Science.gov

Sample records for 30microl-1 inhibition zone

  1. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  2. Modeling development of inhibition zones in an agar diffusion bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Vaishnavi; Knabel, Stephen J; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2015-09-01

    A two-temperature agar diffusion bioassay is commonly used to quantify the concentration of nisin using Micrococcus luteus as the indicator microorganism. A finite element computational model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was used to predict the radius of the inhibition zone in this diffusion bioassay. The model developed was used to calculate nisin concentration profiles as a function of time and position within the agar. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin against M. luteus was determined experimentally. The critical time (T c) for growth of M. luteus within the agar diffusion bioassay was experimentally determined using incubation studies with nisin. The radius of the inhibition zone was predicted from the computational model as the location where the predicted nisin concentration at T c was equal to MIC. The MIC was experimentally determined to be 0.156 μg mL(-1), and T c was determined to be 7 h. Good agreement (R (2) = 0.984) was obtained between model-predicted and experimentally determined inhibition zone radii.

  3. Sca-1(+) mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit splenic marginal zone B lymphocytes commitment through Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaozhen; Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Hong; An, Ning; Xin, Jiajia; Li, Na; Xu, Jinmei; Yin, Wen; Wu, Zhongliang; Hu, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been characterized as an important component of hematopoietic niche, which are capable of modulating the immune system through interaction with a wide range of immune cells. Marginal zone B cells, one main type of mature B lymphocytes, play a central role in eliciting antibody response against pathogens. However, how MSCs and its subpopulations regulate marginal zone B cells commitment is unknown yet. In this study, we assessed the contribution of Sca-1(+) MSCs on marginal zone B cells commitment. Our results showed that Sca-1(+) MSCs inhibit the commitment of marginal zone B lymphocytes. The inhibition was exerted through lowered Caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, we found marginal zone B lymphocytes in spleen of Caspase-3 knockout mice decreased and Caspase-3 knockout Sca-1(+) MSCs accounted for the MZB lymphocytes decrease. In conclusion, our investigation provided clues about Sca-1(+) MSCs regulation on the commitment of marginal zone B cells through Caspase-3 gene.

  4. Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

    2014-09-01

    Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)‑induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2

  5. Tentative inhibition zone criteria (Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion method) for rifampin against staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Traub, W H; Spohr, M; Bauer, D

    1987-01-01

    Two of 359 (0.6%) clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 12 of 218 (5.5%) clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant or of intermediate susceptibility against rifampin as based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints obtained with the agar dilution method: MIC greater than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml = resistant; MIC 0.25-1 microgram/ml = intermediate susceptible; MIC less than 0.125 microgram/ml = susceptible. The following inhibition zone criteria with 2 micrograms rifampin disks were proposed for staphylococcal isolates utilizing the Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion test: diameter of inhibition zones less than or equal to 13 mm = resistant; diameter 14-21 mm = intermediate susceptible; diameter greater than or equal to 22 mm = susceptible.

  6. Target neurons of floccular middle zone inhibition in medial vestibular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Kanda, K; Kawasaki, T

    1988-04-19

    Unitary activities of 288 neurons were recorded extracellularly in the medial vestibular nucleus (MV) in anesthetized cats. In 19 neurons, located in the rostral part of the MV adjacent to the stria acustica, floccular middle zone stimulation resulted in cessation of spontaneous discharges. Systematic microstimulation in the brainstem during recording of 16 of 19 target neurons of floccular middle zone inhibition revealed that the target neurons projected to the ipsilateral abducens nucleus (ABN), and not to the contralateral ABN nor the oculomotor nucleus. The conjugate ipsilateral horizontal eye movement elicited by middle zone stimulation may be mediated by this pathway to motoneurons and internuclear neurons in the ipsilateral ABN. In additional experiments, the MV neurons responding antidromically to ipsilateral ABN stimulation and orthodromically to ipsilateral 8 nerve stimulation were recorded extracellularly. In only 7 of 36 recorded neurons, middle zone stimulation depressed the orthodromic and spontaneous activities. Many neurons were free of floccular inhibition. As to the route of floccular inhibitory control over the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during visual-vestibular stimulation, we propose that the interaction of target and VOR relay neurons takes place at the ipsilateral ABN and modulates the VOR, in addition to well known Ito's proposal that the interaction of the floccular output and the VOR takes place at secondary vestibular neurons and modulates the VOR.

