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Sample records for 30microl-1 inhibition zone

  1. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  2. Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2015-01-01

    A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (Tc) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at Tc was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 μg mL−1, and Tc was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R2 = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii. PMID:26405525

  3. Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2015-09-01

    A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (T c) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at T c was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 μg mL(-1), and T c was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R (2) = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii.

  4. Sca-1(+) mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit splenic marginal zone B lymphocytes commitment through Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaozhen; Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Hong; An, Ning; Xin, Jiajia; Li, Na; Xu, Jinmei; Yin, Wen; Wu, Zhongliang; Hu, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been characterized as an important component of hematopoietic niche, which are capable of modulating the immune system through interaction with a wide range of immune cells. Marginal zone B cells, one main type of mature B lymphocytes, play a central role in eliciting antibody response against pathogens. However, how MSCs and its subpopulations regulate marginal zone B cells commitment is unknown yet. In this study, we assessed the contribution of Sca-1(+) MSCs on marginal zone B cells commitment. Our results showed that Sca-1(+) MSCs inhibit the commitment of marginal zone B lymphocytes. The inhibition was exerted through lowered Caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, we found marginal zone B lymphocytes in spleen of Caspase-3 knockout mice decreased and Caspase-3 knockout Sca-1(+) MSCs accounted for the MZB lymphocytes decrease. In conclusion, our investigation provided clues about Sca-1(+) MSCs regulation on the commitment of marginal zone B cells through Caspase-3 gene.

  5. Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

    2014-09-01

    Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)‑induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2

  6. Fractone-heparan sulfates mediate BMP-7 inhibition of cell proliferation in the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Douet, Vanessa; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Mercier, Frederic

    2012-10-24

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a heparin-binding growth factor that inhibits cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, the primary neurogenic niche in the adult brain. However, the physiological mechanisms regulating the activity of BMP-7 in the SVZ are unknown. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation through the anterior SVZ after intracerebroventricular injection in the adult mouse. To determine whether the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by BMP-7 is dependant on heparin-binding, heparitinase-1 was intracerebroventricularly injected to N-desulfate heparan sulfate proteoglycans before BMP-7 was injected. Heparatinase-1 drastically reduced the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation in the SVZ. To determine where BMP-7 binds within the niche, we visualized biotinylated-BMP-7 after intracerebroventricular injection, using streptavidin Texas red on frozen brain sections. BMP-7 binding was seen as puncta in the SVZ at the location of fractones, the particulate specialized extracellular matrix of the SVZ, which have been identified primarily by N-sulfated heparan sulfate immunoreactivity (NS-HS+). BMP binding was also seen in NS-HS+ blood vessels of the SVZ. Injection of heparitinase-1 prior to biotinylated BMP-7 resulted in the absence of signal for biotinylated-BMP-7 in the fractones and blood vessels, indicating that the binding is heparan sulfate dependant. These results indicate that BMP-7 requires heparan sulfates to bind and inhibit cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic niche. Heparan sulfates concentrated in fractones and SVZ blood vessels emerge as a functional stem cell niche component involved in growth factor activity.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of inhibition zone diameters of bovine mastitis pathogens in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Supré, K; Lommelen, K; De Meulemeester, L

    2014-07-16

    In dairy farms, antimicrobial drugs are frequently used for treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis. Determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens is needed to come to a correct use of antimicrobials. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n=768), Streptococcus uberis (n=939), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=444), Escherichia coli (n=563), and Klebsiella species (n=59) originating from routine milk samples from (sub)clinical mastitis were subjected to the disk diffusion method. Disks contained representatives of frequently used antibiotics in dairy. A limited number of clinical breakpoints were available through CLSI, and showed that susceptibility of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella was moderate to high. For streptococcal species however, a large variation between the tested species and the different antimicrobials was observed. In a next step, wild type populations were described based on epidemiological cut off values (EUCAST). Because of the limited number of official cut off values, the data were observed as a mastitis subpopulation and self-generated cut off values were created and a putative wild type population was suggested. The need for accurate clinical breakpoints for veterinary pathogens is high. Despite the lack of these breakpoints, however, a population study can be performed based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters on the condition that a large number of strains is tested.

  8. Inhibition of phosphate-induced apoptosis in resting zone chondrocytes by thrombin peptide 508.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming; Carney, Darrell H; Ryaby, James T; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2009-01-01

    Growth plate chondrocytes are susceptible to apoptosis. Terminally differentiated chondrocytes are deleted via apoptosis, which primes the growth plate to vascular invasion and subsequent bone formation. Whether less differentiated resting zone chondrocytes are subject to the same mechanism that governs the apoptotic pathway of more differentiated growth zone chondrocytes is not known. In our current study, we demonstrated that inorganic phosphate, a key inducer of growth plate chondrocyte apoptosis, also causes apoptosis in resting zone chondrocytes, via a pathway similar to the one in growth zone chondrocytes. Our results demonstrated that the conditions that cause growth plate chondrocyte apoptosis lie in the external environment, instead of the differences in differentiation state.

  9. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis enhances both subventricular zone neurogenesis and olfactory learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Romero-Grimaldi, Carmen; Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Estrada, Carmen

    2006-11-01

    The ability to generate new neurons during the course of adult life is preserved in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the mammalian brain. These two regions constitute specifically regulated neurogenic niches, and provide newborn neurons involved in olfactory and spatial learning, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) is a negative regulator of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, whereas its role in the dentate gyrus remains controversial. Using systemic administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors to chronically inhibit NO production, we increased neural precursor proliferation in the subventricular zone as well as neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb, without modifying the number of mitotic cells or the granular cell layer thickness in the dentate gyrus. The same treatment specifically improved olfactory learning performance, whereas spatial learning and memory was unchanged, thus demonstrating that olfactory memory is closely associated with the level of ongoing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb. The anatomical specificity of the NOS inhibitor actions was not due to differences in the availability of NO, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal NOS and S-nitrosylated proteins in both regions. Remarkably, the distinct NO sensitivity might result from a differential expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in precursor cells in both regions, as the proliferative effect of NOS inhibitors in the subventricular zone was restricted to the cells that expressed this receptor.

  10. Inhibition of carbon transfer across the vadose zone by 20th century acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Looms, Majken Caroline; Larsen, Flemming

    2014-05-01

    Carbon sequestration to pedogenic carbonates, forming in unsaturated zones or in aquifers further down the flow path, relies on the downward flux of carbon with infiltrating groundwater. During 2012, we measured seasonal dynamics of water movement, soil gas CO2, and pore water chemistry in four multi-level profiles through a 4-6 m thick sandy unsaturated zone of an agricultural barley field 10 km south of Ikast, Denmark. The residence time of water in the unsaturated zone was close to one year. Soil gas CO2 concentrations were 1-3vol% during winter, increasing to 4-7vol% during summer. Post-harvest soil gas CO2 concentrations remained elevated into fall, indicating CO2 production by root decay. CO2 production occurred primarily in the upper 0.3-0.5 m, reflecting a root zone constrained mostly to the (moist) plow layer and not extending into the (much dryer) sand underneath. Nevertheless, CO2 produced in the root zone was evenly distributed over the underlying unsaturated zone by gas diffusion. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in pore water collected below the root zone to ~2 m depth, were up to 3.0 mM in March, increasing to 3.6 mM in September. In the same depth range pore water pH-values were between 6 and 6.5. Below ~2 m depth, however, a pH front was encountered, at which the pH dropped to

  11. The length summation properties of layer VI cells in the visual cortex and hypercomplex cell end zone inhibition.

    PubMed

    Grieve, K L; Sillito, A M

    1991-01-01

    Layer VI of the visual cortex has been considered to be dominated by cells with very long receptive fields, typically summing to 8 degrees or more. We have re-examined this issue in a series of experiments in which the length tuning profiles of layer VI cells in the cat visual cortex have been quantitatively determined. Responses were assessed to optimally oriented bars of light of varying length drifted over the receptive field. The lengths were varied on a randomised interleaved sequence. Although our data confirm the presence of long field cells in layer VI, only 24% of a population of 119 cells had fields greater than 6 degrees in length. Fields greater than 8 degrees were only seen in 17% of cells. 61% of the population of cells had fields showing summation to 4 degrees or less with a mean length of 2.8 degrees (+/-0.15 sem). In this "short field" group, 18% had fields of 1 degrees or less. We observed 7 cells with rapid initial spatial summation up to 1 degree, followed by clear end zone inhibition. It has been recently suggested on the basis of localised inactivation experiments, that layer VI cells with long (greater than 8 degrees) fields may provide the drive to inhibitory interneurones in layer IV generating hypercomplex cell end zone inhibition. This observation is difficult to equate with evidence indicating that hypercomplex cell end zone inhibition reflects a mechanism showing maximal summation at lengths in the region of 2.8 degrees.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The enzymatic activities of the Escherichia coli basic aliphatic amino acid decarboxylases exhibit a pH zone of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kanjee, Usheer; Gutsche, Irina; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Houry, Walid A

    2011-11-01

    The stringent response regulator ppGpp has recently been shown by our group to inhibit the Escherichia coli inducible lysine decarboxylase, LdcI. As a follow-up to this observation, we examined the mechanisms that regulate the activities of the other four E. coli enzymes paralogous to LdcI: the constitutive lysine decarboxylase LdcC, the inducible arginine decarboxylase AdiA, the inducible ornithine decarboxylase SpeF, and the constitutive ornithine decarboxylase SpeC. LdcC and SpeC are involved in cellular polyamine biosynthesis, while LdcI, AdiA, and SpeF are involved in the acid stress response. Multiple mechanisms of regulation were found for these enzymes. In addition to LdcI, LdcC and SpeC were found to be inhibited by ppGpp; AdiA activity was found to be regulated by changes in oligomerization, while SpeF and SpeC activities were regulated by GTP. These findings indicate the presence of multiple mechanisms regulating the activity of this important family of decarboxylases. When the enzyme inhibition profiles are analyzed in parallel, a "zone of inhibition" between pH 6 and pH 8 is observed. Hence, the data suggest that E. coli utilizes multiple mechanisms to ensure that these decarboxylases remain inactive around neutral pH possibly to reduce the consumption of amino acids at this pH. PMID:21957966

  13. The enzymatic activities of the Escherichia coli basic aliphatic amino acid decarboxylases exhibit a pH zone of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kanjee, Usheer; Gutsche, Irina; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Houry, Walid A

    2011-11-01

    The stringent response regulator ppGpp has recently been shown by our group to inhibit the Escherichia coli inducible lysine decarboxylase, LdcI. As a follow-up to this observation, we examined the mechanisms that regulate the activities of the other four E. coli enzymes paralogous to LdcI: the constitutive lysine decarboxylase LdcC, the inducible arginine decarboxylase AdiA, the inducible ornithine decarboxylase SpeF, and the constitutive ornithine decarboxylase SpeC. LdcC and SpeC are involved in cellular polyamine biosynthesis, while LdcI, AdiA, and SpeF are involved in the acid stress response. Multiple mechanisms of regulation were found for these enzymes. In addition to LdcI, LdcC and SpeC were found to be inhibited by ppGpp; AdiA activity was found to be regulated by changes in oligomerization, while SpeF and SpeC activities were regulated by GTP. These findings indicate the presence of multiple mechanisms regulating the activity of this important family of decarboxylases. When the enzyme inhibition profiles are analyzed in parallel, a "zone of inhibition" between pH 6 and pH 8 is observed. Hence, the data suggest that E. coli utilizes multiple mechanisms to ensure that these decarboxylases remain inactive around neutral pH possibly to reduce the consumption of amino acids at this pH.

  14. Morphologic and functional effects of gamma secretase inhibition on splenic marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    de Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Regenass-Lechner, Franziska; Ozmen, Laurence; Altmann, Bernd; Festag, Matthias; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz; Jacobsen, Helmut; Flohr, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The γ-secretase complex is a promising target in Alzheimer's disease because of its role in the amyloidogenic processing of β-amyloid precursor protein. This enzyme also catalyzes the cleavage of Notch receptor, resulting in the nuclear translocation of intracellular Notch where it modulates gene transcription. Notch signaling is essential in cell fate decisions during embryogenesis, neuronal differentiation, hematopoiesis, and development of T and B cells, including splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This B cell compartment participates in the early phases of the immune response to blood-borne bacteria and viruses. Chronic treatment with the oral γ-secretase inhibitor RO4929097 resulted in dose-dependent decreased cellularity (atrophy) of the MZ of rats and mice. Significant decreases in relative MZ B-cell numbers of RO4929097-treated animals were confirmed by flow cytometry. Numbers of MZ B cells reverted to normal after a sufficient RO4929097-free recovery period. Functional characterization of the immune response in relation to RO4929097-related MZ B cell decrease was assessed in mice vaccinated with inactivated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Compared with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, RO4929097 caused only mild and reversible delayed early neutralizing IgM and IgG responses to VSV. Thus, the functional consequence of MZ B cell decrease on host defense is comparatively mild.

  15. 17beta-estradiol attenuates programmed cell death in cortical pericontusional zone following traumatic brain injury via upregulation of ERalpha and inhibition of caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Zhuo; Bao, Yi-Jun; Zhao, Min

    2011-01-01

    Pericontusional zone (PCZ) of traumatic cerebral contusion is a target of pharmacological intervention. It is well studied that 17beta-estradiol has a protective role in ischemic brain injury, but its role in brain protection of traumatic brain damage deserves further investigation, especially in pericontusional zone. Here we show that 17beta-estradiol enhances the protein expression and mRNA induction of estrogen alpha receptor (ERalpha) and prevents from programmed cell death in cortical pericontusional zone. ERalpha specific antagonist blocks this protective effect of 17beta-estradiol. Caspase-3 activation occurs in cortical pericontusional zone of the oil-treated injured rat brain and its activation is inhibited by 17beta-estradiol treatment. Additionally, ERalpha specific antagonist reverses this inhibition. Pan-caspase inhibitor also protect cortical pericontusional zone from programmed cell death. Our present study indicates 17beta-estradiol protects from programmed cell death in cortical pericontusional zone via enhancement of ERalpha and decrease of caspase-3 activation.

  16. A Mycobacterium marinum zone of inhibition assay as a method for screening potential antimycobacterial compounds from marine extracts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Lucia P; Lien, Benjamin A; Brun, Olivier S; Schaak, Damen D; McDonough, Kathleen A; Chang, Leng Chee

    2007-06-01

    A novel screening method for antimycobacterial agents using Mycobacterium marinum was developed. M. marinum was selected as a model organism because it has a close phylogenetic relationship to M. tuberculosis, a relatively rapid doubling time, similar drug susceptibilities to M. tuberculosis, and less stringent safety requirements. More than 1000 crude marine and plant extracts were screened against M. marinum in a Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) assay, and twenty-one target extracts were identified. The crude organic extract of the marine sponge, Haliclona sp.10, was chosen for further investigation as it yielded a ZOI of 20 mm at a concentration of 80 microg/disk. Following bioassay-guided fractionation, (-)-papuamine was isolated, and yielded a 15 mm ZOI at a concentration of 25 microg/disk. In standard assays using M. marinum, (-)-papuamine exhibited both an MIC and an MBC95 of 6.25 microg/mL. This is the first report of antimycobacterial activity for (-)-papuamine. In addition, when (-)-papuamine and other natural product extracts were tested for activity against both M. marinum and M. tuberculosis, activity was comparable between the two species. These data indicate that (-)-papuamine is a promising lead for the development of new antimycobacterial agents and that M. marinum is a useful surrogate for the screening of antimycobacterial compounds.

  17. Inhibition of chlamydiae by primary alcohols correlates with the strain-specific complement of plasticity zone phospholipase D genes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Crane, Deborah D; Taylor, Lacey D; Dorward, David W; Goheen, Morgan M; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2006-01-01

    Members of the genus Chlamydia are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a unique biphasic developmental cycle and interactions with host cells. Many genes that dictate host infection tropism and, putatively, pathogenic manifestations of disease are clustered in a hypervariable region of the genome termed the plasticity zone (PZ). Comparative genomics studies have determined that an uncharacterized family of PZ genes encoding orthologs of eukaryotic and prokaryotic members of the phospholipase D (PLD) enzyme family varies among chlamydiae. Here, we show that the PZ PLD (pzPLD) of Chlamydia trachomatis are transcribed during both normal and persistent infection and that the corresponding PLD proteins are predominantly localized in reticulate bodies on the inner leaflet of the inclusion membrane. Further, we show that strains of chlamydiae encoding the pzPLD, but not a strain lacking these genes, are inhibited by primary alcohols, potent PLD inhibitors, during growth in HeLa 229 cells. This inhibitory effect is amplified approximately 5,000-fold during recovery from persistent infection. These findings suggest that the chlamydial pzPLD may be important, strain-specific, pathogenesis factors in vivo.

  18. Contact-mediated inhibition between oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and motor exit point glia establishes the spinal cord transition zone.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cody J; Morris, Angela D; Welsh, Taylor G; Kucenas, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Rapid conduction of action potentials along motor axons requires that oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells myelinate distinct central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS) domains along the same axon. Despite the importance of this arrangement for nervous system function, the mechanisms that establish and maintain this precise glial segregation at the motor exit point (MEP) transition zone are unknown. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging in zebrafish, we observed that prior to myelination, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) extend processes into the periphery via the MEP and immediately upon contact with spinal motor root glia retract back into the spinal cord. Characterization of the peripheral cell responsible for repelling OPC processes revealed that it was a novel, CNS-derived population of glia we propose calling MEP glia. Ablation of MEP glia resulted in the absence of myelinating glia along spinal motor root axons and an immediate breach of the MEP by OPCs. Taken together, our results identify a novel population of CNS-derived peripheral glia located at the MEP that selectively restrict the migration of OPCs into the periphery via contact-mediated inhibition.

  19. Smad6 promotes neuronal differentiation in the intermediate zone of the dorsal neural tube by inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihui; Chen, Yongfeng; Li, Zhenfei; Bai, Ge; Zhu, Yue; Yan, Rui; Tan, Fangzhi; Chen, Ye-Guang; Guillemot, Francois; Li, Lin; Jing, Naihe

    2011-07-19

    Proliferation of the neural/neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) at the ventricular zone of the dorsal spinal cord requires the stimuli of Wnt and bone morphogenic protein (BMP). However, how these two signaling pathways are regulated to initiate differentiation in the NPCs as they enter the intermediate zone is not known. Here, we show that Smad6, a negative regulator of BMP signaling, is expressed in the intermediate zone of the chick dorsal spinal cord. Knockdown experiments show that Smad6 is required for promoting NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate into neurons. Although we find that Smad6 inhibits BMP signaling, as expected, we also find that Smad6 unexpectedly inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by Smad6 is independent of its effect on the BMP pathway. Rather, Smad6 through its N-terminal domain and link region enhances the interaction of C-terminal binding protein with the β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) complex and the TCF-binding element to inhibit β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation. Our study provides evidence that transition of NPCs from a proliferative state to a differentiating state is controlled by the dual inhibitory role of Smad6 to both BMP and Wnt signaling at the level of transcription.

  20. Smad6 promotes neuronal differentiation in the intermediate zone of the dorsal neural tube by inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhihui; Chen, Yongfeng; Li, Zhenfei; Bai, Ge; Zhu, Yue; Yan, Rui; Tan, Fangzhi; Chen, Ye-Guang; Guillemot, Francois; Li, Lin; Jing, Naihe

    2011-01-01

    Proliferation of the neural/neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) at the ventricular zone of the dorsal spinal cord requires the stimuli of Wnt and bone morphogenic protein (BMP). However, how these two signaling pathways are regulated to initiate differentiation in the NPCs as they enter the intermediate zone is not known. Here, we show that Smad6, a negative regulator of BMP signaling, is expressed in the intermediate zone of the chick dorsal spinal cord. Knockdown experiments show that Smad6 is required for promoting NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate into neurons. Although we find that Smad6 inhibits BMP signaling, as expected, we also find that Smad6 unexpectedly inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by Smad6 is independent of its effect on the BMP pathway. Rather, Smad6 through its N-terminal domain and link region enhances the interaction of C-terminal binding protein with the β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) complex and the TCF-binding element to inhibit β-catenin–mediated transcriptional activation. Our study provides evidence that transition of NPCs from a proliferative state to a differentiating state is controlled by the dual inhibitory role of Smad6 to both BMP and Wnt signaling at the level of transcription. PMID:21730158

  1. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  2. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  3. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  4. D-amino acid oxidase activity is inhibited by an interaction with bassoon protein at the presynaptic active zone.

    PubMed

    Popiolek, Michael; Ross, John F; Charych, Erik; Chanda, Pranab; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Moss, Stephen J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Pausch, Mark H

    2011-08-19

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder affecting ∼1% of the world's population. Linkage and association studies have identified multiple candidate schizophrenia susceptibility genes whose functions converge on the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system. One such susceptibility gene encoding D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that metabolizes the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist D-serine, has the potential to modulate NMDAR function in the context of schizophrenia. To further investigate its cellular regulation, we sought to identify DAO-interacting proteins that participate in its functional regulation in rat cerebellum, where DAO expression is especially high. Immunoprecipitation with DAO-specific antibodies and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of co-precipitated proteins yielded 24 putative DAO-interacting proteins. The most robust interactions occurred with known components of the presynaptic active zone, such as bassoon (BSN) and piccolo (PCLO). The interaction of DAO with BSN was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation assays using DAO- and BSN-specific antibodies. Moreover, DAO and BSN colocalized with one another in cultured cerebellar granule cells and in synaptic junction membrane protein fractions derived from rat cerebellum. The functional consequences of this interaction were studied through enzyme assay experiments, where DAO enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited as a result of its interaction with BSN. Taking these results together, we hypothesize that synaptic D-serine concentrations may be under tight regulation by a BSN-DAO complex. We therefore predict that this mechanism plays a role in the modulation of glutamatergic signaling through NMDARs. It also furthers our understanding of the biology underlying this potential therapeutic entry point for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.

  5. Afferent inhibition and the functional properties of neurons in the projection zone of the whiskers in the somatosensory cortex of the cat.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of afferent evoked inhibition on the functional properties of neurons in the whisker projection zone were studied in the cat brain. These investigations showed that afferent inhibition produced significant changes in the receptive fields of neurons, resulting in the induction of directional sensitivity. These data provide evidence for a defined topical ordering of intracortical inhibitory interactions. It is suggested that in natural conditions, movement of an object across the whisker field, resulting in sequential stimulation of the whiskers, results in sequential tuning of the detector properties of neurons receiving afferent flows from the whiskers. This process may form part of the mechanism for recognizing the direction of stimulus movement.

  6. Severe instead of mild hyperglycemia inhibits neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S; Zhi, P K; Luo, Z K; Shi, J

    2015-09-10

    Accumulated evidence suggests that enhanced neurogenesis stimulated by ischemic injury contributes to stroke outcome. However, it is unclear whether hyperglycemia, which is frequently tested positive in patients with acute ischemic stroke, influences stroke-induced neurogenesis. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on stroke-induced neurogenesis in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Glucose was administered during ischemia to produce target blood levels ranging from 4.83 ± 0.94 mM (normoglycemia) to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM. To label proliferating cells in ischemic ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 24h after MCAO. Brains were harvested 2h post-BrdU to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on infarct volume and SVZ cell proliferation. Rats that were severely hyperglycemic (19.26 ± 1.48 mM to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM) during ischemia had 24.26% increase in infarct volume (P<0.05) and more serious neurological function deficits (P<0.05). The severe hyperglycemic rats also showed dramatically decreased proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) (P<0.05) and down-regulation of the phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) (P<0.05)and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (P<0.05) in ipsilateral SVZ. But the above-mentioned detrimental effects were not observed in rats that were rendered with mild hyperglycemia (9.43 ± 1.39-10.13 ± 1.24 mM). Our findings indicate that severe instead of mild hyperglycemia exacerbates ischemic injury and inhibits stroke-induced SVZ neurogenesis by a mechanism involving suppression of CREB and BDNF signaling.

  7. Adenosine A1 receptors mediate inhibition of cAMP formation in vitro in the pontine, REM sleep induction zone.

    PubMed

    Marks, Gerald A; Birabil, Christian G; Speciale, Samuel G

    2005-11-01

    Microinjection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist or an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase into the caudal, oral pontine reticular formation (PnOc) of the rat induces a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Here, we report significant inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP in dissected pontine tissue slices containing the PnOc incubated with the A1 receptor agonist, cyclohexaladenosine (10(-8) M). These data are consistent with adenosine A1 receptor agonist actions on REM sleep mediated through inhibition of cAMP.

  8. [Distribution of Luliconazole in Nail Plate by In Vitro Permeation and Efficacy by Zone of Inhibition Test after Treatment of Luliconazole Nail Solution].

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Miyamae, Akiko; Arai, Masakazu; Minemura, Aya; Nozawa, Akira; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the character of luliconazole nail solution we have developed, we investigated luliconazole distribution and antifungal activity in nail plate. An in vitro permeation study which measured luliconazole concentration of sliced nail in the transverse direction after treatment of luliconazole nail solution was conducted to investigate for concentration dependency and the influences of nail thickness and treatment duration. When 0.2, 1, 3, 5, and 7.5% luliconazole nail solutions were used, luliconazole was detected in the all the layers of nail and there was a concentration gradient from the dorsal side to deep nail layers. The luliconazole concentration was almost same after 14-day treatment with 5% luliconazole nail solution when using nails of different thicknesses. And we confirmed that concentration of luliconazole into the nail was increased depending on the treatment duration. In zone of inhibition test after 14-day treatment, 5% luliconazole nail solution showed statistically high formation rate of zones of inhibition compared to 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Above all, these data suggested that 5% luliconazole nail solution has the potential to show high therapeutic effect for onychomycosis.

  9. [Mechanisms of inhibition of the contractile activity in the ileo-caecal zone in rabbits under psychogenic stress].

    PubMed

    Berezina, T P; Ovsiannikov, V I

    2005-08-01

    In experiments on unanaesthetized rabbits, myoelectric activity (contractile activity index) of distal ileum, caecum, and proximal colon in two sites was studied under stress induced by fastening a rabbit to the table in supine position. The stress caused sharp decrease (up to complete disappearance) of the contractile activity in all studied compartments of the ileocaecal intestine with partial or complete restoration after release of the animal. Nonselective blockade of pre- and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor with dihydroergotoxin abolished the initial component of the specified inhibitory response. The latter was caused by "adrenergic inhibition" as a result of action of catecholamines circulating in blood on inhibitory smooth muscle alpha-adrenoceptor. Against the background of muscarinic cholinoceptor blockade, the stressor inhibition of ileocaecal contractile activity observed in control experiments was completely preserved. The periods of supression of ileoceacal contractile activity under stress resistant to blockade of alpha-, beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic cholinoceptor, are caused by the mechanism of "nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibition", which is realized at the expence of activation of the enteric inhibitory neurones.

  10. Adjacent positioning of cellular structures enabled by a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein-mediated zone of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zongtian; Gao, Xiang-Dong; Howell, Audrey S; Bose, Indrani; Lew, Daniel J; Bi, Erfei

    2007-12-31

    Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are born carrying localized transmembrane landmark proteins that guide the subsequent establishment of a polarity axis and hence polarized growth to form a bud in the next cell cycle. In haploid cells, the relevant landmark proteins are concentrated at the site of the preceding cell division, to which they recruit Cdc24, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the conserved polarity regulator Cdc42. However, instead of polarizing at the division site, the new polarity axis is directed next to but not overlapping that site. Here, we show that the Cdc42 guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP) Rga1 establishes an exclusion zone at the division site that blocks subsequent polarization within that site. In the absence of localized Rga1 GAP activity, new buds do in fact form within the old division site. Thus, Cdc42 activators and GAPs establish concentric zones of action such that polarization is directed to occur adjacent to but not within the previous cell division site.

  11. Nitric oxide decreases subventricular zone stem cell proliferation by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Torroglosa, Ana; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; Romero-Grimaldi, Carmen; Matarredona, Esperanza R; Campos-Caro, Antonio; Estrada, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits proliferation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neural precursor cells in adult mice in vivo under physiological conditions. The mechanisms underlying this NO effect have now been investigated using SVZ-derived neural stem cells, which generate neurospheres in vitro when stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). In these cultures, NO donors decreased the number of newly formed neurospheres as well as their size, which indicates that NO was acting on the neurosphere-forming neural stem cells and the daughter neural progenitors. The effect of NO was cytostatic, not proapoptotic, and did not involve cGMP synthesis. Neurosphere cells expressed the neuronal and endothelial isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) and produced NO in culture. Inhibition of NOS activity by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) promoted neurosphere formation and growth, thus revealing an autocrine/paracrine action of NO on the neural precursor cells. Both exogenous and endogenous NO impaired the EGF-induced activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and prevented the EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in neurosphere cells. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly reduced the number of newly formed neurospheres, which indicates that this is an essential pathway for neural stem cell self-renewal. Chronic administration of l-NAME to adult mice enhanced phospho-Akt staining in the SVZ and reduced nuclear p27(Kip1) in the SVZ and olfactory bulb. The inhibition of EGFR and PI3-K pathway by NO explains, at least in part, its antimitotic effect on neurosphere cells and may be a mechanism involved in the physiological role of NO as a negative regulator of SVZ neurogenesis in adult mice.

  12. TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex transition zone mediates the aluminum-induced inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Geng, Xiaoyu; He, Chunmei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Rong; Horst, Walter J; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-07-01

    The transition zone (TZ) of the root apex is the perception site of Al toxicity. Here, we show that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to Al induces a localized enhancement of auxin signaling in the root-apex TZ that is dependent on TAA1, which encodes a Trp aminotransferase and regulates auxin biosynthesis. TAA1 is specifically upregulated in the root-apex TZ in response to Al treatment, thus mediating local auxin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress is dependent on ethylene, as revealed by manipulating ethylene homeostasis via the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminoethoxyvinylglycine, or mutant analysis. In response to Al stress, ethylene signaling locally upregulates TAA1 expression and thus auxin responses in the TZ and results in auxin-regulated root growth inhibition through a number of auxin response factors (ARFs). In particular, ARF10 and ARF16 are important in the regulation of cell wall modification-related genes. Our study suggests a mechanism underlying how environmental cues affect root growth plasticity through influencing local auxin biosynthesis and signaling.

  13. Exclusion of mRNPs and ribosomal particles from a thin zone beneath the nuclear envelope revealed upon inhibition of transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kylberg, Karin; Bjoerk, Petra; Fomproix, Nathalie; Ivarsson, Birgitta; Wieslander, Lars; Daneholt, Bertil

    2010-04-01

    We have studied the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific messenger RNP (mRNP) particle, named Balbiani ring (BR) granule, and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) particles in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans. The passage of the RNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) was inhibited with the nucleoporin-binding wheat germ agglutinin, and the effects were examined by electron microscopy. BR mRNPs bound to the nuclear basket increased in number, while BR mRNPs translocating through the central channel decreased, suggesting that the initiation of translocation proper had been inhibited. The rRNPs accumulated heavily in nucleoplasm, while no or very few rRNPs were recorded within nuclear baskets. Thus, the transport of rRNPs had been blocked prior to the entry into the baskets. Remarkably, the rRNPs had been excluded both from baskets and the space in between the baskets. We propose that normally basket fibrils move freely and repel RNPs from the exclusion zone unless the particles have affinity for and bind to nucleoporins within the baskets.

  14. Exclusion of mRNPs and ribosomal particles from a thin zone beneath the nuclear envelope revealed upon inhibition of transport.

