Science.gov

Sample records for 30m single dish

  1. Ideas for future large single dish radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Baars, Jacob W. M.

    2014-07-01

    The existing large single dish radio telescopes of the 100m class (Effelsberg, Green Bank) were built in the 1970s and 1990s. With some active optics they work now down to 3 millimeter wavelength where the atmospheric quality of the site is also a limiting factor. Other smaller single dish telescopes (50m LMT Mexico, 30m IRAM Spain) are located higher and reach sub-millimeter quality, and the much smaller 12m antennas of the ALMA array reach at a very high site the Terahertz region. They use advanced technologies as carbon fiber structures and flexible body control. We review natural limits to telescope design and use the examples of a number of telescopes for an overview of the available state-of-the-art in design, engineering and technologies. Without considering the scientific justification we then offer suggestions to realize ultimate performance of huge single dish telescopes (up to 160m). We provide an outlook on design options, technological frontiers and cost estimates.

  2. The General Single-Dish Data format: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Garwood, Robert W.; Fairclough, Jon H.; Prestage, Richard M.; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Padman, Rachael

    2015-09-01

    The General Single-Dish Data format (GSDD) was developed in the mid-1980s as a data model to support centimeter, millimeter and submillimeter instrumentation at NRAO, JCMT, the University of Arizona and IRAM. We provide an overview of the GSDD requirements and associated data model, discuss the implementation of the resultant file formats, describe its usage in the observatories and provide a retrospective on the format.

  3. Instrumentation for single-dish observations with The Greenland Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Paul K.; Asada, K.; Blundell, R.; Burgos, R.; Chang, H.-H.; Chen, M. T.; Goldie, D.; Groppi, C.; Han, C. C.; Ho, P. T. P.; Huang, Y. D.; Inoue, M.; Kubo, D.; Koch, P.; Leech, J.; de Lera Acedo, E.; Martin-Cocher, P.; Nishioka, H.; Nakamura, M.; Matsushita, S.; Paine, S. N.; Patel, N.; Raffin, P.; Snow, W.; Sridharan, T. K.; Srinivasan, R.; Thomas, C. N.; Tong, E.; Wang, M.-J.; Wheeler, C.; Withington, S.; Yassin, G.; Zeng, L.-Z.

    2014-07-01

    The Greenland Telescope project will deploy and operate a 12m sub-millimeter telescope at the highest point of the Greenland i e sheet. The Greenland Telescope project is a joint venture between the Smithsonian As- trophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). In this paper we discuss the concepts, specifications, and science goals of the instruments being developed for single-dish observations with the Greenland Telescope, and the coupling optics required to couple both them and the mm-VLBI receivers to antenna. The project will outfit the ALMA North America prototype antenna for Arctic operations and deploy it to Summit Station,1 a NSF operated Arctic station at 3,100m above MSL on the Greenland I e Sheet. This site is exceptionally dry, and promises to be an excellent site for sub-millimeter astronomical observations. The main science goal of the Greenland Telescope is to carry out millimeter VLBI observations alongside other telescopes in Europe and the Americas, with the aim of resolving the event horizon of the super-massive black hole at the enter of M87. The Greenland Telescope will also be outfitted for single-dish observations from the millimeter-wave to Tera-hertz bands. In this paper we will discuss the proposed instruments that are currently in development for the Greenland Telescope - 350 GHz and 650 GHz heterodyne array receivers; 1.4 THz HEB array receivers and a W-band bolometric spectrometer. SAO is leading the development of two heterodyne array instruments for the Greenland Telescope, a 48- pixel, 325-375 GHz SIS array receiver, and a 4 pixel, 1.4 THz HEB array receiver. A key science goal for these instruments is the mapping of ortho and para H2D+ in old protostellar ores, as well as general mapping of CO and other transitions in molecular louds. An 8-pixel prototype module for the 350 GHz array is currently being built for laboratory and operational testing on the Greenland Telescope

  4. Simulations for single-dish intensity mapping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Dickinson, C.; Battye, R. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Maffei, B.; Noviello, F.; Remazeilles, M.; Wilkinson, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    H I intensity mapping is an emerging tool to probe dark energy. Observations of the redshifted H I signal will be contaminated by instrumental noise, atmospheric and Galactic foregrounds. The latter is expected to be four orders of magnitude brighter than the H I emission we wish to detect. We present a simulation of single-dish observations including an instrumental noise model with 1/f and white noise, and sky emission with a diffuse Galactic foreground and H I emission. We consider two foreground cleaning methods: spectral parametric fitting and principal component analysis. For a smooth frequency spectrum of the foreground and instrumental effects, we find that the parametric fitting method provides residuals that are still contaminated by foreground and 1/f noise, but the principal component analysis can remove this contamination down to the thermal noise level. This method is robust for a range of different models of foreground and noise, and so constitutes a promising way to recover the H I signal from the data. However, it induces a leakage of the cosmological signal into the subtracted foreground of around 5 per cent. The efficiency of the component separation methods depends heavily on the smoothness of the frequency spectrum of the foreground and the 1/f noise. We find that as long as the spectral variations over the band are slow compared to the channel width, the foreground cleaning method still works.

  5. New 50-m-class single-dish telescope: Large Submillimeter Telescope (LST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Oshima, Tai; Ishii, Shun

    2016-08-01

    We report on a plan to construct a 50-m-class single-dish telescope, the Large Submillimeter Telescope (LST). The conceptual design and key science behind the LST are presented, together with its tentative specifications. This telescope is optimized for wide-area imaging and spectroscopic surveys in the 70-420 GHz frequency range, which spans the main atmospheric windows at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths for good observation sites such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) site in Chile. We also target observations at higher frequencies of up to 1 THz, using an inner high-precision surface. Active surface control is required in order to correct gravitational and thermal deformations of the surface, and will be useful for correction of the wind-load deformation. The LST will facilitate new discovery spaces such as wide-field imaging with both continuum and spectral lines, along with new developments for time-domain science. Through exploitation of its synergy with ALMA and other telescopes, the LST will contribute to research on a wide range of topics in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics, e.g., astrochemistry, star formation in our Galaxy and galaxies, the evolution of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, the search for transients such as γ-ray burst reverse shocks produced during the epoch of re-ionization, electromagnetic follow up of detected gravitational wave sources, and examination of general relativity in the vicinity of super massive black holes via submillimeter very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI).

  6. Pros and Cons of Using Arrays of Small Antennas Versus Large Single Dish Antennas for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes pros and cons of using arrays of small antennas instead of large single dish antennas for spacecraft telemetry, command, and tracking (TT and C) - communications and navigation (C and N) - and science support that the Deep Space Network (DSN) normally provides. It considers functionality and performance aspects, mainly for TT and C, though it also considers science. It only briefly comments on the cost aspects that seem to favor arrays of small antennas over large single antennas, at least for receiving (downlinks).

  7. Spatially Extended and High-Velocity Dispersion Molecular Component in Spiral Galaxies: Single-Dish Versus Interferometric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%-74% for NGC 4736 and 81%-92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ˜(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(˜1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (˜3″ or ˜100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  8. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  9. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  10. Large aperture millimeter/submillimeter telescope: which is more cost-effective, aperture synthesis telescope versus large single dish telescope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Saito, Masao

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) consists of 66 antennas with the aperture equivalent to a 91-m diameter antenna. The Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the world's largest, 100-m diameter telescope in the wavelength range of 3 mm to 30 cm. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) will be the world's largest, 50-m diameter, steerable millimeter-wavelength telescope. The Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will be the world's largest, 25-m diameter, submillimeter-wavelength telescope. We will investigate advantages and disadvantages of both the aperture synthesis telescope and the large single-dish telescope taking the cost effectiveness into consideration, and will propose the design of antenna structure for a future telescope project at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths.

  11. Golden dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico was both shaken and stirred this year, but not by an earthquake or a tropical storm. The world's largest curved radio telescope—which is operated by Cornell University and the National Science Foundation—makes a stellar appearance in the climax of Goldeneye, the latest film in the James Bond series. At 300 m in diameter, 8 hectares (20 acres) in area, and 51 m in depth from lip to trough, the giant radio astronomy dish looms large in the film as a satellite antenna that will be used to cause an electromagnetic pulse over London.During shooting of the film, actors raced along the antenna's 129 m-long, 545-metric ton bridge, which is suspended by 12 cables hanging from reinforced concrete towers.

  12. Enchanced interference cancellation and telemetry reception in multipath environments with a single paraboic dish antenna using a focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan (Inventor); Vilnrotter, Victor A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Advanced Focal Plane Array ("AFPA") for parabolic dish antennas that exploits spatial diversity to achieve better channel equalization performance in the presence of multipath (better than temporal equalization alone), and which is capable of receiving from two or more sources within a field-of-view in the presence of multipath. The AFPA uses a focal plane array of receiving elements plus a spatio-temporal filter that keeps information on the adaptive FIR filter weights, relative amplitudes and phases of the incoming signals, and which employs an Interference Cancelling Constant Modulus Algorithm (IC-CMA) that resolves multiple telemetry streams simultaneously from the respective aero-nautical platforms. This data is sent to an angle estimator to calculate the target's angular position, and then on to Kalman filters FOR smoothing and time series prediction. The resulting velocity and acceleration estimates from the time series data are sent to an antenna control unit (ACU) to be used for pointing control.

  13. Solar Dish Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehm

    2004-06-06

    (Original wording, now somewhat outdated.) The Nevada Solar Dish Project is designed to deploy at least 1 MW of dish-based, field validation power generation systems in a mini-power plant near Las Vegas, Nevada, as a transitional precursor to the full commercialization of the technology. This will occur over a period of about three years, from 2001 through 2004. The statement of work defines activities that the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) will provide by establishing a test site for two dish/Stirling systems on the UNLV campus and providing operation, test and training, and education in support of the project.

  14. Parabolic dish collectors - A solar option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-05-01

    A description is given of several parabolic-dish high temperature solar thermal systems currently undergoing performance trials. A single parabolic dish has the potential for generating 20 to 30 kW of electricity with fluid temperatures from 300 to 1650 C. Each dish is a complete power-producing unit, and may function either independently or as part of a group of linked modules. The two dish designs under consideration are of 11 and 12 meter diameters, yielding receiver operating temperatures of 925 and 815 C, respectively. The receiver designs described include (1) an organic working fluid (toluene) Rankine cycle engine; (2) a Brayton open cycle unit incorporating a hybrid combustion chamber and nozzle and a shaft-coupled permanent magnet alternator; and (3) a modified Stirling cycle device originally designed for automotive use. Also considered are thermal buffer energy storage and thermochemical transport and storage.

  15. Korean VLBI Network Calibrator Survey (KVNCS). 1. Source Catalog of KVN Single-dish Flux Density Measurement in the K and Q Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Ae; Sohn, Bong Won; Jung, Taehyun; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jee Won

    2017-02-01

    We present the catalog of the KVN Calibrator Survey (KVNCS). This first part of the KVNCS is a single-dish radio survey simultaneously conducted at 22 (K band) and 43 GHz (Q band) using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN) from 2009 to 2011. A total of 2045 sources are selected from the VLBA Calibrator Survey with an extrapolated flux density limit of 100 mJy at the K band. The KVNCS contains 1533 sources in the K band with a flux density limit of 70 mJy and 553 sources in the Q band with a flux density limit of 120 mJy; it covers the whole sky down to ‑32.°5 in decl. We detected 513 sources simultaneously in the K and Q bands; ∼76% of them are flat-spectrum sources (‑0.5 ≤ α ≤ 0.5). From the flux–flux relationship, we anticipated that most of the radiation of many of the sources comes from the compact components. The sources listed in the KVNCS therefore are strong candidates for high-frequency VLBI calibrators.

  16. Prototype dish testing and analysis at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. W.; Houser, R. M.; Erdman, W. W.

    1991-12-01

    During the past year, Sandia National Laboratories performed on-sun testing of several dish concentrator concepts. These tests were undertaken at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF). Two of the tests were performed in support of the DOE Concentrator Receiver Development Program. The first was on-sun testing of the single-element stretched-membrane dish; this 7-meter diameter dish uses a single preformed metal membrane with an aluminized polyester optical surface and shows potential for future dish-Stirling systems. The next involved two prototype facets from the Faceted Stretched-Membrane Dish Program. These facets, representing competitive design concepts, are closest to commercialization. Five 1-meter triangular facets were tested on-sun as part of the development program for a solar dynamic system on Space Station Freedom. While unique in character, all the tests utilized the Beam Characterization System (BCS) as the main measurement tool and all were analyzed using the Sandia-developed CIRCE2 computer code. The BCS is used to capture and digitize an image of the reflected concentrator beam that is incident on a target surface. The CIRCE2 program provides a computational tool, which when given the geometry of the concentrator and target as well as other design parameters will predict the flux distribution of the reflected beam. One of these parameters, slope error, is the variable that has a major effect in determining the quality of the reflected beam. The methodology used to combine these two tools to predict uniform slope errors for the dishes is discussed in this document. As the Concentrator Development Programs continue, Sandia will test and evaluate two prototype dish systems. The first, the faceted stretched-membrane dish, is expected to be tested in 1992, followed by the full-scale single-element stretched-membrane dish in 1993. These tests will use the tools and methodology discussed in this document.

  17. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  18. JPL's parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established in the California Mojave Desert to carry out work in testing solar point focusing concentrator systems and related hardware. The site was chosen because of its high solar insolation level and year around clear sky conditions. The various facilities and equipment at the PDTS, and the concentrator experiments being performed are described.

  19. Dish Stirling solar receiver program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A technology demonstration of a Dish Stirling solar thermal electric system can be accomplished earlier and at a much lower cost than previous planning had indicated by employing technical solutions that allow already existing hardware, with minimum modifications, to be integrated into a total system with a minimum of development. The DSSR operates with a modified United Stirling p-40 engine/alternator and the JPL Test Bed Concentrator as a completely integrated solar thermal electric system having a design output of 25 kWe. The system is augmented by fossil fuel combustion which ensures a continuous electrical output under all environmental conditions. Technical and economic studies by government and industry in the United States and abroad identify the Dish Stirling solar electric system as the most appropriate, efficient and economical method for conversion of solar energy to electricity in applications when the electrical demand is 10 MWe and less.

  20. A Brain in a Dish.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Shikha Jain

    2015-11-01

    Ohio State University researchers have made a leap forward in disease research by creating an eraser sized human "brain" in a petri dish(1). Although lacking a circulatory system their brain model includes spinal cord, cortex, midbrain, brain stem, and even the beginnings of an eye- aiding in the effectiveness of research on complex neurological disease. To create their new brain model, the researchers converted adult skin cells into pluripotent stem cells, which afforded the opportunity to build the multiple nervous cell types required for such a complex system. Having this tissue model will assist researchers in developing new disease models, and thus, facilitate the development of novel clinical interventions.

  1. Clinical Trials in a Dish

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, David G.; Blinova, Ksenia

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials ‘in a dish’ involve testing medical therapies for safety or effectiveness in the laboratory with human tissue. This has become possible owing to recent biotechnology advances including induced pluripotent stem cells, organs-on-a-chip, and whole-genome sequencing. We provide here an overview of the landscape and highlight steps the FDA is taking to advance the science of clinical trials in a dish and to support the development and validation of new regulatory paradigms to assess drug safety using these new technologies. PMID:27876286

  2. Experiments on the dish verification antenna china for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiaoming; Liu, Bin; Yu, Lei; Yu, Shenghua; Wu, Di; Liu, Lijia

    2016-12-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is expected to become the world's most powerful radio telescope at meter and centimeter wavelength in the coming decades. The construction of SKA will be divided into two phases. The first phase (SKA1), scheduled for completion in 2023, will construct 10 % of the whole collecting area. The second phase (SKA2) will build the rest 90 % collecting area. The SKA1 consists of several types of arrays including SKA1-low and SKA1-mid. The latter is a dish array consisting of 200 medium-size antennas. The integrated dish array in SKA2 will expand to 2500 dishes, spreading 3000 kilometers across the southern part of Africa. The demanding specifications and enormous number of the SKA dish raise challenges in the dish development such as mass production with high performance at low cost, quick installation and high reliability. Dish Verification Antenna China (DVA-C) was built as one of three initial prototypes. A novel single-piece panel reflector made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) was adopted. In this study, an L-band receiver is installed to make DVA-C a complete system for experiments on antenna performance test and preliminary observations. The performance of DVA-C including the system noise temperature, pointing accuracy, antenna pattern, and aperture efficiency has been tested. Preliminary observations such as pulsars and HI are then conducted, which indicates that the DVA-C can not only serve as an educational instrument and key technology test bed, but also be applied for scientific work such as pulsar timing, all-sky HI survey, multi-frequency monitoring of variable sources etc.

  3. Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.

  4. Solar parabolic dish technology evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Parabolic Dish Project for FY 1983 are summarized. Included are discussions on designs of module development including concentrator, receiver, and power conversion subsystems together with a separate discussion of field tests, Small Community Experiment system development, and tests at the Parabolic Dish Test Site.

  5. Solar Parabolic Dish Annual Technology Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Parabolic Dish Project for FY 1982 are summarized. Included are discussions on designs of module development including their concentrator, receiver, and power conversion subsystems. Analyses and test results, along with progress on field tests, Small Community Experiment System development, and tests at the Parabolic Dish Test Site are also included.

  6. Dish stirling solar receiver combustor test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The operational and energy transfer characteristics of the Dish Stirling Solar Receiver (DSSR) combustor/heat exchanger system was evaluated. The DSSR is designed to operate with fossil fuel augmentation utilizing a swirl combustor and cross flow heat exchanger consisting of a single row of 4 closely spaced tubes that are curved into a conical shape. The performance of the combustor/heat exchanger system without a Stirling engine was studied over a range of operating conditions and output levels using water as the working fluid. Results show that the combustor may be started under cold conditions, controlled safety, and operated at a constant air/fuel ratio (10 percent excess air) over the required range of firing rates. Furthermore, nondimensional heat transfer coefficients based on total heat transfer are plotted versus Reynolds number and compared with literature data taken for single rows of closely spaced tubes perpendicular to cross flow. The data show enhanced heat transfer for the present geometry and test conditions. Analysis of the results shows that the present system meets specified thermal requirements, thus verifying the feasibility of the DSSR combustor design for final prototype fabrication.

  7. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  8. Complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium: IRAM 30 m line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) and (M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.

    2013-11-01

    isotopologues of vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, and hydrogen cyanide. We also report the detection of transitions from within twelve new vibrationally or torsionally excited states of known molecules. Absorption features produced by diffuse clouds along the line of sight are detected in transitions with low rotation quantum numbers of many simple molecules and are modeled with ~30-40 velocity components with typical linewidths of ~3-5 km s-1. Conclusions: Although the large number of unidentified lines may still allow future identification of new molecules, we expect most of these lines to belong to vibrationally or torsionally excited states or to rare isotopologues of known molecules for which spectroscopic predictions are currently missing. Significant progress in extending the inventory of complex organic molecules in Sgr B2(N) and deriving tighter constraints on their location, origin, and abundance is expected in the near future thanks to an ongoing spectral line survey at 3 mm with ALMA in its cycles 0 and 1. The present single-dish survey will serve as a solid basis for the line identification and analysis of such an interferometric survey. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Figures 2-7 and Tables 6-107 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe observed and synthetic 3 mm spectra of Sgr B2(N) and (M), as well as the lists of line identifications corresponding to the blue lab- els in Figs. 2-7, are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/A47

  9. Genesis of the 1000-foot Arecibo dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marshall H.

    2009-07-01

    The giant radar/radio astronomy dish near Arecibo, Puerto Rico, was conceived by William E. Gordon in early 1958 as a back-scattering radar system to measure the density and temperature of the Earth's ionosphere up to a few thousand kilometers. Gordon calculated the required size of the antenna by using the Thomson cross-section for scattering by the electrons, and assuming that the elementary scattered waves would be incoherent. During the summer and autumn of 1958 Gordon led a study group that published a design report in December 1958. The report showed that a dish 1000 feet in diameter would be required, and described a limestone sinkhole in Puerto Rico that would make a suitable support for such a dish. Meanwhile, in November 1958, Kenneth L. Bowles performed an ionospheric radar experiment that showed that the Gordon calculation for the scattered power was roughly correct, but that the calculated spectral width was too big. The consequence of these results was that a dish substantially smaller than 1000 feet could have satisfied the original goals for the radar. However, from the spring of 1958 the value of 1000 feet had been in the minds of the study team, and a large suite of important experiments that such a dish could do had been identified. These apparently became the raison d'être for the project, and the possibility of shrinking the dish to accomplish only the original goals seems to have been ignored. The project was sold to a new federal funding agency, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), which was interested, in part at least, because ballistic missiles traveled through the ionosphere and it was important to fully understand that environment. Gordon's original calculation contained a remarkably beneficial error. Without it, it is doubtful that such a large dish would have been built.

  10. Steam engine research for solar parabolic dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demler, R. L.

    1981-05-01

    The parabolic dish solar concentrator provides an opportunity to generate high grade energy in a modular system. Most of the capital is projected to be in the dish and its installation. Assurance of a high production demand of a standard dish could lead to dramatic cost reductions. High production volume in turn depends upon maximum application flexibility by providing energy output options, e.g., heat, electricity, chemicals and combinations thereof. Subsets of these options include energy storage and combustion assist. A steam engine design and experimental program is described which investigate the efficiency potential of a small 25 kW compound reheat cycle piston engine. An engine efficiency of 35 percent is estimated for a 700 C steam temperature from the solar receiver.

  11. Steam engine research for solar parabolic dish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demler, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar concentrator provides an opportunity to generate high grade energy in a modular system. Most of the capital is projected to be in the dish and its installation. Assurance of a high production demand of a standard dish could lead to dramatic cost reductions. High production volume in turn depends upon maximum application flexibility by providing energy output options, e.g., heat, electricity, chemicals and combinations thereof. Subsets of these options include energy storage and combustion assist. A steam engine design and experimental program is described which investigate the efficiency potential of a small 25 kW compound reheat cycle piston engine. An engine efficiency of 35 percent is estimated for a 700 C steam temperature from the solar receiver.

  12. A SU-8 dish for cell irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Auzelyte, V.; Olsson, M. G.; Pallon, J.

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the CELLION project is radiation research at low doses. The main cell responses to low dose irradiation are bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. In order to study these effects it is convenient to make the cells addressable in space and time through locking the cell position. A new alternative dish has been developed for irradiation procedures at the Lund Nuclear Probe. The versatile dish can be used both to cultivate and to hold the cells during the irradiation procedure. The irradiation dish is made of an epoxy-based photopolymer named SU-8 chosen by its flexibility, non-toxicity and biological compatibility to cell attachment. It has been fabricated using a UV lithographic technique. The irradiation dish forms a 2 × 2 mm 2 grid which contains 400 squares. Each square has 80 μm side and is separated from neighbouring ones by 20 μm wide walls. The location of each square is marked by a row letter and column number patterned outside the grid. The Cell Irradiation Facility at the Lund Nuclear Probe utilizes protons to irradiate living cells. A post-cell detection set up is used to control the applied dose, detecting the number of protons after passing through the targeted cell. The transmission requirement is fulfilled by our new irradiation dish. So far, the dish has been used to perform non-targeted irradiation of Hepatoma cells. The cells attach and grow easily on the SU-8 surface. In addition, the irradiation procedure can be performed routinely and faster since the cells are incubated and irradiated in the same surface.

  13. Experimental results of a 30 m, 3-core HTSC cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takato; Kato, Takeshi; Yumura, Hiroyasu; Hirose, Masayuki; Isojima, Shigeki; Honjo, Shoichi; Matsuo, Kimiyoshi; Mimura, Tomoo; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    2002-08-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cable is expected to transport large electric power with a compact size because of its high critical current density. We have been developing a 3-core 66 kV class HTSC cable, which is applied to the ∅150 mm duct, and is composed of a conductor and a shield wound with Ag-Mn sheathed Bi-2223 tapes, electrical insulation with polypropylene laminated paper impregnated with liquid nitrogen and thermal insulation with co-axial corrugated pipes. A 30 m, 3-core cable system has been constructed to verify the 3-core performance after its production, laying and cooling. The cable had good performance to mechanical stress in the factory process. The critical current of the cable was more than 2.4 kA at 77 K. The AC loss of the conductor part was 0.5 W/m/phase at 1 kA rms, which agreed well with the calculated value of the spiral pitch adjustment technique. A 130 kV rms AC was successfully applied without any change in tan δ and capacitance. As a next step, a 100 m HTSC cable has been designed and developed based on these experimental results.

  14. The millimeter IRAM-30 m line survey toward IK Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velilla Prieto, L.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Balança, C.; Herpin, F.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aim to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the molecular envelope of the oxygen-rich AGB star IK Tau. Methods: We carried out a millimeter wavelength line survey between 79 and 356 GHz with the IRAM-30 m telescope. We analysed the molecular lines detected in IK Tau using the population diagram technique to derive rotational temperatures and column densities. We conducted a radiative transfer analysis of the SO2 lines, which also helped us to verify the validity of the approximated method of the population diagram for the rest of the molecules. Results: For the first time in this source we detected rotational lines in the ground vibrational state of HCO+, NS, NO, and H2CO, as well as several isotopologues of molecules previously identified, namely, C18O, Si17O, Si18O, 29SiS, 30SiS, Si34S, H13CN, 13CS, C34S, H234S, 34SO, and 34SO2. We also detected several rotational lines in vibrationally excited states of SiS and SiO isotopologues, as well as rotational lines of H2O in the vibrationally excited state ν2 = 2. We have also increased the number of rotational lines detected of molecules that were previously identified toward IK Tau, including vibrationally excited states, enabling a detailed study of the molecular abundances and excitation temperatures. In particular, we highlight the detection of NS and H2CO with fractional abundances of f(NS) 10-8 and f(H2CO) [10-7-10-8]. Most of the molecules display rotational temperatures between 15 and 40 K. NaCl and SiS isotopologues display rotational temperatures higher than the average ( 65 K). In the case of SO2 a warm component with Trot 290 K is also detected. Conclusions: With a total of 350 lines detected of 34 different molecular species (including different isotopologues), IK Tau displays a rich chemistry for an oxygen-rich circumstellar envelope. The detection of carbon bearing molecules like H2CO, as well as the discrepancies found between our derived abundances and the predictions from

  15. Description of optical aberrations in dynamic Fresnel dish concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Borton, D.N.; Borton, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    Tracking solar dish concentrators have the highest efficiencies of solar devices. Traditional paraboloidal dish systems have the best optics, but are limited in size by mechanical constraints. Fresnel dishes can be made larger and are cheaper than paraboloidal dishes, but have optical imperfections. This paper describes a mathematical model of a dynamic Fresnel dish concentrator, and examines its optics. Optical aberrations of any design can be described for any day of the year. In general, the aberrations are small and the benefits of a Fresnel design outweigh the loss in optical performance. The model can be used to design concentrators for any application including distributed dish electric power generating systems.

  16. Overview of software development at the parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyazono, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of the data acquisition and data analysis software is discussed. The software development occurred between 1978 and 1984 in support of solar energy module testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Parabolic Dish Test Site, located within Edwards Test Station. The development went through incremental stages, starting with a simple single-user BASIC set of programs, and progressing to the relative complex multi-user FORTRAN system that was used until the termination of the project. Additional software in support of testing is discussed including software in support of a meteorological subsystem and the Test Bed Concentrator Control Console interface. Conclusions and recommendations for further development are discussed.

  17. Solar Thermal Power Systems parabolic dish project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    The status of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Project for FY 1980 is summarized. Included is: a discussion of the project's goals, program structure, and progress in parabolic dish technology. Analyses and test results of concentrators, receivers, and power converters are discussed. Progress toward the objectives of technology feasibility, technology readiness, system feasibility, and system readiness are covered.

  18. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  19. Status of the current parabolic dish technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, C.

    1981-01-01

    Vu-graphs are presented that show that point focus distributed receiver distributed generation systems are cost competitive with current utilities. System cost caveats and typical power module costs are described. Major problems inhibiting commercialization of the parabolic dish technology were reviewed.

  20. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date; concentrator development and progress; economic analyses; and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  1. Dishing It Out: Satellite Services in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdursky, Saul J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the installation of a communication satellite dish at the Bloomington Public Library (Illinois). Highlights include rationale for the purchase, uses of teleconferencing, technical questions, interference and licensing, locating the dish, selecting a vendor, equipment and installation, publicity and use of the dish, and plans for the…

  2. Non-doe-sponsored Domestic Dish Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The parabolic dish development activities being undertaken within the private sector of the United States were addressed. The primary emphasis of these non-DOE-sponsored activities is the development of commercial products that can penetrate the market in the near term. The exchange of information between these activities and the complementary DOE-sponsored work directed toward developing advancements in technology is considered to be of major importance. The experiences and problems encountered in the private sector serve as inputs that will help guide in the planning of the DOE program. In turn, a principal objective of the DOE program is the transfer findings of its technological development activities to the private sector. Activities in the private are characterized by their diversity in terms of both product design and marketing approach. The differences in the design concepts and the sizes of the dish concentrators under development are particularly noteworthy.

  3. Modelling Neurofibroma Formation in the Culture Dish.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    cells resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis and growth arrest, unless accompanied by a second (nuclear) oncogene, in which case the ras gene transformed...adherent to the culture dish, and cell death was not evident over the course of the experiment. In a related experiment, the synthesis of DNA in...proliferative response to rhGGF2 and forskolin, with the forskolin potentiating the stimulatory activity of rhGGF2 on DNA synthesis about 8-fold

  4. A compendium of solar dish/Stirling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, W.B.; Diver, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report surveys the emerging dish/Stirling technology. It documents -- using consistent terminology the design characteristics of dish concentrators, receivers, and Stirling engines applicable to solar electric power generation. Development status and operating experience for each system and an overview of dish/Stirling technology are also presented. This report enables comparisons of concentrator, receiver, and engine technologies. Specifications and performance data are presented on systems and on components that are in use or that could be used in dish/Stirling systems. This report is organized into two parts: The first part (Chapters 1 through 4) provides an overview of dish/Stirling technology -- the dish/ Stirling components (concentrator, receiver, and engine/alternator), current technology, basic theory, and technology development. The second part (Chapters 5 through 7) provides a detailed survey of the existing dish/Stirling concentrators, receivers, and engine/alternators.

  5. Developing a 30-m grassland productivity estimation map for central Nebraska using 250-m MODIS and 30-m Landsat-8 observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately estimating aboveground vegetation biomass productivity is essential for local ecosystem assessment and best land management practice. Satellite-derived growing season time-integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN) has been used as a proxy for vegetation biomass productivity. A 250-m grassland biomass productivity map for the Greater Platte River Basin had been developed based on the relationship between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GSN and Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) annual grassland productivity. However, the 250-m MODIS grassland biomass productivity map does not capture detailed ecological features (or patterns) and may result in only generalized estimation of the regional total productivity. Developing a high or moderate spatial resolution (e.g., 30-m) productivity map to better understand the regional detailed vegetation condition and ecosystem services is preferred. The 30-m Landsat data provide spatial detail for characterizing human-scale processes and have been successfully used for land cover and land change studies. The main goal of this study is to develop a 30-m grassland biomass productivity estimation map for central Nebraska, leveraging 250-m MODIS GSN and 30-m Landsat data. A rule-based piecewise regression GSN model based on MODIS and Landsat (r = 0.91) was developed, and a 30-m MODIS equivalent GSN map was generated. Finally, a 30-m grassland biomass productivity estimation map, which provides spatially detailed ecological features and conditions for central Nebraska, was produced. The resulting 30-m grassland productivity map was generally supported by the SSURGO biomass production map and will be useful for regional ecosystem study and local land management practices.

  6. Parabolic dish Stirling module development and test results

    SciTech Connect

    Washom, B.

    1984-08-01

    Private industry and the U.S. Department of Energy are presently cost sharing the design, manufacture and test of a 25 Kwe parabolic dish Stirling module, known as Vanguard. The Vanguard module achieved a world's record sunlight to electric conversion efficiency of 31.6% in February 1984 at the Rancho Mirage, California test site. The module is presently operating daily in sunrise to sunset tests to determine the long term performance and O and M requirements of this distributed receiver system. Each module can be easily integrated into a larger field of modules to provide power generation opportunities from a single 25 Kwe unit for isolated loads to 30 Mwe systems for integrated utility power generation.

  7. Global Food Security-support data at 30 m (GFSAD30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenkabail, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring global croplands (GCs) is imperative for ensuring sustainable water and food security to the people of the world in the Twenty-first Century. However, the currently available cropland products suffer from major limitations such as: (1) Absence of precise spatial location of the cropped areas; (b) Coarse resolution nature of the map products with significant uncertainties in areas, locations, and detail; (b) Uncertainties in differentiating irrigated areas from rainfed areas; (c) Absence of crop types and cropping intensities; and (e) Absence of a dedicated webdata portal for the dissemination of cropland products. Therefore, our project aims to close these gaps through a Global Food Security-support data at 30 m (GFSAD30) with 4 distinct products: 1. Cropland extentarea, 2. Crop types with focus on 8 crops that occupy 70% of the global cropland areas, 3. Irrigated versus rainfed, and 4. Cropping intensities: single, double, triple, and continuous cropping. The above 4 products will be generated for GFSAD for nominal year 2010 (GFSAD2010) based on Landsat 30m Global Land Survey 2010 (GLS2010) fused with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m NDVI monthly maximum value composites (MVC) of 2009-2011 data, and suite of secondary data (e.g., long-term precipitation, temperature, GDEM elevation). GFSAD30 will be produced using three mature cropland mapping algorithms (CMAs): 1. Spectral matching techniques; 2. A cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that is rule-based; and 3. Hierarchical segmentation (HSeg) algorithm. Funded by NASA MEaSUREs, GFSAD30 will make significant contributions to Earth System Data Records (ESDRs), Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Agriculture and Water Societal Beneficial Areas (GEO Ag. SBAs), GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative (GEO GLAM), and the recent 'Big Data' initiative by the White House. The project has the support of USGS Working Group on Global Croplands (https://powellcenter.usgs.gov/globalcroplandwater/).

  8. Proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Annual Review are presented. The results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program were emphasized. Among the topics discussed were: overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development along with associated hardware and test results; distributed systems operating experience; international parabolic dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. Solar electric generation was also addressed.

  9. The IRAM-30 m line survey of the Horsehead PDR. IV. Comparative chemistry of H2CO and CH3OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, V. V.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Pety, J.; Gratier, P.; Gerin, M.; Roueff, E.; Le Petit, F.; Le Bourlot, J.; Faure, A.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Theoretical models and laboratory experiments show that CH3OH is efficiently formed on cold grain surfaces through the successive hydrogenation of CO, forming HCO and H2CO as intermediate species. In cold cores and low UV-field illumination photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) the ices can be released into the gas-phase through nonthermal processes such as photodesorption, which considerably increases their gas-phase abundances. Aims: We investigate the dominant formation mechanism of H2CO and CH3OH in the Horsehead PDR and its associated dense core. Methods: We performed deep integrations of several H2CO and CH3OH lines at two positions in the Horsehead, namely the PDR and dense core, with the IRAM-30 m telescope. In addition, we observed one H2CO higher-frequency line with the CSO telescope at both positions. We determined the H2CO and CH3OH column densities and abundances from the single-dish observations complemented with IRAM-PdBI high-angular resolution maps (6'') of both species. We compared the observed abundances with PDR models including either pure gas-phase chemistry or both gas-phase and grain surface chemistry. Results: We derived CH3OH abundances relative to total number of hydrogen atoms of ~1.2 × 10-10 and ~2.3 × 10-10 in the PDR and dense-core positions, respectively. These abundances are similar to the inferred H2CO abundance in both positions (~2 × 10-10). We find an abundance ratio H2CO/CH3OH of ~2 in the PDR and ~1 in the dense core. Pure gas-phase models cannot reproduce the observed abundances of either H2CO or CH3OH at the PDR position. The two species are therefore formed on the surface of dust grains and are subsequently photodesorbed into the gas-phase at this position. At the dense core, on the other hand, photodesorption of ices is needed to explain the observed abundance of CH3OH, while a pure gas-phase model can reproduce the observed H2CO abundance. The high-resolution observations show that CH3OH is depleted onto grains at

  10. Dish/Stirling for Department of Defense applications final report

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, R.B.; Menicucci, D.F.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project to field a dish/Stirling system at a southwestern US military facility. This project entitled ``Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications`` was started in August 1993 and was completed in September 1996. The project`s objective was to assist military facilities to field and evaluate emerging environmentally sound and potentially economical dish/Stirling technology. Dish/Stirling technology has the potential to produce electricity at competitive costs while at the same time providing a secure and environmentally benign source of power. In accordance with the SERDP charter, this project leveraged a US Department of Energy (DOE) cost-shared project between Sandia National Laboratories and Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG). CPG is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cummins Engine Company, a leading manufacturer of diesel engines. To accomplish this objective, the project called for the installation of a dish/Stirling system at a military facility to establish first-hand experience in the operation of a dish/Stirling system. To scope the potential DoD market for dish/Stirling technology and to identify the site for the demonstration, a survey of southwestern US military facilities was also conducted. This report describes the project history, the Cummins dish/Stirling system, results from the military market survey, and the field test results.

  11. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array Dish. I. Beam Pattern Measurements and Science Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Bradley, Richard F.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; DeBoer, David R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Aguirre, James E.; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Patra, Nipanjana; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Bowman, Judd; Dickenson, Roger; Dillon, Joshua S.; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kohn, Saul A.; Klima, Patricia J.; Moodley, Kavilan; Saliwanchik, Benjamin R. B.; Schaffner, Patrick; Shelton, John; Taylor, H. A.; Taylor, Rusty; Tegmark, Max; Wirt, Butch; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2016-08-01

    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a radio interferometer aiming to detect the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations from neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionization (EOR). Drawing on lessons from the Murchison Widefield Array and the Precision Array for Probing the EOR, HERA is a hexagonal array of large (14 m diameter) dishes with suspended dipole feeds. The dish not only determines overall sensitivity, but also affects the observed frequency structure of foregrounds in the interferometer. This is the first of a series of four papers characterizing the frequency and angular response of the dish with simulations and measurements. In this paper, we focus on the angular response (i.e., power pattern), which sets the relative weighting between sky regions of high and low delay and thus apparent source frequency structure. We measure the angular response at 137 MHz using the ORBCOMM beam mapping system of Neben et al. We measure a collecting area of 93 m2 in the optimal dish/feed configuration, implying that HERA-320 should detect the EOR power spectrum at z ˜ 9 with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12.7 using a foreground avoidance approach with a single season of observations and 74.3 using a foreground subtraction approach. Finally, we study the impact of these beam measurements on the distribution of foregrounds in Fourier space.

  12. Revised spectroscopic parameters of SH(+) from ALMA and IRAM 30m observations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Holger S P; Goicoechea, Javier R; Cernicharo, José; Agúndez, Marcelino; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Gerin, Maryvonne; Dumas, Gaëlle; Chapillon, Edwige

    2014-09-19

    Hydrides represent the first steps of interstellar chemistry. Sulfanylium (SH(+)), in particular, is a key tracer of energetic processes. We used ALMA and the IRAM 30 m telescope to search for the lowest frequency rotational lines of SH(+) toward the Orion Bar, the prototypical photo-dissociation region illuminated by a strong UV radiation field. On the basis of previous Herschel/HIFI observations of SH(+), we expected to detect emission of the two SH(+) hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the NJ = 10-01 fine structure (FS) component near 346 GHz. While we did not observe any lines at the frequencies predicted from laboratory data, we detected two emission lines, each ~15 MHz above the SH(+) predictions and with relative intensities and HFS splitting expected for SH(+). The rest frequencies of the two newly detected lines are more compatible with the remainder of the SH(+) laboratory data than the single line measured in the laboratory near 346 GHz and previously attributed to SH(+). Therefore, we assign these new features to the two SH(+) HFS components of the NJ = 10-01 FS component and re-determine its spectroscopic parameters, which will be useful for future observations of SH(+), in particular if its lowest frequency FS components are studied. Our observations demonstrate the suitability of these lines for SH(+) searches at frequencies easily accessible from the ground.

  13. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Eighteen geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  14. Studies of dished accelerator grids for 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Geometrically different sets of dished accelerator grids were tested on five 30-cm thrusters. The geometric variation of the grids included the grid-to-grid spacing, the screen and accelerator hole diameters and thicknesses, the screen and accelerator open area fractions, ratio of dish depth to the dish diameter, compensation, and aperture shape. In general, the data taken over a range of beam currents for each grid set included the minimum total accelerating voltage required to extract a given beam current and the minimum accelerator grid voltage required to prevent electron backstreaming.

  15. Radio Telescope Data Path for Single Dish and Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesteven, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Radioastronomers derive all their observational data from the ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION which arrives at the RADIO TELESCOPE from the region of interest. The subset of parameter space of interest to the astronomer is modest: what part of the spectrum; what polarization; which direction; when and where the observations are made. The telescope is the filter which determines the actual subset, and ...

  16. Dish layouts analysis method for concentrative solar power plant.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinshan; Gan, Shaocong; Li, Song; Ruan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Shengyong; Wang, Yong; Gui, Changgui; Wan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Designs leading to maximize the use of sun radiation of a given reflective area without increasing the expense on investment are important to solar power plants construction. We here provide a method that allows one to compute shade area at any given time as well as the total shading effect of a day. By establishing a local coordinate system with the origin at the apex of a parabolic dish and z-axis pointing to the sun, neighboring dishes only with [Formula: see text] would shade onto the dish when in tracking mode. This procedure reduces the required computational resources, simplifies the calculation and allows a quick search for the optimum layout by considering all aspects leading to optimized arrangement: aspect ratio, shifting and rotation. Computer simulations done with information on dish Stirling system as well as DNI data released from NREL, show that regular-spacing is not an optimal layout, shifting and rotating column by certain amount can bring more benefits.

  17. The French thermo-helio-electricity-KW parabolic dish program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audibert, M.; Peri, G.

    1982-01-01

    The testing and development of parabolic dish solar thermal power plants to produce, thermal mechanical, or electrical energy are discussed. The design, construction, and experiments of prototype collectors to prove the feasibility of such collectors is described.

  18. Parabolic dish systems at work - Applying the concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is given of parabolic dish solar concentrator application experiments being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. The 'engineering experiments' comprise the testing of (1) a small-community powerplant system, in conjunction with a grid-connected utility; (2) stand-alone applications at remote sites such as military installations, radar stations and villages; and (3) dish modules that can deliver heat for direct use in industrial processes. Applicability projections are based on a dish and receiver that use a Brayton engine with an engine/generator efficiency of 25% and a production level of up to 25,000 units per year. Analyses indicate that parabolic-dish power systems can potentially replace small, oil-fired power plants in all regions of the U.S. between 1985 and 1991.

  19. Performance of the Southern California Edison Company Stirling dish

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, C.W.; Stone, K.W.

    1993-10-01

    McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) and United Stirling AB of Sweden (USAB) formed a joint venture in 1982 to develop and produce a Stirling dish solar generating system. In this report, the six year development and testing program continued by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) is described. Each Stirling dish module consists of a sun tracking dish concentrator developed by the MDAC and a Stirling engine driven power conversion unit (PCU) developed by USAB. The Stirling dish system demonstrated twice the peak and daily solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of any other system then under development. This system continues to set the performance standard for solar to electric systems being developed in the early 1990`s. Test data are presented and used to estimate the performance of a commercial system.

  20. A DUAL-BAND MILLIMETER-WAVE KINETIC INDUCTANCE CAMERA FOR THE IRAM 30 m TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Bideaud, A.; Swenson, L.; Cruciani, A.; Camus, P.; Hoffmann, C.; Desert, F. X.; Doyle, S.; Ade, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Tucker, C.; Roesch, M.; Leclercq, S.; Schuster, K. F.; Endo, A.; Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Ferrari, L.; Yates, S. J. C

    2011-06-01

    The Neel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a fully integrated measurement system based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) currently being developed for millimeter wave astronomy. The instrument includes dual-band optics allowing simultaneous imaging at 150 GHz and 220 GHz. The imaging sensors consist of two spatially separated arrays of KIDs. The first array, mounted on the 150 GHz branch, is composed of 144 lumped-element KIDs. The second array (220 GHz) consists of 256 antenna-coupled KIDs. Each of the arrays is sensitive to a single polarization; the band splitting is achieved by using a grid polarizer. The optics and sensors are mounted in a custom dilution cryostat, with an operating temperature of {approx}70 mK. Electronic readout is realized using frequency multiplexing and a transmission line geometry consisting of a coaxial cable connected in series with the sensor array and a low-noise 4 K amplifier. The dual-band NIKA was successfully tested in 2010 October at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain, performing in-line with laboratory predictions. An optical NEP was then calculated to be around 2 x 10{sup -16} W Hz{sup -1/2} (at 1 Hz) while under a background loading of approximately 4 pW pixel{sup -1}. This improvement in comparison with a preliminary run (2009) verifies that NIKA is approaching the target sensitivity for photon-noise limited ground-based detectors. Taking advantage of the larger arrays and increased sensitivity, a number of scientifically relevant faint and extended objects were then imaged including the Galactic Center SgrB2 (FIR1), the radio galaxy Cygnus A, and the NGC1068 Seyfert galaxy. These targets were all observed simultaneously in the 150 GHz and 220 GHz atmospheric windows.

  1. A Dual-band Millimeter-wave Kinetic Inductance Camera for the IRAM 30 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Bideaud, A.; Swenson, L.; Cruciani, A.; Camus, P.; Hoffmann, C.; Désert, F. X.; Doyle, S.; Ade, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Tucker, C.; Roesch, M.; Leclercq, S.; Schuster, K. F.; Endo, A.; Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Ferrari, L.; Yates, S. J. C.; Bourrion, O.; Macias-Perez, J.; Vescovi, C.; Calvo, M.; Giordano, C.

