operation without deterioration. The optical effect of the tether on the membrane was tested and found to be very small. Most important, highly accurate shapes were obtained using a simple forming procedure. Additional tests are needed to demonstrate process repeatablility and facet performance in typical operating conditions. 18 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Immobilization of sericin molecules via amorphous carbon plasma modified-polystyrene dish for serum-free culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunma, Somruthai; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kim, Si-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Han, Jeon-Geon; Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we focused on sericin hydrolysates, originating from silkworm used in serum-free human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) culture. We reported the effect of a covalent linkage between a bioactive protein molecule and polystyrene dish surface via a carbon intermediate layer which can slow down the release rate of protein compounds into the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. Films of amorphous carbon (a-C) and functionalized-carbon were deposited on PS culture dish surfaces by using a DC magnetron sputtering system and RF PECVD system. We found that a-C based-films can increase the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polystyrene (PS) dishes, especially a-C films and a-C:N2 films showed good attachment of hBM-MSCs at 24 h. However, in the case of silica surface (a-C:SiOx films), the cells showed a ragged and unattached boundary resulting from the presence of surface silanol groups. For the UV-vis absorbance, all carbon modified-PS dishes showed a lower release rate of sericin molecules into PBS solution than PS control. This revealed that the functionalized carbon could be enhanced by specific binding properties with given molecules. The carbon-coated PS dishes grafting with sericin protein were used in a serum-free condition. We also found that hBM-MSCs have higher percentage of proliferated cells at day 7 for the modified dishes with carbon films and coated with sericin than the PS control coated with sericin. The physical film properties were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle measurement. The presence of sbnd NH2 groups of sericin compounds on the PS dish was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The stability of covalent bonds of sericin molecules after washing out ungrafted sericin was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  8. Effects of doubling the portion size of fruit and vegetable side dishes on children's intake at a meal.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Kabay, April C; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2010-03-01

    Increasing the portion size of energy-dense entrées has been shown to increase children's energy intake during a meal. It remains to be investigated whether serving larger portions to children can be used to promote intake of more healthful foods, such as fruits and vegetables (F&V). The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of increasing the portion size of F&V side dishes on children's intake. Forty-three children (22 boys, 21 girls), aged 5-6 years, were served dinner once a week for 2 weeks. Each dinner consisted of pasta with tomato sauce, three F&V side dishes (broccoli, carrots, and applesauce), and milk. The portion size of the F&V was doubled between experimental conditions whereas the size of the pasta remained constant. Doubling the portion size of the side dishes resulted in a 43% increase in children's intake of the fruit side dish (P = 0.001), but did not affect children's intake of the two vegetable side dishes (P > 0.60). Further, when the portion size of F&V side dishes was doubled, children ate significantly less of the pasta (P = 0.04). The difference in meal energy intake between portion size conditions (19.5 +/- 16.3 kcal) was not significant (P = 0.24). Although more studies are needed to understand whether increases in portion size can influence vegetable intake, children did eat more in response to a large quantity of a preferred low energy-dense fruit side dish at meals. Thus variations in portion size can be used strategically to help children achieve the recommended intake of fruits.

  9. Heat and electricity from the sun using parabolic dish collector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates point focus distributed receiver (PFDR) solar thermal technology for the production of electric power and of industrial process heat. Attention is given to a thermal systems project conducted by JPL under DOE sponsorship. It is reported that project emphasis is on the development of cost-effective systems which will accelerate the commercialization and industrialization of plants up to 10 MWe, using parabolic dish collectors. Also discussed are the characteristics of PFDR systems, the cost targets for major systems hardware, and markets for this technology. Finally, the present system status of the technology development effort is discussed.

  10. The kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module was estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses were shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration was given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs were not considered here.

  11. Kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.M.

    1984-04-15

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module has been estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses have been shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration has been given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs have not been considered here.

  12. Floral acoustics: conspicuous echoes of a dish-shaped leaf attract bat pollinators.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ralph; Holderied, Marc W; Koch, Corinna U; von Helversen, Otto

    2011-07-29

    The visual splendor of many diurnal flowers serves to attract visually guided pollinators such as bees and birds, but it remains to be seen whether bat-pollinated flowers have evolved analogous echo-acoustic signals to lure their echolocating pollinators. Here, we demonstrate how an unusual dish-shaped leaf displayed above the inflorescences of the vine Marcgravia evenia attracts bat pollinators. Specifically, this leaf's echoes fulfilled requirements for an effective beacon, that is, they were strong, multidirectional, and had a recognizable invariant echo signature. In behavioral experiments, presence of the leaves halved foraging time for flower-visiting bats.

  13. Development of Global 30m Resolution Water Body Map with Permanent/Temporal Water Body Separation Using Satellite Acquired Images of Landsat GLS Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeshima, D.; Yamazaki, D.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    The specification of worldwide water body distribution is important for discovering hydrological cycle. Global 3-second Water Body Map (G3WBM) is a global scale map, which indicates the distribution of water body in 90m resolutions (http://hydro.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~yamadai/G3WBM/index.html). This dataset was mainly built to identify the width of river channels, which is one of major uncertainties of continental-scale river hydrodynamics models. To survey the true width of the river channel, this water body map distinguish Permanent Water Body from Temporary Water Body, which means separating river channel and flood plain. However, rivers with narrower width, which is a major case in usual river, could not be observed in this map. To overcome this problem, updating the algorithm of G3WBM and enhancing the resolutions to 30m is the goal of this research. Although this 30m-resolution water body map uses similar algorithm as G3WBM, there are many technical issues attributed to relatively high resolutions. Those are such as lack of same high-resolution digital elevation map, or contamination problem of sub-pixel scale object on satellite acquired image, or invisibility of well-vegetated water body such as swamp. To manage those issues, this research used more than 30,000 satellite images of Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS), and lately distributed topography data of Shuttle Rader Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-second (30m) digital elevation map. Also the effect of aerosol, which would scatter the sun reflectance and disturb the acquired result image, was considered. Due to these revises, the global water body distribution was established in more precise resolution.

  14. The Plateau de Bure + 30 m Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey Reveals a Thick Disk of Diffuse Molecular Gas in the M51 Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pety, Jérôme; Schinnerer, Eva; Leroy, Adam K.; Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon E.; Colombo, Dario; Dumas, Gaelle; García-Burillo, Santiago; Schuster, Karl F.; Kramer, Carsten; Dobbs, Clare L.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the data of the Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey, a high spatial and spectral resolution 12CO (1-0) line survey of the inner ~10 × 6 kpc of the M51 system, and the first wide-field imaging of molecular gas in a star-forming spiral galaxy with resolution matched to the typical size of giant molecular clouds (40 pc). We describe the observation, reduction, and combination of the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and IRAM-30 m "short spacing" data. The final data cube attains 1.''1 resolution over the ~270'' × 170'' field of view, with sensitivity to all spatial scales from the combination of PdBI and IRAM-30 m data, and a brightness sensitivity of 0.4 K (1σ) in each 5 km s-1-wide channel map. We find a CO luminosity of 9 × 108 K km s-1 pc2, corresponding to a molecular gas mass of 4 × 109 M ⊙ for a standard CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Unexpectedly, we find that a large fraction of this emission, (50 ± 10)%, arises mostly from spatial scales larger than 36'' ~= 1.3 kpc. Through a series of tests, we demonstrate that this extended emission does not result from a processing artifact. We discuss its origin in light of the stellar component, the 12CO/13CO ratio, and the difference between the kinematics and structure of the PdBI-only and hybrid synthesis (PdBI + IRAM-30 m) images. The extended emission is consistent with a thick, diffuse disk of molecular gas with a typical scale height of ~200 pc, substructured in unresolved filaments that fill ~0.1% of the volume.

  15. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  16. Petri dish PCR: laser-heated reactions in nanoliter droplet arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanyoup; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Faris, Gregory W

    2009-05-01

    We report high-speed real-time PCR performed on an unmodified disposable polystyrene Petri dish. The reaction cycle relies solely on an infrared laser for heating; no conventional heater is required. Nanoliter droplets of PCR mixture as water-in-oil emulsions printed in an array format served as individual PCR microreactors. A simple contact printing technique was developed to generate a large array of uniform sized nanoliter droplets using disposable pipette tips. Printed droplets showed variation of less than 10% in volume and the oil/water/polystyrene interface formed a compact droplet microreactor approximately spherical in shape. The uniform droplet array was used to optimize the laser power required for the two heating steps of PCR, annealing/extension and melting, while the ambient conditions were at room temperature. The optical heating allows for an extremely fast heating rate due to the selective absorption of the infrared laser by PCR buffer only and not the oil or polystyrene Petri dish, allowing completion of 40 amplification cycles in approximately 6 minutes. The quantitative assay capability of the system is also presented and discussed.

  17. The CPG 5-kW(e) Dish-Stirling Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Diver, R. B.

    Through a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have entered into a joint venture to develop and commercialize economically competitive dish-Stirling systems for remote power applications. CPG plans to commercialize 5-kW(sub e) systems that can be used in remote locations for water pumping and village electrification or connected to an existing utility grid. The $14 million Dish-Stirling Joint Venture Program (JVP) is being conducted in three phases over a 3 1/2-year period in accordance with the Cummins Total Quality System (TQS) for new product development. Sixteen systems representing three generations of technology will be fielded and tested. The JVP is being funded equally by CPG, including its industrial partners, and the DOE. Following completion of the program, CPG's commercialization effort will continue with limited production expected to start about 1995. In this paper, the program plan and technical approach for the JVP is presented. A technical description and current status of the key components and discussions of the key technical issues are also provided.

  18. Wind loads and local pressure distributions on parabolic dish solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterka, J. A.; Derickson, R. G.; Cermak, J. E.

    1990-05-01

    The research and development described in this document was conducted within the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program. The goal of this program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and the establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options for introduction into the competitive energy market. This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and collector drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on parabolic dish collectors. The tests investigated the mean and peak forces, moments and local pressure distributions. A significant increase in the understanding and prediction of peak parabolic dish wind loads and their reduction within a field was achieved.

  19. Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.

  20. Limitations of the use of plant material grown in Petri dishes for physiological experiments.

    PubMed

    Tari, I; Szabó, A

    1990-01-01

    Roots of plants growing "aeroponically" (AP) on moistened filter paper in Petri dishes for a few days are fairly often used for physiological experiments (e.g. measurement of root growth), for ion or herbicide uptake tests, before the establishment of hydroponic or aseptic cultures although their hormonal status is markedly different from that of the hydroponic (HP) control. On the 4th day of germination the ethylene production of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Budai csemege) roots growing in AP under controlled conditions increased considerably and exhibited a maximum curve, HP roots evolved ethylene much more constantly. The morphological changes in AP roots (e.g. inhibited elongation and swelling of primary roots, and increased formation of root hairs), resembling those caused by exogenously applied ethylene, can be prevented with 10(-5) M Ag+, an inhibitor of ethylene action. In roots of one-week-old AP seedlings, the amount of an acidic inhibitor, which as judged from the Rf values is likely to be abscisic acid (ABA), is about twice as high as in HP seedlings. An elevated ethylene or ABA level of AP roots may result in a reduced elongation of the primary roots. Counteraction of this inhibition by Ag+ suggests that the effect of ethylene is the primary event in the reduction of root length. When using plant material grown in Petri dishes the possibility of similar changes in hormonal status of the roots must be taken into consideration.

  1. Convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shuang-Ying; Xiao, Lan; Li, You-Rong; Cao, Yiding

    2010-08-15

    The convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system can significantly reduce the efficiency and consequently the cost effectiveness of the system. It is important to assess this heat loss and subsequently improve the thermal performance of the receiver. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review and systematic summarization of the state of the art in the research and progress in this area. The efforts include the convection heat loss mechanism, experimental and numerical investigations on the cavity receivers with varied shapes that have been considered up to date, and the Nusselt number correlations developed for convection heat loss prediction as well as the wind effect. One of the most important features of this paper is that it has covered numerous cavity literatures encountered in various other engineering systems, such as those in electronic cooling devices and buildings. The studies related to those applications may provide valuable information for the solar receiver design, which may otherwise be ignored by a solar system designer. Finally, future development directions and the issues that need to be further investigated are also suggested. It is believed that this comprehensive review will be beneficial to the design, simulation, performance assessment and applications of the solar parabolic dish cavity receivers. (author)

  2. CPV semi-dense array design for dish and tower collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Herb; Thomas, Paul; Fette, Nicholas; Farkas, Zoltan; Bading, Michael; Stone, Bradley; Miner, Mark; Stickroth, Oliver; Bagewadi, Nakul; Romero, Memo; Sonuparlak, Birol; Eichholz, Rainer; Ziegler, Michael; Pawlowski, Edgar

    2012-10-01

    SST is developing a new Dish CPV dense array system that overcomes the flux uniformity requirement of previous designs. The ability to operate without flux uniformity relaxes the precision requirements of primary collector optics and eliminates homogenizing optics previously required for dense array CPV. Array design can be configured for dish and tower/heliostat systems developed for thermal CSP applications. The design uses industry standard CPV cells and manufacturing materials and methods for minimum cost and high reliability. Nominal input flux to the array for full power is about 250 suns. Internal array optics increase flux to the cells to about 1200 suns. Linear optics provide additional concentration, permit novel use of commercial glass production methods and facilitate power collection design that is integrated with dynamic power conversion and maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Efficient power hybrid packaging methods are used along with advanced liquid cooling "cold-plate" thermal management. Byproduct "waste heat" can be provided for on-site CHP use. We report on the design approach and status of development with the beginning of on-sun alpha testing of the first of 50 kW of CPV modules being produced.

  3. Monitoring of free glutamic acid in Malaysian processed foods, dishes and condiments.

    PubMed

    Khairunnisak, M; Azizah, A H; Jinap, S; Nurul Izzah, A

    2009-04-01

    A study to quantify the free glutamic acid content of six processed foods, 44 dishes and 26 condiments available in Malaysia was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FRD). Recovery tests were carried out with spiked samples at levels from 6 to 31 mg g(-1). High recovery in different matrices was achieved ranging from 88% +/- 13% to 102% +/- 5.12%, with an average of 97% +/- 8.92%. Results from the study revealed that the average free glutamic acid content ranged from 0.34 +/- 0.20 to 4.63 +/- 0.41 mg g(-1) in processed foods, while in prepared dishes it was as low as 0.24 +/- 0.15 mg g(-1) in roti canai (puffed bread served with curry or dhal) to 8.16 +/- 1.99 mg g(-1) in dim sum (a small casing of dough, usually filled with minced meat, seafood, and vegetables, either steamed or fried). Relatively, the content of free glutamic acid was found to be higher in condiments at 0.28 +/- 0 mg g(-1) in mayonnaise to 170.90 +/- 6.40 mg g(-1) in chicken stock powder. PMID:19680916

  4. Large Parabolic Dish collectors with small gas-turbine, Stirling engine or photovoltaic power conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlisch, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.; Simon, M.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison for different solar thermal power plants is presented and demonstrates that the large parabolic dish in association with a gas turbine or a Sterling engine could be a competitive system design in the net power range of 50-1000KW. The important advantages of the Large Parabolic Dish concept compared to the Farm and Tower concept are discussed: concentration ratios up to 5000 and uniform heat flux distribution throughout the day which allow very high receiver temperatures and therefor high receiver efficiency to operate effectively Stirling motors or small gas turbines in the mentioned power range with an overall efficiency of 20 to 30%. The high focal plane concentration leads to the efficient use of ceramic materials for receivers of the next generation, applicable in temperature ranges up to 1,300 /sup 0/C for energy converters. Besides the production of electricity, the system can supply process heat in the temperature range of 100 to 400 /sup 0/C as waste heat from the gas turbo converter and heat at temperature levels from 500 to 900 /sup 0/C (1300 /sup 0/C) directly out of the receiver.

  5. Impact of I30T and I30M substitution in MPZ gene associated with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome type B (DSSB): A molecular modeling and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Ashish; George Priya Doss, C

    2015-10-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene encodes MPZ protein is a vital component of the myelin sheath. Mutationsassociated with MPZ gene leads to severe de-hypomyelination Dejerine-Sottas syndrome type B (DSSB) also termed as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 3. In this work, we employed a set of various in silico prediction methods to screen 97 nsSNPs associated with MPZ gene. Based on this, we identified the nsSNPs to be most deleterious and pathogenic associated with DSSB. To get more insight into the mutational effect at three-dimensional structural level, we modeled the homology structure of native type as well as I30T and I30M mutant of MPZ protein using Modeler 9.13 software. Molecular dynamics simulation was initiated to explain the impact of the mutation on its structure and function. The obtained results depict that the protein with I30T mutation had variable structural conformation and dynamic behavior than native and mutant I30M of MPZ protein. We hope our computational insight might be helpful in rationalizing the deleterious mutations in DSSB and the advancement of novel pharmacological strategy. PMID:26135405

  6. Impact of I30T and I30M substitution in MPZ gene associated with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome type B (DSSB): A molecular modeling and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, Ashish; George Priya Doss, C

    2015-10-01

    Myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene encodes MPZ protein is a vital component of the myelin sheath. Mutationsassociated with MPZ gene leads to severe de-hypomyelination Dejerine-Sottas syndrome type B (DSSB) also termed as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 3. In this work, we employed a set of various in silico prediction methods to screen 97 nsSNPs associated with MPZ gene. Based on this, we identified the nsSNPs to be most deleterious and pathogenic associated with DSSB. To get more insight into the mutational effect at three-dimensional structural level, we modeled the homology structure of native type as well as I30T and I30M mutant of MPZ protein using Modeler 9.13 software. Molecular dynamics simulation was initiated to explain the impact of the mutation on its structure and function. The obtained results depict that the protein with I30T mutation had variable structural conformation and dynamic behavior than native and mutant I30M of MPZ protein. We hope our computational insight might be helpful in rationalizing the deleterious mutations in DSSB and the advancement of novel pharmacological strategy.

  7. Increased NIH 3T3 fibroblast functions on cell culture dishes which mimic the nanometer fibers of natural tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional flat tissue cell culture dishes have consisted of polystyrene treated with plasma gases for growing, subculturing, and studying cell behavior in vitro. However, increasingly it has been observed that mimicking natural tissue properties (such as chemistry, three-dimensional structure, mechanical properties, etc) in vitro can lead to a better correlation of in vitro to in vivo cellular functions. The following studies compared traditional NIH 3T3 fibroblasts’ functions on XanoMatrix scaffolds to standard tissue culture polystyrene. Results found significantly greater fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on XanoMatrix cell culture dishes which mimic the nanoscale geometry of natural tissue fibers with true, tortuous fiber beds creating a robust, consistent, and versatile growth platform. In this manner, this study supports that cell culture dishes which mimic features of natural tissues should be continually studied for a wide range of applications in which mimicking natural cellular functions are important. PMID:26345155

  8. D/H ratios and H2O contents of mantle-derived amphibole megacrysts from Dish Hill, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, David R.; Hoering, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    D/H ratios are, in principle, useful in characterizing reservoirs of mantle hydrogen and as tracers of volatile transfer processes in Earth's interior. In practice, however, interpretation of isotopic measurements on mantle derived H is complicated by surface processes such as contamination and degassing which may alter the primary D/H ratio. Although there are indications that water associated with subduction zones and certain chemically enriched basalts is enriched in D relative to 'typical' upper mantle water, the extent of isotopic heterogeneity of mantle H remains uncertain. Kaersutitic amphibole megacrysts in alkaline basalts are one of the most widespread sources of mantle water and are therefore potentially useful for large-scale regional studies of D/H variation. However, D/H ratios of these amphiboles vary widely (from plus 8 to minus 113 percent), even in samples from the same locality, so that this potential has yet to be realized. In order to investigate the origin of this variability, and to explore the possibility that primary mantle D/H ratios may be deduced from these amphiboles, we analyzed the D/H ratios and chemical compositions of a suite of 17 kaersutitic amphiboles from Dish Hill, California. This work contrasts with previous studies in which sampling is widespread, but representatives from any given locality are few. Samples were collected from a restricted area on the southern flank of the volcanic center and are associated with the basal volcanic breccia. Fourteen of the samples were large single crystals or crystal fragments (megacrysts, 0.4 to 30 grams), believed to derive from pegmatitic veins crystallized from melts in the mantle. Two were coarse-grained intergrowths of amphibole with olivine and spinel, and one was a thin (2 mm) selvage on a peridotite xenolith.

  9. Solar-parabolic dish-Stirling-engine-system module. Task 1: Topical report, market assessment/conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-30

    The major activities reported are: a market study to identify an early market for a dish-Stirling module and assess its commercial potential; preparation of a conceptual system and subsystem design to address this market; and preparation of an early sales implementation plan. A study of the reliability of protection from the effects of walk-off, wherein the sun's image leaves the receiver if the dish is not tracking, is appended, along with an optical analysis and structural analysis. Also appended are the relationship between PURPA and solar thermal energy development and electric utility pricing rationale. (LEW)

  10. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) and non small cell lung cancer: case presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tomos, Ioannis; Vlami, Aikaterini; Karakatsani, Anna; Korbila, Ioanna; Manali, Effrosyni D; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also known as Forestier's disease, is a systemic non inflammatory disease of unknown cause. It is characterized by the presence of osteophytes due to calcification and ossification of spinal ligaments and entheses. Moreover, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis has been associated with a variety of metabolic disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge no association with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been reported so far. In the present study we report a case of a patient with NSCLC and DISH. PMID:27238170

  11. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight is a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentrator to stop following the Sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/sq m. (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off Sun), and spillage (continuous on-Sun operation).

  12. An overview of the value of parabolic dish solar thermal systems in industrial cogeneration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The essential elements of the cogeneration system configuration to be captured were the displacement of thermal energy by collection and use of the Brayton exhaust stream, and the sale back to the utility of any electricity production in excess of on-site requirements. In contrast to simply dumping these energy flows, their use or sale obviously serves, by itself, to increase gross value of the solar thermal energy system. Net allowable cost of the parabolic dish modules may or may not be increased, however. A consideration is that the waste heat capture and delivery subsystems are not free. This study does not address the incremental cost of adding waste heat capture, transport, and conversion (to steam, if necessary). It does compute a value for the thermal energy thereby displaced. This value can serve as a first-round input to any detailed economic evaluation of waste heat recovery.

  13. Comparison of electrochemical and thermal storage for hybrid parabolic dish solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, H. L.; Wen, L.

    1981-01-01

    The economic and operating performance of a parabolic point focus array of solar electricity generators combined with either battery or thermal energy storage are examined. Noting that low-cost, mass-producible power generating units are under development for the point focus of distributed dishes, that Zn-Cl battery tests will begin in 1981 and a 100 kWh Na-S battery in 1983, the state of thermal storage requires acceleration to reach the prototype status of the batteries. Under the assumptions of 10,000 units/yr with an expected 30 yr lifetime, cost comparisons are developed for 10 types of advanced batteries. A 5 MWe plant with full thermal or 80% battery storage discharge when demand occurs in conditions of no insolation is considered, specifically for Fe-Cr redox batteries. A necessity for the doubling of fuel prices from 1980 levels by 1990 is found in order to make the systems with batteries economically competitive.

  14. Large-area, high-intensity PV arrays for systems using dish concentrating optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Zweibel, K.; Coutts, T.J.

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report on efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis by delayed luminescence in Arabidopsis in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Chuenwarin, Paweena; Shimazaki, Azumi; Shimizu, Masanori; Kobayashi, Yuko; Katsumata, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis is a valuable tool in the field and laboratory. Delayed luminescence (DL) can reflect charge recombination through the backflow of electrons. However, DL detection has not yet been adapted for whole plants in Petri dishes. To compensate for differences in DL decay between sibling Arabidopsis plants grown under the same conditions, we developed a time-sequential double measurement method. Using this method, we examined the influence of photosynthetic electron flow inhibitors, and differences in the DL decay curves were categorized by considering the initial and late phases of the decay curves, as well as their intermediate slopes. The appearance of concavity and convexity in DL curves in Arabidopsis was different from unicellular algae, suggesting complexity in the photosynthetic machinery of higher plants. This detection method should be invaluable for evaluating photosynthetic defects in higher plants under sterile conditions without interrupting plant culture. PMID:26559425

  16. Mass transport, corrosion, plugging, and their reduction in solar dish/Stirling heat pipe receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Goods, S.H.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    Solar dish/Stirling systems using sodium heat pipe receivers are being developed by industry and government laboratories here and abroad. The unique demands of this application lead to heat pipe wicks with very large surface areas and complex three-dimensional flow patterns. These characteristics can enhance the mass transport and concentration of constituents of the wick material, resulting in wick corrosion and plugging. As the test times for heat pipe receivers lengthen, we are beginning to see these effects both indirectly, as they affect performance, and directly in post-test examinations. We are also beginning to develop corrective measures. In this paper, we report on our test experiences, our post-test examinations, and on our initial effort to ameliorate various problems.

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis by delayed luminescence in Arabidopsis in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Chuenwarin, Paweena; Shimazaki, Azumi; Shimizu, Masanori; Kobayashi, Yuko; Katsumata, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of photosynthesis is a valuable tool in the field and laboratory. Delayed luminescence (DL) can reflect charge recombination through the backflow of electrons. However, DL detection has not yet been adapted for whole plants in Petri dishes. To compensate for differences in DL decay between sibling Arabidopsis plants grown under the same conditions, we developed a time-sequential double measurement method. Using this method, we examined the influence of photosynthetic electron flow inhibitors, and differences in the DL decay curves were categorized by considering the initial and late phases of the decay curves, as well as their intermediate slopes. The appearance of concavity and convexity in DL curves in Arabidopsis was different from unicellular algae, suggesting complexity in the photosynthetic machinery of higher plants. This detection method should be invaluable for evaluating photosynthetic defects in higher plants under sterile conditions without interrupting plant culture.

  18. Dispersed solar thermal generation employing parabolic dish-electric transport with field modulated generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of field modulated generator systems (FMGS) to dispersed solar-thermal-electric generation from a parabolic dish field with electric transport. Each solar generation unit is rated at 15 kWe and the power generated by an array of such units is electrically collected for insertion into an existing utility grid. Such an approach appears to be most suitable when the heat engine rotational speeds are high (greater than 6000 r/min) and, in particular, if they are operated in the variable speed mode and if utility-grade a.c. is required for direct insertion into the grid without an intermediate electric energy storage and reconversion system. Predictions of overall efficiencies based on conservative efficiency figures for the FMGS are in the range of 25 per cent and should be encouraging to those involved in the development of cost-effective dispersed solar thermal power systems.

  19. Optical characterization of nonimaging dish concentrator for the application of dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-Hui; Chong, Kok-Keong; Wong, Chee-Woon

    2014-01-20

    Optimization of the design of a nonimaging dish concentrator (NIDC) for a dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system is presented. A new algorithm has been developed to determine configuration of facet mirrors in a NIDC. Analytical formulas were derived to analyze the optical performance of a NIDC and then compared with a simulated result obtained from a numerical method. Comprehensive analysis of optical performance via analytical method has been carried out based on facet dimension and focal distance of the concentrator with a total reflective area of 120 m2. The result shows that a facet dimension of 49.8 cm, focal distance of 8 m, and solar concentration ratio of 411.8 suns is the most optimized design for the lowest cost-per-output power, which is US$1.93 per watt.

  20. Cost/performance of solar reflective surfaces for parabolic dish concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F.

    1980-01-01

    Materials for highly reflective surfaces for use in parabolic dish solar concentrators are discussed. Some important factors concerning performance of the mirrors are summarized, and typical costs are treated briefly. Capital investment cost/performance ratios for various materials are computed specifically for the double curvature parabolic concentrators using a mathematical model. The results are given in terms of initial investment cost for reflective surfaces per thermal kilowatt delivered to the receiver cavity for various operating temperatures from 400 to 1400 C. Although second surface glass mirrors are emphasized, first surface, chemically brightened and anodized aluminum surfaces as well as second surface, metallized polymeric films are treated. Conventional glass mirrors have the lowest cost/performance ratios, followed closely by aluminum reflectors. Ranges in the data due to uncertainties in cost and mirror reflectance factors are given.