    PubMed

    Kylberg, Karin; Björk, Petra; Fomproix, Nathalie; Ivarsson, Birgitta; Wieslander, Lars; Daneholt, Bertil

    2010-04-01

    We have studied the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific messenger RNP (mRNP) particle, named Balbiani ring (BR) granule, and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) particles in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans. The passage of the RNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) was inhibited with the nucleoporin-binding wheat germ agglutinin, and the effects were examined by electron microscopy. BR mRNPs bound to the nuclear basket increased in number, while BR mRNPs translocating through the central channel decreased, suggesting that the initiation of translocation proper had been inhibited. The rRNPs accumulated heavily in nucleoplasm, while no or very few rRNPs were recorded within nuclear baskets. Thus, the transport of rRNPs had been blocked prior to the entry into the baskets. Remarkably, the rRNPs had been excluded both from baskets and the space in between the baskets. We propose that normally basket fibrils move freely and repel RNPs from the exclusion zone unless the particles have affinity for and bind to nucleoporins within the baskets.

  15. Exploring the sensitivity of the zone of inhibition test for leachable biocides from paper and board food contact materials, and improvements thereof.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Kelly, J; Jickells, S M; Johns, S M; Mountfort, K A

    2012-01-01

    The zone of inhibition method to test the release of biocides from paper and board food contact materials was evaluated. The method tests the paper by placing a small specimen directly onto culture plates of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The principle is that any extractable biocide will diffuse from the paper into the surrounding nutrient medium and so inhibit growth of the microorganism in the vicinity. The test was found to have insufficient sensitivity for assuring food safety, where detection limits for migration at or below the mg l(-1) (parts per million) level are needed. Also, the test does not mimic the actual or foreseeable conditions of use since most paper/board materials are not intended for direct contact with an aqueous medium for up to 3 days at 30°C (B. subtilis) or 25°C (A. niger), which are the incubation conditions used. The sensitivity of the test was increased approximately 100-fold by preparing a concentrated extract of the paper to be tested and applying this extract to the assay via a blank paper carrier. This was done using methanol as a good solvent for most biocides, as a proof of principle. Other solvents or food simulants could be used to mimic the conditions of use intended for the particular paper/board samples under examination, e.g. contact with dry, fatty, aqueous or acidic foods, hot or cold. Twenty-four plain (unconverted) paper and board samples and 100 food packaging samples were evaluated using the modified procedure. The results revealed that the method has been developed to the stage where background cytotoxic action of normal paper constituents gives a weak response. Unlike the original method, therefore, the modified method with its improved sensitivity and the facility to link with the intended food contact conditions may be considered a suitable bioassay screening test to complement chemical analysis of paper/board for composition and migration.

  16. Surrogate light chain is required for central and peripheral B-cell tolerance and inhibits anti-DNA antibody production by marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weicheng; Grimsholm, Ola; Bernardi, Angelina I; Höök, Nina; Stern, Anna; Cavallini, Nicola; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill

    2015-04-01

    Selection of the primary antibody repertoire takes place in pro-/pre-B cells, and subsequently in immature and transitional B cells. At the first checkpoint, μ heavy (μH) chains assemble with surrogate light (SL) chain into a precursor B-cell receptor. In mice lacking SL chain, μH chain selection is impaired, and serum autoantibody levels are elevated. However, whether the development of autoantibody-producing cells is due to an inability of the resultant B-cell receptors to induce central and/or peripheral B-cell tolerance or other factors is unknown. Here, we show that receptor editing is defective, and that a higher proportion of BM immature B cells are prone to undergoing apoptosis. Furthermore, transitional B cells are also more prone to undergoing apoptosis, with a stronger selection pressure to enter the follicular B-cell pool. Those that enter the marginal zone (MZ) B-cell pool escape selection and survive, possibly due to the B-lymphopenia and elevated levels of B-cell activating factor. Moreover, the MZ B cells are responsible for the elevated IgM anti-dsDNA antibody levels detected in these mice. Thus, the SL chain is required for central and peripheral B-cell tolerance and inhibits anti-DNA antibody production by MZ B cells.

  17. Inhibition of the histone demethylase Kdm5b promotes neurogenesis and derepresses Reln (reelin) in neural stem cells from the adult subventricular zone of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiong; Obana, Edwin A; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Sukumar, Gauthaman; Wynder, Christopher; Dalgard, Clifton L; Doughty, Martin L

    2016-02-15

    The role of epigenetic regulators in the control of adult neurogenesis is largely undefined. We show that the histone demethylase enzyme Kdm5b (Jarid1b) negatively regulates neurogenesis from adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells (NSCs) in culture. shRNA-mediated depletion of Kdm5b in proliferating adult NSCs decreased proliferation rates and reduced neurosphere formation in culture. When transferred to differentiation culture conditions, Kdm5b-depleted adult NSCs migrated from neurospheres with increased velocity. Whole-genome expression screening revealed widespread transcriptional changes with Kdm5b depletion, notably the up-regulation of reelin (Reln), the inhibition of steroid biosynthetic pathway component genes and the activation of genes with intracellular transport functions in cultured adult NSCs. Kdm5b depletion increased extracellular reelin concentration in the culture medium and increased phosphorylation of the downstream reelin signaling target Disabled-1 (Dab1). Sequestration of extracellular reelin with CR-50 reelin-blocking antibodies suppressed the increase in migratory velocity of Kdm5b-depleted adult NSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Kdm5b is present at the proximal promoter of Reln, and H3K4me3 methylation was increased at this locus with Kdm5b depletion in differentiating adult NSCs. Combined the data suggest Kdm5b negatively regulates neurogenesis and represses Reln in neural stem cells from the adult SVZ.

  18. Light inhibits gravity-regulated peg formation and asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible CsIAA1 in the cortex of the transition zone in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Saito, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    When cucumber seedlings are grown horizontally, a specialized protuberance, termed the peg, develops on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Gravimorphogenesis regulates the lateral positioning of the peg in the transition zone and it has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in peg formation in cucumber seedlings. Here, we found that light inhibited auxin-regulated peg formation. In the transition zone of horizontally positioned cucumber seedlings grown in the dark, we detected an asymmetric accumulation of mRNA from the auxin-inducible gene CsIAA1 in the epidermis and cortex. However, in seedlings grown under illumination, this asymmetry was greatly reduced. In dark- and light-grown seedlings, application of 10 -3 M indole-3-acetic acid induced peg formation on both the lower and upper sides of the transition zone. These results suggest that light inhibits peg formation via modification of auxin distribution and/or levels in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  19. P2X7 receptor inhibition increases CNTF in the subventricular zone, but not neurogenesis or neuroprotection after stroke in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Su; Keasey, Matthew Phillip; Hagg, Theo

    2013-10-01

    Increasing endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression with a pharmacological agent might be beneficial after stroke as CNTF both promotes neurogenesis and, separately, is neuroprotective. P2X7 purinergic receptor inhibition is neuroprotective in rats and increases CNTF release in rat CMT1A Schwann cells. We, first, investigated the role of P2X7 in regulating CNTF and neurogenesis in adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). CNTF expression was increased by daily intravenous injections of the P2X7 antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in naïve C57BL/6 or Balb/c mice over 3 days. Despite the ∼40-60 % increase or decrease in CNTF with BBG or the agonist BzATP, respectively, the number of proliferated BrdU+SVZ nuclei did not change. BBG failed to increase FGF2, which is involved in CNTF-regulated neurogenesis, but induced IL-6, LIF, and EGF, which are known to reduce SVZ proliferation. Injections of IL-6 next to the SVZ induced CNTF and FGF2, but not proliferation, suggesting that IL-6 counteracts their neurogenesis-inducing effects. Following ischemic injury of the striatum by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), a 3-day BBG treatment increased CNTF in the medial penumbra containing the SVZ. BBG also induced CNTF and LIF, which are known to be protective following stroke, in the whole striatum after MCAO, but not GDNF or BDNF. However, BBG treatment did not reduce the lesion area or apoptosis in the penumbra. Even so, this study shows that P2X7 can be targeted with systemic drug treatments to differentially regulate neurotrophic factors in the brain following stroke.

  20. Time course of morphine's effects on adult hippocampal subgranular zone reveals preferential inhibition of cells in S phase of the cell cycle and a subpopulation of immature neurons.

    PubMed

    Arguello, A A; Harburg, G C; Schonborn, J R; Mandyam, C D; Yamaguchi, M; Eisch, A J

    2008-11-11

    Opiates, such as morphine, decrease neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ), raising the possibility that decreased neurogenesis contributes to opiate-induced cognitive deficits. However, there is an incomplete understanding of how alterations in cell cycle progression and progenitor maturation contribute to this decrease. The present study examined how morphine regulates progenitor cell cycle, cell death and immature SGZ neurons (experiment 1) as well as the progression of SGZ progenitors through key stages of maturation (experiment 2). In experiment 1, mice received sham or morphine pellets (s.c., 0 and 48 h) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 2 h prior to sacrifice (24, 72 or 96 h). Morphine decreased both the number of S phase and total cycling cells, as there were fewer cells immunoreactive (IR) for the S phase marker BrdU and the cell cycle marker Ki67. The percentage of Ki67-IR cells that were BrdU-IR was decreased after 24 but not 96 h of morphine, suggesting a disproportionate effect on S phase cells relative to all cycling cells at this time point. Cell death (activated caspase-3 counts) was increased after 24 but not 96 h. In experiment 2, nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice given BrdU 1 day prior to morphine or sham surgery (0 and 48 h, sacrifice 96 h) had fewer Ki67-IR cells, but no change in BrdU-IR cell number, suggesting that this population of BrdU-IR cells was less sensitive to morphine. Interestingly, examination of key stages of progenitor cell maturation revealed that morphine increased the percent of BrdU-IR cells that were type 2b and decreased the percent that were immature neurons. These data suggest that chronic morphine decreases SGZ neurogenesis by inhibiting dividing cells, particularly those in S phase, and progenitor cell progression to a more mature neuronal stage.

  1. Progressive inhibition by water deficit of cell wall extensibility and growth along the elongation zone of maize roots is related to increased lignin metabolism and progressive stelar accumulation of wall phenolics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Linker, Raphael; Gepstein, Shimon; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Neumann, Peter M

    2006-02-01

    Water deficit caused by addition of polyethylene glycol 6000 at -0.5 MPa water potential to well-aerated nutrient solution for 48 h inhibited the elongation of maize (Zea mays) seedling primary roots. Segmental growth rates in the root elongation zone were maintained 0 to 3 mm behind the tip, but in comparison with well-watered control roots, progressive growth inhibition was initiated by water deficit as expanding cells crossed the region 3 to 9 mm behind the tip. The mechanical extensibility of the cell walls was also progressively inhibited. We investigated the possible involvement in root growth inhibition by water deficit of alterations in metabolism and accumulation of wall-linked phenolic substances. Water deficit increased expression in the root elongation zone of transcripts of two genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1 and 2, after only 1 h, i.e. before decreases in wall extensibility. Further increases in transcript expression and increased lignin staining were detected after 48 h. Progressive stress-induced increases in wall-linked phenolics at 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 mm behind the root tip were detected by comparing Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-fluorescence images of isolated cell walls from water deficit and control roots. Increased UV fluorescence and lignin staining colocated to vascular tissues in the stele. Longitudinal bisection of the elongation zone resulted in inward curvature, suggesting that inner, stelar tissues were also rate limiting for root growth. We suggest that spatially localized changes in wall-phenolic metabolism are involved in the progressive inhibition of wall extensibility and root growth and may facilitate root acclimation to drying environments.

  2. Root apex transition zone as oscillatory zone.

    PubMed

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone.

  3. Root Apex Transition Zone As Oscillatory Zone

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Root apex of higher plants shows very high sensitivity to environmental stimuli. The root cap acts as the most prominent plant sensory organ; sensing diverse physical parameters such as gravity, light, humidity, oxygen, and critical inorganic nutrients. However, the motoric responses to these stimuli are accomplished in the elongation region. This spatial discrepancy was solved when we have discovered and characterized the transition zone which is interpolated between the apical meristem and the subapical elongation zone. Cells of this zone are very active in the cytoskeletal rearrangements, endocytosis and endocytic vesicle recycling, as well as in electric activities. Here we discuss the oscillatory nature of the transition zone which, together with several other features of this zone, suggest that it acts as some kind of command center. In accordance with the early proposal of Charles and Francis Darwin, cells of this root zone receive sensory information from the root cap and instruct the motoric responses of cells in the elongation zone. PMID:24106493

  4. Episodic Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racsmany, Mihaly; Conway, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    Six experiments examined the proposal that an item of long-term knowledge can be simultaneously inhibited and activated. In 2 directed forgetting experiments items to-be-forgotten were found to be inhibited in list-cued recall but activated in lexical decision tasks. In 3 retrieval practice experiments, unpracticed items from practiced categories…

  5. Angiotensin receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone collagens and global diastolic dysfunction during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jugdutt, Bodh I; Idikio, Halliday; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2007-09-01

    To determine whether therapy with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan and the comparator angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (RSTEMI) limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone (IZ) collagens and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, we randomized 24 dogs surviving anterior RSTEMI (90-min coronary occlusion) to placebo, candesartan, and enalapril therapy between day 2 and 42. Six other dogs were sham. We measured regional IZ and non-infarct zone (NIZ) collagens (hydroxyproline; types I/III; cross-linking), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and topography at 6 weeks, and hemodynamics, LV diastolic and systolic function, and remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to sham, placebo-RSTEMI differentially altered regional collagens, with more pronounced increase in TGF-beta, hydroxyproline, and type I, insoluble, and cross-linked collagens in the IZ than NIZ, and increased IZ soluble and type III collagens at 6 weeks, and induced persistent LV filling pressure elevation, diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and LV remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to placebo-RSTEMI, candesartan and enalapril limited adverse regional collagen remodeling, with normalization of type III, soluble and insoluble collagens and decrease in pyridinoline cross-linking in the IZ at 6 weeks, and attenuation of LV filling pressure, diastolic dysfunction, and remodeling over 6 weeks. The results suggest that candesartan and enalapril during healing after RSTEMI prevent rather than worsen adverse remodeling of IZ collagens and LV diastolic dysfunction, supporting the clinical use of ARBs and ACEIs during subacute RSTEMI.

  6. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  7. Zone Refining by Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    System developed for studying use of laser beam for zone-refining semiconductors and metals. Specimen scanned with focused CO2 laser beam in such way that thin zone of molten material moves along specimen sweeps impurities with it. Zone-melting system comprises microcomputer, laser, electromechanical and optical components for beam control, vacuum chamber that holds specimen, and sensor for determining specimen temperature.

  8. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  9. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  10. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  11. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  12. Subduction of fracture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  13. Multi-zone furnace system

    SciTech Connect

    Orbeck, G.A.

    1986-05-06

    A multi-zone furnace is described which consists of: a furnace chamber having at least one heat zone and at least one zone adjacent to the heat zone and disposed along the length of the furnace chamber; the heat zone having a hearth at a level different from the hearth level of the adjacent zone; a walking beam conveyor disposed in the furnace chamber and operative in a short stroke mode to convey a product along the hearth of the heat zone, and in a long stroke mode to convey a product from the heat zone to the adjacent zone.

  14. The role of cyclic plastic zone size on fatigue crack growth behavior in high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korda, Akhmad A.; Miyashita, Y.; Mutoh, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The role of cyclic plastic zone in front of the crack tip was studied in high strength steels. Estimated plastic zone size would be compared with actual observation. Strain controlled fatigue tests of the steels were carried out to obtain cyclic stress-strain curves for plastic zone estimation. Observations of plastic zone were carried out using in situ SEM fatigue crack growth tests under a constant-ΔK. Hard microstructures in structural steels showed to inhibit the extent of plastic deformation around the crack tip. The rate of crack growth can be correlated with the size of plastic zone. The smaller the plastic zone size, the slower the fatigue crack growth.

  15. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  16. Growth recovery zones.

    PubMed

    Siffert, R S; Katz, J F

    1983-05-01

    Growth arrest lines and zones have been reinvestigated. Sequential studies after dietary deprivation reveal transformations of the physis with diminution in formation of the zone of cell columns, resorption of previously formed bone, and cessation of new bone formation. At 6 weeks post diet restriction, the physis is prominently narrowed with transversely oriented, thin bone plaque sealing it from the subjacent marrow. Initially, restoration of stock diet thickens the bony plaque, creating a growth arrest line. Later the zone of osteogenesis adds new bone as a dense metaphyseal band.

  17. The gray zone.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  18. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  19. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  20. Semiautomatic fracture zone tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Paul; Matthews, Kara J.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Mazzoni, Aline; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Myhill, Robert; Chandler, Michael T.

    2015-07-01

    Oceanic fracture zone traces are widely used in studies of seafloor morphology and plate kinematics. Satellite altimetry missions have resulted in high-resolution gravity maps in which all major fracture zones and other tectonic fabric can be identified, and numerous scientists have digitized such lineaments. We have initiated a community effort to maintain low-cost infrastructure that allows seafloor fabric lineaments to be stored, accessed, and updated. A key improvement over past efforts is our processing software (released as a GMT5 supplement) that allows for semiautomatic corrections to previously digitized fracture zone traces given improved gridded data sets. Here we report on our seafloor fabric processing tools, which complement our database of seafloor fabric lineations, magnetic anomaly identifications, and plate kinematic models.

  1. Nuclear free zone

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-07-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used. The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system.

  2. Zones of Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children affected by armed violence face a specific set of stressors and challenges which calls for appropriate programming. This Coordinator's Notebook focuses on how to work with children affected by organized violence in order to provide them the best possible early childhood experiences. It is divided into five sections. "Children as Zones of…

  3. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  4. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  5. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  6. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  7. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets." PMID:16225431

  8. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  9. Smartphones and Time Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  10. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation

  11. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  12. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  13. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  14. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  15. Myofilament dysfunction contributes to impaired myocardial contraction in the infarct border zone.

    PubMed

    Shimkunas, Rafael; Makwana, Om; Spaulding, Kimberly; Bazargan, Mona; Khazalpour, Michael; Takaba, Kiyoaki; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Lovett, David H; Simpson, Paul C; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Baker, Anthony J

    2014-10-15

    After myocardial infarction, a poorly contracting nonischemic border zone forms adjacent to the infarct. The cause of border zone dysfunction is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the myofilament mechanisms involved in postinfarction border zone dysfunction. Two weeks after anteroapical infarction of sheep hearts, we studied in vitro isometric and isotonic contractions of demembranated myocardium from the infarct border zone and a zone remote from the infarct. Maximal force development (Fmax) of the border zone myocardium was reduced by 31 ± 2% versus the remote zone myocardium (n = 6/group, P < 0.0001). Decreased border zone Fmax was not due to a reduced content of contractile material, as assessed histologically, and from myosin content. Furthermore, decreased border zone Fmax did not involve altered cross-bridge kinetics, as assessed by muscle shortening velocity and force development kinetics. Decreased border zone Fmax was associated with decreased cross-bridge formation, as assessed from muscle stiffness in the absence of ATP where cross-bridge formation should be maximized (rigor stiffness was reduced 34 ± 6%, n = 5, P = 0.011 vs. the remote zone). Furthermore, the border zone myocardium had significantly reduced phosphorylation of myosin essential light chain (ELC; 41 ± 10%, n = 4, P < 0.05). However, for animals treated with doxycycline, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, rigor stiffness and ELC phosphorylation were not reduced in the border zone myocardium, suggesting that doxycycline had a protective effect. In conclusion, myofilament dysfunction contributes to postinfarction border zone dysfunction, myofilament dysfunction involves impaired cross-bridge formation and decreased ELC phosphorylation, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition may be beneficial for limiting postinfarct border zone dysfunction.

  16. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  17. Fluid migration in ductile shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Fluid migration in metamorphic environments depends on a dynamically evolving permeable pore space, which was rarely characterised in detail. The data-base behind our understanding of the 4-dimensional transport properties of metamorphic rocks is therefore fragmentary at best, which leaves conceptual models poorly supported. Generally, it seems established that deformation is a major driver of permeability generation during regional metamorphism, and evidence for metamorphic fluids being channelled in large scale shear zones has been found in all depth segments of the continental crust. When strain localizes in ductile shear zones, the microfabric is modified until a steady state mylonite is formed that supports large deformations. A dynamic porosity that evolves during mylonitisation controls the distinct transport pathways along which fluid interacts with the rock. This dynamic porosity is controlled by a limited number of mechanisms, which are intrinsically linked to the metamorphic evolution of the rock during its deformational overprint. Many mid- and lower-crustal mylonites comprise polyphase mixtures of micron-sized grains that show evidence for deformation by dissolution/precipitation-assisted viscous grain boundary sliding. The establishment of these mineral mixtures is a critical process, where monomineralic layers are dispersed and grain growth is inhibited by the heterogeneous nucleation of secondary mineral phases at triple junctions. Here we show evidence from three different mid- and lower-crustal shear zones indicating that heterogeneous nucleation occurs in creep cavities. Micro- and nanotomographic observations show that creep cavities provide the dominant form of porosity in these ultramylonites. They control a "granular fluid pump" that directs fluid migration and hence mass transport. The granular fluid pump operates on the grain scale driven by viscous grain boundary sliding, and requires only small amounts of fluid. The spatial arrangement of

  18. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  19. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices.

  20. Capillary zone electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, J.W.; Lukacs, K.D.

    1983-10-21

    Zone electrophoresis in capillaries is a technique complementary to electrophoresis in supporting media, and each approach has its own particular advantages. Efficient heat transfer from small-diameter capillaries permits use of unusually high voltages, resulting in both high resolution and rapid analysis. Capillaries also seem well suited for automation. Our present electromigration injection technique is relatively straightforward and should be simple to automate. Capillaries are reusable, which is an advantage over gels. On-line electronic detection permits good quantification, further enhancing possibilities for fully automatic operation. The greatest obstacle to further development and utilization of capillaries is the requirement of extremely sensitive detectors, and more types of detectors with higher sensitivity are greatly needed. A better understanding of capillary surface modification will also be important, both for improved capillary surface deactivation and for better control over electroosmotic flow. Capillaries should provide an ideal system in which to explore nonaqueous separation media. The prospects for nonaqueous media in electrophoresis are similar to those in electrochemistry, and capillaries should prove an excellent system in which to begin their study. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Saccadic Inhibition in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Stampe, Dave M.

    2004-01-01

    In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60-70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the…

  2. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  3. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  4. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  5. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  6. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  7. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  8. The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul W.

    1983-02-01

    The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with depth; thus permeability decreases in the same direction with the result that percolation is inhibited, except down widened master joints and faults. Storage of water consequently occurs in this zone, particularly after storms. The upper surface of this suspended saturated layer in the subcutaneous zone is defined by a perched water table, which slopes towards points of rapid vertical percolation. The potential induces lateral water movement converging on the most permeable areas such as beneath dolines. Leakage from the subcutaneous store sustains slow percolation in the vadose zone. Cross-correlation of rainfall with percolation rates in caves in New Mexico, U.S.A., and New Zealand reveal response lags of 2-14 weeks with no apparent relationship to depth below the surface. Other percolation sites show no correlation with rainfall; interpreted as being a consequence of considerable friction in tight fissure networks. The recognition of storage and rapid as well as very slow percolation from the subcutaneous zone requires re-interpretation of the components of hydrographs from karst springs and of some conceptual models of karst aquifers. The importance of subcutaneous storage in sustaining baseflow discharge at some sites must be recognised, as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the volumes of subcutaneous and phreatic components of karst-spring flood hydrographs are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of subcutaneous hydrologic processes for an understanding of karst geomorphology. The desirability of explaining karst landform

  9. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  10. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  11. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  12. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    2001-10-09

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  13. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    1999-10-05

    This invention provides a system for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, this system can be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  14. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  15. 78 FR 27032 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone... enforce various safety zones for annual marine events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from May 24... 165.941, Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone, at the following...

  16. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN....

  17. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  18. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones.

  19. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  20. The global aftershock zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  1. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development.

    PubMed

    Viquez, Natasha M; Füger, Petra; Valakh, Vera; Daniels, Richard W; Rasse, Tobias M; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-09-16

    The synapse is composed of an active zone apposed to a postsynaptic cluster of neurotransmitter receptors. Each Drosophila neuromuscular junction comprises hundreds of such individual release sites apposed to clusters of glutamate receptors. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required for the development of structurally normal active zones opposite glutamate receptors. When PP2A is inhibited presynaptically, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot (Brp), an active zone protein required for normal transmitter release. These unapposed receptors are not due to presynaptic retraction of synaptic boutons, since other presynaptic components are still apposed to the entire postsynaptic specialization. Instead, these data suggest that Brp localization is regulated at the level of individual release sites. Live imaging of glutamate receptors demonstrates that this disruption to active zone development is accompanied by abnormal postsynaptic development, with decreased formation of glutamate receptor clusters. Remarkably, inhibition of the serine-threonine kinase GSK-3beta completely suppresses the active zone defect, as well as other synaptic morphology phenotypes associated with inhibition of PP2A. These data suggest that PP2A and GSK-3beta function antagonistically to control active zone development, providing a potential mechanism for regulating synaptic efficacy at a single release site.

  2. AOP description: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway (AOP) leverages existing knowledge in the open literature to describe the linkage between inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the subsequent mortality resulting from impacts at cholinergic receptors. The AOP takes a chemical category approa...

  3. Method for inhibiting corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Stapp, P. R.

    1985-12-03

    A composition comprising the reaction adduct or neutralized product resulting from the reaction of a maleic anhydride and an oil containing a polynuclear aromatic compound is provided which, when applied to a metal surface, forms a corrosion-inhibiting film thereon. The composition is particularly useful in the treatment of down-hole metal surfaces in oil and gas wells to inhibit the corrosion of the metal.

  4. Differential Responsiveness of Cortical Microtubule Orientation to Suppression of Cell Expansion among the Developmental Zones of Arabidopsis thaliana Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

    2013-01-01

    Τhe bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

  5. Differential responsiveness of cortical microtubule orientation to suppression of cell expansion among the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Daras, Gerasimos; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Rigas, Stamatis

    2013-01-01

    Τhe bidirectional relationship between cortical microtubule orientation and cell wall structure has been extensively studied in elongating cells. Nevertheless, the possible interplay between microtubules and cell wall elements in meristematic cells still remains elusive. Herein, the impact of cellulose synthesis inhibition and suppressed cell elongation on cortical microtubule orientation was assessed throughout the developmental zones of Arabidopsis thaliana root apex by whole-mount tubulin immunolabeling and confocal microscopy. Apart from the wild-type, thanatos and pom2-4 mutants of Cellulose SynthaseA3 and Cellulose Synthase Interacting1, respectively, were studied. Pharmacological and mechanical approaches inhibiting cell expansion were also applied. Cortical microtubules of untreated wild-type roots were predominantly transverse in the meristematic, transition and elongation root zones. Cellulose-deficient mutants, chemical inhibition of cell expansion, or growth in soil resulted in microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone, wherein cell length was significantly decreased. Combinatorial genetic and chemical suppression of cell expansion extended microtubule reorientation to the transition zone. According to the results, transverse cortical microtubule orientation is established in the meristematic root zone, persisting upon inhibition of cell expansion. Microtubule reorientation in the elongation zone could be attributed to conditional suppression of cell elongation. The differential responsiveness of microtubule orientation to genetic and environmental cues is most likely associated with distinct biophysical traits of the cells among each developmental root zone. PMID:24324790

  6. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. THE EFFECT OF DENSITY ZONING ON RACIAL SEGREGATION IN U.S. URBAN AREAS

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    We argue that anti-density zoning increases black residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas by reducing the quantity of affordable housing in white jurisdictions. Drawing on census data and local regulation indicators compiled by Pendall, we estimate a series of regression models to measure the effect of maximum density zoning on black segregation. Results estimated using ordinary least squares indicate a strong and significant cross-sectional relationship between low-density zoning and racial segregation, even after controlling for other zoning policies and a variety of metropolitan characteristics, a relationship that persists under two-stage least squares estimation. Both estimation strategies also suggest that anti-density zoning inhibits desegregation over time. PMID:25009413

  8. Zones of Enhanced Glutamate Release from Climbing Fibers in the Mammalian Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Paukert, Martin; Huang, Yanhua H.; Tanaka, Kohichi; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.; Bergles, Dwight E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Purkinje cells in the mammalian cerebellum are remarkably homogeneous in shape and orientation, yet they exhibit regional differences in gene expression. Purkinje cells that express high levels of zebrin II (aldolase C) and the glutamate transporter EAAT4, cluster in parasagittal zones that receive input from distinct groups of climbing fibers (CFs); however, the physiological properties of CFs that target these molecularly distinct Purkinje cells have not been determined. Here we report that CFs that innervate Purkinje cells in zebrin II immunoreactive (Z+) zones release more glutamate per action potential than CFs in Z− zones. CF terminals in Z+ zones had larger pools of release-ready vesicles, exhibited enhanced multivesicular release, and produced larger glutamate transients. As a result, CF-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in Purkinje cells decayed more slowly in Z+ zones, which triggered longer duration complex spikes containing a greater number of spikelets. The differences in the duration of CF EPSCs between Z+ and Z− zones persisted in EAAT4 knockout mice, indicating that EAAT4 is not required for maintaining this aspect of CF function. These results indicate that the organization of the cerebellum into discrete longitudinal zones is defined not only by molecular phenotype of Purkinje cells within zones, but also by the physiological properties of CFs that project to these distinct regions. The enhanced release of glutamate from CFs in Z+ zones may alter the threshold for synaptic plasticity and prolong inhibition of cerebellar output neurons in deep cerebellar nuclei. PMID:20505095

  9. The ciliary transition zone functions in cell adhesion but is dispensable for axoneme assembly in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, Clementine; Serwas, Daniel; Palfy, Mate; Dammermann, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Cilia are cellular projections that perform sensory and motile functions. A key ciliary subdomain is the transition zone, which lies between basal body and axoneme. Previous work in Caenorhabditis elegans identified two ciliopathy-associated protein complexes or modules that direct assembly of transition zone Y-links. Here, we identify C. elegans CEP290 as a component of a third module required to form an inner scaffolding structure called the central cylinder. Co-inhibition of all three modules completely disrupted transition zone structure. Surprisingly, axoneme assembly was only mildly perturbed. However, dendrite extension by retrograde migration was strongly impaired, revealing an unexpected role for the transition zone in cell adhesion.

  10. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  11. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  12. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  13. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  14. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  15. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  16. 47 CFR 5.313 - Innovation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Innovation zones. 5.313 Section 5.313... Licenses § 5.313 Innovation zones. (a) An innovation zone is a specified geographic location with pre... own motion or in response to a request from the public. Innovation zones will be announced via...

  17. 47 CFR 5.313 - Innovation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Innovation zones. 5.313 Section 5.313... Licenses § 5.313 Innovation zones. (a) An innovation zone is a specified geographic location with pre... own motion or in response to a request from the public. Innovation zones will be announced via...

  18. 47 CFR 73.205 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zones. 73.205 Section 73.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.205 Zones. For the purpose of allotments and assignments, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (a) Zone...

  19. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area... operations performed in the zone are substantially changed; (3) the existing bond lacks good and...

  20. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zone changes. 146.7 Section 146.7 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES General Provisions § 146.7 Zone changes. (a) Alteration of an activated area... operations performed in the zone are substantially changed; (3) the existing bond lacks good and...

  1. 47 CFR 73.205 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zones. 73.205 Section 73.205 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.205 Zones. For the purpose of allotments and assignments, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (a) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States...

  2. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication... Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (1) Zone I consists of that portion of the United States...

  3. 47 CFR 73.205 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zones. 73.205 Section 73.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.205 Zones. For the purpose of allotments and assignments, the United States is divided into three zones as follows: (a) Zone...

  4. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  5. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached.