    2011-06-01

    The Néel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a fully integrated measurement system based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) currently being developed for millimeter wave astronomy. The instrument includes dual-band optics allowing simultaneous imaging at 150 GHz and 220 GHz. The imaging sensors consist of two spatially separated arrays of KIDs. The first array, mounted on the 150 GHz branch, is composed of 144 lumped-element KIDs. The second array (220 GHz) consists of 256 antenna-coupled KIDs. Each of the arrays is sensitive to a single polarization; the band splitting is achieved by using a grid polarizer. The optics and sensors are mounted in a custom dilution cryostat, with an operating temperature of ~70 mK. Electronic readout is realized using frequency multiplexing and a transmission line geometry consisting of a coaxial cable connected in series with the sensor array and a low-noise 4 K amplifier. The dual-band NIKA was successfully tested in 2010 October at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain, performing in-line with laboratory predictions. An optical NEP was then calculated to be around 2 × 10-16 W Hz-1/2 (at 1 Hz) while under a background loading of approximately 4 pW pixel-1. This improvement in comparison with a preliminary run (2009) verifies that NIKA is approaching the target sensitivity for photon-noise limited ground-based detectors. Taking advantage of the larger arrays and increased sensitivity, a number of scientifically relevant faint and extended objects were then imaged including the Galactic Center SgrB2 (FIR1), the radio galaxy Cygnus A, and the NGC1068 Seyfert galaxy. These targets were all observed simultaneously in the 150 GHz and 220 GHz atmospheric windows.

  2. Parabolic dish test site: History and operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established for testing point-focusing solar concentrator systems operating at temperatures approaching 1650 C. Among tests run were evaluation and performance characterization of parabolic dish concentrators, receivers, power conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid systems. The PDTS was fully operational until its closure in June, 1984. The evolution of the test program, a chronological listing of the experiments run, and data summaries for most of the tests conducted are presented.

  3. Trends in dish-Stirling solar receiver designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diver, R. B.; Andraka, C. E.; Moreno, J. B.; Adkins, D. R.; Moss, T. A.

    The dish-Stirling solar energy system, because of its high efficiency, is a leading candidate for producing low cost electric power from the sun. Dish-Stirling receiver design involves dealing with non-uniform and highly concentrated solar flux at high temperatures (700 to 800 C) and, therefore, presents a variety of technical challenges. The technology is in the process of evolving from directly illuminated heater head tube receivers to receivers that use refluxing (i.e., gravity assisted) liquid metals as an intermediate heat transfer fluid. Modern dish-Stirling development was initiated in the late 1970s by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Department of Energy. The JPL technology development with United Stirling, Inc. involved the USAB 4.95 Stirling engine and directly illuminated heater-head tube receivers. This work eventually led to the successful demonstrations and world record efficiencies by Advanco Corp., and to the attempted commercialization of the technology by McDonnell Douglas Corp. The severe nature of concentrated solar flux and the potential advantages of heat pipe technology have caused an evolution toward reflux receivers. These receivers are just beginning to be tested in the laboratory and integrated with dish-Stirling systems. In this paper, the history and current status of dish-Stirling receiver development are presented and discussed. The technical challenges to be addressed by the dish-Stirling community and the future plans at Sandia are outlined.

  4. Estimating V̄s(30) (or NEHRP site classes) from shallow velocity models (depths < 30 m)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The average velocity to 30 m [V??s(30)] is a widely used parameter for classifying sites to predict their potential to amplify seismic shaking. In many cases, however, models of shallow shear-wave velocities, from which V??s(30) can be computed, do not extend to 30 m. If the data for these cases are to be used, some method of extrapolating the velocities must be devised. Four methods for doing this are described here and are illustrated using data from 135 boreholes in California for which the velocity model extends to at least 30 m. Methods using correlations between shallow velocity and V??s(30) result in significantly less bias for shallow models than the simplest method of assuming that the lowermost velocity extends to 30 m. In addition, for all methods the percent of sites misclassified is generally less than 10% and falls to negligible values for velocity models extending to at least 25 m. Although the methods using correlations do a better job on average of estimating V??s(30), the simplest method will generally result in a lower value of V??s(30) and thus yield a more conservative estimate of ground motion [which generally increases as V??s(30) decreases].

  5. Large scale IRAM 30 m CO-observations in the giant molecular cloud complex W43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-12-01

    We aim to fully describe the distribution and location of dense molecular clouds in the giant molecular cloud complex W43. It was previously identified as one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. To trace the moderately dense molecular clouds in the W43 region, we initiated W43-HERO, a large program using the IRAM 30 m telescope, which covers a wide dynamic range of scales from 0.3 to 140 pc. We obtained on-the-fly-maps in 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1) with a high spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 12''. These maps cover an area of ~1.5 square degrees and include the two main clouds of W43 and the lower density gas surrounding them. A comparison to Galactic models and previous distance calculations confirms the location of W43 near the tangential point of the Scutum arm at approximately 6 kpc from the Sun. The resulting intensity cubes of the observed region are separated into subcubes, which are centered on single clouds and then analyzed in detail. The optical depth, excitation temperature, and H2 column density maps are derived out of the 13CO and C18O data. These results are then compared to those derived from Herschel dust maps. The mass of a typical cloud is several 104 M⊙ while the total mass in the dense molecular gas (>102 cm-3) in W43 is found to be ~1.9 × 106 M⊙. Probability distribution functions obtained from column density maps derived from molecular line data and Herschel imaging show a log-normal distribution for low column densities and a power-law tail for high densities. A flatter slope for the molecular line data probability distribution function may imply that those selectively show the gravitationally collapsing gas. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe final datacubes (13CO and C18O) for the entire survey are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A24

  6. Technical status of the Dish/Stirling Joint Venture Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, J.R.; Diver, R.B.

    1995-06-01

    Initiated in 1991; the Dish/Stirling Joint Venture Program (DSJVP) is a 5-year, $17.2 million joint venture which is funded by Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG) of Columbus, Indiana and the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division. Sandia National Laboratories administers and provides technical management for this contract on the DOE`s behalf. In January, 1995; CPG advanced to Phase 3 of this three-phase contract. The objective of the DSJVP is to develop and commercialize a 7-kW. Dish/Stirling System for remote power markets by 1997. In this paper, the technical status of the major subsystems which comprise the CPG 7-kW{sub e} Dish/Stirling System is presented. These subsystems include the solar concentrator, heat pipe receiver, engine/alternator, power conditioning, and automatic controls.

  7. Development and testing of Parabolic Dish Concentrator No. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, E. W.; Thostesen, T. O.

    1984-01-01

    Parabolic Dish Concentrator No. 1 (PDC-1) is a 12-m-diameter prototype concentrator with low life-cycle costs for use with thermal-to-electric energy conversion devices. The concentrator assembly features panels made of a resin transfer molded balsa core/fiberglass sandwich with plastic reflective film as the reflective surface and a ribbed framework to hold the panels in place. The concentrator assembly tracks in azimuth and elevation on a base frame riding on a circular track. It is shown that the panels do not exhibit the proper parabolic contour. However, thermal gradients were discovered in the panels with daily temperature changes. The PDC-1 has sufficient optical quality to operate satisfactorily in a dish-electric system. The PDC-1 development provides the impetus for creating innovative optical testing methods and valuable information for use in designing and fabricating concentrators of future dish-electric systems.

  8. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  9. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH): a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Pappone, N; Di Girolamo, C; Del Puente, A; Scarpa, R; Oriente, P

    1996-03-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a skeletal disease characterized by ligamentous ossification of the anterolateral side of the spine. The radiographs of the spine of 69 patients (22 males, 47 females, mean age 64.97 +/- 8.83 years) affected by DISH according to Resnick's criteria were selected. A lower rate of lumbar spine involvement (71%) and a different distribution between sexes were demonstrated, as compared to the data from the literature. Data on relationships among extent of hyperostosis, occupation and metabolic disorders suggest that an important role might be played by the exposure to microtrauma, while, in subjects affected by a metabolic disorder, this condition would represent a prevalent pathogenetic factor. These data underline some peculiarities in the clinical picture of DISH in the population from Campania, that could depend on genetic factors.

  10. Technical feasibility of a modular dish solar electric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the technical feasibility of generating electricity by using a gas turbine in conjunction with a paraboloid of revolution (dish) solar concentrator. A conceptual design of a dish concentrator is obtained by parametrically examining the significant optical parameters. The optical performance analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo ray-trace simulation program. The performance of four candidate thermodynamic cycles utilizing two working fluids was analyzed; the cycles were the regenerative and nonregenerative Brayton cycles of both open and closed type. Air and helium were the working fluids for the open and closed type respectively. Heat transfer from the solar radiation to the gas flowing in metal tubes at the receiver was also analyzed. A paraboloid of revolution dish with a cavity receiver using an open air regenerative Brayton cycle turbine emerged as a technically feasible concept in the power range from 30 to 100 KWth per module.

  11. A Compendium of Solar Dish/Stirling Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    systems and Plataforma Solar in Almeria , Spain, with the goal being plans to produce fourteen 7.5-kWe systems for testing to test the system’s long-term...Schlaich, Bergermann und Partner 7.5-meter stretched-membrane dish at the Plataforma Solar international test facility in Almeria , Spain. DESIGN Type Heat...part of the Schlaich, Bergermann und Partner 7.5-meter dish system currently under test at the Plataforma Solar in Almeria , Spain, and in Germany

  12. Performance of 30-cm ion thrusters with dished accelerator grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen sets of dished accelerator grids were treated on five different 30 cm diameter bombardment thrusters to evaluate the effects of grid geometry variations on thruster discharge chamber performance. The dished grid parameters varied were: grid-to-grid spacing, screen and accelerator grid hole diameter, screen and accelerator open area fraction, compensation for beam divergence losses, and accelerator grid thickness. The effects on discharge chamber performance of main magnetic field changes, magnetic baffle current, cathode pole piece length and cathode position were also investigated.

  13. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  14. Liver transplantation and anemia in familial amyloidosis ATTR V30M.

    PubMed

    Beirão, Idalina; Lobato, Luísa; Costa, Paulo M P; Fonseca, Isabel; Silva, Manuela; Bravo, Fernanda; Cabrita, António; Porto, Graça

    2007-03-01

    Familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I) is caused by a mutant transthyretin (TTR V30M) produced by liver, and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a widely accepted treatment for stopping the major production of TTR V30M. Anemia affects 24.8% of symptomatic FAP-I patients with low erythropoietin (Epo) levels, suggesting a blockage of Epo-producing cells by local or circulating factors. To evaluate the putative toxicity effect of the mutant protein on Epo-producing cells and consequent Epo production, clinical and laboratory parameters of 20 FAP patients were collected before and after liver transplantation, analyzed and compared. Following OLT, the prevalence of anemia increased, with a significant decrease in transferrin saturation, but without significant change in ferritin. Serum Epo levels remained low after OLT and the observed to expected (O/E) Epo level ratio decreased even further after OLT (O/E < 0.8 rose to 70%). Despite the decrease in creatinine clearance (95.1 to 66.9 ml/min, p < 0.001), a similar median O/E Epo level was observed, independently of the presence of renal failure, excluding an important impact of renal failure on Epo production. The increase of anemia after OLT and the maintenance of a defective endogenous Epo production after liver transplantation excluded an inhibitory effect of the circulating TTR V30M on the Epo-producing cells.

  15. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  16. Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service cafeterias; direct chemical analysis of sodium content.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ryun; Jeong, Gye-Ok; Lee, Seung-Lim; Kim, Jin-Young; Kang, Soon-Ah; Park, Kun-Young; Ryou, Hyun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    The average sodium intake of Koreans was reported to be 5,279.9 mg/day, which is one of the highest intake levels worldwide. The average Koreans intake 19.6% of sodium from kimchi, showing kimchi as the main contributor of sodium in this country (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2005). The sodium content of dishes that are frequently chosen by workers, and which were served by foodservice cafeterias were chemically analyzed. The average sodium content of one meal provided by 10 foodservice cafeterias was 2,777.7 mg. Twenty-one, one-dish-meals, frequently chosen by workers for a lunch menu, were collected at 4 different restaurants for each menu by one male, aged in the twenties and analyzed chemically also. Workers who eat lunch at a workplace cafeteria everyday could intake about 8 g of salt at a one-time meal and those who eat out for a one-dish-meal would intake 3-8 g of salt without counting sodium content from the side dishes. From these study results, one could estimate that over 10 g of salt could be possible for a single meal for workers who eat out everyday. A nationwide nutrition campaign and education for low salt diets for restaurant owners and foodservice providers should be seriously considered.

  17. Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Annual Program Review Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The results of activities of the parabolic dish technology and applications development element of DOE's Solar Thermal Energy System Program are presented. Topics include the development and testing of concentrators, receivers, and power conversion units; system design and development for engineering experiments; economic analysis and marketing assessment; and advanced development activities. A panel discussion concerning industrial support sector requirements is also documented.

  18. Methodology to obtain 30 m resolution of snow cover area from FSCA MODIS and NDSI Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Javier; Vargas, Ximena

    2016-04-01

    In the last years numerous free images and product satellites have been released, with different spatial and temporal resolution. Out of them, the most commonly used to describe the snow area are MODIS and Landsat. Fractional snow cover area (FSCA) is a daily MODIS product with a 500 m spatial resolution; Landsat images have around 16 days and 30 m respectively. In this work we use both images to obtain a new daily 30 m resolution snow distribution product based in probabilistic and geospatial information. This can be useful because a higher resolution can be used to improve the estimation of the accuracy of a physically-based distributed model to represent the snow cover distribution. We choose three basins in central Chile, with an important snow and glacier presence, to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of snow using (1) the mean value between MOD10A1 (terra) and MYD10A1 (aqua) and (2) the corrected images by topography and atmosphere from Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 computing the normalized difference snow index (NDSI). When both satellites data are available in the same day, each MODIS pixel is studied considering the Landsat pixels contained in it. A new matrix is created, covering all MODIS pixels, using a 30 m spatial resolution, where each pixel value represents the probability of snow presence in time from Landsat images, and then each pixel is corrected by its neighbour's pixels, elevation, slope and aspect. Then snow is distributed, for each MODIS pixel, considering the corrected probability matrix and sorted between pixels with high probability until the area from FSCA is completed.

  19. Spatiotemporal downscaling approaches for monitoring 8-day 30 m actual evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yinghai; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyoung; Gong, Huili

    2017-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (ET) is critical for water resources management at both regional and local scales. Although the MODIS ET product (MOD16A2) provides viable sources for ET monitoring at 8-day intervals, the spatial resolution (1 km) is too coarse for local scale applications. In this study, we propose a machine learning and spatial temporal fusion (STF)-integrated approach in order to generate 8-day 30 m ET based on both MOD16A2 and Landsat 8 data with three schemes. Random forest machine learning was used to downscale MODIS 1 km ET to 30 m resolution based on nine Landsat-derived indicators including vegetation indices (VIs) and land surface temperature (LST). STF-based models including Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model and Spatio-Temporal Image Fusion Model were used to derive synthetic Landsat surface reflectance (scheme 1)/VIs (scheme 2)/ET (scheme 3) on Landsat-unavailable dates. The approach was tested over two study sites in the United States. The results showed that fusion of Landsat VIs produced the best accuracy of predicted ET (R2 = 0.52-0.97, RMSE = 0.47-3.0 mm/8 days and rRMSE = 6.4-37%). High density of cloud-clear Landsat image acquisitions and low spatial heterogeneity of Landsat VIs benefit the ET prediction. The downscaled 30 m ET had good agreement with MODIS ET (RMSE = 0.42-3.4 mm/8 days, rRMSE = 3.2-26%). Comparison with the in situ ET measurements showed that the downscaled ET had higher accuracy than MODIS ET.

  20. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Global Land Survey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Huang, Chengquan; Tan, Bin; Smith, Sarah Elizabeth; Phillips, Jacqueline; Wang, Panshi; Ling, Pui-Yu; Zhan, James; Li, Sike; Taylor, Michael P.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tilton, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (approx. 2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  1. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Landsat Global Land Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Tan, B.; Tilton, J.; Smith, S.; Phillips, J.; Wang, P.; Ling, P.; Zhan, J.; Xu, X.; Taylor, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (~2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  2. Using White Dish CMB Anisotropy Data to Probe Open and Flat-A CDM Cosmogonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratra, Bharat; Ganga, Ken; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tucker, G. S.; Griffin, G. S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Peterson, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a similar analysis of the Tucker at al. (1993, hereafter T93) White Dish CMB anisotropy data collected at the South Pole. The white dish detector and telescope are described in Tucker et al. (1994).

  3. Effects of 30-m nitrox saturation dive on the immune system in man.

    PubMed

    Shimamiya, T; Terada, N; Wakabayashi, S; Mohri, M

    2006-01-01

    Hyperbaria reportedly affects the immune system, but the role of psychological factors arising from confinement has not been taken into consideration. We investigated the immune changes in 4 subjects exposed to a 9-day simulated 30-m (400-kPa) nitrogen-oxygen (nitrox) saturation dive, and compared the results with those of our previous study that showed immune and mood changes in normobaric confinement. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after the dive or confinement, and activated with an anti-CD2 agonistic antibody. The percentages of granulocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and cells positive for CD69, an early activation marker, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Reduction of CD69 expression percentage was observed under both hyperbaric and normobaric conditions. Percentages of innate immune cells, such as granulocytes and NK cells decreased or remained mostly unchanged, contrasting with our previous study, which demonstrated increases in both percentages coordinate with mood improvement. We conclude that these changes may have been triggered by suppression of sympathetic nerve activity that occurs in 30-m nitrox saturation hyperbaria.

  4. Spaceborne SAR data for global urban mapping at 30 m resolution using a robust urban extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Jacob, Alexander; Gamba, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    With more than half of the world population now living in cities and 1.4 billion more people expected to move into cities by 2030, urban areas pose significant challenges on local, regional and global environment. Timely and accurate information on spatial distributions and temporal changes of urban areas are therefore needed to support sustainable development and environmental change research. The objective of this research is to evaluate spaceborne SAR data for improved global urban mapping using a robust processing chain, the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor. The proposed processing chain includes urban extraction based on spatial indices and Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) textures, an existing method and several improvements i.e., SAR data preprocessing, enhancement, and post-processing. ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-VV data at 30 m resolution were selected over 10 global cities and a rural area from six continents to demonstrate the robustness of the improved method. The results show that the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor is effective in extracting urban areas and small towns from ENVISAT ASAR data and built-up areas can be mapped at 30 m resolution with very good accuracy using only one or two SAR images. These findings indicate that operational global urban mapping is possible with spaceborne SAR data, especially with the launch of Sentinel-1 that provides SAR data with global coverage, operational reliability and quick data delivery.

  5. A sublittoral hard substrate epibenthic community below 30 m in head harbour passage, New Brunswick, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Alan

    1988-10-01

    A sublittoral hard substrate epibenthic community has been photographically sampled mainly between depths of 30 and 140 m along two transects in Head Harbour Passage, Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick. A diverse biota of sponges, hydroids, anemones, polychaetes, brachiopods, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms and tunicates is present throughout the depth range, but is dominated, in terms of abundance, by tubularian and campanularian hydroids, the anemone Tealia felina and the bivalve Modiolus modiolus. Cluster analysis revealed 5-6 clusters from each transect, separable on the basis of minor biological, as well as abundance, differences in the main taxa, within the depth range sampled. Abundance-depth data from each transect indicate an absence of encrusting coralline algae below 30 m and a gradual reduction in abundance of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the brachiopod Terebratulina septentrionalis with increasing depth. In contrast, there is a gradual, but significant, increase in the abundance of tubularian hydroids, Tealia felina and Modiolus modiolus, with increasing depth. This community below about 30 m in Head Harbour Passage is here designated the Tubularia-Tealia felina-Modiolus modiolus community and forms part of the circalittoral subzone, sharing a gradational boundary with the overlying Terebratulina septentrionalis community.

  6. Microstamped Petri Dishes for Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Analysis of Arrays of Microtissues

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Adithya; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Le Gac, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    While scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a powerful technique for non-invasive analysis of cells, SECM-based assays remain scarce and have been mainly limited so far to single cells, which is mostly due to the absence of suitable platform for experimentation on 3D cellular aggregates or microtissues. Here, we report stamping of a Petri dish with a microwell array for large-scale production of microtissues followed by their in situ analysis using SECM. The platform is realized by hot embossing arrays of microwells (200 μm depth; 400 μm diameter) in commercially available Petri dishes, using a PDMS stamp. Microtissues form spontaneously in the microwells, which is demonstrated here using various cell lines (e.g., HeLa, C2C12, HepG2 and MCF-7). Next, the respiratory activity of live HeLa microtissues is assessed by monitoring the oxygen reduction current in constant height mode and at various distances above the platform surface. Typically, at a 40 μm distance from the microtissue, a 30% decrease in the oxygen reduction current is measured, while above 250 μm, no influence of the presence of the microtissues is detected. After exposure to a model drug (50% ethanol), no such changes in oxygen concentration are found at any height in solution, which reflects that microtissues are not viable anymore. This is furthermore confirmed using conventional live/dead fluorescent stains. This live/dead assay demonstrates the capability of the proposed approach combining SECM and microtissue arrays formed in a stamped Petri dish for conducting cellular assays in a non-invasive way on 3D cellular models. PMID:24690887

  7. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M.

    1997-12-31

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  8. Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

  9. Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-09-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

  10. Configuration selection study for isolated loads using parabolic dish modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revere, W.; Bowyer, J.; Fujita, T.; Awaya, H.

    1981-01-01

    A configuration tradeoff study has been conducted to determine optimum solar thermal parabolic dish power systems for isolated load applications. The specific application of an essentially constant power demand as required for MX missile shelters is treated. Supplying a continuous level of power with high reliability is shown to require a power system comprising modular parabolic dish power units where the heat engines of the modular power units can be driven by fossil fuels as well as solar-derived heat. Since constraints on reliability result in the provision of a power generating capability that exceeds the constant demand level, efficient utilization of the power system requires battery storage. Tradeoffs regarding the optimum size of storage are investigated as a function of the number of power modules and the cost of the fossil fuel which is used to meet the demand when insolation is unavailable and storage is depleted.

  11. Configuration selection study for isolated loads using parabolic dish modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revere, W.; Bowyer, J.; Fujita, T.; Awaya, H.

    1982-01-01

    A configuration tradeoff study was conducted to determine optimum solar thermal parabolic dish power systems for isolated load applications. The specific application of an essentially constant power demand as required for MX missile shelters is treated. Supplying a continuous level of power with high reliability is shown to require a power system comprising modular parabolic dish power units where the heat engines of the modular power units can be driven by fossil fuels as well as solar-derived heat. Since constraints on reliability result in the provision of a power generating capability that exceeds the constant demand level, efficient utilization of the power system requires battery storage. Tradeoffs regarding the optimum size of storage are investigated as a function of the number of power modules and the cost of the fossil fuel.

  12. External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E-DISH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, J. W.; Introne, Steve; Bedell, Lisa; Credle, Ben; Holp, Graham; Ly, Siao; Tait, Terry

    1994-01-01

    A Mars habitat transport system was designed as part of the NASA Mars exploration program. The transport system, the External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E - DISH), will be used to transport Mars habitats from their landing sites to the colony base and will be detached after unloading. The system requirements for Mars were calculated and scaled for model purposes. Specific model materials are commonly found and recommendations for materials for the Mars design are included.

  13. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    DOE PAGES

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; ...

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in themore » area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.« less

  14. Metallic phase change material thermal storage for Dish Stirling

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, C. E.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, B. A.; Coker, E. N.

    2015-06-05

    Dish-Stirling systems provide high-efficiency solar-only electrical generation and currently hold the world record at 31.25%. This high efficiency results in a system with a high possibility of meeting the DOE SunShot goal of $0.06/kWh. However, current dish-Stirling systems do not incorporate thermal storage. For the next generation of non-intermittent and cost-competitive solar power plants, we propose adding a thermal energy storage system that combines latent (phase-change) energy transport and latent energy storage in order to match the isothermal input requirements of Stirling engines while also maximizing the exergetic efficiency of the entire system. This paper reports current findings in the area of selection, synthesis and evaluation of a suitable high performance metallic phase change material (PCM) as well as potential interactions with containment alloy materials. The metallic PCM's, while more expensive than salts, have been identified as having substantial performance advantages primarily due to high thermal conductivity, leading to high exergetic efficiency. Systems modeling has indicated, based on high dish Stirling system performance, an allowable cost of the PCM storage system that is substantially higher than SunShot goals for storage cost on tower systems. Several PCM's are identified with suitable melting temperature, cost, and performance.

  15. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of cells with a plasmonic dish integrally molded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawa, Keiko; Sasakawa, Chisato; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kiyosue, Kazuyuki; Hosokawa, Chie; Nishii, Junji; Oike, Makoto; Kakinuma, Norihiro

    2016-03-01

    A plastic dish with a wavelength-scale periodic structure at a bottom panel was integrally molded and coated with thin metal films. The integrally molded dish called plasmonic dish was applied to bioimaging under a fluorescence microscope. On the plasmonic substrate, the enhanced electric field based on a grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GC-SPR) can provide an enhanced fluorescence. In this study, two kinds of cells, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and neuronal cells, were observed in our plasmonic dish. Fluorescence images of HEK cells were above 10 times brighter than those obtained on a conventional glass-bottomed dish. Neuronal cells were successfully cultured for 10 d on the plasmonic dish integrally molded, and in fluorescence images with transmitted light, a higher contrast was obtained than in epifluorescence images. The plasmonic dish integrally molded, as well as that fabricated by the UV nanoimprint method, was also found to be useful for sensitive bioimaging.

  16. Coeval observations of a complete sample of flat-spectrum blazars with Effelsberg, IRAM 30m, and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachen, Jörg Paul; Fuhrmann, Lars

    2015-08-01

    We present time-resolved broad-band spectra of a complete sample of blazars, selected by showing flat radio spectra up to 143 GHz, taken from observations with Planck, the Effelsberg 100m telescope, and the IRAM 30m telescope. Dedicated Effelsberg observations have been focused on times within two months around Planck single survey scans of each source, with a cadence of 2-4 weeks during the 4th and 5th Planck survey. The data are complemented with flux measurements from the F-GAMMA program (Fuhrmann et. al, 2007, AIPC 921, 249; Fuhrmann et al., 2014, MNRAS 441, 1899), and from other Effelsberg and IRAM monitoring programs, as far as available. Planck data are extracted employing methods used in the blind search for variable sky signals, which allow to estimate snap-shot source fluxes down to pointing period (i.e. hour scale) time resolution (Rachen et al., this conference). The program thus covers 15 frequencies between 2.4 to 857 GHz and is sensitive to variability time scales from hours over weeks up to one year, which is unprecedented in the history of blazar monitoring.

  17. Controlled Growth and the Maintenance of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Cultivation with Defined Medium on Extracellular Matrix-Coated Micropatterned Dishes.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Chiemi; Miyajima, Hiroshi; Yoda, Yusuke; Imazato, Hideo; Yamamoto, Takako; Gomi, Shinichi; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Kenichi; Sasaki, Tetsuji; Kawamata, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Here, we introduce a new serum-free defined medium (SPM) that supports the cultivation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) on recombinant human vitronectin-N (rhVNT-N)-coated dishes after seeding with either cell clumps or single cells. With this system, there was no need for an intervening sequential adaptation process after moving hPSCs from feeder layer-dependent conditions. We also introduce a micropatterned dish that was coated with extracellular matrix by photolithographic technology. This procedure allowed the cultivation of hPSCs on 199 individual rhVNT-N-coated small round spots (1 mm in diameter) on each 35-mm polystyrene dish (termed "patterned culture"), permitting the simultaneous formation of 199 uniform high-density small-sized colonies. This culture system supported controlled cell growth and maintenance of undifferentiated hPSCs better than dishes in which the entire surface was coated with rhVNT-N (termed "non-patterned cultures"). Non-patterned cultures produced variable, unrestricted cell proliferation with non-uniform cell growth and uneven densities in which we observed downregulated expression of some self-renewal-related markers. Comparative flow cytometric studies of the expression of pluripotency-related molecules SSEA-3 and TRA-1-60 in hPSCs from non-patterned cultures and patterned cultures supported this concept. Patterned cultures of hPSCs allowed sequential visual inspection of every hPSC colony, giving an address and number in patterned culture dishes. Several spots could be sampled for quality control tests of production batches, thereby permitting the monitoring of hPSCs in a single culture dish. Our new patterned culture system utilizing photolithography provides a robust, reproducible and controllable cell culture system and demonstrates technological advantages for the mass production of hPSCs with process quality control.

  18. Controlled Growth and the Maintenance of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Cultivation with Defined Medium on Extracellular Matrix-Coated Micropatterned Dishes

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Chiemi; Miyajima, Hiroshi; Yoda, Yusuke; Imazato, Hideo; Yamamoto, Takako; Gomi, Shinichi; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Kenichi; Sasaki, Tetsuji; Kawamata, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Here, we introduce a new serum-free defined medium (SPM) that supports the cultivation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) on recombinant human vitronectin-N (rhVNT-N)-coated dishes after seeding with either cell clumps or single cells. With this system, there was no need for an intervening sequential adaptation process after moving hPSCs from feeder layer-dependent conditions. We also introduce a micropatterned dish that was coated with extracellular matrix by photolithographic technology. This procedure allowed the cultivation of hPSCs on 199 individual rhVNT-N-coated small round spots (1 mm in diameter) on each 35-mm polystyrene dish (termed “patterned culture”), permitting the simultaneous formation of 199 uniform high-density small-sized colonies. This culture system supported controlled cell growth and maintenance of undifferentiated hPSCs better than dishes in which the entire surface was coated with rhVNT-N (termed “non-patterned cultures”). Non-patterned cultures produced variable, unrestricted cell proliferation with non-uniform cell growth and uneven densities in which we observed downregulated expression of some self-renewal-related markers. Comparative flow cytometric studies of the expression of pluripotency-related molecules SSEA-3 and TRA-1-60 in hPSCs from non-patterned cultures and patterned cultures supported this concept. Patterned cultures of hPSCs allowed sequential visual inspection of every hPSC colony, giving an address and number in patterned culture dishes. Several spots could be sampled for quality control tests of production batches, thereby permitting the monitoring of hPSCs in a single culture dish. Our new patterned culture system utilizing photolithography provides a robust, reproducible and controllable cell culture system and demonstrates technological advantages for the mass production of hPSCs with process quality control. PMID:26115194

  19. A global, 30-m resolution land-surface water body dataset for 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Song, D. X.; Song, X. P.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. The distribution of surface water in space and its change over time are related to many agricultural, environmental and ecological issues, and are important factors that must be considered in human socioeconomic development. Accurate mapping of surface water is essential for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. Satellite-based remote sensing provides snapshots of Earth's surface and can be used as the main input for water mapping, especially in large areas. Global water areas have been mapped with coarse resolution remotely sensed data (e.g., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)). However, most inland rivers and water bodies, as well as their changes, are too small to map at such coarse resolutions. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) imagery has a 30m spatial resolution and provides decades of records (~40 years). Since 2008, the opening of the Landsat archive, coupled with relatively lower costs associated with computing and data storage, has made comprehensive study of the dynamic changes of surface water over large even global areas more feasible. Although Landsat images have been used for regional and even global water mapping, the method can hardly be automated due to the difficulties on distinguishing inland surface water with variant degrees of impurities and mixing of soil background with only Landsat data. The spectral similarities to other land cover types, e.g., shadow and glacier remnants, also cause misidentification. We have developed a probabilistic based automatic approach for mapping inland surface water bodies. Landsat surface reflectance in multiple bands, derived water indices, and data from other sources are integrated to maximize the ability of identifying water without human interference. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large

  20. A Global Scale 30m Water Surface Detection Optimized and Validated for Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekel, J. F.; Cottam, A.; Clerici, M.; Belward, A.; Dubois, G.; Bartholome, E.; Gorelick, N.

    2014-12-01

    Life on Earth as we know it is impossible without water. Its importance to biological diversity, human well-being and the very functioning of the Earth-system cannot be overstressed, but we have remarkably little detailed knowledge concerning the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital resource. Earth observing satellites operating with high temporal revisits yet moderate spatial resolution have provided global datasets documenting spatial and temporal changes to water bodies on the Earth's surface. Landsat 8 has a data acquisition strategy such that global coverage of all land surfaces now occurs more frequently than from any preceding Landsat mission and provides 30 m resolution data. Whilst not the last word in temporal sampling this presents a basis for mapping and monitoring changes to global surface water resources at unprecedented levels of spatial detail. In this paper we provide a first 30 m resolution global synthesis of surface water occurrence, we document permanent water surfaces, seasonal water surfaces and always-dry surfaces. These products have been derived by optimizing a methodology previously developed for use with moderate resolution MODIS imagery for use with Landsat 8. The approach is based on a transformation of RGB color space into HSV combined with a sequence of cloud, topographic and temperature masks. Analysis at the global scale used the Google Earth Engine platform applied to all Landsat 8 acquisitions between June 2013 and June 2014. Systematic validation is done and demonstrated our ability to map surface water. Our method can be applied to other Landsat missions offering the potential to document changes in surface water over three decades; our study shows examples illustrating the capacity to map new water surfaces and ephemeral water surfaces in addition to the three previous classes. Thanks to an optimized data acquisition strategy, a full-free and open data policy and the processing capacity of the GEE global land

  1. Actualistic models of mantle metasomatism documented in a composite xenolith from Dish Hill, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, J.E.; Budahn, J.R.; Unruh, D.M.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Major and trace-element whole rock and mineral variations in composite hornblendite-peridotite xenolith Ba-2-1, from Dish Hill, CA, are due to a single event of metasomatism in the mantle. The hornblendite is the crystallized selvage of a dike conduit charged with incompatible-element-enriched hydrous mafic magma. The magma infiltrated the refractory peridotite wallrock, reacted with its constituent minerals, and simultaneously deposited amphibole. The systematic data from this study show considerable variation in isotopic values and trace elements. These data provide insight into a mantle process that was defined previously from samples without context, lacking evidence about the number or source of metasomatic events. In the contact zone of Ba-2-1, peridotite is enriched in Fe, Ti, CO2) and H2O; clinopyroxene and amphibole also are enriched in Fe and Ti, but clinopyroxene appears slightly depleted in CaO. Compared to chondrites, peridotite, clinopyroxene, and probably amphibole are enriched in light rare earth (LREEcn) and other incompatible trace elements. Values of 87Sr 86Sr and 143Nd 144Nd in the contact zone are close to isotopic equilibrium with the dike. Whole rock and constituent clinopyroxene compositions change to those of refractory peridotite with distance from the contact. These compositional variations were modelled using Gresens' equation for whole-rock major and minor elements, and calculations for isotopic ratios and REEs, which emulate the effects of Chromatographic fractionation. The choice of endmembers was restricted to compositions actually present in mantle samples from Dish Hill. Model results indicate that: 1. (1) the variations can be explained as the result of a single metasomatic event, probably a single pulse of previously fractionated liquid; 2. (2) the ratio of total interacting liquid to peridotite was at least 1:3 by weight in the contact zone; and 3. (3) the composition of the metasomatic liquid changed progressively as it

  2. Cherenkov telescopes as optical telescopes for bright sources: today's specialized 30-m telescopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.

    2011-10-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) use large-aperture (3-30 m) optical telescopes with arcminute angular resolution to detect TeV gamma-rays in the atmosphere. I show that IACTs are well suited for optical observations of bright sources (V≲ 8-10), because these sources are brighter than the sky background. Their advantages are especially great on rapid time-scales. Thus, IACTs might study many phenomena optically, including transiting exoplanets and the brightest gamma-ray bursts. In principle, an IACT could achieve millimagnitude photometry of these objects with second-long exposures. I also consider the potential for optical spectroscopy with IACTs, finding that their poor angular resolution limits their usefulness for high spectral resolutions, unless complex instruments are developed. The high photon collection rate of IACTs is potentially useful for precise polarimetry. Finally, I briefly discuss the broader possibilities of extremely large, low-resolution telescopes, including a 10 arcsec resolution telescope and space-borne telescopes.

  3. The effects of 30 mT electromagnetic fields on hippocampus cells of rats

    PubMed Central

    Teimori, Farzaneh; Khaki, Amir A.; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Roshangar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the use of electromagnetic waves in the treatment of some acute and chronic diseases, application of these waves in everyday life has created several problems for humans, especially the nerve system. In this study, the effects of 30mT electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the hippocampus is investigated. Methods: Twenty-four 5-month Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g were divided into two groups. The experimental group rats were under the influence of an EMF at an intensity of 3 mT for approximately 4 hours a day (from 8 AM to 12 PM) during 10 weeks. After the hippocampus was removed, thin slides were prepared for transmission electron microscope (TEM) to study the ultrastructural tissue. Cell death detection POD kits were used to determine the apoptosis rate. Results: The results of the TEM showed that, in the hippocampus of the experimental group, in comparison to the control group, there was a substantial shift; even intracellular organelles such as the mitochondria were morphologically abnormal and uncertain. The number of apoptotic cells in the exposed group compared to the control group showed significant changes. Conclusions: Similar to numerous studies that have reported the effects of EMFs on nerves system, it was also confirmed in this lecture. Hence, the hippocampus which is important in regulating emotions, behavior, motivation, and memory functions, may be impaired by the negative impacts of EMFs. PMID:27453795

  4. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Dreyer, M.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2014-04-15

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  5. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Dreyer, M.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of CuxBi2Se3. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  6. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M A; Dana, R; Anderson, J R; Lobb, C J; Wellstood, F C; Dreyer, M

    2014-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of CuxBi2Se3. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  7. Measurement of beam divergence of 30-centimeter dished grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilowicz, R. L.; Rawlin, V. K.; Banks, B. A.; Wintucky, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    The beam divergence of a 30-centimeter diameter thruster with dished grids was calculated from current densities measured with a probe rake containing seventeen planar molybdenum probes. The measured data were analyzed as a function of a number of parameters. The most sensitive parameters were the amount of compensation of the accelerator grid and the ratio of net to total accelerating voltage. The thrust losses were reduced by over 5 percent with the use of compensated grids alone, and by variation of other parameters the overall thrust losses due to beam divergence were reduced to less than 2 percent.

  8. Measurement of beam divergence of 30-centimeter dished grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilowicz, R. L.; Rawlin, V. K.; Banks, B. A.; Wintucky, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    The beam divergence of a 30-centimeter diameter thrustor with dished grids was calculated from current densities measured with a probe rake containing seventeen planar molybdenum probes. The measured data were analyzed as a function of a number of parameters. The most sensitive parameters were the amount of compensation of the accelerator grid and the ratio of net to total accelerating voltage. The thrust losses were reduced by over 5 percent with the use of compensated grids alone, and by variation of other parameters the overall thrust losses due to beam divergence were reduced to less than 2 percent.

  9. Detail design of a 10.4-m stretched-membrane dish. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report describes efforts conducted under Tasks 3 and 4 of the second phase of the project to develop a single-element stretched-membrane dish concept to reduce the cost of a high-performance concentrating solar collector. We completed the detailed design for such a collector suitable to drive a 25-kWe Stirling motor generator. The design includes the collectors, optical element, the drive, and support systems. The aperture of the optical element was sized to provide the required energy to the engine based on test data and analytical models of the concentrator receiver, and engine. The design of the optical element was improved based on experience gained from the design, fabrication, and testing of several prototypes.

  10. Thermal storage requirements for parabolic dish solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.; Steele, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of a high temperature thermal storage system is investigated for a representative parabolic dish solar power plant. The plant supplies electrical power in accordance with a specific, seasonally varying demand profile. The solar power received by the plant is supplemented by power from fuel combustion. The cost of electricity generated by the solar power plant is calculated, using the cost of mass-producible subsystems (specifically, parabolic dishes, receivers, and power conversion units) now being designed for this type of solar plant. The trade-off between fuel and thermal storage is derived in terms of storage effectiveness, the cost of storage devices, and the cost of fuel. Thermal storage requirements, such as storage capacity, storage effectiveness, and storage cost are established based on the cost of fuel and the overall objective of minimizing the cost of the electricity produced by the system. As the cost of fuel increases at a rate faster than general inflation, thermal storage systems in the $40 to $70/kWthr range could become cost effective in the near future.

  11. Activity and accomplishments of dish/Stirling electric power system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the solar parabolic-dish/Stirling-engine electricity generating plant known as the dish/Stirling electric power system is described. The dish/Stirling electric power system converts sunlight to electricity more efficiently than any known existing solar electric power system. The fabrication and characterization of the test bed concentrators that were used for Stirling module testing and of the development of parabolic dish concentrator No. 2, an advanced solar concentrator unit considered for use with the Stirling power conversion unit is discussed.

  12. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  13. A new impulsive seismic shear wave source for near-surface (0-30 m) seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, J. M.; Lorenzo, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Estimates of elastic moduli and fluid content in shallow (0-30 m) natural soils below artificial flood containment structures can be particularly useful in levee monitoring as well as seismic hazard studies. Shear wave moduli may be estimated from horizontally polarized, shear wave experiments. However, long profiles (>10 km) with dense receiver and shot spacings (<1m) cannot be collected efficiently using currently available shear wave sources. We develop a new, inexpensive, shear wave source for collecting fast, shot gathers over large acquisition sites. In particular, gas-charged, organic-rich sediments comprising most lower-delta sedimentary facies, greatly attenuate compressional body-waves. On the other hand, SH waves are relatively insensitive to pore-fluid moduli and can improve resolution. We develop a recoil device (Jolly, 1956) into a single-user, light-weight (<20 kg), impulsive, ground-surface-coupled SH wave generator, which is capable of working at rates of several hundred shotpoints per day. Older impulsive methods rely on hammer blows to ground-planted stationary targets. Our source is coupled to the ground with steel spikes and the powder charge can be detonated mechanically or electronically. Electrical fuses show repeatability in start times of < 50 microseconds. The barrel and shell-holder exceed required thicknesses to ensure complete safety during use. The breach confines a black-powder, 12-gauge shotgun shell, loaded with inert, environmentally safe ballast. In urban settings, produced heat and sound are confined by a detached, exterior cover. A moderate 2.5 g black-powder charge generates seismic amplitudes equivalent to three 4-kg sledge-hammer blows. We test this device to elucidate near subsurface sediment properties at former levee breach sites in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Our radio-telemetric seismic acquisition system uses an in-house landstreamer, consisting of 14-Hz horizontal component geophones, coupled to steel plates

  14. Status of the Boeing Dish Engine Critical Component Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, H.W.; Diver, R.B.; Nelving, H.; Stone, K.W.

    1999-01-08

    The Boeing Company's Dish Engine Critical Component (DECC) project started in April of 1998. It is a continuation of a solar energy program started by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) and United Stirling of Sweden in the mid 1980s. The overall objectives, schedule, and status of this project are presented in this paper. The hardware test configuration, hardware background, operation, and test plans are also discussed. A summary is given of the test data, which includes the daily power performance, generated energy, working-gas usage, mirror reflectivity, solar insolation, on-sun track time, generating time, and system availability. The system performance based upon the present test data is compared to test data from the 1984/88 McDonnell Douglas/United Stirling AB/Southem California Edison test program. The test data shows that the present power, energy, and mirror performance is comparable to when the hardware was first manufactured 14 years ago.

  15. Status of the Boeing Dish Engine Critical Component project

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.W.; Nelving, H.; Braun, H.W.; Clark, T.B.; Diver, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The Boeing Company's Dish Engine Critical Component (DECC) project started in April of 1998. It is a continuation of a solar energy program started by McDonnel Douglas (now Boeing) and United Stirling of Sweden in the mid 1980s. The overall objectives, schedule, and status of this project are presented in this paper. The hardware test configuration, hardware background, operation, and test plans are also discussed. A summary is given of the test data, which includes the daily power performance, generated energy, working-gas usage, mirror reflectivity, solar insolation, on-sun track time. Generating time, and system availability. The system performance based upon the present test data is compared to test data from the 1984/88 McDonnel Douglas/United Stirling AB/Southern California Edison test program. The test data shows that the present power, energy, and mirror performance is comparable to when the hardware was first manufactured 14 years ago.

  16. Commercialization of dish-Stirling solar terrestrial systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Penswick, Barry; White, Maury; Cooper, Martin; Farbman, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    The requirements for dish-Stirling commercialization are described. The requirements for practical terrestrial power systems, both technical and economic, are described. Solar energy availability, with seasonal and regional variations, is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of hybrid operation are listed. The two systems described use either a 25-kW free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine or a 5-kW kinematic Stirling engine. Both engines feature long-life characteristics that result from the use of welded metal bellows as hermetic seals between the working gas and the crankcase fluid. The advantages of the systems, the state of the technology, and the challenges that remain are discussed. Technology transfer between solar terrestrial Stirling applications and other Stirling applications is predicted to be important and synergistic.

  17. Solar parabolic dish thermal power systems - Technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W.; Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Activities of two projects at JPL in support of DOE's Small Power Systems Program are reported. These two projects are the Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver (PFDR) Technology Project and the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PFTEA) Project. The PFDR Technology Project's major activity is developing the technology of solar concentrators, receivers and power conversion subsystems suitable for parabolic dish or point-focusing distributed receiver power systems. Other PFDR activities include system integration and cost estimation under mass production, as well as the testing of the hardware. The PFTEA Project's first major activity is applications analysis, that is seeking ways to introduce PFDR systems into appropriate user sectors. The second activity is systems engineering and development wherein power plant systems are analyzed for specific applications. The third activity is the installation of a series of engineering experiments in various user environments to obtain actual operating experience

  18. Recent Developments: PKI Square Dish for the Soleras Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Square Dish solar collectors are subjected to rigorous design attention regarding corrosion at the site, and certification of the collector structure. The microprocessor controls and tracking mechanisms are improved in the areas of fail safe operations, durability, and low parasitic power requirements. Prototype testing demonstrates performance efficiency of approximately 72% at 730 F outlet temperature. Studies are conducted that include developing formal engineering design studies, developing formal engineering design drawing and fabrication details, establishing subcontracts for fabrication of major components, and developing a rigorous quality control system. The improved design is more cost effective to product and the extensive manuals developed for assembly and operation/maintenance result in faster field assembly and ease of operation.