  1. Development and evaluation of a dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to develop a dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire s(FFQ) for Korean adolescents and evaluate its reproducibility and validity. SUBJECTS/METHODS Based on 24-hour dietary recall data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), we developed a FFQ with 71 items. From a quota sample of 160 adolescents recruited using gender and age group as stratification variables, 153 participated in the complete data collection process. The FFQ was administered to each subject twice, at an interval of 3-4 weeks, to evaluate the test-retest reliability. The validity of the FFQ was assessed relative to 8-day food record data. RESULTS The study findings demonstrated the FFQ's satisfactory reproducibility. Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from 0.64(for β-carotene) to 0.81(for protein). From cross-classification analyses, the proportion of subjects in the same intake quartile was highest for protein (65.4%) and lowest for vitamin A(47.1%). With regard to validity analysis, Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from 0.27(for vitamin A and fiber) to 0.90 (for energy). The proportions of subjects in the opposite categories between the first FFQ and the 8-day food record data were generally low within the range from 0.74% (for energy and carbohydrate) to 13.2% (for α-carotene). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, the dish-based semiquantitative FFQ developed in this study can be useful for grouping Korean adolescents according to major macro- and micronutrient intakes with reasonable reproducibility and validity. PMID:27478551

  2. Flexible Sheet-Type Sensor for Noninvasive Measurement of Cellular Oxygen Metabolism on a Culture Dish

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Takanori; Shiono, Hirofumi; Ichiki, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    A novel flexible sensor was developed for the noninvasive oxygen metabolism measurement of cultivated cells and tissues. This device is composed of a transparent double-layered polymer sheet of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) having an array of microhole structures of 90 μm diameter and 50 μm depth on its surface. All the microhole structures were equipped with a 1-μm-thick optical chemical sensing layer of platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer on their bottom. The three-dimensional microstructures of the sensor were fabricated by a newly developed simple and low-cost production method named self-aligned hot embossing. The device was designed to be attached slightly above the cells cultivated on a dish to form a temporarily closed microspace over the target cells during measurement. Since the change in oxygen concentration is relatively fast in the microcompartmentalized culture medium, a rapid evaluation of the oxygen consumption rate is possible by measuring the phosphorescence lifetime of the platinum porphyrin-fluoropolymer. The combined use of the device and an automated optical measurement system enabled the high-throughput sensing of cellular oxygen consumption (100 points/min). We monitored the oxygen metabolism of the human breast cancer cell line MCF7 on a Petri dish and evaluated the oxygen consumption rate to be 0.72 ± 0.12 fmol/min/cell. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the developed sensing system, we demonstrated the mapping of the oxygen consumption rate of rat brain slices and succeeded in visualizing a clear difference among the layer structures of the hippocampus, i.e., the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG). PMID:26624889

  3. Culture and recovery of macrophages and cell lines from tissue culture-treated and -untreated plastic dishes.

    PubMed

    Fleit, S A; Fleit, H B; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1984-03-30

    Macrophages can be separated from other cell types by their ability to readily attach and spread on glass or on plastic surfaces which are treated for optimal growth of cultured cells (tissue culture-treated plastic). To detach macrophages from these surfaces, techniques must be used which require prior preparation of special flasks or vessels, utilize expensive equipment, are time-consuming and almost uniformly require that the macrophages be exposed to various chemicals. We now report that macrophages can be enriched and recovered efficiently after attachment to disposable polystyrene bacteriologic petri dishes simply by gentle scraping with a rubber policeman. In this paper we compare this method to others currently in use in which resident peritoneal cells, peritoneal exudate cells or cells from bone marrow-derived cultures are detached from treated dishes using cold shock, chelating agents and lidocaine. In all studies, advantages were noted when cells were incubated in untreated dishes and detached by gentle scraping. In addition, untreated dishes supported the growth of adherent cell lines IC-21 and L929B and yielded large numbers of cells, with high viability, which were easily harvested. PMID:6423730

  4. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Food Life Extenders and Temperature on the Shelf Life of Ready-Made Dishes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun; Maenishi, Takuya; Saito, Yuki; Masuda, Toshiro; Kadotani, Naoki; Kozakai, Hiroshi; Ito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of several microbial control factors including gas barrier of containers, modified atmosphere packaging, food life extenders and storage temperature was discussed in order to determine the possibility for improving the shelf life for hamburger steak and deepfried chicken, representative ready-made dishes sold at convenience stores in Japan. Multiple measures including cold storage were effective in improving the shelf life of ready-made dishes. It was also suggested that storage tests for ready-made dishes should be conducted at 10℃, a practical temperature, to confirm the storable period, as well as at 15℃, an adequate abuse temperature, to confirm the effects of various microbial control factors. In the present study, the test group 4 (nitrogen + barrier containers + pH modifier) performed most favorably at both temperatures, indicating the efficacy of multiple means including "cold storage" in improving the shelf life (extending the consume-by date) of ready-made dishes. All strains isolated from the tested hamburger steak and deep-fried chicken were common food contaminant bacterial species. PMID:27009505

  5. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Food Life Extenders and Temperature on the Shelf Life of Ready-Made Dishes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun; Maenishi, Takuya; Saito, Yuki; Masuda, Toshiro; Kadotani, Naoki; Kozakai, Hiroshi; Ito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of several microbial control factors including gas barrier of containers, modified atmosphere packaging, food life extenders and storage temperature was discussed in order to determine the possibility for improving the shelf life for hamburger steak and deepfried chicken, representative ready-made dishes sold at convenience stores in Japan. Multiple measures including cold storage were effective in improving the shelf life of ready-made dishes. It was also suggested that storage tests for ready-made dishes should be conducted at 10℃, a practical temperature, to confirm the storable period, as well as at 15℃, an adequate abuse temperature, to confirm the effects of various microbial control factors. In the present study, the test group 4 (nitrogen + barrier containers + pH modifier) performed most favorably at both temperatures, indicating the efficacy of multiple means including "cold storage" in improving the shelf life (extending the consume-by date) of ready-made dishes. All strains isolated from the tested hamburger steak and deep-fried chicken were common food contaminant bacterial species.

  6. PetriJet Platform Technology: An Automated Platform for Culture Dish Handling and Monitoring of the Contents.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Mathias; Boschke, Elke; Bley, Thomas; Lenk, Felix

    2015-08-01

    Due to the size of the required equipment, automated laboratory systems are often unavailable or impractical for use in small- and mid-sized laboratories. However, recent developments in automation engineering provide endless possibilities for incorporating benchtop devices. Here, the authors describe the development of a platform technology to handle sealed culture dishes. The programming is based on the Petri net method and implemented via Codesys V3.5 pbF. The authors developed a system of three independent electrical driven axes capable of handling sealed culture dishes. The device performs two difference processes. First, it automatically obtains an image of every processed culture dish. Second, a server-based image analysis algorithm provides the user with several parameters of the cultivated sample on the culture dish. For demonstration purposes, the authors developed a continuous, systematic, nondestructive, and quantitative method for monitoring the growth of a hairy root culture. New results can be displayed with respect to the previous images. This system is highly accurate, and the results can be used to simulate the growth of biological cultures. The authors believe that the innovative features of this platform can be implemented, for example, in the food industry, clinical environments, and research laboratories.

  7. Risk factors for contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes in Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Perrier Gros-Claude, J D; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Salvat, G

    2005-08-25

    Our objective was to investigate the Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes and to assess the association of some restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with the contamination of these meals. One hundred and forty-eight street-restaurants were studied from January 2003 to April 2004 in Dakar. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat poultry dishes were taken. Salmonella spp. was isolated in 20.1% of the 148 street-restaurants studied and in 10.1% samples of poultry dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella hadar, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella brancaster. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in only 3 restaurants and 3 poultry dishes. Not peeling and not cleaning vegetables and other ingredients during meal preparation (OR=3.58), dirty clothing for restaurant employees (OR=4.65), reheating previously cooked foods (OR=5.2), and no kitchen and utensils disinfection (OR=3.47) were associated with an increasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Adequate cooking procedures decreased the risk of Salmonella contamination (OR=0.15).

  8. Millimetre observations of comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o) and Austin (1989c1) with the IRAM 30-m radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colom, P.; Despois, D.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Paubert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope were conducted in comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o) on September 1989 and Austin (1989c1) on April and May 1990. The HCN J(1-0) and J(3-2) lines were detected in both comets. The HCN production rate relative to water in P/Brorsen-Metcalf is comparable to that previously measured in comet P/Halley, while that inferred in comet Austin might be smaller by a factor of two. The H2CO(3 sub 12 - 2 sub 11) transition, marginally observed in comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf, was firmly detected in May 1990 in comet Austin. Observations performed at offset positions suggest that the source of H2CO might be distributed. The H2CO abundance is on the order of 0.5 percent that of water for both comets, assuming a scalelength of 10(exp 4) km at 1 AU from the Sun for the distributed source. During the May observing period of comet Austin, two new species were detected for the first time in a comet: hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through its 1(sub 10) - 1(sub 01) ortho line at 169 GHz, and methanol (CH3OH) through J(3-2) delta K = 0 transitions at 145 GHz. Preliminary estimates of their abundances are 1.5 x 10(exp -3) for H2S and 8 x 10(exp -3) for CH3OH.

  9. IRAM 30 m large scale survey of {sup 12}CO(2-1) and {sup 13}CO(2-1) emission in the Orion molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Marcelino, N.

    2014-11-01

    Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we have surveyed a 1 × 0.°8 part of the Orion molecular cloud in the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (2-1) lines with a maximal spatial resolution of ∼11'' and spectral resolution of ∼0.4 km s{sup –1}. The cloud appears filamentary, clumpy, and with a complex kinematical structure. We derive an estimated mass of the cloud of 7700 M {sub ☉} (half of which is found in regions with visual extinctions A{sub V} below ∼10) and a dynamical age for the nebula of the order of 0.2 Myr. The energy balance suggests that magnetic fields play an important role in supporting the cloud, at large and small scales. According to our analysis, the turbulent kinetic energy in the molecular gas due to outflows is comparable to turbulent kinetic energy resulting from the interaction of the cloud with the H II region. This latter feedback appears negative, i.e., the triggering of star formation by the H II region is inefficient in Orion. The reduced data as well as additional products such as the column density map are made available online (http://userpages.irap.omp.eu/∼oberne/Olivier{sub B}erne/Data).

  10. IRAM-30m Molecular Submm Surveys of Two Very Different Comets: C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, Nicolas; Debout, V.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Colom, P.; Moreno, R.; Boissier, J.; Paubert, G.; Lis, D. C.; Hartogh, P.; Dello-Russo, N.; Vervack, R.; Weaver, H. A.

    2013-10-01

    The two bright comets of the spring of 2013, C/2011 L4 (Pan-STARRS) and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) were observed on 14-18 March and 5-8 April with the IRAM-30m radiotelescope in Spain. Despite adverse observing conditions we conducted wide frequency surveys (85-93, 166-170, 210-272 GHz) of the two comets using the EMIR receivers and high resolution FTS spectrometer. The wide instantaneous frequency coverage (12-16 GHz dual polarization) enables the coverage of many lines of the same molecular species, making the detection faster. We detected HCN, HNC, CS, HCO+, CH3OH, HC3N, HNCO in comet PanSTARRS and HCN, HNC, HC3N, CH3CN, HNCO, CH3OH, H2CO, H2S, CS, C34S, SO, OCS, H2CS, HCO+ and HDO in comet Lemmon. We present derived production rates and their time evolution. Relative molecular abundances will be discussed in the context of our taxonomic study of Oort-cloud comets [1,2,3]. Comet Lemmon appears intrinsically much more gaseous than comet PanSTARRS and relatively rich in volatiles. [1] Biver et al. (2002), Earth, Moon and Planets 90, 32 [2] Crovisier et al. (2009), Earth, Moon Planet 105, 267 [3] Biver et al. (2011), A&A 528, A142

  11. Single-Dish Radio Polarimetry in the F-GAMMA Program with the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuchert, Tobias; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Jörn; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Fuhrmann, Lars; Myserlis, Ioannis; Nestoras, Ioannis; Kraus, Alex; Bach, Uwe; Ros, Eduardo; Grossberger, Christoph; Schulz, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Studying the variability of polarized AGN jet emission in the radio band is crucial for understanding the dynamics of moving shocks as well as the structure of the underlying magnetic field. The 100-m Effelsberg Telescope is a high-quality instrument for studying the long-term variability of both total and polarized intensity as well as the electric-vector position angle. Since 2007, the F-GAMMA program has been monitoring the linear polarized emission of roughly 60 blazars at 11 frequencies between 2.7 and 43 GHz. Here, we describe the calibration of the polarimetric data at 5 and 10 GHz and the resulting F-GAMMA full-Stokes light curves for the exemplary case of the radio galaxy 3C 111.

  12. A single-dish survey of the HCO+, HCN, and CN emission toward the T Tauri disk population in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, D. M.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; van der Burg, R. F. J.; Kristensen, L. E.; Brinch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Context. The gas and dust content of protoplanetary disks evolves over the course of a few Myr. As the stellar X-ray and UV light penetration of the disk depends sensitively on the dust properties, trace molecular species like HCO+, HCN, and CN are expected to show marked differences from photoprocessing effects as the dust content in the disk evolves. Aims: We investigate specifically the evolution of the UV irradiation of the molecular gas in protoplanetary disks around a sample of classical T Tauri stars in Taurus that exhibit a wide range in grain growth and dust settling properties. Methods: We obtained HCO+ (J = 3-2), HCN (J = 3-2), and CN (J = 2-1) observations of 13 sources with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Our sample has 1.3 mm fluxes in excess of 75 mJy, indicating the presence of significant dust reservoirs; a range of dust settling as traced through their spectral slopes between 6, 13, and 25 μm; varying degrees of grain growth as extrapolated from the strength of their 10-μm silicate emission feature; and complements data from the literature, essentially completing the molecular line coverage for the 21 brightest millimeter targets in the Taurus star-forming region. We compare the emission line strengths with the sources' continuum flux and infrared features, and use detailed modeling based on two different model prescriptions to compare typical disk abundances for HCO+, HCN, and CN with the gas-line observations for our sample. Results: We detected HCO+ (3-2) toward 6 disks, HCN (3-2) from 0 disks, and CN (2-1) toward 4 disks, with typical 3σ upper limits of 150-300 mK (Tmb) in 0.2 km s-1 channels. For the complete sample, there is no correlation between the gas-line strengths or their ratios and either the sources' dust continuum flux or infrared slope. Modeling shows that fractional abundances of 10-9-10-11 can explain the line intensities observed, although significant modeling uncertainties remain. For DG Tau, which we model in great detail, we find that two very different temperature and density disk structures produce very similar lines for the same underlying abundances. Instead, it is the gas properties (particularly Tkin and Rgas) and the projected kinematics (determined by M⋆ sin i) that have the largest impact on line appearance; and these system parameters are not well-constrained by current dust models, but instead will be probed directly with ALMA. Conclusions: Unresolved observations of the dust continuum provide neither a unique nor a complete picture of protoplanetary disks. Instead, gas-line measurements and resolved observations of dust and gas alike are needed to arrive at a full picture.

  13. Association between Motives for Dish Choices during Home Meal Preparation and Weight Status in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Pauline; Fassier, Philippine; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Although home cooking has been associated with a lower body mass index in a few studies, no data exists on the motives behind food dish choices during home meal preparation and on their association with overweight. This study aimed to evaluate this association in 50,003 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dimensions underlying the importance of 27 criteria possibly influencing dish choices were determined using an exploratory factor analysis. The association between dish choice motives and overweight (including obesity) was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Five dimensions of dishes choice motives emerged: healthy diet (e.g., "nutritional balance of the dish"), constraints (e.g., "my cooking skills"), pleasure (e.g., "originality of the dish"), specific diets (e.g., "my health status"), and organization (e.g., "what I planned to eat"). A negative association was observed between the healthy diet factor and being overweight (OR = 0.65 (95% CI (confidence interval): 0.62-0.67)), whereas a positive association appeared for factors regarding pleasure (OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10-1.19)) and specific diets (OR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17-1.22)). No significant associations were observed for constraints and organization. The significant associations between dish choice motives and overweight suggested the interest of focusing on these motives in order to promote healthier food choices during home cooking. PMID:27399764

  14. Association between Motives for Dish Choices during Home Meal Preparation and Weight Status in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Pauline; Fassier, Philippine; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-07-05

    Although home cooking has been associated with a lower body mass index in a few studies, no data exists on the motives behind food dish choices during home meal preparation and on their association with overweight. This study aimed to evaluate this association in 50,003 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dimensions underlying the importance of 27 criteria possibly influencing dish choices were determined using an exploratory factor analysis. The association between dish choice motives and overweight (including obesity) was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Five dimensions of dishes choice motives emerged: healthy diet (e.g., "nutritional balance of the dish"), constraints (e.g., "my cooking skills"), pleasure (e.g., "originality of the dish"), specific diets (e.g., "my health status"), and organization (e.g., "what I planned to eat"). A negative association was observed between the healthy diet factor and being overweight (OR = 0.65 (95% CI (confidence interval): 0.62-0.67)), whereas a positive association appeared for factors regarding pleasure (OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10-1.19)) and specific diets (OR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17-1.22)). No significant associations were observed for constraints and organization. The significant associations between dish choice motives and overweight suggested the interest of focusing on these motives in order to promote healthier food choices during home cooking.

  15. Design, testing, and commercialization plans for the SAIC/STM 20 kW{sub e} solar dish/Stirling system

    SciTech Connect

    Beninga, K.J.; Davenport, R.L.; Johansson, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As a part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Utility-Scale Joint-Venture Program, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Stirling Thermal Motors (STM) have teamed to produce a solar dish/Stirling system for utility electricity generation. The 90 m{sup 2} dish concentrator consists of 16 stretched membrane mirror facets on a truss structure with an azimuth/elevation gear drive. The design modifies a faceted stretched membrane dish design developed previously by SAIC and WGA, Inc. in order to simplify the structure and reduce manufacturing costs, The Stirling engine used in the system is the STM 4-120 kinematic Stirling engine. It features variable swash plate control and a direct absorption solar receiver with hydrogen as the operating fluid. A prototype dish/Stirling system has been installed at a test site near Golden, Colorado and is now undergoing tests. The optical and thermal performance of the dish is being characterized using a Coldwater calorimeter and the optical Beam Characterization System (BCS) developed by Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. After completion of the dish characterization tests, the STM engine will be installed on the dish and system power generation and efficiency will be measured. This paper presents a summary of the SAIC/STM dish/Stirling system design and gives results from initial testing of the system. Also described are SAIC`s plans for manufacturing and commercialization of the dish/Stirling system to utilities and other markets in the US and abroad.

  16. Effects of shift changes on female workers at a dish factory.

    PubMed

    Hirose, T; Tada, Y; Hasegawa, M

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of working night shifts on social and family life by examining changes in workers' daily life before and after a change in their shifts. Subjects were 40 women aged 27-59 years, working at a dish factory. During the health examination of night workers in autumn of 2000, the subjects were directly interviewed about changes in their lives induced by the shift change. Question parameters consisted of 8 items including 30 sub-items related to social and family life, such as sleep, rest, meals, sports, family time, hobbies, neighborhood association and social activities. The subjects selected one of four response categories: "becoming worse", "no change", "becoming better" and "difficult to determine." With regard to the percentage of "becoming worse", meal-related items ranked high in all of the shift types. "Family time" and "hobbies" showed high percentages in the subjects transferring from day shifts to night shifts, and in those transferring from early-morning shifts to night shifts. "Rest", "sports" and "hobbies" showed high percentages in the subjects transferring from night shifts to midnight shifts. Decreased sleeping hours were confirmed in all of the shift types, while the subjects tended to sleep more soundly. As the workers transfer to shifts at earlier hours, they were obliged to make sacrifices in various aspects of their social and family life. Therefore, much assistance in this regard should be given to them.

  17. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  18. Heat and electricity from the Sun using parabolic dish collector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Point focus distributed receiver solar thermal technology for the production of electric power and of industrial process heat is addressed. The thermal power systems project which emphasizes the development of cost effective systems which will accelerate the commercialization and industrialization of plants up to 10 MWe, using parabolic dish collectors is described. The projected size of the isolated load market in the 1990-2000 time period is 300 to 1000 MW/year. Although this market is small in comparison to the grid connected utility market, it is indicated that by assuming only a 20 percent market penetration, up to 10,000 power modules per year would be required to meet this need. At a production rate of 25,000 units/year and assuming no energy storage, levelized bus bar energy costs of 75 mills/kWeh are projected. These numbers are based on what is believed to be a conservative estimate regarding engine-generator conversion efficiency (40 percent) for the 1990 time period. With a more optimistic estimate of efficiency (i.e., 45 percent), the bus bar cost decreases to about 67 mills/kWeh. At very large production rates (400,000 modules/years), the costs decrease to 58 mills/kWeh. Finally, the present status of the technology development effort is discussed.

  19. Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyazono, C.

    1984-01-01

    Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

  20. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  1. The small community solar thermal power experiment. Parabolic dish technology for industrial process heat application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzien, R. E.; Rodriguez, D.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of incorporating a thermal energy transport system (ETS) into a field of parabolic dish collectors for industrial process heat (IPH) applications were investigated. Specific objectives are to: (1) verify the mathematical optimization of pipe diameters and insulation thicknesses calculated by a computer code; (2) verify the cost model for pipe network costs using conventional pipe network construction; (3) develop a design and the associated production costs for incorporating risers and downcomers on a low cost concentrator (LCC); (4) investigate the cost reduction of using unconventional pipe construction technology. The pipe network design and costs for a particular IPH application, specifically solar thermally enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) are analyzed. The application involves the hybrid operation of a solar powered steam generator in conjunction with a steam generator using fossil fuels to generate STEOR steam for wells. It is concluded that the STEOR application provides a baseline pipe network geometry used for optimization studies of pipe diameter and insulation thickness, and for development of comparative cost data, and operating parameters for the design of riser/downcomer modifications to the low cost concentrator.

  2. Wind loads on heliostats and parabolic dish collectors: Final subcontractor report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J.A.; Tan, Z.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1988-11-01

    A major intent of this study was to define wind load reduction factors for parabolic dish solar collectors within a field protected by upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other blockages. This information will help researchers improve the economy of parabolic collector support structures and drive mechanisms. The method used in the study was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind tunnel. A second objective of the study was to confirm and document a sensitivity in load to level of turbulence, or gustiness, in the approaching wind. A key finding was that wind-load reduction factors for forces (horizontal and vertical) were roughly similar to those for flat heliostats, with some forces significantly less than those for flat shapes. However, load reductions for moments showed a smaller load reduction, particularly for the azimuth moment. The lack of load reduction could be attributed to collector shape, but specific flow features responsible for and methods to induce a load reduction were not explored. 62 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  4. Secondary and compound concentrators for parabolic-dish solar-thermal power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, L.D.; Poon, P.T.

    1981-04-15

    A secondary optical element may be added to a parabolic dish solar concentrator to increase the geometric concentration ratio attainable at a given intercept factor. This secondary may be a Fresnel lens or a mirror, such as a compound elliptic concentrator or a hyperbolic trumpet. At a fixed intercept factor, higher overall geometric concentration may be obtainable with a long focal length primary and a suitable secondary matched to it. Use of a secondary to increase the geometric concentration ratio is more likely to be worthwhile if the receiver temperature is high and if errors in the primary are large. Folding the optical path with a secondary may reduce cost by locating the receiver and power conversion equipment closer to the ground and by eliminating the heavy structure needed to support this equipment at the primary focus. Promising folded-path configurations include the Ritchey-Chretien and perhaps some three-element geometries. Folding the optical path may be most useful in systems that provide process heat.

  5. Charging studies of heat packs using parabolic dish solar energy concentrator for extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohitash; Vyas, Sumita; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic dish solar energy concentrator with aperture diameter 1.4 m and focal length 0.32 m is designed and fabricated to charge and store solar thermal energy in phase change material (PCM) based heat packs. Overall heat loss factor, heat duty, over all thermal efficiency, and optical efficiency factor are calculated using water sensible heating and cooling tests and values are 16.11 W m-2 K-1, 546.9 W, 49.2% and 0.62 respectively. The performance characteristic curve is generated using these parameters to understand its performance at different ambient temperatures and solar insolation. The fabricated concentrator has been used to charge 16 PCM heat packs with 150 g PCM in each heat pack, which took about 35 minutes for complete charging of PCM heat packs at average ambient temperature 39 °C and solar radiation flux density 715 W m-2 K-1. The charged heat packs are subjected to discharge studies at average ambient temperature about - 7 °C and observed heat release in the temperature range of 48 to 40 °C for 50 minutes, suggesting its applications for comfort and therapeutic applications in high altitude areas.

  6. Label-free interdigitated microelectrode based biosensors for bacterial biofilm growth monitoring using Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jacobo; Becerro, Sheila; Arana, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Impedance microbiology (IM) is a known technique that has been applied during the last decades to detect the presence of microorganisms in real samples in different fields: food industry, healthcare, environment, etc. Bacterial biofilms however have not been so far studied despite the fact that they are the most common microbiological formation and that they present resistance to antimicrobial agents. In situ early detection of bacterial biofilm is still a challenge nowadays that causes huge impact in many different scenarios. The ability to detect biofilm generation early will allow better and more efficient treatments preventing high costs and important problems. In this work a new performance of this technique with interdigitated microelectrode sensors (IDE) is proposed. A specific culturing setup where the sensors have been integrated in Petri Dishes has been developed. From the results it can be highlighted that low frequencies are more sensitive for detection than higher ones. The results achieved record variations of approximately 40% in the equivalent serial resistance after 10h of culture. Electrical models have been successfully simulated to find the electrical behavior of the development of biofilms. Variations in both the capacitance and resistance were recorded during the growth of the microbes.

  7. Secondary and compound concentrators for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Poon, P. T.

    1981-01-01

    A secondary optical element may be added to a parabolic dish solar concentrator to increase the geometric concentration ratio attainable at a given intercept factor. This secondary may be a Fresnel lens or a mirror, such as a compound elliptic concentrator or a hyperbolic trumpet. At a fixed intercept factor, higher overall geometric concentration may be obtainable with a long focal length primary and a suitable secondary matched to it. Use of a secondary to increase the geometric concentration ratio is more likely to e worthwhile if the receiver temperature is high and if errors in the primary are large. Folding the optical path with a secondary may reduce cost by locating the receiver and power conversion equipment closer to the ground and by eliminating the heavy structure needed to support this equipment at the primary focus. Promising folded-path configurations include the Ritchey-Chretien and perhaps some three element geometries. Folding the optical path may be most useful in systems that provide process heat.

  8. Phenylketonuria: protein content and amino acids profile of dishes for phenylketonuric patients. The relevance of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Torres, Duarte; Almeida, Manuela F; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-04-15

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, involving, in most cases, a deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Neonatal diagnosis and a prompt special diet (low phenylalanine and natural-protein restricted diets) are essential to the treatment. The lack of data concerning phenylalanine contents of processed foodstuffs is an additional limitation for an already very restrictive diet. Our goals were to quantify protein (Kjeldahl method) and amino acid (18) content (HPLC/fluorescence) in 16 dishes specifically conceived for phenylketonuric patients, and compare the most relevant results with those of several international food composition databases. As might be expected, all the meals contained low protein levels (0.67-3.15 g/100 g) with the highest ones occurring in boiled rice and potatoes. These foods also contained the highest amounts of phenylalanine (158.51 and 62.65 mg/100 g, respectively). In contrast to the other amino acids, it was possible to predict phenylalanine content based on protein alone. Slight deviations were observed when comparing results with the different food composition databases.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Year-Round Performance of a Solar Parabolic Dish Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, G.; Shanmugam, S.; Veerappan, AR.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the year-round performance of a solar parabolic dish thermoelectric generator under different values of operating parameters such as ambient temperature, wind velocity, direct normal irradiation, and water inlet temperature to the heat sink. The solar thermoelectric generator (TEG) is examined for an Indian location of Tiruchirappalli. The electrical power output and TEG efficiency are maximum during the months of April and August, while they are minimum during the month of December. It is found that the monthly average hot-side temperature of the TEG varies from 556.53 K to 592.68 K and the cold-side temperature of the TEG varies from 413.21 K to 438.91 K. When the hot-side temperature reaches the optimum value, the conversion efficiency is reduced, although the power increases. A TEG model is useful to find the temperature of the junctions for different operating parameter values and predict the performance of the TEG at any time. A small standalone power-generating system using this technology is a promising option.

  10. Label-free interdigitated microelectrode based biosensors for bacterial biofilm growth monitoring using Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jacobo; Becerro, Sheila; Arana, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Impedance microbiology (IM) is a known technique that has been applied during the last decades to detect the presence of microorganisms in real samples in different fields: food industry, healthcare, environment, etc. Bacterial biofilms however have not been so far studied despite the fact that they are the most common microbiological formation and that they present resistance to antimicrobial agents. In situ early detection of bacterial biofilm is still a challenge nowadays that causes huge impact in many different scenarios. The ability to detect biofilm generation early will allow better and more efficient treatments preventing high costs and important problems. In this work a new performance of this technique with interdigitated microelectrode sensors (IDE) is proposed. A specific culturing setup where the sensors have been integrated in Petri Dishes has been developed. From the results it can be highlighted that low frequencies are more sensitive for detection than higher ones. The results achieved record variations of approximately 40% in the equivalent serial resistance after 10h of culture. Electrical models have been successfully simulated to find the electrical behavior of the development of biofilms. Variations in both the capacitance and resistance were recorded during the growth of the microbes. PMID:24632516

  11. Shear wave velocity for the upper 30 m: Combining a 3D voxel model and seismic CPTS for the Groningen gas field, the Netherlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambrink, Roula; Gunnink, Jan; Stafleu, Jan; de Lange, Ger; Kruiver, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    The Groningen gas field in the Netherlands is one of the largest gas fields of Europe and has been in production since the 1960's. Due to the progressive depletion of the reservoir, induced seismic activity has increased in recent years. In 2012, an earthquake of magnitude 3.6 initiated further research in prediction and management of risks related to man-induced earthquakes. Last year the government decided to reduce the gas extraction for this reason. One of the topics of concern is the large difference in earthquake-related damage to buildings which, in addition to the distance to the epicenter, appears to be also related to the composition of the shallow subsurface. To improve the spatial distribution of Shear Wave Velocities (Vs) in the shallow subsurface, used for hazard prediction, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands and Deltares constructed a Vs30 map of the upper 30 m of the gas field. In this map a high-resolution geological model (GeoTOP) is combined with seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) from the area. The GeoTOP model is a 3D voxel model of the upper 50 m, in which each voxel (100x100x0.5 m) is attributed with lithostratigraphy and the most likely lithological class (peat, clay, fine sand, etc.). To obtain statistical distributions (with mean and standard deviation) of Vs for each combination of lithostratigraphical unit and lithoclass, 60 SCPTs were analyzed. In this way, it was possible to assign a specific Vs to each voxel in the model. For each voxel in the stack of voxels that covers the upper 30 m (i.e. 60 voxels), a Vs value was randomly drawn from the statistical distribution of the lithostratigraphical - lithoclass combination it belongs to. The Vs30 for each voxelstack is then calculated using the harmonic mean of the Vs of the 60 voxels. By repeating this procedure 100 times, an (average) Vs30 map and the uncertainty in Vs30 has been constructed. Using the procedure described above we were able to delineate zones with distinct Vs30

  12. Changes in cell death of peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia upon stimulation with 7 Hz, 30 mT pulsed electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Ćwiklińska, Magdalena; Balwierz, Walentyna; Chorobik, Paulina; Nowak, Bernadeta; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Ziomber, Agata; Malina-Novak, Kinga; Zaraska, Wiesław; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-03-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) influenced the viability of proliferating in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Crohn's disease patients as well as acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients by induction of cell death, but did not cause any vital changes in cells from healthy donors. Experiments with lymphoid U937 and monocytic MonoMac6 cell lines have shown a protective effect of PEMF on the death process in cells treated with death inducers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of PEMF on native proliferating leukocytes originating from newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. The effects of exposure to PEMF were studied in PBMCs from 20 children with ALL. PBMCs were stimulated with three doses of PEMF (7 Hz, 30 mT) for 4 h each with 24 h intervals. After the last stimulation, the cells were double stained with annexin V and propidium iodide dye to estimate viability by flow cytometric analysis. The results indicated an increase of annexin V positive as well as double stained annexin V and propidium iodide positive cells after exposure to threefold PEMF stimulation. A low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field induces cell death in native proliferating cells isolated from ALL patients. The increased vulnerability of proliferating PBMCs to PEMF-induced interactions may be potentially applied in the therapy of ALL. The analysis of expression of apoptosis-related genes revealed changes in mRNA of some genes engaged in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway belonging to the Bcl-2 family and the pathway with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) abundance upon PEMF stimulation of PBMCs.