  6. Center-Surround Inhibition in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias

    2016-01-11

    Directing visual attention toward a particular feature or location in the environment suppresses processing of nearby stimuli [1-4]. Echoing the center-surround organization of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields [5], and biasing of competitive local neuronal dynamics in favor of task-relevant stimuli [6], this "inhibitory surround" attention mechanism accentuates the demarcation between task-relevant and irrelevant items. Here, we show that internally maintaining a color stimulus in working memory (WM), rather than visually attending the stimulus in the external environment, produces an analogous pattern of inhibition for stimuli that are nearby in color space. Replicating a well-known effect of attentional capture by stimuli that match WM content [7], visual attention was biased toward (task-irrelevant) stimuli that exactly matched a WM item. This bias was curtailed, however, for stimuli that were very similar to the WM content (i.e., within the inhibitory zone surrounding the focus of WM) and recovered for less similar stimuli (i.e., beyond the bounds of the inhibitory surround). Moreover, the expression of this inhibition effect was positively associated with WM performance across observers. In a second experiment, inhibition also occurred between two similar items simultaneously held in WM. This suggests that maintenance in WM is characterized by an excitatory peak centered on the focus of (internal) attention, surrounded by an inhibitory zone to limit interference by irrelevant and confusable representations. Here, thus, we show for the first time that the same center-surround selection mechanism that focuses visual attention on sensory stimuli also selectively maintains internally activated representations in WM.

  7. Local ammonia storage and ammonia inhibition in a monolithic copper-beta zeolite SCR catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Auvray, Xavier P; Partridge Jr, William P; Choi, Jae-Soon; Pihl, Josh A; Yezerets, Alex; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Currier, Neal; Olsson, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3} was studied on a Cu-beta zeolite catalyst, with specific focus on the distributed NH{sub 3} capacity utilization and inhibition. In addition, several other relevant catalyst parameter distributions were quantified including the SCR zone, or catalyst region where SCR occurs, and NO and NH{sub 3} oxidation. We show that the full NH{sub 3} capacity (100% coverage) is used within the SCR zone for a range of temperatures. By corollary, unused NH{sub 3} capacity exists downstream of the SCR zone. Consequently, the unused capacity relative to the total capacity is indicative of the portion of the catalyst unused for SCR. Dynamic NH{sub 3} inhibition distributions, which create local transient conversion inflections, are measured. Dynamic inhibition is observed where the gas phase NH{sub 3} and NO concentrations are high, driving rapid NH{sub 3} coverage buildup and SCR. Accordingly, we observe dynamic inhibition at low temperatures and in hydrothermally aged states, but predict its existence very near the catalyst front in higher conversion conditions where we did not specifically monitor its impact. While this paper addresses some general distributed SCR performance parameters including Oxidation and SCR zone, our major new contributions are associated with the NH{sub 3} capacity saturation within the SCR zone and dynamic inhibition distributions and the associated observations. These new insights are relevant to developing accurate models, designs and control strategies for automotive SCR catalyst applications.

  8. Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of some Arid Zone Plants.

    PubMed

    Jain, S C; Pancholi, B; Singh, R; Jain, R

    2010-07-01

    Sequential extracts of some medicinally important arid zone plants of Rajasthan, viz. Lepidagathis trinervis Nees., Polycarpea corymbosa Lam. and Sericostoma pauciflorum Stocks. ex Wight. were tested against six bacterial (Gram +ve and Gram -ve) and five fungal strains using agar well diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract of L. trinervis showed maximum activity against Bacillus subtilis, Enterobactor aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus and Trichophyton rubrum (inhibition zone 16.00±0.81, 13.33±0.66, 14.33±1.85, 14.30±0.34 and 23.00±0.00 mm) at varied minimum inhibitory concentrations of 82, 20, 41, 41 and 20 μg/ml, respectively.

  9. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...-2010-0079 Port Arthur, TX Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 2/2/2010 USCG-2010-0080 Sabine, TX Security Zone...-0107 Sabine, TX Security Zone (Part 165)... 2/11/2010 USCG-2010-0108 Charleston, WV Safety Zone (Part...). USCG-2010-0218 Sabine, TX Security Zone (Part 165)... 4/1/2010 USCG-2010-0219 Waterway, TX...

  10. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration. PMID:17784486

  11. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration.

  12. Float zone experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Noack, M. A.; Gill, W. N.; Hau, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    The molten zone/freezing crystal interface system and all the mechanisms were examined. If Marangoni convection produces oscillatory flows in the float zone of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, then it is unlikely that superior quality crystals can be grown in space using this process. The major goals were: (1) to determine the conditions for the onset of Marangoni flows in molten tin, a model system for low Prandtl number molten semiconductor materials; (2) to determine whether the flows can be suppressed by a thin oxide layer; and (3) based on experimental and mathematical analysis, to predict whether oscillatory flows will occur in the float zone silicon geometry in space, and if so, could it be suppressed by thin oxide or nitride films. Techniques were developed to analyze molten tin surfaces in a UHV system in a disk float zone geometry to minimize buoyancy flows. The critical Marangoni number for onset of oscillatory flows was determined to be greater than 4300 on atomically clean molten tin surfaces.

  13. Building a Subduction Zone Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Bodin, Paul; Bourgeois, Jody; Cashman, Susan; Cowan, Darrel; Creager, Kenneth C.; Crowell, Brendan; Duvall, Alison; Frankel, Arthur; Gonzalez, Frank; Houston, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Kelsey, Harvey; Miller, Una; Roland, Emily C.; Schmidt, David; Staisch, Lydia; Vidale, John; Wilcock, William; Wirth, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones contain many of Earth’s most remarkable geologic structures, from the deepest oceanic trenches to glacier-covered mountains and steaming volcanoes. These environments formed through spectacular events: Nature’s largest earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions are born here.

  14. Comfort Zone: Model or Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The comfort zone model is widespread within adventure education literature. It is based on the belief that when placed in a stressful situation people will respond by overcoming their fear and therefore grow as individuals. This model is often presented to participants prior to activities with a highly perceived sense of risk and challenge which…

  15. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  16. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  17. Comparable Habitable Zones of Stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The habitable zone is the distance from a star where one can have liquid water on the surface of a planet. If a planet is too close to its parent star, it will be too hot and water would have evapo...

  18. Zinc Inhibits Hedgehog Autoprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Owen, Timothy; Xia, Ke; Singh, Ajay Vikram; Tou, Emiley; Li, Lingyun; Arduini, Brigitte; Li, Hongmin; Wan, Leo Q.; Callahan, Brian; Wang, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element with wide-ranging biological functions, whereas the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays crucial roles in both development and disease. Here we show that there is a mechanistic link between zinc and Hh signaling. The upstream activator of Hh signaling, the Hh ligand, originates from Hh autoprocessing, which converts the Hh precursor protein to the Hh ligand. In an in vitro Hh autoprocessing assay we show that zinc inhibits Hh autoprocessing with a Ki of 2 μm. We then demonstrate that zinc inhibits Hh autoprocessing in a cellular environment with experiments in primary rat astrocyte culture. Solution NMR reveals that zinc binds the active site residues of the Hh autoprocessing domain to inhibit autoprocessing, and isothermal titration calorimetry provided the thermodynamics of the binding. In normal physiology, zinc likely acts as a negative regulator of Hh autoprocessing and inhibits the generation of Hh ligand and Hh signaling. In many diseases, zinc deficiency and elevated level of Hh ligand co-exist, including prostate cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and autism. Our data suggest a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and the overproduction of Hh ligand. PMID:25787080

  19. Nitric oxide inhibition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian (Wai Chong); Lerner, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is involved in many physiologic processes. There are efforts, described elsewhere in this volume, to deliver nitric oxide to tissues as a therapy. Nitric oxide also contributes to pathophysiologic processes. Inhibiting nitric oxide or its production can thus also be of therapeutic benefit. This article addresses such inhibitory strategies. PMID:26634146

  20. Floating zone melting of cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Wen-Ming; Regel, L. L.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    To produce superior crystals of cadmium telluride, floating zone melting in space has been proposed. Techniques required for floating zone melting of cadmium telluride are being developed. We have successfully float-zoned cadmium telluride on earth using square rods. A resistance heater was constructed for forming the molten zone. Evaporation of the molten zone was controlled by adding excess cadmium to the growth ampoule combined with heating of the entire ampoule. An effective method to hold the feed rod was developed. Slow rotation of the growth ampoule was proven experimentally to be necessary to achieve a complete symmetric molten zone. Most of the resultant cylindrical rods were single crystals with twins. Still needed is a suitable automatic method to control the zone length. We tried a fiber optical technique to control the zone length, but experiments showed that application of this technique to automate zone length control is unlikely to be successful.

  1. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  2. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wairkar, Yogesh P.; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosophila to demonstrate that the serine threonine kinase Unc-51 acts in the presynaptic motoneuron to regulate the localization of the active zone protein Bruchpilot opposite to glutamate receptors at each synapse. In the absence of Unc-51, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot, and ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that fewer active zones contain dense body T-bars. In addition to the presence of these aberrant synapses, there is also a decrease in the density of all synapses. This decrease in synaptic density and abnormal active zone composition is associated with impaired evoked transmitter release. Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development. In the unc-51 mutant, increased ERK activity leads to the decrease in synaptic density and the absence of Bruchpilot from many synapses. Hence, activated ERK negatively regulates synapse formation, resulting in either the absence of active zones or the formation of active zones without their proper complement of proteins. The Unc-51-dependent inhibition of ERK activity provides a potential mechanism for synapse-specific control of active zone protein composition and release probability. PMID:19144852

  3. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wairkar, Yogesh P; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Diantonio, Aaron

    2009-01-14

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosophila to demonstrate that the serine threonine kinase Unc-51 acts in the presynaptic motoneuron to regulate the localization of the active zone protein Bruchpilot opposite to glutamate receptors at each synapse. In the absence of Unc-51, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot, and ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that fewer active zones contain dense body T-bars. In addition to the presence of these aberrant synapses, there is also a decrease in the density of all synapses. This decrease in synaptic density and abnormal active zone composition is associated with impaired evoked transmitter release. Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development. In the unc-51 mutant, increased ERK activity leads to the decrease in synaptic density and the absence of Bruchpilot from many synapses. Hence, activated ERK negatively regulates synapse formation, resulting in either the absence of active zones or the formation of active zones without their proper complement of proteins. The Unc-51-dependent inhibition of ERK activity provides a potential mechanism for synapse-specific control of active zone protein composition and release probability.

  4. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  5. Role of nitric oxide in subventricular zone neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matarredona, Esperanza R; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; Moreno-López, Bernardo; Estrada, Carmen

    2005-09-01

    A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in adult neurogenesis has been suggested based on anatomical findings showing that subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroblasts are located close to NO-producing cells, and on the known antiproliferative actions of NO in many cell types. Experiments have been performed in rodents with systemic and intracerebroventricular administrations of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME. NOS inhibition leads to significant increases in the number of proliferating cells in the SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB). NO exerts its cytostatic action preferentially on the cell population expressing nestin but not betaIII-tubulin, which may correspond to the type C cells described in the SVZ. The negative effect of NO on SVZ cell proliferation has also been confirmed in SVZ primary cultures. An inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is described as one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the antiproliferative effect of NO in SVZ cells. Biochemical data supporting this conclusion has been obtained using the neuroblastoma cell line NB69, which endogenously expresses the EGFR. In these cells, the antimitotic action of NO occurs upon inhibition of the EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, probably by a direct S-nitrosylation of the receptor. The latest published reports on NO and neurogenesis indicate that NO physiologically participates in the control of adult neurogenesis by modulating the proliferation and fate of the SVZ progenitor cells. These effects might be partially due to a direct inhibition of the EGFR by S-nitrosylation.

  6. Substrate inhibition of transketolase.

    PubMed

    Solovjeva, Olga N; Kovina, Marina V; Kochetov, German A

    2016-03-01

    We studied the influence of the acceptor substrate of transketolase on the activity of the enzyme in the presence of reductants. Ribose-5-phosphate in the presence of cyanoborohydride decreased the transketolase catalytic activity. The inhibition is caused by the loss of catalytic function of the coenzyme-thiamine diphosphate. Similar inhibitory effect was observed in the presence of NADPH. This could indicate its possible regulatory role not only towards transketolase, but also towards the pentose phosphate pathway of carbohydrate metabolism overall, taking into account the fact that it inhibits not only transketolase but also another enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway--glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase [Eggleston L.V., Krebs H.A. Regulation of the pentose phosphate cycle, Biochem. J. 138 (1974) 425-435]. PMID:26708478

  7. Concepts of the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, L.

    2012-04-01

    The HZ around a single star has been calculated by several authors. Two concepts are commonly used throughout the literature for cloud free (see Kasting et al.1993, Underwood et al.2003) and cloudy atmospheres (Selsis et al.2007) which have been derived from the same model originally proposed by Kasting et al.(1993). The main differences among studies of the HZ are the imposed climatic constraints such as a CO2/H2O/N2 atmosphere with varying CO2/H2O/N2 concentrations (e.g., Earth's), or model atmospheres with high H2 concentrations (Gaidos&Pierrehumbert 2010) or limited water supply (Abe et al.2011). We discuss the implication of these constraints on the Habitable Zone and its resulting limits as well as detectable spectral features in a planet's rocky atmosphere that could be used to test our concept of the Habitable Zone.

  8. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  9. Topography of Human Erogenous Zones.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Santtila, Pekka; Hietanen, Jari K

    2016-07-01

    Touching is a powerful means for eliciting sexual arousal. Here, we establish the topographical organization of bodily regions triggering sexual arousal in humans. A total of 704 participants were shown images of same and opposite sex bodies and asked to color the bodily regions whose touching they or members of the opposite sex would experience as sexually arousing while masturbating or having sex with a partner. Resulting erogenous zone maps (EZMs) revealed that the whole body was sensitive to sexual touching, with erogenous hotspots consisting of genitals, breasts, and anus. The EZM area was larger while having sex with a partner versus while masturbating, and was also dependent on sexual desire and heterosexual and homosexual interest levels. We conclude that tactile stimulation of practically all bodily regions may trigger sexual arousal. Extension of the erogenous zones while having sex with a partner may reflect the role of touching in maintenance of reproductive pair bonds.

  10. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  11. Is there an Unhabitable Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    The universe is a vast place, and a blind search for life out there is short of impossible. Therefore, it is only natural to try and reduce the area to explore by putting in some additional assumptions based on a few educated guesses and a lot of "a priori" experience from what is life here on Earth. On our way along this appealing path, we have come up with a working definition of where life should be looked for: the so-called Traditional Habitable Zone (THZ). But as this concept has taken what seems to be an ever increasing significance in mission design and selection, it is important to understand the limitations to its definition and usefulness. To do so, I will thus try to address the following questions: Is a planet inside the THZ habitable? Is a planet outside this zone necessarily unhabitable? In fact, is there anything like an Unhabitable Zone, and don't we risk to miss the unexpected if we try too hard to find another version of ourselves among the stars?

  12. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  13. Zone heating for fluidized bed silane pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An improved heated fluidized bed reactor and method for the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon by silane pyrolysis wherein silicon seed particles are heated in an upper heating zone of the reactor and admixed with particles in a lower reaction zone, in which zone a silane-containing gas stream, having passed through a lower cooled gas distribution zone not conducive to silane pyrolysis, contacts the heated seed particles whereon the silane is heterogeneously reduced to silicon.

  14. INEEL Vadose Zone Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Hull, L.; Ansley, S.; Versteeg, R.; Scott, C.; Street, L.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park was developed to address mission critical issues related to operations, waste management, and environmental restoration at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are located over thick vadose zones. The research park provides instrumentation and facilities for scientists to address vadose zone processes that are important in assessing operational activities, remedial measures, and long-term stewardship of DOE lands. The park, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is strategically located along the Big Lost River, an intermittent river, and around two new percolation ponds. This location provides the opportunity to study variable recharge from the river, continuous recharge from the ponds, and the interactions between the two sources. Drilling began in September 2000 and was completed in June 2001. Thirty one wells and instrumented boreholes have been installed at the park to monitor perched water, measure moisture movement, collect water and gas samples, and study intra-well geophysical properties. Nine of the boreholes, ranging in depth from 150 ft to 504 ft below land surface (bls), are instrumented to monitor moisture in the vadose zone. Instruments include: tensiometers, moisture content sensors, suction lysimeters, temperature sensors, gas ports and electrodes for electrical resistance tomography. Electrodes are evenly spaced throughout the borehole with hydrologic instruments concentrated in and near the sedimentary interbeds-discontinuous layers of silts and clays that occur between some basalt flows. Eighteen monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 60 ft to 250 ft bls, are completed with 4 or 6 inch PVC casing, and generally include an electrical resistivity electrode array attached to the casing. Three bore holes are constructed for testing cross-hole ground penetrating radar as well as for testing new nuclear logging tools being designed at the INEEL. The remaining borehole contains only

  15. Evolution of a Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how Earth's surface might have evolved with time and to examine in a more general way the initiation and continuance of subduction zones and the possible formation of continents on an Earth-like planet. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life, and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), but may also depend on the biosphere. Employing the Fortran convection code CHIC (developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium), we simulate a subduction zone with a pre-defined weak zone (between oceanic and continental crust) and a fixed plate velocity for the subducting oceanic plate (Quinquis et al. in preparation). In our study we first investigate the main factors that influence the subduction process. We simulate the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate (Noack et al., 2013). The crust is separated into an upper crust and a lower crust. We apply mixed Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology and vary the parameters that are most likely to influence the subduction of the ocanic plate, as for example density of the crust/mantle, surface temperature, plate velocity and subduction angle. The second part of our study concentrates on the long-term evolution of a subduction zone. Even though we model only the upper mantle (until a depth of 670km), the subducted crust is allowed to flow into the lower mantle, where it is no longer subject to our investigation. This way we can model the subduction zone over long time spans, for which we assume a continuous inflow of the oceanic plate into the investigated domain. We include variations in mantle temperatures (via secular cooling and decay of radioactive heat sources) and dehydration of silicates (leading to stiffening of the material). We investigate how the mantle environment influences

  16. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  17. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  18. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  19. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  20. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  1. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Time Act of 1966 and Pub. L. 97-449, 15 U.S.C. 260-264; 49 CFR 1.59(a)). ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific zone. 71.10 Section 71.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The...

  2. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Time Act of 1966 and Pub. L. 97-449, 15 U.S.C. 260-264; 49 CFR 1.59(a)). ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific zone. 71.10 Section 71.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The...

  3. 49 CFR 71.10 - Pacific zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Time Act of 1966 and Pub. L. 97-449, 15 U.S.C. 260-264; 49 CFR 1.59(a)). ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific zone. 71.10 Section 71.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.10 Pacific zone. The...

  4. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows:...

  5. Technical Education in the Enterprise Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Howard

    Support is growing for the concept of the enterprise zone. Congress has before it a bill, the Enterprise Zone Tax Act of 1982, that would provide incentives and create a climate in which entrepreneurs and business executives would locate businesses in areas of pervasive poverty and unemployment. A potential urban enterprise zone in New York City…

  6. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States is divided into three zones as follows:...

  7. Do "Some" Enterprise Zones Create Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, Jed; Neumark, David

    2010-01-01

    We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase…

  8. Flux emergence in a magnetized convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Rui; Brun, Allan Sacha

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux-ropes, and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code and analysed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux-ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The actual flux-emergence episode is preceded by a localised increase of radial velocity, density and current density at the top of the convection zone. During the buoyant rise, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength and density scale as B~rho(alpha) , with alpha≤sssim 1. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and are, in consequence, in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly stronger as the flux-ropes evolve. The threshold for the initial magnetic field amplitude is slightly increased by the presence of the background dynamo field, even if it is on average much weaker than the flux-rope's field. The geometry and relative orientation of the magnetic field in the flux-ropes with respect to that in the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flows amplitudes (which develop within the flux-ropes) and surface signatures of magnetic flux emergence. This strongly influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing and Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence, which are key ingredients to the current coronal eruption triggering scenarios. The actual magnetic flux emergence is consistently preceded by strong and localised radial velocity enhancements at the place where the flux rope will emerge. The emerged magnetic flux is in most of the cases studied enough to influence the global surface magnetic field. In some cases, the emergence reinforces

  9. FLUX EMERGENCE IN A MAGNETIZED CONVECTION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-07-20

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux ropes and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code (anelastic spherical harmonics) and analyzed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The global nature of this model can only very crudely and inaccurately represent the local dynamics of the buoyant rise of the implanted magnetic structure, but nonetheless allows us to study the influence of global effects, such as self-consistently generated differential rotation and meridional circulation, and of Coriolis forces. Although motivated by the solar context, this model cannot be thought of as a realistic model of the rise of magnetic structures and their emergence in the Sun, where the local dynamics are completely different. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and consequently are in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly strong as the flux ropes evolve. During the buoyant rise across the convection zone, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength scales as B{proportional_to}{rho}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} {approx}< 1. An increase of radial velocity, density, and current density is observed to precede flux emergence at all longitudes. The geometry, latitude, and relative orientation of the flux ropes with respect to the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flow amplitudes (which develop within the flux ropes), and the corresponding surface signatures. This influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing, and the Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence. The emerged magnetic flux

  10. Revisiting the physical characterisitics of the subduction interplate seismogenic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuret, Arnauld; Lallemand, Serge; Funiciello, Francesca; Piromallo, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    statistical analysis reveals that: 1- vs, the subduction velocity is the first order controlling parameter of seismogenic zone variability, both in term of geometry and seismic behaviour; 2- steep dip, large vertical extent and narrow horizontal extent of the seismogenic zone are associated to fast subductions, and cold slabs, the opposite holding for slow subductions and warm slabs; the seismogenic zone usually ends in the fore-arc mantle rather than at the upper plate Moho depth; 3- seismic rate () variability is coherent with the geometry of the seismogenic zone:  increases with the dip and with the vertical extent of the seismogenic zone, and it fits with vs and with the subducting plate thermal state; 4- mega-events occurrence determines the level of seismic energy released along the subduction interface, whatever  is; 5- to some extent, the potential size of earthquakes fits with vs and with the seismogenic zone geometry, but second order controlling parameters are more difficult to detect; 6- the plate coupling, measured through Upper Plate Strain, is one possible second order parameter: mega-events are preferentially associated to neutral subductions, i.e. moderate compressive stresses along the plate interface; high plate coupling (compressive UPS) is thought to inhibit mega-events genesis by enhancing the locking of the plate interface and preventing the rupture to extend laterally. This research was supported as part of the Eurohorcs/ESF — European Young Investigators Awards Scheme (resp. F.F.), by funds from the National Research Council of Italy and other National Funding Agencies participating in the 3rd Memorandum of Understanding, as well as from the EC Sixth Framework Programme.

  11. Vegetative growth and cluster development in Shiraz grapevines subjected to partial root-zone cooling.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Clarke, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in root-zone temperature both vertically and horizontally may contribute to the uneven vegetative and reproductive growth often observed across vineyards. An experiment was designed to assess whether the warmed half of a grapevine root zone could compensate for the cooled half in terms of vegetative growth and reproductive development. We divided the root system of potted Shiraz grapevines bilaterally and applied either a cool or a warm treatment to each half from budburst to fruit set. Shoot growth and inflorescence development were monitored over the season. Simultaneous cooling and warming of parts of the root system decreased shoot elongation, leaf emergence and leaf expansion below that of plants with a fully warmed root zone, but not to the same extent as those with a fully cooled root zone. Inflorescence rachis length, flower number and berry number after fertilization were smaller only in those vines exposed to fully cooled root zones. After terminating the treatments, berry enlargement and the onset of veraison were slowed in those vines that had been exposed to complete or partial root-zone cooling. Grapevines exposed to partial root-zone cooling were thus delayed in vegetative and reproductive development, but the inhibition was greater in those plants whose entire root system had been cooled.

  12. 77 FR 29898 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone... the Port Detroit Zone, at the following times for the following events: (1) Put-In-Bay Fourth of...

  13. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    .../2011 USCG-2011-0213 Erie Basin, NY Safety Zone (Part 165)... 6/11/2011 USCG-2011-0217 Knoxville, TN... Safety Zone (Part 165)... 4/12/2011 USCG-2011-0273 Lake Michigan Safety and Security Zone 4/14/2011 (Part.../28/2011 USCG-2011-0282 Lake Michigan Safety and Security Zone 4/27/2011 (Part 165). ]...

  14. 33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. 165.T09-0263 Section 165.T09-0263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a) Location. The following area is...

  15. The disinhibitory zone of the striate neuron receptive field and its sensitivity to cross-like figures.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, N A; Shevelev, I A; Novikova, R V; Tikhomirov, A S; Sharaev, G A; Tsutskiridze, D Yu

    2002-01-01

    Acute experiments on immobilized anesthetized cats were used to confirm the suggestion that the sensitivity of many neurons on the primary visual cortex to cross-shaped, angular, and Y-shaped figures may be determined by the presence within their receptive fields of disinhibitory zones, which block end-stopping inhibition. A total of 55 neurons (84 functions, i.e.. on and off responses) were used for studies of sensitivity to crosses, and responses to single bars of different lengths were compared before and after stimulation of an additional lateral zone of the field (the presumptive disinhibitory zone), which was located in terms of responses to crosses. Seventeen of the 55 cells in which increases in the length of a single bar decreased responses, i.e., which demonstrated end-stopping inhibition, showed significant increases in responses (by an average factor of 2.06 +/- 0.16) during simultaneous stimulation of the lateral zone of the receptive field, which we interpreted as a disinhibitory effect on end-stopping inhibition. These data provide the first direct evidence for the role of end-stopping inhibition and its blockade by the disinhibitory zone of the receptive field in determining the sensitivity of some neurons in the primary visual cortex of the cat to cross-shaped figures.

  16. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

    1983-10-01

    This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

  17. Holdridge life zone physical inconsistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, A., Sr.; Ochoa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Life zones is a very used classification system, developed by L.R. Holdridge in 1967, used to discern why plants have different adaptation mechanism to their surrounding environment. In this paper, the relation between potential evapotranspiration rate (ETr ), anual precipitation (P ) and biotemperature (Tb ) in the Holdridge triangle, is parametrized (P = (500/9)*ETr) to evaluate if the rain process is conserved in Colombia. Further, an adiabatic ascent of air with diurnal and interannual variability, and cluster analysis is view as a classification example of the advantage of using physical process to evaluate the plants adaptation mechanisms . The most inconsistency life zones are situated in the rainiest places of Colombian pacific costs in tropical latitudinal region, are non-exist places in holdridge triangle with annual biotemperature higher than 26◦ C, annual precipitation about 10.000mm and annual potential evapotranspiration rate about 0.1. The difference between Holdridge predicted precipitation and the precipitation measured with TRMM are about 5.000mm in these places. Classification systems based on an annual average, do not stablish adaptation as a function of diurnal variability, for example, the difference between valley sides vegetation could not being determined. This kind of limitations, added to a validation procces and the auscence of a physic procces in the variable interaction, make the Holdridge Life Zones a very useful tool, but physically inconsistent for caracterice vegetation as a function of precipitation. The rain process is very complex, depend of mass and energy exchanges and is still a controversial topic in atmospheric modeling, as a biotic pump.

  18. Coulomb Stress Interactions Among Earthquakes in the Gorda Deformation Zone, the San Andreas, Mendocino Fracture Zone, and Cascadia Megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, C.; Stein, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    During the last 30 years the most prolific source of large earthquakes in the western U.S. has been the Gorda deformation zone, a region of diffuse shear off the coast of northernmost California and southern Oregon. Fifteen M≥6 earthquakes have occurred there since 1980, including M≥7 shocks. The abundance of large earthquakes on different fault systems provides fertile ground for the study of earthquake interaction. We find five strong examples of triggering attributable to static stress transfer. A left- lateral Mw=7.3 earthquake in 1980 promoted slip on the right-lateral Mendocino Fracture Zone (MFZ) in an area where aftershocks were abundant, and inhibited slip on a section of the MFZ where aftershocks were absent. The 1980 earthquake appears to have inhibited slip on the Gorda zone faults except within an off- fault stress trigger lobe where three M≥6 shocks subsequently struck. The Mw=6.9 earthquake at Cape Mendocino in 1992 promoted failure on the rupture planes of Mw=6.5 and Mw=6.6 aftershocks. M≥7 earthquakes in 1994 and 2005 are found to have promoted the rupture of subsequent Mw=6.6 earthquakes. We also calculate that the 1906 San Andreas earthquake promoted slip on the MFZ and left-lateral slip on Gorda deformation zone faults, consistent with the M~5.8 shock offshore Cape Mendocino in 1909 and earthquakes in 1922, 1941 and 1954. However, the 1991 Mw=7.0 earthquake should have inhibited the rupture of the 2005 Mw=7.2 earthquake. There are also examples of earthquakes closely spaced in time that occurred more than two source dimensions apart, the approximate limit of static stress transfer for earthquakes with 30-bar stress-drops. A 16 Aug 1991 Mw=6.3 shock was followed 21 hr later by the 17 Aug event 200 km away; the 17 Aug 1991 Mw=6.1 shock was followed 3 hr later by a Mw=7.0 shock 200 km away; and a 25 Nov 1954 M=6.1 shock was followed 26 days later by a M=6.5 shock 120 km away. Together these counter-examples suggest that dynamic triggering

  19. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  20. Contrasting origins of breached relay zone geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conneally, J.; Childs, C.; Walsh, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Relay zones accommodate transfer of displacement between pairs of adjacent segments of a fault array that become linked to form a through-going fault as displacement increases. 3D geometric and kinematic analysis of two vertically aligned relay zones, that form a complex boundary between two fault segments, generally support this model of relay zone growth but they also highlight some departures from this scheme. The two seismically mapped relay zones, although separated vertically by 100 m, were synchronously active over most of their development history. A causal relationship between them is proposed with the geometric complexity arising from the formation of the lower relay zone triggering the formation of the upper. The lower relay zone is now breached but originally formed a hole within the fault surface up to throws of ca. 50 m. The upper relay zone displays both breached and intact relay zone geometries at different structural levels demonstrating that relay zone breaching is a protracted rather than geologically instantaneous process. Geometrically the lower part of this structure resembles a breached relay zone, but it formed by propagation of a splay fault from a pre-existing bend to enclose an intervening and steepening ramp, a growth scheme which is the opposite of conventional relay zone models.

  1. Zoned heating and air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Beachboard, S.A.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

  2. Correlation between linezolid zone diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration values determined by regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, G; Poiata, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Buiuc, D

    2006-01-01

    Linezolid is a new synthetic antibiotic belonging to the oxazolidinone class, available for the therapy of gram-positive infections, caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro activity of linezolid against staphylococci strains and also to determine the relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone diameter by calculating the regression analysis. We tested one hundred S. aureus isolates, obtained from healthy persons (naso-pharyngeal swabs) during 2005 year. The antibiotic susceptibility of strains was determined by disk diffusion standardized method and by agar dilution method using a multipoint inoculator. The relationship between the diameter of the inhibition zone produced by a linezolid disc impregnated with a fixed amount (30 eg) was determined by regression performed with the least squares method, considering the log2 of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as the independent variable and the zone diameter as the dependent variable. The MIC values expressed in logarithmic form are plotted against inhibition zone diameter (arithmetic scale) of the same strain. The activity of linezolid against staphylococci was very good, with MIC 90 of 1 mg/l. All strains were fully sensitive. The regression line for linezolid passes through a continuous series of points that all are approximately located on the a straight line. For each of the MIC values the differences result no greater than 23 mm in diameter sizes were registered. Regression equation was y= -0.188x + 8.048. In conclusion, the regression line analysis calculated for linezolid, demonstrates a significant correlation between MIC values and the inhibition zone diameters obtained by a 30 mg disc.