  19. Commercialization of dish-Stirling solar terrestrial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Brad; Penswick, Barry; White, Maury; Cooper, Martin; Farbman, Gerald

    The requirements for dish-Stirling commercialization are described. The requirements for practical terrestrial power systems, both technical and economic, are described. Solar energy availability, with seasonal and regional variations, is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of hybrid operation are listed. The two systems described use either a 25-kW free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine or a 5-kW kinematic Stirling engine. Both engines feature long-life characteristics that result from the use of welded metal bellows as hermetic seals between the working gas and the crankcase fluid. The advantages of the systems, the state of the technology, and the challenges that remain are discussed. Technology transfer between solar terrestrial Stirling applications and other Stirling applications is predicted to be important and synergistic.

  20. Genesis of the 1000-foot Dish at Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marshall H.

    2007-12-01

    The Arecibo dish was conceived early in 1958 by William E. Gordon, a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Cornell University. The objective was to design and build a radar sensitive enough to measure the backscattered signal from free electrons in the high ionosphere, the so-called incoherent scatter (IS) signal. Gordon calculated the required size of the antenna by assuming that the thermal velocity of the electrons controlled the width of the spectrum of the echo. Six months later Kenneth L. Bowles, a Cornell graduate now working at NBS in Boulder, Colorado, did a radar experiment that confirmed part of Gordon's ideas. Bowles showed that the strength of the IS signal is roughly as calculated by Gordon, but the spectral width of the echo is much narrower than that calculated by Gordon. This meant that a substantially smaller, cheaper, dish could be used. A year later, however, ARPA gave the money to start the project, still at the original size, 1000 feet. By this time the goals of the project had widened considerably, to include radio and radar astronomy, and most of the new goals did require the 1000 foot diameter. Note that this project went from conception to funding in a year and a half, far quicker than it would at present. The IGY in 1957-1958, and the launch of the Sputnik and Explorer satellites during this period, fueled a great deal of interest in the high ionosphere in both military and civilian circles. I speculate on how this affected the Arecibo project.

  1. 78 FR 59633 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Opens Docket To Seek Comment on DISH Network Corporation's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1 and 27 Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Opens Docket To Seek Comment on DISH... Docket No. 13-225 and seeks comment on a Petition for Waiver and Request for Extension of time filed by.... Pursuant to Sec. Sec. 1.3 and 1.925(b)(3)(i) of the Commission's rules, DISH seeks a waiver of Sec....

  2. COMPARISON OF THE BACTERIAL COUNTS FROM MACHINE AND HAND WASHED DISHES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE.

    PubMed

    Dearstyne, R S

    1920-11-01

    More and more it becomes evident that carelessly washed dishes and utensils in eating places and at soda fountains are potential disseminators of infections. Principles like this, however, need to be confirmed by observation. This paper furnishes practical facts that point to the health value of machine dish washing.

  3. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q3 Quad Chart.

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, Charles E.

    2014-07-01

    The project goals are: demonstrate the feasibility of significant thermal storage for dish Stirling systems to leverage their existing high performance to greater capacity; demonstrate key components of a latent storage and transport system enabling on-dish storage with low exergy losses; an provide technology path to a 25kWe system with 6 hours of storage.

  4. Combined Heat & Power Using the Infinia Concentrated Solar CHP PowerDish System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Executive Orders FOB - Forward Operating Base FPSE - Free Piston Stirling Engine GHG - Greenhouse Gas ICC - International Code Council IMA...Piston Stirling Generator 11 Figure 3: PowerDish CHP with Heat Exchanger 12 Figure 4: Infinia CHP PowerDish testing, Kennewick WA... Robert Kuykendahl Jason Modrell Aaron Erickson Vista Engineering Technologies 1355 Columbia Park Trail Richland, WA 99352 (509) 737

  5. Lightweight dual-axis tracker designs for dish-based HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Cuerden, Brian; Whiteside, Andy

    2014-09-01

    Dish-based HCPV holds the promise of solar electricity at lower cost than for flat panel PV, provided that the dual-axis tracker cost can be minimized. Here we outline first and second generation lightweight tracker designs that include supports for a rectangular array of square dish mirrors and receivers located at their foci.

  6. Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B.; Estrada, C.

    1995-11-01

    Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

  7. AIMFAST : an alignment tool based on fringe reflection methods applied to dish concentrators.

    SciTech Connect

    Yellowhair, Julius; Stone, Brad; Myer, Brian; Hunt, Kirby; Trapeznikov, Kirill; Andraka, Charles E.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2010-08-01

    The proper alignment of facets on a dish engine concentrated solar power system is critical to the performance of the system. These systems are generally highly concentrating to produce high temperatures for maximum thermal efficiency so there is little tolerance for poor optical alignment. Improper alignment can lead to poor performance and shortened life through excessively high flux on the receiver surfaces, imbalanced power on multicylinder engines, and intercept losses at the aperture. Alignment approaches used in the past are time consuming field operations, typically taking 4-6 h per dish with 40-80 facets on the dish. Production systems of faceted dishes will need rapid, accurate alignment implemented in a fraction of an hour. In this paper, we present an extension to our Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Technique mirror characterization system that will automatically acquire data, implement an alignment strategy, and provide real-time mirror angle corrections to actuators or labor beneath the dish. The Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing using Fringe Analysis Slope Technique (AIMFAST) has been implemented and tested at the prototype level. In this paper we present the approach used in AIMFAST to rapidly characterize the dish system and provide near-real-time adjustment updates for each facet. The implemented approach can provide adjustment updates every 5 s, suitable for manual or automated adjustment of facets on a dish assembly line.

  8. Numerical modeling and dosimetry of the 35 mm Petri dish under 46 GHz millimeter wave exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxun; Wei, Zhenggang

    2005-09-01

    Experimental studies on effects of millimeter wave (MMW) exposure on cells cultured in Petri dishes have attracted interest in recent decades. To improve the quantification of the biological responses toward the MMW energy, an accurate and precise MMW dosimetry is to be provided. By using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, the numerical dosimetry is performed for a typical 35 mm Petri dish under 46 GHz continuous MMW exposure from an irradiator of a specified power pattern. With the aim of building a precise model, the meniscus at the interface between the culture solution and the Petri dish sidewall is taken into account, followed by the modeling of smooth edges of the Petri dish. The trilinear interpolation is introduced to assist the FDTD method to obtain a more precise dosimetric assessment. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions in the cornea cells covered by culture solution in the Petri dish are calculated and compared to display the effects of using Petri dish models of various precision and the trilinear interpolation on dosimetry results. In addition, the SAR distribution in the cells is analyzed to study its homogeneity. The results indicate that the precise Petri dish model and the application of the trilinear interpolation are helpful in improving the precision of numerical dosimetry. It is also revealed that the inhomogeneity of the SAR distribution is well beyond neglect, which deserves cautious consideration in experiments investigating MMW effects on cells in vitro.

  9. Numerical modeling of dish-Stirling reflux solar receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Using reflux solar receivers to collect solar energy for dish-Stirling electric power generation systems is currently being investigated by several organizations, including Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. In support of this program, Sandia has developed two numerical models describing the energy transfer within and thermal performance of pool-boiler and heat-pipe receivers. Both models are applicable to axisymmetric geometries and they both consider the radiative and convective energy transfer within the receiver cavity, the conductive and convective energy transfer within the receiver cavity, the conductive and convective energy transfer from the receiver housing, and the energy transfer to the receiver working fluid. In these models, the radiative transfer within the receiver is analyzed using a two-band (solar and infrared) net-radiation formulation for enclosure radiation. Empirical convective correlations describe the convective heat transfer from the cavity to the surroundings. The primary difference between the models is the level of detail in modeling the heat conduction through the receiver walls. The more detailed model uses a two-dimensional finite control volume method, whereas the simpler model uses a one-dimensional thermal resistance approach. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Optimization of Dish Solar Collectors with and without Secondary Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for optimizing parabolic dish solar collectors and the consequent effects of various optical, thermal, mechanical, and cost variables are examined. The most important performance optimization is adjusting the receiver aperture to maximize collector efficiency. Other parameters that can be adjusted to optimize efficiency include focal length, and, if a heat engine is used, the receiver temperature. The efficiency maxima associated with focal length and receiver temperature are relatively broad; it may, accordingly, be desirable to design somewhat away from the maxima. Performance optimization is sensitive to the slope and specularity errors of the concentrator. Other optical and thermal variables affecting optimization are the reflectance and blocking factor of the concentrator, the absorptance and losses of the receiver, and, if a heat engine is used, the shape of the engine efficiency versus temperature curve. Performance may sometimes be improved by use of an additional optical element (a secondary concentrator) or a receiver window if the errors of the primary concentrator are large or the receiver temperature is high.

  11. Design and Expected Performance of GISMO-2, a Two Color Millimeter Camera for the IRAM 30 m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Dwek, Eli; Hilton, Gene; Fixsen, Dale J.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Tim; Moseley, S. Harvey; Sharp, Elmer H.; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We present the main design features for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera, which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISMO-2 will operate simultaneously in the 1 and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 × 40 TES-based backshort under grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 × 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISMO-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2mm bolometer camera, which is successfully operating at the 30 m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regularIRAMcall for proposals.

  12. Test results on parabolic dish concentrators for solar thermal power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish concentrators. The concentrators were mostly designed for the production of electric power using dish-mounted Rankine, Brayton or Stirling cycle engines, intended to be produced at low cost. Measured performance for various dishes included optical efficiencies ranging from 0.32 to 0.86 at a geometric concentration ratio of 500, and from about 0.09 to 0.85 at a geometric concentration ratio of 3000. Some malfunctions were observed. The tests should provide operating information of value in developing concentrators with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  13. A New Folding Kinetic Mechanism for Human Transthyretin and the Influence of the Amyloidogenic V30M Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Catarina S. H.; Almeida, Zaida L.; Vaz, Daniela C.; Faria, Tiago Q.; Brito, Rui M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation into insoluble amyloid fibrils is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, chief among them Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Although caused by different proteins, these pathologies share some basic molecular mechanisms with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a rare hereditary neuropathy caused by amyloid formation and deposition by transthyretin (TTR) in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. Among the amyloidogenic TTR mutations known, V30M-TTR is the most common in FAP. TTR amyloidogenesis (ATTR) is triggered by tetramer dissociation, followed by partial unfolding and aggregation of the low conformational stability monomers formed. Thus, tetramer dissociation kinetics, monomer conformational stability and competition between refolding and aggregation pathways do play a critical role in ATTR. Here, we propose a new model to analyze the refolding kinetics of WT-TTR and V30M-TTR, showing that at pH and protein concentrations close to physiological, a two-step mechanism with a unimolecular first step followed by a second-order second step adjusts well to the experimental data. Interestingly, although sharing the same kinetic mechanism, V30M-TTR refolds at a much slower rate than WT-TTR, a feature that may favor the formation of transient species leading to kinetic partition into amyloidogenic pathways and, thus, significantly increasing the probability of amyloid formation in vivo. PMID:27589730

  14. Electronic Structure of I-M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr, Yb) by First-Principles Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-song; Liu, Hong-xia; Deng, Shuping; Li, De-cong; Shen, Lan-xian; Cheng, Feng; Deng, Shu-kang

    2016-10-01

    Sn-based clathrates possess excellent thermoelectric properties ascribed to their higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivity. Guest atoms significantly modulate the thermoelectric properties of Sn-based calculates because of their diverse atomic radius and interactions with framework atoms. Thus, we explored the electronic structure of I-M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr, Yb) by first-principles calculation. Results revealed significant differences between Yb8Ga16Sn30 and M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr,). In particular, the Yb-filled compound substitution possesses lowest formation energy and the off-center distance of the Yb atom is the largest compared with the other structures. I-M8Ga16Sn30 (M = Ba, Sr, Yb) is an indirect band gap semiconductor, and the enhanced hybridization effect between the guest and framework atoms' orbits exists because the Yb f orbit results in a decrease in band gap. Ba- and Sr-filled clathrates have similar valence bands but slightly different conduction bands; however, Yb8Ga16Sn30 possess the spiculate density of states near the Fermi level that reveals excellent thermoelectric properties.

  15. Efficiency of silencing RNA for removal of transthyretin V30M in a TTR leptomeningeal animal model.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Paula; Martins, Helena; Costelha, Susete; Maia, Luis F; Saraiva, Maria Joao

    2016-12-01

    Some TTR mutants target the central nervous system (CNS). Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) with leptomeningeal involvement has been described in 9% of transthyretin (TTR) mutations and in valine for methionine at position 30 (V30M) patients. These individuals present dementia, ataxia, brain hemorrhages and focal neurological episodes (FNEs). FNEs occurred also in V30M FAP patients with longer disease duration, who have undergone liver transplant to remove the source of plasma mutant TTR as a form of treatment. It is thus to expect that as better treatments for FAP emerge and prolong survival, meningeal-vascular CNS deposition will increase and need special therapies. Recently, we detected TTR meningeal-vascular deposition in a V30M TTR transgenic mouse model, opening new avenues of research to investigate selective treatments of this condition. Since pre-clinical studies with TTR siRNA therapeutics were shown to promote clearance of TTR non-fibrillar deposits in several organs and tissues, we investigated its effect on TTR meningeal-vascular deposition. We show that systemically administered TTR siRNA promoted TTR clearance in the extracellular matrix of meninges and brain blood vessels. Surprisingly, despite the striking decline of blood TTR, cerebrospinal fluid TTR levels were unaffected. Though this is reassuring because siRNA will not interfere with the neuroprotective role of TTR in the CNS, it raises new questions on therapeutical approaches for CNS ATTR.

  16. Long-term treatment of anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin in familial amyloidosis TTR V30M.

    PubMed

    Beirão, Idalina; Lobato, Luísa; Moreira, Luciana; Mp Costa, Paulo; Fonseca, Isabel; Cabrita, António; Porto, Graça

    2008-09-01

    Familial amyloidosis or familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) TTR V30M is a hereditary disease presented, in most cases, as a sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Normocytic and normochromic anaemia was found in 24.8% of symptomatic FAP patients associated to lower serum erythropoietin (Epo) levels. Erythropoietin has been reported as efficient in anaemia correction in this disease. To evaluate the tolerance and efficacy of this treatment, a retrospective longitudinal study with 24 patients was undertaken. Patients were followed for at least 6 months. Haemoglobin, hematocrit, iron status, serum creatinine and urea and r-HuEPO doses were monitored, at 0, 3 months, 6 months and at the end of the follow-up. Long-term use of r-HuEPO proved to be efficient in the treatment of anaemia in familial amyloidosis TTR V30M and, despite the disease progression, no resistance cases to this treatment were observed. Positive side effects, like improvement on orthostatic hypotension symptoms and well-being sensation, contributing to confirm erythropoietin as a drug of choice to treat anaemia in amyloidosis TTR V30M.

  17. A review of test results on parabolic dish solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Rankine engines and for production of process steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies. Most of the tests were at modules and assemblies that used a dish-mounted, organic Rankine cycle turbine for production of electric power. Some tests were also run on equipment for production of process steam or for production of electricity using dish-mounted reciprocating steam engines. These tests indicate that early modules achieve efficiencies of about 18 percent in converting sunlight to electricity (excluding the inverter but including parasitics). A number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other operating experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  18. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Zhengrong; Liu, Ronghui; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. PMID:26981389

  19. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Zhengrong; Liu, Ronghui; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411.

  20. Temperature gradients drive radial fluid flow in Petri dishes and multiwell plates.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Stephen M; Yin, John

    2016-06-01

    Liquid in a Petri dish spontaneously circulates in a radial pattern, even when the dish is at rest. These fluid flows have been observed and utilized for biological research, but their origins have not been well-studied. Here we used particle-tracking to measure velocities of radial fluid flows, which are shown to be linked to evaporation. Infrared thermal imaging was used to identify thermal gradients at the air-liquid interface and at the bottom of the dish. Two-color ratiometric fluorescence confocal imaging was used to measure thermal gradients in the vertical direction within the fluid. A finite-element model of the fluid, incorporating the measured temperature profiles, shows that buoyancy forces are sufficient to produce flows consistent with the measured particle velocity results. Such flows may arise in other dish or plate formats, and may impact biological research in positive or negative ways.

  1. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage FY14Q4 Quad Chart

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, Charles E.

    2014-10-01

    The goals of this project are to demonstrate the feasibility of significant thermal storage for dish stirling systems to leverage their existing high performance to greater capacity; demonstrate key components of a latent storage and transport system enabling on-dish storage with low energy losses; and provide a technology path to a 25kWe system with 6 hours of storage.

  2. Efficient, Low Cost Dish Concentrator for a CPV Based Cogeneration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayet, Haim; Kost, Ori; Moran, Rani; Lozovsky, Ilan

    2011-12-01

    Zenith Solar Ltd has developed efficient electricity and heat co-generation system based on segmented-parabolic dish of total aperture area of 11 m2 and water cooled dense array module combined of triple junction cells. Conventional parabolic dishes are inherently inefficient in the sense that the radiant flux distribution is non uniform causing inefficient generation by the PV array. Secondary optics improves uniformity but introduces additional complexity and losses to the system. Zenith's dish is assembled of 1200 flat mirrors of approximately 100 cm2 each. Every mirror facet has a unique shape such that the geometrical projection from each mirror on the focal plane is essentially the same. When perfectly aligned, the projected radiation from all mirrors overlaps uniformly on the PV surface. The low cost construction of the dish utilizes plastic mount supported by a precise metal frame. The precision of the metal frame affects the overall optical efficiency of the mirror and hence the efficiency of the system. State of the art dish of 11 m2 active aperture results in output of 2.25 kWp (900 W/m2) electrical and 5 kWp thermal power from one dish system representing 21% electrical and 50% thermal conversion efficiency adding to 71% overall system efficiency.

  3. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-03-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the Sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the Sun moves relative to the Earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  4. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-11-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  5. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  6. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  7. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  8. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  9. Solar Tests of Aperture Plate Materials for Solar Thermal Dish Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the Sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the Sun moves relative to the Earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluoroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fall apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  10. πSPIM: high NA high resolution isotropic light-sheet imaging in cell culture dishes

    PubMed Central

    Theer, Patrick; Dragneva, Denitsa; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM), also termed single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), enables live cell fluorescence imaging with optical sectioning capabilities superior to confocal microscopy and without any out-of-focus exposure of the specimen. However, the need of two objective lenses, one for light-sheet illumination and one for imaging, imposes geometrical constraints that require LSFM setups to be adapted to the specific needs of different types of specimen in order to obtain optimal imaging conditions. Here we demonstrate the use of an oblique light-sheet configuration adapted to provide the highest possible Gaussian beam enabled resolution in LSFM. The oblique light-sheet configuration furthermore enables LSFM imaging at the surface of a cover slip, without the need of specific sample mounting. In addition, the system is compatible with simultaneous high NA wide-field epi-fluorescence imaging of the specimen contained in a glass-bottom cell culture dish. This prevents cumbersome sample mounting and enables rapid screening of large areas of the specimen followed by high-resolution LSFM imaging of selected cells. We demonstrate the application of this microscope for in toto imaging of endocytosis in yeast, showing for the first time imaging of all endocytic events of a given cell over a period of >5 minutes with sub-second resolution. PMID:27619647

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IRAM 30m CO-observations in W43 (Carlhoff+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-10-01

    We observed molecular clouds in the giant star forming region W43. For this project we used the IRAM 30m telescope to observe the molecular emission lines 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1), that trace the mid-density (n~103cm-3) molecular gas. The lines were observed with the HERA receiver and the VESPA backend. At the observed frequencies the IRAM 30m has a beam size of 11.7". We include two FITS files containing the data-cubes (pos-pos-vel) of the 13CO and C18O emission lines of the W43 complex. We used equatorial coordinates for the spatial dimensions and vlsr for the spectral dimension. The pixel size is 5.9" in spatial dimension and the spectral resolution is 0.16km/s. All values are in K. The data-cubes span an area of about 1x1.5° (RAxDec) around the center of the maps at 18:46:54.4 -02:14:11 (EQ=J2000) and the velocity range from 30 to 130km/s and include the complete W43 complex and several fore- and background clouds. (2 data files).

  12. Will Somebody do the Dishes? Weathering Analogies, Geologic Processes and Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P.; Wuotila, S.; Giuliani, M.

    2006-12-01

    A good analogy is one of the most powerful tools in any instructors' arsenal, and encouraging students to explore the links between an analogy and a scientific concept can cement both ideas in a student's mind. A common analogy for weathering and erosion processes is doing the dishes. Oxidation, hydration, and solution reactions can be intimidating on the chalkboard but easily understood in the context of cleaning up after dinner. Rather than present this analogy as a lecture demonstration, students are encouraged to experimentally determine which type of weathering works best on their dirty dishes. The experiment must use at least four identically dirty dishes: three experimental dishes and one control dish. The experimental dishes are subjected to simulated weathering and erosion processes of the student's design. Common techniques developed by students are cold or warm water baths, baths with and without acid (lemon juice or soda), and freeze-thaw cycles. Occasionally creative experiments result in unexpected discoveries, such the inefficiency of abrasion from wind-blown sand, especially when compared to soaking dishes in Canadian Whiskey. The effectiveness of each experimental run is determined by comparison to the control plate after loose debris is removed from each. The dish with the smallest aerial extent of remaining food is the declared the most effective. Discussion sections of the experimental write-up includes a description of which geologic processes were being simulated in each experiment, comparisons of the effectiveness of each techniques, and statements of how these experiments differ from reality. In order to advance this project, a second stage of the assignment, a direct comparison of weathering and erosion techniques on food and on geologic materials, will be added this fall. Ideally, students will empirically derive erosion rates and calculate the time required to remove the volume of material represented by a geologically important feature

  13. Experimental simulation of latent heat thermal energy storage and heat pipe thermal transport for dish concentrator solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Poon, P. T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Test results on a modular simulation of the thermal transport and heat storage characteristics of a heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with thermal energy storage (TES) are presented. The HPSR features a 15-25 kWe Stirling engine power conversion system at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator operating at 827 C. The system collects and retrieves solar heat with sodium pipes and stores the heat in NaF-MgF2 latent heat storage material. The trials were run with a single full scale heat pipe, three full scale TES containers, and an air-cooled heat extraction coil to replace the Stirling engine heat exchanger. Charging and discharging, constant temperature operation, mixed mode operation, thermal inertial, etc. were studied. The heat pipe performance was verified, as were the thermal energy storage and discharge rates and isothermal discharges.

  14. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in dogs with disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

    PubMed

    Decker, S De; Volk, H A

    2014-06-21

    Although disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) most often affects the ventral aspect of the vertebral column, this study evaluated the occurrence, nature and clinical relevance of dorsal vertebral column abnormalities in 10 dogs with DISH for which CT or MRI and a complete neurological examination were available. Dorsal vertebral column abnormalities were present in eight dogs and included articular process hypertrophy (n=7 dogs), periarticular new bone formation (n=1), pseudoarthrosis between spinous processes (n=4) and thickening of the dorsal lamina (n=4). These dorsal vertebral abnormalities caused clinically relevant vertebral canal stenosis in six dogs and were the only cause of clinical signs in four of these dogs. Although the lumbosacral joint was not affected by DISH, these six dogs demonstrated lumbosacral vertebral canal stenosis and clinical signs of cauda equina compression, which included paraparesis (n=5 dogs), lumbosacral pain (n=4), urinary incontinence (n=4), faecal incontinence (n=1) and urinary and faecal incontinence (n=1). There is a possible association between DISH and hypertrophy of dorsal vertebral structures, potentially resulting in vertebral canal stenosis. Although these changes occurred at segments fused by DISH, they predominantly affected adjacent non-affected segments.

  15. Thermal buffering of receivers for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.; Gajanana, B. C.; Marcus, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    A parabolic dish solar thermal power plant comprises a field of parabolic dish power modules where each module is composed of a two-axis tracking parabolic dish concentrator which reflects sunlight (insolation) into the aperture of a cavity receiver at the focal point of the dish. The heat generated by the solar flux entering the receiver is removed by a heat transfer fluid. In the dish power module, this heat is used to drive a small heat engine/generator assembly which is directly connected to the cavity receiver at the focal point. A computer analysis is performed to assess the thermal buffering characteristics of receivers containing sensible and latent heat thermal energy storage. Parametric variations of the thermal inertia of the integrated receiver-buffer storage systems coupled with different fluid flow rate control strategies are carried out to delineate the effect of buffer storage, the transient response of the receiver-storage systems and corresponding fluid outlet temperature. It is concluded that addition of phase change buffer storage will substantially improve system operational characteristics during periods of rapidly fluctuating insolation due to cloud passage.

  16. NIKA2, a dual-band millimetre camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope to map the cold universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désert, F.-X.; Adam, R.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Aussel, H.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Lagache, G.; Leclercq, S.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maury, A.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Romero, C.; Roussel, H.; Ruppin, F.; Soler, J.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2016-12-01

    A consortium led by Institut Néel (Grenoble) has just finished installing a new powerful millimetre camera NIKA2 on the IRAM 30 m telescope. It has an instantaneous field-of-view of 6.5 arcminutes at both 1.2 and 2.0 mm with polarimetric capabilities at 1.2 mm. NIKA2 provides a near diffraction-limited angular resolution (resp. 12 and 18 arcseconds). The 3 detector arrays are made of more than 1000 KIDs each. KIDs are new superconducting devices emerging as an alternative to bolometers. The commissionning is ongoing in 2016 with a likely opening to the IRAM community in early 2017. NIKA2 is a very promising multi-purpose instrument which will enable many scientific discoveries in the coming decade.

  17. The Fundamental Structure of UV-Irradiated Cloud Edges: Combined ALMA and IRAM-30m Observations of the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Pety, J.; Ag'undez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Joblin, C.; Marcelino, N.; Müller, H. S. P.; Pilleri, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Orion Bar is the prototypical photodissociation region (PDR) exposed to a far-UV radiation field (FUV) of a few 104 times the mean interstellar field. Because of its proximity and nearly edge-on orientation, it provides a unique laboratory to study the physical and chemical gradients of a strongly FUV-illuminated molecular cloud. Using ALMA at ˜350 GHz, we have observed a field-of-view of ˜40”×40” toward the Orion Bar PDR consisting of a mosaic of 27 Nyquist-sampled pointings. These observations provide an unprecedented high angular resolution view (˜1” or ˜414 AU at the distance to Orion) of the most exposed molecular cloud edge. In addition, ACA and IRAM-30m maps were used to produce the short-spacing visibilities filtered out by the ALMA array. These interferometric observations complement a complete line survey we have carried out using the IRAM-30m telescope between ˜80 GHz and ˜360 GHz. Despite being a harsh environment, over 60 species with up to 6 atoms have been identified, including main isotopologues (D, 13C, 18O, 17O, 34S, 33S, and 15N). The first molecular line images of the Orion Bar obtained with ALMA at ˜1” resolution reveal the fundamental structure in density and temperature of the molecular gas as well as its complex kinematics at an unprecedented spatial resolution. This early data set also allowed us to compute corrected line frequencies for SH+, an interesting hydride tracing reactions of S+ with vibrationally excited H2 in the PDR edge.

  18. An Algorithm for the Retrieval of 30-m Snow-Free Albedo from Landsat Surface Reflectance and MODIS BRDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new methodology to generate 30-m resolution land surface albedo using Landsat surface reflectance and anisotropy information from concurrent MODIS 500-m observations. Albedo information at fine spatial resolution is particularly useful for quantifying climate impacts associated with land use change and ecosystem disturbance. The derived white-sky and black-sky spectral albedos maybe used to estimate actual spectral albedos by taking into account the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. A further spectral-to-broadband conversion based on extensive radiative transfer simulations is applied to produce the broadband albedos at visible, near infrared, and shortwave regimes. The accuracy of this approach has been evaluated using 270 Landsat scenes covering six field stations supported by the SURFace RADiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (ARM/SGP) network. Comparison with field measurements shows that Landsat 30-m snow-free shortwave albedos from all seasons generally achieve an absolute accuracy of +/-0.02 - 0.05 for these validation sites during available clear days in 2003-2005,with a root mean square error less than 0.03 and a bias less than 0.02. This level of accuracy has been regarded as sufficient for driving global and regional climate models. The Landsat-based retrievals have also been compared to the operational 16-day MODIS albedo produced every 8-days from MODIS on Terra and Aqua (MCD43A). The Landsat albedo provides more detailed landscape texture, and achieves better agreement (correlation and dynamic range) with in-situ data at the validation stations, particularly when the stations include a heterogeneous mix of surface covers.

  19. Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Bowyer, J. M.; Gajanana, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic radiation is converted to thermal energy. A heat engine/generator assembly then converts the thermal energy captured by the receiver to electricity. Developmental activity has been concentrated on small power modules which employ 11- to 12-meter diameter dishes to generate nominal power levels of approximately 20 kWe. A comparison of advanced heat engines for the dish power module is presented in terms of the performance potential of each engine with its requirements for advanced technology development. Three advanced engine possibilities are the Brayton (gas turbine), Brayton/Rankine combined cycle, and Stirling engines.

  20. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  1. Fugitive greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas activities - a case study of Dish, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Roscoe, B.; Lary, D.; Schaefer, D.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Brian, A.; DiGangi, J.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    We evaluate new findings on aerial (horizontal and vertical) mapping of methane emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer region to help study fugitive methane emissions from extraction, transmission, and storage of natural gas and oil in Dish, Texas. Dish is located in the Barnett Shale which has seen explosive development of hydraulic fracking activities in recent years. The aerial measurements were performed with a new laser-based methane sensor developed specifically for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) methane sensor, with a mass of 2.5 kg and a precision of < 20 ppbv methane at 1 Hz, was flown on the UT-Dallas ARC Payload Master electronic aircraft at two sites in Texas: one representative of urban emissions of the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Richardson, Texas and another in Dish, Texas, closer to gas and oil activities. Methane mixing ratios at Dish were ubiquitously in the 3.5 - 4 ppmv range which was 1.5 - 2 ppmv higher than methane levels immediately downwind of Dallas. During the flight measurements at Dish, narrow methane plumes exceeding 20 ppmv were frequently observed at altitudes from the surface to 130 m above the ground. Based on the wind speed at the sampling location, the horizontal widths of large methane plumes were of the order of 100 m. The locations of the large methane plumes were variable in space and time over a ~ 1 km2 area sampled from the UAV. Spatial mapping over larger scales (10 km) by ground-based measurements showed similar methane levels as the UAV measurements. To corroborate our measurements, alkane and other hydrocarbon mixing ratios from an on-site TCEQ environmental monitoring station were analyzed and correlated with methane measurements to fingerprint the methane source. We show that fugitive methane emissions at Dish are a significant cause of the large and ubiquitous methane levels on the 1-10 km scale.

  2. Spatial and temporal resolution of shear in an orbiting petri dish.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jonathan Michael D; Chakraborty, Amlan; Sharp, M Keith; Berson, R Eric

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that physiological and morphological properties of anchored cells are influenced by fluid shear stress. Common orbital shakers provide a means of simultaneously applying shear stress to cells for tens to hundreds of cases by loading the shaker with multiple dishes. However, the complex flow in orbiting dishes is amenable to analytical solution for resolving shear created by the fluid motion only for simplified conditions. The only existing quantification of shear in this flow is an equation that estimates a constant scalar value of shear for the entire surface of the dish. In practice, wall shear stress (WSS) will be oscillatory rather than steady due to the travelling waveform and will vary across the surface of the dish at any instant in time. This article presents a computational model that provides complete spatial and temporal resolution of WSS over the bottom surface of a dish throughout the orbital cycle. The model is reasonably well validated by the analytical solution, with resultant WSS magnitudes that are within 0.99 ± 0.42 dyne/cm(2) . The model results were compared to tangential WSS magnitudes obtained using one-dimensional optical velocimetry at discreet locations on the bottom of an orbiting dish. The experimental minimum and maximum WSS at 1 mm from the center of the dish were 6 and 7 dyne/cm(2) , respectively, whereas WSS generated from the computational model ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 dyne/cm(2) . The experimental minimum and maximum WSS at 12 mm from the center of the dish were 6 and 16 dyne/cm(2) , respectively, whereas WSS generated from the computational model ranged from 0.5 to 14 dyne/cm(2) . Discrepancies between the experimental and computational data may be attributed to a sparse sampling rate for the experimental probe, a sharp gradient at the sample area which could cause the unidirectional probe to be inaccurate if its location were not precise, and too few particles to track and a scattering of the signal by the

  3. DISH CODE A deeply simplified hydrodynamic code for applications to warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    More, Richard

    2007-08-22

    DISH is a 1-dimensional (planar) Lagrangian hydrodynamic code intended for application to experiments on warm dense matter. The code is a simplified version of the DPC code written in the Data and Planning Center of the National Institute for Fusion Science in Toki, Japan. DPC was originally intended as a testbed for exploring equation of state and opacity models, but turned out to have a variety of applications. The Dish code is a "deeply simplified hydrodynamic" code, deliberately made as simple as possible. It is intended to be easy to understand, easy to use and easy to change.

  4. Microscale Chemistry in a Plastic Petri Dish: Preparation and Chemical Properties of Chlorine Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Martin M. F.

    2002-08-01

    This experiment demonstrates some of the chemistry of chlorine on a microscale, about the size of a water droplet. Chlorine gas was prepared from an acidified bleach solution in a plastic petri dish. The chlorine gas generated in situ reacted with other chemical reagents in the dish by diffusion. Some of the oxidizing properties and bleaching power of chlorine gas were shown visually and could be observed within 10 minutes. These experiments provide suitable hands-on experience for students at secondary-school level.

  5. Design, fabrication, and operation of dished accelerator grids on a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Banks, B. A.; Byers, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Several closely-space dished accelerator grid systems were fabricated and tested on a 30-cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster and they appear to be a solution to the stringent requirements imposed by the near-term, high-thrust, low specific impulse electric propulsion missions. The grids were simultaneously hydroformed and then simultaneously stress relieved. The ion extraction capability and discharge chamber performance were studied as the total accelerating voltage, the ratio of net-to-total voltage, grid spacing, and dish direction were varied.

  6. Design, fabrication, and operation of dished accelerator grids on a 30-cm ion thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Banks, B. A.; Byers, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Several closely-spaced dished accelerator grid systems have been fabricated and tested on a 30-cm diameter mercury bombardment thruster and they appear to be a solution to the stringent requirements imposed by the near-term, high-thrust, low specific impulse electric propulsion missions. The grids were simultaneously hydroformed and then simultaneously stress relieved. The ion extraction capability and discharge chamber performance were studied as the total accelerating voltage, the ratio of net-to-total voltage, grid spacing, and dish direction were varied.

  7. Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics

  8. Deep Mapping Observations of the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk with Two Single-dish Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takekawa, S.; Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-12-01

    The circumnuclear disk (CND) is a potential reservoir for material accreting into the central parsec of our Galaxy. Two giant molecular clouds (GMCs; +20 km s-1 and +50 km s-1 clouds) are adjacent to the CND. Although several authors have suggested the physical connection between these GMCs and the CND, no compelling evidence of physical connections has been found to date. Recently we have performed deep OTF mapping observations of the CND with the NRO 45 m radio telescope and the ASTE 10 m telescope in the HCN J=1-0, SiO J=2-1, CS J=2-1, HCO+ J=4-3 lines, etc. We discovered a bridge in the l-b-V space which connects the CND and the +20 km s-1 cloud. We interpret this as a gas streamer from outside to the CND.

  9. A self-trained classification technique for producing 30 m percent-water maps from Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rover, Jennifer R.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Small bodies of water can be mapped with moderate-resolution satellite data using methods where water is mapped as subpixel fractions using field measurements or high-resolution images as training datasets. A new method, developed from a regression-tree technique, uses a 30 m Landsat image for training the regression tree that, in turn, is applied to the same image to map subpixel water. The self-trained method was evaluated by comparing the percent-water map with three other maps generated from established percent-water mapping methods: (1) a regression-tree model trained with a 5 m SPOT 5 image, (2) a regression-tree model based on endmembers and (3) a linear unmixing classification technique. The results suggest that subpixel water fractions can be accurately estimated when high-resolution satellite data or intensively interpreted training datasets are not available, which increases our ability to map small water bodies or small changes in lake size at a regional scale.

  10. Utilization of Satellite Dish Technology and its Application in Taping PeachStar Programming: A Survey of Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razza, Betsy L.

    Through lottery funding, all public schools in Georgia received satellite dish equipment. This study is an assessment of the use of the satellite dish equipment by library media specialists in the DeKalb County School System for taping PeachStar (the satellite channel of Georgia Public Broadcasting) programming. The purpose was four-fold: (1) to…

  11. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  12. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  13. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  14. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  15. 9 CFR 381.167 - Other poultry dishes and specialty items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other poultry dishes and specialty..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  16. Performance of the Vanguard Solar Dish-Stirling Engine Module. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Droher, J.J.; Squier, S.E.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes information on the performance of the Vanguard Parabolic Dish/Stirling Engine Module during an 18-month period of operational testing (February 1984 through July 1985) at Rancho Mirage, California. The test module consisted of a 10.7-m-diameter parabolic dish to collect and concentrate solar beam radiation, a solar receiver, a four-cylinder Stirling engine using hydrogen as the working gas, an induction generator, and an air-cooled radiator. Historical beam insolation data are summarized for the Palm Springs area. Gross and net output of electricity, auxiliary power requirements, system availability, and capacity factors are summarized on a monthly and annual basis. Models are presented for predicting electrical output. Operating and maintenance experience is delineated chronologically and by subsystem. The performance of each major subsystem is discussed. An assessment is made of the present and future status of the dish/Stirling system. Recommendations are made for future developmental work involving dish/Stirling applications for the utility industry.

  17. Microscale Chemistry in a Plastic Petri Dish: Preparation and Chemical Properties of Chlorine Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Martin M. F.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates some of the chemistry of chlorine on a microscale about the size of a water droplet. Chlorine gas was prepared from an acidified bleach solution in a plastic petri dish. Provides suitable hands-on experience for students at the secondary-school level. (MM)

  18. The Many Uses of a Satellite Dish. Management Report 1987-8/1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHart, A. Robert

    This management report from the Association of California Community College Administrators encourages institutions that have not already done so to purchase their own satellite dish, and points out how those already owning one may gain even greater advantage from its presence on campus. The three major types of services that provide current…

  19. Instrument Performance of GISMO, a 2 Millimeter TES Bolometer Camera used at the IRAM 30 m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007 we demonstrated a monolithic Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) 8x16 array in the field using our 2 mm wavelength imager GISMO (Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer) at the IRAM 30 m telescope in Spain for astronomical observations. The 2 mm spectral range provides a unique terrestrial window enabling ground-based observations of the earliest active dusty galaxies in the universe and thereby allowing a better constraint on the star formation rate in these objects. The optical design incorporates a 100 mm diameter silicon lens cooled to 4 K, which provides the required fast beam yielding 0.9 lambda/D pixels. With this spatial sampling, GISMO will be very efficient at detecting sources serendipitously in large sky surveys, while the capability for diffraction limited imaging is preserved. The camera provides significantly greater detection sensitivity and mapping speed at this wavelength than has previously been possible. The instrument will fill in the spectral energy distribution of high redshift galaxies at the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust emission spectrum, even at the highest redshifts. Here1 will we present early results from our observing run with the first fielded BUG bolometer array. We have developed key technologies to enable highly versatile, kilopixel, infrared through millimeter wavelength bolometer arrays. The Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) array consists of three components: 1) a transition-edge-sensor (TES) based bolometer array with background-limited sensitivity and high filling factor, 2) a quarter-wave reflective backshort grid providing high optical efficiency, and 3) a superconducting bump-bonded large format Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. The array is described in more detail elsewhere (Allen et al., this conference). In November of 2007 we demonstrated a monolithic 8x 16 array with 2 mm-pitch detectors in the field using our 2 mm wavelength imager GISMO (Goddard IRAM

  20. Development and On-Sun Performance of Dish-Based HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Connors, Tom; Davison, Warren; Rademacher, Matt; Coughenour, Blake; Butel, Guillaume; Lesser, David

    2011-12-01

    The paper describes a new system architecture optimized for utility-scale generation with concentrating photovoltaic cells (CPV). The system concept is optimized to use predominantly low-cost materials manufactured by methods proven for high volume production. Triple-junction cells are used to convert 1000x concentrated sunlight into electricity. Compared to silicon panels, these commercially available cells convert at least twice as much of the incident sunlight energy into electricity, and at 1000x optical concentration, they cost one-tenth as much per watt of power output. The architecture combines three novel elements: large (3.1 m×3.1 m square) paraboloidal glass dish reflectors to collect and concentrate the sunlight; compact receivers at each dish focus, each one incorporating multiple, actively cooled cells; and a lightweight steel spaceframe structure to hold multiple dish/receiver units in co-alignment and oriented to the sun. A manufacturing process for replicating the reflector dishes is well advanced in development at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. A lightweight steel spaceframe structure to hold and track eight dish/receiver units to generate 20 kW has been completed. Tests over several months showed that for 99% of the time the tracking error was less than 0.1 degree. A test receiver populated with 8 out of 36 cells and attached to the tracker was operated for two months, yielding consistently over 500 W for much of each day. The receiver also maintained 95% of full power for mispointing of 1/2°. The receiver is now being completed with its full 36 cell complement, for >2 kW output. This technology is being commercialized by REhnu, LLC, under an exclusive license from the University of Arizona.

  1. Oligomeric TTR V30M aggregates compromise cell viability, erythropoietin gene expression and promoter activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep3B.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luciana; Beirão, João Melo; Beirão, Idalina; Pinho e Costa, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, ATTRV30M (p. TTRV50M) amyloidosis, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by systemic extracellular amyloid deposition of a mutant transthyretin, TTR V30M. Anemia, with low erythropoietin (EPO) levels and spared kidney function, affects about 25% of symptomatic patients, suggesting a blockage of EPO-producing cells. Early non-fibrillar TTR aggregates are highly cytotoxic, inducing oxidative stress, the expression of apoptosis-related molecules and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, factors capable of inhibiting EPO production. Low EPO levels in these patients are not related to renal amyloid deposition or the presence of circulating TTR V30M. However, the role of early non-fibrillar TTR aggregates remains unexplored. We used the EPO producing Hep3B human hepatoma cell line to study the effect of TTR oligomeric aggregates on EPO expression. Hep3B cells were incubated with soluble and oligomeric TTR V30M, and cell proliferation as well as caspase 3/7 activation was evaluated. Relative quantification of EPO mRNA transcripts was performed by real-time PCR. Significant reductions in cell viability (13 ± 7.3%) and activation of caspases 3/7 were seen after 24 h in the presence of oligomeric TTR V30M. Also, EPO expression was significantly reduced (50 ± 2.8%), in normoxic conditions. A reporter assay was constructed with a PCR fragment of the EPO promoter linked to the luciferase gene to evaluate the role of transcription factors targeting the promoter. A significant reduction of EPO promoter activity (53 ± 6.5%) was observed in transfected cells exposed to TTR oligomers. Our results show that oligomeric TTR V30M reduces EPO expression, at least in part through inhibition of promoter activity.

  2. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Zhengrong; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Yan; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G + C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370.

  3. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Zhengrong; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Yan; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G + C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370. PMID:26981386

  4. Acrylamide in a fried potato dish (rösti) from restaurants in Zurich, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    McCombie, Gregor; Biedermann, Maurus; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Suter, Gaby; Eicher, Angela; Pfefferle, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Rösti, a fried potato product, is a large contributor to acrylamide exposure locally in Switzerland. A survey of 55 dishes prepared by 51 restaurants in the city of Zurich showed that the average rösti contained 702 µg/kg acrylamide. By analysing the content of reducing sugars in the potatoes used for frying, it is shown that with simple measures, the exposure to acrylamide could easily be reduced by factor 2 or more, while even improving the culinary experience. Though rösti is a typical dish in the German-speaking areas in Switzerland, the result may be of general interest for fried potato products which are popular in large areas of Central Europe.

  5. Optical design and optimization of parabolic dish solar concentrator with a cavity hybrid receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blázquez, R.; Carballo, J.; Silva, M.

    2016-05-01

    One of the main goals of the BIOSTIRLING-4SKA project, funded by the European Commission, is the development of a hybrid Dish-Stirling system based on a hybrid solar-gas receiver, which has been designed by the Swedish company Cleanergy. A ray tracing study, which is part of the design of this parabolic dish system, is presented in this paper. The study pursues the optimization of the concentrator and receiver cavity geometry according to the requirements of flux distribution on the receiver walls set by the designer of the hybrid receiver. The ray-tracing analysis has been performed with the open source software Tonatiuh, a ray-tracing tool specifically oriented to the modeling of solar concentrators.

  6. In vitro exposure: Linear and non-linear thermodynamic events in Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paffi, Alessandra; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca; Sheppard, Asher; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-10-01

    We conducted an electromagnetic-thermal analysis of Petri dishes filled with different medium volumes under different radio frequency exposure conditions with the aim of identifying linear and non-linear parameters that might explain contradictory results of many in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments. We found that power loss density and temperature depend on shape, size, and orientation of the exposed sample with respect to direction of incident energy, showing that the liquid medium acts as a receiving antenna. In addition, we investigated the possibility of convection from thermodynamic principles within the liquid medium. For a 35 mm diameter Petri dish, a 2 or 4 ml medium volume is too small to support vertical convection. Conversely, horizontal convective motion is possible for H-polarization exposures at 1.8 GHz.