  7. Phosphodiesterase7 Inhibition Activates Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampus and Subventricular Zone In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Sanz-SanCristobal, Marina; Lopez-Moreno, Jose A; Gil, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) enzyme is one of the enzymes responsible for controlling intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the immune and central nervous system. We have previously shown that inhibitors of this enzyme are potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, we also demonstrated that PDE7 inhibition induces endogenous neuroregenerative processes toward a dopaminergic phenotype. Here, we show that PDE7 inhibition controls stem cell expansion in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the adult rat brain. Neurospheres cultures obtained from SGZ and SVZ of adult rats treated with PDE7 inhibitors presented an increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation compared to control cultures. PDE7 inhibitors treatment of neurospheres cultures also resulted in an increase of the levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, suggesting that their effects were indeed mediated through the activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In addition, adult rats orally treated with S14, a specific inhibitor of PDE7, presented elevated numbers of proliferating progenitor cells, and migrating precursors in the SGZ and the SVZ. Moreover, long-term treatment with this PDE7 inhibitor shows a significant increase in newly generated neurons in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Also a better performance in memory tests was observed in S14 treated rats, suggesting a functional relevance for the S14-induced increase in SGZ neurogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that inhibition of PDE7 directly regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural stem cells, improving spatial learning and memory tasks. Stem Cells 2017;35:458-472.

  8. Fractone-heparan sulfates mediate BMP-7 inhibition of cell proliferation in the adult subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Douet, Vanessa; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Mercier, Frederic

    2012-10-24

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a heparin-binding growth factor that inhibits cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle, the primary neurogenic niche in the adult brain. However, the physiological mechanisms regulating the activity of BMP-7 in the SVZ are unknown. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation through the anterior SVZ after intracerebroventricular injection in the adult mouse. To determine whether the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by BMP-7 is dependant on heparin-binding, heparitinase-1 was intracerebroventricularly injected to N-desulfate heparan sulfate proteoglycans before BMP-7 was injected. Heparatinase-1 drastically reduced the inhibitory effect of BMP-7 on cell proliferation in the SVZ. To determine where BMP-7 binds within the niche, we visualized biotinylated-BMP-7 after intracerebroventricular injection, using streptavidin Texas red on frozen brain sections. BMP-7 binding was seen as puncta in the SVZ at the location of fractones, the particulate specialized extracellular matrix of the SVZ, which have been identified primarily by N-sulfated heparan sulfate immunoreactivity (NS-HS+). BMP binding was also seen in NS-HS+ blood vessels of the SVZ. Injection of heparitinase-1 prior to biotinylated BMP-7 resulted in the absence of signal for biotinylated-BMP-7 in the fractones and blood vessels, indicating that the binding is heparan sulfate dependant. These results indicate that BMP-7 requires heparan sulfates to bind and inhibit cell proliferation in the SVZ neurogenic niche. Heparan sulfates concentrated in fractones and SVZ blood vessels emerge as a functional stem cell niche component involved in growth factor activity.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of inhibition zone diameters of bovine mastitis pathogens in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Supré, K; Lommelen, K; De Meulemeester, L

    2014-07-16

    In dairy farms, antimicrobial drugs are frequently used for treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis. Determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens is needed to come to a correct use of antimicrobials. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n=768), Streptococcus uberis (n=939), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=444), Escherichia coli (n=563), and Klebsiella species (n=59) originating from routine milk samples from (sub)clinical mastitis were subjected to the disk diffusion method. Disks contained representatives of frequently used antibiotics in dairy. A limited number of clinical breakpoints were available through CLSI, and showed that susceptibility of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella was moderate to high. For streptococcal species however, a large variation between the tested species and the different antimicrobials was observed. In a next step, wild type populations were described based on epidemiological cut off values (EUCAST). Because of the limited number of official cut off values, the data were observed as a mastitis subpopulation and self-generated cut off values were created and a putative wild type population was suggested. The need for accurate clinical breakpoints for veterinary pathogens is high. Despite the lack of these breakpoints, however, a population study can be performed based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters on the condition that a large number of strains is tested.