  3. Activity of Tri-N-Butyl Tin maleate in carpets against Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger, verified through two methodologies: Inhibition Halo (HZ) and Inhibition Surface (Print).

    PubMed

    Uehara, Satiko; Franzolin, Marcia Regina; Viani, Flávio César; Chiesa, Soledad; França, Aricelma Pinheiro; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the activity of the Tri-N-Butyl Tin maleate compound against Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger, after its industrial application in 40 samples of carpets of different materials (polypropylene, polyester, polyamide and wool). The qualitative assays were performed through two methodologies: Inhibition Halo (HZ) and Inhibition of Surface (Print). The carpet with the product inhibited 100% of bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (Aspergillus niger) growth, under the conditions of this study. The microbial inhibition was higher in upper portion of carpets. The methodologies employed appear to be adequate to test the bactericide and fungicide activities of the Tri-N-Butyl Tin maleate. The print methodology confirmed the results obtained by the inhibition zone assay. Further studies using the same methodologies are needed to confirm our results.

  4. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Varian, Bernard J.; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R.; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M.; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  5. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    PubMed

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny. PMID:26933816

  6. Pharmacological Inhibition of FTO

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Fiona; Demetriades, Marina; Aik, WeiShen; Merkestein, Myrte; Kramer, Holger; Andrew, Daniel S.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Hough, Tertius A.; Wells, Sara; Ashcroft, Frances M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Cox, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells) and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO’s demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25830347

  7. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  8. Euphotic Zone Study moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denman, Kenneth

    The Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (GOEZS), a potential core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) being planned jointly with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), was recently given the go-ahead by IGBP's Scientific Committee to move on to the next level of developing its scientific program.The GOEZS program will focus on the coupled physical, biological, and chemical processes operating in the euphotic zone, which is the ocean surface layer where sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis by phytoplankton to exceed their metabolic energy losses. The upper ocean is extremely important to understanding the atmosphereocean system because it mediates exchanges of heat, momentum, carbon dioxide, sulphur, and nitrogen between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. For the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for example, there is more carbon in the upper ocean than in the whole atmosphere. Essentially all carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that passes from the upper ocean to the ocean interior has been transformed chemically or biologically in the upper ocean. Moreover, the upper ocean is the site of all marine shipping and most recreation and industrial activity and contains the planktonic food chain and most fish stocks.

  9. Limitations of angiotensin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, Niloofar; Kamgar, Mohammad; Rastogi, Anjay; Schrier, Robert W

    2011-06-01

    Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) have beneficial effects in patients with cardiovascular disease and in those with diabetes-related and diabetes-independent chronic kidney diseases. These beneficial effects are independent of the antihypertensive properties of these drugs. However, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and combinations of agents in these two classes are limited in the extent to which they inhibit the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Angiotensin breakthrough and aldosterone breakthrough may be important mechanisms involved in limiting the effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Whether direct renin inhibitors will overcome some of the limitations of ACE-inhibitor and ARB therapy by blocking the deleterious effects of the RAAS remains to be proven. This important area is, however, in need of further investigation.

  10. Checkpoint inhibition in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wenya Linda; Wu, Winona W; Santagata, Sandro; Reardon, David A; Dunn, Ian F

    2016-06-01

    Meningiomas are increasingly appreciated to share similar features with other intra-axial central nervous system neoplasms as well as systemic cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibition has emerged as a promising therapy in a number of cancers, with durable responses of years in a subset of patients. Several lines of evidence support a role for immune-based therapeutic strategies in the management of meningiomas, especially high-grade subtypes. Meningiomas frequently originate juxtaposed to venous sinuses, where an anatomic conduit for lymphatic drainage resides. Multiple populations of immune cells have been observed in meningiomas. PD-1/PD-L1 mediated immunosuppression has been implicated in high-grade meningiomas, with association between PD-L1 expression with negative prognostic outcome. These data point to the promise of future combinatorial therapeutic strategies in meningioma. PMID:27197540

  11. Firefly luciferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Leitão, João M M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-10-01

    Firefly luciferase (Luc) is the most studied of the luciferase enzymes and the mechanism and kinetics of the reactions catalyzed by this enzyme have been relatively well characterized. Luc catalyzes the bioluminescent reaction involving firefly luciferin (D-LH(2)), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), magnesium ion and molecular oxygen with the formation of an electronically excited species (oxyluciferin), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), carbon dioxide and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Luc also catalyzes other non-luminescent reactions, which can interfere with the light production mechanism. Following electronic relaxation, the excited oxyluciferin emits radiation in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (550-570 nm). Among the various possible compounds, several classes of inhibitory substances interfere with the activity of this enzyme: here, we consider substrate-related compounds, intermediates or products of the Luc catalyzed reactions, in addition to anesthetics and, fatty acids. This review summarizes the main inhibitors of Luc and the corresponding inhibition kinetic parameters.

  12. Zipper and freeway shear zone junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees; Platt, John

    2016-04-01

    Ductile shear zones are usually presented as isolated planar high-strain domains in a less deformed wall rock, characterised by shear sense indicators such as characteristic deflected foliation traces. Many shear zones, however, form branched systems and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting geometry can be complicated and lead to unusual fabric geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone junctions with three simultaneously operating branches, and with slip directions at a high angle to the branch line, eight basic types of shear zone triple junctions are possible, divided into three groups. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense on all three branches. If shear sense is different on the three branches, this can lead to space problems. Some of these junctions have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch, named zipper junctions, or a single shear zone which splits to form two, known as wedge junctions. Closing zipper junctions are most unusual, since they form a non-active high-strain zone with opposite deflection of foliations. Shear zipper and shear wedge junctions have two shear zones with similar shear sense, and one with the opposite sense. All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic flow patterns in the shear zone and its wall rock. Shear zone junctions with slip directions normal to the branch line can easily be studied, since ideal sections of shear sense indicators lie in the plane normal to the shear zone branches and the branch line. Expanding the model to allow slip oblique and parallel to the branch line in a full 3D setting gives rise to a large number of geometries in three main groups. Slip directions can be parallel on all branches but oblique to the branch line: two slip directions can be parallel and a third oblique, or all three branches can have slip in different directions. Such more complex shear zone junctions cannot be studied to advantage in a

  13. Crustal growth in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Castro, Antonio; Gerya, Taras

    2015-04-01

    There is a broad interest in understanding the physical principles leading to arc magmatisim at active continental margins and different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the composition and evolution of the continental crust. It is widely accepted that water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle allowing for "flux melting" of the hydrated mantle. However, relamination of subducted crustal material to the base of the continental crust has been recently suggested to account for the growth and composition of the continental crust. We use petrological-thermo-mechanical models of active subduction zones to demonstrate that subduction of crustal material to sublithospheric depth may result in the formation of a tectonic rock mélange composed of basalt, sediment and hydrated /serpentinized mantle. This rock mélange may evolve into a partially molten diapir at asthenospheric depth and rise through the mantle because of its intrinsic buoyancy prior to emplacement at crustal levels (relamination). This process can be episodic and long-lived, forming successive diapirs that represent multiple magma pulses. Recent laboratory experiments of Castro et al. (2013) have demonstrated that reactions between these crustal components (i.e. basalt and sediment) produce andesitic melt typical for rocks of the continental crust. However, melt derived from a composite diapir will inherit the geochemical characteristics of its source and show distinct temporal variations of radiogenic isotopes based on the proportions of basalt and sediment in the source (Vogt et al., 2013). Hence, partial melting of a composite diapir is expected to produce melt with a constant major element composition, but substantial changes in terms of radiogenic isotopes. However, crustal growth at active continental margins may also involve accretionary processes by which new material is added to the continental crust. Oceanic plateaus and other

  14. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  15. Aluminum-Induced Rapid Root Inhibition and Changes in Cell-Wall Components of Squash Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Van, H. L.; Kuraishi, S.; Sakurai, N.

    1994-01-01

    Growth of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) roots was significantly inhibited by 1 mM AlCl3 as early as 1 h after the treatment. The growth inhibition was confined to the elongating zone (1-6 mm from the root tip). Chemical analysis of cell-wall polysaccharides from roots revealed that aluminum increased pectin, hemi-cellulose, and cellulose contents after 3 h of treatment. The effect of aluminum on pectin content was found in the elongating zone including the root tip, whereas change in cellulose content was confined to only nonelongating zones. Hemicellulose content increased in all of the regions along the root axis. The increase in the pectin fraction was due to the increases in uronic acids, galactose, and arabinose constituents, whereas hemicellulose content changed due to increases in glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose. The results clearly indicate that aluminum rapidly reduced squash root growth by inhibiting cell elongation and altering metabolism of cell-wall polysaccharides in the nonelongating zone as well as in the elongating zone. PMID:12232377

  16. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a review and evaluation of vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring. It describes the applicability of selected monitoring methods to hazardous waste disposal sites. Topics covered include: geohydrologic framework of the vadose zone; premonitoring of storage at disposal sites; premonitoring of water movement at disposal sites; active and abandoned site monitoring methods; waste source pollutant characterization; geohydrologic settings for waste disposals and conceptual vadose zone monitoring descriptions.

  17. Automated zone correction in bitmapped document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    1999-12-01

    The optical character recognition system (OCR) selected by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) as part of its system for automating the production of MEDLINER records frequently segments the scanned page images into zones which are inappropriate for NLM's application. Software has been created in-house to correct the zones using character coordinate and character attribute information provided as part of the OCR output data. The software correctly delineates over 97% of the zones of interest tested to date.

  18. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    PubMed

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  19. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions. PMID:25324075

  20. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    PubMed

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology. PMID:23035897

  1. Reductive dechlorination in recalcitrant sources of chloroethenes in the transition zone between aquifers and aquitards.

    PubMed

    Puigserver, Diana; Herrero, Jofre; Torres, Mònica; Cortés, Amparo; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Kuntze, Kevin; Parker, Beth L; Carmona, José M

    2016-09-01

    In the transition zone between aquifers and basal aquitards, the perchloroethene pools at an early time in their evolution are more recalcitrant than those elsewhere in the aquifer. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the biodegradation of chloroethenes from aged pools (i.e., pools after decades of continuous groundwater flushing and dissolution) of perchloroethene is favored in the transition zone. A field site was selected where an aged pool exists at the bottom of a transition zone. Two boreholes were drilled to obtain sediment and groundwater samples to perform chemical, isotopic, molecular, and clone library analyses and microcosm experiments. The main results were as follows: (i) the transition zone is characterized by a high microbial richness; (ii) reductively dechlorinating microorganisms are present and partial reductive dechlorination coexists with denitrification, Fe and Mn reduction, and sulfate reduction; (iii) reductively dechlorinating microorganisms were also present in the zone of the aged pool; (v) the high concentrations of perchloroethene in this zone resulted in a decrease in microbial richness; (vi) however, the presence of fermenting microorganisms supplying electrons for the reductively dechlorinating microorganisms prevented the reductive dechlorination to be inhibited. These findings suggest that biostimulation and/or bioaugmentation could be applied to promote complete reductive dechlorination and to enhance the dissolution of more nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL).

  2. Stimulation of Superficial Zone Protein/Lubricin/PRG4 by Transforming Growth Factor-β in Superficial Zone Articular Chondrocytes and Modulation by Glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Araceli; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-07-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), plays an important role in the boundary lubrication of articular cartilage and is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Here, we evaluate the role of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during TGF-β1 stimulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in superficial zone articular chondrocytes. We utilized primary monolayer superficial zone articular chondrocyte cultures and treated them with various concentrations of TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cell surface GAGs were removed by pretreatment with either heparinase I or chondroitinase-ABC before TGF-β1 stimulation. Accumulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in the culture medium in response to stimulation with TGF-β1 and various exogenous GAGs was demonstrated by immunoblotting and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We show that TGF-β1 and exogenous HS enhanced SZP accumulation of superficial zone chondrocytes in the presence of surface GAGs. At the dose of 1 ng/mL of TGF-β1, the presence of exogenous heparin inhibited SZP accumulation whereas the presence of exogenous CS stimulated SZP accumulation in the culture medium. Enzymatic depletion of GAGs on the surface of superficial zone chondrocytes enhanced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate SZP accumulation in the presence of both exogenous heparin and CS. Collectively, these results suggest that GAGs at the surface of superficial zone articular chondrocytes influence the response to TGF-β1 and exogenous GAGs to stimulate SZP accumulation. Cell surface GAGs modulate superficial zone chondrocytes' response to TGF-β1 and exogenous HS.

  3. Stimulation of Superficial Zone Protein/Lubricin/PRG4 by Transforming Growth Factor-β in Superficial Zone Articular Chondrocytes and Modulation by Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar, Araceli

    2015-01-01

    Superficial zone protein (SZP), also known as lubricin and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), plays an important role in the boundary lubrication of articular cartilage and is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Here, we evaluate the role of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during TGF-β1 stimulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in superficial zone articular chondrocytes. We utilized primary monolayer superficial zone articular chondrocyte cultures and treated them with various concentrations of TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of heparan sulfate (HS), heparin, and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The cell surface GAGs were removed by pretreatment with either heparinase I or chondroitinase-ABC before TGF-β1 stimulation. Accumulation of SZP/lubricin/PRG4 in the culture medium in response to stimulation with TGF-β1 and various exogenous GAGs was demonstrated by immunoblotting and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We show that TGF-β1 and exogenous HS enhanced SZP accumulation of superficial zone chondrocytes in the presence of surface GAGs. At the dose of 1 ng/mL of TGF-β1, the presence of exogenous heparin inhibited SZP accumulation whereas the presence of exogenous CS stimulated SZP accumulation in the culture medium. Enzymatic depletion of GAGs on the surface of superficial zone chondrocytes enhanced the ability of TGF-β1 to stimulate SZP accumulation in the presence of both exogenous heparin and CS. Collectively, these results suggest that GAGs at the surface of superficial zone articular chondrocytes influence the response to TGF-β1 and exogenous GAGs to stimulate SZP accumulation. Cell surface GAGs modulate superficial zone chondrocytes' response to TGF-β1 and exogenous HS. PMID:25398329

  4. 76 FR 41065 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Register (76 FR 30072). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... the Port Lake Michigan zone in the Federal Register (76 FR 12374). The Coast Guard received 0 public... Michigan zone in the Federal Register (76 FR 12374). The Coast Guard received 0 public...

  5. Propolis inhibits osteoclast maturation.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, Roberta; Antony, Kathryn; Johnson, Kristie; Zuo, Jian; Shannon Holliday, L

    2009-12-01

    Propolis, a natural product produced by the honey bee, has been successfully used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Traumatic injuries to the teeth, especially avulsion injuries, present a challenging situation for the clinician because of post-treatment complications, such as inflammatory and/or replacement resorption. Agents that reduce osteoclast numbers and activity may be useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the teeth. In this study, we evaluated propolis as an anti-resorptive agent. Calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were exposed to the ethanol extracts of propolis or vehicle control and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-activity to identify osteoclasts. A significant, dose-dependent reduction in multinuclear TRAP+ cells was demonstrated, although the propolis treatment accommodated cell growth and survival (P < 0.05). Propolis also reduced the formation of actin rings in pure cultures of RAW 264.7 osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that it exerts direct actions on osteoclast maturation. In summary, our data suggest that propolis inhibits late stages of osteoclast maturation including fusion of osteoclasts precursors to form giant cells and formation of actin rings. This supports the hypothesis that it may prove useful as a medicament to reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries to the teeth. PMID:19843135

  6. The historical trend in float zone crystal diameters and power requirements for float zoned silicon crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The power needed to zone silicon crystals by radio frequency heating was analyzed. The heat loss mechanisms are examined. Curves are presented for power as a function of crystal diameter for commercial silicon zoning.

  7. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon.

  8. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  9. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon. PMID:25981318

  10. 78 FR 40961 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ..., OH. The safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(22) will be enforced from 10:15 p.m. until 10:30 p.m... enforce various safety zones for annual marine events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from 9:30 p.m. on June 20, 2013 through 11:59 p.m. on August 31, 2013. Enforcement of these zones is...

  11. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Padula

    2000-09-13

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations.

  12. Balanced feedforward inhibition and dominant recurrent inhibition in olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Large, Adam M; Vogler, Nathan W; Mielo, Samantha; Oswald, Anne-Marie M

    2016-02-23

    Throughout the brain, the recruitment of feedforward and recurrent inhibition shapes neural responses. However, disentangling the relative contributions of these often-overlapping cortical circuits is challenging. The piriform cortex provides an ideal system to address this issue because the interneurons responsible for feedforward and recurrent inhibition are anatomically segregated in layer (L) 1 and L2/3 respectively. Here we use a combination of optical and electrical activation of interneurons to profile the inhibitory input received by three classes of principal excitatory neuron in the anterior piriform cortex. In all classes, we find that L1 interneurons provide weaker inhibition than L2/3 interneurons. Nonetheless, feedforward inhibitory strength covaries with the amount of afferent excitation received by each class of principal neuron. In contrast, intracortical stimulation of L2/3 evokes strong inhibition that dominates recurrent excitation in all classes. Finally, we find that the relative contributions of feedforward and recurrent pathways differ between principal neuron classes. Specifically, L2 neurons receive more reliable afferent drive and less overall inhibition than L3 neurons. Alternatively, L3 neurons receive substantially more intracortical inhibition. These three features--balanced afferent drive, dominant recurrent inhibition, and differential recruitment by afferent vs. intracortical circuits, dependent on cell class--suggest mechanisms for olfactory processing that may extend to other sensory cortices.

  13. 77 FR 48856 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Event in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a safety zone for an annual fireworks event in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone... email LT Adrian Palomeque, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave.,...

  14. 76 FR 33154 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit... Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone, at the following time for the following...

  15. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  16. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  17. Future float zone development in industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandfort, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

  18. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 71 RIN 2105-AE20 Standard Time Zone Boundaries AGENCY: Office of the... and amends the Department's standard time zone boundaries regulations to reflect changes that Congress made to the Uniform Time Act. The purpose of this update is to ensure that the Department's...

  19. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  20. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  1. 47 CFR 73.609 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Zones. 73.609 Section 73.609 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.609 Zones. (a) For the purpose of allotment and assignment, the United States...

  2. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Electric Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.27-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  3. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  4. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  5. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Electric Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.27-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  6. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Electric Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.27-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  7. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Electric Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.27-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  8. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  9. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  10. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire...

  11. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  12. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  13. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  14. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release zone. 227.28 Section 227.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone....

  15. Laser furnace technology for zone refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser experiment facility is constructed to investigate the problems in using a laser beam to zone refine semiconductor and metal crystals. The hardware includes a computer to control scan mirrors and stepper motors to provide a variety of melt zone patterns. The equipment and its operating procedures are described.

  16. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  17. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  18. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  19. Rainfall Morphology in Semi-Tropical Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Ferrier, Brad S.; Ray, Peter S.

    2000-01-01

    Central Florida is the ideal test laboratory for studying convergence zone-induced convection. The region regularly experiences sea breeze fronts and rainfall-induced outflow boundaries. The focus of this study is the common yet poorly-studied convergence zone established by the interaction of the sea breeze front and an outflow boundary. Previous studies have investigated mechanisms primarily affecting storm initiation by such convergence zones. Few have focused on rainfall morphology yet these storms contribute a significant amount precipitation to the annual rainfall budget. Low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture have both been shown to correlate with rainfall amounts in Florida. Using 2D and 3D numerical simulations, the roles of low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture in rainfall evolution are examined. The results indicate that time-averaged, vertical moisture flux (VMF) at the sea breeze front/outflow convergence zone is directly and linearly proportional to initial condensation rates. This proportionality establishes a similar relationship between VMF and initial rainfall. Vertical moisture flux, which encompasses depth and magnitude of convergence, is better correlated to initial rainfall production than surface moisture convergence. This extends early observational studies which linked rainfall in Florida to surface moisture convergence. The amount and distribution of mid-tropospheric moisture determines how rainfall associated with secondary cells develop. Rainfall amount and efficiency varied significantly over an observable range of relative humidities in the 850- 500 mb layer even though rainfall evolution was similar during the initial or "first-cell" period. Rainfall variability was attributed to drier mid-tropospheric environments inhibiting secondary cell development through entrainment effects. Observationally, 850-500 mb moisture structure exhibits wider variability than lower level moisture, which is virtually always

  20. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones. PMID:27024940

  1. Managing speed at school and playground zones.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Lina; Tay, Richard; Acharjee, Shanti

    2011-09-01

    Since speeding is one of the major causes of frequent and severe traffic accidents around school and playground areas, many jurisdictions have reduced the speed limits in these areas to protect children who may be at risk. This paper investigated the speed compliance, mean speed and 85th percentile speed at selected school and playground zones in the City of Calgary in Alberta. Our results showed that the mean speed was lower and the rate of compliance was higher in the school zone compared to the playground zone, 2 lane roads relative to 4 lane roads, roads with fencing, traffic control devices and the presence of speed display device or children, and zones that were longer (> 200 m). Accordingly, this study provided recommendations to improve the effectiveness of school and playground zone speed limits. PMID:21658518

  2. Flame inhibition by hydrogen halides - Some spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.; Cagliostro, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of an air-propane diffusion flame inhibited with hydrogen halides has been studied. Plots of the absorption of light by hydrogen halides as a function of position in the flame and also as a function of the amount of hydrogen halide added to the flame have been obtained. The hydrogen halides are shown to be more stable on the fuel side of the reaction zone than they are on the air side. Thermal diffusion is seen to be important in determining the concentration distribution of the heavier hydrogen halides in diffusion flames. The relationship between the concentration distribution of the hydrogen halides in the flame and the flame inhibition mechanism is discussed.

  3. Flushed zone process helps control gas migration in primary cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Teichrob, R.R. )

    1993-08-16

    Gas migration during cementing operations can be eliminated with optimal drilling practices and ultra-high filtrate loss drilling fluids or properly designed squeeze fluids. A method based on the flushed zone theory involves squeezing fluid into a potential gas-bearing formation to reduce the permeability to gas near the well bore. The process aims to suppress gas flow long enough for the cement to set. The process is accomplished in the following way: the well is drilled to a predetermined depth and all inhibited drilling fluids in the well are displaced by an appropriate squeeze fluid. The annulus is packed off and pressure is applied down the drill pipe. The volume of squeeze fluid pumped away is monitored, and the flush volume is estimated based on assumed permeability, porosity, and interval height. Once the squeeze fluid volume is pumped away, the remaining fluid is displaced back to surface with the original mud system. Drilling resumes, and the well is drilled to total depth, logged, and then abandoned or cased. As the hydrostatic pressure imposed by liquid cement decreases as a function of gel strength development, the altered permeability of adjacent gas-bearing intervals precludes gas movement into the setting cement. The concept behind the flushed zone theory is basic: the gas is moved radially away from the well bore face, and because the formation's permeability to gas changes, the gas is kept away at least long enough to drill, log, and case the zone. Because the residual effects of reduced permeability to gas are unknown, cement permeability to gas in itself may play an important role in long-term solutions to controlling migrating gases through micro-annuli.

  4. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  5. Iris pigmentation and behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A; Kagan, J

    1987-07-01

    Two independent investigations of the association between the temperamental dimensions of inhibition and lack of inhibition to the unfamiliar, on the one hand, and the degree of pigmentation of the iris, on the other, revealed a statistically significant relation in Caucasian children between behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar and blue irises and uninhibited behavior and brown irises. Several biochemical interpretations of this association were discussed and it was suggested that these behavioral styles might be influenced by biological factors that are partially marked by eye color in Caucasian populations.

  6. Catalase is inhibited by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Krych, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2013-07-01

    Catalases, heme enzymes, which catalyze decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, belong to the antioxidant defense system of the cell. In this work we have shown that catalase from bovine liver is inhibited by flavonoids. The inhibition is, at least partially, due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between catalase and flavonoids. In the presence of some flavonoids the formation of unreactive catalase compound II has been detected. The most potent catalase inhibitors among the tested flavonoids have appeared myricetin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate. The relationship between the degree of enzyme inhibition and molecular structure of flavonoids has been analyzed. PMID:23567286

  7. Complex strain patterns developed at the frontal and lateral tips to shear zones and thrust zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coward, M. P.; Potts, G. J.

    Many of the complex strain patterns seen in shear zones and thrust zones, such as variable fabric orientations, refolded folds and fabrics, together with folds with hinges almost parallel to the main transport direction, can be explained in terms of differential movement within the shear zones. These strains are developed at the frontal and lateral tips of the zones as they propagate. Examples are taken from the Moine thrust zone of Scotland which show variations in strains particularly at the lateral tips. The form of differential movement described here may lead to complex strain paths and non-plane strain ellipsoids and the spatial variations in finite strain may be used to delineate zones of extensional and compressional flow and differential movement in the shear zones or thrusts.

  8. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones.

  9. Zones of Interaction: Differential Access to Elementary Science Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Britsch, Susan Jane

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated teacher-child interaction within small-group science activities in a fourth-grade classroom. This qualitative study revealed three "zones of interaction," or teacher-child interaction categories: Individual Zones of Interaction, Multiple Zones of Interaction, and a Collective Zone of Interaction. Each zone was further…

  10. Factors controlling depth of continental rift zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elesin, Y.; Artemieva, I.; Thybo, H.

    2012-04-01

    Subsidence of continental rift basins is caused by thinning of the crust and lithospheric mantle together with isostatic compensation for the extra load of sediments and thermal relaxation. It is generally believed that the final depth of rift basins is primarily controlled by the amount of stretching and that other processes, such as rheology and sedimentation, only have secondary influence. However, we show that the relative rheological strength of faults inside and outside rift zones exerts substantial control on the volume of the final rift basin (by more than a factor of 3) even for the same amount of extension (total or inside the rift zone). This surprising result is mainly caused by irreversible deepening of the rift graben during stretching due to lower crustal flow when the faults in the rift zone are weak, whereas the effect is negligible for strong faults. Relatively strong faults inside the rift zone lead to substantial stretching of adjacent crust, and we find that long term stretching outside the main rift zone may explain the formation of wide continental margins, which are now below sea level. We also demonstrate that fast syn-rift erosion/sedimentation rates can increase the final volume of rift basins by up to a factor of 1.7 for weak crustal faults, whereas this effect is insignificant for strong faults inside the rift zone. These findings have significant implications for estimation of stretching factors, tectonic forces, and geodynamic evolution of sedimentary basins around failed rift zones.

  11. Deferred Growth Inhibition Assay to Quantify the Effect of Bacteria-derived Antimicrobials on Competition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Josephine C; Crank, Emma L; Ghabban, Hanaa A; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2016-01-01

    Competitive exclusion can occur in microbial communities when, for example, an inhibitor-producing strain outcompetes its competitor for an essential nutrient or produces antimicrobial compounds that its competitor is not resistant to. Here we describe a deferred growth inhibition assay, a method for assessing the ability of one bacterium to inhibit the growth of another through the production of antimicrobial compounds or through competition for nutrients. This technique has been used to investigate the correlation of nasal isolates with the exclusion of particular species from a community. This technique can also be used to screen for lantibiotic producers or potentially novel antimicrobials. The assay is performed by first culturing the test inhibitor-producing strain overnight on an agar plate, then spraying over the test competitor strain and incubating again. After incubation, the extent of inhibition can be measured quantitatively, through the size of the zone of clearing around the inhibitor-producing strain, and qualitatively, by assessing the clarity of the inhibition zone. Here we present the protocol for the deferred inhibition assay, describe ways to minimize variation between experiments, and define a clarity scale that can be used to qualitatively assess the degree of inhibition. PMID:27684443

  12. Deferred Growth Inhibition Assay to Quantify the Effect of Bacteria-derived Antimicrobials on Competition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Josephine C; Crank, Emma L; Ghabban, Hanaa A; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2016-09-03

    Competitive exclusion can occur in microbial communities when, for example, an inhibitor-producing strain outcompetes its competitor for an essential nutrient or produces antimicrobial compounds that its competitor is not resistant to. Here we describe a deferred growth inhibition assay, a method for assessing the ability of one bacterium to inhibit the growth of another through the production of antimicrobial compounds or through competition for nutrients. This technique has been used to investigate the correlation of nasal isolates with the exclusion of particular species from a community. This technique can also be used to screen for lantibiotic producers or potentially novel antimicrobials. The assay is performed by first culturing the test inhibitor-producing strain overnight on an agar plate, then spraying over the test competitor strain and incubating again. After incubation, the extent of inhibition can be measured quantitatively, through the size of the zone of clearing around the inhibitor-producing strain, and qualitatively, by assessing the clarity of the inhibition zone. Here we present the protocol for the deferred inhibition assay, describe ways to minimize variation between experiments, and define a clarity scale that can be used to qualitatively assess the degree of inhibition.

  13. Secondary porosity in a transient vadose zone

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.T.; Grasso, T.X. Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    The Western New York Nuclear Service Center is the site of low and high level radioactive waster buried in a series of trenches excavated in a 28 m thick, Lavery-age silty clay diamicton that exhibits a 6 meter thick transient vadoes zone where exposed at the surface. Hydrostratigraphy of this till includes a 0.25 m thick poorly developed macroporous soil, a 3.5 m thick weathered zone of densely spaced and randomly orientated horizontal and vertical fractures, a 2 m thick unweathered zone of intermittently spaced fractures exhibiting east-west orientations, and a massive 23 m thick unweathered till zone that exhibits isolated, east-west orientated fractures. Bulk hydraulic conductivity of this active flow zone decreases with depth from 10[sup [minus]5] to 10[sup [minus]8] cm/s. The specific discharge of vertically flowing groundwater in the massive till zone is 1.25 cm/yr. A water surplus in the recharge season saturates the fractured zone to grade with up to 7.37 cm/yr of net infiltration. Tritium and radionuclides from the waste trenches and surrounding soil matrix hydrodynamically disperse into the field-saturated fracture network that contains meteoric recharge water. A soil moisture deficit in discharge season produces a vadose zone of widened fractures that via capillarity enhances the diffusion of contaminants into the soil matrix. These enlarged connecting conduits laterally channel the excess infiltration from the recharge season and diffused contaminants to local lowlands and incised streams that truncate the unweathered till. The current vadose and phreatic zone flow study will be used in numeric simulations that will delineate the areal extend and temporal duration of these seepage faces and the time frame of possible surfaces water contamination.

  14. 77 FR 21439 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone in the Federal Register (77 FR 11426). We received 0 letters... Thursday of November; 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. (66) New Years Eve Fireworks; Chicago, IL. (i) Location. All...