  7. Mobile Cubesat Command and Control (Mc3) 3-Meter Dish Calibration and Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    this thesis would not be possible. I am especially grateful for the endless laughter and encouragement they bring to my life. Finally, I would like... longer distances from NPS were identified  A mobile MHX-2400 radio system was set up in field locations 18  Test messages of differing lengths...MC3 dish system’s ability to track a live satellite and maintain a link. Figure 17. SCaN Testbed system overview, from [12] 1. SDRs aboard the

  8. Spaceflight hardware allowing unilateral irradiation and chemical fixation in petri dishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, V. D.; Sack, F. D.; White, N. J.; Anderson, K.; Wells, W.; Martin, C.

    1999-01-01

    To accommodate a spaceflight experiment with moss (SPM), experiment-unique equipment (EUE) was developed by engineers at Kennedy Space Center. The hardware allows sterile culture for an extended period of time in commercial petri dishes, lateral illumination of each culture with light of a specific wavelength (660 nm; other wavelengths are possible) and a range of intensities (0.05-5 μMol photons m-2s-1), incubation in complete darkness, and chemical fixation to terminate the experiment under conditions of microgravity. The use of a fixative required triple containment to protect the astronaut crew. An external panel on the experiment container allowed the timing of illumination and fixation to be controlled by the crew. Light quality is provided by light emitting diodes (LEDs) that are located in the lid of the outer container, the BRIC (Biological Research In Canisters)-LED. Each canister accommodates 6 Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs), and each PDFU holds one 6 cm petri dish. All components are autoclavable. LED illumination is piped through a transparent glass rod. Each PDFU contains fixative in a reservoir that is released by the depression of an actuator. This hardware performed well during its first flight, the 16-day STS-87 mission in Nov./Dec., 1997 as part of the Collaborative USA and Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). It supported vigorous and sterile moss growth, cells were maintained in position and were well-fixed, and there was a vigorous and consistent response to light. Although here used for moss, in future flight experiments this unique new hardware can be used for many types of organisms normally grown in petri dishes, with or without a requirement for illumination.

  9. Modeling the small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Willem G.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    The small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle (STBC) makes use of a sun-tracking dish reflector, solar receiver, recuperator and micro-turbine to generate power in the range of 1-20 kW. The modeling of such a system, using a turbocharger as micro-turbine, is required so that optimisation and further development of an experimental setup can be done. As a validation, an analytical model of the small-scale STBC in Matlab, where the net power output is determined from an exergy analysis, is compared with Flownex, an integrated systems CFD code. A 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish with open-cavity tubular receiver and plate-type counterflow recuperator is considered, based on previous work. A dish optical error of 10 mrad, a tracking error of 1° and a receiver aperture area of 0.25 m × 0.25 m are considered. Since the recuperator operates at a very high average temperature, the recuperator is modeled using an updated ɛ-NTU method which takes heat loss to the environment into consideration. Compressor and turbine maps from standard off-the-shelf Garrett turbochargers are used. The results show that for the calculation of the steady-state temperatures and pressures, there is good comparison between the Matlab and Flownex results (within 8%) except for the recuperator outlet temperature, which is due to the use of different ɛ-NTU methods. With the use of Matlab and Flownex, it is shown that the small-scale open STBC with an existing off-the-shelf turbocharger could generate a positive net power output with solar-to-mechanical efficiency of up to 12%, with much room for improvement.

  10. Membrane dish analysis: A summary of structural and optical analysis capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.R.; Balch, C.D.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Wendelin, T.; Lewandowski, A.

    1991-11-01

    Research at SERI within the Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Technology Program has focused on the development of membrane dish concentrators for space and terrestrial power applications. As potentially lightweight, inexpensive, high-performance structures, they are excellent candidates for space-deployable energy sources as well as cost-effective terrestrial energy concepts. A thorough engineering research treatment of these types of structures consists primarily of two parts: (1) structural mechanics of the membrane and ring support and (2) analysis and characterization of the concentrator optical performance. It is important to understand the effects of the membrane`s structure and support system on the optical performance of the concentrator. This requires an interface between appropriate structural and optical models. Until recently, such models and the required interface have not existed. This report documents research that has been conducted at SERI in this area. It is a compilation of several papers describing structural models of membrane dish structures and optical models used to predict dish concentrator optical and thermal performance. The structural models were developed under SERI subcontract by Dr. Steele and Dr. Balch of Stanford University. The optical model was developed in-house by SERI staff. In addition, the interface between the models is described. It allows easy and thorough characterization of membrane dish systems from the mechanics to the resulting optical performance. The models described herein have been and continue to be extremely useful to SERI, industry, and universities involved with the modeling and analysis of lightweight membrane concentrators for solar thermal applications.

  11. Method of manufacturing large dish reflectors for a solar concentrator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Angel, Roger P [Tucson, AZ; Olbert, Blain H [Tucson, AZ

    2011-12-27

    A method of manufacturing monolithic glass reflectors for concentrating sunlight in a solar energy system is disclosed. The method of manufacturing allows large monolithic glass reflectors to be made from float glass in order to realize significant cost savings on the total system cost for a solar energy system. The method of manufacture includes steps of heating a sheet of float glass positioned over a concave mold until the sheet of glass sags and stretches to conform to the shape of the mold. The edges of the dish-shaped glass are rolled for structural stiffening around the periphery. The dish-shaped glass is then silvered to create a dish-shaped mirror that reflects solar radiation to a focus. The surface of the mold that contacts the float glass preferably has a grooved surface profile comprising a plurality of cusps and concave valleys. This grooved profile minimizes the contact area and marring of the specular glass surface, reduces parasitic heat transfer into the mold and increases mold lifetime. The disclosed method of manufacture is capable of high production rates sufficiently fast to accommodate the output of a conventional float glass production line so that monolithic glass reflectors can be produced as quickly as a float glass production can make sheets of float glass to be used in the process.

  12. Nano Petri dishes: a new polystyrene platform for studying cell-nanoengineered surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Na, Moon-Hee; Kim, Hyung Woo; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we fabricated and fully characterized a new type of polystyrene (PS) cell-culture platform containing nanoengineered surfaces (NES), referred to as a nano Petri dish, which can be used at the transition stage of basic cell-NES interaction studies for clinical applications. Nano-injection molding in this study was used for the mass production of the nano Petri dish having nanopore arrays. The effects of processing parameters of the injection molding on the replication quality of the nanopore arrays were quantitatively evaluated by means of design of experiments based on the Taguchi method. This allowed efficient and reliable cell culture studies by providing large numbers of the same dishes, in addition to removing the fixation step of the NES plates inside the cell-culture container. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the NES, as well as cell behavior including attachment and proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells on the NES, were then characterized, with and without the oxygen plasma surface treatment.

  13. Pork in good company? Exploratory analysis of side dishes, beverages, foodscapes and individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2156) in five European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland). Males were found to combine pork more with caloric drinking (odds ratio=1.32) and low levels of vegetable intake (odds ratio=1.32) compared to females. Younger consumers were more likely to combine pork with low levels of vegetable intake but less likely to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks (odds ratio=1.30) as side dishes to pork meat. Substantial cross-cultural differences were revealed in line with typical pork consumption and meal composition habits in the respective countries. Finally, this study found that the company of family plays a significant role when choosing side dishes for pork as meal center, thus constituting a relevant venue for the positioning and marketing of pork, as well as for future public health information about meals with pork as main meal component.

  14. Sky reconstruction from transit visibilities: PAON-4 and Tianlai dish array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao; Ansari, Reza; Chen, Xuelei; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Magneville, Christophe; Wu, Fengquan

    2016-09-01

    The spherical harmonics m-mode decomposition is a powerful sky map reconstruction method suitable for radio interferometers operating in transit mode. It can be applied to various configurations, including dish arrays and cylinders. We describe the computation of the instrument response function, the point spread function, transfer function, the noise covariance matrix and noise power spectrum. The analysis in this paper is focused on dish arrays operating in transit mode. We show that arrays with regular spacing have more pronounced side lobes as well as structures in their noise power spectrum, compared to arrays with irregular spacing, specially in the north-south direction. A good knowledge of the noise power spectrum Cnoise(ℓ) is essential for intensity mapping experiments as non-uniform Cnoise(ℓ) is a potential problem for the measurement of the H I power spectrum. Different configurations have been studied to optimize the PAON-4 and Tianlai dish array layouts. We present their expected performance and their sensitivities to the 21-cm emission of the Milky Way and local extragalactic H I clumps.

  15. Sulfur content of carbon steel plate material for dished end manufacture by cold spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, T.; Chandawale, R.G.; Vanchinath, S.A.

    1999-07-01

    Over many years SA 516 Gr.70 plate material is being used for the construction of boilers and pressure vessels and has become a standard of the industry. However a typical failure of this material during dished end manufacture has troubled the manufacturer on and off. Many times lamellar separation takes place along the central line of the thickness visible at the edges of the dished ends after cold spinning. In this present study the authors have carried out a customized shear test to ascertain the effect of sulfur content on the susceptibility of the SA 516 Gr. 70 plate material to fail by shear along the plane of segregation. This study indicated that the presence of central segregation is a critical factor to induce reduction in the shear strength. As the sulfur content goes down the segregation line disappears and the shear strength also increases. At 0.01% maximum sulfur best results are obtained. It was supported by the field observation of failed dished ends, where failures are observed with plates with typical sulfur content of 0.02% and above.

  16. Phage-mediated counting by the naked eye of miRNA molecules at attomolar concentrations in a Petri dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Ye; Lu, Wuguang; Gu, Ning; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-01

    The ability to count biomolecules such as cancer-biomarker miRNAs with the naked eye is seemingly impossible in molecular diagnostics. Here, we show an ultrasensitive naked-eye-counting strategy for quantifying miRNAs by employing T7 phage--a bacteria-specific virus nanoparticle--as a surrogate. The phage is genetically engineered to become fluorescent and capable of binding a miRNA-capturing gold nanoparticle (GNP) in a one-to-one manner. Target miRNAs crosslink the resultant phage-GNP couple and miRNA-capturing magnetic microparticles, forming a sandwich complex containing equimolar phage and miRNA. The phage is then released from the complex and developed into one macroscopic fluorescent plaque in a Petri dish by plating it in a host bacterial medium. Counting the plaques by the naked eye enables the quantification of miRNAs with detection limits of ~3 and ~5 aM for single-target and two-target miRNAs, respectively. This approach offers ultrasensitive and convenient quantification of disease biomarkers by the naked eye.

  17. Phage-mediated counting by the naked eye of miRNA molecules at attomolar concentrations in a Petri dish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Ye; Lu, Wuguang; Gu, Ning; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-01

    The ability to count biomolecules such as cancer-biomarker miRNAs with the naked eye is seemingly impossible in molecular diagnostics. Here, we show an ultrasensitive naked-eye-counting strategy for quantifying miRNAs by employing T7 phage-a bacteria-specific virus nanoparticle-as a surrogate. The phage is genetically engineered to become fluorescent and capable of binding a miRNA-capturing gold nanoparticle (GNP) in a one-to-one manner. Target miRNAs crosslink the resultant phage-GNP couple and miRNA-capturing magnetic microparticles, forming a sandwich complex containing equimolar phage and miRNA. The phage is then released from the complex and developed into one macroscopic fluorescent plaque in a Petri dish by plating it in a host bacterial medium. Counting the plaques by the naked eye enables the quantification of miRNAs with detection limits of ∼3 and ∼5 aM for single-target and two-target miRNAs, respectively. This approach offers ultrasensitive and convenient quantification of disease biomarkers by the naked eye.

  18. The design of the local monitor and control system of SKA dishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillirò, F.; Baldini, V.; Becciani, U.; Cirami, R.; Costa, A.; Ingallinera, A.; Marassi, A.; Nicotra, G.; Nocita, C.; Riggi, S.; Trigilio, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project aims at building the world's largest radio observatory to observe the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and collecting area. In the first phase of the project (SKA1), an array of dishes, SKA1-MID, will be built in South Africa. It will consist of 133 15m-dishes, which will include the MeerKAT array, for the 0.350-20 GHz frequency band observations. Each antenna will be provided with a local monitor and control system (LMC), enabling operations both to the Telescope Manager remote system, and to the engineers and maintenance staff; it provides different environment for the telescope control (positioning, pointing, observational bands), metadata collection for monitoring and database storaging, operational modes and functional states management for all the telescope capabilities. In this paper we present the LMC software architecture designed for the detailed design phase (DD), where we describe functional and physical interfaces with monitored and controlled sub-elements, and highlight the data flow between each LMC modules and its sub-element controllers from one side, and Telescope Manager on the other side. We also describe the complete Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) created in order to optimize resources allocation in terms of calculus and memory, able to perform required task for each element according to the proper requirements. Among them, time response and system reliability are the most important, considering the complexity of SKA dish network and its isolated placement. Performances obtained by software implementation using TANGO framework will be discussed, matching them with technical requirements derived by SKA science drivers.

  19. Facet development for a faceted stretched-membrane dish by Solar Kinetics, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertz, P. T.; Brown, D. C.; Konnerth, A., III

    1991-07-01

    A 3.6-meter diameter stretched-membrane optical facet for a parabolic dish has been successfully designed and demonstrated under contract with Sandia National Laboratories. Twelve facets identical to them will be used to make the lightweight reflector of the dish. The project goal of 2.5-mrad surface accuracy was met with each of the two full-sized prototypes, and accuracies of as low as 1.1 mrad were achieved. The facet weight is 11.7 kg/sq m (2.4 lbs/sq ft). The facet is similar in construction to the successful stretched-membrane heliostat; it has two thin metal membranes attached to a ring. However, the front membrane for this facet is plastically formed at the factor in order to achieve a shorter facet f/D (approximately 3.0). A passive tether restrains the front membrane when not in operation, that is, when the stabilizing vacuum is off. The optical surface is achieved with a silvered-acrylic film laminated to the metal membrane. The facet is expected to cost $55.40/sq m at a production rate of 10,000 facets per year and $115,000/sq m at a production rate of 500 facets a year. Several key issues have been resolved. Stress concentrations due to seams in the reflective laminate did not cause membrane rupture during forming as they have for dishes with lower focal length-to-diameter ratios. The laminate survived the forming process and simulated operation without deterioration. The optical effect of the tether on the membrane was tested and found to be very small. Most important, highly accurate shapes were obtained using a simple forming procedure. Additional tests are needed to demonstrate process repeatability and facet performance in typical operating conditions.

  20. Immobilization of sericin molecules via amorphous carbon plasma modified-polystyrene dish for serum-free culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunma, Somruthai; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kim, Si-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Han, Jeon-Geon; Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we focused on sericin hydrolysates, originating from silkworm used in serum-free human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) culture. We reported the effect of a covalent linkage between a bioactive protein molecule and polystyrene dish surface via a carbon intermediate layer which can slow down the release rate of protein compounds into the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. Films of amorphous carbon (a-C) and functionalized-carbon were deposited on PS culture dish surfaces by using a DC magnetron sputtering system and RF PECVD system. We found that a-C based-films can increase the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polystyrene (PS) dishes, especially a-C films and a-C:N2 films showed good attachment of hBM-MSCs at 24 h. However, in the case of silica surface (a-C:SiOx films), the cells showed a ragged and unattached boundary resulting from the presence of surface silanol groups. For the UV-vis absorbance, all carbon modified-PS dishes showed a lower release rate of sericin molecules into PBS solution than PS control. This revealed that the functionalized carbon could be enhanced by specific binding properties with given molecules. The carbon-coated PS dishes grafting with sericin protein were used in a serum-free condition. We also found that hBM-MSCs have higher percentage of proliferated cells at day 7 for the modified dishes with carbon films and coated with sericin than the PS control coated with sericin. The physical film properties were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle measurement. The presence of sbnd NH2 groups of sericin compounds on the PS dish was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The stability of covalent bonds of sericin molecules after washing out ungrafted sericin was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  1. The kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module was estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses were shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration was given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs were not considered here.

  2. Heat and electricity from the sun using parabolic dish collector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates point focus distributed receiver (PFDR) solar thermal technology for the production of electric power and of industrial process heat. Attention is given to a thermal systems project conducted by JPL under DOE sponsorship. It is reported that project emphasis is on the development of cost-effective systems which will accelerate the commercialization and industrialization of plants up to 10 MWe, using parabolic dish collectors. Also discussed are the characteristics of PFDR systems, the cost targets for major systems hardware, and markets for this technology. Finally, the present system status of the technology development effort is discussed.

  3. A new electrical and mechanically detonatable shear wave source for near surface (0-30 m) seismic acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, J. M.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Harris, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    We present a new, impulsive, horizontal shear source capable of performing long shot profiles in a time-efficient and repeatable manner. The new shear source is ground-coupled by eight 1/2″ (1.27 cm) × 2″ (5.08 cm) steel spikes. Blank shotshells (12-gauge) used as energy sources can be either mechanically or electrically detonated. Electrical fuses have a start time repeatability of < 50 μs. This source can be operated by a single individual, and takes only ~ 10 s between shots as opposed to ~ 30 s for six stacked hammer blows. To ensure complete safety, the shotshell holder is surrounded by a protective 6″ (15.24 cm)-thick barrel, a push-and-twist-locked breach, and a safety pin. We conducted field tests at the 17th Street Canal levee breach site in New Orleans, Louisiana (30.017° N 90.121° W) and at an instrumented test borehole at Millsaps College in Jackson, Mississippi (32.325° N 93.182° W) to compare our new source and a traditional hammer impact source. The new shear source produces a broader-band of frequencies (30-100 Hz cf. 30-60 Hz). Signal generated by the new shear source has signal-to-noise ratios equivalent to ~ 3 stacked hammer blows to the hammer impact source. Ideal source signals must be broadband in frequency, have a high SNR, be consistent, and have precise start times; all traits of the new shear source.

  4. Atmospheric tomography with Rayleigh laser beacons for correction of wide fields and 30-m-class telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, J. Roger P.; Lloyd-Hart, Michael

    2000-07-01

    Single sodium beacons will likely be the most convenient for adaptive systems to correct 6 - 10 m class telescopes over a small field of view (the isoplanatic angle), provided reliable, powerful 589 nm lasers become available and affordable. However, when adaptive optics are applied to extended fields of view and correction of telescopes as large as 32 m diameter, it seems likely that laser beacons produced by Rayleigh scattering will be preferred. For these more demanding applications which require atmospheric tomography, Rayleigh beacons come into their own for two reasons. First, the cone effect, which causes the high turbulence to be sampled at a different scale, is no longer problematic when multiple lasers are used and height dependence is solved for explicitly. Second, the tomographic solution can make use of the beacon created by a laser pulse during all of its journey through the upper atmosphere, not just scattering from a thin layer selected by range gating. In this way a laser that costs an order of magnitude less to buy and maintain than a sodium laser of the same power can yield a brighter beacon and more information about the atmospheric turbulence. This is important because both the number and brightness of beacons or stars must increase with the number of layers included in the tomographic solution. For the same reason, tomography with natural stars is unlikely to be valuable for very large telescopes because in general the number and required brightness of each star increase with corrected field angle, while current narrow-field adaptive optics systems relying on natural stars are already very limited in sky coverage. Our method for tomography to take advantage of Rayleigh scattering over a wide range of heights uses short pulses from near diffraction-limited, ultraviolet lasers, projected from a small aperture above the telescope's secondary mirror. Each pulse subtends less than 1 arcsec at any instant as it travels up through many kilometers. An

  5. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  6. Summary assessment of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penda, P. L.; Fujita, T.; Lucas, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is provided of solar thermal parabolic dish technology for electrical power generation. The assessment is based on the development program undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy and covers the period from the initiation of the program in 1976 through mid-1984. The program was founded on developing components and subsystems that are integrated into parabolic dish power modules for test and evaluation. The status of the project is summarized in terms of results obtained through testing of modules, and the implications of these findings are assessed in terms of techno-economic projections and market potential. The techno-economic projections are based on continuation of an evolutionary technological development program and are related to the accomplishments of the program as of mid-1984. The accomplishments of the development effort are summarized for each major subsystem including concentrators, receivers, and engines. The ramifications of these accomplishments are assessed in the context of developmental objectives and strategies.

  7. Sensory attributes of dishes containing shrimp paste with different concentrations of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Jinap, S; Ilya-Nur, A R; Tang, S C; Hajeb, P; Shahrim, K; Khairunnisak, M

    2010-10-01

    The shrimp paste called belacan is a traditional umami taste condiment extensively used in Malaysia that is rich in glutamate and 5'-nucleotides. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of glutamate and 5'-nucleotides of various types of foods prepared with belacan and to measure their sensory attributes. The concentration of free glutamic acid found in different brands of belacan was 180-530mg/100g and in local dishes 601-4207mg/100g. The total amount of 5'-nucleotides in belacan samples ranged from 0.85 to 42.25μg/g. A Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) using a list of 17 sensory attributes showed a good correlation between belacan concentration in the final food and a range of positive sensory attributes, except for bitter, sweet, sour taste and astringency. Belacan also contains bitter, sweet and sour compounds that change the positive attributes of belacan at higher concentrations. The highest aroma attributes were linked to nasi goreng belacan (belacan fried rice) while the highest flavour attributes were found in sambal belacan. There was a 32 folds significant increase of umami attributes with the addition of belacan to final foods. The optimum amount of belacan was 0.45% for asam pedas (tamarind flavoured dish with belacan), 18% for sambal belacan (chilli belacan), 1.5-2.5% for kangkong goreng belacan (stir fried water convolous with belacan), and 2% for nasi goreng belacan.

  8. Validation of a Dish-Based Semiquantitative Food Questionnaire in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pi-I D; Bromage, Sabri; Mostofa, Md Golam; Allen, Joseph; Oken, Emily; Kile, Molly L; Christiani, David C

    2017-01-10

    A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using two 3-day food diaries (FDs). We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants) from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation, paired t-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired t-test, p < 0.05; percent difference <10%), with no presence of proportional bias (Bland-Altman correlation, p > 0.05). After energy-adjustment and de-attenuation for within-person variation, macronutrient intakes had excellent correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.70. Validity for micronutrients was mixed. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were found for most nutrients between the two seasons, except vitamin A. This dish-based FFQ provided adequate validity to assess and rank long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh for most food groups and nutrients, and should be useful for studying dietary-disease relationships.

  9. Validation of a Dish-Based Semiquantitative Food Questionnaire in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pi-I. D.; Bromage, Sabri; Mostofa, Md. Golam; Allen, Joseph; Oken, Emily; Kile, Molly L.; Christiani, David C.

    2017-01-01

    A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using two 3-day food diaries (FDs). We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants) from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation, paired t-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland–Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired t-test, p < 0.05; percent difference <10%), with no presence of proportional bias (Bland–Altman correlation, p > 0.05). After energy-adjustment and de-attenuation for within-person variation, macronutrient intakes had excellent correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.70. Validity for micronutrients was mixed. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were found for most nutrients between the two seasons, except vitamin A. This dish-based FFQ provided adequate validity to assess and rank long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh for most food groups and nutrients, and should be useful for studying dietary-disease relationships. PMID:28075369

  10. Petri dish PCR: laser-heated reactions in nanoliter droplet arrays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hanyoup; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Faris, Gregory W

    2009-05-07

    We report high-speed real-time PCR performed on an unmodified disposable polystyrene Petri dish. The reaction cycle relies solely on an infrared laser for heating; no conventional heater is required. Nanoliter droplets of PCR mixture as water-in-oil emulsions printed in an array format served as individual PCR microreactors. A simple contact printing technique was developed to generate a large array of uniform sized nanoliter droplets using disposable pipette tips. Printed droplets showed variation of less than 10% in volume and the oil/water/polystyrene interface formed a compact droplet microreactor approximately spherical in shape. The uniform droplet array was used to optimize the laser power required for the two heating steps of PCR, annealing/extension and melting, while the ambient conditions were at room temperature. The optical heating allows for an extremely fast heating rate due to the selective absorption of the infrared laser by PCR buffer only and not the oil or polystyrene Petri dish, allowing completion of 40 amplification cycles in approximately 6 minutes. The quantitative assay capability of the system is also presented and discussed.

  11. CPV semi-dense array design for dish and tower collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Herb; Thomas, Paul; Fette, Nicholas; Farkas, Zoltan; Bading, Michael; Stone, Bradley; Miner, Mark; Stickroth, Oliver; Bagewadi, Nakul; Romero, Memo; Sonuparlak, Birol; Eichholz, Rainer; Ziegler, Michael; Pawlowski, Edgar

    2012-10-01

    SST is developing a new Dish CPV dense array system that overcomes the flux uniformity requirement of previous designs. The ability to operate without flux uniformity relaxes the precision requirements of primary collector optics and eliminates homogenizing optics previously required for dense array CPV. Array design can be configured for dish and tower/heliostat systems developed for thermal CSP applications. The design uses industry standard CPV cells and manufacturing materials and methods for minimum cost and high reliability. Nominal input flux to the array for full power is about 250 suns. Internal array optics increase flux to the cells to about 1200 suns. Linear optics provide additional concentration, permit novel use of commercial glass production methods and facilitate power collection design that is integrated with dynamic power conversion and maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Efficient power hybrid packaging methods are used along with advanced liquid cooling "cold-plate" thermal management. Byproduct "waste heat" can be provided for on-site CHP use. We report on the design approach and status of development with the beginning of on-sun alpha testing of the first of 50 kW of CPV modules being produced.

  12. Wind loads and local pressure distributions on parabolic dish solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterka, J. A.; Derickson, R. G.; Cermak, J. E.

    1990-05-01

    The research and development described in this document was conducted within the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Technology Program. The goal of this program is to advance the engineering and scientific understanding of solar thermal technology and the establish the technology base from which private industry can develop solar thermal power production options for introduction into the competitive energy market. This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and collector drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on parabolic dish collectors. The tests investigated the mean and peak forces, moments and local pressure distributions. A significant increase in the understanding and prediction of peak parabolic dish wind loads and their reduction within a field was achieved.

  13. An improved model for natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver of solar dish concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.S.; Sendhil Kumar, N.

    2009-10-15

    A 2-D model has been proposed to investigate the approximate estimation of the natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver of without insulation (WOI) and with insulation (WI) at the bottom of the aperture plane in our previous article. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model is presented to investigate the accurate estimation of natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver (WOI) of fuzzy focal solar dish concentrator. A comparison of 2-D and 3-D natural convection heat loss from a modified cavity receiver is carried out. A parametric study is carried out to develop separate Nusselt number correlations for 2-D and 3-D geometries of modified cavity receiver for estimation of convective heat loss from the receiver. The results show that the 2-D and 3-D are comparable only at higher angle of inclinations (60 {<=} {beta} {<=} 90 ) of the receiver. The present 3-D numerical model is compared with other well known cavity receiver models. The 3-D model can be used for accurate estimation of heat losses from solar dish collector, when compared with other well known models. (author)

  14. Convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shuang-Ying; Xiao, Lan; Li, You-Rong; Cao, Yiding

    2010-08-15

    The convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system can significantly reduce the efficiency and consequently the cost effectiveness of the system. It is important to assess this heat loss and subsequently improve the thermal performance of the receiver. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review and systematic summarization of the state of the art in the research and progress in this area. The efforts include the convection heat loss mechanism, experimental and numerical investigations on the cavity receivers with varied shapes that have been considered up to date, and the Nusselt number correlations developed for convection heat loss prediction as well as the wind effect. One of the most important features of this paper is that it has covered numerous cavity literatures encountered in various other engineering systems, such as those in electronic cooling devices and buildings. The studies related to those applications may provide valuable information for the solar receiver design, which may otherwise be ignored by a solar system designer. Finally, future development directions and the issues that need to be further investigated are also suggested. It is believed that this comprehensive review will be beneficial to the design, simulation, performance assessment and applications of the solar parabolic dish cavity receivers. (author)

  15. Development of Dishing-less Slurry for Polysilicon Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Naoto; Uekusa, Shin-ichiro; Kodera, Masako; Matsui, Yoshitaka; Katsumata, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    Dishing of polysilicon and thinning of the stopper silicon nitride films are crucial problems when the polysilicon embedded by low pressure chemical vapor deposition in the trench and the concavity with respective widths of 0.7 μm and 20-100 μm is simultaneously flattened by chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). In order to suppress these two occurrences, a high polymer compound mixed slurry was developed and characterized. The pH value of the slurry measured on the polishing abrasive pad was decreased by dilution with de-ionized water, which resulted in cohesion and solidification of the slurry. By using this cohered and solidified slurry when the poly silicon surface is flattened by CMP, the dishing thickness of the polysilicon was suppressed to less than 100 nm at a concavity width of 100 μm. The CMP process using the developed slurry is useful for the advanced trench isolation process and is currently applied to NAND flash memory and high-speed bipolar LSI devices.

  16. [The consumption of dishes and/or fishy snacks by school youth from Miedzychodzko-Sierakowskie lakes].

    PubMed

    Bortnowska, Grazyna; Grotowska, Longina; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2011-01-01

    The school youth inhabiting Miedzychodzko-Sierakowskie lakes consumed dishes and/or fishy snacks on the similar low level as their peers in other regions of country, mainly breaded fried fishes and partly or highly manufactured products i.e., herrings in sour cream as well as pastes from smoked fishes and canned fishes. Relatively high ranks in rows of preference (liking) and frequency intake were found for carp, herring and cheap cultured panga from import. The presence of bones and specific odour were the factors that mostly affected low consumption of dishes and/or snacks from fishes. It seems that preparation of attractive tasty dishes and/or snacks from fresh fishes could help in youth teaching regarding correct nutritional habits as well as retain tradition of their consumption during adult life.

  17. D/H ratios and H2O contents of mantle-derived amphibole megacrysts from Dish Hill, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, David R.; Hoering, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    D/H ratios are, in principle, useful in characterizing reservoirs of mantle hydrogen and as tracers of volatile transfer processes in Earth's interior. In practice, however, interpretation of isotopic measurements on mantle derived H is complicated by surface processes such as contamination and degassing which may alter the primary D/H ratio. Although there are indications that water associated with subduction zones and certain chemically enriched basalts is enriched in D relative to 'typical' upper mantle water, the extent of isotopic heterogeneity of mantle H remains uncertain. Kaersutitic amphibole megacrysts in alkaline basalts are one of the most widespread sources of mantle water and are therefore potentially useful for large-scale regional studies of D/H variation. However, D/H ratios of these amphiboles vary widely (from plus 8 to minus 113 percent), even in samples from the same locality, so that this potential has yet to be realized. In order to investigate the origin of this variability, and to explore the possibility that primary mantle D/H ratios may be deduced from these amphiboles, we analyzed the D/H ratios and chemical compositions of a suite of 17 kaersutitic amphiboles from Dish Hill, California. This work contrasts with previous studies in which sampling is widespread, but representatives from any given locality are few. Samples were collected from a restricted area on the southern flank of the volcanic center and are associated with the basal volcanic breccia. Fourteen of the samples were large single crystals or crystal fragments (megacrysts, 0.4 to 30 grams), believed to derive from pegmatitic veins crystallized from melts in the mantle. Two were coarse-grained intergrowths of amphibole with olivine and spinel, and one was a thin (2 mm) selvage on a peridotite xenolith.

  18. A review of test results on solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Stirling and Brayton cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of development tests of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies that used dish-mounted Brayton or Stirling cycle engines for production of electric power. These tests indicate that early modules achieve net efficiencies up to 29 percent in converting sunlight to electricity, as delivered to the grid. Various equipment deficiencies were observed and a number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other test experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  19. Solar-parabolic dish-Stirling-engine-system module. Task 1: Topical report, market assessment/conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-30

    The major activities reported are: a market study to identify an early market for a dish-Stirling module and assess its commercial potential; preparation of a conceptual system and subsystem design to address this market; and preparation of an early sales implementation plan. A study of the reliability of protection from the effects of walk-off, wherein the sun's image leaves the receiver if the dish is not tracking, is appended, along with an optical analysis and structural analysis. Also appended are the relationship between PURPA and solar thermal energy development and electric utility pricing rationale. (LEW)

  20. Dish-like drying patterns of the water-soluble gelatin sheet wetted by an aqueous droplet.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Akira; Okubo, Tsuneo

    2016-04-01

    Drying dissipative patterns of the water-soluble gelatin sheet wetted by an aqueous droplet were observed as a function of time elapsed. The arrayed clusters of dishes formed at the broad ring area and grew outward toward multiple arrays with time. The drying patterns formed by the cooperative contribution of wetting, swelling, dissolving, evaporative, convectional, sedimentary and solidifying processes. Drying patterns were studied also for aqueous ethanol, aqueous NaCl solutions and dispersions of colloidal silica and poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres. The dish patterns were observed for the water-soluble substrates, for the first time, in this work.

  1. Comparison of electrochemical and thermal storage for hybrid parabolic dish solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, H. L.; Wen, L.

    1981-01-01

    The economic and operating performance of a parabolic point focus array of solar electricity generators combined with either battery or thermal energy storage are examined. Noting that low-cost, mass-producible power generating units are under development for the point focus of distributed dishes, that Zn-Cl battery tests will begin in 1981 and a 100 kWh Na-S battery in 1983, the state of thermal storage requires acceleration to reach the prototype status of the batteries. Under the assumptions of 10,000 units/yr with an expected 30 yr lifetime, cost comparisons are developed for 10 types of advanced batteries. A 5 MWe plant with full thermal or 80% battery storage discharge when demand occurs in conditions of no insolation is considered, specifically for Fe-Cr redox batteries. A necessity for the doubling of fuel prices from 1980 levels by 1990 is found in order to make the systems with batteries economically competitive.

  2. Dispersed solar thermal generation employing parabolic dish-electric transport with field modulated generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of field modulated generator systems (FMGS) to dispersed solar-thermal-electric generation from a parabolic dish field with electric transport. Each solar generation unit is rated at 15 kWe and the power generated by an array of such units is electrically collected for insertion into an existing utility grid. Such an approach appears to be most suitable when the heat engine rotational speeds are high (greater than 6000 r/min) and, in particular, if they are operated in the variable speed mode and if utility-grade a.c. is required for direct insertion into the grid without an intermediate electric energy storage and reconversion system. Predictions of overall efficiencies based on conservative efficiency figures for the FMGS are in the range of 25 per cent and should be encouraging to those involved in the development of cost-effective dispersed solar thermal power systems.

  3. Large-area, high-intensity PV arrays for systems using dish concentrating optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Zweibel, K.; Coutts, T.J.

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report on efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

  4. Cardiomyopathy in a dish: using human inducible pluripotent stem cells to model inherited cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Forum; Klaassen Kamdar, Andre; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Garry, Mary G; Garry, Daniel J

    2015-09-01

    Inherited cardiomyopathies, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathies, arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and other inherited forms of heart failure, represent a unique set of genetically defined cardiovascular disease processes. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of these deadly forms of human heart disease has been challenging, but recent groundbreaking scientific advances in stem cell technology have allowed for the generation of patient-specific human inducible stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs). hiPSC-derived CMs retain the genetic blueprint of the patient, they can be maintained in culture, and they recapitulate the phenotypic characteristics of the disease in vitro, thus serving as a disease in a dish. This review provides an overview of in vitro modeling of inherited cardiomyopathies with the use of patient-specific hiPSC-derived CMs.

  5. An overview of the value of parabolic dish solar thermal systems in industrial cogeneration applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The essential elements of the cogeneration system configuration to be captured were the displacement of thermal energy by collection and use of the Brayton exhaust stream, and the sale back to the utility of any electricity production in excess of on-site requirements. In contrast to simply dumping these energy flows, their use or sale obviously serves, by itself, to increase gross value of the solar thermal energy system. Net allowable cost of the parabolic dish modules may or may not be increased, however. A consideration is that the waste heat capture and delivery subsystems are not free. This study does not address the incremental cost of adding waste heat capture, transport, and conversion (to steam, if necessary). It does compute a value for the thermal energy thereby displaced. This value can serve as a first-round input to any detailed economic evaluation of waste heat recovery.

  6. Optical characterization of nonimaging dish concentrator for the application of dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-Hui; Chong, Kok-Keong; Wong, Chee-Woon

    2014-01-20

    Optimization of the design of a nonimaging dish concentrator (NIDC) for a dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system is presented. A new algorithm has been developed to determine configuration of facet mirrors in a NIDC. Analytical formulas were derived to analyze the optical performance of a NIDC and then compared with a simulated result obtained from a numerical method. Comprehensive analysis of optical performance via analytical method has been carried out based on facet dimension and focal distance of the concentrator with a total reflective area of 120 m2. The result shows that a facet dimension of 49.8 cm, focal distance of 8 m, and solar concentration ratio of 411.8 suns is the most optimized design for the lowest cost-per-output power, which is US$1.93 per watt.

  7. Systems approach to walk-off problems for dish-type solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Levin, R. R.; Moynihan, P. I.; Nesmith, B. J.; Owen, W. A.; Roschke, E. J.; Starkey, D. J.; Thostesen, T. O.

    1983-01-01

    'Walk-off' in a dish-type solar thermal power system is a failure situation in which the concentrator remains fixed while the spot of concentrated sunlight slowly moves across the face of the receiver. The intense local heating may damage the receiver and nearby equipment. Passive protection has advantages in minimizing damage, but in a fully passive design the receiver must be able to withstand full solar input with no forced fluid circulation during the walk-off. An active walk-off emergency subsystem may include an emergency detrack or defocus mechanism or sun-blocking device, emergency power, sensors and logic to detect the emergency and initiate protective action, and cooling or passive protection of emergency and non-emergency components. Each of these elements is discussed and evaluated in the paper.

  8. Cost/performance of solar reflective surfaces for parabolic dish concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F.

    1980-01-01

    Materials for highly reflective surfaces for use in parabolic dish solar concentrators are discussed. Some important factors concerning performance of the mirrors are summarized, and typical costs are treated briefly. Capital investment cost/performance ratios for various materials are computed specifically for the double curvature parabolic concentrators using a mathematical model. The results are given in terms of initial investment cost for reflective surfaces per thermal kilowatt delivered to the receiver cavity for various operating temperatures from 400 to 1400 C. Although second surface glass mirrors are emphasized, first surface, chemically brightened and anodized aluminum surfaces as well as second surface, metallized polymeric films are treated. Conventional glass mirrors have the lowest cost/performance ratios, followed closely by aluminum reflectors. Ranges in the data due to uncertainties in cost and mirror reflectance factors are given.

  9. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight is a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentrator to stop following the Sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/sq m. (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off Sun), and spillage (continuous on-Sun operation).

  10. Mass transport, corrosion, plugging, and their reduction in solar dish/Stirling heat pipe receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Goods, S.H.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    Solar dish/Stirling systems using sodium heat pipe receivers are being developed by industry and government laboratories here and abroad. The unique demands of this application lead to heat pipe wicks with very large surface areas and complex three-dimensional flow patterns. These characteristics can enhance the mass transport and concentration of constituents of the wick material, resulting in wick corrosion and plugging. As the test times for heat pipe receivers lengthen, we are beginning to see these effects both indirectly, as they affect performance, and directly in post-test examinations. We are also beginning to develop corrective measures. In this paper, we report on our test experiences, our post-test examinations, and on our initial effort to ameliorate various problems.

  11. Mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes in a cell culture dish.

    PubMed

    Glass, Carley; Singla, Reetu; Arora, Anshu; Singla, Dinender K

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent stem cells capable of self-renewal and have broad differentiation potential yielding cell types from all three germ layers. In the absence of differentiation inhibitory factors, when cultured in suspension, ES cells spontaneously differentiate and form three-dimensional cell aggregates termed embryoid bodies (EBs). Although various methods exist for the generation of EBs, the hanging drop method offers reproducibility and homogeneity from a predetermined number of ES cells. Herein, we describe the in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into cardiac myocytes using the hanging drop method and immunocytochemistry to identify cardiomyogenic differentiation. In brief, ES cells, placed in droplets on the lid of culture dishes following a 2-day incubation, yield embryoid bodies, which are resuspended and plated. 1-2 weeks following plating of the EBs, spontaneous beating areas can be observed and staining for specific cardiac markers can be achieved.

  12. Oxide composite prepared from intermetallic and amorphous Zr67Fe30M3- (M=Au, Pt) alloys and their catalytic activity for CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-Han; Wang, Sea-Fue; Kameoka, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kanji; Tsai, An-Pang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Zr67Fe30M3 (M=Au, Pt) intermetallic compounds and amorphous alloys were prepared and used as precursors for the synthesis of oxides. Oxidation treatment of the intermetallic compounds at 500 °C followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that zirconium and iron were oxidized to ZrO2 and Fe2O3, respectively. In the case of Zr67Fe30M3 amorphous alloys, cubic Zr6Fe3O was observed on the surface of the ribbons after heat treatment at 500 °C in vacuum. Addition of 3% of gold or platinum to the alloy resulted in an increase in the lattice constants of the Zr6Fe3O phase. Grounding the treated ribbons into powders followed by an oxidation treatment at 500 °C in air produced Fe2O3 and ZrO2 supports, where Au and Pt are dissolved in the oxides as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). No matter precursors are intermetallics or amorphous phases, the resultant oxides are the same. Although Pt and Au dissolved in the oxides, catalytic activities for CO oxidation were significant improved.

  13. Development and evaluation of a dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to develop a dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire s(FFQ) for Korean adolescents and evaluate its reproducibility and validity. SUBJECTS/METHODS Based on 24-hour dietary recall data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), we developed a FFQ with 71 items. From a quota sample of 160 adolescents recruited using gender and age group as stratification variables, 153 participated in the complete data collection process. The FFQ was administered to each subject twice, at an interval of 3-4 weeks, to evaluate the test-retest reliability. The validity of the FFQ was assessed relative to 8-day food record data. RESULTS The study findings demonstrated the FFQ's satisfactory reproducibility. Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from 0.64(for β-carotene) to 0.81(for protein). From cross-classification analyses, the proportion of subjects in the same intake quartile was highest for protein (65.4%) and lowest for vitamin A(47.1%). With regard to validity analysis, Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from 0.27(for vitamin A and fiber) to 0.90 (for energy). The proportions of subjects in the opposite categories between the first FFQ and the 8-day food record data were generally low within the range from 0.74% (for energy and carbohydrate) to 13.2% (for α-carotene). CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, the dish-based semiquantitative FFQ developed in this study can be useful for grouping Korean adolescents according to major macro- and micronutrient intakes with reasonable reproducibility and validity. PMID:27478551

  14. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Food Life Extenders and Temperature on the Shelf Life of Ready-Made Dishes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun; Maenishi, Takuya; Saito, Yuki; Masuda, Toshiro; Kadotani, Naoki; Kozakai, Hiroshi; Ito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of several microbial control factors including gas barrier of containers, modified atmosphere packaging, food life extenders and storage temperature was discussed in order to determine the possibility for improving the shelf life for hamburger steak and deepfried chicken, representative ready-made dishes sold at convenience stores in Japan. Multiple measures including cold storage were effective in improving the shelf life of ready-made dishes. It was also suggested that storage tests for ready-made dishes should be conducted at 10℃, a practical temperature, to confirm the storable period, as well as at 15℃, an adequate abuse temperature, to confirm the effects of various microbial control factors. In the present study, the test group 4 (nitrogen + barrier containers + pH modifier) performed most favorably at both temperatures, indicating the efficacy of multiple means including "cold storage" in improving the shelf life (extending the consume-by date) of ready-made dishes. All strains isolated from the tested hamburger steak and deep-fried chicken were common food contaminant bacterial species.

  15. Risk factors for contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes in Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Perrier Gros-Claude, J D; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Salvat, G

    2005-08-25

    Our objective was to investigate the Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes and to assess the association of some restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with the contamination of these meals. One hundred and forty-eight street-restaurants were studied from January 2003 to April 2004 in Dakar. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat poultry dishes were taken. Salmonella spp. was isolated in 20.1% of the 148 street-restaurants studied and in 10.1% samples of poultry dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella hadar, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella brancaster. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in only 3 restaurants and 3 poultry dishes. Not peeling and not cleaning vegetables and other ingredients during meal preparation (OR=3.58), dirty clothing for restaurant employees (OR=4.65), reheating previously cooked foods (OR=5.2), and no kitchen and utensils disinfection (OR=3.47) were associated with an increasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Adequate cooking procedures decreased the risk of Salmonella contamination (OR=0.15).

  16. Food Safety: Recommendations for Determining Doneness in Consumer Egg Dish Recipes and Measurement of Endpoint Temperatures When Recipes Are Followed

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Sandria; Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking egg dishes, such as pies, quiches, and casseroles, potentially leading to foodborne illnesses such as Salmonellosis. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends cooking egg mixtures until the center reaches 71 °C (160 °F). The objectives of this study were to determine what endpoint temperature information consumers receive from egg dish recipes, and if recipes would lead to safe temperatures when followed. Egg dish recipes (n = 226) from 65 websites, 50 cookbooks, and nine magazine titles (multiple issues of each) were analyzed. Time was the most frequently used indicator, given in 92% of the recipes, with 15% using only time. Other indicators included: set (89), browned (76), clean toothpick/knife (60), puffed (27), and jiggled (13). Only two recipes indicated final endpoint temperatures. Three recipes (a pie, a quiche, and an egg casserole) were chosen and prepared in triplicate to see if they would reach recommended temperatures. The pie and quiche were still liquid at 71 °C, and were well over the recommended temperature when cooked according to instructions, but the egg casserole was not consistently above 71 °C, when the recipe instructions indicated it was done and the center was light brown and “jiggled” This research indicates that consumers are not receiving information on endpoint temperatures in egg recipes, but the likelihood of foodborne illness is low since most dishes probably be cooked past the recommended temperature before the consumer considers them done unless there are many inclusions that may absorb liquid and reduce the appearance of liquid in the dish. PMID:28231140

  17. Association between Motives for Dish Choices during Home Meal Preparation and Weight Status in the NutriNet-Santé Study.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Pauline; Fassier, Philippine; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-07-05

    Although home cooking has been associated with a lower body mass index in a few studies, no data exists on the motives behind food dish choices during home meal preparation and on their association with overweight. This study aimed to evaluate this association in 50,003 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dimensions underlying the importance of 27 criteria possibly influencing dish choices were determined using an exploratory factor analysis. The association between dish choice motives and overweight (including obesity) was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Five dimensions of dishes choice motives emerged: healthy diet (e.g., "nutritional balance of the dish"), constraints (e.g., "my cooking skills"), pleasure (e.g., "originality of the dish"), specific diets (e.g., "my health status"), and organization (e.g., "what I planned to eat"). A negative association was observed between the healthy diet factor and being overweight (OR = 0.65 (95% CI (confidence interval): 0.62-0.67)), whereas a positive association appeared for factors regarding pleasure (OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10-1.19)) and specific diets (OR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17-1.22)). No significant associations were observed for constraints and organization. The significant associations between dish choice motives and overweight suggested the interest of focusing on these motives in order to promote healthier food choices during home cooking.