  13. Investigation of rat bone fracture healing using pulsed 1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2) burst ultrasound--axial distance dependency.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; de Ana, F Javier; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of LIPUS on fracture healing when fractures were exposed to ultrasound at three axial distances: z=0 mm, 60 mm, and 130 mm. We applied LIPUS to rat fracture at these three axial distances mimicking the exposure condition of human fractures at different depths under the soft tissue. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). We asked whether different positions of the fracture within the ultrasound field cause inconsistent biological effect during the healing process. Closed femoral fractured Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, near-field (0mm), mid-near field (60 mm) or far-field (130 mm) groups. Daily LIPUS treatment (plane, but apodized source, see details in the text; 2.2 cm in diameter; 1.5 MHz sine waves repeating at 1 kHz PRF; spatial average temporal average intensity, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was given to fracture site at the three axial distances. Weekly radiographs and endpoint microCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical tests were performed. The results showed that the 130 mm group had the highest tissue mineral density; and significantly higher mechanical properties than control at week 4. The 60 mm and 0 mm groups had significantly higher (i.e. p<0.05) woven bone percentage than control group in radiological, microCT and histomorphometry measurements. In general, LIPUS at far field augmented callus mineralization and mechanical properties; while near field and mid-near field enhanced woven bone formation. Our results indicated the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of the ultrasound beam. Therefore, the depth of fracture under the soft tissue affects the biological effect of LIPUS. Clinicians have to be aware of the fracture depth when LIPUS is applied transcutaneously.

  14. Investigation of rat bone fracture healing using pulsed 1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2) burst ultrasound--axial distance dependency.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; de Ana, F Javier; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of LIPUS on fracture healing when fractures were exposed to ultrasound at three axial distances: z=0 mm, 60 mm, and 130 mm. We applied LIPUS to rat fracture at these three axial distances mimicking the exposure condition of human fractures at different depths under the soft tissue. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). We asked whether different positions of the fracture within the ultrasound field cause inconsistent biological effect during the healing process. Closed femoral fractured Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, near-field (0mm), mid-near field (60 mm) or far-field (130 mm) groups. Daily LIPUS treatment (plane, but apodized source, see details in the text; 2.2 cm in diameter; 1.5 MHz sine waves repeating at 1 kHz PRF; spatial average temporal average intensity, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was given to fracture site at the three axial distances. Weekly radiographs and endpoint microCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical tests were performed. The results showed that the 130 mm group had the highest tissue mineral density; and significantly higher mechanical properties than control at week 4. The 60 mm and 0 mm groups had significantly higher (i.e. p<0.05) woven bone percentage than control group in radiological, microCT and histomorphometry measurements. In general, LIPUS at far field augmented callus mineralization and mechanical properties; while near field and mid-near field enhanced woven bone formation. Our results indicated the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of the ultrasound beam. Therefore, the depth of fracture under the soft tissue affects the biological effect of LIPUS. Clinicians have to be aware of the fracture depth when LIPUS is applied transcutaneously. PMID:24239510

  15. Vanguard I solar parabolic dish-Stirling engine module. Final report, May 28, 1982-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Washom, B.J.

    1984-09-30

    Advanco Corporation and the US Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement in May 1982 for the design, manufacture, and test of a 25-kWe solar parabolic dish module utilizing a Stirling engine power conversion unit. The product of the cooperative agreement is the Vanguard solar parabolic dish-Stirling engine module. It was designed, fabricated, and shop assembled in Los Angeles, California, and Malmoe, Sweden, and was then installed and tested at Rancho Mirage, California, in accordance with the agreement's specifications. The design features simple fabrication and assembly techniques, low cost, and high operating efficiency. The cover displays the Vanguard module operating on-sun. The concept combines the United Stirling AB (USAB) 4-95 Solar II Stirling engine, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed mirror facets, the Rockwell/Advanco exocentric gimbal mechanism (EGM), the advanced USAB receiver, and a dry, integrated heat rejection system.

  16. A Nomographic Methodology for Use in Performance Trade-Off Studies of Parabolic Dish Solar Power Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    A simple graphical method was developed to undertake technical design trade-off studies for individual parabolic dish models comprising a two-axis tracking parabolic dish with a cavity receiver and power conversion assembly at the focal point. The results of these technical studies are then used in performing the techno-economic analyses required for determining appropriate subsystem sizing. Selected graphs that characterize the performance of subsystems within the module were arranged in the form of a nomogram that would enable an investigator to carry out several design trade-off studies. Key performance parameters encompassed in the nomogram include receiver losses, intercept factor, engine rating, and engine efficiency. Design and operation parameters such as concentrator size, receiver type (open or windowed aperture), receiver aperture size, operating temperature of the receiver and engine, engine partial load characteristics, concentrator slope error, and the type of reflector surface, are also included in the graphical solution. Cost considerations are not included.

  17. Prevalence of bacteria and absence of anisakid parasites in raw and prepared fish and seafood dishes in Spanish restaurants.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, I; Rubert, J; Soriano, J M; Mañes, J; Fuentes, M V

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the presence of bacteria and anisakid parasites in 45 samples of raw anchovies in vinegar, a dish widely eaten in Spain, and in 227 samples of cooked fish and cephalopods served in Spanish food service establishments. Our analysis showed that, according to European and Spanish regulation, 14 to 30% of the prepared fish and cephalopod dishes exceeded the maximum allowable level for mesophilic aerobic counts, and 10 to 40% of these samples exceeded the allowable levels for Enterobacteriaceae. None of the studied samples showed evidence of anisakid parasites, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, or Listeria monocytogenes. These results indicate that application of hazard analysis and critical control points, food safety training courses, and routine inspections in compliance with current European and Spanish legislation help protect consumer health. PMID:25719890

  18. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  19. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-09-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ~ 6× 10-12 for the hidden photon mass mγ = 3.1 ± 1.2 eV.

  20. Grafting of lactose-carrying styrene onto polystrene dishes using plasma glow discharge and their interaction with hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Inn-Kyu; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Kyung; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2003-07-01

    Lactose-carrying styrene (VLA)-grafted polystyrene (PS) dish (PS-VLA) was prepared by treatment of PS dish with oxygen plasma glow discharge followed by the graft polymerization of VLA. The surface topology and hepatocytes behavior on PS-VLA were examined by comparison with those on a PVLA-coated PS dish (PS-PVLA). According to the results of surface topologies obtained by a phase mode of atomic force microscope (AFM), it was found that PS-VLA exhibits a pointed texture image similar to forest while PS-PVLA exhibits a phase-separated, cloud-like image. In an experiment involving hepatocytes adhesion, the cells more slowly adhered to PS-VLA than to PS-PVLA during the first 2 h incubation. According to topological data, it may be suggested that lactose density on the air side surface of PS-VLA is lower than that of PS-PVLA, thus leading to the slow adhesion of hepatocytes to PS-VLA. PMID:15348423

  1. Superiority of traditional cooking process for bugak (Korean traditional fried dish) for plasma lipid reduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mijeong; Hong, Sun Hee; Chung, Lana; Yang, Jeong-Eun; Choe, Eunok; Song, Yeong Ok

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the efficacy and mode of action of the Korean traditional fried dish bugak for reducing plasma lipids are investigated. Three different studies were performed as follows: lipid-lowering effects of bugak compared with (1) different preparation methods, (2) different batters, and (3) different frying oils. Traditionally, bugak is prepared with fermented glutinous rice batter (FGR) and pan-fried in unroasted sesame oil (USSO; this preparation of bugak is referred to as FGRUSSO). FGR is prepared by placing the glutinous rice and water in a crock for 7 days at room temperature. For the study, wheat flour batter (WF) and soybean oil (SBO) were alternatively used. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice (n=24) were fed atherogenic diets with bugak (20 g/100 g of feed) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and hepatic lipid accumulations decreased significantly in mice fed FGRUSSO, compared with bugak made with WF and fried in SBO (WFSBO). Protein expression of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in the FGRUSSO group was decreased, although sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP-1 and -2) were not different. When batter differences were compared, TG concentration of mice fed bugak prepared with FGR and fried in SBO (FGRSBO) was lower than the WFSBO group due to suppression of hepatic FAS expression. In the oil comparison study, TC and LDL-C concentrations in the FGRUSSO group were lower due to attenuated HMGCR activity. In conclusion, bugak prepared by traditional cooking methods was most effective for lowering plasma TG, TC, and LDL-C via suppressing hepatic FAS and HMGCR activity, although transcription factors for regulating lipogenic enzyme expression were not significantly different. PMID:24456355

  2. Comparison of separations of fatty acids from fish products using a 30-m Supelcowax-10 and a 100-m SP-2560 column.

    PubMed

    Santercole, Viviana; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Kramer, John K G

    2012-03-01

    Commercial fish oils and foods containing fish may contain trans and/or isomerized fatty acids (FA) produced during processing or as part of prepared foods. The current American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method for marine oils (method Ce 1i-07) is based on separation by use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) columns, for example Supelcowax-10 or equivalent, which do not resolve most unsaturated FA geometric isomers. Highly polar 100-m cyanopropyl siloxane (CPS) columns, for example SP-2560 and CP Sil 88 are recommended for separation of geometric FA isomers. Complementary separations were achieved by use of two different elution temperature programs with the same CPS column. This study is the first direct comparison of the separations achieved by use of 30-m Supelcowax-10 and 100-m SP-2560 columns for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) prepared from the same fish oil and fish muscle sample. To simplify the identification of the FA in these fish samples, FA were fractionated on the basis of the number and type of double bonds by silver-ion solid-phase extraction (Ag⁺-SPE) before GC analysis. The results showed that a combination of the three GC separations was necessary to resolve and identify most of the unsaturated FA, FA isomers, and other components of fish products, for example phytanic and phytenic acids. Equivalent chain length (ECL) values of most FAME in fish were calculated from the separations achieved by use of both GC columns; the values obtained were shown to be consistent with previously reported values for the Supelcowax-10 column. ECL values were also calculated for the FA separated on the SP-2560 column. The calculated ECL values were equally valid under isothermal and temperature-programmed elution GC conditions, and were valuable for confirmation of the identity of several unsaturated FAME in the fish samples. When analyzing commercially prepared fish foods, deodorized marine oils, or foods fortified with marine oils it is strongly

  3. Sexual recruitment of the corals Favia fragum and Agaricia humilis in a 30-m(3) exhibit aquarium: species-specific limitations and implications on reproductive ecology.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Dirk; Laterveer, Michaël; Visser, Gerard

    2007-03-01

    We studied the recruitment of the Caribbean reef building corals Favia fragum (F. fragum) and Agaricia humilis(A. humilis) in captivity. Thirty colonies of each species collected in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, reproduced sexually during a temporary stay in a 30-m(3) closed system from November 2001-January 2002. Twelve months later, the F1 generation of F. fragum started reproducing and formed an F2 generation. No reproduction of the F1 recruits of A. humilis was observed. Two years after the introduction of the field colonies, sexual recruits of both species were assessed using two different methods: recruits were estimated using quadrats (quadrat sampling method) and the total number of recruits was counted by creating a map of the artificial rock work divided in distinct areas (area census method). Recruitment rates of F. fragum were highest for the F2 generation on horizontal surfaces (area census method: 137.9+/-191.7 recruits m(-2); quadrat sampling method: 272.0+/-254.8 recruits m(-2); mean+/-SD) and were overall lowest for the F1 generation on overhanging areas of the tank (area census method: 3.8+/-4.0 recruits m(-2); quadrat sampling method: 4.0+/-6.1 recruits m(-2); mean+/-SD recruits m(-2)). The populations of both species showed similar patterns independent of the applied assessment method with highest densities on horizontal surfaces followed by vertical surfaces and lowest densities on overhanging surfaces; however, both methods showed conflicting results when the influence of the surface orientation on the population densities was statistically analyzed. The maximum density of A. humilis (1.4+/-2.7 recruits m(-2) on horizontal surfaces) was much lower than the maximum density of the F1 generation of F. fragum (24.7+/-18.3 recruits m(-2)). Colony sizes of recruits within each population (F. fragum F1: 3.12+/-0.98 cm, F2: 0.83+/-0.41 cm; A. humilis F1: 3.79+/-1.35 cm; maximum diameter+/-SD) did not differ between different orientations (horizontal

  4. On 10 to 30 m-scale fracture networks in Gale Crater: Contraction of fine-grained sediments due to drying or of frozen sediments due to cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, Ronald; Hallet, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The area in Gale Crater north of the Curiosity landing site has been identified as an alluvial fan [1] and features diverse geological units [2], some with abundant contraction cracks that delineate polygons on the order of 10-30 meters across. These polygons are much larger than the < 1m flagstones seen in Yellowknife by Curiosity [3] and are more suggestive of polygonal patterned ground seen at higher latitudes on Mars [4] and Earth; however, current conditions indicate that ground ice is not stable in Gale Crater [4]. Nevertheless, past conditions, e.g. obliquity changes, may have allowed permafrost to develop and ground ice to form. The domains between the larger polygons are several meters wide, which is consistent with cyclic ratcheting of ice-cemented permafrost (thermal contraction with fractures opening, debris infilling the fractures, and the fractures not closing fully when the ground warms and expands). On the other hand, the large-scale crack networks often seem to be associated with certain lithologic units, including the thinly-bedded, lightly-colored mudstones exposed at Yellowknife. This suggests that the contraction cracks defining these 10 to 30-m polygons, as well as those defining the < 1m flagstones, formed in moist fine-grained sediments that contracted upon desiccation. If the fractures were due to contraction of ice-cemented permafrost, they would be insensitive to the type of sediments they formed in because the mechanical properties would be dominated by ice. The interpretation of the larger-scale crack network is limited to satellite images since Curiosity did not visit this area, and to evidence about surface materials elsewhere in the vicinity of the rover. This evidence points to the former presence of flowing water in Gale Crater and existence of shallow lakes of relatively low salinity and near-neutral pH at Yellowknife [5]. The large amount of contraction in Yellowknife deposits is consistent with a desiccation origin in these

  5. Dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system using non-imaging dish concentrator and crossed compound parabolic concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Yew, Tiong-Keat; Wong, Chee-Woon; Tan, Ming-Hui; Tan, Woei-Chong; Lai, An-Chow; Lim, Boon-Han; Lau, Sing-Liong; Rahman, Faidz Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Solar concentrating device plays an important role by making use of optical technology in the design, which can be either reflector or lens to deliver high flux of sunlight onto the Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) module receiver ranging from hundreds to thousand suns. To be more competitive compared with fossil fuel, the current CPV systems using Fresnel lens and Parabolic dish as solar concentrator that are widely deployed in United States, Australia and Europe are facing great challenge to produce uniformly focused sunlight on the solar cells as to reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The concept of non-imaging optics is not new, but it has not fully explored by the researchers over the world especially in solving the problem of high concentration solar energy, which application is only limited to be a secondary focusing device or low concentration device using Compound Parabolic Concentrator. With the current advancement in the computer processing power, we has successfully invented the non-imaging dish concentrator (NIDC) using numerical simulation method to replace the current parabolic dish as primary focusing device with high solar concentration ratio (more than 400 suns) and large collective area (from 25 to 125 m2). In this paper, we disclose our research and development on dense array CPV system based on non-imaging optics. The geometry of the NIDC is determined using a special computational method. In addition, an array of secondary concentrators, namely crossed compound parabolic concentrators, is also proposed to further focus the concentrated sunlight by the NIDC onto active area of solar cells of the concentrator photovoltaic receiver. The invention maximizes the absorption of concentrated sunlight for the electric power generation system.

  6. Field measurements of dry deposition to spruce foliage and petri dishes in the Black Forest, F.R.G.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Dry deposition fluxes Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Mn2+, Pb2+ and SO42- to spruce foliage and petri dishes were measured in two high-elevation sites (>900 m) in the southern Black Forest, F.R.G., during 12 periods (2-7 days, each) from mid-September to mid-November, 1983, In situ extraction of deposited material from small spruce branches allowed repeated use of the same foliar collecting surfaces for a direct comparison of deposition between periods. Fluxes were corrected for leaching of internally cycled constituents using factors determined from serial extraction experiments. The ratio of flux to petri dishes vs foliage (P/F) was >1.0 for Ca2+, Pb2+ and SO42-, and somewhat 900 m) in the southern Black Forest, F.R.G., during 12 periods (2-7 days, each) from mid-September to mid-November, 1983. The ratio of flux to petri dishes vs foliage (P/F) was >1.0 for Ca2+, Pb2+, and SO42-, and somewhat <1.0 but more constant for Mg2+. Temporal variations in dry deposition fluxes at an exposed site near the industrialized Rhine Valley correlated with variations in total air particulate concentrations at a nearby air quality station. Deposition rates were comparable in magnitude but different in temporal pattern at a remote site in the Black Forest interior. Fluxes at each site reached a minimum during the period of 4-9 November when a regional air inversion confined pollutants to the Rhine Valley below the study sites. High fluxes accompanied the inversion break-up.

  7. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  8. Fishborne zoonotic trematodes in raw fish dishes served in restaurants in Nam Dinh Province and Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Murrell, K Darwin; Madsen, Henry; Nguyen, Viet Khue; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-11-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematode (FZT) parasites are a serious food safety problem in Asian countries because of their tradition of eating raw fish. In northern Vietnam, the prevalence of FZT metacercariae (MC) in wild-caught and cultured fish is quite high. The objective of this study was to assess the risk for acquiring these parasites from raw fish dishes prepared in restaurants. Samples of fish meat (body muscle) and remainder parts (head, gills, fins, skin, and muscle tissue from the tail) were obtained from 39 restaurants located in Nam Dinh province, an area endemic for FZTs, and from 74 restaurants in the capital city of Hanoi. Six species of zoonotic intestinal trematodes were recovered from a total of nine freshwater and brackish water fish species. Overall, the prevalence of MC in meat samples was 6.1% and in remainder samples, 34.9%; freshwater fish were more often infected (39.4%) than brackish water species (16.0%). Dishes from Nam Dinh restaurants were more often infected (11.8%) than those from Hanoi (3.1%). The dominant trematode species, Haplorchis pumilio, exhibited a strong predilection for encystment in remainder fish parts (36.5%) compared with meat (3.9%). The mean density of MC in meat samples overall was low (1.0 to 1.5 MC per 50 g); however, the potential for parasites to accumulate over years of eating raw fish could result in significant clinical disease, as occurs with liver flukes. Also, the high densities of MC in the remainder parts (2.3 to 72.9 MC per 50 g) pose a threat for cross-contamination during dish preparation. PMID:19903407

  9. Materials compatibility in Dish-Stirling solar generators using Cu-Si-Mg eutectic for latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruizenga, A. M.; Withey, E. A.; Andraka, C. E.; Gibbs, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Dish-Stirling systems are a strong candidate to meet cost production goals for solar thermal power production. Thermal energy storage improves the capacity factor of thermal power systems; copper-silicon-magnesium eutectic alloys have been investigated as potential latent heat storage materials. This work examines the ability of commercially available plasma spray coatings to serve as protective barriers with these alloys, while highlighting mechanistic insights into materials for latent heat storage systems. Computed tomography was leveraged as a rapid screening tool to assess the presence of localized attack in tested coatings.

  10. Long-term self-renewal of human ES/iPS-derived hepatoblast-like cells on human laminin 111-coated dishes.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Mimura, Natsumi; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Hayakawa, Takao; Kawabata, Kenji; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of self-renewing hepatoblast-like cells (HBCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) would realize a stable supply of hepatocyte-like cells for medical applications. However, the functional characterization of human PSC-derived HBCs was not enough. To purify and expand human PSC-derived HBCs, human PSC-derived HBCs were cultured on dishes coated with various types of human recombinant laminins (LN). Human PSC-derived HBCs attached to human laminin-111 (LN111)-coated dish via integrin alpha 6 and beta 1 and were purified and expanded by culturing on the LN111-coated dish, but not by culturing on dishes coated with other laminin isoforms. By culturing on the LN111-coated dish, human PSC-derived HBCs were maintained for more than 3 months and had the ability to differentiate into both hepatocyte-like cells and cholangiocyte-like cells. These expandable human PSC-derived HBCs would be manageable tools for drug screening, experimental platforms to elucidate mechanisms of hepatoblasts, and cell sources for hepatic regenerative therapy. PMID:24319667

  11. Field measurements of dry deposition to spruce foliage and petri dishes in the black forest, F.R.G.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, James B.

    Dry deposition fluxes of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ , K +, Mn 2+, Pb 2+ and SO 2-4 to spruce foliage and petri dishes were measured in two high-elevation sites ( > 900 m) in the southern Black Forest, F.R.G., during 12 periods (2-7 days, each) from mid-September to mid-November, 1983, In situ extraction of deposited material from small spruce branches allowed repeated use of the same foliar collecting surfaces for a direct comparison of deposition between periods. Fluxes were corrected for leaching of internally cycled constituents using factors determined from serial extraction experiments. The ratio of flux to petri dishes vs foliage ( P/F) was > 1.0 for Ca 2+, Pb 2+ and SO 2-4, and somewhat < 1.0 but more constant for Mg 2+ . Temporal variations in dry deposition fluxes at an exposed site near the industrialized Rhine Valley correlated with variations in total air particulate concentrations at a nearby air quality station. Deposition rates were comparable in magnitude but different in temporal pattern at a remote site in the Black Forest interior. Fluxes at each site reached a minimum during the period of 4-9 November when a regional air inversion confined pollutants to the Rhine Valley below the study sites. High fluxes accompanied the inversion break-up.

  12. The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoan; Lee, Seung Ah; Antebi, Yaron; Elowitz, Michael B.; Yang, Changhuei

    2011-01-01

    We report a chip-scale lensless wide-field-of-view microscopy imaging technique, subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy, which can render microscopy images of growing or confluent cell cultures autonomously. We demonstrate that this technology can be used to build smart Petri dish platforms, termed ePetri, for cell culture experiments. This technique leverages the recent broad and cheap availability of high performance image sensor chips to provide a low-cost and automated microscopy solution. Unlike the two major classes of lensless microscopy methods, optofluidic microscopy and digital in-line holography microscopy, this new approach is fully capable of working with cell cultures or any samples in which cells may be contiguously connected. With our prototype, we demonstrate the ability to image samples of area 6 mm × 4 mm at 660-nm resolution. As a further demonstration, we showed that the method can be applied to image color stained cell culture sample and to image and track cell culture growth directly within an incubator. Finally, we showed that this method can track embryonic stem cell differentiations over the entire sensor surface. Smart Petri dish based on this technology can significantly streamline and improve cell culture experiments by cutting down on human labor and contamination risks. PMID:21969539

  13. Validity and reliability of a dish-based, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Korean diet and cancer research.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Noh, Hwa Young; Song, Na Yeun; Paik, Hee Young; Park, Sohee; Joung, Hyojee; Song, Won O; Kim, Jeongseon

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of applying a newly developed dish-based, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Korean diet and cancer research. The subjects in the present study were 288 Korean adults over 30 years of age who had completed two FFQs and four 3-day diet records (DRs) from May 2008 to February 2009. Student's t-tests, Chi-square tests, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to estimate and compare intakes from different dietary assessment tools. Agreement in quintiles was calculated to validate agreement between the results of the second FFQ (FFQ-2) conducted in February 2009 and the DRs. Median Spearman's correlation coefficients between the intake of nutrients and foods assessed by the FFQ-1 and FFQ-2 were 0.59 and 0.57, respectively, and the coefficients between the intake of nutrients and foods assessed by the FFQ-2 and the DRs were 0.31 and 0.29, respectively. The quintile classifications of same or adjacent quintile for intake of nutrients and foods were 64% and 65%, respectively. Misclassification into opposite quintiles occurred in less than 5% for all dietary factors. Thus this newly-developed, Korean dish-based FFQ demonstrated moderate correspondence with the four 3-day DRs. Its reliability and validity are comparable to those reported in other studies. PMID:22524822

  14. Development, solar test, and evaluation of a high-temperature air receiver for point-focusing parabolic dish applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanseth, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature solar receiver was fabricated and tested in excess of 1370 C on an 11-meter-diameter test bed concentrator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Parabolic Dish Test Site, Edwards, California. The 60-kilowatt thermal receiver design utilizes state-of-the-art silicon carbide honeycomb matrix panels to receive and transfer the solar energy and mullite elements for thermal buffer storage. Solar tests were conducted with indicated air exit temperatures ranging from 885 C (1625 F) to 1427 C (2600 F), mass flow rates of 75 to 105 g/sec (0.16 to 0.23 lbm/sec), and pressures up to 265 kPa absolute (38.4 psia). Estimates of efficiency are 59.7% at 1120 C (2048 F) to 80.6% at 885 C (1625 F) when aperture spillage losses are considered separately. Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative receiver concept for point-focusing parabolic dish applications over a wide temperature range.

  15. A Model for the Fast Synchronous Oscillations of Firing Rate in Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neurons Cultured in a Multielectrode Array Dish

    PubMed Central

    Stepanyuk, Andrey R.; Belan, Pavel V.; Kononenko, Nikolai I.

    2014-01-01

    When dispersed and cultured in a multielectrode dish (MED), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) neurons express fast oscillations of firing rate (FOFR; fast relative to the circadian cycle), with burst duration ∼10 min, and interburst interval varying from 20 to 60 min in different cells but remaining nevertheless rather regular in individual cells. In many cases, separate neurons in distant parts of the 1 mm recording area of a MED exhibited correlated FOFR. Neither the mechanism of FOFR nor the mechanism of their synchronization among neurons is known. Based on recent data implicating vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a key intercellular synchronizing agent, we built a model in which VIP acts as both a feedback regulator to generate FOFR in individual neurons, and a diffusible synchronizing agent to produce coherent electrical output of a neuronal network. In our model, VIP binding to its (VPAC2) receptors acts through Gs G-proteins to activate adenylyl cyclase (AC), increase intracellular cAMP, and open cyclic-nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channels, thus depolarizing the cell and generating neuronal firing to release VIP. In parallel, slowly developing homologous desensitization and internalization of VPAC2 receptors terminates elevation of cAMP and thereby provides an interpulse silent interval. Through mathematical modeling, we show that this VIP/VPAC2/AC/cAMP/CNG-channel mechanism is sufficient for generating reliable FOFR in single neurons. When our model for FOFR is combined with a published model of synchronization of circadian rhythms based on VIP/VPAC2 and Per gene regulation synchronization of circadian rhythms is significantly accelerated. These results suggest that (a) auto/paracrine regulation by VIP/VPAC2 and intracellular AC/cAMP/CNG-channels are sufficient to provide robust FOFR and synchrony among neurons in a heterogeneous network, and (b) this system may also participate in synchronization of circadian rhythms. PMID:25192180

  16. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  17. Design and test of a trumpet secondary concentrator for a faceted stretched membrane primary in a dish-Stirling application

    SciTech Connect

    O`Gallagher, J.J.; Winston, R.; Diver, R.B.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1995-11-01

    A ``trumpet`` type nonimaging secondary concentrator has been designed and a prototype fabricated for test with the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) 7.5 kW{sub e} dish-Stirling system. Trumpets are families of hyperbolae of revolution which can be characterized by three parameters, the exit aperture radius, the asymptotic angle, and the truncation height. The test prototype unit was designed using a detailed ray trace code to simulate the radiation distribution from the primary and modeling the performance across a range of these trumpet design parameters. The unit is 26.7 cm (10.5 in.) deep by about 69 cm (27 in.) wide, and has a geometric concentration of 1.7X. The test units were fabricated from polished copper spinnings, overcoated with vapor deposited aluminum and aluminum oxide layers and are water cooled. The objectives and test procedures for the experiments are reviewed.

  18. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  19. Clinical Trials in a Dish: The Potential of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Develop Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Haston, Kelly M; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a leading cause of death. No disease-modifying therapies are available, and preclinical animal model data have routinely failed to translate into success for therapeutics. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology holds great promise for human in vitro disease modeling because these cells can give rise to any cell in the human brain and display phenotypes specific to neurodegenerative diseases previously identified in postmortem and clinical samples. Here, we explore the potential and caveats of iPSC technology as a platform for drug development and screening, and the future potential to use large cohorts of disease-bearing iPSCs to perform clinical trials in a dish.