  15. The ciliary transition zone functions in cell adhesion but is dispensable for axoneme assembly in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Schouteden, Clementine; Serwas, Daniel; Palfy, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are cellular projections that perform sensory and motile functions. A key ciliary subdomain is the transition zone, which lies between basal body and axoneme. Previous work in Caenorhabditis elegans identified two ciliopathy-associated protein complexes or modules that direct assembly of transition zone Y-links. Here, we identify C. elegans CEP290 as a component of a third module required to form an inner scaffolding structure called the central cylinder. Co-inhibition of all three modules completely disrupted transition zone structure. Surprisingly, axoneme assembly was only mildly perturbed. However, dendrite extension by retrograde migration was strongly impaired, revealing an unexpected role for the transition zone in cell adhesion. PMID:26124290

  16. Current issues in arthrogenous inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Young, A

    1993-01-01

    Joint disease commonly results in severe weakness of associated muscles. Efforts to restore strength are often unsuccessful, even in the absence of pain. This is because of the underlying inhibition of motoneurones by afferent signals from in and around the affected joint, 'arthrogenous inhibition'. This phenomenon has received scant scientific attention, but several experimental techniques are now available with which it can be studied in man. Animal studies suggest possible neurophysiological mechanisms. Selective atrophy of different muscle fibre types, perhaps implying selective inhibition of different types of motor unit, remains unexplained, however. The severity of arthrogenous inhibition can be temporarily reduced by silencing afferent traffic but none of the techniques is yet generally applicable in practice. An alternative therapeutic approach is to produce involuntary muscle contractions by electrical stimulation. The effectiveness of therapeutic electrical stimulation may depend on the frequency and other characteristics of the stimulus. PMID:8250616

  17. Oxygen inhibition in dental resins.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M A; Stangel, I; Ellis, T H; Zhu, X X

    2005-08-01

    Oxygen inhibits free radical polymerization and yields polymers with uncured surfaces. This is a concern when thin layers of resin are being polymerized, or in circumstances where conventional means of eliminating inhibition are inappropriate. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that viscosity, filler content, and polymerization temperature modify oxygen diffusion in the resin or the reactivity of radical species, and affect the degree of conversion near the surface. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy was used to measure monomer conversion from the surface to the bulk of cured resins. Increased viscosity was shown to limit oxygen diffusion and increase conversion near the surface, without necessarily modifying the depth of inhibition. The filler material was shown to increase, simultaneously, oxygen diffusivity and the viscosity of the resin, which have opposite effects on conversion. Polymerization at a temperature above approximately 110 degrees C was shown to eliminate oxygen inhibition.

  18. Infrared inhibition of embryonic hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yves T.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Infrared control is a new technique that uses pulsed infrared lasers to thermally alter electrical activity. Originally developed for nerves, we have applied this technology to embryonic hearts using a quail model, previously demonstrating infrared stimulation and, here, infrared inhibition. Infrared inhibition enables repeatable and reversible block, stopping cardiac contractions for several seconds. Normal beating resumes after the laser is turned off. The block can be spatially specific, affecting propagation on the ventricle or initiation on the atrium. Optical mapping showed that the block affects action potentials and not just calcium or contraction. Increased resting intracellular calcium was observed after a 30-s exposure to the inhibition laser, which likely resulted in reduced mechanical function. Further optimization of the laser illumination should reduce potential damage. Stopping cardiac contractions by disrupting electrical activity with infrared inhibition has the potential to be a powerful tool for studying the developing heart.

  19. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  20. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  1. Knowledge-based flow field zoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards easing the three-dimensional grid generation bottleneck in computational fluid dynamics. A knowledge based approach works well, but certain aspects of flow field zoning make the use of such an approach challenging. A knowledge based flow field zoner, called EZGrid, was implemented and tested on representative two-dimensional aerodynamic configurations. Results are shown which illustrate the way in which EZGrid incorporates the effects of physics, shape description, position, and user bias in a flow field zoning.

  2. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yuhong

    2009-12-01

    Active regions on the solar surface are generally thought to originate from a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by a deep seated solar dynamo mechanism operating at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. Understanding this process of active region flux emergence is therefore a crucial component for the study of the solar cycle dynamo. This article reviews studies with regard to the formation and rise of active region scale magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone and their emergence into the solar atmosphere as active regions.

  3. Making SPC easier with zone control charts

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, B.

    1995-12-31

    The zone control chart is a simple, easy to learn statistical process control (SPC) tool that can be applied to any process where the data are normally distributed. Several Shewhart runs rules are incorporated into a simple scoring system, with a single rule to determine when a process is out of control. Zone charts have average run lengths (ARLs) for detecting shifts in the process mean which, for most cases, are uniformly better than the standard control charts. This paper presents the simplified methodology behind the zone control chart.

  4. 'No Organics' Zone Circles Pinwheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Pinwheel galaxy, otherwise known as Messier 101, sports bright reddish edges in this new infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Research from Spitzer has revealed that this outer red zone lacks organic molecules present in the rest of the galaxy. The red and blue spots outside of the spiral galaxy are either foreground stars or more distant galaxies.

    The organics, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are dusty, carbon-containing molecules that help in the formation of stars. On Earth, they are found anywhere combustion reactions take place, such as barbeque pits and exhaust pipes. Scientists also believe this space dust has the potential to be converted into the stuff of life.

    Spitzer found that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decrease in concentration toward the outer portion of the Pinwheel galaxy, then quickly drop off and are no longer detected at its very outer rim. According to astronomers, there's a threshold at the rim where the organic material is being destroyed by harsh radiation from stars. Radiation is more damaging at the far reaches of a galaxy because the stars there have less heavy metals, and metals dampen the radiation.

    The findings help researchers understand how stars can form in these harsh environments, where polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lacking. Under normal circumstances, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons help cool down star-forming clouds, allowing them to collapse into stars. In regions like the rim of the Pinwheel as well as the very early universe stars form without the organic dust. Astronomers don't know precisely how this works, so the rim of the Pinwheel provides them with a laboratory for examining the process relatively close up.

    In this image, infrared light with a wavelength of 3.6 microns is colored blue; 8-micron light is green; and 24-micron light is red. All three of Spitzer's instruments were used in the study: the infrared array camera, the

  5. Inhibition of Rho-ROCK signaling induces apoptotic and non-apoptotic PS exposure in cardiomyocytes via inhibition of flippase.

    PubMed

    Krijnen, Paul A J; Sipkens, Jessica A; Molling, Johan W; Rauwerda, Jan A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Muller, Alice; Paulus, Walter J; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; Hack, C Erik; Verhoeven, Arthur J; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Niessen, Hans W M

    2010-11-01

    Subsequent to myocardial infarction, cardiomyocytes within the infarcted areas and border zones expose phosphatidylserine (PS) in the outer plasma membrane leaflet (flip-flop). We showed earlier that in addition to apoptosis, this flip-flop can be reversible in cardiomyocytes. We now investigated a possible role for Rho and downstream effector Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) in the process of (reversible) PS exposure and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In rat cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) and isolated adult ventricular rat cardiomyocytes Clostridium difficile Toxin B (TcdB), a Rho GTPase family inhibitor, C3 transferase (C3), a Rho(A,B,C) inhibitor and the ROCK inhibitors Y27632 and H1152 were used to inhibit Rho-ROCK signaling. PS exposure was assessed via flow cytometry and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy using annexin V. Akt expression and phosphorylation were analyzed via Western blot, and Akt activity was inhibited by wortmannin. The cellular concentration activated caspase 3 was determined as a measure of apoptosis, and flippase activity was assessed via flow cytometry using NBD-labeled PS. TcdB, C3, Y27632 and H1152 all significantly increased PS exposure. TcdB, Y27632 and H1152 all significantly inhibited phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Akt and Akt inhibition by wortmannin lead to increased PS exposure. However, only TcdB and C3, but not ROCK- or Akt inhibition led to caspase 3 activation and thus apoptosis. Notably, pancaspase inhibitor zVAD only partially inhibited TcdB-induced PS exposure indicating the existence of apoptotic and non-apoptotic PS exposure. The induced PS exposure coincided with decreased flippase activity as measured with NBD-labeled PS flip-flop. In this study, we show a regulatory role for a novel signaling route, Rho-ROCK-flippase signaling, in maintaining asymmetrical membrane phospholipid distribution in cardiomyocytes.

  6. Inhibition Experiments on Anaerobic Methane Oxidation †

    PubMed Central

    Alperin, Marc J.; Reeburgh, William S.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation is a general process important in controlling fluxes of methane from anoxic marine sediments. The responsible organism has not been isolated, and little is known about the electron acceptors and substrates involved in the process. Laboratory evidence indicates that sulfate reducers and methanogens are able to oxidize small quantities of methane. Field evidence suggests anaerobic methane oxidation may be linked to sulfate reduction. Experiments with specific inhibitors for sulfate reduction (molybdate), methanogenesis (2-bromoethanesulfonic acid), and acetate utilization (fluoroacetate) were performed on marine sediments from the zone of methane oxidation to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria or methanogenic bacteria are responsible for methane oxidation. The inhibition experiment results suggest that methane oxidation in anoxic marine sediments is not directly mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria or methanogenic bacteria. Our results are consistent with two possibilities: anaerobic methane oxidation may be mediated by an unknown organism or a consortium involving an unknown methane oxidizer and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:16346921

  7. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation... Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. The following areas are designated safety and... navigable waters of Long Island Sound, from surface to bottom, North and Northeast of a line running...

  8. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine... this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Long, Island Sound. (3)...

  9. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine... this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Long, Island Sound. (3)...

  10. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation... Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. The following areas are designated safety and... navigable waters of Long Island Sound, from surface to bottom, North and Northeast of a line running...

  11. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  12. Strain accumulation along the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, M.H.; Lisowski, M.

    2000-01-01

    We combine triangulation, trilateration, and GPS observations to determine horizontal strain rates along the Cascadia subduction zone from Cape Mendocino to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Shear-strain rates are significantly greater than zero (95% confidence) in all forearc regions (26-167 nanoradians/yr), and are not significant in the arc and backarc regions. The deformation is primarily uniaxial contraction nearly parallel to Juan de Fuca-North America plate convergence (N55??-80??E). The strain rates are consistent with an elastic dislocation model for interseismic slip with a shallow 100-km wide locked zone and a deeper 75-km transition zone along the entire megathrust, except along the central Oregon coast where relatively lower strain rates are consistent with 30-40 km wide locked and transition zones.

  13. Strategic metal deposits of the Arctic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Lobanov, K. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Tarasov, N. N.; Distler, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.; Chizhova, I. A.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mineral commodities rank high in the economies of Arctic countries, and the status of mineral resources and the dynamics of their development are of great importance. The growing tendency to develop strategic metal resources in the Circumarctic Zone is outlined in a global perspective. The Russian Arctic Zone is the leading purveyor of these metals to domestic and foreign markets. The comparative analysis of tendencies in development of strategic metal resources of the Arctic Zone in Russia and other countries is crucial for the elaboration of trends of geological exploration and research engineering. This paper provides insight into the development of Arctic strategic metal resources in global perspective. It is shown that the mineral resource potential of the Arctic circumpolar metallogenic belt is primarily controlled by large and unique deposits of nonferrous, noble, and rare metals. The prospective types of economic strategic metal deposits in the Russian Arctic Zone are shown.

  14. Density model of the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanyuk, T.V.; Mooney, W.D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to construct self-consistent density models along two profiles crossing the northern and central Cascadia subduction zone that have been comprehensively studied on the basis of geological, geophysical, etc. data.

  15. An interactive method for digitizing zone maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.; Thompson, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for digitizing maps that consist of zones, such as contour or climatic zone maps. A color-coded map is prepared by any convenient process. The map is then read into memory of an Image 100 computer by means of its table scanner, using colored filters. Zones are separated and stored in themes, using standard classification procedures. Thematic data are written on magnetic tape and these data, appropriately coded, are combined to make a digitized image on tape. Step-by-step procedures are given for digitization of crop moisture index maps with this procedure. In addition, a complete example of the digitization of a climatic zone map is given.

  16. Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Doughty, C.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Moridis, G.J.; Pan,L.; Xu, T.; Zhang, Y.; Pruess, K.

    2007-02-01

    The vadose zone can be characterized as a complex subsurfacesystem in which intricate physical and biogeochemical processes occur inresponse to a variety of natural forcings and human activities. Thismakes it difficult to describe, understand, and predict the behavior ofthis specific subsurface system. The TOUGH nonisothermal multiphase flowsimulators are well-suited to perform advanced vadose zone studies. Theconceptual models underlying the TOUGH simulators are capable ofrepresenting features specific to the vadose zone, and of addressing avariety of coupled phenomena. Moreover, the simulators are integratedinto software tools that enable advanced data analysis, optimization, andsystem-level modeling. We discuss fundamental and computationalchallenges in simulating vadose zone processes, review recent advances inmodeling such systems, and demonstrate some capabilities of the TOUGHsuite of codes using illustrative examples.

  17. Pyroclastic passage zones in glaciovolcanic sequences.

    PubMed

    Russell, James K; Edwards, Benjamin R; Porritt, Lucy A

    2013-01-01

    Volcanoes are increasingly recognized as agents and recorders of global climate variability, although deciphering the linkages between planetary climate and volcanism is still in its infancy. The growth and emergence of subaqueous volcanoes produce passage zones, which are stratigraphic surfaces marking major transitions in depositional environments. In glaciovolcanic settings, they record the elevations of syn-eruptive englacial lakes. Thus, they allow for forensic recovery of minimum ice thicknesses. Here we present the first description of a passage zone preserved entirely within pyroclastic deposits, marking the growth of a tephra cone above the englacial lake level. Our discovery requires extension of the passage-zone concept to accommodate explosive volcanism and guides future studies of hundreds of glaciovolcanic edifices on Earth and Mars. Our recognition of pyroclastic passage zones increases the potential for recovering transient paleolake levels, improving estimates of paleo-ice thicknesses and providing new constraints on paleoclimate models that consider the extents and timing of planetary glaciations.

  18. Monitoring Vadose Zone Desiccation with Geophysical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2013-05-01

    Soil desiccation was recently field tested as a potential vadose zone remediation technology. Desiccation removes water from the vadose zone and significantly decreases the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone, thereby decreasing movement of moisture and contaminants. The 2-D and 3-D distribution of moisture content reduction over time provides valuable information for desiccation operations and for determining when treatment goals have been reached. This type of information can be obtained through use of geophysical methods. Neutron moisture logging, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar approaches were evaluated with respect to their ability to provide effective spatial and temporal monitoring of desiccation during a treatability study conducted in the vadose zone of the DOE Hanford Site in WA.

  19. Paleofluid evolution of strike-slip compartmentalized extensional fault zones in the Jabal Qusaybah anticline, Salakh Arc, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Fabrizio; Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Mozafari, Mahtab; Solum, John; Swennen, Rudy; Taberner, Conxita; Tueckmantel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The E-W-trending Jabal Qusaybah anticline, developed in layered Cretaceous carbonates, is located at the western termination of the Salakh Arc, Oman Mountains. The anticline is 10 km long and is characterized by a complex fault pattern which mainly includes NE-SW left-lateral strike-slip and N-S extensional fault zones. The N-S striking extensional fault zones are best developed in the central sector of the anticlinal crest, likely due to along-strike outer-arc extension associated with positive fault inversion and salt migration. Extensional fault zones are perpendicular to the fold axis and geometrically confined within major NE-SW left-lateral strike-slip fault zones. They have trace lengths ranging from a few m up to ~800 m, and displacements ranging from a few dm up to ~60 m. Fault zones consist of cataclastic fault cores (~1-15 cm thick) surrounded by vein-dominated damage zones. Overall, fault zones show significant volumes of dilation breccia texture, m-thick infillings of calcite crystals, and cm- to m-thick veins localized at fault tip zones, areas of fault overlap, and zones of interaction between strike-slip and extensional fault segments. By analyzing fault abutting geometries, detailed vein relative chronology, delta13C and delta18O signatures and fluid inclusion data from calcite veins and calcite fault infillings, we propose a model where a deep seated left-lateral strike-slip fault system, active during the growth of the anticline, inhibited the lateral propagation of late-stage transversal extensional fault zones. Our findings show that, in this geological setting, the structural position, rather than fault throw, is the parameter controlling the location of the more dilatant fault segments.

  20. Clinical crown lengthening in the esthetic zone.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Paulo M; Melnick, Philip R; Camargo, Luciano M

    2007-07-01

    Periodontal surgical procedures consisting of gingival flaps and osseous recontouring are indicated for crown lengthening of several contiguous teeth in the esthetic zone; both in cases where restorations are required and in cases where no restorations are planned, such as in patients with excessive gingival display due to altered passive eruption. Forced tooth eruption via orthodontic extrusion is the technique of choice when clinical crown lengthening is necessary on isolated teeth in the esthetic zone.

  1. DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    GB CHRONISTER; MJ TRUEX

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Treatability test plan published in 2008 {sm_bullet} Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) {sm_bullet} Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

  2. Care and meaning in war zone nursing.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Ernestine Tina

    2009-12-01

    During the past century, nurses have served as caregivers for United States military personnel in every major theater of war. Military nurses in the war zone deliver patient care while working in austere conditions, and are under constant threat of personal danger. This article gives a historical overview of the role of nurses in war zones, followed by a review from the perspectives of environment, safety, the nature of injuries, and treatment of military personnel and civilians. PMID:19850184

  3. Dead zones and extrasolar planetary properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2006-01-01

    Most low-mass protostellar discs evolve in clustered environments where they are affected by external radiation fields, while others evolve in more isolated star-forming regions. Assuming that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is the main source of viscosity, we calculate the size of a poorly ionized, MRI inactive and hence low viscosity region - the `dead zone'- in these protostellar discs. We include disc ionization by X-rays, cosmic rays, radioactive elements and thermal collisions, recombination by molecules, metals and grains, as well as the effect of turbulence stimulation in the dead zone by the active layers lying above it. We also calculate the gap-opening masses of planets, which are determined by a disc's viscosity and a disc aspect ratio, for discs in these environments and compare them with each other. We find that the dead zone is a robust feature of the protostellar discs that is largely independent of their environment, typically stretching out to ~15 au. We analyse the possible effects of dead zones on planet formation, migration and eccentricity evolution. We show that the gap-opening mass inside the dead zone is expected to be of the order of terrestrial and ice giant mass planets while that outside the dead zone is Jovian or super-Jovian mass planets, largely independent of the star-forming environment. We show that dead zones can significantly slow down both type I and type II planetary migration due to their lower viscosity. We also find that the growth of eccentricity of massive extrasolar planets is particularly favourable through the planet-disc interaction inside the dead zones due to the large gaps expected to be opened by planets.

  4. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  5. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  6. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-07-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  7. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  8. Inhibition of tobramycin diffusion by binding to alginate.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, W W; Dorrington, S M; Slack, M P; Walmsley, H L

    1988-01-01

    [3H]tobramycin bound to sodium alginate and to exopolysaccharide prepared from two mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Binding to sodium alginate was similar to binding to exopolysaccharide, both in the dependence on tobramycin concentration and in the maximum binding observed at saturation. Incorporation of sodium alginate into agar plates reduced the zone sizes of growth inhibition caused by tobramycin. The reductions in zone sizes were quantitatively accounted for by the binding of tobramycin to sodium alginate during diffusion of the antibiotic away from the well in which it had been placed at the start of the experiment. However, the binding of tobramycin to the exopolysaccharide of P. aeruginosa, and the resulting inhibition of diffusion of the antibiotic, did not significantly increase the penetration time of a spherical microcolony with a radius of 125 micron, such as might be found in the respiratory tract of a patient with cystic fibrosis (from a 90% penetration time of 12 s in the absence of exopolysaccharide to one of 35 s with an exopolysaccharide concentration of 1.0% [wt/vol]). PMID:3132093

  9. Inhibition of tobramycin diffusion by binding to alginate

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, W.W.; Dorrington, S.M.; Slack, M.P.; Walmsley, H.L.

    1988-04-01

    (/sup 3/H)tobramycin bound to sodium alginate and to exopolysaccharide prepared from two mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Binding to sodium alginate was similar to binding to exopolysaccharide, both in the dependence on tobramycin concentration and in the maximum binding observed at saturation. Incorporation of sodium alginate into agar plates reduced the zone sizes of growth inhibition caused by tobramycin. The reductions in zone sizes were quantitatively accounted for by the binding of tobramycin to sodium alginate during diffusion of the antibiotic away from the well in which it had been placed at the start of the experiment. However, the binding of tobramycin to the exopolysaccharide of P. aeruginosa, and the resulting inhibition of diffusion of the antibiotic, did not significantly increase the penetration time of a spherical microcolony with a radius of 125 micron, such as might be found in the respiratory tract of a patient with cystic fibrosis (from a 90% penetration time of 12 s in the absence of exopolysaccharide to one of 35 s with an exopolysaccharide concentration of 1.0% (wt/vol)).

  10. Perfluoroalkyl Acids Inhibit Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethene by Repressing Dehalococcoides.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Tess S; Harding-Marjanovic, Katie; Higgins, Christopher P; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface recalcitrance of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) derived from aqueous film-forming foams could have adverse impacts on the microbiological processes used for the bioremediation of co-mingled chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE). Here, we show that reductive dechlorination by a methanogenic, mixed culture was significantly inhibited when exposed to concentrations representative of PFAA source zones (>66 mg/L total of 11 PFAA analytes, 6 mg/L each). TCE dechlorination, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride production and dechlorination, and ethene generation were all inhibited at these PFAA concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the abundances of 65% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed significantly when grown in the presence of PFAAs, although repression or enhancement resulting from PFAA exposure did not correlate with putative function or phylogeny. Notably, there was significant repression of Dehalococcoides (8-fold decrease in abundance) coupled with a corresponding enhancement of methane-generating Archaea (a 9-fold increase). Growth and dechlorination by axenic cultures of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 were similarly repressed under these conditions, confirming an inhibitory response of this pivotal genus to PFAA presence. These results suggest that chlorinated solvent bioattenuation rates could be impeded in subsurface environments near PFAA source zones. PMID:26636352

  11. Dentin caries zones: mineral, structure, and properties.

    PubMed

    Pugach, M K; Strother, J; Darling, C L; Fried, D; Gansky, S A; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral.

  12. Segmentation of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadge, G.; Shepherd, J. B.

    1984-12-01

    Precise hypocentral locations of earthquakes recorded on local seismic networks from 1978 to 1984 have established the configuration of the Benioff zone beneath the Lesser Antilles island arc. There are two distinct segments to the zone: one to the north of Martinique which trends NNW and one to the south of St. Lucia which trends NNE. The northern zone dips at 60-50°. The southern zone has a dip of 50-45° in the north but is vertical in the south. Pleistocene volcanoes are aligned in distinct segments which closely mirror the kink in the Benioff zone. Mid-Miocene swarms of dykes in Martinique and St. Lucia have NW and NE azimuthal modes respectively. We interpret this to mean that this kink in the subduction zone existed as long ago as the Miocene. The kink may represent the deformation of a single subducting plate or two separate North and South American plates subducting beneath the Caribbean plate with a triple junction in the region of Martinique-St. Lucia.

  13. Zone conditioning in a California foothill house

    SciTech Connect

    Jump, D.; Modera, M.

    1993-12-01

    The principal focus of the reported research is the performance of the installed zoned air distribution system in a house located in the foothills northeast of Sacramento California. The 297 m{sup 2} two story house contained a central air conditioner and an air distribution system with four dampered supply duct legs. The air conditioning system included a two speed fan and two speed compressor, with the air handler placed inside a closet and almost all the ducts located inside the building envelope. The uninsulated sheet metal ducts ran inside a space between stories and in interior walls. The performance parameters examined included: (1) duct leakage, (2) duct conduction, (3) zoning performance and (4) equipment efficiency impacts. In conclusion, two major points were made concerning the test house. The first was that substantial energy benefits were obtained by placing the ducts inside the conditioned space. The second was that the energy benefits from zoning the house were not realized, primarily due to thermal stratification and the open floor plan in the house. Secondary impacts lowering zoning performance were the k& of return duct dampers and leakage and conduction losses in the air distribution system. Utility programs or building standards promoting zoning as a means of conserving energy or reducing peak power demand should be aware of the many potential pitfalls that can arise with zone conditioning, particularly with dampered air distribution systems.

  14. Behavioral inhibition and childhood stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.; Tumanova, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of behavioral inhibition to stuttering and speech/language output in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS). Method Participants were preschool-age (ages 36 to 68 months), including 26 CWS (22 males) and 28 CWNS (13 males). Participants’ behavioral inhibition (BI) was assessed by measuring the latency to their sixth spontaneous comment during conversation with an unfamiliar experimenter, using methodology developed by Kagan, Reznick, and Gibbons (1989). In addition to these measures of BI, each participant’s stuttered and non-stuttered disfluencies and mean length of utterance (in morphemes) were assessed. Results Among the more salient findings, it was found that (1) there was no significant difference in BI between preschool-age CWS and CWNS as a group, (2) when extremely high versus low inhibited children were selected, there were more CWS with higher BI and fewer CWS with lower BI when compared to their CWNS peers, and (3) more behaviorally inhibited CWS, when compared to less behaviorally inhibited CWS, exhibited more stuttering. Conclusions Findings are taken to suggest that one aspect of temperament (i.e., behavioral inhibition) is exhibited by some preschool-age CWS and that these children stutter more than CWS with lower behavioral inhibition. The present results seem to support continued study of the association between young children’s temperamental characteristics and stuttering, the diagnostic entity (i.e., CWS versus CWNS), as well as stuttering, the behavior (e.g., frequency of stuttered disfluencies). PMID:23773669

  15. Drought Induces Distinct Growth Response, Protection, and Recovery Mechanisms in the Maize Leaf Growth Zone1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Avramova, Viktoriya; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Fotschki, Bartosz; Casadevall, Romina; Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Taleisnik, Edith; Guisez, Yves; Asard, Han; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is the most important crop yield-limiting factor, and detailed knowledge of its impact on plant growth regulation is crucial. The maize (Zea mays) leaf growth zone offers unique possibilities for studying the spatiotemporal regulation of developmental processes by transcriptional analyses and methods that require more material, such as metabolite and enzyme activity measurements. By means of a kinematic analysis, we show that drought inhibits maize leaf growth by inhibiting cell division in the meristem and cell expansion in the elongation zone. Through a microarray study, we observed the down-regulation of 32 of the 54 cell cycle genes, providing a basis for the inhibited cell division. We also found evidence for an up-regulation of the photosynthetic machinery and the antioxidant and redox systems. This was confirmed by increased chlorophyll content in mature cells and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolite levels across the growth zone, respectively. We demonstrate the functional significance of the identified transcriptional reprogramming by showing that increasing the antioxidant capacity in the proliferation zone, by overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) iron-superoxide dismutase gene, increases leaf growth rate by stimulating cell division. We also show that the increased photosynthetic capacity leads to enhanced photosynthesis upon rewatering, facilitating the often-observed growth compensation. PMID:26297138

  16. ROCK inhibition enhances neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by upregulating YAP expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xu-Feng; Ye, Fei; Wang, Yan-Bo; Feng, Da-Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous axonal regeneration of neurons does not occur after spinal cord injury because of inhibition by myelin and other inhibitory factors. Studies have demonstrated that blocking the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway can promote neurite outgrowth in spinal cord injury models. In the present study, we investigated neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells from the mouse subventricular zone after inhibition of ROCK in vitro. Inhibition of ROCK with Y-27632 increased neurite length, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and upregulated the expression of two major signaling pathway effectors, phospho-Akt and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the Hippo pathway effector YAP. These results suggest that inhibition of ROCK mediates neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by activating the Hippo signaling pathway. PMID:27482229

  17. ROCK inhibition enhances neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by upregulating YAP expression in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xu-feng; Ye, Fei; Wang, Yan-bo; Feng, Da-xiong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous axonal regeneration of neurons does not occur after spinal cord injury because of inhibition by myelin and other inhibitory factors. Studies have demonstrated that blocking the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway can promote neurite outgrowth in spinal cord injury models. In the present study, we investigated neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells from the mouse subventricular zone after inhibition of ROCK in vitro. Inhibition of ROCK with Y-27632 increased neurite length, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and upregulated the expression of two major signaling pathway effectors, phospho-Akt and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the Hippo pathway effector YAP. These results suggest that inhibition of ROCK mediates neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by activating the Hippo signaling pathway. PMID:27482229

  18. [Quantitative grain fluorescence responds to residual oil zones and paleo-oil zones].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Li, Feng

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate quantitative grain fluorescence responding to residual oil zones and palaeo-oil zones, samples from sandstone reservoirs in well TZ421 in Tazhong area, Tarim Basin, NW China, were used to carry out quantitative grain fluorescence (QGF and QGF-E) measurement and analysis. A palaeo-oil zone can be delineated in well TZ421 between 3 720 and 3 620 m with strong QGF responds. A residual oil zone was discovered in well TZ421 between 3 680 and 3 620 m with strong QGF-E responds. The presence of a residual oil zone and a palaeo-oil zone in well TZ421 below the current oil-water contact indicates that some oils were lost after the initial charge. The reservoir is believed to have been charged initially down to 3 720 m at the depth of the palaeo-oil-water contact. The presence of a 60 m residual oil zone below the current oil-water contact, as delineated by QGF-E, suggests that the palaeo-oil zones leaked in two epochs and part of the oil lost quite recently. The strong QGF responds in the current condensate gas interval indicates that the initially charged oil was partly displaced by gas and formed an oil zone with a gas cap. PMID:23387182

  19. [Quantitative grain fluorescence responds to residual oil zones and paleo-oil zones].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Li, Feng

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate quantitative grain fluorescence responding to residual oil zones and palaeo-oil zones, samples from sandstone reservoirs in well TZ421 in Tazhong area, Tarim Basin, NW China, were used to carry out quantitative grain fluorescence (QGF and QGF-E) measurement and analysis. A palaeo-oil zone can be delineated in well TZ421 between 3 720 and 3 620 m with strong QGF responds. A residual oil zone was discovered in well TZ421 between 3 680 and 3 620 m with strong QGF-E responds. The presence of a residual oil zone and a palaeo-oil zone in well TZ421 below the current oil-water contact indicates that some oils were lost after the initial charge. The reservoir is believed to have been charged initially down to 3 720 m at the depth of the palaeo-oil-water contact. The presence of a 60 m residual oil zone below the current oil-water contact, as delineated by QGF-E, suggests that the palaeo-oil zones leaked in two epochs and part of the oil lost quite recently. The strong QGF responds in the current condensate gas interval indicates that the initially charged oil was partly displaced by gas and formed an oil zone with a gas cap.

  20. 76 FR 40808 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... during these fireworks events. Entering into, transiting through, mooring or anchoring within these zones... part, entering into, transiting through, mooring or anchoring within these regulated areas...

  1. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L

    1993-08-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism. PMID:11536543

  2. [Characteristics of soil denitrifying enzyme activity in riparian zones with different land use types in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang-Liang; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Chang-Ming

    2013-10-01

    By using acetylene inhibition method, this paper studied the soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and its affecting factors in the riparian zone with different land use types (cropland riparian, forested riparian, and grassy riparian zones) in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China. The riparian soil DEA was (0.69 +/- 0.11)--(134.93 +/- 33.72) microg N x kg(-1) x h(-1), which differed obviously among different land types, with a decreasing trend of forested riparian zone > cropland riparian zone > grassy riparian zone. The soil DEA was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 0-10 cm in 10-30, 30-50, and 50-70 cm layers. There were significant positive relationships between soil DEA and soil TOC, TN, and NO(3-)-N (P < 0.01). Land use change mainly altered the soil natural structure and soil physical and chemical properties, decreased the accumulation of soil organic carbon, and affected the soil nitrogen transformation, and thus, inhibited the occurrence of riparian soil denitrification.