  18. Single-Dish Radio Polarimetry in the F-GAMMA Program with the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuchert, Tobias; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Jörn; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Fuhrmann, Lars; Myserlis, Ioannis; Nestoras, Ioannis; Kraus, Alex; Bach, Uwe; Ros, Eduardo; Grossberger, Christoph; Schulz, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Studying the variability of polarized AGN jet emission in the radio band is crucial for understanding the dynamics of moving shocks as well as the structure of the underlying magnetic field. The 100-m Effelsberg Telescope is a high-quality instrument for studying the long-term variability of both total and polarized intensity as well as the electric-vector position angle. Since 2007, the F-GAMMA program has been monitoring the linear polarized emission of roughly 60 blazars at 11 frequencies between 2.7 and 43 GHz. Here, we describe the calibration of the polarimetric data at 5 and 10 GHz and the resulting F-GAMMA full-Stokes light curves for the exemplary case of the radio galaxy 3C 111.

  19. Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyazono, C.

    1984-01-01

    Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

  20. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  1. Wind loads on heliostats and parabolic dish collectors: Final subcontractor report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J.A.; Tan, Z.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1988-11-01

    A major intent of this study was to define wind load reduction factors for parabolic dish solar collectors within a field protected by upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other blockages. This information will help researchers improve the economy of parabolic collector support structures and drive mechanisms. The method used in the study was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind tunnel. A second objective of the study was to confirm and document a sensitivity in load to level of turbulence, or gustiness, in the approaching wind. A key finding was that wind-load reduction factors for forces (horizontal and vertical) were roughly similar to those for flat heliostats, with some forces significantly less than those for flat shapes. However, load reductions for moments showed a smaller load reduction, particularly for the azimuth moment. The lack of load reduction could be attributed to collector shape, but specific flow features responsible for and methods to induce a load reduction were not explored. 62 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Phenylketonuria: protein content and amino acids profile of dishes for phenylketonuric patients. The relevance of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Torres, Duarte; Almeida, Manuela F; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-04-15

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, involving, in most cases, a deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Neonatal diagnosis and a prompt special diet (low phenylalanine and natural-protein restricted diets) are essential to the treatment. The lack of data concerning phenylalanine contents of processed foodstuffs is an additional limitation for an already very restrictive diet. Our goals were to quantify protein (Kjeldahl method) and amino acid (18) content (HPLC/fluorescence) in 16 dishes specifically conceived for phenylketonuric patients, and compare the most relevant results with those of several international food composition databases. As might be expected, all the meals contained low protein levels (0.67-3.15 g/100 g) with the highest ones occurring in boiled rice and potatoes. These foods also contained the highest amounts of phenylalanine (158.51 and 62.65 mg/100 g, respectively). In contrast to the other amino acids, it was possible to predict phenylalanine content based on protein alone. Slight deviations were observed when comparing results with the different food composition databases.

  3. The small community solar thermal power experiment. Parabolic dish technology for industrial process heat application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzien, R. E.; Rodriguez, D.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of incorporating a thermal energy transport system (ETS) into a field of parabolic dish collectors for industrial process heat (IPH) applications were investigated. Specific objectives are to: (1) verify the mathematical optimization of pipe diameters and insulation thicknesses calculated by a computer code; (2) verify the cost model for pipe network costs using conventional pipe network construction; (3) develop a design and the associated production costs for incorporating risers and downcomers on a low cost concentrator (LCC); (4) investigate the cost reduction of using unconventional pipe construction technology. The pipe network design and costs for a particular IPH application, specifically solar thermally enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) are analyzed. The application involves the hybrid operation of a solar powered steam generator in conjunction with a steam generator using fossil fuels to generate STEOR steam for wells. It is concluded that the STEOR application provides a baseline pipe network geometry used for optimization studies of pipe diameter and insulation thickness, and for development of comparative cost data, and operating parameters for the design of riser/downcomer modifications to the low cost concentrator.

  4. Solar reforming of methane in a direct absorption catalytic reactor on a parabolic dish

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, J.F.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Skocypec, R.D. ); Buck, R. , Stuttgart . Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik)

    1990-01-01

    The concept of solar driven chemical reactions in a commercial-scale volumetric receiver/reactor on a parabolic concentrator was successfully demonstrated in the CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) test. Solar reforming of methane (CH{sub 4}) with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was achieved in a 64-cm diameter direct absorption reactor on a parabolic dish capable of 150 kW solar power. The reactor was a catalytic volumetric absorber consisting of a multi-layered, porous alumina foam disk coated with rhodium (Rh) catalyst. The system was operated during both steady-state and solar transient (cloud passage) conditions. The total solar power absorbed reached values up to 97 kW and the maximum methane conversion was 70%. Receiver thermal efficiencies ranged up to 85% and chemical efficiencies peaked at 54%. The absorber performed satisfactorily in promoting the reforming reaction during the tests without carbon formation. However, problems of cracking and degradation of the porous matrix, nonuniform dispersion of the Rh through the absorber, and catalyst deactivation due to sintering and possible encapsulation, must be resolved to achieve long-term operation and eventual commercialization. 17 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Label-free interdigitated microelectrode based biosensors for bacterial biofilm growth monitoring using Petri dishes.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jacobo; Becerro, Sheila; Arana, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Impedance microbiology (IM) is a known technique that has been applied during the last decades to detect the presence of microorganisms in real samples in different fields: food industry, healthcare, environment, etc. Bacterial biofilms however have not been so far studied despite the fact that they are the most common microbiological formation and that they present resistance to antimicrobial agents. In situ early detection of bacterial biofilm is still a challenge nowadays that causes huge impact in many different scenarios. The ability to detect biofilm generation early will allow better and more efficient treatments preventing high costs and important problems. In this work a new performance of this technique with interdigitated microelectrode sensors (IDE) is proposed. A specific culturing setup where the sensors have been integrated in Petri Dishes has been developed. From the results it can be highlighted that low frequencies are more sensitive for detection than higher ones. The results achieved record variations of approximately 40% in the equivalent serial resistance after 10h of culture. Electrical models have been successfully simulated to find the electrical behavior of the development of biofilms. Variations in both the capacitance and resistance were recorded during the growth of the microbes.

  6. Secondary and compound concentrators for parabolic-dish solar-thermal power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, L.D.; Poon, P.T.

    1981-04-15

    A secondary optical element may be added to a parabolic dish solar concentrator to increase the geometric concentration ratio attainable at a given intercept factor. This secondary may be a Fresnel lens or a mirror, such as a compound elliptic concentrator or a hyperbolic trumpet. At a fixed intercept factor, higher overall geometric concentration may be obtainable with a long focal length primary and a suitable secondary matched to it. Use of a secondary to increase the geometric concentration ratio is more likely to be worthwhile if the receiver temperature is high and if errors in the primary are large. Folding the optical path with a secondary may reduce cost by locating the receiver and power conversion equipment closer to the ground and by eliminating the heavy structure needed to support this equipment at the primary focus. Promising folded-path configurations include the Ritchey-Chretien and perhaps some three-element geometries. Folding the optical path may be most useful in systems that provide process heat.

  7. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-10-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  8. Heat and electricity from the Sun using parabolic dish collector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, V. C.; Williams, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Point focus distributed receiver solar thermal technology for the production of electric power and of industrial process heat is addressed. The thermal power systems project which emphasizes the development of cost effective systems which will accelerate the commercialization and industrialization of plants up to 10 MWe, using parabolic dish collectors is described. The projected size of the isolated load market in the 1990-2000 time period is 300 to 1000 MW/year. Although this market is small in comparison to the grid connected utility market, it is indicated that by assuming only a 20 percent market penetration, up to 10,000 power modules per year would be required to meet this need. At a production rate of 25,000 units/year and assuming no energy storage, levelized bus bar energy costs of 75 mills/kWeh are projected. These numbers are based on what is believed to be a conservative estimate regarding engine-generator conversion efficiency (40 percent) for the 1990 time period. With a more optimistic estimate of efficiency (i.e., 45 percent), the bus bar cost decreases to about 67 mills/kWeh. At very large production rates (400,000 modules/years), the costs decrease to 58 mills/kWeh. Finally, the present status of the technology development effort is discussed.

  9. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  10. Comparison of advanced thermal and electrical storage for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Birur, G. C.; Schredder, J. M.; Bowyer, J. M.; Awaya, H. I.

    Parabolic dish solar concentrator cluster concepts are explored, with attention given to thermal storage systems coupled to Stirling and Brayton cycle power conversion devices. Sensible heat storage involving molten salt (NaOH), liquid sodium, and solid cordierite bricks are considered for 1500 F thermal storage systems. Latent heat storage with NaF-MgF2 phase change materials are explored in terms of passive, active, and direct contact designs. Comparisons are made of the effectiveness of thermal storage relative to redox, Na-S, Zn-Cl, and Zn-Br battery storage systems. Molten lead trickling down through a phase change eutectic, the NaF-MgF2, formed the direct contact system. Heat transport in all systems is effected through Inconel pipes. Using a cost goal of 120-150 mills/kWh as the controlling parameter, sensible heat systems with molten salts transport with either Stirling or Brayton engines, or latent heat systems with Stirling engines, and latent heat-Brayton engine with direct contact were favored in the analyses. Battery storage systems, however, offered the most flexibility of applications.

  11. Charging studies of heat packs using parabolic dish solar energy concentrator for extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohitash; Vyas, Sumita; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic dish solar energy concentrator with aperture diameter 1.4 m and focal length 0.32 m is designed and fabricated to charge and store solar thermal energy in phase change material (PCM) based heat packs. Overall heat loss factor, heat duty, over all thermal efficiency, and optical efficiency factor are calculated using water sensible heating and cooling tests and values are 16.11 W m-2 K-1, 546.9 W, 49.2% and 0.62 respectively. The performance characteristic curve is generated using these parameters to understand its performance at different ambient temperatures and solar insolation. The fabricated concentrator has been used to charge 16 PCM heat packs with 150 g PCM in each heat pack, which took about 35 minutes for complete charging of PCM heat packs at average ambient temperature 39 °C and solar radiation flux density 715 W m-2 K-1. The charged heat packs are subjected to discharge studies at average ambient temperature about - 7 °C and observed heat release in the temperature range of 48 to 40 °C for 50 minutes, suggesting its applications for comfort and therapeutic applications in high altitude areas.

  12. Design, testing, and commercialization plans for the SAIC/STM 20 kW{sub e} solar dish/Stirling system

    SciTech Connect

    Beninga, K.J.; Davenport, R.L.; Johansson, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As a part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Utility-Scale Joint-Venture Program, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Stirling Thermal Motors (STM) have teamed to produce a solar dish/Stirling system for utility electricity generation. The 90 m{sup 2} dish concentrator consists of 16 stretched membrane mirror facets on a truss structure with an azimuth/elevation gear drive. The design modifies a faceted stretched membrane dish design developed previously by SAIC and WGA, Inc. in order to simplify the structure and reduce manufacturing costs, The Stirling engine used in the system is the STM 4-120 kinematic Stirling engine. It features variable swash plate control and a direct absorption solar receiver with hydrogen as the operating fluid. A prototype dish/Stirling system has been installed at a test site near Golden, Colorado and is now undergoing tests. The optical and thermal performance of the dish is being characterized using a Coldwater calorimeter and the optical Beam Characterization System (BCS) developed by Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. After completion of the dish characterization tests, the STM engine will be installed on the dish and system power generation and efficiency will be measured. This paper presents a summary of the SAIC/STM dish/Stirling system design and gives results from initial testing of the system. Also described are SAIC`s plans for manufacturing and commercialization of the dish/Stirling system to utilities and other markets in the US and abroad.

  13. A Nomographic Methodology for Use in Performance Trade-Off Studies of Parabolic Dish Solar Power Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    A simple graphical method was developed to undertake technical design trade-off studies for individual parabolic dish models comprising a two-axis tracking parabolic dish with a cavity receiver and power conversion assembly at the focal point. The results of these technical studies are then used in performing the techno-economic analyses required for determining appropriate subsystem sizing. Selected graphs that characterize the performance of subsystems within the module were arranged in the form of a nomogram that would enable an investigator to carry out several design trade-off studies. Key performance parameters encompassed in the nomogram include receiver losses, intercept factor, engine rating, and engine efficiency. Design and operation parameters such as concentrator size, receiver type (open or windowed aperture), receiver aperture size, operating temperature of the receiver and engine, engine partial load characteristics, concentrator slope error, and the type of reflector surface, are also included in the graphical solution. Cost considerations are not included.

  14. Vanguard I solar parabolic dish-Stirling engine module. Final report, May 28, 1982-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Washom, B.J.

    1984-09-30

    Advanco Corporation and the US Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement in May 1982 for the design, manufacture, and test of a 25-kWe solar parabolic dish module utilizing a Stirling engine power conversion unit. The product of the cooperative agreement is the Vanguard solar parabolic dish-Stirling engine module. It was designed, fabricated, and shop assembled in Los Angeles, California, and Malmoe, Sweden, and was then installed and tested at Rancho Mirage, California, in accordance with the agreement's specifications. The design features simple fabrication and assembly techniques, low cost, and high operating efficiency. The cover displays the Vanguard module operating on-sun. The concept combines the United Stirling AB (USAB) 4-95 Solar II Stirling engine, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed mirror facets, the Rockwell/Advanco exocentric gimbal mechanism (EGM), the advanced USAB receiver, and a dry, integrated heat rejection system.

  15. Prevalence of bacteria and absence of anisakid parasites in raw and prepared fish and seafood dishes in Spanish restaurants.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, I; Rubert, J; Soriano, J M; Mañes, J; Fuentes, M V

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the presence of bacteria and anisakid parasites in 45 samples of raw anchovies in vinegar, a dish widely eaten in Spain, and in 227 samples of cooked fish and cephalopods served in Spanish food service establishments. Our analysis showed that, according to European and Spanish regulation, 14 to 30% of the prepared fish and cephalopod dishes exceeded the maximum allowable level for mesophilic aerobic counts, and 10 to 40% of these samples exceeded the allowable levels for Enterobacteriaceae. None of the studied samples showed evidence of anisakid parasites, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, or Listeria monocytogenes. These results indicate that application of hazard analysis and critical control points, food safety training courses, and routine inspections in compliance with current European and Spanish legislation help protect consumer health.

  16. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  17. Heat transfer at a sapphire – indium interface in the 30 mK – 300 mK temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberadzka, J.; Koettig, T.; Bremer, J.; van der Post, C. C. W.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Within the framework of the AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) project a direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen will be carried out. In order to obtain satisfactory precision of the measurement, the thermal movement of the particles should be reduced. Therefore a Penning trap, which is used to trap antiprotons and create antihydrogen, will be placed on a mixing chamber of an especially designed dilution refrigerator. The trap consists of 10 electrodes, which need to be electrically insulated, but thermally anchored. To ensure that the trap remains at a temperature below 100 mK, the heat transfer at the metallic-dielectric boundary is investigated. A copper – indium – sapphire – indium – copper sandwich setup was mounted on the CERN Cryolab dilution refrigerator. Keeping the mixing chamber at a constant low temperature in the range of 30 mK to 300 mK, steady-state measurements with indium in normal conducting and superconducting states have been performed. Obtained results along with a precise description of our setup are presented.

  18. Gene therapy approach to FAP: in vivo influence of T119M in TTR deposition in a transgenic V30M mouse model.

    PubMed

    Batista, A R; Gianni, D; Ventosa, M; Coelho, A V; Almeida, M R; Sena-Esteves, M; Saraiva, M J

    2014-12-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils composed by mutated transthyretin (TTR) mainly in the peripheral nervous system. At present, liver transplantation is still the standard treatment to halt the progression of clinical symptoms in FAP, but new therapeutic strategies are emerging, including the use of TTR stabilizers. Here we propose to establish a new gene therapy approach using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to deliver the trans-suppressor TTR T119M variant to the liver of transgenic TTR V30M mice at different ages. This TTR variant is known for its ability to stabilize the tetrameric protein. Analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of AAV-treated animals revealed a significant reduction in deposition of TTR non-fibrillar aggregates in as much as 34% in stomach and 30% in colon, as well as decreased levels of biomarkers associated with TTR deposition, namely the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker BiP and the extracellular matrix protein MMP-9. Moreover, we showed with different studies that our approach leads to an increase in tetrameric and more stable forms of TTR, in favor of destabilized monomers. Altogether our data suggest the possibility to use this gene therapy approach in a prophylactic manner to prevent FAP pathology.

  19. IRAM 30 m Large Scale Survey of 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) Emission in the Orion Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berné, O.; Marcelino, N.; Cernicharo, J.

    2014-11-01

    Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we have surveyed a 1 × 0.°8 part of the Orion molecular cloud in the 12CO and 13CO (2-1) lines with a maximal spatial resolution of ~11'' and spectral resolution of ~0.4 km s-1. The cloud appears filamentary, clumpy, and with a complex kinematical structure. We derive an estimated mass of the cloud of 7700 M ⊙ (half of which is found in regions with visual extinctions AV below ~10) and a dynamical age for the nebula of the order of 0.2 Myr. The energy balance suggests that magnetic fields play an important role in supporting the cloud, at large and small scales. According to our analysis, the turbulent kinetic energy in the molecular gas due to outflows is comparable to turbulent kinetic energy resulting from the interaction of the cloud with the H II region. This latter feedback appears negative, i.e., the triggering of star formation by the H II region is inefficient in Orion. The reduced data as well as additional products such as the column density map are made available online (http://userpages.irap.omp.eu/~oberne/Olivier_Berne/Data).

  20. Millimetre observations of comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o) and Austin (1989c1) with the IRAM 30-m radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colom, P.; Despois, D.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Paubert, G.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope were conducted in comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf (1989o) on September 1989 and Austin (1989c1) on April and May 1990. The HCN J(1-0) and J(3-2) lines were detected in both comets. The HCN production rate relative to water in P/Brorsen-Metcalf is comparable to that previously measured in comet P/Halley, while that inferred in comet Austin might be smaller by a factor of two. The H2CO(3 sub 12 - 2 sub 11) transition, marginally observed in comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf, was firmly detected in May 1990 in comet Austin. Observations performed at offset positions suggest that the source of H2CO might be distributed. The H2CO abundance is on the order of 0.5 percent that of water for both comets, assuming a scalelength of 10(exp 4) km at 1 AU from the Sun for the distributed source. During the May observing period of comet Austin, two new species were detected for the first time in a comet: hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through its 1(sub 10) - 1(sub 01) ortho line at 169 GHz, and methanol (CH3OH) through J(3-2) delta K = 0 transitions at 145 GHz. Preliminary estimates of their abundances are 1.5 x 10(exp -3) for H2S and 8 x 10(exp -3) for CH3OH.

  1. Death anxiety and symbolic immortality in relatives at risk for familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (FAP I, ATTR V30M).

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula I; Figueiredo, Eurico; Gomes, Inês; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    This study is an investigation of the impact of familial amyloid polyneuropathy type I (FAP I, ATTR V30M) on death anxiety and symbolic immortality. Templer and Drolet's scales were administered to 524 individuals: (1) 84 relatives at risk, (2) 92 relatives not at risk for FAP I; and (3) a control group (n = 348) with no known hereditary disease in their families. At-risk relatives had, on average, a higher score for death anxiety and a lower score for symbolic immortality, than either those not-at-risk or controls. There were no significant differences in scores on either measure for those not-at-risk versus controls. Being at risk increases death anxiety and threatens the sense of symbolic immortality and psychosocial wellbeing. This may be true for other serious hereditary disorders as well. Genetic counsellors should become familiar with these concepts, feel comfortable initiating discussions about death with their patients, and be able to identify and reinforce their patients' and family members' sense of symbolic immortality.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: G31.41+0.31 SMA spectra (Rivilla+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Beltran, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Fontani, F.; Codella, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we have used observations performed with the single-dish telescopes GBT and IRAM 30m, and the SMA interferometer, which provide us with wide spectral coverage and spatial information. (2 data files).

  3. Changes in cell death of peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia upon stimulation with 7 Hz, 30 mT pulsed electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Ćwiklińska, Magdalena; Balwierz, Walentyna; Chorobik, Paulina; Nowak, Bernadeta; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Ziomber, Agata; Malina-Novak, Kinga; Zaraska, Wiesław; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-03-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) influenced the viability of proliferating in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Crohn's disease patients as well as acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients by induction of cell death, but did not cause any vital changes in cells from healthy donors. Experiments with lymphoid U937 and monocytic MonoMac6 cell lines have shown a protective effect of PEMF on the death process in cells treated with death inducers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of PEMF on native proliferating leukocytes originating from newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. The effects of exposure to PEMF were studied in PBMCs from 20 children with ALL. PBMCs were stimulated with three doses of PEMF (7 Hz, 30 mT) for 4 h each with 24 h intervals. After the last stimulation, the cells were double stained with annexin V and propidium iodide dye to estimate viability by flow cytometric analysis. The results indicated an increase of annexin V positive as well as double stained annexin V and propidium iodide positive cells after exposure to threefold PEMF stimulation. A low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field induces cell death in native proliferating cells isolated from ALL patients. The increased vulnerability of proliferating PBMCs to PEMF-induced interactions may be potentially applied in the therapy of ALL. The analysis of expression of apoptosis-related genes revealed changes in mRNA of some genes engaged in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway belonging to the Bcl-2 family and the pathway with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) abundance upon PEMF stimulation of PBMCs.

  4. Investigation of rat bone fracture healing using pulsed 1.5 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2) burst ultrasound--axial distance dependency.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; de Ana, F Javier; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of LIPUS on fracture healing when fractures were exposed to ultrasound at three axial distances: z=0 mm, 60 mm, and 130 mm. We applied LIPUS to rat fracture at these three axial distances mimicking the exposure condition of human fractures at different depths under the soft tissue. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). We asked whether different positions of the fracture within the ultrasound field cause inconsistent biological effect during the healing process. Closed femoral fractured Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, near-field (0mm), mid-near field (60 mm) or far-field (130 mm) groups. Daily LIPUS treatment (plane, but apodized source, see details in the text; 2.2 cm in diameter; 1.5 MHz sine waves repeating at 1 kHz PRF; spatial average temporal average intensity, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was given to fracture site at the three axial distances. Weekly radiographs and endpoint microCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical tests were performed. The results showed that the 130 mm group had the highest tissue mineral density; and significantly higher mechanical properties than control at week 4. The 60 mm and 0 mm groups had significantly higher (i.e. p<0.05) woven bone percentage than control group in radiological, microCT and histomorphometry measurements. In general, LIPUS at far field augmented callus mineralization and mechanical properties; while near field and mid-near field enhanced woven bone formation. Our results indicated the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of the ultrasound beam. Therefore, the depth of fracture under the soft tissue affects the biological effect of LIPUS. Clinicians have to be aware of the fracture depth when LIPUS is applied transcutaneously.

  5. Use of a microgravity organ culture dish system to demonstrate the signal dampening effects of modeled microgravity during T cell development.

    PubMed

    Woods, Chris C; Banks, Krista E; Lebsack, Ty W; White, Todd C; Anderson, Grant A; Maccallum, Taber; Gruener, Raphael; DeLuca, Dominick

    2005-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that exposure of fetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) to modeled microgravity (MMG) using a clinostat with a microgravity organ culture dish system (MOCDS) blocks T cell development in a manner independent of steroid stress hormones present in vivo. In this study, we describe the development of the MOCDS system, as well as its use in attempting to understand the mechanism by which T cell development is inhibited in MMG. We show that after MMG exposure FTOC exhibited a significant reduction in CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) cell production, but those DP cells which remained expressed higher levels of the T cell receptor (TCR) associated molecule, CD3. Interestingly, CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) cells expressed lower levels of CD3 on their surface. DN, as well as immature single positive (ISP) cells, also expressed reduced levels of the IL-7 receptor alpha chain (CD127). These changes in CD3 and CD127 expression were concomitantly associated with an increased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. We were also able to show that addition of an exogenous signal (anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody) to these cultures effectively mitigated the MMG-induced effects, suggesting that MMG-exposure causes a signal dampening effect on developing thymocytes.

  6. The IRAM-30 m line survey of the Horsehead PDR. III. High abundance of complex (iso-)nitrile molecules in UV-illuminated gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, P.; Pety, J.; Guzmán, V.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Roueff, E.; Faure, A.

    2013-09-01

    obtained with the IRAM-30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Comparison of separations of fatty acids from fish products using a 30-m Supelcowax-10 and a 100-m SP-2560 column.

    PubMed

    Santercole, Viviana; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Kramer, John K G

    2012-03-01

    Commercial fish oils and foods containing fish may contain trans and/or isomerized fatty acids (FA) produced during processing or as part of prepared foods. The current American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official method for marine oils (method Ce 1i-07) is based on separation by use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) columns, for example Supelcowax-10 or equivalent, which do not resolve most unsaturated FA geometric isomers. Highly polar 100-m cyanopropyl siloxane (CPS) columns, for example SP-2560 and CP Sil 88 are recommended for separation of geometric FA isomers. Complementary separations were achieved by use of two different elution temperature programs with the same CPS column. This study is the first direct comparison of the separations achieved by use of 30-m Supelcowax-10 and 100-m SP-2560 columns for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) prepared from the same fish oil and fish muscle sample. To simplify the identification of the FA in these fish samples, FA were fractionated on the basis of the number and type of double bonds by silver-ion solid-phase extraction (Ag⁺-SPE) before GC analysis. The results showed that a combination of the three GC separations was necessary to resolve and identify most of the unsaturated FA, FA isomers, and other components of fish products, for example phytanic and phytenic acids. Equivalent chain length (ECL) values of most FAME in fish were calculated from the separations achieved by use of both GC columns; the values obtained were shown to be consistent with previously reported values for the Supelcowax-10 column. ECL values were also calculated for the FA separated on the SP-2560 column. The calculated ECL values were equally valid under isothermal and temperature-programmed elution GC conditions, and were valuable for confirmation of the identity of several unsaturated FAME in the fish samples. When analyzing commercially prepared fish foods, deodorized marine oils, or foods fortified with marine oils it is strongly

  8. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  9. Dense-array concentrator photovoltaic system using non-imaging dish concentrator and crossed compound parabolic concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Yew, Tiong-Keat; Wong, Chee-Woon; Tan, Ming-Hui; Tan, Woei-Chong; Lai, An-Chow; Lim, Boon-Han; Lau, Sing-Liong; Rahman, Faidz Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Solar concentrating device plays an important role by making use of optical technology in the design, which can be either reflector or lens to deliver high flux of sunlight onto the Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) module receiver ranging from hundreds to thousand suns. To be more competitive compared with fossil fuel, the current CPV systems using Fresnel lens and Parabolic dish as solar concentrator that are widely deployed in United States, Australia and Europe are facing great challenge to produce uniformly focused sunlight on the solar cells as to reduce the cost of electrical power generation. The concept of non-imaging optics is not new, but it has not fully explored by the researchers over the world especially in solving the problem of high concentration solar energy, which application is only limited to be a secondary focusing device or low concentration device using Compound Parabolic Concentrator. With the current advancement in the computer processing power, we has successfully invented the non-imaging dish concentrator (NIDC) using numerical simulation method to replace the current parabolic dish as primary focusing device with high solar concentration ratio (more than 400 suns) and large collective area (from 25 to 125 m2). In this paper, we disclose our research and development on dense array CPV system based on non-imaging optics. The geometry of the NIDC is determined using a special computational method. In addition, an array of secondary concentrators, namely crossed compound parabolic concentrators, is also proposed to further focus the concentrated sunlight by the NIDC onto active area of solar cells of the concentrator photovoltaic receiver. The invention maximizes the absorption of concentrated sunlight for the electric power generation system.

  10. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Minowa, M.; Inoue, Y. E-mail: horiemon@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: minowa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-09-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼ 6× 10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ} = 3.1 ± 1.2 eV.

  11. Materials compatibility in Dish-Stirling solar generators using Cu-Si-Mg eutectic for latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruizenga, A. M.; Withey, E. A.; Andraka, C. E.; Gibbs, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Dish-Stirling systems are a strong candidate to meet cost production goals for solar thermal power production. Thermal energy storage improves the capacity factor of thermal power systems; copper-silicon-magnesium eutectic alloys have been investigated as potential latent heat storage materials. This work examines the ability of commercially available plasma spray coatings to serve as protective barriers with these alloys, while highlighting mechanistic insights into materials for latent heat storage systems. Computed tomography was leveraged as a rapid screening tool to assess the presence of localized attack in tested coatings.

  12. On 10 to 30 m-scale fracture networks in Gale Crater: Contraction of fine-grained sediments due to drying or of frozen sediments due to cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, Ronald; Hallet, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The area in Gale Crater north of the Curiosity landing site has been identified as an alluvial fan [1] and features diverse geological units [2], some with abundant contraction cracks that delineate polygons on the order of 10-30 meters across. These polygons are much larger than the < 1m flagstones seen in Yellowknife by Curiosity [3] and are more suggestive of polygonal patterned ground seen at higher latitudes on Mars [4] and Earth; however, current conditions indicate that ground ice is not stable in Gale Crater [4]. Nevertheless, past conditions, e.g. obliquity changes, may have allowed permafrost to develop and ground ice to form. The domains between the larger polygons are several meters wide, which is consistent with cyclic ratcheting of ice-cemented permafrost (thermal contraction with fractures opening, debris infilling the fractures, and the fractures not closing fully when the ground warms and expands). On the other hand, the large-scale crack networks often seem to be associated with certain lithologic units, including the thinly-bedded, lightly-colored mudstones exposed at Yellowknife. This suggests that the contraction cracks defining these 10 to 30-m polygons, as well as those defining the < 1m flagstones, formed in moist fine-grained sediments that contracted upon desiccation. If the fractures were due to contraction of ice-cemented permafrost, they would be insensitive to the type of sediments they formed in because the mechanical properties would be dominated by ice. The interpretation of the larger-scale crack network is limited to satellite images since Curiosity did not visit this area, and to evidence about surface materials elsewhere in the vicinity of the rover. This evidence points to the former presence of flowing water in Gale Crater and existence of shallow lakes of relatively low salinity and near-neutral pH at Yellowknife [5]. The large amount of contraction in Yellowknife deposits is consistent with a desiccation origin in these

  13. A food photograph series for identifying portion sizes of culturally specific dishes in rural areas with high incidence of oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Martani; Steyn, Nelia; Burger, Hester-Mari; Charlton, Karen; Senekal, Marjanne

    2013-08-06

    Rural areas of the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa have a high incidence of squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OC) and exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin has been associated with increased OC risk. However, to assess exposure to fumonisin in Xhosas--having maize as a staple food--it is necessary to determine the amount of maize consumed per day. A maize-specific food frequency questionnaire (M-FFQ) has recently been developed. This study developed a food photograph (FP) series to improve portion size estimation of maize dishes. Two sets of photographs were developed to be used alongside the validated M-FFQ. The photographs were designed to assist quantification of intakes (portion size photographs) and to facilitate estimation of maize amounts in various combined dishes (ratio photographs) using data from 24 h recalls (n = 159), dishing-up sessions (n = 35), focus group discussions (FGD) (n = 56) and published literature. Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the EC Province, known to have a high incidence of OC, were randomly selected. Women between the ages of 18-55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate. The FP series comprised three portion size photographs (S, M, L) of 21 maize dishes and three ratio photographs of nine combined maize-based dishes. A culturally specific FP series was designed to improve portion size estimation when reporting dietary intake using a newly developed M-FFQ.

  14. A Food Photograph Series for Identifying Portion Sizes of Culturally Specific Dishes in Rural Areas with High Incidence of Oesophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Martani; Steyn, Nelia; Burger, Hester-Mari; Charlton, Karen; Senekal, Marjanne

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the Eastern Cape (EC) Province, South Africa have a high incidence of squamous cell oesophageal cancer (OC) and exposure to mycotoxin fumonisin has been associated with increased OC risk. However, to assess exposure to fumonisin in Xhosas—having maize as a staple food—it is necessary to determine the amount of maize consumed per day. A maize-specific food frequency questionnaire (M-FFQ) has recently been developed. This study developed a food photograph (FP) series to improve portion size estimation of maize dishes. Two sets of photographs were developed to be used alongside the validated M-FFQ. The photographs were designed to assist quantification of intakes (portion size photographs) and to facilitate estimation of maize amounts in various combined dishes (ratio photographs) using data from 24 h recalls (n = 159), dishing-up sessions (n = 35), focus group discussions (FGD) (n = 56) and published literature. Five villages in two rural isiXhosa-speaking areas of the EC Province, known to have a high incidence of OC, were randomly selected. Women between the ages of 18–55 years were recruited by snowball sampling and invited to participate. The FP series comprised three portion size photographs (S, M, L) of 21 maize dishes and three ratio photographs of nine combined maize-based dishes. A culturally specific FP series was designed to improve portion size estimation when reporting dietary intake using a newly developed M-FFQ. PMID:23925043

  15. The ePetri dish, an on-chip cell imaging platform based on subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy (SPSM).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoan; Lee, Seung Ah; Antebi, Yaron; Elowitz, Michael B; Yang, Changhuei

    2011-10-11

    We report a chip-scale lensless wide-field-of-view microscopy imaging technique, subpixel perspective sweeping microscopy, which can render microscopy images of growing or confluent cell cultures autonomously. We demonstrate that this technology can be used to build smart Petri dish platforms, termed ePetri, for cell culture experiments. This technique leverages the recent broad and cheap availability of high performance image sensor chips to provide a low-cost and automated microscopy solution. Unlike the two major classes of lensless microscopy methods, optofluidic microscopy and digital in-line holography microscopy, this new approach is fully capable of working with cell cultures or any samples in which cells may be contiguously connected. With our prototype, we demonstrate the ability to image samples of area 6 mm × 4 mm at 660-nm resolution. As a further demonstration, we showed that the method can be applied to image color stained cell culture sample and to image and track cell culture growth directly within an incubator. Finally, we showed that this method can track embryonic stem cell differentiations over the entire sensor surface. Smart Petri dish based on this technology can significantly streamline and improve cell culture experiments by cutting down on human labor and contamination risks.

  16. A novel recovery system for cultured cells using plasma-treated polystyrene dishes grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide).

    PubMed

    Okano, T; Yamada, N; Sakai, H; Sakurai, Y

    1993-10-01

    Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PIPAAm) demonstrated a fully expanded chain conformation below 32 degrees C and a collapsed, compact conformation at high temperatures. This unique temperature responsive polymer was grafted onto surfaces of commercial polystyrene dishes and used as temperature switches for creating hydrophilic surfaces below 32 degrees C and hydrophobic surfaces above 32 degrees C. Cell attachment and the growth of bovine endothelial cells and rat hepatocytes on PIPAAm-grafted surfaces at 37 degrees C demonstrated similar behavior to the commercialized culture dishes. Both cell types were observed to detach from the PIPAAm-grafted surface simply by reducing the temperature below the polymer transition temperature (collapse). Cells recovered by this method maintained substrate adhesivity, growth, and secretion activities nearly identical to those found in primary cultured cells in contrast to the compromised function found in cultured cells damaged by trypsinization. These results provide strong evidence that PIPAAm-grafted surfaces, as thermal switches are very effective for reversing cell attachment and detachment without cell damage. Properties of cell culture surfaces can be readily transformed by this technique reversibly into hydrophilic and hydrophobic coatings of PIPAAm-grafted polymers.

  17. Role of the disease in the psychological impact of pre-symptomatic testing for SCA2 and FAP ATTRV30M: Experience with the disease, kinship and gender of the transmitting parent.

    PubMed

    Paneque, Milena; Lemos, Carolina; Sousa, Alda; Velázquez, Luis; Fleming, Manuela; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    To identify possible factors affecting the psychological impact of pre-symptomatic testing for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP ATTRV30M), we studied (1) the effect of previous experience with the disease in the family, (2) kinship with the closest affected relative and (3) gender of affected parent, when adapting to test results; as well as (4) differences in the course of psychological wellbeing in 63 subjects ( 28 at-risk for FAP ATTRV30M, and 35 at risk for SCA2), who pursued predictive testing for these diseases, in Cuba and in Portugal. Our research shows that individuals with little or no experience with the disease in their family exhibited more anxiety; at-risk subjects for SCA2 or FAP ATTRV30M who had a first degree relative with the disease showed lower levels of anxiety and depression during pre-symptomatic testing. Also those with an affected mother had lower levels of depression, either immediately, or one year after receipt of test results. Adaptation to pre-symptomatic testing results differed for subjects at-risk for the two different conditions. Unlike the FAP ATTRV30M families, carriers for SCA2 reported pathological levels of depression immediately after-testing (3 weeks), although those levels had returned to normal levels at 6 months. Subjects at-risk for FAP ATTRV30M tended to have less anxiety than those tested for SCA2, at the one-year follow-up. Overall, depression levels improved over time, while anxiety remained more constant. A longer awareness of the disease in the family, closer kinship, and a transmitting mother all lessened the impact of pre-symptomatic testing, as expressed by the post-test levels of anxiety and depression.

  18. Association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" (Staple food, main dish, and side dish) and intake of nutrients and food groups among Japanese young adults aged 18-24 years: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kakutani, Yuya; Kamiya, Saori; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai" are staple food, main dish, and side dish, respectively. The recommended meal in Japan is a combination of "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai"; however, it remains unclear whether there is an association between the frequency of these meals and intake of nutrients and food groups. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" and intake of nutrients and food groups among 664 Japanese young adults aged 18-24 y. The dietary habits of the subjects during the preceding month were assessed using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" was self-reported according to four categories: "less than 1 d or 1 d/wk," "2 or 3 d/wk," "4 or 5 d/wk," and "every day." In both women and men, there was an association between the higher frequency of these meals and higher intake of the following food groups: pulses, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fish and shellfish, and eggs. Moreover, there was an association with higher intake of protein, polyunsaturated fat, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fat, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, and lower intake of carbohydrate in both women and men. Our findings support the hypothesis that the meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" may be associated with intake of many food groups and nutrients among Japanese young adults.

  19. Clinical Trials in a Dish: The Potential of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Develop Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Haston, Kelly M.; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a leading cause of death. No disease-modifying therapies are available, and preclinical animal model data have routinely failed to translate into success for therapeutics. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) biology holds great promise for human in vitro disease modeling because these cells can give rise to any cell in the human brain and display phenotypes specific to neurodegenerative diseases previously identified in postmortem and clinical samples. Here, we explore the potential and caveats of iPSC technology as a platform for drug development and screening, and the future potential to use large cohorts of disease-bearing iPSCs to perform clinical trials in a dish. PMID:26514199

  20. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  1. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  2. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  3. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array Dish. II. Characterization of Spectral Structure with Electromagnetic Simulations and Its Science Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Bradley, Richard; Deboer, David; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Parsons, Aaron; Aguirre, James; Ali, Zaki S.; Bowman, Judd; Cheng, Carina; Neben, Abraham R.; Patra, Nipanjana; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Venter, Mariet; de Lera Acedo, Eloy; Dillon, Joshua S.; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia; Kohn, Saul; Schaffner, Patrick; Shelton, John; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Taylor, H. A.; Taylor, Rusty; Tegmark, Max; Wirt, Butch

    2016-11-01

    We use time-domain electromagnetic simulations to determine the spectral characteristics of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) antenna. These simulations are part of a multi-faceted campaign to determine the effectiveness of the dish’s design for obtaining a detection of redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations show the existence of reflections between HERA’s suspended feed and its parabolic dish reflector that fall below -40 dB at 150 ns and, for reasonable impedance matches, have a negligible impact on HERA’s ability to constrain EoR parameters. It follows that despite the reflections they introduce, dishes are effective for increasing the sensitivity of EoR experiments at a relatively low cost. We find that electromagnetic resonances in the HERA feed’s cylindrical skirt, which is intended to reduce cross coupling and beam ellipticity, introduces significant power at large delays (-40 dB at 200 ns), which can lead to some loss of measurable Fourier modes and a modest reduction in sensitivity. Even in the presence of this structure, we find that the spectral response of the antenna is sufficiently smooth for delay filtering to contain foreground emission at line-of-sight wave numbers below k ∥ ≲ 0.2 h Mpc-1, in the region where the current PAPER experiment operates. Incorporating these results into a Fisher Matrix analysis, we find that the spectral structure observed in our simulations has only a small effect on the tight constraints HERA can achieve on parameters associated with the astrophysics of reionization.

  4. Water Content in the SW USA Mantle Lithosphere: FTIR Analysis of Dish Hill and Kilbourne Hole Pyroxenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibler, Robert; Peslier, Anne H.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Brandon, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Kilbourne Hole (NM, USA) and Dish Hill (CA, USA) mantle xenoliths sample continental mantle in two different tectonic settings. Kilbourne Hole (KH) is located in the Rio Grande rift. Dish Hill (DH) is located in the southern Mojave province, an area potentially affected by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. FTIR analyses were obtained on well characterized pyroxenite, dunite and wehrlite xenoliths, thought to represent crystallized melts at mantle depths. PUM normalized REE patterns of the KH bulk-rocks are slightly LREE enriched and consistent with those of liquids generated by < 5% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Clinopyroxenes contain from 272 to 313 ppm weight H2O similar to the lower limit of KH peridotite clinopyroxenes (250-530 ppm H2O). This is unexpected as crystallized melts like pyroxenites should concentrate water more than residual mantle-like peridotites, given that H is incompatible. PUM normalized bulk REE of the DH pyroxenites are characterized by flat to LREE depleted REE profiles consistent with > 6% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Pyroxenite pyroxenes have no detectable water but one DH wehrlite, which bulk-rock is LREE enriched, has 4 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene and <1ppm in clinopyroxene. The DH pyroxenites may thus come from a dry mantle source, potentially unaffected by the subduction of the Farallon plate. These water-poor melts either originated from shallow oceanic lithosphere overlaying the Farallon slab or from continental mantle formed > 2 Ga. The Farallon subduction appears to have enriched in water the southwestern United States lithospheric mantle further east than DH, beneath the Colorado plateau.

  5. Water content in the SW USA mantle lithosphere: FTIR analysis of Dish Hill and Kilbourne Hole pyroxenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibler, R.; Peslier, A. H.; Schaffer, L. A.; Brandon, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kilbourne Hole (NM, USA) and Dish Hill (CA, USA) mantle xenoliths sample continental mantle in two different tectonic settings. Kilbourne Hole (KH) is located in the Rio Grande rift. Dish Hill (DH) is located in the southern Mojave province, an area potentially affected by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America [1]. FTIR analyses were obtained on well characterized pyroxenite, dunite and wehrlite xenoliths, thought to represent crystallized melts at mantle depths. PUM normalized REE patterns of the KH bulk-rocks are slightly LREE enriched and consistent with those of liquids generated by < 5% melting of a spinel peridotite source [2]. Clinopyroxenes contain from 272 to 313 ppm weight H2O similar to the lower limit of KH peridotite clinopyroxenes (250-530 ppm H2O, [3]). This is unexpected as crystallized melts like pyroxenites should concentrate water more than residual mantle-like peridotites, given that H is incompatible. PUM normalized bulk REE of the DH pyroxenites are characterized by flat to LREE depleted REE profiles consistent with > 6% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Pyroxenite pyroxenes have no detectable water but one DH wehrlite, which bulk-rock is LREE enriched, has 4 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene and <1ppm in clinopyroxene. The DH pyroxenites may thus come from a dry mantle source, potentially unaffected by the subduction of the Farallon plate. These water-poor melts either originated from shallow oceanic lithosphere overlaying the Farallon slab [4] or from continental mantle formed > 2 Ga [5]. The Farallon subduction appears to have enriched in water the southwestern United States lithospheric mantle further east than DH, beneath the Colorado plateau [6]. [1] Atwater, 1970 Tectonophysics 31, 145-165. [2] Shaw, 2000 CM 38, 1041-1064. [3] Schaffer et al, 2013 AGU Fall Meeting. [4] Luffi et al, 2009 JGR 114, 1-36. [5] Armytage et al, 2013 GCA 137, 113-133. [6] Li et al, 2008 JGR 113, 1-22.