  20. Clinical Trials in a Dish: The Potential of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Develop Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Haston, Kelly M.; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a leading cause of death. No disease-modifying therapies are available, and preclinical animal model data have routinely failed to translate into success for therapeutics. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology holds great promise for human in vitro disease modeling because these cells can give rise to any cell in the human brain and display phenotypes specific to neurodegenerative diseases previously identified in postmortem and clinical samples. Here, we explore the potential and caveats of iPSC technology as a platform for drug development and screening, and the future potential to use large cohorts of disease-bearing iPSCs to perform clinical trials in a dish. PMID:26514199

  1. The kidney dish as a template for titanium mesh contouring in supraorbital rim fractures: a simple and effective method.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Matthew Sze-Wei; Sundar, Gangadhara; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2011-06-01

    The supraorbital rims are an integral part of facial esthetics and fractures to this region can result in obvious cosmetic deformities. When there is significant bone loss, using titanium mesh is an effective method of reconstructing the supraorbital rim. Conventional methods of contouring the rim include polyurethane skull models, customized implants, and free-form intraoperative bending of the mesh. Conventional skull models are usually based on an average 6-foot-tall Caucasian man and may not accurately simulate the supraorbital rim in persons of Asian descent. Free-form bending is associated with mesh contour irregularities, leading to palpability and protrusion and to nonanatomic conformation of mesh. The kidney dish, a commonly available implement in the operating room, can be used as a template for reconstruction of the supraorbital rims and this technique is described in the present report. PMID:21470748

  2. Directed midbrain and spinal cord neurogenesis from pluripotent stem cells to model development and disease in a dish.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Ilary; Hedlund, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Induction of specific neuronal fates is restricted in time and space in the developing CNS through integration of extrinsic morphogen signals and intrinsic determinants. Morphogens impose regional characteristics on neural progenitors and establish distinct progenitor domains. Such domains are defined by unique expression patterns of fate determining transcription factors. These processes of neuronal fate specification can be recapitulated in vitro using pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we focus on the generation of dopamine neurons and motor neurons, which are induced at ventral positions of the neural tube through Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and defined at anteroposterior positions by fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 8, Wnt1, and retinoic acid (RA). In vitro utilization of these morphogenic signals typically results in the generation of multiple neuronal cell types, which are defined at the intersection of these signals. If the purpose of in vitro neurogenesis is to generate one cell type only, further lineage restriction can be accomplished by forced expression of specific transcription factors in a permissive environment. Alternatively, cell-sorting strategies allow for selection of neuronal progenitors or mature neurons. However, modeling development, disease and prospective therapies in a dish could benefit from structured heterogeneity, where desired neurons are appropriately synaptically connected and thus better reflect the three-dimensional structure of that region. By modulating the extrinsic environment to direct sequential generation of neural progenitors within a domain, followed by self-organization and synaptic establishment, a reductionist model of that brain region could be created. Here we review recent advances in neuronal fate induction in vitro, with a focus on the interplay between cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and discuss the implications for studying development and disease in a dish. PMID:24904255

  3. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  4. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  5. Water Content in the SW USA Mantle Lithosphere: FTIR Analysis of Dish Hill and Kilbourne Hole Pyroxenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibler, Robert; Peslier, Anne H.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Brandon, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Kilbourne Hole (NM, USA) and Dish Hill (CA, USA) mantle xenoliths sample continental mantle in two different tectonic settings. Kilbourne Hole (KH) is located in the Rio Grande rift. Dish Hill (DH) is located in the southern Mojave province, an area potentially affected by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. FTIR analyses were obtained on well characterized pyroxenite, dunite and wehrlite xenoliths, thought to represent crystallized melts at mantle depths. PUM normalized REE patterns of the KH bulk-rocks are slightly LREE enriched and consistent with those of liquids generated by < 5% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Clinopyroxenes contain from 272 to 313 ppm weight H2O similar to the lower limit of KH peridotite clinopyroxenes (250-530 ppm H2O). This is unexpected as crystallized melts like pyroxenites should concentrate water more than residual mantle-like peridotites, given that H is incompatible. PUM normalized bulk REE of the DH pyroxenites are characterized by flat to LREE depleted REE profiles consistent with > 6% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Pyroxenite pyroxenes have no detectable water but one DH wehrlite, which bulk-rock is LREE enriched, has 4 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene and <1ppm in clinopyroxene. The DH pyroxenites may thus come from a dry mantle source, potentially unaffected by the subduction of the Farallon plate. These water-poor melts either originated from shallow oceanic lithosphere overlaying the Farallon slab or from continental mantle formed > 2 Ga. The Farallon subduction appears to have enriched in water the southwestern United States lithospheric mantle further east than DH, beneath the Colorado plateau.

  6. Directed midbrain and spinal cord neurogenesis from pluripotent stem cells to model development and disease in a dish

    PubMed Central

    Allodi, Ilary; Hedlund, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Induction of specific neuronal fates is restricted in time and space in the developing CNS through integration of extrinsic morphogen signals and intrinsic determinants. Morphogens impose regional characteristics on neural progenitors and establish distinct progenitor domains. Such domains are defined by unique expression patterns of fate determining transcription factors. These processes of neuronal fate specification can be recapitulated in vitro using pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we focus on the generation of dopamine neurons and motor neurons, which are induced at ventral positions of the neural tube through Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and defined at anteroposterior positions by fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 8, Wnt1, and retinoic acid (RA). In vitro utilization of these morphogenic signals typically results in the generation of multiple neuronal cell types, which are defined at the intersection of these signals. If the purpose of in vitro neurogenesis is to generate one cell type only, further lineage restriction can be accomplished by forced expression of specific transcription factors in a permissive environment. Alternatively, cell-sorting strategies allow for selection of neuronal progenitors or mature neurons. However, modeling development, disease and prospective therapies in a dish could benefit from structured heterogeneity, where desired neurons are appropriately synaptically connected and thus better reflect the three-dimensional structure of that region. By modulating the extrinsic environment to direct sequential generation of neural progenitors within a domain, followed by self-organization and synaptic establishment, a reductionist model of that brain region could be created. Here we review recent advances in neuronal fate induction in vitro, with a focus on the interplay between cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and discuss the implications for studying development and disease in a dish. PMID:24904255

  7. Optimization of metacercarial production for three digenean species by the use of petri dishes for raising lettuce-fed Galba truncatula.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Fousi, M; Vignoles, P; Moncef, M; Dreyfuss, G

    2007-03-01

    Experimental infections of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna, or Paramphistomum daubneyi were carried out at 20 degrees C to determine if the use of 14-cm petri dishes for breeding lettuce-fed snails enhanced the characteristics of snail infections. Compared to infected snails raised in boxes up to day 30 post-exposure and later in individual 35-mm dishes, the survival of G. truncatula kept in 14-cm dishes and the shell height of cercariae-shedding snails during the first 45 days were higher, whatever the digenean species is. The consequence of such enhanced characteristics was a greater production of metacercariae in the case of F. hepatica (1.7 to 5.6 times higher) and P. daubneyi (2.3 times). In contrast, metacercariae of F. magna were few in number, whatever the method of snail breeding is, and this might be explained by a still incomplete adaptation between the parasite of Czech origin and the French population of G. truncatula. The use of these 14-cm dishes reduced the time necessary for snail maintenance and metacercaria collection, thus allowing a decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production. PMID:17061111

  8. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Methods: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. Results: after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). Conclusions: combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer. PMID:27015418

  9. Association between Motives for Dish Choices during Home Meal Preparation and Weight Status in the NutriNet-Santé Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pauline; Fassier, Philippine; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Although home cooking has been associated with a lower body mass index in a few studies, no data exists on the motives behind food dish choices during home meal preparation and on their association with overweight. This study aimed to evaluate this association in 50,003 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dimensions underlying the importance of 27 criteria possibly influencing dish choices were determined using an exploratory factor analysis. The association between dish choice motives and overweight (including obesity) was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Five dimensions of dishes choice motives emerged: healthy diet (e.g., “nutritional balance of the dish”), constraints (e.g., “my cooking skills”), pleasure (e.g., “originality of the dish”), specific diets (e.g., “my health status”), and organization (e.g., “what I planned to eat”). A negative association was observed between the healthy diet factor and being overweight (OR = 0.65 (95% CI (confidence interval): 0.62–0.67)), whereas a positive association appeared for factors regarding pleasure (OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10–1.19)) and specific diets (OR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17–1.22)). No significant associations were observed for constraints and organization. The significant associations between dish choice motives and overweight suggested the interest of focusing on these motives in order to promote healthier food choices during home cooking. PMID:27399764

  10. Effects of a 30-mL Epidural Normal Saline Bolus on Time to Full Motor Recovery in Parturients Who Received Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia With 0.125% Bupivacaine With 2 µg/mL of Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Couture, Darren; Osborne, Lisa; Peterson, Jeffery A; Clements, Sharon M; Sanders, Andrew; Spring, Julie A; Spence, Dennis L

    2016-06-01

    Previous research suggests that an epidural bolus of 30 mL of normal saline after vaginal delivery may decrease the time for recovery from motor block. A double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted in 46 parturients to determine if a 30-mL normal saline bolus or sham administered via epidural approach after delivery reduces the time to full motor recovery and the time to 2-dermatome regression. No significant difference was found in time to full motor recovery (saline group 83.18 ± 54 minutes vs control group 100.23 ± 48 minutes, P = .27) or time to 2-dermatome sensory regression (saline group 29.32 ± 16.35 minutes vs control group 36.14 ± 14.39 minutes, P = .15). Results suggest no advantage to the administration of a saline bolus after delivery to hasten the motor recovery in parturients. A post hoc power analysis suggested a sample size of 204 subjects would have been needed to show a difference for this dilute local anesthetic regimen. There were no complications to the technique, which suggests that it is safe to perform, but the difference in recovery (approximately 17 minutes) from a dilute local anesthetic dose may not be clinically significant. PMID:27501650

  11. Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Songgang; Galbraith, Ross

    2013-01-23

    This final report summarizes the final results of the Phase II Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation project being performed by Infinia Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FC36-08GO18157 during the project period of September 1, 2009 - August 30, 2012. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the practicality of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) modules, using a suitable thermal salt phase-change material (PCM) as its medium, with a dish/Stirling engine; enabling the system to operate during cloud transients and to provide dispatchable power for 4 to 6 hours after sunset. A laboratory prototype designed to provide 3 kW-h of net electrical output was constructed and tested at Infinia's Ogden Headquarters. In the course of the testing, it was determined that the system's heat pipe network - used to transfer incoming heat from the solar receiver to both the Stirling generator heater head and to the phase change salt - did not perform to expectations. The heat pipes had limited capacity to deliver sufficient heat energy to the generator and salt mass while in a charging mode, which was highly dependent on the orientation of the device (vertical versus horizontal). In addition, the TES system was only able to extract about 30 to 40% of the expected amount of energy from the phase change salt once it was fully molten. However, the use of heat pipes to transfer heat energy to and from a thermal energy storage medium is a key technical innovation, and the project team feels that the limitations of the current device could be greatly improved with further development. A detailed study of manufacturing costs using the prototype TES module as a basis indicates that meeting DOE LCOE goals with this hardware requires significant efforts. Improvement can be made by implementing aggressive cost-down initiatives in design and materials, improving system

  12. Dish-based high concentration PV system with Köhler optics.

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Blake M; Stalcup, Thomas; Wheelwright, Brian; Geary, Andrew; Hammer, Kimberly; Angel, Roger

    2014-03-10

    We present work at the Steward Observatory Solar Lab on a high concentration photovoltaic system in which sunlight focused by a single large paraboloidal mirror powers many small triple-junction cells. The optical system is of the XRX-Köhler type, comprising the primary reflector (X) and a ball lens (R) at the focus that reimages the primary reflector onto an array of small reflectors (X) that apportion the light to the cells. We present a design methodology that provides generous tolerance to mis-pointing, uniform illumination across individual cells, minimal optical loss and even distribution between cells, for efficient series connection. An operational prototype has been constructed with a 3.3m x 3.3m square primary reflector of 2m focal length powering 36 actively cooled triple-junction cells at 1200x concentration (geometric). The measured end-to-end system conversion efficiency is 28%, including the parasitic loss of the active cooling system. Efficiency ~32% is projected for the next system.

  13. A Dishful of a Troubled Mind: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Psychiatric Research

    PubMed Central

    Kálmán, Sára; Hathy, Edit; Réthelyi, János M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and direct reprogramming represent powerful methods for modeling the development of neurons in vitro. Moreover, this approach is also a means for comparing various cellular phenotypes between cell lines originating from healthy and diseased individuals or isogenic cell lines engineered to differ at only one or a few genomic loci. Despite methodological constraints and initial skepticism regarding this approach, the field is expanding at a fast pace. The improvements include the development of new differentiation protocols resulting in selected neuronal populations (e.g., dopaminergic, GABAergic, hippocampal, and cortical), the widespread use of genome editing methods, and single-cell techniques. A major challenge awaiting in vitro disease modeling is the integration of clinical data in the models, by selection of well characterized clinical populations. Ideally, these models will also demonstrate how different diagnostic categories share overlapping molecular disease mechanisms, but also have unique characteristics. In this review we evaluate studies with regard to the described developments, to demonstrate how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and direct reprogramming can contribute to psychiatry. PMID:26839567

  14. Dish-based high concentration PV system with Köhler optics.

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Blake M; Stalcup, Thomas; Wheelwright, Brian; Geary, Andrew; Hammer, Kimberly; Angel, Roger

    2014-03-10

    We present work at the Steward Observatory Solar Lab on a high concentration photovoltaic system in which sunlight focused by a single large paraboloidal mirror powers many small triple-junction cells. The optical system is of the XRX-Köhler type, comprising the primary reflector (X) and a ball lens (R) at the focus that reimages the primary reflector onto an array of small reflectors (X) that apportion the light to the cells. We present a design methodology that provides generous tolerance to mis-pointing, uniform illumination across individual cells, minimal optical loss and even distribution between cells, for efficient series connection. An operational prototype has been constructed with a 3.3m x 3.3m square primary reflector of 2m focal length powering 36 actively cooled triple-junction cells at 1200x concentration (geometric). The measured end-to-end system conversion efficiency is 28%, including the parasitic loss of the active cooling system. Efficiency ~32% is projected for the next system. PMID:24922230

  15. Dish-based high concentration PV system with Köhler optics.

    PubMed

    Coughenour, Blake M; Stalcup, Thomas; Wheelwright, Brian; Geary, Andrew; Hammer, Kimberly; Angel, Roger

    2014-03-10

    We present work at the Steward Observatory Solar Lab on a high concentration photovoltaic system in which sunlight focused by a single large paraboloidal mirror powers many small triple-junction cells. The optical system is of the XRX-Köhler type, comprising the primary reflector (X) and a ball lens (R) at the focus that reimages the primary reflector onto an array of small reflectors (X) that apportion the light to the cells. We present a design methodology that provides generous tolerance to mis-pointing, uniform illumination across individual cells, minimal optical loss and even distribution between cells, for efficient series connection. An operational prototype has been constructed with a 3.3m x 3.3m square primary reflector of 2m focal length powering 36 actively cooled triple-junction cells at 1200x concentration (geometric). The measured end-to-end system conversion efficiency is 28%, including the parasitic loss of the active cooling system. Efficiency ~32% is projected for the next system. PMID:24800277

  16. Disease-in-a-dish: the contribution of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell technology to regenerative rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mack, David L; Guan, Xuan; Wagoner, Ashley; Walker, Stephen J; Childers, Martin K

    2014-11-01

    Advances in regenerative medicine technologies will lead to dramatic changes in how patients in rehabilitation medicine clinics are treated in the upcoming decades. The multidisciplinary field of regenerative medicine is developing new tools for disease modeling and drug discovery based on induced pluripotent stem cells. This approach capitalizes on the idea of personalized medicine by using the patient's own cells to discover new drugs, increasing the likelihood of a favorable outcome. The search for compounds that can correct disease defects in the culture dish is a conceptual departure from how drug screens were done in the past. This system proposes a closed loop from sample collection from the diseased patient, to in vitro disease model, to drug discovery and Food and Drug Administration approval, to delivering that drug back to the same patient. Here, recent progress in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell derivation, directed differentiation toward diseased cell types, and how those cells can be used for high-throughput drug screens are reviewed. Given that restoration of normal function is a driving force in rehabilitation medicine, the authors believe that this drug discovery platform focusing on phenotypic rescue will become a key contributor to therapeutic compounds in regenerative rehabilitation.

  17. Sensitive voltammetric determination of lead released from ceramic dishes by using of bismuth nanostructures anchored on biochar.

    PubMed

    Agustini, Deonir; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto

    2015-09-01

    A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for determination of nanomolar levels of Pb(II) based on the voltammetric stripping response at a carbon paste electrode modified with biochar (a special charcoal) and bismuth nanostructures (nBi-BchCPE). The proposed methodology was based on spontaneous interactions between the highly functionalized biochar surface and Pb(II) ions followed by reduction of these ions into bismuth nanodots which promote an improvement on the stripping anodic current. The experimental procedure could be summarized in three steps: including an open circuit pre-concentration, reduction of accumulated lead ions at the electrode surface and stripping step under differential pulse voltammetric conditions (DPAdSV). SEM images revealed dimensions of bismuth nanodots ranging from 20 nm to 70 nm. The effects of main parameters related to biochar, bismuth and operational parameters were examined in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed sensor has exhibited linear range from 5.0 to 1000 nmol L(-1) and detection limit of 1.41 nmol L(-1) for Pb(II). The optimized method was successfully applied for determination of Pb(II) released from overglaze-decorated ceramic dishes. Results obtained were compared with those given by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and they are in agreement at 99% of confidence level.

  18. Sensitive voltammetric determination of lead released from ceramic dishes by using of bismuth nanostructures anchored on biochar.

    PubMed

    Agustini, Deonir; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto

    2015-09-01

    A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for determination of nanomolar levels of Pb(II) based on the voltammetric stripping response at a carbon paste electrode modified with biochar (a special charcoal) and bismuth nanostructures (nBi-BchCPE). The proposed methodology was based on spontaneous interactions between the highly functionalized biochar surface and Pb(II) ions followed by reduction of these ions into bismuth nanodots which promote an improvement on the stripping anodic current. The experimental procedure could be summarized in three steps: including an open circuit pre-concentration, reduction of accumulated lead ions at the electrode surface and stripping step under differential pulse voltammetric conditions (DPAdSV). SEM images revealed dimensions of bismuth nanodots ranging from 20 nm to 70 nm. The effects of main parameters related to biochar, bismuth and operational parameters were examined in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed sensor has exhibited linear range from 5.0 to 1000 nmol L(-1) and detection limit of 1.41 nmol L(-1) for Pb(II). The optimized method was successfully applied for determination of Pb(II) released from overglaze-decorated ceramic dishes. Results obtained were compared with those given by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and they are in agreement at 99% of confidence level. PMID:26003715

  19. Feasibility study on the use of polyallyldiglycol-carbonate cell dishes in TUNEL assay for alpha particle radiobiological experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. F.; Yum, E. H. W.; Wan, C. K.; Fong, W. F.; Yu, K. N.

    2007-08-01

    In the present work, we have studied the feasibility of a method based on polyallyldiglycol-carbonate (PADC) films to investigate the effects of alpha particles on HeLa cervix cancer cells. Thin PADC films with thickness of about 20 μm were prepared from commercially available CR-39 films by chemical etching to fabricate custom-made petri dishes for cell culture, which could accurately record alpha particle hit positions. A special method involving "base tracks" for aligning the images of cell nuclei and alpha particle hits has been proposed, so that alpha particle transversals of cell nuclei can be visually counted. Radiobiological experiments were carried out to induce DNA damages, with the TdT-mediated d UTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence method employed to detect DNA strand breaks. The staining results were investigated by flow cytometer. The preliminary results showed that more strand breaks occurred in cells hit by alpha particles with lower energies. Moreover, large TUNEL positive signals were obtained even with small percentages of cells irradiated and TUNEL signals were also obtained from non-targeted cells. These provided evidence for the bystander effect.

  20. Trivalent cation-controlled phase space of new U(IV) fluorides, Na3MU6F30 (M = Al(3+), Ga(3+), Ti(3+), V(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+)): mild hydrothermal synthesis including an in situ reduction step, structures, optical, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Jeongho; Smith, Mark D; Morrison, Gregory; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2015-02-16

    A series of new, complex U(IV) fluorides, namely, Na3MU6F30 (M = Al(3+), Ga(3+), Ti(3+), V(3+), Cr(3+), and Fe(3+)), containing trivalent transition- and main-group metal cations were synthesized via an in situ reduction step of U(VI) to U(IV). Single crystals of the series were grown in high yield under mild hydrothermal conditions and were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The reported compounds crystallize in the trigonal space group P3̅c1 and exhibit complex crystal structures with a three-dimensional (3-D) framework composed of corner- and edge-shared UF9 polyhedra. The arrangement of U2F16 dimers forms two types of hexagonal channels, where MF6 polyhedra and sodium atoms are located. The most interesting structural feature is the presence of the 3-D framework that can accommodate various transition-metal ions in low oxidation states, indicating that the framework acts as an excellent host. Trivalent transition metal ions, even reduced Ti(3+) and V(3+), were stabilized by both the rigid framework and by our synthetic conditions. Utilizing ionic radii of transition metal ions, a phase boundary was investigated, suggesting that there exists a size limit for the M site in the crystal structure. The valence state of uranium was studied by U 4f X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of U(4+). Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements yielded effective magnetic moments of 3.50 and 3.35 μB for Na3MU6F30 (M = Al(3+) and Ga(3+)), respectively. For the other compounds, combined effective magnetic moments of 8.93, 9.09, 9.18, and 10.39 μB were obtained for Ti, V, Cr, and Fe members, respectively. In all cases, large negative Weiss constants were observed, which are indicative of the existence of a spin gap in U(4+). Field-dependent magnetic property measurements at 2 K for Na3FeU6F30 demonstrated that U(4+) attains a nonmagnetic singlet ground state at low temperature. Optical and thermal properties were

  1. The dish-Rankine SCSTPE program (Engineering Experiment no. 1). [systems engineering and economic analysis for a small community solar thermal electric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.; Grigsby, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities planned for phase 2 Of the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (PFDR) program are summarized with emphasis on a dish-Rankine point focusing distributed receiver solar thermal electric system. Major design efforts include: (1) development of an advanced concept indirect-heated receiver;(2) development of hardware and software for a totally unmanned power plant control system; (3) implementation of a hybrid digital simulator which will validate plant operation prior to field testing; and (4) the acquisition of an efficient organic Rankine cycle power conversion unit. Preliminary performance analyses indicate that a mass-produced dish-Rankine PFDR system is potentially capable of producing electricity at a levelized busbar energy cost of 60 to 70 mills per KWh and with a capital cost of about $1300 per KW.

  2. Chefs move to schools. A pilot examination of how chef-created dishes can increase school lunch participation and fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Just, David R; Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S

    2014-12-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of introducing a main dish designed by a professional chef in the National School Lunch Program and to document the impact on child participation, a chef was recruited to design pizza to be served in an upstate New York school district. The pizza was designed to meet both the cost and ingredient requirements of the NSLP. High school students were significantly more likely to select the pizza prepared by the chef. While the chef had no significant impact on main dish consumption given selection, more students took a vegetable and vegetable consumption increased by 16.5%. This pilot study demonstrates the plausibility of using chefs to boost participation in the school lunch program, and potentially increase nutrition through side selection, among high school students. PMID:25173063

  3. Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2013-03-01

    Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. PMID:23052784

  4. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of a complete transverse electromagnetic cell loaded with liquid biological media in culture dishes.

    PubMed

    Popović, M; Hagness, S C; Taflove, A

    1998-08-01

    Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells can be used for exposing biological culture specimens to electromagnetic fields and observing possible anomalous effects. The uniformity of field exposure is critical to quantifying the biological response versus the electromagnetic dose. Standing waves and other electromagnetic field nonuniformities can cause nonuniform exposure. This paper reports the results of high-resolution three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of a complete TEM cell designed for operation at 837 MHz. Several different cases were studied in which the number of culture dishes, the depth of the culture liquid, and the orientation of the culture dishes were varied. Further, the effect of the culture-dish glass bottom thickness and the meniscus of the liquid medium were examined. The FDTD results show that there is a significant nonuniform field and specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution within the culture medium for each case examined. Hence, biological dose-response experiments using the TEM cells should account for the possibility of strong localized SAR peaking in the culture media to provide useful data in setting exposure standards for wireless communications.

  5. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. PMID:25124478

  6. Root architecture and morphometric analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana grown in Cd/Cu/Zn-gradient agar dishes: A new screening technique for studying plant response to metals.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Rocco; Sofo, Adriano; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Amato, Mariana; Scopa, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    A new screening strategy using Petri dishes with a gradient of distances between germinating seeds and a metal-contaminated medium was used for studying alterations in root architecture and morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana treated with cadmium, copper and zinc at sub-toxic concentrations. Metal concentrations in the dishes were determined by anodic stripping voltammetry on digested agar samples collected along the gradient, and kriging statistical interpolation method was performed. After two weeks, all agar dishes were scanned at high resolution and the root systems analyzed. In the presence of all the three metals, primary root length did not significantly change compared to controls, excepting for zinc applied alone (+45% of controls). In metal-treated seedlings, root system total length increased due to the higher number of lateral roots. The seedlings closer to the agar sectors including metals showed a marked curvature and a higher root branching in comparison to those further away from the metals. This behavior, together with an observed increase in root diameter in metal-treated seedlings could be interpreted as compensatory growth, and a thicker roots could act as a barrier to protect root from the metals. We therefore propose that the remodeling of the root architecture in response to metals could be a pollution 'escaping strategy' aimed at seeking metal-free patches.

  7. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor.

  8. Prevalence and levels of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin in rice dishes randomly collected from restaurants and comparison with the levels measured in a recent foodborne outbreak.

    PubMed

    Delbrassinne, Laurence; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah; Mahillon, Jacques; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-09-01

    Whereas the prevalence of Bacillus cereus emetic strains in the environment has been shown to be very low, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of its toxin, cereulide, in food. Yet, the rice leftovers of a family outbreak which occurred after the consumption of dishes taken away from an Asian restaurant revealed significant amounts of cereulide, reaching up to 13,200 ng/g of food. The occurrence of cereulide in rice dishes collected from various restaurants was therefore evaluated using the liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method, which allows for the direct quantification of the toxin in food. The cereulide prevalence was found to be 7.4% when samples were analyzed at the day of sampling, but reached 12.9% when exposed to temperature abuse conditions (25°C). The cereulide concentrations observed in cooked rice dishes were low (approximately 4 ng/g of food). However, since little is known yet about the potential chronic toxicity of cereulide, one needs to be very careful and vigilant. PMID:22891880

  9. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended pork meat dishes in Antananarivo, Madagascar: a risk for the consumers?

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Eric; Abat, Cédric; Bénédicte, Contamin; Vincent, Porphyre; Michel, Rakotoharinome; Muriel, Maeder

    2015-03-01

    Street-food vending has been increasing in many developing countries and particularly in Madagascar since 2000. Gastroenteric diseases cause 37% of all deaths each year, and 50% of children <5 years are infected with intestinal pathogens. However, there has been little information regarding the incidence of street-food-related diseases, or foodborne pathogens in pork, which is the most commonly eaten meat, along with chicken. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended pork dishes and to assess the association of restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of these meals. Sixty street-restaurants were studied from March 2012 to August 2012 in Antananarivo. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat pork dishes were bought. Salmonella spp. were isolated in 10% of the 60 street-restaurants studied and in 5% samples of pork dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella Typhimurium (44%) and Senftenberg (33%). Campylobacter was not detected. Only 4 of the 43 variables tested in the screening analysis were significantly associated with Salmonella spp. contamination of the street-restaurants. The risk for a restaurant to be Salmonella positive decreased when there were specific premises for the restaurant and when the staff was wearing specific clothes when working. Conversely, that risk increased when the temperature of ready-to-eat pork was <52 °C and when tablecloths were used in the restaurant. PMID:25764444

  10. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended pork meat dishes in Antananarivo, Madagascar: a risk for the consumers?

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Eric; Abat, Cédric; Bénédicte, Contamin; Vincent, Porphyre; Michel, Rakotoharinome; Muriel, Maeder

    2015-03-01

    Street-food vending has been increasing in many developing countries and particularly in Madagascar since 2000. Gastroenteric diseases cause 37% of all deaths each year, and 50% of children <5 years are infected with intestinal pathogens. However, there has been little information regarding the incidence of street-food-related diseases, or foodborne pathogens in pork, which is the most commonly eaten meat, along with chicken. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended pork dishes and to assess the association of restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of these meals. Sixty street-restaurants were studied from March 2012 to August 2012 in Antananarivo. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat pork dishes were bought. Salmonella spp. were isolated in 10% of the 60 street-restaurants studied and in 5% samples of pork dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella Typhimurium (44%) and Senftenberg (33%). Campylobacter was not detected. Only 4 of the 43 variables tested in the screening analysis were significantly associated with Salmonella spp. contamination of the street-restaurants. The risk for a restaurant to be Salmonella positive decreased when there were specific premises for the restaurant and when the staff was wearing specific clothes when working. Conversely, that risk increased when the temperature of ready-to-eat pork was <52 °C and when tablecloths were used in the restaurant.

  11. Prevalence and levels of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin in rice dishes randomly collected from restaurants and comparison with the levels measured in a recent foodborne outbreak.