  3. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

  4. Cancer Chemopreventive and Anticancer Evaluation of Extracts and Fractions from Marine Macro- and Micro-organisms Collected from Twilight Zone Waters Around Guam[1

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Peter J.; Kohlert-Schupp, Claudia; Whitefield, Susanna; Engemann, Anna; Rohde, Sven; Hemscheidt, Thomas; Pezzuto, John M.; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Park, Eun-Jung; Marler, Laura; Rostama, Bahman; Wright, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    The cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic properties of 50 extracts derived from Twilight Zone (50–150 m) sponges, gorgonians and associated bacteria, together with 15 extracts from shallow water hard corals, as well as 16 fractions derived from the methanol solubles of the Twilight Zone sponge Suberea sp, were assessed in a series of bioassays. These assays included: Induction of quinone reductase (QR), inhibition of TNF-α activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), inhibition of aromatase, interaction with retinoid X receptor (RXR), inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, inhibition 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), and inhibition of HL-60 and MCF-7 cell proliferation. The results of these assays showed that at least 10 extracts and five fractions inhibited NFκB by greater than 60%, two extracts and two fractions inhibited DPPH by more than 50%, nine extracts and two fractions affected the survival of HL-60 cells, no extracts or fractions affected RXR, three extracts and six fractions affected quinone reductase (QR), three extracts and 12 fractions significantly inhibited aromatase, four extracts and five fractions inhibited nitric oxide synthase, and one extract and no fractions inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells by more than 95%. These data revealed the tested samples to have many and varied activities, making them, as shown with the extract of the Suberea species, useful starting points for further fractionation and purification. Moreover, the large number of samples demonstrating activity in only one or sometimes two assays accentuates the potential of the Twilight Zone, as a largely unexplored habitat, for the discovery of selectively bioactive compounds. The overall high hit rate in many of the employed assays is considered to be a significant finding in terms of “normal” hit rates associated with similar samples from shallower depths. PMID:20120114

  5. Cancer chemopreventive and anticancer evaluation of extracts and fractions from marine macro- and microorganisms collected from Twilight Zone waters around Guam.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Peter J; Kohlert-Schupp, Claudia; Whitefield, Susanna; Engemann, Anna; Rohde, Sven; Hemscheidt, Thomas; Pezzuto, John M; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Marler, Laura; Rostama, Bahman; Wright, Anthony D

    2009-12-01

    The cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic properties of 50 extracts derived from Twilight Zone (50-150 m) sponges, gorgonians and associated bacteria, together with 15 extracts from shallow water hard corals, as well as 16 fractions derived from the methanol solubles of the Twilight Zone sponge Suberea sp, were assessed in a series of bioassays. These assays included: Induction of quinone reductase (QR), inhibition of TNF-alpha activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), inhibition of aromatase, interaction with retinoid X receptor (RXR), inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, inhibition 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), and inhibition of HL-60 and MCF-7 cell proliferation. The results of these assays showed that at least 10 extracts and five fractions inhibited NFkappaB by greater than 60%, two extracts and two fractions inhibited DPPH by more than 50%, nine extracts and two fractions affected the survival of HL-60 cells, no extracts or fractions affected RXR, three extracts and six fractions affected quinone reductase (QR), three extracts and 12 fractions significantly inhibited aromatase, four extracts and five fractions inhibited nitric oxide synthase, and one extract and no fractions inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells by more than 95%. These data revealed the tested samples to have many and varied activities, making them, as shown with the extract of the Suberea species, useful starting points for further fractionation and purification. Moreover, the large number of samples demonstrating activity in only one or sometimes two assays accentuates the potential of the Twilight Zone, as a largely unexplored habitat, for the discovery of selectively bioactive compounds. The overall high hit rate in many of the employed assays is considered to be a significant finding in terms of "normal" hit rates associated with similar samples from shallower depths.

  6. Ordovician chitinozoan zones of Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Within the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US, Ordovician chitinozoans have been recovered in two major lithic facies; the western eugeosynclinal facies and the eastern miogeosynclinal facies. Chitinozoans recovered from these facies range in age from Arenig to Ashgill. Extensive collections from this area make possible the establishment of chitinozoan faunal interval zones from the Ordovician of this area. Selected species of biostratigraphic value include, in chronostratigraphic order, Lagenochitina ovoidea Benoit and Taugourdeau, 1961, Conochitina langei Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitinia poumoti Combaz and Penique, Desmochitina cf. nodosa Eisenack, 1931, Conochitina maclartii Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitina robusta Eisenack, 1959, Angochitina capitallata Eisenack, 1937, Sphaerochitina lepta Jenkins. 1970, and Ancyrochitina merga Jenkins, 1970. In many cases, these zones can be divided into additional sub-zones using chitinozoans and acritarchs. In all cases, these chitinozoan faunal zones are contrasted with established American graptolite zones of the area, as well as correlated with British standard graptolite zones. The composition of these faunas of the western US Great Basin is similar to that of the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico, to which direct comparisons have been made. There also appears to be a great similarity with the microfaunas and microfloras of the Ordovician of the Canning basin of western Australia. The Ordovician chitinozoan faunal interval zones established for the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US also appear to be applicable to the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico.

  7. Remote inhibition of polymer degradation.

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Roger Lee; Celina, Mathias Christopher

    2005-08-01

    Polymer degradation has been explored on the basis of synergistic infectious and inhibitive interaction between separate materials. A dual stage chemiluminescence detection system with individually controlled hot stages was applied to probe for interaction effects during polymer degradation in an oxidizing environment. Experimental confirmation was obtained that volatile antioxidants can be transferred over a relatively large distance. The thermal degradation of a polypropylene (PP) sample receiving traces of inhibitive antioxidants from a remote source is delayed. Similarly, volatiles from two stabilized elastomers were also capable of retarding a degradation process remotely. This observation demonstrates inhibitive cross-talk as a novel interactive phenomenon between different polymers and is consequential for understanding general polymer interactions, fundamental degradation processes and long-term aging effects of multiple materials in a single environment.

  8. Substrate inhibition competes with halide inhibition in polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lim, Giselle Grace Fernando; Imura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Etsuro

    2012-10-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a ubiquitous enzyme important in the food industry. Although PPO activity followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics at catechol concentrations of up to 1 mM, it slowly decreased at catechol concentrations above 2 mM. This result indicated that in addition to the active site (site A), the enzyme possesses a second catechol-binding site (site B) that exerts an inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Halides inhibit PPO activity in such a way that substrate inhibition is lessened when halide concentration is increased. Furthermore, elevated concentrations of catechol diminished the degree of inhibition by halides. These findings suggest that halides also bind to site B to inhibit PPO activity. A steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrated that the dissociation constant between catechol and PPO depended on the binding of halides to site B. The dissociation constants were greatest when chloride bound to the site. Bromide and iodide yielded lower dissociation constants, in that order. These data indicate that the binding of halide to site B modulated the structure of site A, thereby exerting an inhibitory effect.

  9. Post-Stop-Signal Adjustments: Inhibition Improves Subsequent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Performance in the stop-signal paradigm involves a balance between going and stopping, and one way that this balance is struck is through shifting priority away from the go task, slowing responses after a stop signal, and improving the probability of inhibition. In 6 experiments, the authors tested whether there is a corresponding shift in…

  10. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  11. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    PubMed

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering.

  12. Multispectral measurements in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2004-09-01

    Over the past year an index has been defined which quantifies the surf zone with respect to an electro-optical (EO) system"s ability to find targets. The purpose of this index is to both normalize the EO Mine Counter Measure (MCM) systems performance expectations to the environment in which it is tested and to assess the value of its performance in an operational environment. For example, if a given system has a Probability of Detection (PD) requirement of 90% in a clear water surf zone and is tested in murky waters the surf zone index of the murky water is used to determine what PD is required in the murky water to yield the 90% PD clear water requirement. The surf zone index is defined in this paper and expanded from the deterministic contrast transmittance as reported in earlier papers to a probabilistic approach. Examples of how to measure the index using readily available low cost spectral imagers such as PAR Government Systems Corporation"s Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Spectrometer (MANTIS) system are given. Finally, the surf zone index usage is discussed and demonstrated.

  13. ON HYDRODYNAMIC MOTIONS IN DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or

    2009-10-20

    We investigate fluid motions near the midplane of vertically stratified accretion disks with highly resistive midplanes. In such disks, the magnetorotational instability drives turbulence in thin layers surrounding a resistive, stable dead zone. The turbulent layers in turn drive motions in the dead zone. We examine the properties of these motions using three-dimensional, stratified, local, shearing-box, non-ideal, magnetohydrodynamical simulations. Although the turbulence in the active zones provides a source of vorticity to the midplane, no evidence for coherent vortices is found in our simulations. It appears that this is because of strong vertical oscillations in the dead zone. By analyzing time series of azimuthally averaged flow quantities, we identify an axisymmetric wave mode particular to models with dead zones. This mode is reduced in amplitude, but not suppressed entirely, by changing the equation of state from isothermal to ideal. These waves are too low frequency to affect sedimentation of dust to the midplane, but may have significance for the gravitational stability of the resulting midplane dust layers.

  14. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    PubMed

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering. PMID:25500464

  15. Mesopelagic zone ecology and biogeochemistry - a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carol; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Arístegui, Javier; Carlson, Craig A.; Frost, Jessica R.; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Hernández-León, Santiago; Jackson, George A.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Quéguiner, Bernard; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rassoulzadegan, Fereidoun; Robison, Bruce H.; Tamburini, Christian; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Wishner, Karen F.; Zhang, Jing

    2010-08-01

    The mesopelagic zone is the oceanic region through which carbon and other elements must pass in order to reach deeper waters or the sea floor. However, the food web interactions that occur in the mesopelagic zone are difficult to measure and so, despite their crucial importance to global elemental cycles, are not very well known. Recent developments in technology and new approaches have advanced the study of the variability in and controls upon the distribution and diversity of organisms in the mesopelagic zone, including the roles of respiration, recycling, and repackaging of particulate and dissolved organic material. However, there are remarkably few syntheses of the ecology and biogeochemistry of the microbes and metazoa that permanently reside or habitually visit this 'twilight zone'. Without this synthesis, it is difficult to assess the impact of ongoing changes in ocean hydrography and chemistry, due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, on the biological carbon pump. This paper reviews what is known about the distribution of microbes and metazoa in the mesopelagic zone in relation to their activity and impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Thus, gaps in our knowledge are identified and suggestions made for priority research programmes that will improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on carbon sequestration.

  16. The Cora Lake Shear Zone: Strain Localization in an Ultramylonitic, Deep Crustal Shear Zone, Athabasca Granulite Terrain, Western Churchill Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.; Orlandini, O. F.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Leslie, S. R.; Holland, M.

    2012-12-01

    Ultramylonitic shear zones typically involve intense strain localization, and when developed over large regions can introduce considerable heterogeneity into the crust. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) displays several 10's to 100's of meters-wide zones of ultramylonite distributed throughout its full 3-5 km mylonitized width. Detailed mapping, petrography, thermobarometry, and in-situ monazite geochronology suggest that it formed during the waning phases of granulite grade metamorphism and deformation, within one of North America's largest exposures of polydeformed lower continental crust. Anastomosing zones of ultramylonite contain recrystallized grain-sizes approaching the micron scale and might appear to suggest lower temperature mylonitization. However, feldspar and even clinopyroxene are dynamically recrystallized, and quantitative thermobarometry of syn-deformational assemblages indicate high P and T conditions ranging from 0.9 -10.6 GPa and 775-850 °C. Even at these high T's, dynamic recovery and recrystallization were extremely limited. Rocks with low modal quartz have extremely small equilibrium volumes. This is likely the result of inefficient diffusion, which is further supported by the unannealed nature of the crystals. Local carbonate veins suggests that H2O poor, CO2 rich conditions may have aided in the preservation of fine grain sizes, and may have inhibited dynamic recovery and recrystallization. The Cora Lake shear zone is interpreted to have been relatively strong and to have hardened during progressive deformation. Garnet is commonly fractured perpendicular to host rock fabric, and statically replaced by both biotite and muscovite. Pseudotachylite, with the same sense of shear, occurs in several ultramylonitized mafic granulites. Thus, cataclasis and frictional melt are interpreted to have been produced in the lower continental crust, not during later reactivation. We suggest that strengthening of rheologically stiffer lithologies led to

  17. 75 FR 32666 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Register (75 FR 19304). We received zero comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested and... impact to mariners from the zones' activation. The Coast Guard's use of these safety zones will be... rule. Energy Effects We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions...

  18. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  19. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  20. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  1. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  2. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... means a vessel, other than a large U.S. naval vessel as defined in 33 CFR 165.2015, that is accompanied...; or (3) Creating an excessive wake. (b) Regulated area. All navigable waters, as defined in 33 CFR 2.36, within the Captain of the Port Zone, Savannah, Georgia 33 CFR 3.35-15. (c) Security zone. A...

  3. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... vicinity of the Jardine Water Treatment Plant, Chicago, Illinois. The Jardine Water Filtration Plant... operate in the Jardine Water Filtration Plant security zone. Regulatory Analyses We developed this... surrounding the intake cribs or areas near shore to Chicago's water filtration plants; the security zones...

  4. 76 FR 63202 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Northside ] security zone discussed above, will be located in the vicinity of the Jardine Water Treatment Plant Chicago, Illinois. The Jardine Water Filtration Plant security zone will encompass all U.S... passengers at the north side of Navy Pier to operate in the Jardine Water Filtration Plant security...

  5. 77 FR 38484 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit... Adrian Palomeque, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit MI,...

  6. 75 FR 19304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishment of safety zones for annual events in the Captain of the Port...

  7. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit... Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit, MI 48207; telephone (313)-568- 9508, e-mail...

  8. 76 FR 38304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Register on August 8, 2008 (73 FR 46197) and on June 9, 2010 (75 FR 32666): ] Section 165.941(a)(39) Port... Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce two safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit...

  9. 75 FR 21990 - Safety Zone; Extended Debris Removal in the Lake Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Champlain Bridge Construction Zone (Between Vermont and New York), Crown Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters immediately surrounding the Lake Champlain Bridge construction zone between Chimney Point... the completion of the removal of debris from the old Crown Point bridge demolition. The debris must...

  10. 76 FR 1362 - Safety Zone; Ice Conditions for the Baltimore Captain of Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ice Conditions for the Baltimore Captain of.... This safety zone is necessary to protect mariners from the hazards associated with ice in the...

  11. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... On May 1, 2013, the Coast Guard published an NPRM in the Federal Register (78 FR 25410), proposing to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of...

  12. 76 FR 41073 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... (76 FR 18674). We received no comments on the proposed rule. Basis and Purpose The legal basis for... England Captain of the Port Zone, 75 FR 63714, October 18, 2010. In a rule published March 31, 2011 (FR... Port Zone in the Federal Register (76 FR 18674). We received no comments on the proposed...

  13. 77 FR 35852 - Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of.... 0170.1. 0 2. Add Sec. 165.T13-220 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T13-220 Safety Zones; Multiple...

  14. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    .... navigable waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704). Specifically... the Port Buffalo Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The... take place annually within the Captain of the Port Zone Buffalo. This proposed rule is intended...

  15. 78 FR 29651 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Register on November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69614). Table 1 1. Heritage of Pride Fireworks Display, Launch site: A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone.... Chad Hudson Events Fireworks Launch site: A barge Display, Pier 90, Hudson River Safety located...

  16. 78 FR 23850 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port Buffalo (73 FR 28704). Specifically, twenty-six permanent safety zones... the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone in the Federal Register (78 FR 11798). We received 0 comments...

  17. 75 FR 49412 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Within the Captain of the Port Sector Boston Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... populations of less than 50,000. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605(b) that this rule will not have... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Within the Captain of the Port Sector Boston Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  18. 77 FR 4900 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., 2011, (76 FR 44880), entitled ``Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone... explaining why one would be beneficial. 76 FR 44881. We received several requests from vessel owners and.... Vessels traveling within 50 yards of these escorted vessels would be required to slow to the minimum...

  19. 77 FR 33970 - Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 69614). Table 1 1. Bronx Salutes America Fireworks, Launch site: All Orchard Beach Safety Zone, 33 CFR waters of Long Island Sound in 165.160(3.11). an area bound by the following points: 40 51... enforce various safety zones in the Sector New York area of responsibility on various dates and...

  20. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    .../2008 USCG-2008-0948 Shark River Channel, NJ.. Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 10/3/2008 USCG-2008-0981... 165)...... 3/6/2009 USCG-2009-0095 White River Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/22/2008 USCG-2009-0096...)...... 7/2/2009 USCG-2009-0564 Great Lakes Special Local Regulation 6/26/2009 (Part 100)....

  1. 76 FR 61947 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Sound Zone. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during these... authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR from October...

  2. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LIS Long Island... published at 78 FR 20277 and Docket Number USCG-2013-1036 titled, ``Safety Zones & Special Local Regulations... Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  3. 77 FR 36396 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LIS Long Island Sound A. Regulatory History... Long Island Sound Zone, in the Federal Register (77 FR 20324). The NPRM proposed these events and... Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  4. Neural Sequence Generation Using Spatiotemporal Patterns of Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jonathan; Kopell, Nancy; Gardner, Timothy; Markowitz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Stereotyped sequences of neural activity are thought to underlie reproducible behaviors and cognitive processes ranging from memory recall to arm movement. One of the most prominent theoretical models of neural sequence generation is the synfire chain, in which pulses of synchronized spiking activity propagate robustly along a chain of cells connected by highly redundant feedforward excitation. But recent experimental observations in the avian song production pathway during song generation have shown excitatory activity interacting strongly with the firing patterns of inhibitory neurons, suggesting a process of sequence generation more complex than feedforward excitation. Here we propose a model of sequence generation inspired by these observations in which a pulse travels along a spatially recurrent excitatory chain, passing repeatedly through zones of local feedback inhibition. In this model, synchrony and robust timing are maintained not through redundant excitatory connections, but rather through the interaction between the pulse and the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition that it creates as it circulates the network. These results suggest that spatially and temporally structured inhibition may play a key role in sequence generation. PMID:26536029

  5. 33 CFR 334.5 - Disestablishment of a danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disestablishment of a danger zone..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.5 Disestablishment of a danger zone. (a) Upon receipt of a request from any agency for the disestablishment of a danger zone, the...

  6. 15 CFR 400.44 - Zone-restricted merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Zone-restricted merchandise. 400.44 Section 400.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements...

  7. 49 CFR 1105.9 - Coastal Zone Management Act requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. 1105.9... ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.9 Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. (a) If the proposed action affects land or water uses within a State coastal zone designated pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act (16...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1396-1 - Qualified zone employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1396-1 Qualified zone employees...-services requirement and the abode requirement with respect to the same empowerment zone and is not... performed in the empowerment zone in a trade or business of the employer. (2) Abode requirement. The...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1396-1 - Qualified zone employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1396-1 Qualified zone employees. (a) In... requirement and the abode requirement with respect to the same empowerment zone and is not otherwise excluded... the empowerment zone in a trade or business of the employer. (2) Abode requirement. The...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1396-1 - Qualified zone employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1396-1 Qualified zone employees...-services requirement and the abode requirement with respect to the same empowerment zone and is not... performed in the empowerment zone in a trade or business of the employer. (2) Abode requirement. The...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1396-1 - Qualified zone employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1396-1 Qualified zone employees...-services requirement and the abode requirement with respect to the same empowerment zone and is not... performed in the empowerment zone in a trade or business of the employer. (2) Abode requirement. The...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1396-1 - Qualified zone employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Empowerment Zone Employment Credit § 1.1396-1 Qualified zone employees...-services requirement and the abode requirement with respect to the same empowerment zone and is not... performed in the empowerment zone in a trade or business of the employer. (2) Abode requirement. The...

  13. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.33 Policy—Coastal zone management. (a) The Coastal Zone Management Act of... affecting the coastal zone of a state, to conduct or support those activities in a manner which is, to...

  14. The Impact of State Enterprise Zones on Urban Manufacturing Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Robert T.; Engberg, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the vast majority of states have implemented enterprise zones. This paper analyzes urban zones in six states, examining the factors that states use to choose zone locations and the subsequent effect of the zones on business activity and employment. The source of outcome data is the U.S. Bureau of Census' longitudinal…

  15. Islam Does Not Inhibit Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanavas, T. O.

    1999-01-01

    Compares the science/religion relationship in both Christian and Islamic countries. Presents Muslim scholars' ideas about the presence of humans on earth. Presents ideas on active nature, Noah's curse, and the age of the universe. Refutes the notion that Islam inhibited science and advocates the belief that Islam promoted science. (YDS)

  16. Inhibition in Prolonged Work Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ven, A. H. G. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A new model is presented that explains reaction time fluctuations in prolonged work tasks. The model extends the so-called Poisson-Erlang model and accounts for long-term trend effects in the reaction time curve. The model is consistent with Spearman's hypothesis that inhibition increases during work and decreases during rest. (TJH)

  17. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits erythropoietin production.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lynn M; Dzabic, Mensur; Bakker, Frank; Davoudi, Belghis; Jeffery, Hannah; Religa, Piotr; Bojakowski, Krzysztof; Yaiw, Koon-Chu; Rahbar, Afsar; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia

    2014-08-01

    Anemia is a feature of CKD and a complication of renal transplantation, often caused by impaired production of erythropoietin. The kidney is a target organ for human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) in such patients, but it is not known whether hCMV effects erythropoietin production. We found that kidneys from patients with CKD were positive for hCMV protein and that blood levels of hCMV IgG inversely correlated with red blood cell count. In mice, systemic murine cytomegalovirus infection decreased serum erythropoietin levels. In human erythropoietin-producing cells, hCMV inhibited hypoxia-induced expression of erythropoietin mRNA and protein. hCMV early gene expression was responsible, as ultraviolet-inactivated virus had no effect and valganciclovir treatment showed that late gene expression was nonessential. Hypoxia-induced gene transcription is controlled by the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α and HIF2α, which are constitutively produced but stable only under low oxygen conditions. We found that hCMV inhibited constitutive production of HIF2α mRNA. HIF2α is thought to be the master regulator of erythropoietin transcription. Single-cell analysis revealed that nuclear accumulation of HIF2α was inhibited in hCMV-infected cells, and the extent of inhibition correlated with hCMV protein expression. Our findings suggest that renal hCMV infection could induce or exacerbate anemia in patients.

  18. Azide inhibition of urate oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Gabison, Laure; Colloc’h, Nathalie; Prangé, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of urate oxidase (UOX) by azide was investigated by X-ray diffraction techniques and compared with cyanide inhibition. Two well characterized sites for reagents are present in the enzyme: the dioxygen site and the substrate-binding site. To examine the selectivity of these sites towards azide inhibition, several crystallization conditions were developed. UOX was co-crystallized with azide (N3) in the presence or absence of either uric acid (UA, the natural substrate) or 8-azaxanthine (8AZA, a competitive inhibitor). In a second set of experiments, previously grown orthorhombic crystals of the UOX–UA or UOX–8AZA complexes were soaked in sodium azide solutions. In a third set of experiments, orthorhombic crystals of UOX with the exchangeable ligand 8-nitroxanthine (8NXN) were soaked in a solution containing uric acid and azide simultaneously (competitive soaking). In all assays, the soaking periods were either short (a few hours) or long (one or two months). These different experimental conditions showed that one or other of the sites, or the two sites together, could be inhibited. This also demonstrated that azide not only competes with dioxygen as cyanide does but also competes with the substrate for its enzymatic site. A model in agreement with experimental data would be an azide in equilibrium between two sites, kinetically in favour of the dioxygen site and thermodynamically in favour of the substrate-binding site. PMID:25005084

  19. Dynamics of Vadose Zone Transport: a Field and Modeling Study using the Vadose Zone Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C R

    2001-01-01

    A stated need of the DOE EM program is a better understanding of basic vadose zone fluid flow and contaminant transport processes for the purpose of making improved estimates of contaminant release rates and fluxes across the vadose zone to the water table at DOE sites such as the tank farms at Hanford. We investigate details of the modes of contaminant transport with the aid of infiltration experiments designed to elucidate how vadose zone characteristics such as preferential pathways, heterogeneities, and relative permeabilities influence the transport of contamination in liquid, gas and colloidal phases to the water table. Beyond enhancing our basic understanding of vadose zone transport processes, this EMSP project is designed result in a vadose-zone-transport-characterization methodology that can be generalized to other DOE sites.

  20. Presynaptic active zones in invertebrates and vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Frauke; Waites, Clarissa L; Garner, Craig C

    2015-08-01

    The regulated release of neurotransmitter occurs via the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane called active zones (AZs). These regions are defined by a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at AZs (CAZ), which functions to direct SVs toward docking and fusion sites and supports their maturation into the readily releasable pool. In addition, CAZ proteins localize voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels at SV release sites, bringing the fusion machinery in close proximity to the calcium source. Proteins of the CAZ therefore ensure that vesicle fusion is temporally and spatially organized, allowing for the precise and reliable release of neurotransmitter. Importantly, AZs are highly dynamic structures, supporting presynaptic remodeling, changes in neurotransmitter release efficacy, and thus presynaptic forms of plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the study of active zones, highlighting how the CAZ molecularly defines sites of neurotransmitter release, endocytic zones, and the integrity of synapses.

  1. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  2. The 1977 intertropical convergence zone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G. (Editor); Page, W. A. (Editor); Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented from the 1977 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Experiment conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977. Measurements were made daily over a 16-day period when the ITCZ moved across the Canal Zone. Two aircraft (Learjet and U-2) flew daily and provided data from horizontal traverses at several altitudes to 21.3 km of ozone, temperature, pressure, water vapor, aerosols, fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitric acid. Balloonsondes flown four times per day provided data on ozone, wind fields, pressure, temperature, and humidities to altitudes near 30 km. Rocketsondes provided daily data to altitudes near 69 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

  3. Compositional zoning of the bishop tuff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Wilson, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Compositional data for >400 pumice clasts, organized according to eruptive sequence, crystal content, and texture, provide new perspectives on eruption and pre-eruptive evolution of the >4600 km3 of zoned rhyolitic magma ejected as the BishopTuff during formation of Long Valley caldera. Proportions and compositions of different pumice types are given for each ignimbrite package and for the intercalated plinian pumice-fall layers that erupted synchronously. Although withdrawal of the zoned magma was less systematic than previously realized, the overall sequence displays trends toward greater proportions of less evolved pumice, more crystals (0-5 24 wt %), and higher FeTi-oxide temperatures (714-818??C). No significant hiatus took place during the 6 day eruption of the BishopTuff, nearly all of which issued from an integrated, zoned, unitary reservoir. Shortly before eruption, however, the zoned melt-dominant portion of the chamber was invaded by batches of disparate lower-silica rhyolite magma, poorer in crystals than most of the resident magma but slightly hotter and richer in Ba, Sr, andTi. Interaction with resident magma at the deepest levels tapped promoted growth ofTi-rich rims on quartz, Ba-rich rims on sanidine, and entrapment of near-rim melt inclusions relatively enriched in Ba and CO2.Varied amounts of mingling, even in higher parts of the chamber, led to the dark gray and swirly crystal-poor pumices sparsely present in all ashflow packages. As shown by FeTi-oxide geothermometry, the zoned rhyolitic chamber was hottest where crystal-richest, rendering any model of solidification fronts at the walls or roof unlikely.The main compositional gradient (75-195 ppm Rb; 0.8-2.2 ppm Ta; 71-154 ppm Zr; 0.40-1.73% FeO*) existed in the melt, prior to crystallization of the phenocryst suite observed, which included zircon as much as 100 kyr older than the eruption.The compositions of crystals, though themselves largely unzoned, generally reflect magma temperature and

  4. Multi-zone cooling/warming garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S. (Inventor); Leon, Gloria R. (Inventor); Dancisak, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamically efficient garment for cooling and/or heating a human body. The thermodynamic efficiency is provided in part by targeting the heat exchange capabilities of the garment to specific areas and/or structures of the human body. The heat exchange garment includes heat exchange zones and one or more non-heat exchange zones, where the heat exchange zones are configured to correspond to one or more high density tissue areas of the human body when the garment is worn. A system including the garment can be used to exchange heat with the adjacent HD tissue areas under the control of a feedback control system. Sensed physiological parameters received by the feedback control system can be used to adjust the characteristics of heat exchange fluid moving within the heat exchange garment.

  5. Presynaptic active zones in invertebrates and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Frauke; Waites, Clarissa L; Garner, Craig C

    2015-01-01

    The regulated release of neurotransmitter occurs via the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane called active zones (AZs). These regions are defined by a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at AZs (CAZ), which functions to direct SVs toward docking and fusion sites and supports their maturation into the readily releasable pool. In addition, CAZ proteins localize voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at SV release sites, bringing the fusion machinery in close proximity to the calcium source. Proteins of the CAZ therefore ensure that vesicle fusion is temporally and spatially organized, allowing for the precise and reliable release of neurotransmitter. Importantly, AZs are highly dynamic structures, supporting presynaptic remodeling, changes in neurotransmitter release efficacy, and thus presynaptic forms of plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the study of active zones, highlighting how the CAZ molecularly defines sites of neurotransmitter release, endocytic zones, and the integrity of synapses. PMID:26160654

  6. Probable origin of the Livingston Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Watson H.

    1991-09-01

    Most faulting in the Coastal Plain is high angle and generally normal, but the faults in the Livingston Fault Zone are all medium-angle reverse, forming a series of parallel horsts and grabens. Parallel to the fault zone are a number of phenomena all leading to the conclusion that the faults result from the solution of a late Cretaceous salt anticline by fresh groundwater, which then migrated up to the Eutaw and perhaps Tuscaloosa aquifers, causing an anomalous elongated area of highly saline water. The origin of the Livingston Fault Zone and the association of salt water in underlying aquifers is of particular importance at this time in relation to environmental concerns associated with hazardous waste management in the area.

  7. Validation of EUCAST zone diameter breakpoints against reference broth microdilution.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, S; Bjelkenbrant, C; Kahlmeter, G

    2014-06-01

    The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) began harmonizing clinical breakpoints in Europe 2002. In 2009, work to develop a disc diffusion method began and the first disc diffusion breakpoints calibrated to EUCAST clinical MIC breakpoints were published in December 2009. In this study we validated EUCAST clinical zone diameter breakpoints against the International Standard Organization (ISO) reference broth microdilution. A collection of 544 isolates (238 Gram-negative and 306 Gram-positive) were tested against a panel of antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with broth microdilution as described by ISO and disc diffusion in accordance with EUCAST methodology. Inhibition zone diameters and MIC values were interpreted and categorized (S, I and R) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoint table version 2.0. Categorical agreement (CA) as well as minor (mD), major (MD) and very major (VMD) discrepancies were determined. There was in general good correlation between susceptibility test results obtained with disc diffusion and broth microdilution. Overall CA was 97.3% for all combinations of organisms and antimicrobial agents (n = 5231) and the overall discrepancy rates were 110 (2.1%) mD, 24 (0.5%) MD and 7 (0.1%) VMD. The overall CA for Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were 98.7% (2346 tests) and 96.2% (2942 tests), respectively. Seven VMD were observed, five for Gram-positive organisms (coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 2) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3)) and two for Gram-negative organisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Minor discrepancies were mainly observed in Gram-negatives and were related to different antimicrobial agents and species.

  8. Development and testing of a compartmentalized reaction network model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams, R.H.; Loague, K.; Kent, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The work reported here is the first part of a larger effort focused on efficient numerical simulation of redox zone development in contaminated aquifers. The sequential use of various electron acceptors, which is governed by the energy yield of each reaction, gives rise to redox zones. The large difference in energy yields between the various redox reactions leads to systems of equations that are extremely ill-conditioned. These equations are very difficult to solve, especially in the context of coupled fluid flow, solute transport, and geochemical simulations. We have developed a general, rational method to solve such systems where we focus on the dominant reactions, compartmentalizing them in a manner that is analogous to the redox zones that are often observed in the field. The compartmentalized approach allows us to easily solve a complex geochemical system as a function of time and energy yield, laying the foundation for our ongoing work in which we couple the reaction network, for the development of redox zones, to a model of subsurface fluid flow and solute transport. Our method (1) solves the numerical system without evoking a redox parameter, (2) improves the numerical stability of redox systems by choosing which compartment and thus which reaction network to use based upon the concentration ratios of key constituents, (3) simulates the development of redox zones as a function of time without the use of inhibition factors or switching functions, and (4) can reduce the number of transport equations that need to be solved in space and time. We show through the use of various model performance evaluation statistics that the appropriate compartment choice under different geochemical conditions leads to numerical solutions without significant error. The compartmentalized approach described here facilitates the next phase of this effort where we couple the redox zone reaction network to models of fluid flow and solute transport.