  6. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  7. Hand-Held and Integrated Single-Cell Pipettes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Successful single-cell isolation is a primary step for subsequent chemical and biological analyses of single cells. Conventional single-cell isolation methods often encounter operational complexity, limited efficiency, deterioration of cell viability, incompetence in the isolation of a single-cell into nanoliter liquid, and/or inability to select single adherent cells with specific phenotypes. Here, we develop a hand-held single-cell pipet (hSCP) that is rapid, operationally simple, highly efficient, and inexpensive for unbiased isolation of single viable suspended cells directly from submicroliter cell suspensions into nanoliter droplets without the assistance of any additional equipment. An integrated SCP (iSCP) has also been developed for selective isolation of single suspended and adherent cells according to the fluorescence imaging and morphological features. The isolated single cells can be conveniently transferred into standard 96-/384-well plates, Petri dishes, or vials for cloning, PCR, and other single-cell biochemical assays. PMID:25036187

  8. Association between Motives for Dish Choices during Home Meal Preparation and Weight Status in the NutriNet-Santé Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pauline; Fassier, Philippine; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Although home cooking has been associated with a lower body mass index in a few studies, no data exists on the motives behind food dish choices during home meal preparation and on their association with overweight. This study aimed to evaluate this association in 50,003 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Dimensions underlying the importance of 27 criteria possibly influencing dish choices were determined using an exploratory factor analysis. The association between dish choice motives and overweight (including obesity) was estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Five dimensions of dishes choice motives emerged: healthy diet (e.g., “nutritional balance of the dish”), constraints (e.g., “my cooking skills”), pleasure (e.g., “originality of the dish”), specific diets (e.g., “my health status”), and organization (e.g., “what I planned to eat”). A negative association was observed between the healthy diet factor and being overweight (OR = 0.65 (95% CI (confidence interval): 0.62–0.67)), whereas a positive association appeared for factors regarding pleasure (OR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10–1.19)) and specific diets (OR = 1.19 (95% CI: 1.17–1.22)). No significant associations were observed for constraints and organization. The significant associations between dish choice motives and overweight suggested the interest of focusing on these motives in order to promote healthier food choices during home cooking. PMID:27399764

  9. Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Songgang; Galbraith, Ross

    2013-01-23

    This final report summarizes the final results of the Phase II Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation project being performed by Infinia Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FC36-08GO18157 during the project period of September 1, 2009 - August 30, 2012. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the practicality of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) modules, using a suitable thermal salt phase-change material (PCM) as its medium, with a dish/Stirling engine; enabling the system to operate during cloud transients and to provide dispatchable power for 4 to 6 hours after sunset. A laboratory prototype designed to provide 3 kW-h of net electrical output was constructed and tested at Infinia's Ogden Headquarters. In the course of the testing, it was determined that the system's heat pipe network - used to transfer incoming heat from the solar receiver to both the Stirling generator heater head and to the phase change salt - did not perform to expectations. The heat pipes had limited capacity to deliver sufficient heat energy to the generator and salt mass while in a charging mode, which was highly dependent on the orientation of the device (vertical versus horizontal). In addition, the TES system was only able to extract about 30 to 40% of the expected amount of energy from the phase change salt once it was fully molten. However, the use of heat pipes to transfer heat energy to and from a thermal energy storage medium is a key technical innovation, and the project team feels that the limitations of the current device could be greatly improved with further development. A detailed study of manufacturing costs using the prototype TES module as a basis indicates that meeting DOE LCOE goals with this hardware requires significant efforts. Improvement can be made by implementing aggressive cost-down initiatives in design and materials, improving system

  10. A Dishful of a Troubled Mind: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Psychiatric Research

    PubMed Central

    Kálmán, Sára; Hathy, Edit; Réthelyi, János M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and direct reprogramming represent powerful methods for modeling the development of neurons in vitro. Moreover, this approach is also a means for comparing various cellular phenotypes between cell lines originating from healthy and diseased individuals or isogenic cell lines engineered to differ at only one or a few genomic loci. Despite methodological constraints and initial skepticism regarding this approach, the field is expanding at a fast pace. The improvements include the development of new differentiation protocols resulting in selected neuronal populations (e.g., dopaminergic, GABAergic, hippocampal, and cortical), the widespread use of genome editing methods, and single-cell techniques. A major challenge awaiting in vitro disease modeling is the integration of clinical data in the models, by selection of well characterized clinical populations. Ideally, these models will also demonstrate how different diagnostic categories share overlapping molecular disease mechanisms, but also have unique characteristics. In this review we evaluate studies with regard to the described developments, to demonstrate how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells and direct reprogramming can contribute to psychiatry. PMID:26839567

  11. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Methods: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. Results: after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). Conclusions: combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer. PMID:27015418

  12. Feasibility study on the use of polyallyldiglycol-carbonate cell dishes in TUNEL assay for alpha particle radiobiological experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. F.; Yum, E. H. W.; Wan, C. K.; Fong, W. F.; Yu, K. N.

    2007-08-01

    In the present work, we have studied the feasibility of a method based on polyallyldiglycol-carbonate (PADC) films to investigate the effects of alpha particles on HeLa cervix cancer cells. Thin PADC films with thickness of about 20 μm were prepared from commercially available CR-39 films by chemical etching to fabricate custom-made petri dishes for cell culture, which could accurately record alpha particle hit positions. A special method involving "base tracks" for aligning the images of cell nuclei and alpha particle hits has been proposed, so that alpha particle transversals of cell nuclei can be visually counted. Radiobiological experiments were carried out to induce DNA damages, with the TdT-mediated d UTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence method employed to detect DNA strand breaks. The staining results were investigated by flow cytometer. The preliminary results showed that more strand breaks occurred in cells hit by alpha particles with lower energies. Moreover, large TUNEL positive signals were obtained even with small percentages of cells irradiated and TUNEL signals were also obtained from non-targeted cells. These provided evidence for the bystander effect.

  13. Effect of lime juice on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica inactivation during the preparation of the raw fish dish ceviche.

    PubMed

    Mathurand, Prateek; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    Ceviche is a raw fish dish common in Peru and other Latin American counties. The most characteristic feature of ceviche is the use of lime juice for marinating or "cooking" the raw fish. Confirmed cases of cholera in Peru, New Jersey, and Florida have been associated with ceviche. Although the effect of organic acids on pathogenic bacteria has been well characterized, few data exist on the effect of these acids in seafood systems. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of lime juice marination on pathogens likely to be present in ceviche. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillet pieces were inoculated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica (>7 log CFU/g) and incubated at 25 and 4°C for 30 or 120 min in the presence of fresh lime juice at concentrations typical for the preparation of ceviche. Similar levels of cells were also inoculated into fresh lime juice without tilapia. Surviving cells were enumerated on selective (xylose lysine Tergitol 4 and thiosulfate-bile-citrate-sucrose) and nonselective (tryptic soy agar) media. V. parahaemolyticus levels were reduced to below detection limits (∼5-log reduction) under all conditions studied. Salmonella strains on tilapia were much more resistant to inactivation and were only slightly reduced (∼1- to 2-log reduction). Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus inoculated directly into lime juice without tilapia were all reduced to below detection limits (∼5-log reduction). A typical ceviche recipe reduces V. parahaemolyticus risk significantly but is less effective for control of S. enterica.

  14. Sensitive voltammetric determination of lead released from ceramic dishes by using of bismuth nanostructures anchored on biochar.

    PubMed

    Agustini, Deonir; Mangrich, Antonio Salvio; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto

    2015-09-01

    A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method was developed for determination of nanomolar levels of Pb(II) based on the voltammetric stripping response at a carbon paste electrode modified with biochar (a special charcoal) and bismuth nanostructures (nBi-BchCPE). The proposed methodology was based on spontaneous interactions between the highly functionalized biochar surface and Pb(II) ions followed by reduction of these ions into bismuth nanodots which promote an improvement on the stripping anodic current. The experimental procedure could be summarized in three steps: including an open circuit pre-concentration, reduction of accumulated lead ions at the electrode surface and stripping step under differential pulse voltammetric conditions (DPAdSV). SEM images revealed dimensions of bismuth nanodots ranging from 20 nm to 70 nm. The effects of main parameters related to biochar, bismuth and operational parameters were examined in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed sensor has exhibited linear range from 5.0 to 1000 nmol L(-1) and detection limit of 1.41 nmol L(-1) for Pb(II). The optimized method was successfully applied for determination of Pb(II) released from overglaze-decorated ceramic dishes. Results obtained were compared with those given by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and they are in agreement at 99% of confidence level.

  15. Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2013-03-01

    Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer.

  16. The dish-Rankine SCSTPE program (Engineering Experiment no. 1). [systems engineering and economic analysis for a small community solar thermal electric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.; Grigsby, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities planned for phase 2 Of the Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (PFDR) program are summarized with emphasis on a dish-Rankine point focusing distributed receiver solar thermal electric system. Major design efforts include: (1) development of an advanced concept indirect-heated receiver;(2) development of hardware and software for a totally unmanned power plant control system; (3) implementation of a hybrid digital simulator which will validate plant operation prior to field testing; and (4) the acquisition of an efficient organic Rankine cycle power conversion unit. Preliminary performance analyses indicate that a mass-produced dish-Rankine PFDR system is potentially capable of producing electricity at a levelized busbar energy cost of 60 to 70 mills per KWh and with a capital cost of about $1300 per KW.

  17. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor.

  18. Prevalence and levels of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin in rice dishes randomly collected from restaurants and comparison with the levels measured in a recent foodborne outbreak.

    PubMed

    Delbrassinne, Laurence; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah; Mahillon, Jacques; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-09-01

    Whereas the prevalence of Bacillus cereus emetic strains in the environment has been shown to be very low, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of its toxin, cereulide, in food. Yet, the rice leftovers of a family outbreak which occurred after the consumption of dishes taken away from an Asian restaurant revealed significant amounts of cereulide, reaching up to 13,200 ng/g of food. The occurrence of cereulide in rice dishes collected from various restaurants was therefore evaluated using the liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method, which allows for the direct quantification of the toxin in food. The cereulide prevalence was found to be 7.4% when samples were analyzed at the day of sampling, but reached 12.9% when exposed to temperature abuse conditions (25°C). The cereulide concentrations observed in cooked rice dishes were low (approximately 4 ng/g of food). However, since little is known yet about the potential chronic toxicity of cereulide, one needs to be very careful and vigilant.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (BURKTH00070016) on Town Highway 7, crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Severance, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BURKTH00070016 on Town Highway 7 crossing Dish Mill Brook, Burke, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 6.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except on the left bank upstream which is brushland. In the study area, Dish Mill Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 40 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 94.1 mm (0.309 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 7 crossing of Dish Mill Brook is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 24, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-to-roadway is 35 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left and right

  20. Dishing Out the Assist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Running a high-quality Web site is a tall order for any college athletic department. That is why specialized Web-hosting companies have stepped up to lend a hand. Until this past January, Kristene Kelly managed Johnson C. Smith University's athletic department Web site the old-fashioned way--relying largely on the assistance of the school's…

  1. An Accurate and Efficient Algorithm for Detection of Radio Bursts with an Unknown Dispersion Measure, for Single-dish Telescopes and Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackay, Barak; Ofek, Eran O.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical radio signals are subjected to phase dispersion while traveling through the interstellar medium. To optimally detect a short-duration signal within a frequency band, we have to precisely compensate for the unknown pulse dispersion, which is a computationally demanding task. We present the “fast dispersion measure transform” algorithm for optimal detection of such signals. Our algorithm has a low theoretical complexity of 2{N}f{N}t+{N}t{N}{{Δ }}{{log}}2({N}f), where Nf, Nt, and NΔ are the numbers of frequency bins, time bins, and dispersion measure bins, respectively. Unlike previously suggested fast algorithms, our algorithm conserves the sensitivity of brute-force dedispersion. Our tests indicate that this algorithm, running on a standard desktop computer and implemented in a high-level programming language, is already faster than the state-of-the-art dedispersion codes running on graphical processing units (GPUs). We also present a variant of the algorithm that can be efficiently implemented on GPUs. The latter algorithm’s computation and data-transport requirements are similar to those of a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform, indicating that incoherent dedispersion can now be considered a nonissue while planning future surveys. We further present a fast algorithm for sensitive detection of pulses shorter than the dispersive smearing limits of incoherent dedispersion. In typical cases, this algorithm is orders of magnitude faster than enumerating dispersion measures and coherently dedispersing by convolution. We analyze the computational complexity of pulsed signal searches by radio interferometers. We conclude that, using our suggested algorithms, maximally sensitive blind searches for dispersed pulses are feasible using existing facilities. We provide an implementation of these algorithms in Python and MATLAB.

  2. Automated reduction of sub-millimetre single-dish heterodyne data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope using ORAC-DR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Currie, Malcolm J.; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Cavanagh, Brad; Berry, David S.; Leech, Jamie; Rizzi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    With the advent of modern multidetector heterodyne instruments that can result in observations generating thousands of spectra per minute it is no longer feasible to reduce these data as individual spectra. We describe the automated data reduction procedure used to generate baselined data cubes from heterodyne data obtained at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The system can automatically detect baseline regions in spectra and automatically determine regridding parameters, all without input from a user. Additionally, it can detect and remove spectra suffering from transient interference effects or anomalous baselines. The pipeline is written as a set of recipes using the ORAC-DR pipeline environment with the algorithmic code using Starlink software packages and infrastructure. The algorithms presented here can be applied to other heterodyne array instruments and have been applied to data from historical JCMT heterodyne instrumentation.

  3. Single-Dish Performance of KVN 21 m Radio Telescopes: Simultaneous Observations at 22 and 43 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Oh, Chung Sik; Han, Seog-Tae; Je, Do-Heung; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wi, Seog-Oh; Cho, Se-Hyung; Sohn, Bong Won; Kim, Jaeheon; Lee, Jeewon; Oh, Se-Jin; Song, Min-Gyu; Kang, Jiman; Chung, Moon-Hee; Lee, Jeong Ae; Oh, Junghwan; Bae, Jae-Han; Yun, So-Young; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Bong Gyu; Chung, Hyunsoo; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Goo; Ryoung Kim, Hyo; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Jung, Taehyun; Park, Pulun; Kim, Min Joong; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Won-Ju

    2011-12-01

    We report simultaneous multifrequency observing performance at 22 and 43 GHz of the 21 m shaped-Cassegrain radio telescopes of the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). KVN is the first millimeter-dedicated VLBI network in Korea having a maximum baseline length of 480 km. It currently operates at 22 and 43 GHz and is planned to operate in four frequency bands: 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz. The unique quasi optics of KVN enable simultaneous multifrequency observations based on efficient beam filtering and accurate antenna-beam alignment at 22 and 43 GHz. We found that the offset of the beams is within less than 5‧‧ over all pointing directions of the antenna. The dual-polarization, cooled, high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) receivers at 22 and 43 GHz result in receiver noise temperatures less than 40 K at 21.25–23.25 GHz and 80 K at 42.11–44.11 GHz. The pointing accuracies have been measured to be 3‧‧ in azimuth and elevation for all antennas. The measured aperture efficiencies are 65%(K)/67%(Q), 62%(K)/59%(Q), and 66%(K)/60%(Q) for the three KVN antennas, KVNYS, KVNUS, and KVNTN, respectively. The main-beam efficiencies are measured to be 50%(K)/52%(Q), 48%(K)/50%(Q), and 50%(K)/47%(Q) for KVNYS, KVNUS, and KVNTN, respectively. The estimated Moon efficiencies are 77%(K)/90%(Q), 74%(K)/79%(Q), and 80%(K)/86%(Q) for KVNYS, KVNUS, and KVNTN, respectively. The elevation dependence of the aperture efficiencies is quite flat for elevations greater than 20°.

  4. The effects of packaging method (vacuum pouch vs. plastic tray) on spoilage in a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pedro; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2010-03-01

    The effects of two packaging methods on the spoilage of a cook-chill pork-based dish kept under refrigeration were studied. Raw pork cuts and pre-cooked tomato sauce were packed under vacuum "sous vide" in polyamide-polypropylene pouches (SV) or into translucent polypropylene trays under modified atmosphere (80% N(2)+20% CO(2)) and sealed with a top film (PT). Samples were cooked inside the pack at an oven temperature/time of 70 degrees C/7h, chilled at 3 degrees C and stored at 2 degrees C for up to 90days. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic-acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity and total acidity) and sensory (colour, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. Heat penetration was faster in SV (2 degrees C/min) than in PT (1 degrees C/min) (core temperature). Both packaging methods were equally effective in protecting against microbial spoilage for 90 day at 2 degrees C. Minor counts were only detected for lactic-acid bacteria and anaerobic psychrotrophs in SV. No Enterobacteriaceae growth was found. Slight differences between SV and PT in pH and total acidity were observed. SV and PT had similar effects on the sensory preservation of the dishes. A gradual loss of acceptance of the cooked pork and tomato sauce was observed. Rancid flavour in PT and warmed-over-flavour in SV were noted in the final stages of storage. According to acceptance scores, the shelf-life of both SV and PT was 56 days at 2 degrees C. Both packaging methods can be used to manufacture sous vide meat-based dishes subsequently stored under refrigeration for catering use.

  5. Osmium isotope evidence for Early to Middle Proterozoic mantle lithosphere stabilization and concomitant production of juvenile crust in Dish Hill, CA peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, Rosalind M. G.; Brandon, Alan D.; Peslier, Anne H.; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-07-01

    The 187Os/188Os compositions in peridotite samples from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) can be used to constrain the timing of melt extraction and potentially test the link between large-scale mantle melting and juvenile crust production. The SCLM has often experienced a complex history such that some lithophile elements such as REEs (rare earth elements) in these rocks typically record overprinting during metasomatism. New 187Os/188Os, major and trace element compositional data were obtained on sixteen Dish Hill peridotite xenoliths (California, USA) and are used to examine these issues. The samples show strong correlations between 187Os/188Os and indicators of melt depletion such as Lu abundance in clinopyroxene, modal abundance of clinopyroxene, bulk rock Al2O3 and the Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel. These relationships indicate that metasomatism did not compromise the 187Os/188Os systematics. The data appear to form two melt depletion trends consistent with Re depletion model ages (TRD) obtained from the two Al2O3 versus 187Os/188Os trends are 2.1 ± 0.5 Ga and 1.3 ± 0.3 Ga (±95% conf.). It has been suggested that the SCLM under Dish Hill may be fragments of oceanic lithosphere emplaced as the result of Farallon plate subduction during the Late Cretaceous (Luffi et al., 2009). However, the strong melt depletion trends, major element compositions and Re-depletion ages are not consistent with the interpretation of this suite of xenoliths having an oceanic lithospheric origin. Rather, the 2.1 Ga age coincides with Nd model ages of 2-2.3 Ga (Bennett and DePaolo, 1987; Rämö and Calzia, 1998) for the overlying Mojavia crustal province. The 1.3 Ga age is consistent with large-scale A-type magmatism in the nearby region at this time that is purported to be the result of mantle plume melting processes. Therefore, data from this study point to the SCLM under Dish Hill being formed by two ancient mantle-melting events, which could be the result of

  6. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  7. Singlet oxygen photosensitisation by the fluorescent protein Pp2FbFP L30M, a novel derivative of Pseudomonas putida flavin-binding Pp2FbFP.

    PubMed

    Torra, Joaquim; Burgos-Caminal, Andrés; Endres, Stephan; Wingen, Marcus; Drepper, Thomas; Gensch, Thomas; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi

    2015-02-01

    Flavin-binding fluorescent proteins (FbFPs) are a class of fluorescent reporters that have been increasingly used as reporters in the study of cellular structures and dynamics. Flavin's intrinsic high singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yield (ΦΔ = 0.51) provides a basis for the development of new FbFP mutants capable of photosensitising (1)O2 for mechanistic and therapeutic applications, as recently exemplified by the FbFP miniSOG. In the present work we report an investigation on the (1)O2 photoproduction by Pp2FbFP L30M, a novel derivative of Pseudomonas putida Pp2FbFP. Direct detection of (1)O2 through its phosphorescence at 1275 nm yielded the value ΦΔ = 0.09 ± 0.01, which is the highest (1)O2 quantum yield reported to date for any FP and is approximately 3-fold higher than the ΦΔ for miniSOG. Unlike miniSOG, transient absorption measurements revealed the existence of two independent triplet states each with a different ability to sensitise (1)O2.

  8. [Determination of poppy ingredients in chafing dish materials by isotopic internal standard coupled with multiple reaction monitoring and online full scan mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weixia; Sun, Zhuanlian; Yuan, Ping; Yang, Jizhou; Liu, Yafeng; Sun, Wuyong

    2014-12-01

    A confirmative method was developed for determining five poppy alkaloids including morphine, codeine, papaverine, tibane, noscapine in chafing dish ingredients by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q Trap MS). The sample was extracted with dilute HCl solution under heating condition. The removal of lipid procedure was performed with hexane. The purification was carried out on a mixed-cation solid-phase extraction column (MCX) and ethyl acetate-methanol containing 5% aqueous ammonia was used for elution. A PAK ST column was used to separate the analytes, and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate methanol and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 3. 6) were used as mobile phases. The five alkaloids was detected in the positive mode simultaneously by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and online enhanced product ion full scan (EPI). The LODs were 0.05-0.5 µg/kg and the LOQs were 0. 2-2 µg/kg for the five poppy alkaloids. The overall recoveries of the method varied from 64. 2% to 110. 6%, and the RSD were between 4. 2% and 12. 5%. The EPI mass spectra of positive samples were searched through standard library for qualitative confirmation. The detection of real hot pot material samples showed this method can be used for the simple and accurate determination of the five poppy alkaloid residues in chafing dish.

  9. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.

  10. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products. PMID:24362433

  11. A detailed radiation heat transfer study of a dish-Stirling receiver: The impact of cavity wall radiation properties and cavity shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Jorge; Wang, Wujun; Nilsson, Martin; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    A detailed 3-D radiation analysis of a dish-Stirling cavity receiver is carried out to estimate the cavity steady-state temperatures in order to assess the receiver integrity, lifetime and efficiency performance. For this purpose, a parabolic dish was modeled with 5.2 m focal length, 8.85 m aperture diameter and 2 mrad surface error. Three generic cavity shapes (cylindrical, diamond-shaped and reverse-conical) with three different emissivities (0.2, 0.4 and 0.7) are studied. Worst-case scenario heat generations (total absorbed radiation), maximum steady-state temperatures and energy balances of the cavities are calculated to evaluate the receiver performance. The results show that reverse-conical cavities can significantly reduce cavity wall peak temperatures (by 40-120 K), improve the temperature evenness and decrease the radiation losses by 4-5%. Regarding radiation properties, low reflectivities present lower steady-state temperatures even for low/moderate direct solar fluxes. Due to the lower temperatures, lower total thermal losses are also expected.

  12. An Approach for the Long-Term 30-m Land Surface Snow-Free Albedo Retrieval from Historic Landsat Surface Reflectance and MODIS-based A Priori Anisotropy Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Feng; Schaaf, Crystal B.; He, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Land surface albedo has been recognized by the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS) as an essential climate variable crucial for accurate modeling and monitoring of the Earth's radiative budget. While global climate studies can leverage albedo datasets from MODIS, VIIRS, and other coarse-resolution sensors, many applications in heterogeneous environments can benefit from higher-resolution albedo products derived from Landsat. We previously developed a "MODIS-concurrent" approach for the 30-meter albedo estimation which relied on combining post-2000 Landsat data with MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) information. Here we present a "pre-MODIS era" approach to extend 30-m surface albedo generation in time back to the 1980s, through an a priori anisotropy Look-Up Table (LUT) built up from the high quality MCD43A BRDF estimates over representative homogenous regions. Each entry in the LUT reflects a unique combination of land cover, seasonality, terrain information, disturbance age and type, and Landsat optical spectral bands. An initial conceptual LUT was created for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States and provides BRDF shapes estimated from MODIS observations for undisturbed and disturbed surface types (including recovery trajectories of burned areas and non-fire disturbances). By accepting the assumption of a generally invariant BRDF shape for similar land surface structures as a priori information, spectral white-sky and black-sky albedos are derived through albedo-to-nadir reflectance ratios as a bridge between the Landsat and MODIS scale. A further narrow-to-broadband conversion based on radiative transfer simulations is adopted to produce broadband albedos at visible, near infrared, and shortwave regimes.We evaluate the accuracy of resultant Landsat albedo using available field measurements at forested AmeriFlux stations in the PNW region, and examine the consistency of the surface albedo generated by this approach

  13. Effects of irradiation distance on supply of reactive oxygen species to the bottom of a Petri dish filled with liquid by an atmospheric O2/He plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Kusumegi, Shota; Kudo, Akihiro; Sakanoshita, Tomohiro; Tsurumaru, Takuya; Sato, Akihiro; Uchida, Giichiro; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    The impact of irradiation distances on plasma jet-induced specific effects on the supply of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the bottom of a Petri dish filled with liquid was investigated using a KI-starch gel reagent that can be employed as a ROS indicator even in water. O3 exposure experiments without plasma irradiation were also performed to elucidate the specific effects of the plasma jet. Relative concentrations of ROS transported to the bottom were evaluated using absorbance measurements. The results indicated that ROS supply to the bottom is markedly enhanced by the plasma jet irradiation at shorter irradiation distances, whereas similar results could not be obtained for the O3 exposure. In these cases, the liquid mixing in the depth direction was also enhanced by the plasma jet irradiation only, and the supply of reactive atomic oxygen to the liquid surface was markedly increased as well.

  14. The CAESAR project: Experimental and modeling investigations of methane reforming in a CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver on a parabolic dish

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, J.F.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Skocypec, R.D.; Buck, R.

    1993-07-01

    A joint US/Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) project has successfully tested a unique solar-driven chemical reactor in the CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) experiment. The CAESAR test was a {open_quotes}proof-of-concept{close_quotes} demonstration of carbon-dioxide reforming of methane in a commercial-scale, solar, volumetric receiver/reactor on a parabolic dish concentrator. The CAESAR design; test facility and instrumentation; thermal and chemical tests; and analysis of test results are presented in detail. Numerical models for the absorber and the receiver are developed and predicted performance is compared with test data. Post test analyses to assess the structural condition of the absorber and the effectiveness of the rhodium catalyst are presented. Unresolved technical issues are identified and future development efforts are recommended.

  15. The effects of potatoes and other carbohydrate side dishes consumed with meat on food intake, glycemia and satiety response in children

    PubMed Central

    Akilen, R; Deljoomanesh, N; Hunschede, S; Smith, C E; Arshad, M U; Kubant, R; Anderson, G H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) foods on blood glucose (BG) is ranked by their glycemic index (GI). Boiled and mashed potatoes (BMPs) are ranked as high GI foods, whereas pasta and rice have moderate GI rankings. The objective of this study was to compare ad libitum consumption of common CHO dishes consumed with meat on meal-time food intake and post-meal satiety, BG, insulin and gut hormones in 11- to 13-year-old normal weight children. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted. At weekly intervals, children (experiment 1: 12 males (M), 8 females (F); experiment 2: 6M, 6 F) received in random order 1 of 5 CHO side dishes of rice, pasta, BMP, fried French fries (FFF) or baked French fries (BFF) eaten freely together with a fixed amount of lean beef (100 g). In experiment-1, food intake over 30 min and subjective appetite were measured for 120 min. In experiment-2, the same outcomes were measured along with BG, plasma insulin and gut hormones. Results: The results for boys and girls were pooled as sex was not a factor. In both experiments, children consumed 30–40% less calories at meals with BMP (P<0.0001) compared with all other treatments, which were similar. BMP increased satiety, expressed as a change in appetite per kilocalorie, more than all other treatments (P<0.0001). FFF resulted in the lowest (P<0.0001) glucose and insulin at meal end and post-meal and peptide YY (PYY) post-meal. Blood measures were similar among all other treatments. Conclusions: The physiological functions of CHO foods consumed ad libitum at meal time on food intake, appetite, BG, insulin and gut hormone responses in children is not predicted by the GI. PMID:26878318

  16. Relationship of Consumption of Meals Including Grain, Fish and Meat, and Vegetable Dishes to the Prevention of Nutrient Deficiency: The INTERMAP Toyama Study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Yoshita, Katsushi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Naruse, Yuchi; Okuda, Nagako; Okayama, Akira; Stamler, Jeremiah; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese-style diet consists of meals that include grain (shushoku), fish and meat (shusai), and vegetable dishes (fukusai). Little is known about the association of such meals (designated well-balanced meals hereafter) with nutrient intake. We therefore examined the frequency of well-balanced meals required to prevent nutrient deficiency. Participants were Japanese people, ages 40 to 59 y, from Toyama, recruited for INTERMAP, in an international population-based study. Each person provided 4 in-depth 24-h dietary recalls (149 men, 150 women). The prevalence of risk ratios of not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2015) was calculated. Well-balanced diets were assessed by the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We counted the frequencies of meals in which participants consumed 1.0 or more servings of all 3 dishes categories. We divided the frequency of consumption of well-balanced meals into the following 4 groups: <1.00 time/d, 1.00-1.49 times/d, 1.50-1.74 times/d, and ≥1.75 times/d. Compared with participants in the highest frequency group for well-balanced meals, those who consumed well-balanced meals less than once a day had a higher risk of not meeting the adequate intake for potassium and the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin A. Those who consumed well-balanced meals on average less than 1.50 times per day had a higher risk of not meeting the recommended dietary allowance for calcium and vitamin C. Our results suggest that individuals should on average consume well-balanced meals more than 1.5 times per day to prevent calcium and vitamin C deficiencies.

  17. A comparison of Stirling engines for use with a 25 kW dish-electric conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    Two designs for an advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are described. The objective of the ASCS is to generate about 25 kW of electric power to an electric utility grid at an engine/alternator target cost of $300.00/kW at the manufacturing rate of 10,000 unit/yr. Both designs contain a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), a heat transport system, solar receiver, a means to generate electric power, the necessary auxiliaries, and a control system. The major differences between the two concepts are: one uses a 25 kWe single-piston FPSE which incorporates a linear alternator to directly convert the energy to electricity on the utility grid; and in the second design, electrical power is generated indirectly using a hydraulic output to a ground based hydraulic motor coupled to a rotating alternator. Diagrams of the two designs are presented.

  18. Evolution of Mojavian mantle lithosphere influenced by Farallon plate subduction: Evidence from Hf and Nd isotopes in peridotite xenoliths from Dish Hill, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, Rosalind M. G.; Brandon, Alan D.; Andreasen, Rasmus; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2015-06-01

    A major issue in the assembly of continents is the role of subduction in building and reworking the continental mantle lithosphere. Spinel lherzolite xenoliths from Dish Hill, CA represent Mojavian sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that existed along an off-craton continental edge during late Cretaceous Farallon plate subduction. The Dish Hill locale is well situated for recording any Farallon plate influence, be it as oceanic lithosphere accretion or for its role in providing metasomatic agents to the Mojavian SCLM. The 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions of clinopyroxenes from these xenoliths are radiogenic with εHf from +12.9 to +134.4 and εNd from +2.2 to +26.1, indicative of ancient Proterozoic melt depletion. Four out of the sixteen samples lie on a 2.1 Ga reference line for melt extraction from primitive mantle for both 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd, confirming their position on the 2.1 Ga 187Os/188Os aluminachron from previous work on these peridotites (Armytage et al., 2014). A second Re-depletion age obtained from an 187Os/188Os aluminachron of 1.3 Ga is also observed in the 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd systematics. The 176Hf/177Hf-143Nd/144Nd data from Dish Hill do not provide strong evidence for the existence of a duplex of oceanic lithosphere and SCLM, or for these peridotites being sourced from modern asthenospheric mantle upwelling after lithospheric removal. However, subchondritic 176Lu/177Hf and 147Sm/144Nd ratios and trace element compositions in some of the peridotites point to the influence of metasomatic processes. In seven of the peridotites 176Hf/177Hf ratios are not complemented by similarly radiogenic 143Nd/144Nd ratios. Such decoupling, relative to the mantle array, indicates that the 176Hf/177Hf record in these peridotites is more robust to resetting by these local metasomatic processes than 143Nd/144Nd. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in these samples fall into two distinct groups based on (Ce/Yb)PM, with the less

  19. A two-dimensional model for the heat transfer on the external circuit of a Stirling engine for a dish/Stirling system

    SciTech Connect

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the {kappa}-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulent model for the incompressible fluid flow has been used to describe the heat transfer and gas dynamical processes on the external circuit of a Stirling Engine as used on a Solar Dish/Stirling System. The problem considered, in this work for a cavity-type heat receiver of the Stirling Engine, is that of the heat transfer in the body of the shell of the heat exchangers of the engine due to the thermal conductivity, the convective heat transfer between the working fluid and the walls of the engine internal gas circuit and the heat transfer due to the forced convection of the air in the cavity and in the attached air domain. The boundary conditions employed on the engines internal circuit were obtained using the developed one-dimensional second level mathematical model of the engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation on the bottom and side walls of the heat receiver have been taken into account and the temperature fields for the heat receiver and the air velocity have been obtained for the case when the heat receiver is affected by wind. The numerical results show that it is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is the largest reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the convection of the air.

  20. Single-mode fiber optics in a long-baseline interferometer.

    PubMed

    Shaklan, S B; Roddier, F

    1987-06-01

    We have investigated the potential for using single-mode fiber optics to link two or more telescopes in a large optical to near-IR astronomical interferometer. On an optical bench, we observed the effects of dispersion, temperature, and birefringence on wide-bandwidth interference fringes using up to 30 m of single-mode fiber in each arm of a Twyman-Green interferometer.

  1. A comparative study to evaluate liquid dish washing soap as an alternative to xylene and alcohol in deparaffinization and hematoxylin and eosin staining

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Tanwar, Aparna; Sharma, Anuradha; Mittal, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Our study presents a new deparaffinizing and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining method that involves the use of easily available, nontoxic and eco-friendly liquid diluted dish washing soap (DWS) by completely eliminating expensive and hazardous xylene and alcohol from deparaffinizing and rehydration prior to staining, staining and from dehydration prior to mounting. The aim was to evaluate and compare the quality of liquid DWS treated xylene and alcohol free (XAF) sections with that of the conventional H and E sections. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 paraffin embedded tissue blocks from different tissues were included. From each tissue block, one section was stained with conventional H and E (normal sections) and the other with XAF H and E (soapy sections) staining method. Slides were scored using five parameters: Nuclear, cytoplasmic, clarity, uniformity, and crispness of staining. Z-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Soapy sections scored better for cytoplasmic (90%) and crisp staining (95%) with a statistically significant difference. Whereas for uniformity of staining, normal sections (88%) scored over soapy sections (72%) (Z = 2.82, P < 0.05). For nuclear (90%) and clarity of staining (90%) total scored favored soapy sections, but the difference was not statistically significant. About 84% normal sections stained adequately for diagnosis when compared with 86% in soapy sections (Z = 0.396, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Liquid DWS is a safe and efficient alternative to xylene and alcohol in deparaffinization and routine H and E staining procedure. We are documenting this project that can be used as a model for other histology laboratories. PMID:25328332

  2. Real-Time Visualization and Quantification of Contractile Ring Proteins in Single Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Reshma; Liu, Yajun; Gerien, Kenneth S.; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell microscopy provides a powerful tool to visualize cellular and subcellular processes in wild-type and mutant cells by observing fluorescently tagged proteins. Here, we describe three simple methods to visualize fission yeast cells: gelatin slides, coverslip-bottom dishes, and tetrad fluorescence microscopy. These imaging methods and data analysis using free software make it possible to quantify protein localization, dynamics, and concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. In fission yeast, the actomyosin contractile ring is essential for cytokinesis. We use the visualization and quantification of contractile ring proteins as an example to demonstrate how to use these methods. PMID:26519302

  3. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications, vitamins or supplements you take. Write down possible causes of injury to the affected area. Write down questions to ask your doctor. Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time ... there other possible causes for my symptoms? What tests do I ...

  4. A Dish on Every Rooftop?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumm, Loren

    1984-01-01

    Examines elements of the telecommunications delivery system as a means of teaching vocational education. The author discusses costs of teleconferencing; telecommunications consortia at the state, national, and local level; access to off-campus students; satellite teleconferencing seminars; slow scan video teleconferencing networks; and two-way…

  5. Commercialization of parabolic dish systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washom, B.

    1982-01-01

    The impact of recent federal tax and regulatory legislation on the commercialization of parabolic solar reflector technology is assessed. Specific areas in need of technical or economic improvement are noted.

  6. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation of multiple probes on a single microscope slide.

    PubMed Central

    Larin, Z; Fricker, M D; Maher, E; Ishikawa-Brush, Y; Southern, E M

    1994-01-01

    We report a method to analyse multiple samples by fluorescence in situ hybridisation on a single glass microscope slide. Wells were formed in which independent hybridisation reactions could proceed by sealing a silicon rubber gasket to the slide. In the largest format tested, different probes were hybridised simultaneously by applying them directly from a 96-well microtitre dish which was inverted on a glass plate. This technique will increase the rate of analysis of multiple probes against a standard set of chromosomes and could also be used to analyse different karyotypes using a panel of probes such as single chromosome paints during a single operation. It should be useful for both chromosomal mapping projects and screening for chromosome abnormalities in clinical diagnostic laboratories. Images PMID:7937078

  8. SPICE-NIRS Microbeam: a focused vertical system for proton irradiation of a single cell for radiobiological research

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Suya, Noriyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maeda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Alisa; Shiomi, Naoko; Kodama, Kumiko; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Homma-Takeda, Shino; Isono, Mayu; Hieda, Kotaro; Uchihori, Yukio; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate the nuclei of adhesive mammalian cells with a defined number of 3.4 MeV protons. The approximately 2-μm diameter proton beam is focused with a magnetic quadrupole triplet lens and traverses the cells contained in dishes from bottom to top. All procedures for irradiation, such as cell image capturing, cell recognition and position calculation, are automated. The most distinctive characteristic of the system is its stability and high throughput; i.e. 3000 cells in a 5 mm × 5 mm area in a single dish can be routinely irradiated by the 2-μm beam within 15 min (the maximum irradiation speed is 400 cells/min). The number of protons can be set as low as one, at a precision measured by CR-39 detectors to be 99.0%. A variety of targeting modes such as fractional population targeting mode, multi-position targeting mode for nucleus irradiation and cytoplasm targeting mode are available. As an example of multi-position targeting irradiation of mammalian cells, five fluorescent spots in a cell nucleus were demonstrated using the γ-H2AX immune-staining technique. The SPICE performance modes described in this paper are in routine use. SPICE is a joint-use research facility of NIRS and its beam times are distributed for collaborative research. PMID:23287773

  9. Single cell dual adherent-suspension co-culture micro-environment for studying tumor-stromal interactions with functionally selected cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Zhang, Zhixiong; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Deol, Yadwinder; Ingram, Patrick N; McDermott, Sean P; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-08-07

    Considerable evidence suggests that cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are critical in tumor pathogenesis, but their rarity and transience has led to much controversy about their exact nature. Although CSCs can be functionally identified using dish-based tumorsphere assays, it is difficult to handle and monitor single cells in dish-based approaches; single cell-based microfluidic approaches offer better control and reliable single cell derived sphere formation. However, like normal stem cells, CSCs are heavily regulated by their microenvironment, requiring tumor-stromal interactions for tumorigenic and proliferative behaviors. To enable single cell derived tumorsphere formation within a stromal microenvironment, we present a dual adherent/suspension co-culture device, which combines a suspension environment for single-cell tumorsphere assays and an adherent environment for co-culturing stromal cells in close proximity by selectively patterning polyHEMA in indented microwells. By minimizing dead volume and improving cell capture efficiency, the presented platform allows for the use of small numbers of cells (<100 cells). As a proof of concept, we co-cultured single T47D (breast cancer) cells and primary cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) on-chip for 14 days to monitor sphere formation and growth. Compared to mono-culture, co-cultured T47D have higher tumorigenic potential (sphere formation rate) and proliferation rates (larger sphere size). Furthermore, 96-multiplexed single-cell transcriptome analyses were performed to compare the gene expression of co-cultured and mono-cultured T47D cells. Phenotypic changes observed in co-culture correlated with expression changes in genes associated with proliferation, apoptotic suppression, tumorigenicity and even epithelial-to-mesechymal transition. Combining the presented platform with single cell transcriptome analysis, we successfully identified functional CSCs and investigated the phenotypic and transcriptome effects induced

  10. Stresses of Single Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... ways to avoid the stress of being a single parent? Single parenthood can bring added pressure and stress ... share day-to-day responsibilities or decision-making, single parents must provide greater support for their children while ...

  11. High-power single-element pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well lasers for pumping Er-doped fiber amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Forouhar, S.; Cody, J.; Lang, R. J.; Andrekson, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    A 980-nm-ridge waveguide pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs single-quantum-well laser with a maximum single-ended output power of 240 mW from a facet-coated device is fabricated from a graded-index separate-confinement heterostructure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The laser oscillates in the fundamental spatial mode, allowing 22 percent coupling efficiency into a 1.55-micron single-mode optical fiber. Life testing at an output power of 30 mW per facet from uncoated devices reveals a superior reliability to GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers but also the need for protective facet coatings for long term reliability at power levels required for pumping Er-doped fiber amplifiers.

  12. Progress in organic molecular single crystal FET electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butko, Vladimir; Chi, Xiaoliu; Ramirez, Arthur

    2004-03-01

    Semiconducting organic materials have received increased attention because they promise bulk processing of flexible, large-area electronic devices. Field Effect Transistors (FETs) provide a powerful method of investigating two-dimensional properties of these materials. We report on fabrication and characterization of FETs on organic molecular single-crystals of pentacene and tetracene [1,2]. The FETs exhibit hole conductivity with room temperature record effective mobility, up to 2 -3 cm^2/Vs and on/off ratios up to 2*10^7. We were able to suppress an activation energy of pentacene down to ˜ 30 mK by applying gate voltage of 45 V. 1. V.Y. Butko, X. Chi, D. V. Lang and A. P. Ramirez, Applied Physics Letters, v.83, #23, pp. 4773-4775, December 8, 2003 2. V.Y. Butko, X. Chi, A. P. Ramirez , Solid State Communications, v. 128/11, pp. 431, 2003

  13. Effects of tissue heterogeneity on single-coil, scanning MIT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldkamp, J. R.; Quirk, S.

    2016-03-01

    We recently reported on the use of a single induction coil to accomplish imaging of the electrical conductivity in human tissues via magnetic induction tomography (MIT). A key to the method was the development of a mapping equation that quantitatively relates an arbitrary electrical conductivity distribution to ohmic loss in a coil consisting of concentric circular loops in a plane. By making multiple coil loss measurements at a number of locations in the vicinity of the target (scan), this mapping equation can be used to build an algorithm for 3D image construction of electrical conductivity. Important assumptions behind the mathematical formula included uniform relative permittivity throughout all space and continuous variation in conductivity. In this paper, these two assumptions were tested in a series of experiments involving the use of human tissue phantoms created from agarose, doped with sufficient sodium chloride to yield physiological conductivities. Inclusions of doped agarose were scanned both while isolated and also while embedded in a matrix of agarose gel having lowered conductivity - to help evaluate the effects of abrupt permittivity change. The effects of discontinuous conductivity change were simulated by filling 5 cm diameter petri dishes with 1.4% aqueous KCl and placing them in a much larger, 14 cm diameter petri dish - gap distance varied from about 3 mm to 30 mm. In either case, we will show that these effects are minimal on resultant images, helping to further validate the mapping equation used to construct MIT images. Because of their simplicity, scans reported here did not include coil rotation. To acknowledge the importance of rotation, however, we have devoted a section of this work to illustrate the profound benefits of coil rotation during a scan - though virtual data are used, where coil rotation is more easily specified.

  14. Single Custodial Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Shirley May Harmon

    This paper reviews literature from the past 10 years about single fathers. Statistics are presented to show the number of single fathers, their race, socioeconomic status, religion, age, and employment. Other issues discussed include an analysis of single fathers' parenting and homemaking skills, their motivation for custody, and visiting and…

  15. Single-Sex Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  16. C. elegans outside the Petri dish

    PubMed Central

    Frézal, Lise; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2015-01-01

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has risen to the status of a top model organism for biological research in the last fifty years. Among laboratory animals, this tiny nematode is one of the simplest and easiest organisms to handle. And its life outside the laboratory is beginning to be unveiled. Like other model organisms, C. elegans has a boom-and-bust lifestyle. It feasts on ephemeral bacterial blooms in decomposing fruits and stems. After resource depletion, its young larvae enter a migratory diapause stage, called the dauer. Organisms known to be associated with C. elegans include migration vectors (such as snails, slugs and isopods) and pathogens (such as microsporidia, fungi, bacteria and viruses). By deepening our understanding of the natural history of C. elegans, we establish a broader context and improved tools for studying its biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05849.001 PMID:25822066

  17. Solar thermal parabolic dish energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijawka, W.

    1981-01-01

    Vu-graphs are presented that show that applications are a viable distributed renewable power generation option. Quality energy can be produced in the form of electricity and high temperature heat. Modular systems are described that can be distributed to new or existing plants and that are mass producible with the associated economies of production.

  18. C. elegans outside the Petri dish.

    PubMed

    Frézal, Lise; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2015-03-30

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has risen to the status of a top model organism for biological research in the last fifty years. Among laboratory animals, this tiny nematode is one of the simplest and easiest organisms to handle. And its life outside the laboratory is beginning to be unveiled. Like other model organisms, C. elegans has a boom-and-bust lifestyle. It feasts on ephemeral bacterial blooms in decomposing fruits and stems. After resource depletion, its young larvae enter a migratory diapause stage, called the dauer. Organisms known to be associated with C. elegans include migration vectors (such as snails, slugs and isopods) and pathogens (such as microsporidia, fungi, bacteria and viruses). By deepening our understanding of the natural history of C. elegans, we establish a broader context and improved tools for studying its biology.

  19. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish.

    PubMed

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a "socio-economic laboratory" allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories.