    PubMed

    Delbrassinne, Laurence; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah; Mahillon, Jacques; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-09-01

    Whereas the prevalence of Bacillus cereus emetic strains in the environment has been shown to be very low, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of its toxin, cereulide, in food. Yet, the rice leftovers of a family outbreak which occurred after the consumption of dishes taken away from an Asian restaurant revealed significant amounts of cereulide, reaching up to 13,200 ng/g of food. The occurrence of cereulide in rice dishes collected from various restaurants was therefore evaluated using the liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method, which allows for the direct quantification of the toxin in food. The cereulide prevalence was found to be 7.4% when samples were analyzed at the day of sampling, but reached 12.9% when exposed to temperature abuse conditions (25°C). The cereulide concentrations observed in cooked rice dishes were low (approximately 4 ng/g of food). However, since little is known yet about the potential chronic toxicity of cereulide, one needs to be very careful and vigilant.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (BURKTH00070016) on Town Highway 7, crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Severance, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BURKTH00070016 on Town Highway 7 crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 6.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the left bank upstream which is brushland. In the study area, Dish Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 40 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 94.1 mm (0.309 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of Dish Mill Brook is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 35 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left and right

  13. Dishing Out the Assist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Running a high-quality Web site is a tall order for any college athletic department. That is why specialized Web-hosting companies have stepped up to lend a hand. Until this past January, Kristene Kelly managed Johnson C. Smith University's athletic department Web site the old-fashioned way--relying largely on the assistance of the school's…

  14. Aiming a Satellite Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebrowski, Ernest, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Develops a pair of equations for calculating the elevation and azimuth angles for the various satellites. Uses 3-dimensional vector difference calculations. Provides a practical example, figures, and table. (YP)

  15. Automated reduction of sub-millimetre single-dish heterodyne data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope using ORAC-DR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Currie, Malcolm J.; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Cavanagh, Brad; Berry, David S.; Leech, Jamie; Rizzi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    With the advent of modern multidetector heterodyne instruments that can result in observations generating thousands of spectra per minute it is no longer feasible to reduce these data as individual spectra. We describe the automated data reduction procedure used to generate baselined data cubes from heterodyne data obtained at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The system can automatically detect baseline regions in spectra and automatically determine regridding parameters, all without input from a user. Additionally, it can detect and remove spectra suffering from transient interference effects or anomalous baselines. The pipeline is written as a set of recipes using the ORAC-DR pipeline environment with the algorithmic code using Starlink software packages and infrastructure. The algorithms presented here can be applied to other heterodyne array instruments and have been applied to data from historical JCMT heterodyne instrumentation.

  16. Physical Conditions of the Earliest Phases of Massive Star Formation: Single-dish and Interferometric Observations of Ammonia and CCS in Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirienzo, William J.; Brogan, Crystal; Indebetouw, Rémy; Chandler, Claire J.; Friesen, Rachel K.; Devine, Kathryn E.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) harbor the earliest phases of massive star formation, and many of the compact cores in IRDCs, traced by millimeter continuum or by molecular emission in high critical density lines, host massive young stellar objects (YSOs). We used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to map {NH}{}3 and CCS in nine IRDCs to reveal the temperature, density, and velocity structures and explore chemical evolution in the dense (\\gt {10}22 {cm}{}-2) gas. Ammonia is an excellent molecular tracer for these cold, dense environments. The internal structure and kinematics of the IRDCs include velocity gradients, filaments, and possibly colliding clumps that elucidate the formation process of these structures and their YSOs. We find a wide variety of substructure including filaments and globules at distinct velocities, sometimes overlapping at sites of ongoing star formation. It appears that these IRDCs are still being assembled from molecular gas clumps even as star formation has already begun, and at least three of them appear consistent with the morphology of “hub-filament structures” discussed in the literature. Furthermore, we find that these clumps are typically near equipartition between gravitational and kinetic energies, so these structures may survive for multiple free-fall times.

  17. The effects of packaging method (vacuum pouch vs. plastic tray) on spoilage in a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two packaging methods on the spoilage of a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration were studied. Raw pork cuts and pre-cooked tomato sauce were packed under vacuum "sous vide" in polyamide-polypropylene pouches (SV) or into translucent polypropylene trays under modified atmosphere (80% N(2)+20% CO(2)) and sealed with a top film (PT). Samples were cooked inside the pack at an oven temperature/time of 70 degrees C/7h, chilled at 3 degrees C and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 90days. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic-acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity and total acidity) and sensory (colour, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. Heat penetration was faster in SV (2 degrees C/min) than in PT (1 degrees C/min) (core temperature). Both packaging methods were equally effective in protecting against microbial spoilage for 90 day at 2 degrees C. Minor counts were only detected for lactic-acid bacteria and anaerobic psychrotrophs in SV. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was found. Slight differences between SV and PT in pH and total acidity were observed. SV and PT had similar effects on the sensory preservation of the dishes. A gradual loss of acceptance of the cooked pork and tomato sauce was observed. Rancid flavour in PT and warmed-over-flavour in SV were noted in the final stages of storage. According to acceptance scores, the shelf-life of both SV and PT was 56 days at 2 degrees C. Both packaging methods can be used to manufacture sous vide meat-based dishes subsequently stored under refrigeration for catering use. PMID:20374821

  18. The effects of packaging method (vacuum pouch vs. plastic tray) on spoilage in a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two packaging methods on the spoilage of a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration were studied. Raw pork cuts and pre-cooked tomato sauce were packed under vacuum "sous vide" in polyamide-polypropylene pouches (SV) or into translucent polypropylene trays under modified atmosphere (80% N(2)+20% CO(2)) and sealed with a top film (PT). Samples were cooked inside the pack at an oven temperature/time of 70 degrees C/7h, chilled at 3 degrees C and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 90days. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic-acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity and total acidity) and sensory (colour, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. Heat penetration was faster in SV (2 degrees C/min) than in PT (1 degrees C/min) (core temperature). Both packaging methods were equally effective in protecting against microbial spoilage for 90 day at 2 degrees C. Minor counts were only detected for lactic-acid bacteria and anaerobic psychrotrophs in SV. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was found. Slight differences between SV and PT in pH and total acidity were observed. SV and PT had similar effects on the sensory preservation of the dishes. A gradual loss of acceptance of the cooked pork and tomato sauce was observed. Rancid flavour in PT and warmed-over-flavour in SV were noted in the final stages of storage. According to acceptance scores, the shelf-life of both SV and PT was 56 days at 2 degrees C. Both packaging methods can be used to manufacture sous vide meat-based dishes subsequently stored under refrigeration for catering use.

  19. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  20. Osmium isotope evidence for Early to Middle Proterozoic mantle lithosphere stabilization and concomitant production of juvenile crust in Dish Hill, CA peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, Rosalind M. G.; Brandon, Alan D.; Peslier, Anne H.; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    The 187Os/188Os compositions in peridotite samples from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) can be used to constrain the timing of melt extraction and potentially test the link between large-scale mantle melting and juvenile crust production. The SCLM has often experienced a complex history such that some lithophile elements such as REEs (rare earth elements) in these rocks typically record overprinting during metasomatism. New 187Os/188Os, major and trace element compositional data were obtained on sixteen Dish Hill peridotite xenoliths (California, USA) and are used to examine these issues. The samples show strong correlations between 187Os/188Os and indicators of melt depletion such as Lu abundance in clinopyroxene, modal abundance of clinopyroxene, bulk rock Al2O3 and the Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel. These relationships indicate that metasomatism did not compromise the 187Os/188Os systematics. The data appear to form two melt depletion trends consistent with Re depletion model ages (TRD) obtained from the two Al2O3 versus 187Os/188Os trends are 2.1 ± 0.5 Ga and 1.3 ± 0.3 Ga (±95% conf.). It has been suggested that the SCLM under Dish Hill may be fragments of oceanic lithosphere emplaced as the result of Farallon plate subduction during the Late Cretaceous (Luffi et al., 2009). However, the strong melt depletion trends, major element compositions and Re-depletion ages are not consistent with the interpretation of this suite of xenoliths having an oceanic lithospheric origin. Rather, the 2.1 Ga age coincides with Nd model ages of 2-2.3 Ga (Bennett and DePaolo, 1987; Rämö and Calzia, 1998) for the overlying Mojavia crustal province. The 1.3 Ga age is consistent with large-scale A-type magmatism in the nearby region at this time that is purported to be the result of mantle plume melting processes. Therefore, data from this study point to the SCLM under Dish Hill being formed by two ancient mantle-melting events, which could be the result of

  1. An Approach for the Long-Term 30-m Land Surface Snow-Free Albedo Retrieval from Historic Landsat Surface Reflectance and MODIS-based A Priori Anisotropy Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal B.; He, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Land surface albedo has been recognized by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) as an essential climate variable crucial for accurate modeling and monitoring of the Earth's radiative budget. While global climate studies can leverage albedo datasets from MODIS, VIIRS, and other coarse-resolution sensors, many applications in heterogeneous environments can benefit from higher-resolution albedo products derived from Landsat. We previously developed a "MODIS-concurrent" approach for the 30-meter albedo estimation which relied on combining post-2000 Landsat data with MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) information. Here we present a "pre-MODIS era" approach to extend 30-m surface albedo generation in time back to the 1980s, through an a priori anisotropy Look-Up Table (LUT) built up from the high quality MCD43A BRDF estimates over representative homogenous regions. Each entry in the LUT reflects a unique combination of land cover, seasonality, terrain information, disturbance age and type, and Landsat optical spectral bands. An initial conceptual LUT was created for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States and provides BRDF shapes estimated from MODIS observations for undisturbed and disturbed surface types (including recovery trajectories of burned areas and non-fire disturbances). By accepting the assumption of a generally invariant BRDF shape for similar land surface structures as a priori information, spectral white-sky and black-sky albedos are derived through albedo-to-nadir reflectance ratios as a bridge between the Landsat and MODIS scale. A further narrow-to-broadband conversion based on radiative transfer simulations is adopted to produce broadband albedos at visible, near infrared, and shortwave regimes.We evaluate the accuracy of resultant Landsat albedo using available field measurements at forested AmeriFlux stations in the PNW region, and examine the consistency of the surface albedo generated by this approach

  2. Open-Ended Waveguide Measurement and Numerical Simulation of the Reflectivity of Petri Dish Supported Skin Cell Monolayers in the mm-wave Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneduci, Amerigo; Chidichimo, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Open-ended waveguide reflectometry is a promising tool for permittivity and other material properties calculation at mm-waves (30-300 GHz). Measurement of the reflection coefficient does not require sample manipulation, allowing in vivo and in vitro non destructive studies on cells. Here we used this technique for measuring the power reflection coefficient (reflectivity) of water and Petri dish supported human skin melanoma and keratinocyte cell cultures, in the 53-72 GHz frequency range. The dependence of the reflectivity on polystyrene or glass thickness of the Petri base plate and on the cell layer thickness was analyzed. Permittivity data were then easily retrieved by using a plane wave-dominant mode approach for formulating the reflectivity at the aperture of the flange-mounted open-ended rectangular waveguide probe. Limits and validity of such an approximate approach were analyzed and compared with full-wave near field formulations for which magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient must be measured and solved using complicated systems of integral equations and extensive numerical calculation. Finally, Petri dish reflectivity measured by the open-ended waveguide method was compared with that numerically simulated under far-field exposure conditions used in a large number of in vitro studies. Such an analysis showed that, under certain conditions, open-ended reflectivity values approach the far field ones.

  3. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.

  4. [Determination of poppy ingredients in chafing dish materials by isotopic internal standard coupled with multiple reaction monitoring and online full scan mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weixia; Sun, Zhuanlian; Yuan, Ping; Yang, Jizhou; Liu, Yafeng; Sun, Wuyong

    2014-12-01

    A confirmative method was developed for determining five poppy alkaloids including morphine, codeine, papaverine, tibane, noscapine in chafing dish ingredients by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q Trap MS). The sample was extracted with dilute HCl solution under heating condition. The removal of lipid procedure was performed with hexane. The purification was carried out on a mixed-cation solid-phase extraction column (MCX) and ethyl acetate-methanol containing 5% aqueous ammonia was used for elution. A PAK ST column was used to separate the analytes, and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate methanol and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 3. 6) were used as mobile phases. The five alkaloids was detected in the positive mode simultaneously by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and online enhanced product ion full scan (EPI). The LODs were 0.05-0.5 µg/kg and the LOQs were 0. 2-2 µg/kg for the five poppy alkaloids. The overall recoveries of the method varied from 64. 2% to 110. 6%, and the RSD were between 4. 2% and 12. 5%. The EPI mass spectra of positive samples were searched through standard library for qualitative confirmation. The detection of real hot pot material samples showed this method can be used for the simple and accurate determination of the five poppy alkaloid residues in chafing dish.

  5. [Determination of poppy ingredients in chafing dish materials by isotopic internal standard coupled with multiple reaction monitoring and online full scan mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weixia; Sun, Zhuanlian; Yuan, Ping; Yang, Jizhou; Liu, Yafeng; Sun, Wuyong

    2014-12-01

    A confirmative method was developed for determining five poppy alkaloids including morphine, codeine, papaverine, tibane, noscapine in chafing dish ingredients by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q Trap MS). The sample was extracted with dilute HCl solution under heating condition. The removal of lipid procedure was performed with hexane. The purification was carried out on a mixed-cation solid-phase extraction column (MCX) and ethyl acetate-methanol containing 5% aqueous ammonia was used for elution. A PAK ST column was used to separate the analytes, and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate methanol and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 3. 6) were used as mobile phases. The five alkaloids was detected in the positive mode simultaneously by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and online enhanced product ion full scan (EPI). The LODs were 0.05-0.5 µg/kg and the LOQs were 0. 2-2 µg/kg for the five poppy alkaloids. The overall recoveries of the method varied from 64. 2% to 110. 6%, and the RSD were between 4. 2% and 12. 5%. The EPI mass spectra of positive samples were searched through standard library for qualitative confirmation. The detection of real hot pot material samples showed this method can be used for the simple and accurate determination of the five poppy alkaloid residues in chafing dish. PMID:25902640

  6. On the shape and orientation control of an orbiting shallow spherical shell structure. [shape and orientation control of large dish type receivers/reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Reddy, A. S. S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A proposed method for controlling the shape and orientation of very large shallow dish type receiver/reflectors to be used in communication, radiometry and in electronic orbital based mail systems involves connecting a rigid light weight dumbell with heavy tip masses to the shell at its apex by a spring loaded double gimballed joint with dampling. To completely damp the system transient motion in all of the important lower frequency modes, an active control system is required. A mathematical model is extended to include the effects of point actuators located at preselected positions on the shell surface. The formulation of the uncontrolled dynamics assumes an a priori knowledge of the frequencies of all the elastic modes to be incorporated within the system model. As an example, three rigid body modes and six elastic modes are included in the model and six actuators are assumed, none of which lies on a nodal line or circle.

  7. Effects of irradiation distance on supply of reactive oxygen species to the bottom of a Petri dish filled with liquid by an atmospheric O2/He plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Kusumegi, Shota; Kudo, Akihiro; Sakanoshita, Tomohiro; Tsurumaru, Takuya; Sato, Akihiro; Uchida, Giichiro; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    The impact of irradiation distances on plasma jet-induced specific effects on the supply of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the bottom of a Petri dish filled with liquid was investigated using a KI-starch gel reagent that can be employed as a ROS indicator even in water. O3 exposure experiments without plasma irradiation were also performed to elucidate the specific effects of the plasma jet. Relative concentrations of ROS transported to the bottom were evaluated using absorbance measurements. The results indicated that ROS supply to the bottom is markedly enhanced by the plasma jet irradiation at shorter irradiation distances, whereas similar results could not be obtained for the O3 exposure. In these cases, the liquid mixing in the depth direction was also enhanced by the plasma jet irradiation only, and the supply of reactive atomic oxygen to the liquid surface was markedly increased as well.

  8. The CAESAR project: Experimental and modeling investigations of methane reforming in a catalytically enhanced solar absorption receiver on a parabolic dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, J. F.; Hogan, R. E., Jr.; Skocypec, R. D.; Buck, R.

    1993-07-01

    A joint US/Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) project has successfully tested a unique solar-driven chemical reactor in the Catalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) experiment. The CAESAR test was a proof-of-concept demonstration of carbon-dioxide reforming of methane in a commercial-scale, solar, volumetric receiver/reactor on a parabolic dish concentrator. The CAESAR design, test facility and instrumentation, thermal and chemical tests, and analysis of test results are presented in detail. Numerical models for the absorber and the receiver are developed and predicted performance is compared with test data. Post test analyses to assess the structural condition of the absorber and the effectiveness of the rhodium catalyst are presented. Unresolved technical issues are identified and future development efforts are recommended.

  9. The CAESAR project: Experimental and modeling investigations of methane reforming in a CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver on a parabolic dish

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, J.F.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Skocypec, R.D.; Buck, R.

    1993-07-01

    A joint US/Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) project has successfully tested a unique solar-driven chemical reactor in the CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) experiment. The CAESAR test was a {open_quotes}proof-of-concept{close_quotes} demonstration of carbon-dioxide reforming of methane in a commercial-scale, solar, volumetric receiver/reactor on a parabolic dish concentrator. The CAESAR design; test facility and instrumentation; thermal and chemical tests; and analysis of test results are presented in detail. Numerical models for the absorber and the receiver are developed and predicted performance is compared with test data. Post test analyses to assess the structural condition of the absorber and the effectiveness of the rhodium catalyst are presented. Unresolved technical issues are identified and future development efforts are recommended.

  10. Automated single cell sorting and deposition in submicroliter drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salánki, Rita; Gerecsei, Tamás; Orgovan, Norbert; Sándor, Noémi; Péter, Beatrix; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Horvath, Robert; Szabó, Bálint

    2014-08-01

    Automated manipulation and sorting of single cells are challenging, when intact cells are needed for further investigations, e.g., RNA or DNA sequencing. We applied a computer controlled micropipette on a microscope admitting 80 PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tubes to be filled with single cells in a cycle. Due to the Laplace pressure, fluid starts to flow out from the micropipette only above a critical pressure preventing the precise control of drop volume in the submicroliter range. We found an anomalous pressure additive to the Laplace pressure that we attribute to the evaporation of the drop. We have overcome the problem of the critical dropping pressure with sequentially operated fast fluidic valves timed with a millisecond precision. Minimum drop volume was 0.4-0.7 μl with a sorting speed of 15-20 s per cell. After picking NE-4C neuroectodermal mouse stem cells and human primary monocytes from a standard plastic Petri dish we could gently deposit single cells inside tiny drops. 94 ± 3% and 54 ± 7% of the deposited drops contained single cells for NE-4C and monocytes, respectively. 7.5 ± 4% of the drops contained multiple cells in case of monocytes. Remaining drops were empty. Number of cells deposited in a drop could be documented by imaging the Petri dish before and after sorting. We tuned the adhesion force of cells to make the manipulation successful without the application of microstructures for trapping cells on the surface. We propose that our straightforward and flexible setup opens an avenue for single cell isolation, critically needed for the rapidly growing field of single cell biology.

  11. The effects of potatoes and other carbohydrate side dishes consumed with meat on food intake, glycemia and satiety response in children

    PubMed Central

    Akilen, R; Deljoomanesh, N; Hunschede, S; Smith, C E; Arshad, M U; Kubant, R; Anderson, G H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) foods on blood glucose (BG) is ranked by their glycemic index (GI). Boiled and mashed potatoes (BMPs) are ranked as high GI foods, whereas pasta and rice have moderate GI rankings. The objective of this study was to compare ad libitum consumption of common CHO dishes consumed with meat on meal-time food intake and post-meal satiety, BG, insulin and gut hormones in 11- to 13-year-old normal weight children. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted. At weekly intervals, children (experiment 1: 12 males (M), 8 females (F); experiment 2: 6M, 6 F) received in random order 1 of 5 CHO side dishes of rice, pasta, BMP, fried French fries (FFF) or baked French fries (BFF) eaten freely together with a fixed amount of lean beef (100 g). In experiment-1, food intake over 30 min and subjective appetite were measured for 120 min. In experiment-2, the same outcomes were measured along with BG, plasma insulin and gut hormones. Results: The results for boys and girls were pooled as sex was not a factor. In both experiments, children consumed 30–40% less calories at meals with BMP (P<0.0001) compared with all other treatments, which were similar. BMP increased satiety, expressed as a change in appetite per kilocalorie, more than all other treatments (P<0.0001). FFF resulted in the lowest (P<0.0001) glucose and insulin at meal end and post-meal and peptide YY (PYY) post-meal. Blood measures were similar among all other treatments. Conclusions: The physiological functions of CHO foods consumed ad libitum at meal time on food intake, appetite, BG, insulin and gut hormone responses in children is not predicted by the GI. PMID:26878318

  12. Performance and reliability of a 30-kW triple-junction photovoltaic receiver for 500X concentrator dish or central receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinden, P. J.; Lewandowski, A.; Lasich, J. B.

    2006-08-01

    Over the last 15 years, Solar Systems has developed a dense array receiver PV technology for 500X concentrator reflective dish applications. This concentrator PV technology has been successfully deployed at six different locations in Australia, counting for about 1 MWp of installed peak power. A new Multijunction III-V receiver to replace the current silicon Point-Contact solar cells has recently been developed. The new receiver technology is based on high-efficiency (> 32%) Concentrator Ultra Triple Junction (CUTJ) solar cells from Spectrolab, resulting in system power and energy performance improvement of more than 50% compared to the silicon cells. The 0.235 m2 concentrator PV receiver, designed for continuous 500X operation, is composed of 64 dense array modules, and made of series and parallel-connected solar cells, totaling approximately 1,500 cells. The individual dense array modules have been tested under high intensity pulsed light, as well as with concentrated sunlight at the Solar Systems research facility and at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's High Flux Solar Furnace. The efficiency of the dense array modules ranges from 30% to 36% at 500X (50 W/cm2, AM1.5D low AOD, 21°C). The temperature coefficients for power, voltage and current, as well as the influence of Air Mass on the cell responsivity, were measured. The reliability of the dense array multijunction III-V modules has been studied with accelerated aging tests, such as thermal cycling, damp heat and high-temperature soak, and with real-life high-intensity exposure. The first 33-kWp multijunction III-V receiver was recently installed in a Solar Systems dish and tested in real-life 500X concentrated sunlight conditions. Receiver efficiencies of 30.3% and 29.0% were measured at Standard Operating Conditions and Normal Operating Conditions respectively.

  13. A comparison of Stirling engines for use with a 25 kW dish-electric conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    Two designs for an advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are described. The objective of the ASCS is to generate about 25 kW of electric power to an electric utility grid at an engine/alternator target cost of $300.00/kW at the manufacturing rate of 10,000 unit/yr. Both designs contain a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), a heat transport system, solar receiver, a means to generate electric power, the necessary auxiliaries, and a control system. The major differences between the two concepts are: one uses a 25 kWe single-piston FPSE which incorporates a linear alternator to directly convert the energy to electricity on the utility grid; and in the second design, electrical power is generated indirectly using a hydraulic output to a ground based hydraulic motor coupled to a rotating alternator. Diagrams of the two designs are presented.

  14. A two-dimensional model for the heat transfer on the external circuit of a Stirling engine for a dish/Stirling system

    SciTech Connect

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the {kappa}-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulent model for the incompressible fluid flow has been used to describe the heat transfer and gas dynamical processes on the external circuit of a Stirling Engine as used on a Solar Dish/Stirling System. The problem considered, in this work for a cavity-type heat receiver of the Stirling Engine, is that of the heat transfer in the body of the shell of the heat exchangers of the engine due to the thermal conductivity, the convective heat transfer between the working fluid and the walls of the engine internal gas circuit and the heat transfer due to the forced convection of the air in the cavity and in the attached air domain. The boundary conditions employed on the engines internal circuit were obtained using the developed one-dimensional second level mathematical model of the engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation on the bottom and side walls of the heat receiver have been taken into account and the temperature fields for the heat receiver and the air velocity have been obtained for the case when the heat receiver is affected by wind. The numerical results show that it is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is the largest reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the convection of the air.

  15. [Determination of papaverine in seeds of Papaver somniferum L. and soup of chafing dish by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Pi, Li; Hu, Fengzu; Shi, Zhixian

    2005-11-01

    A method of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection was developed for the separation and determination of papaverine in seeds of Papaver somniferum L. and soup of chafing dish. The liquid chromatographic experiment was carried out under the following conditions: the detector was a fluorescence with excitation wavelength at 285 nm and emission wavelength at 355 nm. An RP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm) was used. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (70: 30, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min. A linear range was obtained from 0.1 ng to 0.1 microg with a good correlation. The lowest detection limit was 0.02 ng. The average recovery of seeds for Papaver somniferum L. was 99.0% - 100.8%. The method is rapid, accurate, sensitive and suitable for the separation and determination of papaverine in foods.

  16. Real-Time Visualization and Quantification of Contractile Ring Proteins in Single Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Reshma; Liu, Yajun; Gerien, Kenneth S; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell microscopy provides a powerful tool to visualize cellular and subcellular processes in wild-type and mutant cells by observing fluorescently tagged proteins. Here, we describe three simple methods to visualize fission yeast cells: gelatin slides, coverslip-bottom dishes, and tetrad fluorescence microscopy. These imaging methods and data analysis using free software make it possible to quantify protein localization, dynamics, and concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. In fission yeast, the actomyosin contractile ring is essential for cytokinesis. We use the visualization and quantification of contractile ring proteins as an example to demonstrate how to use these methods.

  17. AS, DISH or something else?

    PubMed Central

    Naha, Kushal; Naha, Sowjanya; Vivek, Ganapathiraman; Ramachandran, Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    A 68-year-old farmer presented with progressively worsening pain in multiple joints associated with stiffening for 9 months. Locomotor examination revealed grossly restricted movement of the axial skeleton. There were no neurological deficits. Radiological evaluation demonstrated diffuse bone densification and extraspinal calcification with bony ankylosis reminiscent of ankylosing spondylitis. Laboratory tests subsequently yielded the true diagnosis. The patient was counselled accordingly and started on appropriate therapy. PMID:25267806

  18. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  19. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-07-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  20. A Dish on Every Rooftop?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumm, Loren

    1984-01-01

    Examines elements of the telecommunications delivery system as a means of teaching vocational education. The author discusses costs of teleconferencing; telecommunications consortia at the state, national, and local level; access to off-campus students; satellite teleconferencing seminars; slow scan video teleconferencing networks; and two-way…

  1. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. High-resolution (30 m) lunar radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zisk, Stanley H.

    1988-01-01

    New high-resolution radar images of the lunar surface are being produced using the Haystack Observatory range-Doppler radar system. The goals are to: investigate the decameter-scale properties of the lunar surface, as an aid in the understanding of the geophysical history of the moon; and to improve the understanding of the mechanisms of planetary radar backscattering, to aid in the interpretation of the coarser-resolution images which were and will be obtained from planetary probe missions and other earth-based observations.

  3. SPICE-NIRS Microbeam: a focused vertical system for proton irradiation of a single cell for radiobiological research

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Suya, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maeda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Alisa; Shiomi, Naoko; Kodama, Kumiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Isono, Mayu; Hieda, Kotaro; Uchihori, Yukio; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate the nuclei of adhesive mammalian cells with a defined number of 3.4 MeV protons. The approximately 2-μm diameter proton beam is focused with a magnetic quadrupole triplet lens and traverses the cells contained in dishes from bottom to top. All procedures for irradiation, such as cell image capturing, cell recognition and position calculation, are automated. The most distinctive characteristic of the system is its stability and high throughput; i.e. 3000 cells in a 5 mm × 5 mm area in a single dish can be routinely irradiated by the 2-μm beam within 15 min (the maximum irradiation speed is 400 cells/min). The number of protons can be set as low as one, at a precision measured by CR-39 detectors to be 99.0%. A variety of targeting modes such as fractional population targeting mode, multi-position targeting mode for nucleus irradiation and cytoplasm targeting mode are available. As an example of multi-position targeting irradiation of mammalian cells, five fluorescent spots in a cell nucleus were demonstrated using the γ-H2AX immune-staining technique. The SPICE performance modes described in this paper are in routine use. SPICE is a joint-use research facility of NIRS and its beam times are distributed for collaborative research. PMID:23287773

  4. SPICE-NIRS microbeam: a focused vertical system for proton irradiation of a single cell for radiobiological research.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Suya, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maeda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Alisa; Shiomi, Naoko; Kodama, Kumiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Isono, Mayu; Hieda, Kotaro; Uchihori, Yukio; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    The Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate the nuclei of adhesive mammalian cells with a defined number of 3.4 MeV protons. The approximately 2-μm diameter proton beam is focused with a magnetic quadrupole triplet lens and traverses the cells contained in dishes from bottom to top. All procedures for irradiation, such as cell image capturing, cell recognition and position calculation, are automated. The most distinctive characteristic of the system is its stability and high throughput; i.e. 3000 cells in a 5 mm × 5 mm area in a single dish can be routinely irradiated by the 2-μm beam within 15 min (the maximum irradiation speed is 400 cells/min). The number of protons can be set as low as one, at a precision measured by CR-39 detectors to be 99.0%. A variety of targeting modes such as fractional population targeting mode, multi-position targeting mode for nucleus irradiation and cytoplasm targeting mode are available. As an example of multi-position targeting irradiation of mammalian cells, five fluorescent spots in a cell nucleus were demonstrated using the γ-H2AX immune-staining technique. The SPICE performance modes described in this paper are in routine use. SPICE is a joint-use research facility of NIRS and its beam times are distributed for collaborative research. PMID:23287773

  5. Single cell dual adherent-suspension co-culture micro-environment for studying tumor-stromal interactions with functionally selected cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Zhang, Zhixiong; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Deol, Yadwinder; Ingram, Patrick N; McDermott, Sean P; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-08-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are critical in tumor pathogenesis, but their rarity and transience has led to much controversy about their exact nature. Although CSCs can be functionally identified using dish-based tumorsphere assays, it is difficult to handle and monitor single cells in dish-based approaches; single cell-based microfluidic approaches offer better control and reliable single cell derived sphere formation. However, like normal stem cells, CSCs are heavily regulated by their microenvironment, requiring tumor-stromal interactions for tumorigenic and proliferative behaviors. To enable single cell derived tumorsphere formation within a stromal microenvironment, we present a dual adherent/suspension co-culture device, which combines a suspension environment for single-cell tumorsphere assays and an adherent environment for co-culturing stromal cells in close proximity by selectively patterning polyHEMA in indented microwells. By minimizing dead volume and improving cell capture efficiency, the presented platform allows for the use of small numbers of cells (<100 cells). As a proof of concept, we co-cultured single T47D (breast cancer) cells and primary cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) on-chip for 14 days to monitor sphere formation and growth. Compared to mono-culture, co-cultured T47D have higher tumorigenic potential (sphere formation rate) and proliferation rates (larger sphere size). Furthermore, 96-multiplexed single-cell transcriptome analyses were performed to compare the gene expression of co-cultured and mono-cultured T47D cells. Phenotypic changes observed in co-culture correlated with expression changes in genes associated with proliferation, apoptotic suppression, tumorigenicity and even epithelial-to-mesechymal transition. Combining the presented platform with single cell transcriptome analysis, we successfully identified functional CSCs and investigated the phenotypic and transcriptome effects induced

  6. High-power single-element pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well lasers for pumping Er-doped fiber amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Forouhar, S.; Cody, J.; Lang, R. J.; Andrekson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    A 980-nm-ridge waveguide pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs single-quantum-well laser with a maximum single-ended output power of 240 mW from a facet-coated device is fabricated from a graded-index separate-confinement heterostructure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The laser oscillates in the fundamental spatial mode, allowing 22 percent coupling efficiency into a 1.55-micron single-mode optical fiber. Life testing at an output power of 30 mW per facet from uncoated devices reveals a superior reliability to GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers but also the need for protective facet coatings for long term reliability at power levels required for pumping Er-doped fiber amplifiers.