  9. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  10. Molokai fracture zone: continuation west of the hawaiian ridge.

    PubMed

    Malahoff, A; Strange, W E; Woollard, G P

    1966-07-29

    The Molokai Fracture Zone is one of the principal east-west (striking) fracture zones between California and the mid-Pacific. On the basis of bathymetry alone, it has been assumed that the zone ended abruptly east of the Hawaiian Islands. Use of correlation techniques between bathymetric features and their magnetic anomalies in the vicinity of the islands now show that structural elements of the zone cross the islands and continue westward for at least 130 kilometers. Recent volcanism and deep rift zones of the islands parallel the zone, suggesting structural correlation between the strike of the zone and the origin of recent volcanism in the islands.

  11. Composite Thue-Morse zone plates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenzhuo; Tao, Shaohua; Cheng, Shubo

    2016-06-13

    We present a new family of diffractive lenses, composite Thue-Morse zone plates (CTMZPs), formed by multiple orders of Thue-Morse zone plates (TMZPs). The typical structure of a CTMZP is a composite of two concentric TMZPs. The focusing properties of the CTMZPs with different parameters have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Compared with the TMZPs, the CTMZPs have higher performance in axial intensity and imaging resolution. The CTMZP beams are also found to possess the self-reconstruction property, and would be useful for three-dimensional optical tweezers, laser machining, and optical imaging. PMID:27410293

  12. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  13. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Okubo, Paul G; Shearer, Peter M

    2003-04-18

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (>/=13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  14. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, C.J.; Okubo, P.G.; Shearer, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (???13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  15. SAR observations of coastal zone conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, G. A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to the observation of coastal zones phenomena are detailed. The conditions observed include gravity wave detection, surf zone location, surface currents, and long-period 'surf beats'. Algorithms have been developed and successfully tested that determine significant wave and current parameters from the sea surface backscatter of microwave energy. Doppler information from the SAR optical correlator allows a rough estimation of near shore surface flow velocities that has been found in agreement with both theory and in situ observations as well. Seasat SAR data of the Scotland and North Carolina coasts are considered, as well as the results of bathymetric updating of coastal area charts.

  16. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doling (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes are discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  17. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  18. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... may transit through any portion of the zone that extends into the navigable channel for the sole purpose of direct and expeditious transit so long as they remain within the navigable channel,...

  19. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... may transit through any portion of the zone that extends into the navigable channel for the sole purpose of direct and expeditious transit so long as they remain within the navigable channel,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... may transit through any portion of the zone that extends into the navigable channel for the sole purpose of direct and expeditious transit so long as they remain within the navigable channel,...

  1. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR part 105, including those designated as “Public Access Facilities” as defined in 33 CFR... permission to enter within a particular zone for official business other than authorized passenger, cargo...)(6) of this section for official business other than authorized passenger, cargo, provision,...

  2. 75 FR 26650 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...'23'' N, 087 39' W (NAD 83). (ii) Enforcement date and time. The first Saturday of May; 6:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. (83) World War II Beach Invasion Re-enactment; St. Joseph, MI. (i) Location. All waters of Lake... Captain of the Port Lake Michigan zone, in the Federal Register (75 FR 13707). We received 0...

  3. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  4. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  5. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  6. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES...

  7. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-10 Section 3.65-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Puget Sound...

  8. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Captain of the Port zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-15, one mile ahead, one half mile astern, and 1000... Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth Harbor, Portsmouth, New... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone,...

  9. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Captain of the Port zone, as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-15, one mile ahead, one half mile astern, and 1000... Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth Harbor, Portsmouth, New... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone,...

  10. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is...

  11. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is...

  12. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is...

  13. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is...

  14. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is...

  15. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector San Diego Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA....

  16. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector San Diego Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA....

  17. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Puget Sound Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Puget Sound's office is located in Seattle, WA....

  18. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Puget Sound Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Puget Sound's office is located in Seattle, WA....

  19. [Effects of root zone hypoxia on respiratory metabolism of cucumber seedlings roots].

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun-Yan; Guo, Shi-Rong; Duan, Jiu-Ju

    2008-03-01

    With the seedlings of Lübachun No. 4, a hypoxia-resistant cultivar, and Zhongnong No. 8, a hypoxia-sensitive cultivar, as test materials, and by the method of solution culture, this paper studied the effects of root zone hypoxia on their roots' respiratory metabolism. The results showed that root zone hypoxia inhibited the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle significantly, But accelerated the anaerobic respiration of cucumber roots. Under root zone hypoxia stress, the decrement of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and isocitric dehydrogenase (IDH) activities and the increment of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactate and pyruvate contents were lesser in Lübachun No. 4 than in Zhongnong No. 8 seedlings roots, but conversely, the increment of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities and alcohol and alanine contents in Lübachun No. 4 seedlings roots were higher than those in Zhongnong No. 8 seedlings roots. On the 8th day of hypoxia stress, the ADH activity and alcohol and alanine contents increased by 409.30%, 112.13% and 30.64% in Lübachun No. 4 roots and by 110.42%, 31.84% and 4.78% in Zhongnong No. 8 roots, respectively, compared with the control. No significant differences in the alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) activity and acetaldehyde content were observed between the two cultivars. It was concluded that the acceleration of alcohol fermentation and the accumulation of alanine were in favor of the enhancement of root zone hypoxia tolerance of cucumber roots.

  20. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  1. Megathrust-zone heterogeneity and megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Huang, Z.; Liu, X.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the detailed 3-D seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle under the Northeast Japan and Southwest Japan arcs and its implications for the generation of large megathrust earthquakes. The earthquakes under the forearc region under the Pacific Ocean and back-arc region under the Japan Sea are relocated precisely using sP depth phases. P and S wave arrival-time data from many relocated aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) are added to determine the updated 3-D Vp and Vs models of the Tohoku forearc region. Significant structural heterogeneities are revealed in the interplate megathrust zone under the Tohoku forearc. Three low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist off Sanriku, off Fukushima and off Ibaraki. There is a correlation between the velocity variation and the distribution of large thrust-type earthquakes (M ≥ 6.0) that occurred from 1900 to 2011, including the foreshock, mainshock and aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The low-V patches in the megathrust zone may contain subducted sediments and fluids associated with slab dehydration, thus the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding continental plate may become weakly coupled or even decoupled in the low-V areas. In contrast, the high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone may result from subducted oceanic ridges, seamounts and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor that become asperities where the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding continental plate are strongly coupled. Thus tectonic stress tends to accumulate in these high-V areas for a relatively long time during subduction, leading to the nucleation of large and great earthquakes in those areas. The off-Miyagi high-V zone, where the Tohoku-oki mainshock and its largest foreshock occurred, corresponds to the area with large coseismic slip (> 25 m) during the Tohoku-oki mainshock. This indicates that the off-Miyagi high-V zone is a large asperity in the megathrust zone that

  2. JNK Inhibition Inhibits Lateral Line Neuromast Hair Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chengfu; Lin, Jinchao; Sun, Shaoyang; He, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    JNK signaling is known to play a role in regulating cell behaviors such as cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, and recent studies have suggested important roles for JNK signaling in embryonic development. However, the precise function of JNK signaling in hair cell development remains poorly studied. In this study, we used the small molecule JNK inhibitor SP600125 to examine the effect of JNK signaling abrogation on the development of hair cells in the zebrafish lateral line neuromast. Our results showed that SP600125 reduced the numbers of both hair cells and supporting cells in neuromasts during larval development in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, JNK inhibition strongly inhibited the proliferation of neuromast cells, which likely explains the decrease in the number of differentiated hair cells in inhibitor-treated larvae. Furthermore, western blot and in situ analysis showed that JNK inhibition induced cell cycle arrest through induction of p21 expression. We also showed that SP600125 induced cell death in developing neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and this was accompanied with an induction of p53 gene expression. Together these results indicate that JNK might be an important regulator in the development of hair cells in the lateral line in zebrafish by controlling both cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:26903805

  3. Does salinity reduce growth in maize root epidermal cells by inhibiting their capacity for cell wall acidification?

    PubMed

    Zidan, I; Azaizeh, H; Neumann, P M

    1990-05-01

    The reduction in growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling primary roots induced by salinization of the nutrient medium with 100 millimolar NaCl was accompanied by reductions in the length of the root tip elongation zone, the length of fully elongated epidermal cells, and the apparent rate of cell production: Each was partially restored when calcium levels in the salinized growth medium were increased from 0.5 to 10.0 millimolar. We investigated the possibility that the inhibition of elongation growth by salinity might be associated with an inhibition of cell wall acidification, such as that which occurs when root growth is inhibited by IAA. A qualitative assay of root surface acidification, using bromocresol purple pH indicator in agar, showed that salinized roots, with and without extra calcium, produced a zone of surface acidification which was similar to that produced by control roots. The zone of acidification began 1 to 2 millimeters behind the tip and coincided with the zone of cell elongation. The remainder of the root alkalinized its surface. Kinetics of surface acidification were assayed quantitatively by placing a flat tipped pH electrode in contact with the elongation zone. The pH at the epidermal surfaces of roots grown either with 100 millimolar NaCl (growth inhibitory), or with 10 millimolar calcium +/- NaCl (little growth inhibition), declined from 6.0 to 5.1 over 30 minutes. We conclude that NaCl did not inhibit growth by reducing the capacity of epidermal cells to acidify their walls. PMID:16667468

  4. Evaluation of rear-end crash risk at work zone using work zone traffic data.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian

    2011-07-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area and merging area, as well as analyze the impacts of contributing factors by using work zone traffic data. Here, the rear-end crash risk is referred to as the probability that a vehicle is involved in a rear-end crash accident. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is used in measuring rear-end crash risk. Based on work zone traffic data in Singapore, three rear-end crash risk models are developed to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk at activity area and its contributing factors. The fourth rear-end crash risk model is developed to examine the effects of merging behavior on crash risk at merging area. The ANOVA results show that the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area is statistically different from lane positions. Model results indicate that rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area increases with heavy vehicle percentage and lane traffic flow rate. An interesting finding is that the lane closer to work zone is strongly associated with higher rear-end crash risk. A truck has much higher probability involving in a rear-end accident than a car. Further, the expressway work zone activity area is found to have much larger crash risk than arterial work zone activity area. The merging choice has the dominated effect on risk reduction, suggesting that encouraging vehicles to merge early may be the most effective method to reduce rear-end crash risk at work zone merging area.

  5. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of both supporting plume model development and providing mixing zone modeling software. The Visual Plumes model is the most recent addition to the suite of public-domain models available through the EPA-Athens Center f...

  6. Liquid encapsulated float zone process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald O. (Inventor); Lehoczky, Sandor L. (Inventor); Vlasse, Marcus (Inventor); Facemire, Barbara R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The process and apparatus for growing crystals using float zone techniques are described. A rod of crystalline materials is disposed in a cylindrical container, leaving a space between the rod and container walls. This space is filled with an encapsulant, selected to have a slightly lower melting point than the crystalline material. The rod is secured to a container end cap at one end and to a shaft at its other end. A piston slides over the rod and provides pressure to prevent loss of volatile components upon melting of the rod. Prior to melting the rod the container is first heated to melt the encapsulant, with any off-gas from this step being vented to a cavity behind the piston. The piston moves slightly forward owing to volume change upon melting of the encapsulant, and the vent passageway is closed. The container is then moved longitudinally through a heated zone to progressively melt sections of the rod as in conventional float zone processes. The float zone technique may be used in the microgravity environment of space.

  7. Water percolation through a clayey vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Kurtzman, D.; Dahan, O.

    2012-03-01

    SummaryHeavy clay soils are regarded as less permeable due to their low saturated hydraulic conductivities, and are perceived as safe for the construction of unlined or soil-lined waste lagoons. Water percolation dynamics through a smectite-dominated clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy waste lagoon, waste channel and their margins was investigated using three independent vadose-zone monitoring systems. The monitoring systems, hosting 22 TDR sensors, were used for continuous measurements of the temporal variation in vadose zone water-content profiles. Results from 4 years of continuous measurements showed quick rises in sediment water content following rain events and temporal wastewater overflows. The percolation pattern indicated dominance of preferential flow through a desiccation-crack network crossing the entire clay sediment layer (depth of 12 m). High water-propagation velocities (0.4-23.6 m h-1) were observed, indicating that the desiccation-crack network remains open and serves as a preferential flow pathway year-round, even at high sediment water content (˜0.50 m3 m-3). The natural formation of desiccation-crack networks at the margins of waste lagoons induces rapid infiltration of raw waste to deep sections of the vadose zone, bypassing the sediment's most biogeochemically active parts, and jeopardizing groundwater quality.

  8. 47 CFR 1.924 - Quiet zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact on the operations of radio astronomy or other facilities that are highly sensitive to interference. Consent throughout this paragraph means written consent from the quiet zone, radio astronomy, research... Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at...

  9. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  10. Body Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, John C.; Bahs, Clarence W.

    This paper investigates the effect of personal body buffer zones on compositional arrangements staged by novice directors. Relationships between directors' concepts of personal space and their projection of its dimensions into staging are studied through the use of a variety of proximity measures--distance, area angles of approach, and physical…

  11. Applications of ISES for coastal zone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the discipline- and process-oriented topics addressed, coastal zone studies are defined geographically by the special circumstances inherent in the interface between land and water. The characteristics of coastal zones which make them worthy of separate consideration are: (1) the dynamic nature of natural and anthropogenic processes taking place; (2) the relatively restricted spatial domain of the narrow land/water interface; and (3) the large proportion of the Earth's population living within coastal zones, and the resulting extreme pressure on natural and human resources. These characteristics place special constraints and priorities on remote sensing applications, even though the applications themselves bear close relation to those addressed by other elements of this report (e.g., oceans, ice, vegetation/land use). The discussion which follows first describes the suite of remote sensing activities relevant to coastal zone studies. Potential Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) experiments will then be addressed within two general categories: applications of real-time data transmission and applications of onboard data acquisition and processing.

  12. Small Gas Turbine Combustor Primary Zone Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. E.; Young, E. R.; Miles, G. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A development process is described which consists of design, fabrication, and preliminary test evaluations of three approaches to internal aerodynamic primary zone flow patterns: (1) conventional double vortex swirl stabilization; (2) reverse flow swirl stabilization; and (3) large single vortex flow system. Each concept incorporates special design features aimed at extending the performance capability of the small engine combustor. Since inherent geometry of these combustors result in small combustion zone height and high surface area to volume ratio, design features focus on internal aerodynamics, fuel placement, and advanced cooling. The combustors are evaluated on a full scale annular combustor rig. A correlation of the primary zone performance with the overall performance is accomplished using three intrusion type gas sampling probes located at the exit of the primary zone section. Empirical and numerical methods are used for designing and predicting the performance of the three combustor concepts and their subsequent modifications. The calibration of analytical procedures with actual test results permits an updating of the analytical design techniques applicable to small reverse flow annular combustors.

  13. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone. The... conveyance engaged in dumping activities, beginning at the first moment in which dumping is scheduled...

  14. EPA MODELING TOOLS FOR CAPTURE ZONE DELINEATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Research and Development supports a step-wise modeling approach for design of wellhead protection areas for water supply wells. A web-based WellHEDSS (wellhead decision support system) is under development for determining when simple capture zones (e.g., centri...

  15. Contact Zones: Composition's Content in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Katherine K.

    Contact zone theory--spaces where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other--helps writing program administrators to situate themselves. Writing programs and composition courses seem most troubled where the viewpoint of the most powerful faction is assumed as "the" viewpoint. One way to defuse tension is to recognize that writing is not…

  16. Evaluation of Camellias for zone 6b

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent hybridization of camellias has yielded several selections recognized as cold hardy to USDA Hardiness Zone 6. Several of the cold hardy camellias, in an established camellia evaluation since 2004, were damaged with foliar bronzing and stem dieback after a severe freeze in November 2013 in McMi...

  17. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  18. The Four Energy Zones of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George

    2012-01-01

    How can schools provide every child with an environment where they can grow and thrive? The answer lies in creating facilities that support quality educational delivery and promote a high level of engagement. The author discusses four energy zones of schools: (1) Resignation; (2) Comfort; (3) Aggression; and (4) Passion. This model provides an…

  19. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  20. Analysis Links Zoning Policies and Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Location, location, location. This mantra of real estate agents and their clients alike is now the target of a new report from the Brookings Institution linking housing prices and zoning practices to effectively depriving low-income students of high-quality schools. Using test scores from schools in the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the…

  1. English Higher Education and Its Vocational Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Distinctions between academic, vocational and professional education inform but do not define the divisions of English higher education. Nevertheless, there are zones where courses, qualifications and institutions are specifically oriented to the world of work. These include most short-cycle higher education, large parts of undergraduate and…

  2. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  3. The Seismic Coupling of Subduction Zones Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C.; Campos, J.

    2012-04-01

    The nature of seismic coupling for many of the world's subduction zones has been reevaluated. Geodetic estimates of seismic coupling obtained from GPS measurements of upper plate deformation during the interseismic period are summarized. We compared those with new estimates of seismic coupling obtained from seismological data. The results show that with a few notable exceptions the results using the two methods agree to within about 10%. The seismological estimates have been greatly improved over those made 20-30 years ago because of an abundance of paleoseismological data that greatly extend the temporal record of great subduction earthquakes and by the occurrence, in the intervening years, of an unusual number of great and giant earthquakes that have filled in some of the most critical holes in the seismic record. The data also, again with a few notable exceptions, support the frictional instability theory of seismic coupling, and in particular, the test of that theory made by Scholz and Campos [1995]. Overall, the results support their prediction that high coupling occurs for subduction zones subjected to high normal forces with a switch to low coupling occurring fairly abruptly as the normal force decreases below a critical value. There is also considerable variation of coupling within individual subduction zones. Earthquake asperities correlate with areas of high coupling and hence have a semblance of permanence, but the rupture zones and asperity distributions of great earthquakes may differ greatly between seismic cycles because of differences in the phase of seismic flux accumulation.

  4. The seismic coupling of subduction zones revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Christopher H.; Campos, Jaime

    2012-05-01

    The nature of seismic coupling for many of the world's subduction zones has been reevaluated. Geodetic estimates of seismic coupling obtained from GPS measurements of upper plate deformation during the interseismic period are summarized. We compared those with new estimates of seismic coupling obtained from seismological data. The results show that with a few notable exceptions the two methods agree to within about 10%. The seismological estimates have been greatly improved over those made 20-30 years ago because of an abundance of paleoseismological data that greatly extend the temporal record of great subduction earthquakes and by the occurrence, in the intervening years, of an unusual number of great and giant earthquakes that have filled in some of the most critical holes in the seismic record. The data also, again with a few notable exceptions, support the frictional instability theory of seismic coupling, and in particular, the test of that theory made by Scholz and Campos (1995). Overall, the results support their prediction that high coupling occurs for subduction zones subjected to high normal forces with a switch to low coupling occurring fairly abruptly as the normal force decreases below a critical value. There is also considerable variation of coupling within individual subduction zones. Earthquake asperities correlate with areas of high coupling and hence have a semblance of permanence, but the rupture zones and asperity distributions of great earthquakes may differ greatly between seismic cycles because of differences in the phase of seismic flux accumulation.

  5. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  6. The zone diet and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, S N

    1999-04-01

    The Zone diet is the latest eating regimen marketed to improve athletic performance by opposing traditional high carbohydrate sports diets. The 40/30/30 diet is centred primarily on protein intake (1.8 to 2.2 g/kg fat free mass; i.e. total bodyweight-fat weight) and promises a change in the body's insulin to glucagon ratio through its macronutrient alterations. Changes in the existing hormonal milieu are said to result in the production of more vasoactive eicosanoids, thus allowing greater oxygen delivery to exercising muscle. This favourable condition, known as the Zone, is anecdotally reported to benefit even the most elite endurance athletes. Applying the Zone's suggested protein needs and macronutrient distributions in practice, it is clear that it is a low carbohydrate diet by both relative and absolute standards, as well as calorie deficient by any standard. Reliable and abundant peer reviewed literature is in opposition to the suggestion that such a diet can support competitive athletic endeavours, much less improve them. The notion that a 40/30/30 diet can alter the pancreatic hormone response in favour of glucagon is also unfounded. The Zone is a mixed diet and not likely to affect pancreatic hormone release in the same way individual nutrients can. Although the postprandial insulin response is reduced when comparing a 40% with a 60% carbohydrate diet, it is still a sufficient stimulus to offset the lipolytic effects of glucagon. Many of the promised benefits of the Zone are based on selective information regarding hormonal influences on eicosanoid biology. Contradictory information is conveniently left out. The principle of vasodilating muscle arterioles by altering eicosanoid production is notably correct in theory. However, what little human evidence is available does not support any significant contribution of eicosanoids to active muscle vasodilation. In fact, the key eicosanoid reportedly produced in the Zone and responsible for improved muscle

  7. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wolfsberg; P. Reimus

    2001-12-18

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS M&O 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  8. Progesterone inhibits mast cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Vasiadi, M; Kempuraj, D; Boucher, W; Kalogeromitros, D; Theoharides, T C

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, where they secrete numerous vasoactive, inflammatory and nociceptive mediators in response to immunoglobulin E (IgE) and antigen. However, they have also been implicated in inflammatory conditions, such as painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and migraines, all of which occur more often in women and are exacerbated during ovulation, but are suppressed during pregnancy. Mast cells express high affinity estrogen receptors and estradiol augments their secretion, while tamoxifen inhibits it. Here we report that progesterone (100 nM), but not the structurally related cholesterol, inhibits histamine secretion from purified rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated immunologically or by substance P (SP), an effect also documented by electron microscopy. These results suggest that mast cell secretion may be regulated by progesterone and may explain the reduced symptoms of certain inflammatory conditions during pregnancy.

  9. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  10. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  11. Mid mantle seismic anisotropy around subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenda, M.

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence for mid mantle seismic anisotropy around subduction zones whose interpretation remains elusive. In this study I estimate the strain-induced mid mantle fabric and associated seismic anisotropy developing in 3D petrological-thermo-mechanical subduction models where the slab is either stagnating over the 660 km discontinuity or penetrating into the lower mantle. The modelling of synthetic lattice-preferred-orientation (LPO) development of wadsleyite and perovskite has been calibrated with results from deformational experiments and ab-initio atomic scale models, and the single crystal elastic tensor of the different mineral phases is scaled by local P-T conditions. The lower transition zone (ringwoodite + garnet) is assumed to be isotropic. Mid mantle fabric develops in proximity of the subducting slab where deformation and stresses are high, except at depths where upwelling or downwelling material undergoes phase transformations, yielding to LPO reset. The upper transition zone (wadsleyite + garnet) is characterized by weak transverse isotropy (2-3%) with symmetry axes oriented and fast S wave polarized dip-normal. A slightly stronger transverse isotropy develops in the lower mantle (perovskite + periclase), where the symmetry axes, the polarization of the fast S wave and the maximum Vp and dVs are parallel to the slab dip and subduction direction. For stagnating slab models this translates into negative and positive radial anisotropy in the upper transition zone and lower mantle back-arc, respectively, minimum delay times for vertically travelling shear waves and large shear wave splitting for waves propagating horizontally in the lower mantle. These results may help in reconciling the seismic anisotropy patterns observed in some subduction zones with subduction-induced deformation, such as those measured in the mid mantle between the Australian plate and the New Hebrides-Tonga-Kermadec trenches that I interpret as related to stagnating

  12. Noise zoning around airports in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, F. W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.

  13. Conditioned inhibition and reinforcement rate.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S; Andrew, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    We investigated conditioned inhibition in a magazine approach paradigm. Rats were trained on a feature negative discrimination between an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) reinforced at one rate versus a compound of that CS and a visual stimulus (L) reinforced at a lower rate. This training established L as a conditioned inhibitor. We then tested the inhibitory strength of L by presenting it in compound with other auditory CSs. L reduced responding when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a high rate, but had less or even no inhibitory effect when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a low rate. The inhibitory strength of L was greater if it signaled a decrease in reinforcement from an already low rate than if it signaled an equivalent decrease in reinforcement from a high rate. We conclude that the strength of inhibition is not a linear function of the change in reinforcement that it signals. We discuss the implications of this finding for models of learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that identify inhibition with a difference (subtraction) rule.

  14. Reciprocal inhibition in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C H; Chen, R S; Lu, C S

    1997-01-01

    We studied the inhibition of median H-reflex by conditioning stimuli on the radial nerve in 14 normal controls, 6 patients with unilateral and 1 patient with predominantly left-sided Parkinson's disease. In normal controls, the electrophysiological studies were performed on their right hands, yet both hands were examined in patient group. In the controls, we identified three inhibitory phases, with maximal inhibition at conditioning-test intervals of 0 ms (41.66 +/- 4.73%), 20 ms (45.19 +/- 4.33%), and 100 ms (44.55 +/- 6.84%), respectively. In the less- or a- symptomatic side of the patient group, the inhibitory patterns are similar to those of the controls. However, in the symptomatic arms, loss of inhibition, or even mild potentiation, was observed in the third inhibitory phase. When the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides of patients were compared, in contrast to the striking phenomenon found between symptomatic side and the controls, no difference was observed in the third phase. The current results imply that, although no obvious rigidity can be detected on the asymptomatic sides, subtle functional corruption may have occurred within the contralateral basal ganglia in patients with unilateral Parkinson's disease. The remarkable change of the third phase on the symptomatic sides of patients suggests the perturbation of the polysynaptic long latency reflex pathway may somehow play a role in the rigidity pathogenesis.

  15. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  16. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  17. Zeb1 controls neuron differentiation and germinal zone exit by a mesenchymal-epithelial-like transition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Howell, Danielle; Trivedi, Niraj; Kessler, Ketty; Ong, Taren; Rosmaninho, Pedro; Raposo, Alexandre Asf; Robinson, Giles; Roussel, Martine F; Castro, Diogo S; Solecki, David J

    2016-05-14

    In the developing mammalian brain, differentiating neurons mature morphologically via neuronal polarity programs. Despite discovery of polarity pathways acting concurrently with differentiation, it's unclear how neurons traverse complex polarity transitions or how neuronal progenitors delay polarization during development. We report that zinc finger and homeobox transcription factor-1 (Zeb1), a master regulator of epithelial polarity, controls neuronal differentiation by transcriptionally repressing polarity genes in neuronal progenitors. Necessity-sufficiency testing and functional target screening in cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) reveal that Zeb1 inhibits polarization and retains progenitors in their germinal zone (GZ). Zeb1 expression is elevated in the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma subgroup originating from GNPs with persistent SHH activation. Restored polarity signaling promotes differentiation and rescues GZ exit, suggesting a model for future differentiative therapies. These results reveal unexpected parallels between neuronal differentiation and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and suggest that active polarity inhibition contributes to altered GZ exit in pediatric brain cancers.

  18. Females discriminate against heterospecific sperm in a natural hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Emily R A; Ålund, Murielle; McFarlane, S Eryn; Johnsen, Arild; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-08-01

    When hybridization is maladaptive, species-specific mate preferences are selectively favored, but low mate availability may constrain species-assortative pairing. Females paired to heterospecifics may then benefit by copulating with multiple males and subsequently favoring sperm of conspecifics. Whether such mechanisms for biasing paternity toward conspecifics act as important reproductive barriers in socially monogamous vertebrate species remains to be determined. We use a combination of long-term breeding records from a natural hybrid zone between collared and pied flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca), and an in vitro experiment comparing conspecific and heterospecific sperm performance in female reproductive tract fluid, to evaluate the potential significance of female cryptic choice. We show that the females most at risk of hybridizing (pied flycatchers) frequently copulate with multiple males and are able to inhibit heterospecific sperm performance. The negative effect on heterospecific sperm performance was strongest in pied flycatcher females that were most likely to have been previously exposed to collared flycatcher sperm. We thus demonstrate that a reproductive barrier acts after copulation but before fertilization in a socially monogamous vertebrate. While the evolutionary history of this barrier is unknown, our results imply that there is opportunity for it to be accentuated via a reinforcement-like process. PMID:27312694

  19. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality. PMID:20873618

  20. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality.

  1. 33 CFR 165.105 - Security Zones; Passenger Vessels, Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Maine, Captain of the Port zone as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-15. (b) Location. The following areas are... person may swim upon or below the surface of the water within the boundaries of these security...

  2. 33 CFR 165.105 - Security Zones; Passenger Vessels, Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Maine, Captain of the Port zone as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-15. (b) Location. The following areas are... person may swim upon or below the surface of the water within the boundaries of these security...

  3. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  4. 33 CFR 165.105 - Security Zones; Passenger Vessels, Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Maine, Captain of the Port zone as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-15. (b) Location. The following areas are... person may swim upon or below the surface of the water within the boundaries of these security...

  5. 33 CFR 165.105 - Security Zones; Passenger Vessels, Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Maine, Captain of the Port zone as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-15. (b) Location. The following areas are... person may swim upon or below the surface of the water within the boundaries of these security...

  6. 78 FR 46815 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Register on November 9, 2011 (76 FR 69614). Table 1 1. Wolfe's Pond Fireworks, Wolfe's Pond Launch site: A...'' N, 074 10'58.8'' W (NAD 1983), approximately 540 yards east of Wolfe's Pond Park. The Safety Zone...

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of nonvolcanic tremor along the southern Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarko, Devin C.; Brudzinski, Michael R.

    2010-08-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the spatial and temporal correlation of slow slip events monitored via GPS surface displacements and nonvolcanic tremor (NVT) monitored via seismic signals, is a newly discovered mode of deformation thought to be occurring downdip from the seismogenic zone along several subduction zone megathrusts. To provide overall constraints on the distribution and migration behavior of NVT in southern Cascadia, we apply a semiautomated location algorithm to seismic data available during the EarthScope Transportable Array deployment to detect the most prominent pulses of NVT and invert analyst-refined relative arrival times for source locations. In the processing, we also detect distinct and isolated bursts of energy within the tremor similar to observations of low-frequency earthquakes in southwest Japan. We investigate in detail eight NVT episodes between November 2005 and August 2007 with source locations extending over a 650 km along-strike region from northern California to northern Oregon. We find complex tremor migration patterns with periods of steady migration (4-10 km/d), halting, and frequent along-strike jumps (30-400 km) in activity. The initiation and termination points of laterally continuous tremor activity appear to be repeatable features between NVT episodes which support the hypothesis of segmentation within the ETS zone. The overall distribution of NVT epicenters occur within a narrow band primarily confined by the surface projections of the 30 and 40 km contours of the subducting plate interface. We find as much as 50 km spatial offset from the updip edge of the tremor source zone to the downdip edge of the thermally and geodetically defined transition zone, which may inhibit ETS from triggering earthquakes further updip. Intriguingly, NVT activity is spatially anticorrelated with local seismicity, suggesting the two processes are mutually exclusive. We propose that the transition in frictional behavior coupled with high pore

  8. PLANET FORMATION IN CIRCUMBINARY CONFIGURATIONS: TURBULENCE INHIBITS PLANETESIMAL ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Meschiari, Stefano

    2012-12-10

    The existence of planets born in environments highly perturbed by a stellar companion represents a major challenge to the paradigm of planet formation. In numerical simulations, the presence of a close binary companion stirs up the relative velocity between planetesimals, which is fundamental in determining the balance between accretion and erosion. However, the recent discovery of circumbinary planets by Kepler establishes that planet formation in binary systems is clearly viable. We perform N-body simulations of planetesimals embedded in a protoplanetary disk, where planetesimal phasing is frustrated by the presence of stochastic torques, modeling the expected perturbations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability. We examine perturbation amplitudes relevant to dead zones in the midplane (conducive to planet formation in single stars), and find that planetesimal accretion can be inhibited even in the outer disk (4-10 AU) far from the central binary, a location previously thought to be a plausible starting point for the formation of circumbinary planets.