  20. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  1. Soil Searching. Dishing the Dirt on Microbes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ann C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This activity attempts to address a lack of emphasis in most science curricula on the microbial activity that determines soil's health. Presents an experiment that involves students in seeing how the enzyme assay is used as an indicator of soil quality and microbial activity. Contains procedures and discussion questions. (LZ)

  2. Natural Selection in a Petri Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Robbie V.; Marek, Edmund A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity to teach natural selection that involves students in a microbiological investigation. Students discover that a change in environmental conditions tests a species' range of adaptations. (DDR)

  3. Understanding mobility in a social petri dish

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Sinatra, Roberta; Petri, Giovanni; Thurner, Stefan; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent availability of large data sets on human movements, a full understanding of the rules governing motion within social systems is still missing, due to incomplete information on the socio-economic factors and to often limited spatio-temporal resolutions. Here we study an entire society of individuals, the players of an online-game, with complete information on their movements in a network-shaped universe and on their social and economic interactions. Such a “socio-economic laboratory” allows to unveil the intricate interplay of spatial constraints, social and economic factors, and patterns of mobility. We find that the motion of individuals is not only constrained by physical distances, but also strongly shaped by the presence of socio-economic areas. These regions can be recovered perfectly by community detection methods solely based on the measured human dynamics. Moreover, we uncover that long-term memory in the time-order of visited locations is the essential ingredient for modeling the trajectories. PMID:22708055

  4. Modeling brain disease in a dish: really?

    PubMed

    Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H

    2012-06-14

    Cellular programming and reprogramming technology (CPART) presents a novel approach for understanding disease progression and mechanism. In addition, CPART provides an innovative opportunity for developing diagnostic tools and novel drug candidates for therapy. In this Forum, we will discuss obstacles and solutions for modeling brain disease using CPART.

  5. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  6. Living with a Single Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Living With a Single Parent KidsHealth > For Kids > Living With a Single Parent ... single parents can be a great idea, too. Single Parents and Work Single parents are often working parents ...

  7. A novel method for single bacteria identification by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Emmanuelle; Simon, Anne-Catherine; Strola, Samy Andrea; Perenon, Rémi; Espagnon, Isabelle; Allier, Cédric; Claustre, Patricia; Jary, Dorothée.; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present results on single bacteria rapid identification obtained with a low-cost and compact Raman spectrometer. At present, we demonstrate that a 1 minute procedure, including the localization of single bacterium, is sufficient to acquire comprehensive Raman spectrum in the range of 600 to 3300 cm-1. Localization and detection of single bacteria is performed by means of lensfree imaging over a large field of view of 24 mm2. An excitation source of 532 nm and 30 mW illuminates single bacteria to collect Raman signal into a Tornado Spectral Systems prototype spectrometer (HTVS technology). The acquisition time to record a single bacterium spectrum is as low as 10 s owing to the high light throughput of this spectrometer. The spectra processing features different steps for cosmic spikes removal, background subtraction, and gain normalization to correct the residual inducted fluorescence and substrate fluctuations. This allows obtaining a fine chemical fingerprint analysis. We have recorded a total of 1200 spectra over 7 bacterial species (E. coli, Bacillus species, S. epidermis, M. luteus, S. marcescens). The analysis of this database results in a high classification score of almost 90 %. Hence we can conclude that our setup enables automatic recognition of bacteria species among 7 different species. The speed and the sensitivity (<30 minutes for localization and spectra collection of 30 single bacteria) of our Raman spectrometer pave the way for high-throughput and non-destructive real-time bacteria identification assays. This compact and low-cost technology can benefit biomedical, clinical diagnostic and environmental applications.

  8. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF EPISODIC ACCRETION CHEMISTRY EXPLORED WITH SINGLE-POINT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2012-07-20

    We explore a set of single-point chemical models to study the fundamental chemical aspects of episodic accretion in low-mass embedded protostars. Our goal is twofold: (1) to understand how the repeated heating and cooling of the envelope affects the abundances of CO and related species; and (2) to identify chemical tracers that can be used as a novel probe of the timescales and other physical aspects of episodic accretion. We develop a set of single-point models that serve as a general prescription for how the chemical composition of a protostellar envelope is altered by episodic accretion. The main effect of each accretion burst is to drive CO ice off the grains in part of the envelope. The duration of the subsequent quiescent stage (before the next burst hits) is similar to or shorter than the freeze-out timescale of CO, allowing the chemical effects of a burst to linger long after the burst has ended. We predict that the resulting excess of gas-phase CO can be observed with single-dish or interferometer facilities as evidence of an accretion burst in the past 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} yr.

  9. Single molecule and single cell epigenomics.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; McElwee, John L; Soloway, Paul D

    2015-01-15

    Dynamically regulated changes in chromatin states are vital for normal development and can produce disease when they go awry. Accordingly, much effort has been devoted to characterizing these states under normal and pathological conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the most widely used method to characterize where in the genome transcription factors, modified histones, modified nucleotides and chromatin binding proteins are found; bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) and its variants are commonly used to characterize the locations of DNA modifications. Though very powerful, these methods are not without limitations. Notably, they are best at characterizing one chromatin feature at a time, yet chromatin features arise and function in combination. Investigators commonly superimpose separate ChIP-seq or BS-seq datasets, and then infer where chromatin features are found together. While these inferences might be correct, they can be misleading when the chromatin source has distinct cell types, or when a given cell type exhibits any cell to cell variation in chromatin state. These ambiguities can be eliminated by robust methods that directly characterize the existence and genomic locations of combinations of chromatin features in very small inputs of cells or ideally, single cells. Here we review single molecule epigenomic methods under development to overcome these limitations, the technical challenges associated with single molecule methods and their potential application to single cells.

  10. Single voltage-dependent chloride-selective channels of large conductance in cultured rat muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Blatz, A L; Magleby, K L

    1983-01-01

    Single-channel currents of an anion-selective channel in the plasma membrane of cultured rat muscle cells (myotubes) were recorded with the patch-clamp technique (Hamill, O.P., A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F.J. Sigworth, 1981. Pfluegers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol., 391:85-100). The channel is selective for Cl- over cations, and has an unusually large single-channel conductance of approximately 430 pS in symmetrical 143 mM KCl. The channel is often active at 0 mV, opening and closing spontaneously. When active, steps from 0 mV to either negative or positive membrane potentials close the channel to an apparent inactivated state. The mean effective time that a channel is open before it inactivates is approximately 1.19 s for steps to -30 mV and 0.48 s for steps to +30 mV. Returning the membrane potential to 0 mV results in recovery from inactivation. Calcium ions are not required for channel activity. PMID:6311302

  11. Single Umbilical Artery

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, J. David; McKee, James

    1964-01-01

    A prospective study of 2000 obstetrical deliveries was undertaken to establish the incidence of single umbilical artery in the newborn and the frequency of congenital malformations reported to be associated with this disorder. Twenty cases of single umbilical artery were discovered; two proved to have an associated congenital malformation. In neither of these cases was medical management affected by the discovery of a single artery. In addition, the vascular arrangement in the cords of 31 concurrently occurring congenitally malformed babies was examined, and in no instance was a single umbilical artery found. PMID:14214230

  12. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  13. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Manish; Zong, Kelly; Vivekchand, S. R. C.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed. PMID:26473866

  14. Single Electron Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-07-25

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  15. Single-cell nanosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Maxwell B; Chiu, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explains the steps necessary to perform laser surgery upon single adherent mammalian cells, where individual organelles are extracted from the cells by optical tweezers and the cells are monitored post-surgery to check their viability. Single-cell laser nanosurgery is used in an increasing range of methodologies because it offers great flexibility. Its main advantages are (a) there is not any physical contact with the cells so they remain in a sterile environment, (b) high spatial selectivity so that single organelles can be extracted from specific areas of individual cells, (c) the method can be conducted in the cell's native media, and (d) in comparison to other techniques that target single cells, such as micromanipulators, laser nanosurgery has a comparatively high throughput.

  16. High-Throughput Single-Cell Cultivation on Microfluidic Streak Plates

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Dong, Libing; Zhao, Jian-Kang; Hu, Xiaofang; Shen, Chaohua; Qiao, Yuxin; Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Yapei; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the microfluidic streak plate (MSP), a facile method for high-throughput microbial cell separation and cultivation in nanoliter sessile droplets. The MSP method builds upon the conventional streak plate technique by using microfluidic devices to generate nanoliter droplets that can be streaked manually or robotically onto petri dishes prefilled with carrier oil for cultivation of single cells. In addition, chemical gradients could be encoded in the droplet array for comprehensive dose-response analysis. The MSP method was validated by using single-cell isolation of Escherichia coli and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The robustness of the MSP work flow was demonstrated by cultivating a soil community that degrades polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cultivation in droplets enabled detection of the richest species diversity with better coverage of rare species. Moreover, isolation and cultivation of bacterial strains by MSP led to the discovery of several species with high degradation efficiency, including four Mycobacterium isolates and a previously unknown fluoranthene-degrading Blastococcus species. PMID:26850294

  17. Development and optimization of a process for automated recovery of single cells identified by microengraving.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Hyeok; Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Du, Mindy; Du, Minna; Kretschmann, Marcel; Eberhardt, Jens; Love, J Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Microfabricated devices are useful tools for manipulating and interrogating large numbers of single cells in a rapid and cost-effective manner, but connecting these systems to the existing platforms used in routine high-throughput screening of libraries of cells remains challenging. Methods to sort individual cells of interest from custom microscale devices to standardized culture dishes in an efficient and automated manner without affecting the viability of the cells are critical. Combining a commercially available instrument for colony picking (CellCelector, AVISO GmbH) and a customized software module, we have established an optimized process for the automated retrieval of individual antibody-producing cells, secreting desirable antibodies, from dense arrays of subnanoliter containers. The selection of cells for retrieval is guided by data obtained from a high-throughput, single-cell screening method called microengraving. Using this system, 100 clones from a mixed population of two cell lines secreting different antibodies (12CA5 and HYB099-01) were sorted with 100% accuracy (50 clones of each) in approximately 2 h, and the cells retained viability.

  18. High-Throughput Single-Cell Cultivation on Microfluidic Streak Plates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Dong, Libing; Zhao, Jian-Kang; Hu, Xiaofang; Shen, Chaohua; Qiao, Yuxin; Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Yapei; Ismagilov, Rustem F; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Du, Wenbin

    2016-02-05

    This paper describes the microfluidic streak plate (MSP), a facile method for high-throughput microbial cell separation and cultivation in nanoliter sessile droplets. The MSP method builds upon the conventional streak plate technique by using microfluidic devices to generate nanoliter droplets that can be streaked manually or robotically onto petri dishes prefilled with carrier oil for cultivation of single cells. In addition, chemical gradients could be encoded in the droplet array for comprehensive dose-response analysis. The MSP method was validated by using single-cell isolation of Escherichia coli and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The robustness of the MSP work flow was demonstrated by cultivating a soil community that degrades polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cultivation in droplets enabled detection of the richest species diversity with better coverage of rare species. Moreover, isolation and cultivation of bacterial strains by MSP led to the discovery of several species with high degradation efficiency, including four Mycobacterium isolates and a previously unknown fluoranthene-degrading Blastococcus species.

  19. Single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel

    2005-05-01

    The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information.

  20. MOLECULAR GAS VELOCITY DISPERSIONS IN THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas E-mail: schruba@mpe.mpg.de

    2016-02-15

    In order to characterize the distribution of molecular gas in spiral galaxies, we study the line profiles of CO (1 – 0) emission in Andromeda, our nearest massive spiral galaxy. We compare observations performed with the IRAM 30 m single-dish telescope and with the CARMA interferometer at a common resolution of 23 arcsec ≈ 85 pc × 350 pc and 2.5 km s{sup −1}. When fitting a single Gaussian component to individual spectra, the line profile of the single dish data is a factor of 1.5 ± 0.4 larger than the interferometric data one. This ratio in line widths is surprisingly similar to the ratios previously observed in two other nearby spirals, NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, but measured at ∼0.5–1 kpc spatial scale. In order to study the origin of the different line widths, we stack the individual spectra in five bins of increasing peak intensity and fit two Gaussian components to the stacked spectra. We find a unique narrow component of FWHM = 7.5 ± 0.4 km s{sup −1} visible in both the single dish and the interferometric data. In addition, a broad component with FWHM = 14.4 ± 1.5 km s{sup −1} is present in the single-dish data, but cannot be identified in the interferometric data. We interpret this additional broad line width component detected by the single dish as a low brightness molecular gas component that is extended on spatial scales >0.5 kpc, and thus filtered out by the interferometer. We search for evidence of line broadening by stellar feedback across a range of star formation rates but find no such evidence on ∼100 pc spatial scale when characterizing the line profile by a single Gaussian component.

  1. Single spin magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  2. Single-Mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  3. Single spin magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  4. Single Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Jennifer; Hough, Shane

    2003-05-01

    Single Bubble Sonoluminescence is the emission of light from a single bubble suspended in a liquid caused by a continuum of repeated implosions due to pressure waves generated from a maintained ultrasonic sinusoidal wave source. H. Frenzel and H. Schultz first studied it in 1934 at the University of Cologne. It was not until 1988 with D.F. Gaitan that actual research began with single bubble sonoluminescence. Currently many theories exist attempting to explain the observed bubble phenomenon. Many of these theories require spherical behavior of the bubble. Observation of the bubble has shown that the bubble does not behave spherically in most cases. One explanation for this is known as jet theory. A spectrum of the bubble will give us the mean physical properties of the bubble such as temperature and pressure inside the bubble. Eventually, with the aide of fluorocene dye a full spectrum of the bubble will be obtained.

  5. Single-Cell Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Emara, Samy; Amer, Sara; Ali, Ahmed; Abouleila, Yasmine; Oga, April; Masujima, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a cell is always changing. Cells move, divide, communicate, adapt, and are always reacting to their surroundings non-synchronously. Currently, single-cell metabolomics has become the leading field in understanding the phenotypical variations between them, but sample volumes, low analyte concentrations, and validating gentle sample techniques have proven great barriers toward achieving accurate and complete metabolomics profiling. Certainly, advanced technologies such as nanodevices and microfluidic arrays are making great progress, and analytical techniques, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), are gaining popularity with high-throughput methodology. Nevertheless, live single-cell mass spectrometry (LCSMS) values the sample quality and precision, turning once theoretical speculation into present-day applications in a variety of fields, including those of medicine, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries. While there is still room for much improvement, it is clear that the metabolomics field is progressing toward analysis and discoveries at the single-cell level.

  6. Single-Molecule Bioelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Lemay, Serge G.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental techniques which interface single biomolecules directly with microelectronic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of powerful applications, from fundamental studies of biomolecules to ultra-sensitive assays. Here we review several technologies which can perform electronic measurements of single molecules in solution: ion channels, nanopore sensors, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, electron tunneling gaps, and redox cycling. We discuss the shared features among these techniques that enable them to resolve individual molecules, and discuss their limitations. Recordings from each of these methods all rely on similar electronic instrumentation, and we discuss the relevant circuit implementations and potential for scaling these single-molecule bioelectronic interfaces to high-throughput arrayed sensing platforms. PMID:25529538

  7. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  8. Single-plasmon interferences.

    PubMed

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons.

  9. Single-plasmon interferences

    PubMed Central

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Devaux, Eloïse; Ebbesen, Thomas W.; Baron, Alexandre; Rodier, Jean-Claude; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Lalanne, Philippe; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons are electromagnetic waves coupled to collective electron oscillations propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces, exhibiting a bosonic character. Recent experiments involving surface plasmons guided by wires or stripes allowed the reproduction of quantum optics effects, such as antibunching with a single surface plasmon state, coalescence with a two-plasmon state, conservation of squeezing, or entanglement through plasmonic channels. We report the first direct demonstration of the wave-particle duality for a single surface plasmon freely propagating along a planar metal-air interface. We develop a platform that enables two complementary experiments, one revealing the particle behavior of the single-plasmon state through antibunching, and the other one where the interferences prove its wave nature. This result opens up new ways to exploit quantum conversion effects between different bosonic species as shown here with photons and polaritons. PMID:26998521

  10. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    SciTech Connect

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  11. Single Cell Oncogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin

    It is believed that cancer originates from a single cell that has gone through generations of evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that associate with the hallmarks of cancer. In some cancers such as various types of leukemia, cancer is clonal. Yet in other cancers like glioblastoma (GBM), there is tremendous tumor heterogeneity that is likely to be caused by simultaneous evolution of multiple subclones within the same tissue. It is obvious that understanding how a single cell develops into a clonal tumor upon genetic alterations, at molecular and cellular levels, holds the key to the real appreciation of tumor etiology and ultimate solution for therapeutics. Surprisingly very little is known about the process of spontaneous tumorigenesis from single cells in human or vertebrate animal models. The main reason is the lack of technology to track the natural process of single cell changes from a homeostatic state to a progressively cancerous state. Recently, we developed a patented compound, photoactivatable (''caged'') tamoxifen analogue 4-OHC and associated technique called optochemogenetic switch (OCG switch), which we believe opens the opportunity to address this urgent biological as well as clinical question about cancer. We propose to combine OCG switch with genetically engineered mouse models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma (including GBM) to study how single cells, when transformed through acute loss of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 and gain of oncogenic KRAS, can develop into tumor colonies with cellular and molecular heterogeneity in these tissues. The abstract is for my invited talk in session ``Beyond Darwin: Evolution in Single Cells'' 3/18/2016 11:15 AM.

  12. Arrays vs. single telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. L.

    The question of the relative efficiencies of telescope arrays versus an equivalent mirror-area very large telescope is re-examined and summarized. Four separate investigations by Bowen, Johnson and Richards, Code, and Disney all came to the same conclusion: that an array of telescopes is superior, both scientifically and economically, to a single very large telescope. The costs of recently completed telescopes are compared. The costs of arrays of telescopes are shown to be significantly lower than that of a single, very large telescope, with the further advantage that because existing, proven, designs can be used, no engineering 'break-throughs' are needed.

  13. Extensive proliferative capacity of single isolated CD34 human cord blood cells in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Xiao, M; Broxmeyer, H E; Horie, M; Grigsby, S; Lu, L

    1994-01-01

    Nonadherent, low-density T-lymphocyte-depleted (NALT-) CD34 cells from normal human cord blood were assessed in suspension culture for the effects of recombinant cytokines on their proliferation, differentiation, and generation of myeloid progenitor cells. In this cell population, 82% of cells expressed c-kit protein as assessed by in situ hybridization, and their cloning efficiency was 85% when cells were plated at low cell numbers with combinations of growth factors. CD34 cells were sorted as 1, 5, or 10 cell(s) per well and also at 5000 cells per dish to initiate stromal-free suspension cultures in the presence of steel factor (SLF), interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, and IL-3. Forty-eight percent of the wells started with a single CD34 cell were positive for growth after 14 days, and the wells contained greater than 5 x 10(3) cells by 21-28 days. Progenitors were assayed weekly with cultures initiated with 1 or 5000 cells. While the fold expansion of nucleated cells was greater in cultures initiated with one cell per well (> 5000 compared to 791-fold expansion for 5000 cells), the fold expansion of progenitors was greater than 5000 cells were used to initiate cultures. Under optimal conditions, there was, respectively, a 160-, 164-, and 57-fold output of high proliferative potential colony-forming cells, granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units, and erythroid burst-forming units/granulocyte erythroid macrophage megakaryocyte colony-forming units within 1-3 weeks for cultures initiated with 5000 CD34 cells compared with respective fold increases of 29, 16, and 1, for single-initiated cultures. These results demonstrate the expansion capacity of single CD34 cord blood cells and demonstrate that factors in addition to SLF, IL-1 alpha, and IL-3 are necessary for optimal expansion of progenitors from single isolated CD34 cells.

  14. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    SciTech Connect

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  15. Contemporary Single Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiduson, Bernice T.

    Fifty Caucasian, never-married single mothers aged 18-30, who had opted to keep their babies, were studied longitudinally from the last trimester of pregnancy through the first three years of their children's lives in order to learn the extent to which they had reinterpreted traditional roles and responsibilities and had restructured their lives.…

  16. Beyond the Single Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  17. Single Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patricia

    This booklet attempts to reassure single parents that they can raise healthy, happy children and provides some suggestions for parents' specific questions and concerns. The first section discusses the emotional stages children pass through when they lose a parent, ways to explain to children the loss of a parent, and ways to handle children's…

  18. Single molecules: Thermodynamic limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liphardt, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Technologies aimed at single-molecule resolution of non-equilibrium systems increasingly require sophisticated new ways of thinking about thermodynamics. An elegant extension to standard fluctuation theory grants access to the kinetic intermediate states of these systems -- as DNA-pulling experiments now demonstrate.

  19. Single Mother's Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David

    Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…

  20. From single molecule to single tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chin-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Biological systems often make decisions upon conformational changes and assembly of single molecules. In vivo, epithelial cells (such as the mammary gland cells) can respond to extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, type I collagen (COL), and switch their morphology from a lobular lumen (100-200 micron) to a tubular lumen (1mm-1cm). However, how cells make such a morphogenetic decision through interactions with each other and with COL is unclear. Using a temporal control of cell-ECM interaction, we find that epithelial cells, in response to a fine-tuned percentage of type I collagen (COL) in ECM, develop various linear patterns. Remarkably, these patterns allow cells to self-assemble into a tubule of length ˜ 1cm and diameter ˜ 400 micron in the liquid phase (i.e., scaffold-free conditions). In contrast with conventional thought, the linear patterns arise through bi-directional transmission of traction force, but not through diffusible biochemical factors secreted by cells. In turn, the transmission of force evokes a long-range (˜ 600 micron) intercellular mechanical interaction. A feedback effect is encountered when the mechanical interaction modifies cell positioning and COL alignment. Micro-patterning experiments further reveal that such a feedback is a novel cell-number-dependent, rich-get-richer process, which allows cells to integrate mechanical interactions into long-range (> 1mm) linear coordination. Our results suggest a mechanism cells can use to form and coordinate long-range tubular patterns, independent of those controlled by diffusible biochemical factors, and provide a new strategy to engineer/regenerate epithelial organs using scaffold-free self-assembly methods.

  1. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to...

  2. The Effect of Growth Parameters on the Intrinsic Properties of Large-Area Single Layer Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Regmi, Murari; Chisholm, Matthew F; Eres, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the parameter space for single layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on Cu. The temperature is the most widely recognized parameter in single layer graphene growth. We show that the methane-to-hydrogen ratio and the growth pressure also are critical parameters that affect the structural perfection and the cleanliness of graphene. The optimal conditions for suppressing double and multilayer graphene growth occur near 1000 C, 1:20 methane-to-hydrogen ratio, and a total pressure in the range from 0.5 to 1 Torr. Raman mapping of a 40x30 m2 area shows single layer domains with 5-10 m linear dimensions. Atomic resolution imaging of suspended graphene by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that the cleanest single layer graphene consists of areas of 10-15 nm linear dimensions and smaller patches of residual contamination that was undetected by other characterization methods.

  3. Single electron spintronics.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  4. Unveiling the formation pathway of single crystalline porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xing; Qu, Yongquan; Lin, Yung-Chen; Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-02-01

    Porous silicon nanowire is emerging as an interesting material system due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, electronic, and optical properties. To fully understand their formation mechanism is of great importance for controlling the fundamental physical properties and enabling potential applications. Here we present a systematic study to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the formation of porous silicon nanowires in a two-step silver-assisted electroless chemical etching method. It is shown that silicon nanowire arrays with various porosities can be prepared by varying multiple experimental parameters such as the resistivity of the starting silicon wafer, the concentration of oxidant (H(2)O(2)) and the amount of silver catalyst. Our study shows a consistent trend that the porosity increases with the increasing wafer conductivity (dopant concentration) and oxidant (H(2)O(2)) concentration. We further demonstrate that silver ions, formed by the oxidation of silver, can diffuse upwards and renucleate on the sidewalls of nanowires to initiate new etching pathways to produce a porous structure. The elucidation of this fundamental formation mechanism opens a rational pathway to the production of wafer-scale single crystalline porous silicon nanowires with tunable surface areas ranging from 370 to 30 m(2) g(-1) and can enable exciting opportunities in catalysis, energy harvesting, conversion, storage, as well as biomedical imaging and therapy.

  5. Watching single molecules dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  6. Single wall penetration equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.

  7. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  8. The single mirror small size telescope (SST-1M) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Favre, Y.; Heller, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszałek, A.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E., Jr.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Zietara, K.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Lalik, K.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Michałowski, J.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Stawarz, L.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Walter, R.; WiÈ©cek, M.; Zagdański, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Small Size Telescope with Single Mirror (SST-1M) is one of the proposed types of Small Size Telescopes (SST) for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The CTA south array will be composed of about 100 telescopes, out of which about 70 are of SST class, which are optimized for the detection of gamma rays in the energy range from 5 TeV to 300 TeV. The SST-1M implements a Davies-Cotton optics with a 4 m dish diameter with a field of view of 9°. The Cherenkov light produced in atmospheric showers is focused onto a 88 cm wide hexagonal photo-detection plane, composed of 1296 custom designed large area hexagonal silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) and a fully digital readout and trigger system. The SST-1M camera has been designed to provide high performance in a robust as well as compact and lightweight design. In this contribution, we review the different steps that led to the realization of the telescope prototype and its innovative camera.

  9. Reversible optical memory based on single-component phototropic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewska, A.; Bartkiewicz, S.; Mysliwiec, J.

    2013-08-01

    The authors report fully reversible holographic recording of the diffraction grating realized using the phenomenon of the photochemical phase transition of the single- component phototropic liquid crystal. The grating was formed as a result of the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. The writing, reading, and erasure of the holograms were performed only by means of the light. A typical degenerate two-wave mixing experiment was used for the grating recording combined with a polarized optical microscope enabling the observation in the real time. The dynamics of the process was investigated as a function of the writing laser beams intensity from 30 mW/cm2 to 200 mW/cm2.

  10. Holographic recording characteristics and applications of single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Min; Chen, Ligong; Guo, Yongkang; Guo, Lurong

    2005-09-01

    A high-quality single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material is achieved successfully by employing new types of multi-color photosensitizers and photochemical promoters to conventional photo-crosslinking gelatin system. Its holographic recording characteristics such as spectral response, the photosensitivity of three primary colors, spectral selectivity of volume reflection hologram, angular and wavelength selectivity of volume transmission hologram, are studied in detail. Using red, green and blue lasers, namely three primary colors, the bright volume transmission and reflection holograms can be recorded on the panchromatic material at the exposure level of 30 mJ/cm2. Some preliminary results of space, angle and wavelength multiplexing holographic storage for storing multiple binary and grey-tone optical images, are also reported in this paper.

  11. Single nanowire extinction spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Jay; Vietmeyer, Felix; McDonald, Matthew P; Kuno, Masaru

    2011-08-10

    Here we show the first direct extinction spectra of single one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanostructures obtained at room temperature utilizing a spatial modulation approach. (1) For these materials, ensemble averaging in conventional extinction spectroscopy has limited our understanding of the interplay between carrier confinement and their electrostatic interactions. (2-4) By probing individual CdSe nanowires (NWs), we have identified and assigned size-dependent exciton transitions occurring across the visible. In turn, we have revealed the existence of room temperature 1D excitons in the narrowest NWs.

  12. Single molecule diffraction.

    PubMed

    Spence, J C H; Doak, R B

    2004-05-14

    For solving the atomic structure of organic molecules such as small proteins which are difficult to crystallize, the use of a jet of doped liquid helium droplets traversing a continuous high energy electron beam is proposed as a means of obtaining electron diffraction patterns (serial crystallography). Organic molecules (such as small proteins) within the droplet (and within a vitreous ice jacket) may be aligned by use of a polarized laser beam. Iterative methods for solving the phase problem are indicated. Comparisons with a related plan for pulsed x-ray diffraction from single proteins in a molecular beam are provided.

  13. The single antenna interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.P.

    1990-01-15

    Air and space borne platforms using synthetic aperture radars (SAR) have made interferometric measurements by using either two physical antennas mounted on one air-frame or two passes of one antenna over a scene. In this paper, a new interferometric technique using one pass of a single-antenna SAR system is proposed and demonstrated on data collected by the NASA-JPL AirSAR. Remotely sensed L-band microwave data are used to show the sensitivity of this technique to ocean surface features as well as a baseline for comparison with work by others using two-antenna systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Single Axis Piezoceramic Gimbal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication, testing, and analysis of a single axis piezoceramic gimbal. The fabrication process consist of pre-stressing a piezoceramic wafer using a high-temperature thermoplastic polyimide and a metal foil. The differential thermal expansion between the ceramic and metal induces a curvature. The pre-stressed, curved piezoceramic is mounted on a support mechanism and a mirror is attached to the piezoceramic. A plot of gimbal angle versus applied voltage to the piezoceramic is presented. A finite element analysis of the piezoceramic gimbal is described. The predicted gimbal angle versus applied voltage is compared to experimental results.

  15. Single crystals of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Cartier, N; Domard, A; Chanzy, H

    1990-10-01

    Lamellar single crystals of chitosan were prepared at 125 degrees C by adding ammonia to a low DP fraction of chitosan dissolved in water. The crystals gave sharp electron diffraction diagrams which could be indexed in an orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1) unit cell with a = 8.07 A, b = 8.44 A, c = 10.34 A. The unit cell contained two anti-parallel chitosan chains and no water molecules. It was found that cellulose microfibrils from Valonia ventricosa could act as nuclei for inducing the crystallization of chitosan on cellulose. This produced a shish-kebab morphology.

  16. Single implant tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Briley, T F

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that direct bone anchorage of dental implants will provide long-term predictability for single tooth implants and multi-unit implants. The function of implant-supported restoration is now routinely achieved. The real challenge facing the restorative dentist and laboratory technician is to achieve optimal aesthetics. The learning objective of this article is to review the prosthodontic procedures essential to maximizing natural aesthetics in implant supported restorations. It will provide a review of master impression techniques, prepable titanium abutments and designing the cement on restoration. Particular emphasis is directed to the soft tissue model from which a series of sequenced techniques can be followed to achieve optimal aesthetics. Analysis of the implant alignment with regard to the neighboring teeth will result in having to make a choice of which prepable abutment will maximize the aesthetic result. The following case outlines how to replace a single missing tooth using an externally hexed implant system and a prefabricated titanium abutment on a 26-year-old male patient.

  17. Single cell wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Verboon, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    Cell wounding is a common event in the life of many cell types, and the capacity of the cell to repair day-to-day wear-and-tear injuries, as well as traumatic ones, is fundamental for maintaining tissue integrity. Cell wounding is most frequent in tissues exposed to high levels of stress. Survival of such plasma membrane disruptions requires rapid resealing to prevent the loss of cytosolic components, to block Ca2+ influx and to avoid cell death. In addition to patching the torn membrane, plasma membrane and cortical cytoskeleton remodeling are required to restore cell function. Although a general understanding of the cell wound repair process is in place, the underlying mechanisms of each step of this response are not yet known. We have developed a model to study single cell wound repair using the early Drosophila embryo. Our system combines genetics and live imaging tools, allowing us to dissect in vivo the dynamics of the single cell wound response. We have shown that cell wound repair in Drosophila requires the coordinated activities of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton components. Furthermore, we identified an unexpected role for E-cadherin as a link between the contractile actomyosin ring and the newly formed plasma membrane plug. PMID:21922041

  18. Single-Mode VISAR

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Kerry

    2007-11-28

    High energy-density physics (HEDP) experiments examine the properties of materials under extreme conditions. These experiments rely on the measurement of one or two velocities. These velocities are used to obtain Hugoniot relationships and thermodynamic equations of state. This methodology is referred to as 'velocimetry' and an instrument used to measure the shock wave is called a 'velocimeter' or a '(velocity) diagnostic'. The two most-widely used existing velocity diagnostics are; photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). PDV's advantages are a fast rise-time and ease of implementation but PDV has an upper velocity limit. Traditional implementations of VISAR have a rise time 10 times slower than PDV and are not easily implemented but are capable of measuring any velocity produced during HEDP experiments. This thesis describes a novel method of combining the positive attributes of PDV and VISAR into a more cost effective diagnostic called a Single-Mode VISAR (SMV). The new diagnostic will consist of PDV parts in a VISAR configuration. This configuration will enable the measurement of any velocity produced during shock physics experiments while the components used to build the diagnostic will give the diagnostic a fast rise time and make it easy to use. This thesis describes the process of building and testing the first single-mode VISAR. The tests include verifying the performance of the components and the diagnostic as a whole.

  19. Single ion heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kilian

    2015-03-01

    An experimental realization of a heat engine with a single ion is presented, which will allow for work extraction even with non-classical thermal reservoirs. To this goal a custom designed linear Paul trap with a single ion performing an Otto cycle is presented. The radial state of the ion is used as the working gas analogous to the gas in a conventional heat engine. The conventional piston is realized by the axial degrees of freedom and the axial motional excitation stores the generated work, just like a conventional fly-wheel. The heat baths can be realized by tailored laser radiation. Alternatively electrical noise can be used to control the state of the ion. The presented system possesses advantageous properties, as the working parameters can be tuned over a broad range and the motional degrees of freedom of the ion can be accurately determined. Dark resonances allow for fast stroboscopic thermometry during the entire working cycle. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to predict the efficiency and the gained work of the working cycle. We have also shown how the equations for the Carnot limit have to be modified if a squeezed thermal reservoir is employed. Furthermore structural phase transitions with laser cooled linear ion crystals are induced verifying the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  20. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  1. The 30-m radio telescope for millimeter astronomy - A new large instrument for German astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, J. W. M.; Mezger, P. G.; de Jonge, M. J.; Hooghoudt, B. G.

    1986-08-01

    The instrument considered represents currently the radio telescope with the best performance for astronomical studies involving the wavelength range in the vicinity of 1 mm. For a time of approximately one year, the telescope has been employed in astronomical observational programs. The time period between the planning stage and the beginning of the operational phase is considered. In connection with the opportunities for astronomical studies in the millimeter wavelength range, the new instrument was designed especially for observations involving the range from 0.8 mm to 3 mm. Planning operations for this telescope began already in 1972. Attention is given to discussions with French and British scientists, the selection of a location for the instrument in southern Spain, aspects of European cooperation regarding the instrument, the design of radio telescopes for millimeter astronomy, the characteristic features of the new instrument, data processing and evaluation, and the first results obtained with the telescope.

  2. Total cost of 46-Mw Borax cogen system put at $30M

    SciTech Connect

    de Biasi, V.

    1983-03-01

    The cogeneration system, designed around a W-251B gas turbine power plant exhausting into a Deltak waste heat boiler to produce ''free'' process steam from the gas turbine exhaust, is discussed. The design includes water injection for NO/sub x/ control, self-cleaning inlet air filters, evaporative coolers, supercharger, and supplementary firing of the waste heat boiler. Once the system is operational Borax will be able to generate all of the electricity needed for on-site operations and a large share of process steam needs--plus still have 22-23 Mw surplus electric power to sell, so that the installation should pay for itself in less than 5 years of service.

  3. Borax spends $30M for cogeneration system. [US Borax and Chemical Corp

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-09-20

    A $30 million natural-gas-fired turbine power plant will provide all the electricity and steam needed at the US Borax and Chemical Corp. plant in Los Angeles. The cogeneration facility will come on line in 1984, and will pay for itself in about five years. The plant will use only half the 46 megawatts produced, the 22 megawatt surplus being sold to Southern California Edison Co. on a 20-year contract at a price pegged to the utility's avoided costs. Natural gas consumption at the plant will remain about the same. (DCK)

  4. Study of a 30-M Boom For Solar Sail-Craft: Model Extendibility and Control Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Leehyun

    2005-01-01

    Space travel propelled by solar sails is motivated by the fact that the momentum exchange that occurs when photons are reflected and/or absorbed by a large solar sail generates a small but constant acceleration. This acceleration can induce a constant thrust in very large sails that is sufficient to maintain a polar observing satellite in a constant position relative to the Sun or Earth. For long distance propulsion, square sails (with side length greater than 150 meters) can reach Jupiter in two years and Pluto in less than ten years. Converting such design concepts to real-world systems will require accurate analytical models and model parameters. This requires extensive structural dynamics tests. However, the low mass and high flexibility of large and light weight structures such as solar sails makes them unsuitable for ground testing. As a result, validating analytical models is an extremely difficult problem. On the other hand, a fundamental question can be asked. That is whether an analytical model that represents a small-scale version of a solar-sail boom can be extended to much larger versions of the same boom. To answer this question, we considered a long deployable boom that will be used to support the solar sails of the sail-craft. The length of fully deployed booms of the actual solar sail-craft will exceed 100 meters. However, the test-bed we used in our study is a 30 meter retractable boom at MSFC. We first develop analytical models based on Lagrange s equations and the standard Euler-Bernoulli beam. Then the response of the models will be compared with test data of the 30 meter boom at various deployed lengths. For this stage of study, our analysis was limited to experimental data obtained at 12ft and 18ft deployment lengths. The comparison results are positive but speculative. To observe properly validate the analytic model, experiments at longer deployment lengths, up to the full 30 meter, have been requested. We expect the study to answer the extendibility question of the analytical models. In operation, rapid temperature changes can be induced in solar sails as they transition from day to night and vice versa. This generates time dependent thermally induced forces, which may in turn create oscillation in structural members such as booms. Such oscillations have an adverse effect on system operations, precise pointing of instruments and antennas and can lead to self excited vibrations of increasing amplitude. The latter phenomenon is known as thermal flutter and can lead to the catastrophic failure of structural systems. To remedy this problem, an active vibration suppression system has been developed. It was shown that piezoelectric actuators used in conjunction with a Proportional Feedback Control (PFC) law (or Velocity Feedback Control (VFC) law) can induce moments that can suppress structural vibrations and prevent flutter instability in spacecraft booms. In this study, we will investigate control strategies using piezoelectric transducers in active, passive, and/or hybrid control configurations. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration will be studied and experiments to determine their capabilities and limitations will be planned. In particular, special attention will be given to the hybrid control, also known as energy recycling, configuration due to its unique characteristics.

  5. Generation of the 30 M-Mesh Global Digital Surface Model by Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2016-06-01

    Topographical information is fundamental to many geo-spatial related information and applications on Earth. Remote sensing satellites have the advantage in such fields because they are capable of global observation and repeatedly. Several satellite-based digital elevation datasets were provided to examine global terrains with medium resolutions e.g. the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the global digital elevation model by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER GDEM). A new global digital surface model (DSM) dataset using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi") has been completed on March 2016 by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaborating with NTT DATA Corp. and Remote Sensing Technology Center, Japan. This project is called "ALOS World 3D" (AW3D), and its dataset consists of the global DSM dataset with 0.15 arcsec. pixel spacing (approx. 5 m mesh) and ortho-rectified PRISM image with 2.5 m resolution. JAXA is also processing the global DSM with 1 arcsec. spacing (approx. 30 m mesh) based on the AW3D DSM dataset, and partially releasing it free of charge, which calls "ALOS World 3D 30 m mesh" (AW3D30). The global AW3D30 dataset will be released on May 2016. This paper describes the processing status, a preliminary validation result of the AW3D30 DSM dataset, and its public release status. As a summary of the preliminary validation of AW3D30 DSM, 4.40 m (RMSE) of the height accuracy of the dataset was confirmed using 5,121 independent check points distributed in the world.

  6. Generating 30-m land surface albedo by integrating landsat and MODIS data for understanding the disturbance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land cover change affects climate through both biogeochemical (carbon-cycle) impacts and biogeophysical processes such as changes in surface albedo, temperature, evapotranspiration, atmospheric water vapor, and cloud cover. Previous studies have highlighted that forest loss in high latitudes could c...

  7. Ophthalmological manifestations in hereditary transthyretin (ATTR V30M) carriers: a review of 513 cases

    PubMed Central

    Beirão, João Melo; Malheiro, Jorge; Lemos, Carolina; Beirão, Idalina; Costa, Paulo; Torres, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Assessment of ocular involvement in transthyretin-related familial amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (FAP) in a large cohort of Portuguese patients. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 513 Portuguese FAP mutation carriers, at the Ophthalmology Service, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, between 1 January 2008 and 31 January 2013. Abnormal conjunctiva vessels (ACV), Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT), amyloid deposition on the iris (DAI), scalloped iris, amyloid deposition on the anterior capsule of the lens (DAL), vitreous amyloidosis, retinal amyloid angiopathy and glaucoma were evaluated and registered. Results: Of the 513 carriers, 477 (93%) had clinical systemic disease with a median duration of 9.3 (5.1–13.7) years and 247 were men. Of these, 343 (72%) had been liver transplanted, on median of 6.6 (3.3–10.8) years before inclusion in this study. No ocular abnormalities were identified in the asymptomatic carriers (7%). The abnormalities observed with decreasing frequency were abnormal TBUT (379 patients, 79.5%, 751 eyes), abnormal Schirmer test (320 patients, 67%, 635 eyes), DAI (183 patients, 38.4%, 350 eyes), DAL (157 patients, 32.9%, 308 eyes), scalloped iris (133 patients, 27.9%, 238 eyes), glaucoma (97 patients, 20%, 165 eyes), vitreous amyloidosis (83 patients, 17.4%, 139 eyes), ACV (68 patients, 14%, 136 eyes) and amyloidotic retinal angiopathy (21 patients, 4%, 32 eyes). Patients with abnormal Schirmer test (p < 0.001), scalloped iris (p = 0.006) and vitreous amyloidosis (p = 0.007) were significantly older than the others. According to their age of onset of systemic disease, the patients have been split into early-onset (<40 years old), intermediate-onset (40–50 years old), late onset (>50 years old) and asymptomatic carriers. We observed a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ACV (p = 0.045) and of an abnormal Schirmer test (p = 0.004) between groups. Transplanted patients have a significantly higher prevalence of DAI (p = 0.001), DAL (p = 0.009) and vitreous amyloidosis (p = 0.025) than non-transplanted patients. Of the 165 eyes with glaucoma, 92.1% had scalloped iris (p < 0.001) and of 32 eyes with retinal amyloidotic angiopathy, 68.8% had vitreous amyloidosis (p < 0.001). All prevalences increased with time of disease. The earliest ocular manifestations were abnormal Schirmer test and abnormal TBUT (12% and 17% at 5 years of clinical disease) and the least prevalent was retinal amyloid angiopathy (8% at 15 years of clinical disease). Conclusion: Ocular disorders in FAP patients are common, and their prevalence increases with disease duration. Prevalence is influenced by several factors, such as the age at onset of FAP and liver transplantation. PMID:26096568

  8. Generation of dispersed presomitic mesoderm cell cultures for imaging of the zebrafish segmentation clock in single cells.

    PubMed

    Webb, Alexis B; Soroldoni, Daniele; Oswald, Annelie; Schindelin, Johannes; Oates, Andrew C

    2014-07-24

    Segmentation is a periodic and sequential morphogenetic process in vertebrates. This rhythmic formation of blocks of tissue called somites along the body axis is evidence of a genetic oscillator patterning the developing embryo. In zebrafish, the intracellular clock driving segmentation is comprised of members of the Her/Hes transcription factor family organized into negative feedback loops. We have recently generated transgenic fluorescent reporter lines for the cyclic gene her1 that recapitulate the spatio-temporal pattern of oscillations in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Using these lines, we developed an in vitro culture system that allows real-time analysis of segmentation clock oscillations within single, isolated PSM cells. By removing PSM tissue from transgenic embryos and then dispersing cells from oscillating regions onto glass-bottom dishes, we generated cultures suitable for time-lapse imaging of fluorescence signal from individual clock cells. This approach provides an experimental and conceptual framework for direct manipulation of the segmentation clock with unprecedented single-cell resolution, allowing its cell-autonomous and tissue-level properties to be distinguished and dissected.

  9. Feeding Patterns of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) Indicate That Mycophagy Is Not a Single and Homogeneous Category of Nutritional Biology

    PubMed Central

    Smrž, Jaroslav; Soukalová, Hana; Čatská, Vlasta; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Mycophagy should not be considered as a single and homogeneous category of nutritional biology due to the specific symbiotic chitinolytic bacteria associated with mites and fungi. To test interaction among mites, fungi, and chitinolytic bacteria, experiments were conducted on the model species Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank). Mucor sp, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium claviforme, P. griseofulvum, and Verticillium sp. were plated onto malt agar and offered to T. putrescentiae in the laboratory. Mites were evaluated utilizing microanatomical examination based on histology, excrement analysis using fluorescence microscopy, bacterial plating, impact of mite homogenate on fungi in Petri dishes, reproduction of mites feeding upon each fungus, and isolation of associated bacteria inside mites. There were clear differences regarding the digested spores of different fungi passing through the gut and subsequently in the feces. Abundances of bacterial cells in excrement also corresponded to the fungi offered. The extracts from mites had chitinolytic activity, and the plated bacteria are known to produce exochitinases. The various feeding patterns observed were caused by differences in the cell wall structures of the tested fungi. The study illustrates that mycophagy in saprophagous mites does not consist of a single pattern, but rather that it can be classified into several sub-patterns depending upon the digested fungal species and its parts. The results point to a nearly symbiotic relationship between chitinolytic bacteria and digested fungi in mycophagous microarthropods. PMID:27638952

  10. Mandibular First Molar with a Single Root and Single Canal

    PubMed Central

    Sooriaprakas, Chandrasekaran; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2014-01-01

    Successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal is diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. In addition all the mandibular molars and premolars were single rooted on either side. PMID:24715990

  11. Single crystalline magnetite nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuqin; Zhang, Daihua; Han, Song; Li, Chao; Lei, Bo; Lu, Weigang; Fang, Jiye; Zhou, Chongwu

    2005-01-12

    We descried a method to synthesize single crystalline Fe3O4 nanotubes by wet-etching the MgO inner cores of MgO/Fe3O4 core-shell nanowires. Homogeneous Fe3O4 nanotubes with controllable length, diameter, and wall thickness have been obtained. Resistivity of the Fe3O4 nanotubes was estimated to be approximately 4 x 10-2 Omega cm at room temperature. Magnetoresistance of approximately 1% was observed at T = 77 K when a magnetic field of B = 0.7 T was applied. The synthetic strategy presented here may be extended to a variety of materials such as YBCO, PZT, and LCMO which should provide ideal candidates for fundamental studies of superconductivity, piezoelectricity, and ferromagnetism in nanoscale structures.