  7. The Cherenkov Telescope Array single-mirror small size telescope project: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzińska, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Janiak, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Karczewski, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Michalowski, J.; Rameez, M.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Nicolau-Kukliński, J.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Płatos, Ł.; Prandini, E.; Rafalski, J.; Rajda, P. J.; Rataj, M.; Rupiński, M.; Rutkowskai, K.; Seweryn, K.; Sidz, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Tokarz, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wiśniewski, L.; Winiarski, K.; Zietara, K.; Ziółkowski, P.; Źychowski, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next generation very high energy gamma-ray observatory, will consist of three types of telescopes: large (LST), medium (MST) and small (SST) size telescopes. The small size telescopes are dedicated to the observation of gamma-rays with energy between a few TeV and few hundreds of TeV. The single-mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) is one of several SST designs. It will be equipped with a 4 m-diameter segmented mirror dish and a fully digital camera based on Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Currently, the first prototype of the mechanical structure is under assembly in Poland. In 2014 it will be equipped with 18 mirror facets and a prototype of the camera.

  8. Single Parent Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Presenting two views of the single-parent family, this pamphlet includes an article by two researchers (William Feigelman and Arnold R. Silverman) and a short statement by a single adoptive parent (Amanda Richards). The first paper summarizes earlier research on single-parent adoptions and discusses the results of a nationwide survey of 713…

  9. Single-Sex Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  10. A novel method for single bacteria identification by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emmanuelle; Simon, Anne-Catherine; Strola, Samy Andrea; Perenon, Rémi; Espagnon, Isabelle; Allier, Cédric; Claustre, Patricia; Jary, Dorothée.; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present results on single bacteria rapid identification obtained with a low-cost and compact Raman spectrometer. At present, we demonstrate that a 1 minute procedure, including the localization of single bacterium, is sufficient to acquire comprehensive Raman spectrum in the range of 600 to 3300 cm-1. Localization and detection of single bacteria is performed by means of lensfree imaging over a large field of view of 24 mm2. An excitation source of 532 nm and 30 mW illuminates single bacteria to collect Raman signal into a Tornado Spectral Systems prototype spectrometer (HTVS technology). The acquisition time to record a single bacterium spectrum is as low as 10 s owing to the high light throughput of this spectrometer. The spectra processing features different steps for cosmic spikes removal, background subtraction, and gain normalization to correct the residual inducted fluorescence and substrate fluctuations. This allows obtaining a fine chemical fingerprint analysis. We have recorded a total of 1200 spectra over 7 bacterial species (E. coli, Bacillus species, S. epidermis, M. luteus, S. marcescens). The analysis of this database results in a high classification score of almost 90 %. Hence we can conclude that our setup enables automatic recognition of bacteria species among 7 different species. The speed and the sensitivity (<30 minutes for localization and spectra collection of 30 single bacteria) of our Raman spectrometer pave the way for high-throughput and non-destructive real-time bacteria identification assays. This compact and low-cost technology can benefit biomedical, clinical diagnostic and environmental applications.

  11. Effects of tissue heterogeneity on single-coil, scanning MIT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldkamp, J. R.; Quirk, S.

    2016-03-01

    We recently reported on the use of a single induction coil to accomplish imaging of the electrical conductivity in human tissues via magnetic induction tomography (MIT). A key to the method was the development of a mapping equation that quantitatively relates an arbitrary electrical conductivity distribution to ohmic loss in a coil consisting of concentric circular loops in a plane. By making multiple coil loss measurements at a number of locations in the vicinity of the target (scan), this mapping equation can be used to build an algorithm for 3D image construction of electrical conductivity. Important assumptions behind the mathematical formula included uniform relative permittivity throughout all space and continuous variation in conductivity. In this paper, these two assumptions were tested in a series of experiments involving the use of human tissue phantoms created from agarose, doped with sufficient sodium chloride to yield physiological conductivities. Inclusions of doped agarose were scanned both while isolated and also while embedded in a matrix of agarose gel having lowered conductivity - to help evaluate the effects of abrupt permittivity change. The effects of discontinuous conductivity change were simulated by filling 5 cm diameter petri dishes with 1.4% aqueous KCl and placing them in a much larger, 14 cm diameter petri dish - gap distance varied from about 3 mm to 30 mm. In either case, we will show that these effects are minimal on resultant images, helping to further validate the mapping equation used to construct MIT images. Because of their simplicity, scans reported here did not include coil rotation. To acknowledge the importance of rotation, however, we have devoted a section of this work to illustrate the profound benefits of coil rotation during a scan - though virtual data are used, where coil rotation is more easily specified.

  12. Single Molecule and Single Cell Epigenomics

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; McElwee, John L.; Soloway, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamically regulated changes in chromatin states are vital for normal development and can produce disease when they go awry. Accordingly, much effort has been devoted to characterizing these states under normal and pathological conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the most widely used method to characterize where in the genome transcription factors, modified histones, modified nucleotides and chromatin binding proteins are found; bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) and its variants are commonly used to characterize the locations of DNA modifications. Though very powerful, these methods are not without limitations. Notably, they are best at characterizing one chromatin feature at a time, yet chromatin features arise and function in combination. Investigators commonly superimpose separate ChIP-seq or BS-seq datasets, and then infer where chromatin features are found together. While these inferences might be correct, they can be misleading when the chromatin source has distinct cell types, or when a given cell type exhibits any cell to cell variation in chromatin state. These ambiguities can be eliminated by robust methods that directly characterize the existence and genomic locations of combinations of chromatin features in very small inputs of cells or ideally, single cells. Here we review single molecule epigenomic methods under development to overcome these limitations, the technical challenges associated with single molecule methods and their potential application to single cells. PMID:25204781

  13. Single molecule and single cell epigenomics.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; McElwee, John L; Soloway, Paul D

    2015-01-15

    Dynamically regulated changes in chromatin states are vital for normal development and can produce disease when they go awry. Accordingly, much effort has been devoted to characterizing these states under normal and pathological conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the most widely used method to characterize where in the genome transcription factors, modified histones, modified nucleotides and chromatin binding proteins are found; bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) and its variants are commonly used to characterize the locations of DNA modifications. Though very powerful, these methods are not without limitations. Notably, they are best at characterizing one chromatin feature at a time, yet chromatin features arise and function in combination. Investigators commonly superimpose separate ChIP-seq or BS-seq datasets, and then infer where chromatin features are found together. While these inferences might be correct, they can be misleading when the chromatin source has distinct cell types, or when a given cell type exhibits any cell to cell variation in chromatin state. These ambiguities can be eliminated by robust methods that directly characterize the existence and genomic locations of combinations of chromatin features in very small inputs of cells or ideally, single cells. Here we review single molecule epigenomic methods under development to overcome these limitations, the technical challenges associated with single molecule methods and their potential application to single cells.

  14. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, S

    2000-12-22

    Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.

  15. Single photon quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-10-28

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.

  16. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF EPISODIC ACCRETION CHEMISTRY EXPLORED WITH SINGLE-POINT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2012-07-20

    We explore a set of single-point chemical models to study the fundamental chemical aspects of episodic accretion in low-mass embedded protostars. Our goal is twofold: (1) to understand how the repeated heating and cooling of the envelope affects the abundances of CO and related species; and (2) to identify chemical tracers that can be used as a novel probe of the timescales and other physical aspects of episodic accretion. We develop a set of single-point models that serve as a general prescription for how the chemical composition of a protostellar envelope is altered by episodic accretion. The main effect of each accretion burst is to drive CO ice off the grains in part of the envelope. The duration of the subsequent quiescent stage (before the next burst hits) is similar to or shorter than the freeze-out timescale of CO, allowing the chemical effects of a burst to linger long after the burst has ended. We predict that the resulting excess of gas-phase CO can be observed with single-dish or interferometer facilities as evidence of an accretion burst in the past 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} yr.

  17. High-power CW GaSb type-I gain chips as single-frequency sources for widely tunable spectroscopy in the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimonytė, Ieva; Dvinelis, Edgaras; Songaila, Ramūnas; Trinkūnas, Augustinas; Greibus, Mindaugas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas; Vizbaras, Augustinas

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present latest results on mid-infrared GaSb gain chips as high-output power narrow-linewidth continuouswave single-frequency laser sources for ultra-widely tunable spectroscopy and sensing applications. More than 30 mW CW output power with over 100 nm / chip tuning and < 1 MHz linewidth performance is demonstrated in the entire band from 1900 nm - 2450 nm covering most essential absorption features from CO, CO2, NH3, CH4 and N2O for environmental and medical applications. Finally, we report on complete single-frequency laser system with integrated gain-chip for highresolution spectroscopy and sensor applications.

  18. Efficient analysis of a small number of cancer cells at the single-cell level using an electroactive double-well array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Fujii, Teruo

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of the intracellular materials of a small number of cancer cells at the single-cell level is important to improve our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in rare cells. To analyze an extremely small number of cancer cells (less than hundreds of cells), an efficient system is required in order to analyze target cells with minimal sample loss. Here, we present a novel approach utilizing an advanced electroactive double-well array (EdWA) for on-chip analysis of a small number of cancer cells at the single-cell level with minimal loss of target cells. The EdWA consisted of cell-sized trap-wells for deterministic single-cell trapping using dielectrophoresis and high aspect ratio reaction-wells for confining the cell lysates extracted by lysing trapped single cells via electroporation. We demonstrated a highly efficient single-cell arraying (a cell capture efficiency of 96 ± 3%) by trapping diluted human prostate cancer cells (PC3 cells). On-chip single-cell analysis was performed by measuring the intracellular β-galactosidase (β-gal) activity after lysing the trapped single cells inside a tightly enclosed EdWA in the presence of a fluorogenic enzyme substrate. The PC3 cells showed large cell-to-cell variations in β-gal activity although they were cultured under the same conditions in a culture dish. This simple and effective system has great potential for high throughput single-cell analysis of rare cells.

  19. The Single Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Parent/Special Child, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue addresses special concerns of single parents of children with disabilities. Parents are encouraged to give themselves time to heal, to feel their feelings, and to find a support group. Developing a positive attitude is also encouraged through pointing out some advantages to the single parent role and suggestions on becoming a…

  20. Healthy Single Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Shirley M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated characteristics of healthy single-parent families. Single parents and their children reported fairly high levels of both physical and mental health. Communication, social support, socioeconomic status, religiousness, and problem solving were also correlated with the mental and physical health of parents and children. (Author/BL)

  1. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  2. Properties, performance and emissions of medium concentration methanol-gasoline blends in a single-cylinder, spark-ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sapre, A.R

    1988-01-01

    Methanol-gasoline blends containing 30 to 70 percent by volume methanol have potential to eliminate, or at least alleviate, major technical problems with the use of neat methanol such as safety, cold start and the reduced vehicle range. However, little information exits on their properties, performance and emissions. Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignited, single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Waukesha RDH engine with primarily commercial grade unleaded gasoline, commercial grade methanol, M30, M50 and M70 methanol-gasoline blends to compare efficiency, performance and emissions characteristics. The fuels were compared at their knock-limited compression ratios and MBT spark-timing.

  3. Single-mode tapered terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lateral gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Xu, T. H.; Wan, W. J.; Li, H.; Cao, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on tapered terahertz quantum cascade lasers with lateral gratings. The proposed devices exhibit not only low horizontal divergence due to tapered structure but also single-mode operation by using lateral grating structure. The tapered region and lateral gratings can be fabricated with the ridged waveguide in one etching step without inducing complexity into the fabrication. Side-mode suppression ratio ∼20 dB is obtained for proposed devices from threshold to rollover currents at all measure temperatures, with the peak output power of ∼30 mW at 10 K in pulsed mode and lateral divergence angle reduced by half. The proposed devices are good candidates for high-power, single-mode operation and low-divergence laser with easy fabrication.

  4. Moving Single Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Single neutral atoms are promising candidates for qubits, the fundamental unit of quantum information. We have built a set of optical tweezers for trapping and moving single Rubidium atoms. The tweezers are based on a far off-resonant dipole trapping laser focussed to a 1 μm spot with a single aspheric lens. We use a digital micromirror device (DMD) to generate dynamic holograms of the desired arrangement of traps. The DMD has a frame rate of 20 kHz which, when combined with fast algorithms, allows for rapid reconfiguration of the traps. We demonstrate trapping of up to 20 atoms in arbitrary arrangements, and the transport of a single-atom over a distance of 14 μm with continuous laser cooling, and 5 μm without. In the meantime, we are developing high-finesse fibre-tip cavities, which we plan to use to couple pairs of single atoms to form a quantum network.

  5. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Manish; Zong, Kelly; Vivekchand, S. R. C.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed. PMID:26473866

  6. Single nanoparticle plasmonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Manish; Zong, Kelly; Vivekchand, S R C; Gooding, J Justin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed. PMID:26473866

  7. Fuse Protects Parabolic-Dish Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding barrel and shutter protect against overheating. Downward movement of shutter initiated by melting of fuse wire that suspends it. Shutter lowered or raised under operator's control by depressuring or pressurizing hydraulic cylinder.

  8. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  9. Culture without the petri-dish.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jeremy G

    2007-01-01

    Automation of oocyte maturation and embryo production techniques is a new and exciting development in the field of reproductive technologies. There are two areas where increased automation is having an impact: in the area of embryo diagnostics and in the process of embryo production itself. Benefits include decreased staffing and skill requirements for production and assessment of embryos, as well as increasing quality management systems by removing the "human" factor. However, the uptake of new technologies is likely to be slow, as costs and the conservative nature of the Assisted Reproduction Technology industry to adopt new techniques.

  10. Soil Searching. Dishing the Dirt on Microbes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ann C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This activity attempts to address a lack of emphasis in most science curricula on the microbial activity that determines soil's health. Presents an experiment that involves students in seeing how the enzyme assay is used as an indicator of soil quality and microbial activity. Contains procedures and discussion questions. (LZ)

  11. C. elegans outside the Petri dish.

    PubMed

    Frézal, Lise; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2015-01-01

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has risen to the status of a top model organism for biological research in the last fifty years. Among laboratory animals, this tiny nematode is one of the simplest and easiest organisms to handle. And its life outside the laboratory is beginning to be unveiled. Like other model organisms, C. elegans has a boom-and-bust lifestyle. It feasts on ephemeral bacterial blooms in decomposing fruits and stems. After resource depletion, its young larvae enter a migratory diapause stage, called the dauer. Organisms known to be associated with C. elegans include migration vectors (such as snails, slugs and isopods) and pathogens (such as microsporidia, fungi, bacteria and viruses). By deepening our understanding of the natural history of C. elegans, we establish a broader context and improved tools for studying its biology. PMID:25822066

  12. Solar thermal parabolic dish energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijawka, W.

    1981-01-01

    Vu-graphs are presented that show that applications are a viable distributed renewable power generation option. Quality energy can be produced in the form of electricity and high temperature heat. Modular systems are described that can be distributed to new or existing plants and that are mass producible with the associated economies of production.

  13. C. elegans outside the Petri dish

    PubMed Central

    Frézal, Lise; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2015-01-01

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has risen to the status of a top model organism for biological research in the last fifty years. Among laboratory animals, this tiny nematode is one of the simplest and easiest organisms to handle. And its life outside the laboratory is beginning to be unveiled. Like other model organisms, C. elegans has a boom-and-bust lifestyle. It feasts on ephemeral bacterial blooms in decomposing fruits and stems. After resource depletion, its young larvae enter a migratory diapause stage, called the dauer. Organisms known to be associated with C. elegans include migration vectors (such as snails, slugs and isopods) and pathogens (such as microsporidia, fungi, bacteria and viruses). By deepening our understanding of the natural history of C. elegans, we establish a broader context and improved tools for studying its biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05849.001 PMID:25822066

  14. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish.

    PubMed

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a "socio-economic laboratory" allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories. PMID:22708055

  15. SINGLE CELL GENOME SEQUENCING

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Suzan; Singh, Anup K.

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing of single cells has become a powerful approach for studying uncultivated microorganisms that represent 90–99 % of all environmental microbes. Single cell sequencing enables not only the identification of microbes but also linking of functions to species, a feat not achievable by metagenomic techniques. Moreover, it allows the analysis of low abundance species that may be missed in community-based analyses. It has also proved very useful in complementing metagenomics in the assembly and binning of single genomes. With the advent of drastically cheaper and higher throughput sequencing technologies, it is expected that single cell sequencing will become a standard tool in studying the genome and transcriptome of microbial communities. PMID:22154471

  16. Single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information.

  17. 3.36 µm single-mode quantum cascade laser with a dissipation below 250 mW.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Johanna M; Riedi, Sabine; Süess, Martin J; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme

    2016-01-11

    We present 3.36 µm buried heterostructure distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers with a power dissipation at threshold below 250 mW and operation temperatures as high as 130 °C. Threshold values below 20 mA at -10 °C in pulsed operation and 30 mA at -20 °C in continuous-wave operation are reported. Optical power above 130 mW and 13 mW are achieved at -20 °C in pulsed and continuous-wave operation, respectively. Continuous-wave operation occurs until 15 °C. We show single-mode emission in pulsed and continuous-wave operation. Single-mode performance is demonstrated in long pulse (5.56 µs) operation. The laser far-field exhibits a single lobe emission with full-width-half-max of 27 ° × 34 °.

  18. High-Throughput Single-Cell Cultivation on Microfluidic Streak Plates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Dong, Libing; Zhao, Jian-Kang; Hu, Xiaofang; Shen, Chaohua; Qiao, Yuxin; Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Yapei; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the microfluidic streak plate (MSP), a facile method for high-throughput microbial cell separation and cultivation in nanoliter sessile droplets. The MSP method builds upon the conventional streak plate technique by using microfluidic devices to generate nanoliter droplets that can be streaked manually or robotically onto petri dishes prefilled with carrier oil for cultivation of single cells. In addition, chemical gradients could be encoded in the droplet array for comprehensive dose-response analysis. The MSP method was validated by using single-cell isolation of Escherichia coli and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The robustness of the MSP work flow was demonstrated by cultivating a soil community that degrades polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cultivation in droplets enabled detection of the richest species diversity with better coverage of rare species. Moreover, isolation and cultivation of bacterial strains by MSP led to the discovery of several species with high degradation efficiency, including four Mycobacterium isolates and a previously unknown fluoranthene-degrading Blastococcus species. PMID:26850294

  19. Single spin magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  20. Single spin magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  1. Interaction of cholesterol in ternary lipid mixtures investigated using single-molecule fluorescence.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Brittany N; Dunn, Robert C

    2015-01-27

    Fluorescence measurements of the sterol analog 23-(dipyrrometheneboron difluoride)-24-norcholesterol (BODIPY-cholesterol) are used to compare the effects of cholesterol (Chol) in monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and chicken egg sphingomyelin (SM)/DOPC/Chol. Monolayers are formed using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and compared at surface pressures of 8 and 30 mN/m. In particular, these ternary lipid mixtures are compared using both ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence measurements of BODIPY-cholesterol. In mixed monolayers incorporating 0.10 mol % BODIPY-cholesterol, fluorescence microscopy measurements as a function of cholesterol added reveal similar trends in monolayer phase structure for both DPPC/DOPC/Chol and SM/DOPC/Chol films. With a probe concentration reduced to ∼10(-8) mol % BODIPY-cholesterol, single-molecule fluorescence measurements using defocused polarized total internal reflection microscopy are used to characterize the orientations of BODIPY-cholesterol in the monolayers. Population histograms of the BODIPY emission dipole tilt angle away from the membrane normal reveal distinct insertion geometries with a preferred angle observed near 78°. The measured angles and populations are relatively insensitive to added cholesterol and changes in surface pressure for monolayers of SM/DOPC/Chol. For monolayers of DPPC/DOPC/Chol, however, the single-molecule measurements reveal significant changes in the BODIPY-cholesterol insertion geometry when the surface pressure is increased to 30 mN/m. These changes are discussed in terms of a squeeze-out mechanism for BODIPY-cholesterol in these monolayers and provide insight into the partitioning and arrangement of BODIPY-cholesterol in ternary lipid mixtures.

  2. Single-plasmon interferences.

    PubMed

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons. PMID:26998521

  3. Single atom microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity.

  4. Single-plasmon interferences.

    PubMed

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons.

  5. Single-plasmon interferences

    PubMed Central

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W.; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons. PMID:26998521

  6. Single atom microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity. PMID:23146658

  7. Single Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Jennifer; Hough, Shane

    2003-05-01

    Single Bubble Sonoluminescence is the emission of light from a single bubble suspended in a liquid caused by a continuum of repeated implosions due to pressure waves generated from a maintained ultrasonic sinusoidal wave source. H. Frenzel and H. Schultz first studied it in 1934 at the University of Cologne. It was not until 1988 with D.F. Gaitan that actual research began with single bubble sonoluminescence. Currently many theories exist attempting to explain the observed bubble phenomenon. Many of these theories require spherical behavior of the bubble. Observation of the bubble has shown that the bubble does not behave spherically in most cases. One explanation for this is known as jet theory. A spectrum of the bubble will give us the mean physical properties of the bubble such as temperature and pressure inside the bubble. Eventually, with the aide of fluorocene dye a full spectrum of the bubble will be obtained.

  8. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  9. Single Cell Oncogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin

    It is believed that cancer originates from a single cell that has gone through generations of evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that associate with the hallmarks of cancer. In some cancers such as various types of leukemia, cancer is clonal. Yet in other cancers like glioblastoma (GBM), there is tremendous tumor heterogeneity that is likely to be caused by simultaneous evolution of multiple subclones within the same tissue. It is obvious that understanding how a single cell develops into a clonal tumor upon genetic alterations, at molecular and cellular levels, holds the key to the real appreciation of tumor etiology and ultimate solution for therapeutics. Surprisingly very little is known about the process of spontaneous tumorigenesis from single cells in human or vertebrate animal models. The main reason is the lack of technology to track the natural process of single cell changes from a homeostatic state to a progressively cancerous state. Recently, we developed a patented compound, photoactivatable (''caged'') tamoxifen analogue 4-OHC and associated technique called optochemogenetic switch (OCG switch), which we believe opens the opportunity to address this urgent biological as well as clinical question about cancer. We propose to combine OCG switch with genetically engineered mouse models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma (including GBM) to study how single cells, when transformed through acute loss of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 and gain of oncogenic KRAS, can develop into tumor colonies with cellular and molecular heterogeneity in these tissues. The abstract is for my invited talk in session ``Beyond Darwin: Evolution in Single Cells'' 3/18/2016 11:15 AM.

  10. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    SciTech Connect

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  11. Single Molecule Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2011-10-01

    Single-molecule manipulation studies open a door for a close-up investigation of complex biological interactions at the molecular level. In these studies, single biomolecules are pulled while their force response is being monitored. The process is often nonequilibrium, and interpretation of the results has been challenging. We used the atomic force microscope to pull proteins and DNA, and determined the equilibrium properties of the molecules using the recently derived nonequilibrium work theorem. I will present applications of the technique in areas ranging from fundamental biological problems such as DNA mechanics, to complex medical processes such as the mechanical activation of von Willebrand Factor, a key protein in blood coagulation.

  12. Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Kim, Jungbae

    2004-03-31

    As an innovative way of enzyme stabilization, we recently developed a new enzyme composite of nano-meter scale that we call "single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs)" (9). Each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a porous composite organic/inorganic network of less than a few nanometers think. This approach represents a new type of enzyme-containing nanostructure. In experiments with perotease (chymotrypsin, CT), the activity of single enzyme nanoparticle form of the enzyme was greatly stabilized compared to the free form, without imposing a serious mass transfer limitation of substrates. In this chapter we will describe the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of the new SENs.

  13. Single Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patricia

    This booklet attempts to reassure single parents that they can raise healthy, happy children and provides some suggestions for parents' specific questions and concerns. The first section discusses the emotional stages children pass through when they lose a parent, ways to explain to children the loss of a parent, and ways to handle children's…

  14. Single incision laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, B; Vidyashankar, Madhuri; Bharathi, Bv

    2011-01-01

    Single port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS), also called SILS is the natural extension of multi-incisional laparoscopic surgery, in the quest for reduction of traumatic insult and residual scarring to the patient. Today with the evolution of newer instruments, bidirectional self-retaining sutures, and surgical experience we are able to perform many surgeries in gynecology.

  15. Single Incision Laparoscopic Myomectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B; Vidyashankar, Madhuri; Bharathi, BV

    2011-01-01

    Single port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS), also called SILS is the natural extension of multi-incisional laparoscopic surgery, in the quest for reduction of traumatic insult and residual scarring to the patient. Today with the evolution of newer instruments, bidirectional self-retaining sutures, and surgical experience we are able to perform many surgeries in gynecology. PMID:22442539

  16. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  17. Contemporary Single Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiduson, Bernice T.

    Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…

  18. From single molecule to single tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chin-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Biological systems often make decisions upon conformational changes and assembly of single molecules. In vivo, epithelial cells (such as the mammary gland cells) can respond to extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, type I collagen (COL), and switch their morphology from a lobular lumen (100-200 micron) to a tubular lumen (1mm-1cm). However, how cells make such a morphogenetic decision through interactions with each other and with COL is unclear. Using a temporal control of cell-ECM interaction, we find that epithelial cells, in response to a fine-tuned percentage of type I collagen (COL) in ECM, develop various linear patterns. Remarkably, these patterns allow cells to self-assemble into a tubule of length ˜ 1cm and diameter ˜ 400 micron in the liquid phase (i.e., scaffold-free conditions). In contrast with conventional thought, the linear patterns arise through bi-directional transmission of traction force, but not through diffusible biochemical factors secreted by cells. In turn, the transmission of force evokes a long-range (˜ 600 micron) intercellular mechanical interaction. A feedback effect is encountered when the mechanical interaction modifies cell positioning and COL alignment. Micro-patterning experiments further reveal that such a feedback is a novel cell-number-dependent, rich-get-richer process, which allows cells to integrate mechanical interactions into long-range (> 1mm) linear coordination. Our results suggest a mechanism cells can use to form and coordinate long-range tubular patterns, independent of those controlled by diffusible biochemical factors, and provide a new strategy to engineer/regenerate epithelial organs using scaffold-free self-assembly methods.

  19. Holographic recording characteristics and applications of single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Min; Chen, Ligong; Guo, Yongkang; Guo, Lurong

    2005-09-01

    A high-quality single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material is achieved successfully by employing new types of multi-color photosensitizers and photochemical promoters to conventional photo-crosslinking gelatin system. Its holographic recording characteristics such as spectral response, the photosensitivity of three primary colors, spectral selectivity of volume reflection hologram, angular and wavelength selectivity of volume transmission hologram, are studied in detail. Using red, green and blue lasers, namely three primary colors, the bright volume transmission and reflection holograms can be recorded on the panchromatic material at the exposure level of 30 mJ/cm2. Some preliminary results of space, angle and wavelength multiplexing holographic storage for storing multiple binary and grey-tone optical images, are also reported in this paper.

  20. Rapid single-flux-quantum circuits for low noise mK operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intiso, Samuel; Pekola, Jukka; Savin, Alexander; Devyatov, Ygor; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) technology has been proposed as control electronics for superconducting quantum bits because of the material and working temperature compatibility. In this work, we consider practical aspects of RSFQ circuit design for low noise low power operation. At the working temperature of 20 mK and operational frequency of 2 GHz, dissipated power per junction is reduced to 25 pW by using 6 µA critical current junctions available at the Hypres and VTT low Jc fabrication process. To limit phonon temperature to 30 mK, a maximum of 40 junctions can be placed on a 5 mm × 5 mm chip. Electron temperature in resistive shunts of Josephson junctions is minimized by use of cooling fins, giving minimum electron temperatures of about 150 mK for the Hypres process and 70 mK for the VTT process.

  1. Single Crystal Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stormont, R. W.; Morrison, A.

    1974-01-01

    Single crystal a- and c-axis tubes and ribbons of sodium beta-alumina and sodium magnesium beta-alumina were grown from sodium oxide rich melts. Additional experiments grew ribbon crystals containing sodium magnesium beta, beta double prime, beta triple prime, and beta quadruple prime. A high pressure crystal growth chamber, sodium oxide rich melts, and iridium for all surfaces in contact with the melt were combined with the edge-defined, film-fed growth technique to grow the single crystal beta-alumina tubes and ribbons. The crystals were characterized using metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques, and wet chemical analysis was used to determine the sodium, magnesium, and aluminum content of the grown crystals.