  9. Inhibition of microbial pathogens using fruit and vegetable peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Rakholiya, Kalpna; Kaneria, Mital; Chanda, Sumitra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of some vegetable and fruit peels. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using various solvents with increasing polarity (Hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous). The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay against five Gram positive bacteria, five Gram negative bacteria and four fungi. All extracts demonstrated varied level of antimicrobial activity. The peel extracts showed highest zone of inhibition against Gram negative bacteria as compared to Gram positive bacteria and fungi. Amongst studied peel extracts Citrus limon followed by Manilkara zapota and Carica papaya showed good antimicrobial activity indicating its potency as a promising source of natural antimicrobics. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. PMID:24725235

  10. Histomorphometric evidence for echistatin inhibition of bone resorption in mice with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Masarachia, P; Yamamoto, M; Leu, C T; Rodan, G; Duong, L

    1998-03-01

    Echistatin, an RGD-containing peptide, was shown to inhibit the acute calcemic response to exogenous PTH or PTH-related protein (PTH-rP) in thyroparathyroidectomized rats, suggesting that echistatin inhibits bone resorption. In this study: 1) we present histological evidence for echistatin inhibition of bone resorption in mice with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and show that 2) echistatin binds to osteoclasts in vivo, 3) increases osteoclast number, and 4) does not detectably alter osteoclast morphology. Infusion of echistatin (30 microg/kg x min) for 3 days prevented the 2.6-fold increase in tibial cancellous bone turnover and the 36% loss in bone volume, produced by a low calcium diet. At the light microscopy level, echistatin immunolocalized to osteoclasts and megakaryocytes. Echistatin treatment increased osteoclast-covered bone surface by about 50%. At the ultrastructural level, these osteoclasts appeared normal, and the fraction of cells containing ruffled borders and clear zones was similar to controls. Echistatin was found on the basolateral membrane and in intracellular vesicles of actively resorbing osteoclasts. Weak labeling was found in the ruffled border, and no immunoreactivity was detected at the clear zone/bone surface interface. These findings provide histological evidence for echistatin binding to osteoclasts and for inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, through reduced osteoclast efficacy, without apparent changes in osteoclast morphology.

  11. Characterising the Alpine Fault Damage Zone using Fault Zone Guided Waves, South Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, J. D.; Gulley, A.; Boese, C. M.; Malin, P. E.; Townend, J.; Thurber, C. H.; Guo, B.; Sutherland, R.

    2015-12-01

    Fault Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) are observed within New Zealand's transpressional continental plate boundary, the Alpine Fault, which is late in its typical seismic cycle. Distinctive dispersive seismic coda waves (~7-35 Hz), trapped within the low-velocity fault damage zone, have been recorded on three component 2 Hz borehole seismometers installed within 20 m of the principal slip zone in the shallow (< 150 m deep) DFDP-1 boreholes. Near the central Alpine Fault, known for low background seismicity, FZGW-generating microseismic events are located beyond the catchment-scale strike-slip and thrust segment partitioning of the fault indicating lateral connectivity of the low-velocity zone immediately below the near-surface segmentation. Double-difference earthquake relocation of events using the dense SAMBA and WIZARD seismometer arrays allows spatio-temporal patterns of 2013 events to be analysed and the segmentation and low velocity zone depth extent further explored. Three layer, dispersion modeling of the low-velocity zone indicates a waveguide width of 60-200 m with a 10-40% reduction in S-wave velocity, similar to that inferred for the fault core of other mature plate boundary faults such as the San Andreas and North Anatolian Faults.

  12. Clustering of contact zones, hybrid zones, and phylogeographic breaks in North America.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Howard, Daniel J

    2005-11-01

    A recent test for the existence of suture zones in North America, based on hybrid zones studied since 1970, found support for only two of the 13 suture zones identified by Remington in 1968 (Swenson and Howard 2004). One limitation of that recent study was the relatively small number of hybrid zones available for mapping. In this study, we search for evidence of clustering of contact zones between closely related taxa using data not only from hybrid zones but from species range maps of trees, birds, and mammals and from the position of phylogeographic breaks within species. Digital geographic range maps and a geographic information system approach allowed for accurate and rapid mapping of distributional data. Areas of contact between closely related species and phylogeographic breaks within species clustered into areas characterized by common physiographic features or predicted by previously hypothesized glacial refugia. The results underscore the general importance of geographic barriers to dispersal (mountain chains) and climate change (periods of cooling alternating with periods of warming, which lead to the contraction and expansion of species ranges) in species evolution. PMID:16224723

  13. Zone recrystallization of gallium arsenide with discrete zones in a temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Efremova, N.P.; Popov, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    A laboratory procedure for zone recrystallization with a temperature gradient is developed for gallium arsenide, using discrete zones, which permit linear and point zones 20-200 /sup +/m in diameter to move stably in the temperature range 820-1050/sup 0/C. The dependences of the rate of movement of the discrete zones on their thickness and temperatures are determined, which are explained by theories for systems with volatile components. The dislocation density in the recrystallized regions is not higher than in the substrate. Current-voltage characteristics of the p-n junctions, formed on the boundary of the channels with the starting materials, have high parameters. A gallium zone enables purifying the material effectively from tin (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) and to create structures which have the Gunn effect. Doping with silicon from a linear zone gives rise to the possibility of forming multilayer structures due to poorly defined dependence of the inversion temperature of the conductivity type on the crystal orientation of the growing surface.

  14. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  15. Ethylene Upregulates Auxin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Seedlings to Enhance Inhibition of Root Cell Elongation[W

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Perry, Paula; Hagenbeek, Dik; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Sandberg, Göran; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene represents an important regulatory signal for root development. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have demonstrated that ethylene inhibition of root growth involves another hormone signal, auxin. This study investigated why auxin was required by ethylene to regulate root growth. We initially observed that ethylene positively controls auxin biosynthesis in the root apex. We subsequently demonstrated that ethylene-regulated root growth is dependent on (1) the transport of auxin from the root apex via the lateral root cap and (2) auxin responses occurring in multiple elongation zone tissues. Detailed growth studies revealed that the ability of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to inhibit root cell elongation was significantly enhanced in the presence of auxin. We conclude that by upregulating auxin biosynthesis, ethylene facilitates its ability to inhibit root cell expansion. PMID:17630275

  16. Mechanisms controlling the modes of the sinking slab into the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrusta, Roberto; Goes, Saskia; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    It is generally accepted that subducting slabs can either sink into the lower mantle, lie down in the mantle transition zone, or even stagnate beneath it. Several studies have looked at correlations between subduction zone parameters and the ability of the slabs to penetrate into the lower mantle. These studies have suggested that the key parameters to control whether slabs stagnate or penetrate are trench motions, slab strength, buoyant features and/or the overriding plate. For example, there is evidence that older lithospheres show significant trench retreat, and tend to lie down flat above the transition zone (northwest Pacific), whereas younger lithospheres, less able to drive trench retreat, tend to sink into the lower mantle (central America). Moreover, numerical modelling studies have shown further correlations with parameters that cannot be directly observed. For example, slab penetration is inhibited by density and viscosity increases associated with post-spinel phase transition. Numerical modelling has been one of the key tools to investigate slab penetration, and a lot of insight has been gained from these studies. But most of these studies assume (statistical) steady ­state scenarios, in which slab stagnation or slab penetration is more or less a permanent feature. However, on Earth different modes of slab - transition zone interaction probably need to be able to change in time from penetrating to stagnant and also vice versa. In this study, using 2D self-consistent numerical subduction models, we test plausible mechanisms which may trigger different modes of slab deformation in the transition zone and may explain both spatial and temporal variability.

  17. Crustal extension in the Baikal rift zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zorin, Yu; Cordell, L.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the gravity field along four profiles crossing the Baikal rift zone permits an estimate of the amount of anomalous mass produced by 1. (1) graben-fill sediments, 2. (2) Moho uplift and intrusion of mantle sills and dikes, 3. (3) an asthenospheric bulge. Crustal extension is evaluated based on the idea of mass and volume balance of material introduced into and removed from the initial volume of the crust. Extension in the Baikal rift increases southwestward from 0.9 km in the Chara depression to 19.3 km in the South Baikal depression. These values generally agree with the position of the Euler pole determined from seismic data (fault plane solutions). Average rotation velocity for the lithospheric plates separated by the rift zone is estimated to be 5.93 ?? 10-4 rad/m.y. over about 30 m.y. ?? 1991.

  18. A multi-zone muffle furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

  19. Radioactive Waste Disposal in Thick Unsaturated Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winograd, Isaac J.

    1981-06-01

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolation is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of 0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

  20. Morphology of auroral zone radio wave scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Rino, C.L.; Matthews, S.J.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes the morphology of midnight sector and morning sector auroral zone scintillation observations made over a two-year period using the Wideband satelite, which is in a sun-synchronous, low-altitude orbit. No definitive seasonal variation was found. The nighttime data showed the highest scintillation ocurrence levels, but significant amounts of morning scintillation were observed. For the most part the scintillation activity followed the general pattern of local magnetic activity. The most prominent feature in the nightime data is a localized amplitude and phase scintillation enhancement at the point where the propagation vector lies within an L shell. A geometrical effect due to a dynamic slab of sheetlike structures in the F region is hypothesized as the source of his enhancement. The data have been sorted by magnetic activity, proximity to local midnight, and season. The general features of the data are in agreement with the accepted morphology of auroral zone scintillation.

  1. Mapping of the coastal zone of Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, L.

    1997-06-01

    Uppsala University, Sweden in co-operation with Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA), Jamaica have been mapping the coastal zone of Jamaica from remote sources and field inventories for planning and management purposes. All beaches were field-checked and other types of shores classified from Landsat and aerial photos and data evaluated using Excel. The sub-water environment has been classified from Landsat TM, with reference data from echo sounder, GPS and manual observations stored into a computer directly in the field. A comprehensive database was created containing important information for the planners, like coastline types, maps of land and sea-bottom cover. An ARC/INFO structure has been created allowing NRCA to continually improve and update the knowledge of the coastal zone.

  2. Diamagnetic pumping in a rotating convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.; Nepomnyashchikh, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Solar dynamo models require some mechanism for magnetic field concentration near the base of the convection zone in order to generate super-kilogauss toroidal fields with sufficiently large (∼ 1024 Mx) magnetic flux. We consider the downward diamagnetic pumping near the base of the convection zone as a possible concentration mechanism and derive the pumping velocities with allowance for the effect of rotation. Transport velocities for poloidal and toroidal fields differ in rotating fluid. The toroidal field is transported downward along the radius only but the pumping velocity for the poloidal field has an equatorward meridional component also. Previous results for cases of slow and rapid rotation are reproduced and the diamagnetic pumping expressions adapted for use in dynamo models are presented.

  3. SAMZ: Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  4. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  5. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones project

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Armstrong, C.E. . Rocky Flats Plant); McKinney, J.M.; Verholek, M.G.; Fraser, P.J.; Dalfonso, P.H. )

    1991-07-18

    The Rocky Flats Plant maintains and uses significant nonradioactive chemically hazardous material (HAZMAT) inventories. Some of these materials are used in sufficient quantities to represent a credible risk to the offsite public in the event of an emergency at the facility. In Phase 2 of this project, the EG G Rocky Flats, Inc. and TENERA, L.P. Task Team (Task Team) produced an initial screening-level modeling analysis study and an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) encompassing the Vulnerable Zones (VZs) for hazardous materials stored at the facility. The screening-level analysis will be supplemented with more refined evaluations during subsequent phases of the project. The existence of these chemicals in the Rocky Flats Plant Occupational Health Information System (OHIS) chemical inventory database was verified. All liquid and gaseous chemicals were considered as potential hazardous material source terms for further screening analysis. Hazards associated with solid substances were not considered in this phase of the project. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Energy transport in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Tony W.; Squire, Vernon A.

    2001-09-01

    A novel approach to modeling ocean wave scattering in the marginal ice zone that uses the coherent potential approximation to compute the energy transport velocity is reported. The necessary theory is developed by considering sea ice floes to be thin elastic beams governed by the Euler-Bernoulli equation, with the open water surrounding each floe subject to the same equation with its material coefficients set to be very small quantities. This mathematical stratagem facilitates the solution of the problem and yields interesting results about the speed at which wave energy propagates through a marginal ice zone, the dispersion relation for a random mixture of ice floes and water, and the mean free path or attenuation coefficient. Results from the model are compared with data reported by Wadhams et al. [1988].

  7. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig

    2005-07-01

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich -- von Neumann -- Doring (NEZND) theory and reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for nitromethane, HMX, TATB and PETN. Progress in measuring and modeling the complex three-dimensional structural of these detonation waves is also discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  8. Hybrid Zones: Windows on Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica L.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity and species distributions is currently a high priority. Niche models focus primarily on predicted changes in abiotic factors; however, species interactions and adaptive evolution will impact the ability of species to persist in the face of changing climate. Our review focuses on the use of hybrid zones to monitor species' responses to contemporary climate change. Monitoring hybrid zones provides insight into how range boundaries shift in response to climate change by illuminating the combined effects of species interactions and physiological sensitivity. At the same time, the semi-permeable nature of species boundaries allows us to document adaptive introgression of alleles associated with response to climate change. PMID:25982153

  9. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Robert J; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  10. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kittel, Robert J.; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention. PMID:27148040

  11. Microbial ecology of expanding oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration is a crucial organizing principle in marine ecosystems. As oxygen levels decline, energy is increasingly diverted away from higher trophic levels into microbial metabolism, leading to loss of fixed nitrogen and to production of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide and methane. In this Review, we describe current efforts to explore the fundamental factors that control the ecological and microbial biodiversity in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, termed oxygen minimum zones. We also discuss how recent advances in microbial ecology have provided information about the potential interactions in distributed co-occurrence and metabolic networks in oxygen minimum zones, and we provide new insights into coupled biogeochemical processes in the ocean.

  12. Hybrid zones: windows on climate change.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott A; Larson, Erica L; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Defining the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity and species distributions is currently a high priority. Niche models focus primarily on predicted changes in abiotic factors; however, species interactions and adaptive evolution will impact the ability of species to persist in the face of changing climate. Our review focuses on the use of hybrid zones to monitor responses of species to contemporary climate change. Monitoring hybrid zones provides insight into how range boundaries shift in response to climate change by illuminating the combined effects of species interactions and physiological sensitivity. At the same time, the semipermeable nature of species boundaries allows us to document adaptive introgression of alleles associated with response to climate change.

  13. Space processing float zone thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogson, J. T.; Anderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal analysis (BETA) computer program adaptations were prepared to analyze phase change histories in crystal specimens. The first program (BETA-CYL) treats right circular cylinder configurations and the second, more general, program (BETA-BOR) treats a generalized body-of-revolution configuration. A series of computer runs were made for silicon material to determine boundary conditions which produce flat solidification interfaces while, at the same time, minimizing peak temperatures in the molten zone. Flat solidification interfaces are a goal believed by some investigators to be required to produce high quality semiconductor materials. The thermal effects of convection in a molten zone were examined and found to be negligible in comparison to the conduction heat transfer of the melt.

  14. Electron microprobe study of lunar and planetary zoned plagioclase feldspars: An analytical and experimental study of zoning in plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. K.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Natural and experimentally grown zoned plagioclase feldspars were examined by electron microprobe. The analyses revealed discontinuous, sector, and oscillary chemical zoning superimposed on continuous normal or reverse zoning trends. Postulated mechanisms for the origin of zoning are based on either physical changes external to the magma (P, T, H2O saturation) or kinetic changes internal to the magma (diffusion, supersaturation, growth rate). Comparison of microprobe data on natural zoned plagioclase with zoned plagioclase grown in controlled experiments show that it may be possible to distinguish zonal development resulting from physio-chemical changes to the bulk magma from local kinetic control on the growth of individual crystals.

  15. Transgenic Expression of Dentin Phosphoprotein Inhibits Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Liu, P.; Wang, S.; Liu, C.; Jani, P.; Lu, Y.; Qin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is proteolytically processed into an NH2-terminal fragment called dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and a COOH-terminal fragment known as dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). These two fragments are believed to perform distinct roles in formation of bone and dentin. To investigate the functions of DPP in skeletal development, we generated transgenic mice to overexpress hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged DPP under the control of a 3.6 kb type I collagen (Col1a1) promoter (designated as Col1a1-HA-DPP). The Col1a1-HA-DPP transgenic mice were significantly smaller by weight, had smaller skeletons and shorter long bones than their wild type littermates, as demonstrated by X-ray radiography. They displayed reduced trabecular bone formation and narrower zones of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plates of the long bones. Histological analyses showed that the transgenic mice had reduced cell proliferation in the proliferating zone, but lacked obvious defects in the chondrocyte differentiation. In addition, the transgenic mice with a high level of transgene expression developed spontaneous long bone fractures. In conclusion, overexpressing DPP inhibited skeletal development, suggesting that the balanced actions between the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of DSPP may be required for normal skeletal development. PMID:26972716

  16. Investigating Grounding Zones by RAGEing WISSARDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. D.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Holland, D. M.; Horgan, H. J.; Jacobel, R. W.; Scherer, R. P.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Vogel, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    The latest IPCC report recognized that the greatest uncertainties in assessing future global sea-level change stem from a poor understanding of ice sheet dynamics and vulnerability to oceanic and atmospheric warming. Ice stream grounding zones (GZs) of West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) are seen as high priority targets to investigate as they may be perturbed by internal ice stream dynamics, increased thermal ocean forcing, subglacial sediment flux, and/or filling/draining cycles of subglacial lakes. A new interdisciplinary study to assess the stability of WAIS and Ross Ice Shelf (RIS), RAGES (Robotic Access to Grounding-zones for Exploration and Science) has been initiated as part of a larger project, WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Three main science goals for RAGES are to assess: (a) WAIS stability, (b) the degree to which grounding-zone sedimentary systems house important records of past WAIS dynamics, and (c) the importance of microbial activity and subglacial geochemical weathering in supplying nutrients to WAIS grounding zone, RIS cavity and Southern Ocean to influence global biogeochemical cycles. The proposed field plan integrates surface geophysical surveys; samples of subglacial water, sediments, and basal ice for biological, geochemical, glaciological, sedimentological, and micropaleontological analyses; measurements of subglacial and sub-ice-shelf cavity physical and chemical conditions and their spatial variability; and data on sediment types and character, state and change of subglacial water discharge, oceanography and basal ice at the grounding line and within the nearby sub-ice-shelf cavity using a multi-sensor Sub-Ice ROVer (SIR) and long-term, sub-ice oceanographic moorings.

  17. Fluidized-Bed Reactor With Zone Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K.

    1989-01-01

    Deposition of silicon on wall suppressed. In new fluidized bed, silicon seed particles heated in uppermost zone of reactor. Hot particles gradually mix with lower particles and descend through fluidized bed. Lower wall of vessel kept relatively cool. Because silane enters at bottom and circulates through reactor pyrolized to silicon at high temperatures, silicon deposited on particles in preference wall. Design of fluidized bed for production of silicon greatly reduces tendency of silicon to deposit on wall of reaction vessel.

  18. Improving measurement of Chesapeake Bay's dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In the 1930s, researchers first noticed that the Chesapeake Bay had a dead zone, an expanse of water with drastically reduced concentrations of oxygen. In the 1980s, hypoxia—low-oxygen conditions—gave way in some places to anoxia—a near-total depletion of dissolved oxygen. A lack of oxygen makes the water inhospitable for many marine organisms, and the Chesapeake Bay is the focus of major ecosystem rehabilitation efforts.

  19. Fractal zone plate beam based optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Wenzhuo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation with an optical beam generated by a fractral zone plate (FZP). The experimental results show that the FZP beam can simultaneously trap multiple particles positioned in different focal planes of the FZP beam, owing to the multiple foci and self-reconstruction property of the FZP beam. The FZP beam can also be used to construct three-dimensional optical tweezers for potential applications.

  20. Two-Temperature-Zone Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjurjo, A.; Nanis, L.; Kapur, V. K.; Weaver, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    When high purity silicon is synthesized by reduction of silicon tetrafluoride by sodium, very-fast highly exothermic reaction takes place. Controlled reaction is proposed in which SiF4-pressurized vertical reactor operates with two temperature zones. Liquid sodium feeds from nozzle at top of rector without reacting with SiF4. When sodium reaches higher temperature region at bottom, reaction takes place immediately.

  1. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  3. Critical zone evolution at the hillslope scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempe, D. M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Oshun, J.; Dawson, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    The critical zone, which extends from the top of the canopy to the elevation of unweathered bedrock, hosts a variety of processes that control the evolution of the topographic surface. Though studies of hillslope evolution tend to focus on erosion and soil production mechanisms near the surface, evidence suggests that weathering and fluid transport processes that occur at depths beyond the soil influence hillslope form. Despite this, little is known about what controls the boundary between weathered and fresh bedrock (Zb) under hillslopes and few direct observations of Zb and moisture dynamics within weathered rock exist. This study presents observations from a heavily monitored 4000 m2 experimental hillslope within the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory in northern California. Drilling data, groundwater monitoring, and geophysical imaging reveal a weathered bedrock zone that thickens towards the divide and is consistent with a theory for predicting Zb under hillslopes that links channel incision to the drainage of fresh bedrock within the hillslope. Direct observations of rock moisture indicate that moisture dynamics within weathered rock regulate streamflow and transpiration. Water transport in the weathered bedrock occurs via two mechanisms: a diffuse wetting front and rapid transport along fractures. This water recharges a seasonally perched water table that provides baseflow. Rock moisture storage increases upslope and remains seasonally elevated longer into the dry season of this Mediterranean climate suggesting that Zb and the spatial distribution of weathered rock controls the spatial and temporal moisture dyanmics in hillslopes. Data from vegetative water use monitoring efforts suggest that rock moisture influences forest ecosystem dynamics and thus physical weathering, erosion mechanisms, climate (via transpiration), and baseflow. Our observations within the interior of this hillslope highlight the consequences of critical zone evolution on the

  4. Rural Productivity Zones (RPZs) for microenterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the concept of rural productivity zones (RPZs) which are defined as a business incubator to foster income-producing opportunities for the rural poor. The essential ingredients of such a program include: electric power; business development assistance; office services; and quality work space. The electric power source must be a good quality system, consisting of a diesel/wind/photovoltaic hybrid type system, providing reliable service, with a local maintenance program and a functional load management program.

  5. A model environment for outer zone electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singley, G. W.; Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A brief morphology of outer zone electrons is given to illustrate the nature of the phenomena that we are attempting to model. This is followed by a discussion of the data processing that was done with the various data received from the experimenters before incorporating it into the data base from which this model was ultimately derived. The details of the derivation are given, and several comparisons of the final model with the various experimental measurements are presented.

  6. Zone generator for Large Space Telescope technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    A concept is presented for monitoring the optical adjustment and performance of a Large Space Telescope which consists of a 1.2m diameter turntable with a laser stylus to operate at speeds up to 30 rpm. The focus of the laser stylus is under closed loop control. A technique for scribing zones of suitable depth, width, and uniformity applicable to large telescope mirrors is also reported.

  7. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  8. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, C. ); Estevez, R. ); Henneberg, H.G. )

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  9. Time-Zone-Pattern Satellite Broadcasting Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo, Victor; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Imbriale, William A.; Cohen, Herb; Cagnon, Ronald R.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-broadcast satellite antenna designs provide contoured beams to match four time zones in 48 contiguous states and spot beams for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico presented in 29-page report. Includes descriptions of procedures used to arrive at optimized designs. Arrangements, amplitudes, and phases of antenna feeds presented in tables. Gain contours shown graphically. Additional tables of performance data given for cities in service area of Eastern satellite.

  10. Fractal zone plate beam based optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shubo; Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Wenzhuo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate optical manipulation with an optical beam generated by a fractral zone plate (FZP). The experimental results show that the FZP beam can simultaneously trap multiple particles positioned in different focal planes of the FZP beam, owing to the multiple foci and self-reconstruction property of the FZP beam. The FZP beam can also be used to construct three-dimensional optical tweezers for potential applications. PMID:27678305

  11. Selective inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110α preserves lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    So, Lomon; Yea, Sung Su; Oak, Jean S; Lu, Mengrou; Manmadhan, Arun; Ke, Qiao Han; Janes, Matthew R; Kessler, Linda V; Kucharski, Jeff M; Li, Lian-Sheng; Martin, Michael B; Ren, Pingda; Jessen, Katti A; Liu, Yi; Rommel, Christian; Fruman, David A

    2013-02-22

    Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is essential for clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function of B and T lymphocytes. The p110δ catalytic isoform of PI3K is highly expressed in lymphocytes and plays a prominent role in B and T cell responses. Another class IA PI3K catalytic isoform, p110α, is a promising drug target in cancer but little is known about its function in lymphocytes. Here we used highly selective inhibitors to probe the function of p110α in lymphocyte responses in vitro and in vivo. p110α inhibition partially reduced B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent AKT activation and proliferation, and diminished survival supported by the cytokines BAFF and IL-4. Selective p110δ inhibition suppressed B cell responses much more strongly, yet maximal suppression was achieved by targeting multiple PI3K isoforms. In mouse and human T cells, inhibition of single class IA isoforms had little effect on proliferation, whereas pan-class I inhibition did suppress T cell expansion. In mice, selective p110α inhibition using the investigational agent MLN1117 (previously known as INK1117) did not disrupt the marginal zone B cell compartment and did not block T cell-dependent germinal center formation. In contrast, the selective p110δ inhibitor IC87114 strongly suppressed germinal center formation and reduced marginal zone B cell numbers, similar to a pan-class I inhibitor. These findings show that although acute p110α inhibition partially diminishes AKT activation, selective p110α inhibitors are likely to be less immunosuppressive in vivo compared with p110δ or pan-class I inhibitors.

  12. Transport of through a Thick Vadose Zone.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Best, Anna; Parker, Beth L; Aravena, Ramon; Dunfield, Kari

    2015-09-01

    Livestock manure applications on fields can be a source of contamination in water resources, including groundwater. Although fecal indicators like have often been detected in tile drainage systems, few studies have monitored groundwater at depth after manure treatments, especially at sites with a deep, heterogeneous vadose zone. Our hypothesis was that microbial transport through a thick vadose zone would be limited or nonexistent due to attenuation processes, subsurface thickness, and heterogeneity. This study tested this hypothesis by monitoring concentrations beneath a 12-m-thick vadose zone of coarse, heterogeneous glacial sediments after surface application of liquid swine manure. was detected on all 23 sample dates over the 5-mo period (4 Apr. 2012-13 Aug. 2012), with particularly elevated concentrations 1 wk after application and lasting for 5 wk. Variable low-level concentrations before and after the elevated period suggest remobilization and delayed transport of microorganisms to the water table without additional loadings within the flow field. These findings suggest preferential flow pathways allowing deep infiltration of manure bacteria as well as a continued source of bacteria, with variable retention and travel times, over several months. Preferential flow pathways at this site include soil macropores, depression focused infiltration, and pathways related to subsurface heterogeneity and/or fracture flow through finer-grained diamict beds. Further research is needed to confirm the relative contribution of sources, constrain travel times, and define specific transport pathways. PMID:26436260

  13. Baroclinic instability in stellar radiation zones

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2014-03-20

    Surfaces of constant pressure and constant density do not coincide in differentially rotating stars. Stellar radiation zones with baroclinic stratification can be unstable. Instabilities in radiation zones are of crucial importance for angular momentum transport, mixing of chemical species, and, possibly, for magnetic field generation. This paper performs linear analysis of baroclinic instability in differentially rotating stars. Linear stability equations are formulated for differential rotation of arbitrary shape and then solved numerically for rotation nonuniform in radius. As the differential rotation increases, r- and g-modes of initially stable global oscillations transform smoothly into growing modes of baroclinic instability. The instability can therefore be interpreted as stability loss to r- and g-modes excitation. Regions of stellar parameters where r- or g-modes are preferentially excited are defined. Baroclinic instability onsets at a very small differential rotation of below 1%. The characteristic time of instability growth is about 1000 rotation periods. Growing disturbances possess kinetic helicity. Magnetic field generation by the turbulence resulting from baroclinic instability in differentially rotating radiation zones is therefore possible.

  14. Multispectral observations of the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.

  15. Transport of through a Thick Vadose Zone.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Best, Anna; Parker, Beth L; Aravena, Ramon; Dunfield, Kari

    2015-09-01

    Livestock manure applications on fields can be a source of contamination in water resources, including groundwater. Although fecal indicators like have often been detected in tile drainage systems, few studies have monitored groundwater at depth after manure treatments, especially at sites with a deep, heterogeneous vadose zone. Our hypothesis was that microbial transport through a thick vadose zone would be limited or nonexistent due to attenuation processes, subsurface thickness, and heterogeneity. This study tested this hypothesis by monitoring concentrations beneath a 12-m-thick vadose zone of coarse, heterogeneous glacial sediments after surface application of liquid swine manure. was detected on all 23 sample dates over the 5-mo period (4 Apr. 2012-13 Aug. 2012), with particularly elevated concentrations 1 wk after application and lasting for 5 wk. Variable low-level concentrations before and after the elevated period suggest remobilization and delayed transport of microorganisms to the water table without additional loadings within the flow field. These findings suggest preferential flow pathways allowing deep infiltration of manure bacteria as well as a continued source of bacteria, with variable retention and travel times, over several months. Preferential flow pathways at this site include soil macropores, depression focused infiltration, and pathways related to subsurface heterogeneity and/or fracture flow through finer-grained diamict beds. Further research is needed to confirm the relative contribution of sources, constrain travel times, and define specific transport pathways.

  16. [Molecular mechanism at the presynaptic active zone].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Toshihisa

    2011-07-01

    Our higher brain functions such as learning and memory, emotion, and consciousness depend on the precise regulation of complicated neural networks in the brain. Neurons communicate with each other through the synapse, which comprise 3 regions: the presynapse, synaptic cleft, and postsynapse. The active zone (AZ) beneath the presynaptic membrane is the principal site for Ca2+ -dependent neurotransmitter release: AZ is involved in determining the site for docking and synaptic vesicle fusion. Presently, the full molecular composition of AZ is unclear, but it is known to contain several AZ-specific proteins, including cytomatrix of the active zone-associated protein (CAST)/ERC2, ELKS, RIM1, Munc13-1, Piccolo/Aczonin, and Bassoon. CAST and ELKS are novel active zone proteins that directly bind to Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs), Bassoon, and Piccolo, and are thought to play a role in neurotransmitter release by binding these to AZ proteins. In this review, current advances in studies on AZ structure and function have been summarized, and the focus is mainly on protein-protein interactions among the AZ proteins.

  17. Reaction zone measurements in detonating aluminized explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubyatinsky, S. N.; Loboiko, B. G.

    1996-05-01

    Detonation reaction zone measurements have been made on five RDX-based explosives (60 μm average particle size RDX), containing 6% polymer binder and from 0 to 19% aluminum of different particle size (from 2 μm to 20 μm). A photoelectric technique was employed to record the radiation intensity history of the shock front propagating through chloroform in contact with the charge face. The record was then translated into the explosive/chloroform interface velocity history. In all cases, the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering detonation wave structure was observed. Aluminum particle size was found to have no appreciable effect on the reaction zone length, which increases from 0.34 mm to 0.58 mm as aluminum content increases from 0 to 19%. Nevertheless, the reaction zone lengths of the studied explosives are less than that of RDX/TNT 50/50 (0.59 mm), which implies relatively high rate of the reaction between aluminum and RDX detonation products.

  18. Unsaturated zone characteristics rating for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terziotti, Silvia; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  19. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    PubMed

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  20. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.