  12. Single-Axis Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor); Capo-Lugo, Pedro A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single-axis accelerometer includes a housing defining a sleeve. An object/mass is disposed in the sleeve for sliding movement therein in a direction aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A first piezoelectric strip, attached to a first side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The first piezoelectric strip includes a first strip of a piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A second piezoelectric strip, attached to a second side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The second piezoelectric strip includes a second strip of the piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A voltage sensor is electrically coupled to at least one of the first and second piezoelectric strips.

  13. Single Cell Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  14. Growth and optimization of piezoelectric single crystal transducers for energy harvesting from acoustic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Romit

    Low power requirements of modern sensors and electronics have led to the examination of the feasibility of several energy harvesting schemes. This thesis describes the fabrication and performance of an acoustic energy harvester with single crystal piezoelectric unimorph. The unimorphs were fabricated from single crystal relaxor ferroelectric (1-x)PMN - xPT grown with x = 0.3 and 0.32 as the starting composition. It is demonstrated that significant power can be harvested using unimorph structures from an acoustic field at resonance. Passive circuit components were used for output circuit with a resistive load in series with a tunable inductor. A tuning capacitor connected in parallel to the device further increased the power output by matching the impedance of the unimorph. The power harvested can be either used directly for running low-power devices or can be stored in a rechargeable battery. A comparison of the performance of PMN-PT and PZT unimorphs at the resonance of the coupled structure under identical excitation conditions was done. For a certain optimized thickness ratio and circuit parameters, the single crystal PMN-PT unimorph generated 30 mW of power while a PZT unimorph generated 7.5 mW at resonance and room temperature. The harvested output power from the single crystal PMN-PT unimorphs depends on several material properties, physical and ambient parameters and an effort has been made to study their effect on the performance. A self-seeding high pressure Bridgman (HPB) technique was used to grow the PMN-PT single crystal ingots in a cost-effective way in our laboratories. Several techniques of material processing were developed to fabricate the PMN-PT single crystal unimorphs from as grown bulk ingots. This growth technique produced good quality single crystals for our experiments, with a k33 = 0.91 for a <001> oriented bar.

  15. Single Parenting of the Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Carroll

    1991-06-01

    This article discusses issues that are of interest and concern to all parents of adolescents, but that may be particularly difficult for single parents to manage. It also provides a framework for examining the areas of similarity as well as difference between the adolescent and the single parent. Attention is paid to the potential advantages of single-parent status.

  16. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  17. A single particle energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R. |; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  18. Single Molecule Mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; Zhang, Yanxing; Ho, Wilson; Wu, Ruqian; Ruqian Wu, Yanxing Zhang Team; Wilson Ho, Shaowei Li Team

    Mechanical forces can be used to trigger chemical reactions through bending and stretching of chemical bonds. Using the reciprocating movement of the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), mechanical energy can be provided to a single molecule sandwiched between the tip and substrate. When the mechanical pulse center was moved to the outer ring feature of a CO molecule, the reaction rate was significantly increased compared with bare Cu surface and over Au atoms. First, DFT calculations show that the presence of CO makes the Cu cavity more attractive toward H2 Second, H2 prefers the horizontal adsorption geometry in the Cu-Cu and Au-Cu cavities and no hybridization occurs between the antibonding states of H2 and states of Cu atoms. While H2 loses electrons from its bonding state in all three cavities, the filling of its anti-bonding state only occurs in the CO-Cu cavity. Both make the CO-Cu cavity much more effectively to chop the H2 molecule. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation Center for Chemical Innovation on Chemistry at the Space-Time Limit (CaSTL) under Grant No. CHE-1414466.

  19. Single-nucleon experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    We discuss the Jefferson Lab low momentum transfer data on moments of the nucleon spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$ and on single charged pion electroproduction off polarized proton and polarized neutron. A wealth of data is now available, while more is being analyzed or expected to be taken in the upcoming years. Given the low momentum transfer selected by the experiments, these data can be compared to calculations from Chiral Perturbation theory, the effective theory of strong force that should describe it at low momentum transfer. The data on various moments and the respective calculations do not consistently agree. In particular, experimental data for higher moments disagree with the calculations.The absence of contribution from the $\\Delta$ resonance in the various observables was expected to facilitate the calculations and hence make the theory predictions either more robust or valid over a larger $Q^2$ range. Such expectation is verified only for the Bjorken sum, but not for other observables in which the $\\Delta$ is suppressed. Preliminary results on pion electroproduction off polarized nucleons are also presented and compared to phenomenological models for which contributions from different resonances are varied. Chiral Perturbation calculations of these observables, while not yet available, would be valuable and, together with these data, would provide an extensive test of the effective theory.

  20. Single slip dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, Andrea; Petri, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    In the present paper we consider a 1-D, single spring-slider analog model of fault and we solve the equation of motion within the coseismic time window. We incorporate in the dynamic problem different rheologic behavior, starting from the Coulomb friction (which postulates a constant value of the dynamic resistance), then the viscous rheology (where the friction resistance linearly depends on the sliding speed), and finally a version of the more refined rate-and state-dependent friction law. We present analytical solutions of the equation of motion for the different cases and we are able to find the common features of the solutions, in terms of the most important physical observables characterizing the solutions of a 1-D dynamic fault problem; the peak slip velocity, the time at which it is attained (or, in other words, the so-called rise time), the total cumulative slip developed at the end of the process (assumed to occur when the sliding speed vanishes or become comparable to its initial value). We also extract some useful dependences of these quantities on the parameters of the models. Finally, we compare the spectral behavior of the resulting sliding velocity and its fall-off at high frequencies.

  1. Unfolding single- and multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Maria-Gema; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    When planar structures (e.g. sedimentary layers, veins, dykes, cleavages, etc.) are subjected to deformation, they have about equal chances to be shortened or stretched. The most common shortening and stretching structures are folds and boudinage, respectively. However, boudinage requires additional deformation mechanisms apart from viscous flow, like formation of fractures or strain localization. When folded layers are subjected to extension, they could potentially unfold back to straight layers. Although probably not uncommon, this would be difficult to recognize. Open questions are whether folded layers can unfold, what determines their mechanical behaviour and how we can recognize them in the field. In order to approach these questions, we present a series of numerical experiments that simulate stretching of previously folded single- and multi-layers in simple shear, using the two dimensional numerical modelling platform ELLE, including the finite element module BASIL that calculates viscous deformation. We investigate the parameters that affect a fold train once it rotates into the extensional field. The results show that the unfolding process strongly depends on the viscosity contrast between the layer and matrix (Llorens et al., 2013). Layers do not completely unfold when they experience softening before or during the stretching process or when other neighbouring competent layers prevent them from unfolding. The foliation refraction patterns are the main indicators of unfolded folds. Additionally, intrafolial folds and cusp-like folds adjacent to straight layers, as well as variations in fold amplitudes and limb lengths of irregular folds can also be used as indicators of stretching of a layer after shortening and folding. References: Llorens, M-.G., Bons, P.D., Griera, A. and Gomez-Rivas, E. 2013. When do folds unfold during progressive shear?. Geology, 41, 563-566.

  2. High Yield Methods for Cutting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-13

    ether until the pH of the filtrate was neutral. The diethyl ether-wet filter cake was transferred to a Petri dish or beaker and the clumps were broken...corrosive solutions and appropriate safety precautions should be utilized including the use of acid resistant gloves and adequate shielding. The...of the US-SWNTs. After most of the liquid had been pulled through the filter cake , the vacuum line was removed from the flask and the filter cake

  3. Single well electric oil stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Th. K.

    1985-06-11

    A single well method and apparatus for electrically applying heat and stimulating is comprised of a relatively lower surface area formation electrode and relatively high surface area overburden electrode extending downward into the borehole past low resistivity water zones. This long overburden electrode may be formed of nonmagnetic metal to reduce hysteresis losses in the electrode. This improved single well system causes most of power to be dissipated in the oil pay zone and thereby renders single well production economical.

  4. Quantitative biology of single neurons

    PubMed Central

    Eberwine, James; Lovatt, Ditte; Buckley, Peter; Dueck, Hannah; Francis, Chantal; Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Miler; Miyashiro, Kevin; Morris, Jacqueline; Peritz, Tiina; Schochet, Terri; Spaethling, Jennifer; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Kim, Junhyong

    2012-01-01

    The building blocks of complex biological systems are single cells. Fundamental insights gained from single-cell analysis promise to provide the framework for understanding normal biological systems development as well as the limits on systems/cellular ability to respond to disease. The interplay of cells to create functional systems is not well understood. Until recently, the study of single cells has concentrated primarily on morphological and physiological characterization. With the application of new highly sensitive molecular and genomic technologies, the quantitative biochemistry of single cells is now accessible. PMID:22915636

  5. Single-Atom Single-Photon Quantum Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehring, David; Bochmann, Joerg; Muecke, Martin; Specht, Holger; Weber, Bernhard; Wilk, Tatjana; Rempe, Gerhard

    2008-05-01

    By combining atom trapping techniques and cavity cooling schemes we are able to trap a single neutral atom inside a high-finesse cavity for several tens of seconds. We show that our coupled atom-cavity system can be used to generate single photons in a controlled way. With our long trapping times and high single-photon production efficiency, the non-classical properties of the emitted light can be shown in the photon correlations of a single atom. In a similar atom-cavity setup, we investigate the interface between atoms and photons by entangling a single atom with a single photon emitted into the cavity and by further mapping the quantum state of the atom onto a second single photon. These schemes are intrinsically deterministic and establish the basic element required to realize a distributed quantum network with individual atoms at rest as quantum memories and single flying photons as quantum messengers. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the European Union SCALA and CONQUEST programs. D. L. M. acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  6. Single wheel testers, single track testers, and instrumented tractors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single wheel testers and single track testers are used for determining tractive performance characteristics of tires and tracks. Instrumented tractors are useful in determining the tractive performance of tractors. These machines are also used for determining soil-tire and soil-track interactions,...

  7. Assessing Dimensions of Single Parenting: The Single Parenting Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Arnold L.; Ullman, Ann J.

    1984-01-01

    Developed and validated an instrument that assesses five dimensions of single parenting: problem solving skills, parental warmth, discipline procedures, parent rules, enthusiasm for parenting and parent support systems. Results gave statistical support for the Single Parenting Questionnaire, suggesting it may be useful in both clinical and…

  8. Single-channel biophysical and pharmacological characterizations of native human large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in freshly isolated detrusor smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Malysz, John; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) function in vitro and in vivo. However, in-depth characterization of human native DSM single BK channels has not yet been provided. Here, we conducted single-channel recordings from excised patches from native human DSM cells. Inside-out and outside-out recordings in high K(+) symmetrical solution (containing 140 mM KCl and ~300 nM free Ca(2+)) showed single-channel conductance of 215-220 pS, half-maximum constant for activation of ~+75 to +80 mV, and low probability of opening (P o) at +20 mV that increased ~10-fold at +40 mV and ~60-fold at +60 mV. Using the inside-out configuration at +30 mV, reduction of intracellular [Ca(2+)] from ~300 nM to Ca(2+)-free decreased the P o by ~85 %, whereas elevation to ~800 nM increased P o by ~50-fold. The BK channel activator NS1619 (10 μM) enhanced the P o by ~10-fold at +30 mV; subsequent application of the selective BK channel inhibitor paxilline (500 nM) blocked the activity. Changes in intracellular [Ca(2+)] or the addition of NS1619 did not significantly alter the current amplitude or single-channel conductance. This is the first report to provide biophysical and pharmacological profiles of native human DSM single BK channels highlighting their importance in regulating human DSM excitability.

  9. Single-cavity SLED device

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, B.A.

    1984-09-01

    The conventional SLED device used at SLAC requires two cavities. However, the same effect can be obtained with a single cavity; the theory and operation of the device is the same, only the hardware is changed. The single-cavity device is described here.

  10. Single-Gender Schools Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on publicly run schools in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago which has found that, while single-sex schools may benefit female students who prefer a single-sex environment, they are not inherently beneficial for boys or most girls. While the findings are based on data from one Caribbean nation, experts say they…

  11. In vivo single-molecule imaging identifies altered dynamics of calcium channels in dystrophin-mutant C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Hong; Stanciauskas, Ramunas; Stigloher, Christian; Dizon, Kevin K.; Jospin, Maelle; Bessereau, Jean-Louis; Pinaud, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule (SM) fluorescence microscopy allows the imaging of biomolecules in cultured cells with a precision of a few nanometres but has yet to be implemented in living adult animals. Here we used split-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions and complementation-activated light microscopy (CALM) for subresolution imaging of individual membrane proteins in live Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). In vivo tissue-specific SM tracking of transmembrane CD4 and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) was achieved with a precision of 30 nm within neuromuscular synapses and at the surface of muscle cells in normal and dystrophin-mutant worms. Through diffusion analyses, we reveal that dystrophin is involved in modulating the confinement of VDCC within sarcolemmal membrane nanodomains in response to varying tonus of C. elegans body-wall muscles. CALM expands the applications of SM imaging techniques beyond the petri dish and opens the possibility to explore the molecular basis of homeostatic and pathological cellular processes with subresolution precision, directly in live animals. PMID:25232639

  12. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  13. High-power operation of highly reliable narrow stripe pseudomorphic single quantum well lasers emitting at 980 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Forouhar, S.; Cody, J.; Lang, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Ridge waveguide pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs single-quantum-well lasers exhibiting record high quantum efficiencies and high output power densities (105 mW per facet from a 6 micron wide stripe) at a lasing wavelength of 980 nm are discussed that were fabricated from a graded index separate confinement heterostructure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Life testing at an output power of 30 mW per uncoated facet reveals a slow gradual degradation during the initial 500 h of operation after which the operating characteristics of the lasers become stable. The emission wavelength, the high output power, and the fundamental lateral mode operation render these lasers suitable for pumping Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers.

  14. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    SciTech Connect

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of {approximately}3.07 m (120.7 {+-} 2 in. from sidewall bottom or {approximately}132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19{degrees}C (66{degrees}F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992.

  15. Single element magnetic suspension actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention, a single element magnetic suspension actuator with bidirectional force capability along a single axis, includes an electromagnet and a nonmagnetic suspended element. A permanent magnet mounted on the suspended element interacts with a magnetic field established by the electromagnet to produce bidirectional forces in response to a variable force command voltage V (sub FC) applied to the electromagnet. A sensor measures the position of the suspended element on the single axis which is a function of force command voltage V (sub FC).

  16. Single-interface Casimir torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-10-01

    A different type of Casimir-type interaction is theoretically predicted: a single-interface torque at a junction of an anisotropic material and a vacuum or another material system. The torque acts to reorient the polarizable microscopic units of the involved materials near the interface, and thus to change the internal structure of the materials. The single-interface torque depends on the zero-point energy of the interface localized and extended modes. Our theory demonstrates that the single-interface torque is essential to understand the Casimir physics of material systems with anisotropic elements and may influence the orientation of the director of nematic liquid crystals.

  17. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed. PMID:26053399

  18. Drawing with a Single Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole Austen; Anderson, Lorraine

    1979-01-01

    Described is a method of tapping students' creative potential in art: the Spontaneous Response Drawing. SRD consists of drawing with a single line, usually with crayons or colored felt tip pens on a large sheet of paper. (KC)

  19. Fluorescence Microscopy of Single Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Jan; van Dorp, Arthur; Renn, Alois

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of photochemistry and photophysics of individual quantum systems is described with the help of a wide-field fluorescence microscopy approach. The fluorescence single molecules are observed in real time.

  20. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  1. Creep of Oxide Single Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    literature data on Gd 3Ga5O1 2 (8) indicate that garnets may be highly deformation resistant at temperatures very close to their melting points...Data for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Single Crystals Temperature Stress Creep Rate (sec 1 ) for Given Stress Direction (0C) (MPa) [111] [110] [100] 1650...Gadolinium Gallium Garnet Single Crystals," J.Mat.Sci., 17, 878-884 (1982). 9. B.M. Wanklyn, Clarendon Laboratory, personal communicaticn. 10. S.B. Austerman

  2. Acquiring a Single New Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Bartlett, Elsa

    Twenty children aged 3;0 to 3;10 were studied for behavior related to the acquisition of a single new word ("chromium," which was presented as designating the color olive green). The research was conducted in three cycles: prior to exposure to "chromium," at the time of a single encounter with that word, and about a week after the first encounter.…

  3. Single atom impurity in a single molecular transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. J.

    2014-10-01

    The influence of an impurity atom on the electrostatic behaviour of a Single Molecular Transistor was investigated through Ab-initio calculations in a double-gated geometry. The charge stability diagram carries unique signature of the position of the impurity atom in such devices which together with the charging energy of the molecule could be utilised as an electronic fingerprint for the detection of such impurity states in a nano-electronic device. The two gated geometry allows additional control over the electrostatics as can be seen from the total energy surfaces (for a specific charge state), which is sensitive to the positions of the impurity. These devices which are operational at room temperature can provide significant advantages over the conventional silicon based single dopant devices functional at low temperature. The present approach could be a very powerful tool for the detection and control of individual impurity atoms in a single molecular device and for applications in future molecular electronics.

  4. Force spectroscopy on single passive biomolecules and single biomolecular bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Rudolf

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the recent development of the rapidly expanding field of single molecule force spectroscopy. As the advancement of this field was dictated by technical progress, a large part of this review is focussed on methodological aspects. Moreover, several instructive experiments will be presented. However, it is already impossible to cover the whole field in one review article. Experiments on stretching of single polymers, on force induced dissociation of single bonds, and on unfolding of multidomain proteins are covered whereas active molecules (molecular motors) will be excluded. The physical interpretation of the selected experiments is addressed. The connection between the experimental results and the underlying microscopic properties of the molecules and their respective bonds will be discussed. Especially kinetic effects are of high importance for the interpretation of these experiments.

  5. Single atom impurity in a single molecular transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S. J.

    2014-10-21

    The influence of an impurity atom on the electrostatic behaviour of a Single Molecular Transistor was investigated through Ab-initio calculations in a double-gated geometry. The charge stability diagram carries unique signature of the position of the impurity atom in such devices which together with the charging energy of the molecule could be utilised as an electronic fingerprint for the detection of such impurity states in a nano-electronic device. The two gated geometry allows additional control over the electrostatics as can be seen from the total energy surfaces (for a specific charge state), which is sensitive to the positions of the impurity. These devices which are operational at room temperature can provide significant advantages over the conventional silicon based single dopant devices functional at low temperature. The present approach could be a very powerful tool for the detection and control of individual impurity atoms in a single molecular device and for applications in future molecular electronics.

  6. Plant single-cell and single-cell-type metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue

    2014-10-01

    In conjunction with genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, plant metabolomics is providing large data sets that are paving the way towards a comprehensive and holistic understanding of plant growth, development, defense, and productivity. However, dilution effects from organ- and tissue-based sampling of metabolomes have limited our understanding of the intricate regulation of metabolic pathways and networks at the cellular level. Recent advances in metabolomics methodologies, along with the post-genomic expansion of bioinformatics knowledge and functional genomics tools, have allowed the gathering of enriched information on individual cells and single cell types. Here we review progress, current status, opportunities, and challenges presented by single cell-based metabolomics research in plants.

  7. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  8. 203 SINGLE-STEP GENE EDITING OF 3 XENOANTIGENS IN PORCINE FIBROBLASTS USING PROGRAMMABLE NUCLEASES.

    PubMed

    Perota, A; Lagutina, I; Quadalti, C; Duchi, R; Turini, P; Crotti, G; Colleoni, S; Conchon, S; Concordet, J-P; Lazzari, G; Soulillou, J-P; Galli, C

    2016-01-01

    Programmable nucleases (ZFN, Tal Effector Nucleases, and CRISPR) opened a new era for mammal genome editing, in particular for the pigs used for xenotransplantation. Multiple gene editing events are required both for knockout (KO) of xenoantigens and for targeted integration of human protective genes (Perota et al. 2016 J. Genet. Genomics 43, 233-23). The objective of the present work was to edit selected pig lines to KO the enzymes coding for the most relevant xenoantigens (i.e. GGTA1, CMAH, and B4GalNT2), combining Talens and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies to magnetic beads selection (Li et al. 2013 Xenotransplantation 22, 20-31). Primary porcine adult fibroblasts were transfected using Nucleofector (V-024 program). In a single reaction 2×10(6) fibroblasts were co-transfected using 2 different sets of TALENS (4μg/set) specific for CMAH (Conchon et al., 2013) and GGTA1 (Perota et al., 2015) genes together with B4GalNT2-specific CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector (2μg; pX330-B4GalNT2; Estrada et al., 2015). Eight days post-transfection (DPT), Gal-/- cells were selected initially using biotin-conjugated IB4 lectin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) and magnetic beads (Dynabeads M-280, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The selected cells were then plated on 150-mm Petri dishes (200 cells/dish) and cultured for 10 days. Selected colonies were expanded for PCR analysis and cryopreserved for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). All colonies were analysed by PCR for CMAH gene and their resulting products were digested with HindIII (HindIII-RFLP). Colonies that lost wild-type HindIII as a consequence of Talens effected deletion were PCR characterised for GGTA1, selecting those that had detectable Indels after gel electrophoresis and finally analysed by PCR for B4GalNT2. All PCR products were validated by sequencing for all the 3 genes of interest (TopoTA, Thermo Fisher Scientific). Selected colonies were used as nuclear donors for SCNT (Lagutina et al., 2006). Eight DPT we

  9. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters

    PubMed Central

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS’s performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way. PMID:22713390

  10. Single-photon decision maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  11. Single-photon decision maker.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-08-17

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  12. Introduction: why analyze single cells?

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Dino; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Gossett, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant; however, in many fields including hematology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and cancer biology, data from tools and assays that analyze the average signals from many cells may not yield the desired result because the cells of interest may be in the minority-their behavior masked by the majority-or because the dynamics of the populations of interest are offset in time. Accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. In this chapter, we discuss the rationale for performing analyses on individual cells in more depth, cover the fields of study in which single-cell behavior is yielding new insights into biological and clinical questions, and speculate on how single-cell analysis will be critical in the future.

  13. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Zhang, Wenhua; Xin, Hongbo; Deng, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Individual cell heterogeneity within a population can be critical to its peculiar function and fate. Subpopulations studies with mixed mutants and wild types may not be as informative regarding which cell responds to which drugs or clinical treatments. Cell to cell differences in RNA transcripts and protein expression can be key to answering questions in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology, and developmental biology. Conventional cell-based assays mainly analyze the average responses from a population of cells, without regarding individual cell phenotypes. To better understand the variations from cell to cell, scientists need to use single cell analyses to provide more detailed information for therapeutic decision making in precision medicine. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in single cell isolation and analysis, which include technologies, analyses and main applications. Here, we summarize the historical background, limitations, applications, and potential of single cell isolation technologies. PMID:27826548

  14. Ramsey Interference with Single Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmen, Stéphane; Farsi, Alessandro; Ramelow, Sven; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2016-11-01

    Interferometry using discrete energy levels of nuclear, atomic, or molecular systems is the foundation for a wide range of physical phenomena and enables powerful techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, Ramsey-based spectroscopy, and laser or maser technology. It also plays a unique role in quantum information processing as qubits may be implemented as energy superposition states of simple quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate quantum interference involving energy states of single quanta of light. In full analogy to the energy levels of atoms or nuclear spins, we implement a Ramsey interferometer with single photons. We experimentally generate energy superposition states of a single photon and manipulate them with unitary transformations to realize arbitrary projective measurements. Our approach opens the path for frequency-encoded photonic qubits in quantum information processing and quantum communication.

  15. A single supply biopotential amplifier.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, E M; Martinez, N H; Mayosky, M A

    2001-04-01

    A biopotential amplifier for single supply operation is presented. It uses a Driven Right Leg Circuit (DRL) to drive the patient's body to a DC common mode voltage, centering biopotential signals with respect to the amplifier's input voltage range. This scheme ensures proper range operation when a single power supply is used. The circuit described is especially suited for low consumption, battery-powered applications, requiring a single battery and avoiding switching voltage inverters to achieve dual supplies. The generic circuit is described and, as an example, a biopotential amplifier with a gain of 60 dB and a DC input range of +/-200 mV was implemented using low power operational amplifiers. A Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of 126 dB at 50 Hz was achieved without trimming.

  16. Single-photon decision maker

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions. PMID:26278007

  17. Catalysis on Single Supported Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The highly successful application of supported metals as heterogeneous catalysts in automotive catalysts, fuel cells, and other multitudes of industrial processes have led to extensive efforts to understand catalyst behavior at the nano-scale. Recent discovery of simple wet methods to prepare single supported atoms, the smallest nano-catalyst, has allowed for experimental validation of catalytic activity of a variety of catalysts and potential for large scale production for such catalysts for industrial processes. In this chapter, we summarize the synthetic and structural aspects of single supported atoms. We also present proposed mechanisms for the activity of single supported catalysts where conventional mechanisms cannot operate due to lack of M-M bonds in the catalysts.

  18. Direct observation of single flexible polymers using single stranded DNA†

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Christopher; Kim, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, double stranded DNA (dsDNA) has been used as a model polymeric system for nearly all single polymer dynamics studies. However, dsDNA is a semiflexible polymer with markedly different molecular properties compared to flexible chains, including synthetic organic polymers. In this work, we report a new system for single polymer studies of flexible chains based on single stranded DNA (ssDNA). We developed a method to synthesize ssDNA for fluorescence microscopy based on rolling circle replication, which generates long strands (>65 kb) of ssDNA containing “designer” sequences, thereby preventing intramolecular base pair interactions. Polymers are synthesized to contain amine-modified bases randomly distributed along the backbone, which enables uniform labelling of polymer chains with a fluorescent dye to facilitate fluorescence microscopy and imaging. Using this approach, we synthesized ssDNA chains with long contour lengths (>30 μm) and relatively low dye loading ratios (~1 dye per 100 bases). In addition, we used epifluorescence microscopy to image single ssDNA polymer molecules stretching in flow in a microfluidic device. Overall, we anticipate that ssDNA will serve as a useful model system to probe the dynamics of polymeric materials at the molecular level. PMID:22956981

  19. Single Particle Difraction at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, M.; Boutet, S.; Starodub, Dmitri; Decorwin-Martin, Philippe; Chapman, H.; Bajt, S.; Schulz, J.; Hajdu, Janos; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Marchesini, Stefano; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Woods, Bruce; Rohner, Urs; /Tofwerk AG, Thun

    2010-06-11

    Single-pulse coherent diffraction patterns have been collected from randomly injected single particles with a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL). The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of the object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. A diffraction pattern of a single particle will only be recorded when the particle arrival into the FEL interaction region coincides with FEL pulse arrival and detector integration. The properties of the experimental apparatus coinciding with these three events set the data acquisition rate. For our single particle FLASH diffraction imaging experiments: (1) an aerodynamic lens stack prepared a particle beam that consisted of particles moving at 150-200 m/s positioned randomly in space and time, (2) the 10 fs long FEL pulses were delivered at a fixed rate, and (3) the detector was set to integrate and readout once every two seconds. The effect of these experimental parameters on the rate of data acquisition using randomly injected particles will be discussed. Overall, the ultrashort FEL pulses do not set the limit of the data acquisition, more important is the effective interaction time of the particle crossing the FEL focus, the pulse sequence structure and the detector readout rate. Example diffraction patterns of randomly injected ellipsoidal iron oxide nanoparticles in different orientations are presented. This is the first single particle diffraction data set of identical particles in different orientations collected on a shot-to-shot basis. This data set will be used to test algorithms for recovering 3D structure from single particle diffraction.

  20. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hochbaum, Allon I; Gargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-10-01

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  1. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  2. Applications of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Single-Stage, Multi-Stage and Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), based on the magnetocaloric effect, are solid-state coolers that were the first to achieve cooling well into the sub-kelvin regime. Although supplanted by more powerful dilution refrigerators in the 1960s, ADRs have experienced a revival due to the needs of the space community for cooling astronomical instruments and detectors to temperatures below 100 mK. The earliest of these were single-stage refrigerators using superfluid helium as a heat sink. Their modest cooling power (<1 µW at 60 mK[1]) was sufficient for the small (6x6) detector arrays[2], but recent advances in arraying and multiplexing technologies[3] are generating a need for higher cooling power (5-10 µW), and lower temperature (<30 mK). Single-stage ADRs have both practical and fundamental limits to their operating range, as mass grows very rapidly as the operating range is expanded. This has led to the development of new architectures that introduce multi-staging as a way to improve operating range, efficiency and cooling power. Multi-staging also enables ADRs to be configured for continuous operation, which greatly improves cooling power per unit mass. This paper reviews the current field of adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, beginning with a description of the magnetocaloric effect and its application in single-stage systems, and then describing the challenges and capabilities of multi-stage and continuous ADRs.

  3. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  4. Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

  5. Turbine endwall single cylinder program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L. S.; Eckerle, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the flow field in front of a large-scale single cylinder, mounted in a wind tunnel are discussed. Static pressures on the endwall and cylinder surfaces, extensive five-hole probe pressures in front of and around the cylinder, and velocity fluctuations using a hot-wire probe where the flow is steady enough to yield meaningful results are included.

  6. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  7. Nanodevices for Single Molecule Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craighead, H. G.; Stavis, S. M.; Samiee, K. T.

    During the last two decades, biotechnology research has resulted in progress in fields as diverse as the life sciences, agriculture and healthcare. While existing technology enables the analysis of a variety of biological systems, new tools are needed for increasing the efficiency of current methods, and for developing new ones altogether. Interest has grown in single molecule analysis for these reasons.

  8. Single photon searches at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.

  9. CERN single sign on solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormancey, E.

    2008-07-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

  10. Single file diffusion in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Farrell, Spencer; Brown, Aidan

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a confined tubular geometry, such as luminal diffusion of proteins inside microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no effect on particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually-tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0 , tracked particles display super-diffusive effective exponents just after they enter the system and trends towards diffusive exponents at later times. Equivalently, if diffusive exponents are assumed the effective diffusivity is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times through a logarithmic factor logN , where N is the number of particles in the tube. When we number each particle from the first (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of the effective diffusivity for all n. Techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching, will exhibit single-file effects.

  11. Single Mothers: Issues of Stigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worell, Judith

    This paper examines psychological and social issues for single mothers in the context of therapeutic strategies for effective intervention. Never married, previously married, and Lesbian mothers are considered in terms of sociocultural myths and sources of stigma; research findings related to these myths; and interventions targeting the…

  12. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Shukui; Michelle D. Shinn

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  13. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  14. Single mode glass fiber welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, M. D.; Fearnehough, H. T.; Goldstein, R.; Goss, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The electric-arc welding of commercially available single-mode optical fiber has been demonstrated. A mean transmission of 92% and a maximum transmission of 98% are reported for welds of fiber waveguide of 4.5 microns core diameter.

  15. Single Sheet Agricultural Mechanics Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Leon, Ed.

    This packet contains 25 single-page plans for agricultural mechanics projects. Each plan consists of a one-page set of drawings of the object to be made with a list of needed materials, a cut list, and step-by-step construction procedures on the back of the page. Plans for the following wood projects are included: bluebird house, lawn seat, dog…

  16. [Bacteriologic quality of the prepared dishes in cafeterias].

    PubMed

    Mouffok, F; Lebres, E; Makhlouf, B

    1992-01-01

    In this work, we reports results of bacteriologic analysis of 352 cooked meals (vegetables, meats, desserts). Although, 32% of analysed samples are bacteriologically good, 68% are contamined either by S.P.C but potentially dangerous either by pathogenic bacteria involved in food-born infections.

  17. Stirling Energy Systems` (SES) dish-Stirling program

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.W.; Braun, H.W.; Moore, M.I.; Clark, T.B.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a system to produce electrical power from the sun, and the plans for preparing it for commercial operation. The point-focus, Stirling-engine-based system was designed and tested in the 1980s by McDonnell Douglas Corporation and United Stirling AB of Sweden (now part of Kockums AB). Stirling Energy Systems (SES) has acquired the existing hardware and technology, and plans to upgrade the system in order to utilize its demonstrated performance to produce grid-compatible electrical power. The performance includes a higher solar-to-electric conversion efficiency than any other renewable energy technology (approximately 30%), with the potential of a two to four point increase. The paper presents a summary description of the hardware, its past test program, proposed improvements, and the plan for commercialization.

  18. Ditties and Dishes: Cooking Connections With Mother Goose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Terry L.; Anfin, Carol S.

    1997-01-01

    Argues involving young children in food preparation activities enhances traditional curriculum areas of language arts, math, science, and social skills. Encourages utilization of children's literature as sources replete with references to food and teaching ideas on food via literary tie-ins. Provides specific recipes which relate to Mother Goose…

  19. A dish-Stirling solar-thermal power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pons, R. L.; Clark, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a preliminary design/economic study of a first-generation point focusing distributed receiver solar-thermal electric system optimized for application to industrial and small community power plants at power levels up to 10 MWe. Power conversion is provided by small Stirling cycle engines mounted at the focus of paraboloidal solar concentrators. The output of multiple power modules (concentrator, receiver, engine, and electric generator) is collected by means of a conventional electrical system and interfaced with a utility grid. Based on the United Stirling P-75 engine, a 1 MWe system employing mass-produced components (100,000 modules/year) could produce electricity at costs competitive with those projected for electricity generated by more conventional means, e.g. with fossil fuels.

  20. Information Is a Common Core Dish Best Served First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkowiak, Temple A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a spike in negative comments about mathematics and standards since the implementation of the Common Core State Standards. Regardless of whether the comments are fueled by social media or traditional media, educators need to be armed with strategies for helping parents understand, navigate, and embrace the Common Core's mathematics…

  1. Technical Status of the Dish/Stirling Joint Venture Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    heliostats as the heat input source. Through another NREL program; Thermacore has designed built, and tested a prototype hybrid heat pipe receiver...These subsystems include the solar concentrator, heat pipe receiver, engine/alternator, power conditioning, and automatic controls. 14. SUBJECT...include the solar concentrator, heat pipe receiver, engine/altemator, power conditioning, and automatic controls. INTRODUCTION Initiated in 1991; the

  2. Science as Culture: A View from the Petri Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labinger, Jay A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent work in sociological/cultural studies of science (SCS) is characterized by the absence of participation by practicing scientists. If there are significant areas of opportunity where the methods and concepts of SCS could have a positive impact on the practice of science, collaboration between scientist and SCSer might well be preferred to…

  3. Space Debris Radar Experiments at the Medicina VLBI Dish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Montebugnoli, S.; Di Martino, M.; Salerno, E.; Bartolini, M.; Pluchino, S.; Schilliro, F.; Anselmo, L.; Portelli, C.; Konovalenko, A.; Nabatov, A.

    2009-03-01

    In 2007 three space debris detection tests were performed in the framework of a monitoring program carried out by the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - INAF - in collaboration with the Italian Space Agency - ASI. The observations were made by using the bistatic radar technique. The INAF 32 m radiotelescope located at Medicina (Bologna, Italy) was used as receiver whereas the Ukrainian 70 m parabolic antenna located at Evpatoria was utilized as transmitter. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of the Medicina-Evpatoria radar system in space debris detection, and to validate and optimize the hardware setup. Measurements were mainly carried out on inactive satellites and catalogued space debris. However the search for new fragments in LEO was also performed during the campaign. This paper reports on results of these observations.

  4. Experiential Education: The Main Dish, Not Just a Side Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jeff

    This paper advocates experiential education to help students actively engage in learning and transfer learning beyond the classroom. The characteristics and advantages of experiential education also provide educators with a more rewarding and enriching teaching experience. Typically, experiential education is viewed as an enhancement to more…

  5. An Optimal Design For Steerable Dish Antenna With BWG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, K. L.; Lansing, F. L.

    1990-01-01

    New design proposed for highly-efficient 34-m-diameter millimeter-wavelength antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network. Incorporates axial beam waveguide, BWG, and improved structure to maintain shape and alignment of reflecting surfaces. General approach to conceptual construction of structure to modularize overall system so critical constraint conditions pertaining to microwave optics and structural performance satisfied. Design retrofitted to existing NASA Deep Space Network 34-m antennas, or used as basis to build large ground-based steerable antennas. Engineering concepts involved in design adapted to design of other large, steerable antennas for telecommunications, radio astronomy, and military uses.

  6. Test and Analysis of an Inflatable Parabolic Dish Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, james L.; Sreekantamurthy, Tham; Mann, Troy; Behun, Vaughn; Romanofsky, Robert; Lambert, Kevin; Pearson, James

    2006-01-01

    NASA is developing ultra-lightweight structures technology for large communication antennas for application to space missions. With these goals in mind, SRS Technologies has been funded by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to undertake the development of a subscale ultra-thin membrane inflatable antenna for deep-space applications. One of the research goals is to develop approaches for prediction of the radio frequency and structural characteristics of inflatable and rigidizable membrane antenna structures. GRC has teamed with NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to evaluate inflatable and rigidizable antenna concepts for potential space missions. GRC has completed tests to evaluate RF performance, while LaRC completed structural tests and analysis to evaluate the static shape and structural dynamic responses of a laboratory model of a 0.3 meter antenna. This paper presents the details of the tests and analysis completed to evaluate the radio frequency and structural characteristics of the antenna.

  7. Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Annual Program Review Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbeck, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development and testing of concentrators, receivers, and power conversion units are reported. System design and development for engineering experiments are described. Economic analysis and market assessments for advanced development activities are discussed. Technology development issues and application/user needs are highlighted.

  8. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and…

  9. Criteria for evaluation of reflective surface for parabolic dish concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial, second surface glass mirror are emphasized, but aluminum and metallized polymeric films are also included. Criteria for sealing solar mirrors in order to prevent environmental degradation and criteria for bonding sagged or bent mirrors to substrate materials are described. An overview of the technical areas involved in evaluating small mirror samples, sections, and entire large gores is presented. A basis for mirror criteria was established that eventually may become part of inspection and evaluation techniques for three dimensional parabolic reflective surfaces.

  10. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  11. Sample Targeting During Single-Particle Single-Cell Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, A. W.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Michel, K. A.; Brenner, D. J.; Dymnikov, A. D.

    2003-08-01

    An apertured microbeam is used for single-particle single-cell irradiation to study radiobiological effects at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF), Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. The present sample targeting system involves imaging techniques and a stepping motor stage to sequentially position a cell nucleus above a vertical ion beam. An interest expressed by the biology research community in targeting subnuclear components has spurred the development of microbeam II, a next-generation facility to include a focused ion beam and a more precise sample manipulator, a voice coil stage. Sample positioning precision will rely on a feedback circuit incorporating linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position measurements. In addition, post-lens electrostatic deflection is a contender for a point-and-shoot system that could speed up the cell irradiation process for cells within an image frame. Crucial to this development is that ion beam blow up must be minimal during deflection.

  12. Single crystalline superstructured stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Victoria; Kovács, András; Kumari, Monika; Bereczk-Tompa, Éva; Schneck, Emanuel; Diehle, Patrick; Pósfai, Mihály; Hirt, Ann M.; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Faivre, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles exhibit magnetic properties that are size and organization dependent and, for applications that rely on their magnetic state, they usually have to be monodisperse. Forming such particles, however, has remained a challenge. Here, we synthesize 40 nm particles of magnetite in the presence of polyarginine and show that they are composed of 10 nm building blocks, yet diffract like single crystals. We use both bulk magnetic measurements and magnetic induction maps recorded from individual particles using off-axis electron holography to show that each 40 nm particle typically contains a single magnetic domain. The magnetic state is therefore determined primarily by the size of the superstructure and not by the sizes of the constituent sub-units. Our results fundamentally demonstrate the structure – property relationship in a magnetic mesoparticle. PMID:28358051

  13. A single-molecule approach to ZnO defect studies: Single photons and single defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, N. R.; Pai, Y. Y.; Chang, H. S.; MacQuarrie, E. R.; Nguyen, K. X.; Fuchs, G. D.

    2014-07-01

    Investigations that probe defects one at a time offer a unique opportunity to observe properties and dynamics that are washed out of ensemble measurements. Here, we present confocal fluorescence measurements of individual defects in ZnO nanoparticles and sputtered films that are excited with sub-bandgap energy light. Photon correlation measurements yield both antibunching and bunching, indicative of single-photon emission from isolated defects that possess a metastable shelving state. The single-photon emission is in the range of ˜560-720 nm and typically exhibits two broad spectral peaks separated by ˜150 meV. The excited state lifetimes range from 1 to 13 ns, consistent with the finite-size and surface effects of nanoparticles and small grains. We also observe discrete jumps in the fluorescence intensity between a bright state and a dark state. The dwell times in each state are exponentially distributed and the average dwell time in the bright (dark) state does (may) depend on the power of the exciting laser. Taken together, our measurements demonstrate the utility of a single-molecule approach to semiconductor defect studies and highlight ZnO as a potential host material for single-defect based applications.

  14. A single-molecule approach to ZnO defect studies: Single photons and single defects

    SciTech Connect

    Jungwirth, N. R.; Pai, Y. Y.; Chang, H. S.; MacQuarrie, E. R.; Nguyen, K. X.; Fuchs, G. D.

    2014-07-28

    Investigations that probe defects one at a time offer a unique opportunity to observe properties and dynamics that are washed out of ensemble measurements. Here, we present confocal fluorescence measurements of individual defects in ZnO nanoparticles and sputtered films that are excited with sub-bandgap energy light. Photon correlation measurements yield both antibunching and bunching, indicative of single-photon emission from isolated defects that possess a metastable shelving state. The single-photon emission is in the range of ∼560–720 nm and typically exhibits two broad spectral peaks separated by ∼150 meV. The excited state lifetimes range from 1 to 13 ns, consistent with the finite-size and surface effects of nanoparticles and small grains. We also observe discrete jumps in the fluorescence intensity between a bright state and a dark state. The dwell times in each state are exponentially distributed and the average dwell time in the bright (dark) state does (may) depend on the power of the exciting laser. Taken together, our measurements demonstrate the utility of a single-molecule approach to semiconductor defect studies and highlight ZnO as a potential host material for single-defect based applications.

  15. Single event phenomena: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, W. E.; Coss, J. R.

    1989-04-01

    Single event phenomena (SEP) are effects resulting from a single particle inducing a significant response in an integrated circuit. SEP are of greatest concern to spacecraft designers but are becoming of concern to avionics and large earth-bound electronic systems due to the continual reduction in size (which increases SEP sensitivity) of circuit elements. The phenomena include soft error and multiple errors in memory cells or logic latches, latchup, MOSFET power device burnout, MNOS punch-through and transients. Cyclotron and Van de Graaff accelerators are used to produce heavy ions, protons and neutrons which induce SEP effects. Methods of testing are described. Solutions to SEP are varied, but include parts substitutions or redesign and software solutions which will be described.

  16. Progress toward single cell metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Lanni, Eric J.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolome refers to the entire set of small molecules, or metabolites, within a biological sample. These molecules are involved in many fundamental intracellular functions and reflect the cell’s physiological condition. The ability to detect and identify metabolites and determine and monitor their amounts at the single cell level enables an exciting range of studies of biological variation and functional heterogeneity between cells, even within a presumably homogenous cell population. Significant progress has been made in the development and application of bioanalytical tools for single cell metabolomics based on mass spectrometry, microfluidics, and capillary separations. Remarkable improvements in the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput of these approaches enable investigation of multiple metabolites simultaneously in a range of individual cell samples. PMID:23246232

  17. Magnetic anisotropy in single clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, Matthieu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Thirion, Christophe; Dupuis, Véronique; Mélinon, Patrice; Pérez, Alain; Mailly, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic measurements on single cobalt and iron nanoclusters containing almost 1000 atoms are presented. Particles are directly buried within the superconducting film of a micro-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) which leads to the required sensitivity. The angular dependence of the switching field in three dimensions turns out to be in good agreement with a uniform rotation of cluster magnetization. The Stoner and Wohlfarth model yields therefore an estimation of magnetic anisotropy in a single cluster. In particular, uniaxial, biaxial, and cubic contributions can be separated. Results are interpreted on the basis of a simple atomic model in which clusters are assimilated to “giant spins.” We present an extension of the Néel model to clusters in order to estimate surface anisotropy. In the case of cobalt, this last contribution dominates and numerical simulations allow us to get the morphology of the investigated clusters.

  18. Single-bunch synchrotron shutter

    DOEpatents

    Norris, James R.; Tang, Jau-Huei; Chen, Lin; Thurnauer, Marion

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for selecting a single synchrotron pulse from the millions of pulses provided per second from a synchrotron source includes a rotating spindle located in the path of the synchrotron pulses. The spindle has multiple faces of a highly reflective surface, and having a frequency of rotation f. A shutter is spaced from the spindle by a radius r, and has an open position and a closed position. The pulses from the synchrotron are reflected off the spindle to the shutter such that the speed s of the pulses at the shutter is governed by: s=4.times..pi..times.r.times.f. such that a single pulse is selected for transmission through an open position of the shutter.

  19. Femtosecond single-electron diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Lahme, S.; Kealhofer, C.; Krausz, F.; Baum, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction allows the tracking of atomic motion in real time, but space charge effects within dense electron packets are a problem for temporal resolution. Here, we report on time-resolved pump-probe diffraction using femtosecond single-electron pulses that are free from intra-pulse Coulomb interactions over the entire trajectory from the source to the detector. Sufficient average electron current is achieved at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz. Thermal load on the sample is avoided by minimizing the pump-probe area and by maximizing heat diffusion. Time-resolved diffraction from fibrous graphite polycrystals reveals coherent acoustic phonons in a nanometer-thick grain ensemble with a signal-to-noise level comparable to conventional multi-electron experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility of pump-probe diffraction in the single-electron regime, where simulations indicate compressibility of the pulses down to few-femtosecond and attosecond duration. PMID:26798778

  20. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.