  2. Single electron spintronics.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  3. Single cell optical transfection.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David J; Gunn-Moore, Frank J; Campbell, Paul; Dholakia, Kishan

    2010-06-01

    The plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell is impermeable to most hydrophilic substances, yet the insertion of these materials into cells is an extremely important and universal requirement for the cell biologist. To address this need, many transfection techniques have been developed including viral, lipoplex, polyplex, capillary microinjection, gene gun and electroporation. The current discussion explores a procedure called optical injection, where a laser field transiently increases the membrane permeability to allow species to be internalized. If the internalized substance is a nucleic acid, such as DNA, RNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA), then the process is called optical transfection. This contactless, aseptic, single cell transfection method provides a key nanosurgical tool to the microscopist-the intracellular delivery of reagents and single nanoscopic objects. The experimental possibilities enabled by this technology are only beginning to be realized. A review of optical transfection is presented, along with a forecast of future applications of this rapidly developing and exciting technology. PMID:20064901

  4. Watching single molecules dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  5. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  6. Ageing single file motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.; Sanders, L.; Lomholt, M. A.; Lizana, L.; Fogelmark, K.; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The mean squared displacement of a tracer particle in a single file of identical particles with excluded volume interactions shows the famed Harris scaling ≃ K1/2t1/2 as function of time. Here we study what happens to this law when each particle of the single file interacts with the environment such that it is transiently immobilised for times τ with a power-law distribution ψ(τ) ≃ (τ★)α, and different ranges of the exponent α are considered. We find a dramatic slow-down of the motion of a tracer particle from Harris' law to an ultraslow, logarithmic time evolution ≃ K0 log 1/2(t) when 0 < α < 1. In the intermediate case 1 < α < 2, we observe a power-law form for the mean squared displacement, with a modified scaling exponent as compared to Harris' law. Once α is larger than two, the Brownian single file behaviour and thus Harris' law are restored. We also point out that this process is weakly non-ergodic in the sense that the time and ensemble averaged mean squared displacements are disparate.

  7. Single-spin CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, T. A.; Shafiei, M.; Fujita, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2016-04-01

    Spin-based electronics or spintronics relies on the ability to store, transport and manipulate electron spin polarization with great precision. In its ultimate limit, information is stored in the spin state of a single electron, at which point quantum information processing also becomes a possibility. Here, we demonstrate the manipulation, transport and readout of individual electron spins in a linear array of three semiconductor quantum dots. First, we demonstrate single-shot readout of three spins with fidelities of 97% on average, using an approach analogous to the operation of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Next, we perform site-selective control of the three spins, thereby writing the content of each pixel of this ‘single-spin charge-coupled device’. Finally, we show that shuttling an electron back and forth in the array hundreds of times, covering a cumulative distance of 80 μm, has negligible influence on its spin projection. Extrapolating these results to the case of much larger arrays points at a diverse range of potential applications, from quantum information to imaging and sensing.

  8. Single Echo MRI

    PubMed Central

    Galiana, Gigi; Constable, R. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous nonlinear gradient research has focused on trajectories that reconstruct images with a minimum number of echoes. Here we describe sequences where the nonlinear gradients vary in time to acquire the image in a single readout. The readout is designed to be very smooth so that it can be compressed to minimal time without violating peripheral nerve stimulation limits, yielding an image from a single 4 ms echo. Theory and Methods This sequence was inspired by considering the code of each voxel, i.e. the phase accumulation that a voxel follows through the readout, an approach connected to traditional encoding theory. We present simulations for the initial sequence, a low slew rate analog, and higher resolution reconstructions. Results Extremely fast acquisitions are achievable, though as one would expect, SNR is reduced relative to the slower Cartesian sampling schemes because of the high gradient strengths. Conclusions The prospect that nonlinear gradients can acquire images in a single <10 ms echo makes this a novel and interesting approach to image encoding. PMID:24465837

  9. Single cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Batoul Y; Horne, Steven D; Stevens, Joshua B; Liu, Guo; Ying, Andrew Y; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Krawetz, Stephen A; Gorelick, Root; Heng, Henry HQ

    2013-01-01

    Multi-level heterogeneity is a fundamental but underappreciated feature of cancer. Most technical and analytical methods either completely ignore heterogeneity or do not fully account for it, as heterogeneity has been considered noise that needs to be eliminated. We have used single-cell and population-based assays to describe an instability-mediated mechanism where genome heterogeneity drastically affects cell growth and cannot be accurately measured using conventional averages. First, we show that most unstable cancer cell populations exhibit high levels of karyotype heterogeneity, where it is difficult, if not impossible, to karyotypically clone cells. Second, by comparing stable and unstable cell populations, we show that instability-mediated karyotype heterogeneity leads to growth heterogeneity, where outliers dominantly contribute to population growth and exhibit shorter cell cycles. Predictability of population growth is more difficult for heterogeneous cell populations than for homogenous cell populations. Since “outliers” play an important role in cancer evolution, where genome instability is the key feature, averaging methods used to characterize cell populations are misleading. Variances quantify heterogeneity; means (averages) smooth heterogeneity, invariably hiding it. Cell populations of pathological conditions with high genome instability, like cancer, behave differently than karyotypically homogeneous cell populations. Single-cell analysis is thus needed when cells are not genomically identical. Despite increased attention given to single-cell variation mediated heterogeneity of cancer cells, continued use of average-based methods is not only inaccurate but deceptive, as the “average” cancer cell clearly does not exist. Genome-level heterogeneity also may explain population heterogeneity, drug resistance, and cancer evolution. PMID:24091732

  10. Single-Mode VISAR

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Kerry

    2007-11-28

    High energy-density physics (HEDP) experiments examine the properties of materials under extreme conditions. These experiments rely on the measurement of one or two velocities. These velocities are used to obtain Hugoniot relationships and thermodynamic equations of state. This methodology is referred to as 'velocimetry' and an instrument used to measure the shock wave is called a 'velocimeter' or a '(velocity) diagnostic'. The two most-widely used existing velocity diagnostics are; photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). PDV's advantages are a fast rise-time and ease of implementation but PDV has an upper velocity limit. Traditional implementations of VISAR have a rise time 10 times slower than PDV and are not easily implemented but are capable of measuring any velocity produced during HEDP experiments. This thesis describes a novel method of combining the positive attributes of PDV and VISAR into a more cost effective diagnostic called a Single-Mode VISAR (SMV). The new diagnostic will consist of PDV parts in a VISAR configuration. This configuration will enable the measurement of any velocity produced during shock physics experiments while the components used to build the diagnostic will give the diagnostic a fast rise time and make it easy to use. This thesis describes the process of building and testing the first single-mode VISAR. The tests include verifying the performance of the components and the diagnostic as a whole.

  11. Single snapshot DOA estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häcker, P.; Yang, B.

    2010-10-01

    In array signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) estimation has been studied for decades. Many algorithms have been proposed and their performance has been studied thoroughly. Yet, most of these works are focused on the asymptotic case of a large number of snapshots. In automotive radar applications like driver assistance systems, however, only a small number of snapshots of the radar sensor array or, in the worst case, a single snapshot is available for DOA estimation. In this paper, we investigate and compare different DOA estimators with respect to their single snapshot performance. The main focus is on the estimation accuracy and the angular resolution in multi-target scenarios including difficult situations like correlated targets and large target power differences. We will show that some algorithms lose their ability to resolve targets or do not work properly at all. Other sophisticated algorithms do not show a superior performance as expected. It turns out that the deterministic maximum likelihood estimator is a good choice under these hard conditions.

  12. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  13. Single ion heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kilian

    2015-03-01

    An experimental realization of a heat engine with a single ion is presented, which will allow for work extraction even with non-classical thermal reservoirs. To this goal a custom designed linear Paul trap with a single ion performing an Otto cycle is presented. The radial state of the ion is used as the working gas analogous to the gas in a conventional heat engine. The conventional piston is realized by the axial degrees of freedom and the axial motional excitation stores the generated work, just like a conventional fly-wheel. The heat baths can be realized by tailored laser radiation. Alternatively electrical noise can be used to control the state of the ion. The presented system possesses advantageous properties, as the working parameters can be tuned over a broad range and the motional degrees of freedom of the ion can be accurately determined. Dark resonances allow for fast stroboscopic thermometry during the entire working cycle. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to predict the efficiency and the gained work of the working cycle. We have also shown how the equations for the Carnot limit have to be modified if a squeezed thermal reservoir is employed. Furthermore structural phase transitions with laser cooled linear ion crystals are induced verifying the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  14. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to obtain mortgage insurance for the homeowner. The information strengthens HUD's ability to manage and...

  15. Single-molecule electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.; Shera, E.B.

    1995-09-15

    A novel method for the detection and identification of single molecules in solution has been devised, computer simulated, and experimentally achieved. The technique involves the determination of electrophoretic velocities by measuring the time required for individual molecules to travel a fixed distance between two laser beams. Computer simulations of the process were performed before-hand in order to estimate the experimental feasibility of the method and to determine the optimum values for the various experimental parameters. Examples of the use of the technique for the ultrasensitive detection and identification of rhodamine-6G, a mixture of DNA restriction fragments, and a mixture of proteins in aqueous solution are presented. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Single-Axis Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor); Capo-Lugo, Pedro A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single-axis accelerometer includes a housing defining a sleeve. An object/mass is disposed in the sleeve for sliding movement therein in a direction aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A first piezoelectric strip, attached to a first side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The first piezoelectric strip includes a first strip of a piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A second piezoelectric strip, attached to a second side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The second piezoelectric strip includes a second strip of the piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A voltage sensor is electrically coupled to at least one of the first and second piezoelectric strips.

  17. Single Cell Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  18. Surviving as a Single Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Katherine

    1986-01-01

    The single parent of three children, one of whom is mentally retarded, reviews her difficulties in dealing with the children by herself and establishing new relationships. She offers advice to other single parents of disabled children. (CL)

  19. Generation of the 30 M-Mesh Global Digital Surface Model by Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2016-06-01

    Topographical information is fundamental to many geo-spatial related information and applications on Earth. Remote sensing satellites have the advantage in such fields because they are capable of global observation and repeatedly. Several satellite-based digital elevation datasets were provided to examine global terrains with medium resolutions e.g. the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the global digital elevation model by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER GDEM). A new global digital surface model (DSM) dataset using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi") has been completed on March 2016 by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaborating with NTT DATA Corp. and Remote Sensing Technology Center, Japan. This project is called "ALOS World 3D" (AW3D), and its dataset consists of the global DSM dataset with 0.15 arcsec. pixel spacing (approx. 5 m mesh) and ortho-rectified PRISM image with 2.5 m resolution. JAXA is also processing the global DSM with 1 arcsec. spacing (approx. 30 m mesh) based on the AW3D DSM dataset, and partially releasing it free of charge, which calls "ALOS World 3D 30 m mesh" (AW3D30). The global AW3D30 dataset will be released on May 2016. This paper describes the processing status, a preliminary validation result of the AW3D30 DSM dataset, and its public release status. As a summary of the preliminary validation of AW3D30 DSM, 4.40 m (RMSE) of the height accuracy of the dataset was confirmed using 5,121 independent check points distributed in the world.

  20. Study of a 30-M Boom For Solar Sail-Craft: Model Extendibility and Control Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Leehyun

    2005-01-01

    Space travel propelled by solar sails is motivated by the fact that the momentum exchange that occurs when photons are reflected and/or absorbed by a large solar sail generates a small but constant acceleration. This acceleration can induce a constant thrust in very large sails that is sufficient to maintain a polar observing satellite in a constant position relative to the Sun or Earth. For long distance propulsion, square sails (with side length greater than 150 meters) can reach Jupiter in two years and Pluto in less than ten years. Converting such design concepts to real-world systems will require accurate analytical models and model parameters. This requires extensive structural dynamics tests. However, the low mass and high flexibility of large and light weight structures such as solar sails makes them unsuitable for ground testing. As a result, validating analytical models is an extremely difficult problem. On the other hand, a fundamental question can be asked. That is whether an analytical model that represents a small-scale version of a solar-sail boom can be extended to much larger versions of the same boom. To answer this question, we considered a long deployable boom that will be used to support the solar sails of the sail-craft. The length of fully deployed booms of the actual solar sail-craft will exceed 100 meters. However, the test-bed we used in our study is a 30 meter retractable boom at MSFC. We first develop analytical models based on Lagrange s equations and the standard Euler-Bernoulli beam. Then the response of the models will be compared with test data of the 30 meter boom at various deployed lengths. For this stage of study, our analysis was limited to experimental data obtained at 12ft and 18ft deployment lengths. The comparison results are positive but speculative. To observe properly validate the analytic model, experiments at longer deployment lengths, up to the full 30 meter, have been requested. We expect the study to answer the extendibility question of the analytical models. In operation, rapid temperature changes can be induced in solar sails as they transition from day to night and vice versa. This generates time dependent thermally induced forces, which may in turn create oscillation in structural members such as booms. Such oscillations have an adverse effect on system operations, precise pointing of instruments and antennas and can lead to self excited vibrations of increasing amplitude. The latter phenomenon is known as thermal flutter and can lead to the catastrophic failure of structural systems. To remedy this problem, an active vibration suppression system has been developed. It was shown that piezoelectric actuators used in conjunction with a Proportional Feedback Control (PFC) law (or Velocity Feedback Control (VFC) law) can induce moments that can suppress structural vibrations and prevent flutter instability in spacecraft booms. In this study, we will investigate control strategies using piezoelectric transducers in active, passive, and/or hybrid control configurations. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration will be studied and experiments to determine their capabilities and limitations will be planned. In particular, special attention will be given to the hybrid control, also known as energy recycling, configuration due to its unique characteristics.

  1. FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. Quaterly technical report, January 1-March 30m 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1997-12-01

    Cofiring is considered to be the most promising near-term approach to fossil C0{sub 2} emissions mitigation through biomass usage. Consequently FETC and EPRI have entered into a cooperative agreement: `Cofiring Biomass and Waste-Derived fuels in Electric Utility Coal- Fired Boilers.` This agreement supports sixteen (16) EPRI research projects, each contributing to the commercialization of systems to address greenhouse gas emissions. These projects include: (1) cofiring combustion testing at the Seward Generating Station of GPU Genco; (2) fuel preparation testing at the Greenidge Generating Station of NYSEG; (3) precommercial testing of cofiring at the Allen and Colbert Fossil Plants of TVA; (4) testing of switchgrass cofiring at the Blount St. Station of Madison Gas & Electric; (5) high percentage biomass cofiring with Southern Company; (6) urban wood waste cofiring at the supercritical cyclone boiler at Michigan City Generating Station of Northern Indiana Public Service Co. (NIPSCO); (7) evaluation of switchgrass cofiring with Nebraska Public Power District at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA; (8) waste plastics cofiring with Duke Power in a tangentially-fired pulverized coal (PC) boiler; (9) cofiring a mixture of plastics, fiber, and pulp industry wastes with South Carolina Electric and Gas; (10) urban wood waste cofiring evaluation and testing by the University of Pittsburgh in stoker boilers; (11) assessment of toxic emissions from cofiring of wood and coal; (12) development of fuel and power plant models for analysis and interpretation of cofiring results; (13) analysis of C0{sub 2} utilization in algal systems for wastewater treatment; (14) combustion testing and combustor development focusing on high percentage cofiring; (15) analysis of problems and potential solutions to the sale of flyash from coal-fired boilers practicing cofiring; and (16) analysis of C0{sub 2} capture and disposal systems. During the second quarter of this contract, from January 1, 1997 through March 31, 1997, significant progress has been made on these projects. This progress focuses upon analysis of data from the cofiring tests, construction of systems to promote additional cofiring tests, and initiation of tasks evaluating alternatives to cofiring. This report contains a brief description of the progress made during the second quarter of the contract, focusing upon test results from the Seward Generating Station, where parametric testing at a wall-fired PC boiler was used to evaluate cofiring using separate feeding of wood and coal to the energy generation system.

  2. Ophthalmological manifestations in hereditary transthyretin (ATTR V30M) carriers: a review of 513 cases

    PubMed Central

    Beirão, João Melo; Malheiro, Jorge; Lemos, Carolina; Beirão, Idalina; Costa, Paulo; Torres, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Assessment of ocular involvement in transthyretin-related familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) in a large cohort of Portuguese patients. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 513 Portuguese FAP mutation carriers, at the Ophthalmology Service, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, between 1 January 2008 and 31 January 2013. Abnormal conjunctiva vessels (ACV), Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT), amyloid deposition on the iris (DAI), scalloped iris, amyloid deposition on the anterior capsule of the lens (DAL), vitreous amyloidosis, retinal amyloid angiopathy and glaucoma were evaluated and registered. Results: Of the 513 carriers, 477 (93%) had clinical systemic disease with a median duration of 9.3 (5.1–13.7) years and 247 were men. Of these, 343 (72%) had been liver transplanted, on median of 6.6 (3.3–10.8) years before inclusion in this study. No ocular abnormalities were identified in the asymptomatic carriers (7%). The abnormalities observed with decreasing frequency were abnormal TBUT (379 patients, 79.5%, 751 eyes), abnormal Schirmer test (320 patients, 67%, 635 eyes), DAI (183 patients, 38.4%, 350 eyes), DAL (157 patients, 32.9%, 308 eyes), scalloped iris (133 patients, 27.9%, 238 eyes), glaucoma (97 patients, 20%, 165 eyes), vitreous amyloidosis (83 patients, 17.4%, 139 eyes), ACV (68 patients, 14%, 136 eyes) and amyloidotic retinal angiopathy (21 patients, 4%, 32 eyes). Patients with abnormal Schirmer test (p < 0.001), scalloped iris (p = 0.006) and vitreous amyloidosis (p = 0.007) were significantly older than the others. According to their age of onset of systemic disease, the patients have been split into early-onset (<40 years old), intermediate-onset (40–50 years old), late onset (>50 years old) and asymptomatic carriers. We observed a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ACV (p = 0.045) and of an abnormal Schirmer test (p = 0.004) between groups. Transplanted patients have a significantly higher prevalence of DAI (p = 0.001), DAL (p = 0.009) and vitreous amyloidosis (p = 0.025) than non-transplanted patients. Of the 165 eyes with glaucoma, 92.1% had scalloped iris (p < 0.001) and of 32 eyes with retinal amyloidotic angiopathy, 68.8% had vitreous amyloidosis (p < 0.001). All prevalences increased with time of disease. The earliest ocular manifestations were abnormal Schirmer test and abnormal TBUT (12% and 17% at 5 years of clinical disease) and the least prevalent was retinal amyloid angiopathy (8% at 15 years of clinical disease). Conclusion: Ocular disorders in FAP patients are common, and their prevalence increases with disease duration. Prevalence is influenced by several factors, such as the age at onset of FAP and liver transplantation. PMID:26096568

  3. Generating 30-m land surface albedo by integrating landsat and MODIS data for understanding the disturbance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land cover change affects climate through both biogeochemical (carbon-cycle) impacts and biogeophysical processes such as changes in surface albedo, temperature, evapotranspiration, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud cover. Previous studies have highlighted that forest loss in high latitudes could c...

  4. Total cost of 46-Mw Borax cogen system put at $30M

    SciTech Connect

    de Biasi, V.

    1983-03-01

    The cogeneration system, designed around a W-251B gas turbine power plant exhausting into a Deltak waste heat boiler to produce ''free'' process steam from the gas turbine exhaust, is discussed. The design includes water injection for NO/sub x/ control, self-cleaning inlet air filters, evaporative coolers, supercharger, and supplementary firing of the waste heat boiler. Once the system is operational Borax will be able to generate all of the electricity needed for on-site operations and a large share of process steam needs--plus still have 22-23 Mw surplus electric power to sell, so that the installation should pay for itself in less than 5 years of service.

  5. Borax spends $30M for cogeneration system. [US Borax and Chemical Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-09-20

    A $30 million natural-gas-fired turbine power plant will provide all the electricity and steam needed at the US Borax and Chemical Corp. plant in Los Angeles. The cogeneration facility will come on line in 1984, and will pay for itself in about five years. The plant will use only half the 46 megawatts produced, the 22 megawatt surplus being sold to Southern California Edison Co. on a 20-year contract at a price pegged to the utility's avoided costs. Natural gas consumption at the plant will remain about the same. (DCK)

  6. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  7. Understanding single-crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    The unique properties of single crystals are considered. The anisotropic properties of single crystals, and the relation between crystal orientation and the fatigue life and slip systems of the crystals are examined. The effect of raft formation on the creep-rupture life of the crystals is studied. Proposed research on the properties of and new applications for single crystals is discussed.

  8. In vitro imaging of single living human umbilical vein endothelial cells with a clinical 3.0-T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; van den Bos, E J; Wielopolski, P A; de Jong-Popijus, M; Bernsen, M R; Duncker, D J; Krestin, G P

    2005-09-01

    Iron oxide-labelled, single, living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were imaged over time in vitro using a clinical 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy system. Labelling efficiency, toxicity, cell viability, proliferation and differentiation were assessed using flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting and a phenanthroline assay. MR images were compared with normal light and fluorescence microscopy. Efficient uptake of iron oxide into HUVECs was shown, although with higher label uptake dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed, affecting cell viability. For MR imaging, a T2* weighted three-dimensional protocol was used with in-plane resolution of 39 x 48 microm2 and 100-microm slices with a scan time of 13 min. MRI could detect living cells in standard culture dishes at single-cell resolution, although label loss was observed that corresponded with the intracellular iron measurements. MR microscopy using iron oxide labels is a promising tool for studying HUVEC migration and cell biology in vitro and in vivo, but possible toxic effects of label uptake and loss of label over time should be taken into account. PMID:16096808

  9. Feeding Patterns of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) Indicate That Mycophagy Is Not a Single and Homogeneous Category of Nutritional Biology

    PubMed Central

    Smrž, Jaroslav; Soukalová, Hana; Čatská, Vlasta; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Mycophagy should not be considered as a single and homogeneous category of nutritional biology due to the specific symbiotic chitinolytic bacteria associated with mites and fungi. To test interaction among mites, fungi, and chitinolytic bacteria, experiments were conducted on the model species Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank). Mucor sp, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium claviforme, P. griseofulvum, and Verticillium sp. were plated onto malt agar and offered to T. putrescentiae in the laboratory. Mites were evaluated utilizing microanatomical examination based on histology, excrement analysis using fluorescence microscopy, bacterial plating, impact of mite homogenate on fungi in Petri dishes, reproduction of mites feeding upon each fungus, and isolation of associated bacteria inside mites. There were clear differences regarding the digested spores of different fungi passing through the gut and subsequently in the feces. Abundances of bacterial cells in excrement also corresponded to the fungi offered. The extracts from mites had chitinolytic activity, and the plated bacteria are known to produce exochitinases. The various feeding patterns observed were caused by differences in the cell wall structures of the tested fungi. The study illustrates that mycophagy in saprophagous mites does not consist of a single pattern, but rather that it can be classified into several sub-patterns depending upon the digested fungal species and its parts. The results point to a nearly symbiotic relationship between chitinolytic bacteria and digested fungi in mycophagous microarthropods. PMID:27638952

  10. Feeding Patterns of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) Indicate That Mycophagy Is Not a Single and Homogeneous Category of Nutritional Biology.

    PubMed

    Smrž, Jaroslav; Soukalová, Hana; Čatská, Vlasta; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Mycophagy should not be considered as a single and homogeneous category of nutritional biology due to the specific symbiotic chitinolytic bacteria associated with mites and fungi. To test interaction among mites, fungi, and chitinolytic bacteria, experiments were conducted on the model species Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank). Mucor sp, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium claviforme, P. griseofulvum, and Verticillium sp. were plated onto malt agar and offered to T. putrescentiae in the laboratory. Mites were evaluated utilizing microanatomical examination based on histology, excrement analysis using fluorescence microscopy, bacterial plating, impact of mite homogenate on fungi in Petri dishes, reproduction of mites feeding upon each fungus, and isolation of associated bacteria inside mites. There were clear differences regarding the digested spores of different fungi passing through the gut and subsequently in the feces. Abundances of bacterial cells in excrement also corresponded to the fungi offered. The extracts from mites had chitinolytic activity, and the plated bacteria are known to produce exochitinases. The various feeding patterns observed were caused by differences in the cell wall structures of the tested fungi. The study illustrates that mycophagy in saprophagous mites does not consist of a single pattern, but rather that it can be classified into several sub-patterns depending upon the digested fungal species and its parts. The results point to a nearly symbiotic relationship between chitinolytic bacteria and digested fungi in mycophagous microarthropods. PMID:27638952

  11. Indistinguishability of independent single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F. W.; Wong, C. W.

    2009-01-01

    The indistinguishability of independent single photons is presented by decomposing the single photon pulse into the mixed state of different transform-limited pulses. The entanglement between single photons and outer environment or other photons induces the distribution of the center frequencies of those transform-limited pulses and makes photons distinguishable. Only the single photons with the same transform-limited form are indistinguishable. In details, the indistinguishability of single photons from the solid-state quantum emitter and spontaneous parametric down-conversion is examined with two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Moreover, experimental methods to enhance the indistinguishability are discussed, where the usage of spectral filter is highlighted.

  12. Design and fabrication of high power single mode double-trench ridge waveguide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shaoyang; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruikang; Lu, Dan; Ji, Chen

    2014-03-01

    A high power single-lateral-mode double-trench ridge waveguide semiconductor laser is reported. The laser has a compressively strained double quantum-well (DQW) and an GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement structure. The ridge waveguide is defined by two trenches of finite width on either side of the ridge, which will result mode radiation towards outside of the trenches. The relationship between the leakage loss and the waveguide geometry of the each lateral mode is studied with effective index method. The relationship under different bias condition is evaluated. Based on the simulation, lasers with various trench width, trench depth and ridge width are fabricated and tested. With optimized geometry parameters, a laser of 1.5-mm cavity length with a maximum single-lateral-mode operation current of 550 mA is obtained. The threshold current and the slope efficiency of the laser is 30 mA and 0.72 W/A, respectively. The maximum single-lateral-mode power is up to 340 mW.

  13. Single-nucleon experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    We discuss the Jefferson Lab low momentum transfer data on moments of the nucleon spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$ and on single charged pion electroproduction off polarized proton and polarized neutron. A wealth of data is now available, while more is being analyzed or expected to be taken in the upcoming years. Given the low momentum transfer selected by the experiments, these data can be compared to calculations from Chiral Perturbation theory, the effective theory of strong force that should describe it at low momentum transfer. The data on various moments and the respective calculations do not consistently agree. In particular, experimental data for higher moments disagree with the calculations.The absence of contribution from the $\\Delta$ resonance in the various observables was expected to facilitate the calculations and hence make the theory predictions either more robust or valid over a larger $Q^2$ range. Such expectation is verified only for the Bjorken sum, but not for other observables in which the $\\Delta$ is suppressed. Preliminary results on pion electroproduction off polarized nucleons are also presented and compared to phenomenological models for which contributions from different resonances are varied. Chiral Perturbation calculations of these observables, while not yet available, would be valuable and, together with these data, would provide an extensive test of the effective theory.

  14. Transport of single-walled carbon nanotubes in porous media: filtration mechanisms and reversibility.

    PubMed

    Jaisi, Deb P; Saleh, Navid B; Blake, Ruth E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2008-11-15

    Deposition of nanomaterials onto surfaces is a key process governing their transport, fate, and reactivity in aquatic systems. We evaluated the transport and deposition behavior of carboxyl functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a well-defined porous medium composed of clean quartz sand over a range of solution chemistries. Our results showthat increasing solution ionic strength or addition of calcium ions result in increased SWNT deposition (filtration). This observation is consistent with conventional colloid deposition theories, thereby suggesting that physicochemical filtration plays an important role in SWNT transport. However, the relatively insignificant change of SWNT filtration at low ionic strengths (< or = 3.0 mM KCl) and the incomplete breakthrough of SWNTs in deionized water (C/Co = 0.90) indicate that physical straining also plays a role in the capture of SWNTs within the packed sand column. It is proposed that SWNT shape and structure, particularly the very large aspect ratio and its highly bundled (aggregated) state in aqueous solutions, contribute considerably to straining in flow through porous media. We conclude that both physicochemical filtration and straining play a role at low (< 3.0 mM) ionic strength, while physicochemical filtration is the dominant mechanism of SWNT filtration at higher ionic strengths. Our results further show that deposited SWNTs are mobilized (released) from the quartz sand upon introduction of low ionic strength solution following deposition experiments with monovalent salt (KCl). In contrast, SWNTs deposited in the presence of calcium ions were not released upon introduction of low ionic strength solution to the packed column, even when humic acid was present in solution during SWNT deposition.

  15. Unfolding single- and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    When planar structures (e.g. sedimentary layers, veins, dykes, cleavages, etc.) are subjected to deformation, they have about equal chances to be shortened or stretched. The most common shortening and stretching structures are folds and boudinage, respectively. However, boudinage requires additional deformation mechanisms apart from viscous flow, like formation of fractures or strain localization. When folded layers are subjected to extension, they could potentially unfold back to straight layers. Although probably not uncommon, this would be difficult to recognize. Open questions are whether folded layers can unfold, what determines their mechanical behaviour and how we can recognize them in the field. In order to approach these questions, we present a series of numerical experiments that simulate stretching of previously folded single- and multi-layers in simple shear, using the two dimensional numerical modelling platform ELLE, including the finite element module BASIL that calculates viscous deformation. We investigate the parameters that affect a fold train once it rotates into the extensional field. The results show that the unfolding process strongly depends on the viscosity contrast between the layer and matrix (Llorens et al., 2013). Layers do not completely unfold when they experience softening before or during the stretching process or when other neighbouring competent layers prevent them from unfolding. The foliation refraction patterns are the main indicators of unfolded folds. Additionally, intrafolial folds and cusp-like folds adjacent to straight layers, as well as variations in fold amplitudes and limb lengths of irregular folds can also be used as indicators of stretching of a layer after shortening and folding. References: Llorens, M-.G., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566.

  16. Single-nanowire photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yude; Liu, Chong; Brittman, Sarah; Tang, Jinyao; Fu, Anthony; Kornienko, Nikolay; Kong, Qiao; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is one of several promising approaches for the realization of efficient solar-to-fuel conversion. Recent work has shown that photoelectrodes made of semiconductor nano-/microwire arrays can have better photoelectrochemical performance than their planar counterparts because of their unique properties, such as high surface area. Although considerable research effort has focused on studying wire arrays, the inhomogeneity in the geometry, doping, defects and catalyst loading present in such arrays can obscure the link between these properties and the photoelectrochemical performance of the wires, and correlating performance with the specific properties of individual wires is difficult because of ensemble averaging. Here, we show that a single-nanowire-based photoelectrode platform can be used to reliably probe the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of individual nanowires. We find that the photovoltage output of ensemble array samples can be limited by poorly performing individual wires, which highlights the importance of improving nanowire homogeneity within an array. Furthermore, the platform allows the flux of photogenerated electrons to be quantified as a function of the lengths and diameters of individual nanowires, and we find that the flux over the entire nanowire surface (7–30 electrons nm–2 s–1) is significantly reduced as compared with that of a planar analogue (∼1,200 electrons nm–2 s–1). Such characterization of the photogenerated carrier flux at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface is essential for designing nanowire photoelectrodes that match the activity of their loaded electrocatalysts.

  17. Single-nanowire photoelectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yude; Liu, Chong; Brittman, Sarah; Tang, Jinyao; Fu, Anthony; Kornienko, Nikolay; Kong, Qiao; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is one of several promising approaches for the realization of efficient solar-to-fuel conversion. Recent work has shown that photoelectrodes made of semiconductor nano-/microwire arrays can have better photoelectrochemical performance than their planar counterparts because of their unique properties, such as high surface area. Although considerable research effort has focused on studying wire arrays, the inhomogeneity in the geometry, doping, defects and catalyst loading present in such arrays can obscure the link between these properties and the photoelectrochemical performance of the wires, and correlating performance with the specific properties of individual wires is difficult because of ensemble averaging. Here, we show that a single-nanowire-based photoelectrode platform can be used to reliably probe the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of individual nanowires. We find that the photovoltage output of ensemble array samples can be limited by poorly performing individual wires, which highlights the importance of improving nanowire homogeneity within an array. Furthermore, the platform allows the flux of photogenerated electrons to be quantified as a function of the lengths and diameters of individual nanowires, and we find that the flux over the entire nanowire surface (7-30 electrons nm-2 s-1) is significantly reduced as compared with that of a planar analogue (˜1,200 electrons nm-2 s-1). Such characterization of the photogenerated carrier flux at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface is essential for designing nanowire photoelectrodes that match the activity of their loaded electrocatalysts.

  18. Single-nanowire photoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Su, Yude; Liu, Chong; Brittman, Sarah; Tang, Jinyao; Fu, Anthony; Kornienko, Nikolay; Kong, Qiao; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is one of several promising approaches for the realization of efficient solar-to-fuel conversion. Recent work has shown that photoelectrodes made of semiconductor nano-/microwire arrays can have better photoelectrochemical performance than their planar counterparts because of their unique properties, such as high surface area. Although considerable research effort has focused on studying wire arrays, the inhomogeneity in the geometry, doping, defects and catalyst loading present in such arrays can obscure the link between these properties and the photoelectrochemical performance of the wires, and correlating performance with the specific properties of individual wires is difficult because of ensemble averaging. Here, we show that a single-nanowire-based photoelectrode platform can be used to reliably probe the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of individual nanowires. We find that the photovoltage output of ensemble array samples can be limited by poorly performing individual wires, which highlights the importance of improving nanowire homogeneity within an array. Furthermore, the platform allows the flux of photogenerated electrons to be quantified as a function of the lengths and diameters of individual nanowires, and we find that the flux over the entire nanowire surface (7-30 electrons nm(-2) s(-1)) is significantly reduced as compared with that of a planar analogue (∼1,200 electrons nm(-2) s(-1)). Such characterization of the photogenerated carrier flux at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface is essential for designing nanowire photoelectrodes that match the activity of their loaded electrocatalysts. PMID:27018660

  19. Photothermal single particle microscopy using a single laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Selmke, Markus; Heber, André; Braun, Marco; Cichos, Frank

    2014-07-07

    We introduce a single-laser-beam photothermal microscopy scheme for the detection of single absorbing nano-objects. Here, a modulated incident laser beam with a constant intensity offset serves as pump and probe beam at the same time. Using the out-of-phase scattering response of the retarded thermorefractive wave field, the method provides a selective contrast for absorbers over a possible background of scatterers. The use of a single wavelength and a single beam, considerably simplifies the setup and integration of photothermal detection in existing microscopy schemes.

  20. Single-channel biophysical and pharmacological characterizations of native human large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in freshly isolated detrusor smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Malysz, John; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) function in vitro and in vivo. However, in-depth characterization of human native DSM single BK channels has not yet been provided. Here, we conducted single-channel recordings from excised patches from native human DSM cells. Inside-out and outside-out recordings in high K(+) symmetrical solution (containing 140 mM KCl and ~300 nM free Ca(2+)) showed single-channel conductance of 215-220 pS, half-maximum constant for activation of ~+75 to +80 mV, and low probability of opening (P o) at +20 mV that increased ~10-fold at +40 mV and ~60-fold at +60 mV. Using the inside-out configuration at +30 mV, reduction of intracellular [Ca(2+)] from ~300 nM to Ca(2+)-free decreased the P o by ~85 %, whereas elevation to ~800 nM increased P o by ~50-fold. The BK channel activator NS1619 (10 μM) enhanced the P o by ~10-fold at +30 mV; subsequent application of the selective BK channel inhibitor paxilline (500 nM) blocked the activity. Changes in intracellular [Ca(2+)] or the addition of NS1619 did not significantly alter the current amplitude or single-channel conductance. This is the first report to provide biophysical and pharmacological profiles of native human DSM single BK channels highlighting their importance in regulating human DSM excitability.

  1. Advances in single chain technology.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-01

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses. PMID:26505056

  2. Advances in single chain technology.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-01

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  3. Watching single gold nanorods grow.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhongqing; Qi, Hua; Li, Min; Tang, Bochong; Zhang, Zhengzheng; Han, Ruiling; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-05-01

    The consecutive evolution process of single gold nanorods is monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The single-crystal gold nanorods investigated are grown directly on surfaces to which gold seed particles are covalently linked. The growth kinetics for single nanorods is derived from the 3D information recorded by AFM. A better understanding of the seed-mediated growth mechanism may ultimately lead to the direct growth of aligned nanorods on surfaces. PMID:22378704

  4. Quantitative biology of single neurons

    PubMed Central

    Eberwine, James; Lovatt, Ditte; Buckley, Peter; Dueck, Hannah; Francis, Chantal; Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Miler; Miyashiro, Kevin; Morris, Jacqueline; Peritz, Tiina; Schochet, Terri; Spaethling, Jennifer; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Kim, Junhyong

    2012-01-01

    The building blocks of complex biological systems are single cells. Fundamental insights gained from single-cell analysis promise to provide the framework for understanding normal biological systems development as well as the limits on systems/cellular ability to respond to disease. The interplay of cells to create functional systems is not well understood. Until recently, the study of single cells has concentrated primarily on morphological and physiological characterization. With the application of new highly sensitive molecular and genomic technologies, the quantitative biochemistry of single cells is now accessible. PMID:22915636

  5. Fabrication of Fiber-Optic Tilted Bragg Grating Filter in 40 nm Range with A Single Phase Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Joseph; Wang, Y.; Sharma, A.; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber-optic Bragg grating filters are fabricated with a range of Bragg wavelength between 1296 and 1336 nm, using a single phase mask. 30 mW of continuous-wave light at 244 nm is used from a frequency-doubled argon-ion laser having an intracavity etalon. Gratings are fabricated by tilting the photosensitive fiber with respect to the phase mask up to an angle of 15 degrees. The variation of Bragg wavelength with the fiber-tilt is explained with a simple formula. High spatial coherence of 244 nm light makes it possible to displace the fiber as much as 6 mm in front of the phase mask and tilt the fiber by as much as 15 degrees. This results in nearly constant band-width and near 100% reflectively for all gratings throughout the 40 nm range.

  6. High-power operation of highly reliable narrow stripe pseudomorphic single quantum well lasers emitting at 980 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Forouhar, S.; Cody, J.; Lang, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Ridge waveguide pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs single-quantum-well lasers exhibiting record high quantum efficiencies and high output power densities (105 mW per facet from a 6 micron wide stripe) at a lasing wavelength of 980 nm are discussed that were fabricated from a graded index separate confinement heterostructure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Life testing at an output power of 30 mW per uncoated facet reveals a slow gradual degradation during the initial 500 h of operation after which the operating characteristics of the lasers become stable. The emission wavelength, the high output power, and the fundamental lateral mode operation render these lasers suitable for pumping Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers.

  7. Single photonics: Generation and detection of heralded single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsang

    Single photons are useful for experiments where the quantum nature of a particle plays a key role, since they make an ideal candidate for a single quantum system. Such a single quantum system is indispensable in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics where nonclassical properties, like non-locality and entanglement, are studied. Such a system is also useful in a more recently developed field of quantum information technology where these properties are utilized to perform secure communication and information processing. In the source of single photons utilized in these experiments, the arrival time of the photon is completely random and obeys Poissonian statistics. Efficiency of these experiments can be greatly enhanced when the arrival time of the photons can be controlled. Also, a technology that provides high quantum efficiency and low noise detection of single photons is crucial to improve the performance of these experimental schemes. This thesis reports an experimental effort towards realization of a single photon turnstile device where the emission time of a single photon can be controlled by means of an external modulation signal. This is achieved in a mesoscopic double barrier p- i-n junction operating in an ultra-low temperature environment, where the Coulomb charging energy of a single electron and a single hole is large enough to suppress the thermal fluctuation of carrier injection. One and only one electron-hole pair is injected into the active region, resulting in the emission of a single photon per modulation period. This thesis also reports a single photon counting system using a visible light photon counter (VLPC), which utilizes the impact ionization of As impurity atoms in Si as the multiplication process. Our system features a fast (~2 ns) detection of single photons with high quantum efficiency (~88%) and low multiplication noise (excess noise factor ~1.02). The detector system also has a unique capability of distinguishing a single photon

  8. Single-Gender Schools Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on publicly run schools in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago which has found that, while single-sex schools may benefit female students who prefer a single-sex environment, they are not inherently beneficial for boys or most girls. While the findings are based on data from one Caribbean nation, experts say they…

  9. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  10. Chemical Analysis of Single Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, Laura M.; Kottegoda, Sumith; Phillips, K. Scott; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2008-07-01

    Chemical analysis of single cells requires methods for quickly and quantitatively detecting a diverse array of analytes from extremely small volumes (femtoliters to nanoliters) with very high sensitivity and selectivity. Microelectrophoretic separations, using both traditional capillary electrophoresis and emerging microfluidic methods, are well suited for handling the unique size of single cells and limited numbers of intracellular molecules. Numerous analytes, ranging from small molecules such as amino acids and neurotransmitters to large proteins and subcellular organelles, have been quantified in single cells using microelectrophoretic separation techniques. Microseparation techniques, coupled to varying detection schemes including absorbance and fluorescence detection, electrochemical detection, and mass spectrometry, have allowed researchers to examine a number of processes inside single cells. This review also touches on a promising direction in single cell cytometry: the development of microfluidics for integrated cellular manipulation, chemical processing, and separation of cellular contents.

  11. Mandibular first molar with single root and single root canal

    PubMed Central

    Munavalli, Anil; Kambale, Sharnappa; Ramesh, Sachhi; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable anatomic complexities and abnormalities with respect to number of roots and root canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of the existence of a fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anatomy. Mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal was diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. This case report presents a rare case of successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and root canal. PMID:26180424

  12. Land cover data from Landsat single-date archive imagery: an integrated classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, Sofia; Ceccarelli, Tomaso; Rinaldo, Simone; De Angelis, Antonella; Salvati, Luca; Perini, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of land cover dynamics provides insight into many environmental problems. However, there are few data sources which can be used to derive consistent time series, remote sensing being one of the most valuable ones. Due to their multi-temporal and spatial coverage needs, such analysis is usually based on large land cover datasets, which requires automated, objective and repeatable procedures. The USGS Landsat archives provide free access to multispectral, high-resolution remotely sensed data starting from the mid-eighties; in many cases, however, only single date images are available. This paper suggests an objective approach for generating land cover information from 30m resolution and single date Landsat archive satellite imagery. A procedure was developed integrating pixel-based and object-oriented classifiers, which consists of the following basic steps: i) pre-processing of the satellite image, including radiance and reflectance calibration, texture analysis and derivation of vegetation indices, ii) segmentation of the pre-processed image, iii) its classification integrating both radiometric and textural properties. The integrated procedure was tested for an area in Sardinia Region, Italy, and compared with a purely pixel-based one. Results demonstrated that a better overall accuracy, evaluated against the available land cover cartography, was obtained with the integrated (86%) compared to the pixel-based classification (68%) at the first CORINE Land Cover level. The proposed methodology needs to be further tested for evaluating its trasferability in time (constructing comparable land cover time series) and space (for covering larger areas).

  13. Third-order NLO properties of solution grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, S.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Mohandoss, R.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Manivannan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of solution-grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate (MHB) single crystals were studied by Z-scan technique using a He-Ne (632.8 nm, 30 mW) laser. From the closed aperture Z-scan data, the valley followed by peak on the normalized transmittance indicates the sign of the nonlinear refractive index is positive and shows a self focusing nature. From the open aperture Z-scan curve, it is found that the nonlinear absorption is due to saturation. The order of magnitude of third order susceptibility was estimated to be 10-6 esu. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of MHB single crystal reveals a very low cutoff wavelength (310 nm) and transparency in the entire visible region. Also the material has direct allowed transition and it possesses a band gap of 3.7 eV. The dissipation factor is low and SHG efficiency is high. The higher magnitudes of second and third order NLO parameters make the material suitable for photonic applications like frequency conversion and eye/sensor protection.

  14. Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Robert H; Stevens, Martin J; Gruber, Steven S; Miller, Aaron J; Schwall, Robert E; Mirin, Richard P; Nam, Sae Woo

    2005-12-26

    Superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) based on nanopatterned niobium nitride wires offer single photon counting at fast rates, low jitter, and low dark counts, from visible wavelengths well into the infrared. We demonstrate the first use of an SSPD, packaged in a commercial cryocooler, for single photon source characterization. The source is an optically pumped, microcavity-coupled InGaAs quantum dot, emitting single photons at 902 nm. The SSPD replaces the second silicon Avalanche Photodiode (APD) in a Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometer measurement of the source second-order correlation function, g(2)( ?). The detection efficiency of the superconducting detector system is >2 % (coupling losses included). The SSPD system electronics jitter is 170 ps, versus 550 ps for the APD unit, allowing the source spontaneous emission lifetime to be measured with improved resolution.

  15. In vivo single-molecule imaging identifies altered dynamics of calcium channels in dystrophin-mutant C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Hong; Stanciauskas, Ramunas; Stigloher, Christian; Dizon, Kevin K.; Jospin, Maelle; Bessereau, Jean-Louis; Pinaud, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule (SM) fluorescence microscopy allows the imaging of biomolecules in cultured cells with a precision of a few nanometres but has yet to be implemented in living adult animals. Here we used split-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions and complementation-activated light microscopy (CALM) for subresolution imaging of individual membrane proteins in live Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). In vivo tissue-specific SM tracking of transmembrane CD4 and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) was achieved with a precision of 30 nm within neuromuscular synapses and at the surface of muscle cells in normal and dystrophin-mutant worms. Through diffusion analyses, we reveal that dystrophin is involved in modulating the confinement of VDCC within sarcolemmal membrane nanodomains in response to varying tonus of C. elegans body-wall muscles. CALM expands the applications of SM imaging techniques beyond the petri dish and opens the possibility to explore the molecular basis of homeostatic and pathological cellular processes with subresolution precision, directly in live animals. PMID:25232639

  16. In vivo single-molecule imaging identifies altered dynamics of calcium channels in dystrophin-mutant C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hong; Stanciauskas, Ramunas; Stigloher, Christian; Dizon, Kevin K; Jospin, Maelle; Bessereau, Jean-Louis; Pinaud, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule (SM) fluorescence microscopy allows the imaging of biomolecules in cultured cells with a precision of a few nanometres but has yet to be implemented in living adult animals. Here we used split-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions and complementation-activated light microscopy (CALM) for subresolution imaging of individual membrane proteins in live Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). In vivo tissue-specific SM tracking of transmembrane CD4 and voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCC) was achieved with a precision of 30 nm within neuromuscular synapses and at the surface of muscle cells in normal and dystrophin-mutant worms. Through diffusion analyses, we reveal that dystrophin is involved in modulating the confinement of VDCC within sarcolemmal membrane nanodomains in response to varying tonus of C. elegans body-wall muscles. CALM expands the applications of SM imaging techniques beyond the petri dish and opens the possibility to explore the molecular basis of homeostatic and pathological cellular processes with subresolution precision, directly in live animals. PMID:25232639

  17. Single or multicellular origin of human T lymphocyte colonies in vitro: modification by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA).

    PubMed

    Singer, J W; Ernst, C; Whalen, C K; Steinmann, L; Fialkow, P J

    1981-04-01

    The assumption that human T lymphocyte colonies have a unicellular origin has been directly tested with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 2 women heterozygous for the common X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) gene (GdB) and the variant GdA. T cells were cultured in semisolid medium in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and T lymphocyte growth factor with or without preincubation in suspension culture with PHA (2-stage and 1-stage assays, respectively). The enzyme type of individual T cell colonies was then determined electrophoretically at the lowest colony density with adequate growth (usually less than 100 colonies/dish). In the 2-stage system, 90 of 97 tested colonies had equal amounts of A and B enzyme activities suggesting multicellular origin of the colonies. Similarly, in the single-stage system, 21 of 31 colonies had both A and B enzymes. Increasing the density of the soft agar did not influence the frequency of A/B colonies. However, when 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a promoter of T cell colony growth shown in other systems to inhibit metabolic cooperation, was added, a striking decrease in frequency of colonies with both G-6-PD types was found. In the 2-stage culture, 0 of 9 colonies had a double-enzyme type and in the single-stage system, the frequency of A/B colonies declined to 9 of 34 (p less than 0.025). The data suggest that despite the apparent multicellular origin of T cell colonies in cultures with TPA, most colonies do originate from single cells when cultured with TPA at low colony densities. Stimulation of cell growth or inhibition of metabolic cooperation between cells by TPA are possible explanations for these differences. PMID:6970773

  18. Single-cell resolution fluorescence imaging of circadian rhythms detected with a Nipkow spinning disk confocal system.

    PubMed

    Enoki, Ryosuke; Ono, Daisuke; Hasan, Mazahir T; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2012-05-30

    Single-point laser scanning confocal imaging produces signals with high spatial resolution in living organisms. However, photo-induced toxicity, bleaching, and focus drift remain challenges, especially when recording over several days for monitoring circadian rhythms. Bioluminescence imaging is a tool widely used for this purpose, and does not cause photo-induced difficulties. However, bioluminescence signals are dimmer than fluorescence signals, and are potentially affected by levels of cofactors, including ATP, O(2), and the substrate, luciferin. Here we describe a novel time-lapse confocal imaging technique to monitor circadian rhythms in living tissues. The imaging system comprises a multipoint scanning Nipkow spinning disk confocal unit and a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera mounted on an inverted microscope with auto-focusing function. Brain slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian clock, were prepared from transgenic mice expressing a clock gene, Period 1 (Per1), and fluorescence reporter protein (Per1::d2EGFP). The SCN slices were cut out together with membrane, flipped over, and transferred to the collagen-coated glass dishes to obtain signals with a high signal-to-noise ratio and to minimize focus drift. The imaging technique and improved culture method enabled us to monitor the circadian rhythm of Per1::d2EGFP from optically confirmed single SCN neurons without noticeable photo-induced effects or focus drift. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we also monitored calcium circadian rhythms at a single-cell level in a large population of SCN neurons. Thus, the Nipkow spinning disk confocal imaging system developed here facilitates long-term visualization of circadian rhythms in living cells. PMID:22480987

  19. Drawing with a Single Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole Austen; Anderson, Lorraine

    1979-01-01

    Described is a method of tapping students' creative potential in art: the Spontaneous Response Drawing. SRD consists of drawing with a single line, usually with crayons or colored felt tip pens on a large sheet of paper. (KC)

  20. Fluorescence Microscopy of Single Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Jan; van Dorp, Arthur; Renn, Alois

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of photochemistry and photophysics of individual quantum systems is described with the help of a wide-field fluorescence microscopy approach. The fluorescence single molecules are observed in real time.

  1. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed. PMID:26053399

  2. Single foreplane high power rectenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alden, A.; Ohno, T.

    1992-05-01

    A dual polarization rectenna capable of high power handling is described. It consists of contiguous dipoles and rectification units on a single substrate. High efficiencies comparable to previous linear and multiplane dual polarization devices have been achieved.

  3. Cobalt single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Che; Hendrickson, David N.; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Nakano, Motohiro; Zakharov, Lev N.; Sommer, Roger D.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Ledezma-Gairaud, Marisol; Christou, George

    2002-05-01

    A cobalt molecule that functions as a single-molecule magnet, [Co4(hmp)4(MeOH)4Cl4], where hmp- is the anion of hydroxymethylpyridine, is reported. The core of the molecule consists of four Co(II) cations and four hmp- oxygen atom ions at the corners of a cube. Variable-field and variable-temperature magnetization data have been analyzed to establish that the molecule has a S=6 ground state with considerable negative magnetoanisotropy. Single-ion zero-field interactions (DSz2) at each cobalt ion are the origin of the negative magnetoanisotropy. A single crystal of the compound was studied by means of a micro-superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer in the range of 0.040-1.0 K. Hysteresis was found in the magnetization versus magnetic field response of this single crystal.

  4. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed. PMID:26053399

  5. Single Crystal Silicon Instrument Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vince

    2007-01-01

    The goals for the fabrication of single crystal silicon instrument mirrors include the following: 1) Develop a process for fabricating lightweight mirrors from single crystal silicon (SCS); 2) Modest lightweighting: 3X to 4X less than equivalent solid mirror; 3) High surface quality, better than lambda/40 RMS @ 633nm; 4) Significantly less expensive than current technology; and 5) Negligible distortion when cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

  6. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  7. Acquiring a Single New Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Bartlett, Elsa

    Twenty children aged 3;0 to 3;10 were studied for behavior related to the acquisition of a single new word ("chromium," which was presented as designating the color olive green). The research was conducted in three cycles: prior to exposure to "chromium," at the time of a single encounter with that word, and about a week after the first encounter.…

  8. Single-cell western blotting

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Spelke, Dawn P.; Xu, Zhuchen; Kang, Chi-Chih; Schaffer, David V.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    To measure cell-to-cell variation in protein-mediated functions — a hallmark of biological processes — we developed an approach to conduct ~103 concurrent single-cell western blots (scWesterns) in ~4 hours. A microscope slide supporting a 30 µm-thick photoactive polyacrylamide gel enables western blotting comprised of: settling of single cells into microwells, lysis in situ, gel electrophoresis, photoinitiated blotting to immobilize proteins, and antibody probing. We apply this scWestern to monitor single rat neural stem cell differentiation and responses to mitogen stimulation. The scWestern quantifies target proteins even with off-target antibody binding, multiplexes to 11 protein targets per single cell with detection thresholds of <30,000 molecules, and supports analyses of low starting cell numbers (~200) when integrated with fluorescence activated cell sorting. The scWestern thus overcomes limitations in single-cell protein analysis (i.e., antibody fidelity, sensitivity, and starting cell number) and constitutes a versatile tool for the study of complex cell populations at single-cell resolution. PMID:24880876

  9. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    SciTech Connect

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of {approximately}3.07 m (120.7 {+-} 2 in. from sidewall bottom or {approximately}132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19{degrees}C (66{degrees}F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAM Observation Logs (IRAM 1991-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, M.; Neri, R.; Sievers, A.

    2008-04-01

    The Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) was founded in 1979 and is operated as a French-German-Spanish collaboration. Its partner institutes are the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France), the MPG (Max Planck Gesellschaft, Germany), and the IGN (Instituto Geografico Nacional, Spain). The principal activity of IRAM is the study of cold matter (molecular gas and dust) in the solar system, in our Galaxy, and out to cosmological distances in order to determine its composition, density, mass, temperature, and kinematics. IRAM operates two observatories at millimeter wavelengths which are open to the international astronomical community: The 30-m single-dish telescope on Pico Veleta (2850m), Spain, and the six-antenna interferometer on the Plateau de Bure (2550m) in France. Both sites are at high altitude to reduce the absorption by water vapor. The observatories are supported by the IRAM offices and laboratories in Granada and Grenoble. The observation log included here concerns the Plateau de Bure site, and summarizes the observations made there from December 1990. The observations log of the 30-m single-dish telescope covers a period starting in January 2009. This log was produced using a header archive, a collaborative effort between IRAM and IAA/CSIC. (4 data files).

  11. Single atom impurity in a single molecular transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S. J.

    2014-10-21

    The influence of an impurity atom on the electrostatic behaviour of a Single Molecular Transistor was investigated through Ab-initio calculations in a double-gated geometry. The charge stability diagram carries unique signature of the position of the impurity atom in such devices which together with the charging energy of the molecule could be utilised as an electronic fingerprint for the detection of such impurity states in a nano-electronic device. The two gated geometry allows additional control over the electrostatics as can be seen from the total energy surfaces (for a specific charge state), which is sensitive to the positions of the impurity. These devices which are operational at room temperature can provide significant advantages over the conventional silicon based single dopant devices functional at low temperature. The present approach could be a very powerful tool for the detection and control of individual impurity atoms in a single molecular device and for applications in future molecular electronics.

  12. Single-ZnO-Nanobelt-Based Single-Electron Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiao-Fan; Xu, Zheng; Cao, Shuo; Qiu, Kang-Sheng; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Xi-Tian; Xu, Xiu-Lai

    2014-06-01

    We fabricate single electron transistors based on a single ZnO nanobelt using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The transport properties of the devices are characterized at room temperature and at low temperature (4.2 K). At room temperature, the source-drain current increases linearly as the bias voltage increases, indicating a good ohmic contact in the transistors. At 4.2 K, a Coulomb blockade regime is observed up to a bias voltage of a few millivolts. With scanning the back gate voltage, Coulomb oscillations can be clearly resolved with a period around 1 V. From the oscillations, the charging energy for the single electron transistor is calculated to be about 10 meV, which suggests that confined quantum dots exist with sizes around 35 nm in diameter. The irregular Coulomb diamonds are observed due to the multi-tunneling junctions between dots in the nanobelt.

  13. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-10

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.

  14. Plant single-cell and single-cell-type metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue

    2014-10-01

    In conjunction with genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, plant metabolomics is providing large data sets that are paving the way towards a comprehensive and holistic understanding of plant growth, development, defense, and productivity. However, dilution effects from organ- and tissue-based sampling of metabolomes have limited our understanding of the intricate regulation of metabolic pathways and networks at the cellular level. Recent advances in metabolomics methodologies, along with the post-genomic expansion of bioinformatics knowledge and functional genomics tools, have allowed the gathering of enriched information on individual cells and single cell types. Here we review progress, current status, opportunities, and challenges presented by single cell-based metabolomics research in plants.

  15. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.

  16. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-10

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus. PMID:27341236

  17. Single active finger IPMC microgripper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Stefan; Macias, Gary; Lumia, Ron

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new design for a single active finger ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) microgripper. This design has one stationary finger and one actuating finger. The gripper is tested in comparison with a two fingered gripper (2FG) on its ability to perform pick and place operations. The grippers each use IPMC strips in three widths: 1.25 mm, 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm. The single fingered gripper shows success rates of 86.2%, 89.2%, and 75% respectively versus 78.5%, 93.9% and 75% for a 2FG. The single fingered gripper performance is nearly equivalent to that of a 2FG. Even though a single finger produces half the force, its ability to carry objects is as good as or better than a 2FG. In addition, the stationary finger is considerably stiffer than an active IPMC finger, which helps in positional accuracy. Using half the IPMC, the single fingered gripper is the economical choice.

  18. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  19. Applications of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Single-Stage, Multi-Stage and Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), based on the magnetocaloric effect, are solid-state coolers that were the first to achieve cooling well into the sub-kelvin regime. Although supplanted by more powerful dilution refrigerators in the 1960s, ADRs have experienced a revival due to the needs of the space community for cooling astronomical instruments and detectors to temperatures below 100 mK. The earliest of these were single-stage refrigerators using superfluid helium as a heat sink. Their modest cooling power (<1 µW at 60 mK[1]) was sufficient for the small (6x6) detector arrays[2], but recent advances in arraying and multiplexing technologies[3] are generating a need for higher cooling power (5-10 µW), and lower temperature (<30 mK). Single-stage ADRs have both practical and fundamental limits to their operating range, as mass grows very rapidly as the operating range is expanded. This has led to the development of new architectures that introduce multi-staging as a way to improve operating range, efficiency and cooling power. Multi-staging also enables ADRs to be configured for continuous operation, which greatly improves cooling power per unit mass. This paper reviews the current field of adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, beginning with a description of the magnetocaloric effect and its application in single-stage systems, and then describing the challenges and capabilities of multi-stage and continuous ADRs.

  20. Single-photon decision maker

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions. PMID:26278007