  10. Inhibition of phosphate-induced apoptosis in resting zone chondrocytes by thrombin peptide 508.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming; Carney, Darrell H; Ryaby, James T; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2009-01-01

    Growth plate chondrocytes are susceptible to apoptosis. Terminally differentiated chondrocytes are deleted via apoptosis, which primes the growth plate to vascular invasion and subsequent bone formation. Whether less differentiated resting zone chondrocytes are subject to the same mechanism that governs the apoptotic pathway of more differentiated growth zone chondrocytes is not known. In our current study, we demonstrated that inorganic phosphate, a key inducer of growth plate chondrocyte apoptosis, also causes apoptosis in resting zone chondrocytes, via a pathway similar to the one in growth zone chondrocytes. Our results demonstrated that the conditions that cause growth plate chondrocyte apoptosis lie in the external environment, instead of the differences in differentiation state.

  11. Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis enhances both subventricular zone neurogenesis and olfactory learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Romero-Grimaldi, Carmen; Gheusi, Gilles; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Estrada, Carmen

    2006-11-01

    The ability to generate new neurons during the course of adult life is preserved in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the mammalian brain. These two regions constitute specifically regulated neurogenic niches, and provide newborn neurons involved in olfactory and spatial learning, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) is a negative regulator of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, whereas its role in the dentate gyrus remains controversial. Using systemic administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors to chronically inhibit NO production, we increased neural precursor proliferation in the subventricular zone as well as neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb, without modifying the number of mitotic cells or the granular cell layer thickness in the dentate gyrus. The same treatment specifically improved olfactory learning performance, whereas spatial learning and memory was unchanged, thus demonstrating that olfactory memory is closely associated with the level of ongoing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb. The anatomical specificity of the NOS inhibitor actions was not due to differences in the availability of NO, as demonstrated by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal NOS and S-nitrosylated proteins in both regions. Remarkably, the distinct NO sensitivity might result from a differential expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in precursor cells in both regions, as the proliferative effect of NOS inhibitors in the subventricular zone was restricted to the cells that expressed this receptor.

  12. Methods of measuring zones of inhibition with the Bauer-Kirby disk susceptibility test.

    PubMed

    Barry, A L; Coyle, M B; Thornsberry, C; Gerlach, E H; Hawkinson, R W

    1979-12-01

    Standard Bauer-Kirby disk tests were performed with 85 selected isolates, each tested in triplicate by four different investigators. Each disk test was observed, and zone diameters were measured, under two lighting conditions (transmitted light and reflected light). The two lighting systems produced similar zone measurements (+/-2 mm) with 96% of the tests. When there were greater differences, zones appeared to be larger when observed with reflected light. Interlaboratory reproducibility was much greater when using reflected light rather than transmitted light. We concluded that zone diameters should be measured from the back of the plate while it is resting on, or held 2 to 3 inches [ca. 5.1 to 7.6 cm] above, a black, nonreflecting, flat surface, illuminated by a reflected light source.

  13. Evaluation of the mastascanelite image analysis system for measuring zones of inhibition in disc diffusion susceptibility tests.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R E H; Winstanley, T G; Ridgway, E J

    2003-01-01

    In this evaluation a mastascanelite image analysis system is compared with manual measurement of disc diffusion inhibition zones. Data for 213 diverse organisms and a total of 1679 organism/antibiotic combinations gave an overall correlation coefficient of 0.988. The mean difference between readings was +0.425 mm, with 95% confidence limits of +/-2.94 mm, and the majority of scanned zones (97.51%) fell within +/-3 mm of the manual measurement. The mastascanelite system forms part of a laboratory suite and was found to be objective, accurate and rapid, reading and interpreting each plate in less than a second. Interfacing to the laboratory computer system facilitated data handling and performance control.

  14. The enzymatic activities of the Escherichia coli basic aliphatic amino acid decarboxylases exhibit a pH zone of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kanjee, Usheer; Gutsche, Irina; Ramachandran, Shaliny; Houry, Walid A

    2011-11-01

    The stringent response regulator ppGpp has recently been shown by our group to inhibit the Escherichia coli inducible lysine decarboxylase, LdcI. As a follow-up to this observation, we examined the mechanisms that regulate the activities of the other four E. coli enzymes paralogous to LdcI: the constitutive lysine decarboxylase LdcC, the inducible arginine decarboxylase AdiA, the inducible ornithine decarboxylase SpeF, and the constitutive ornithine decarboxylase SpeC. LdcC and SpeC are involved in cellular polyamine biosynthesis, while LdcI, AdiA, and SpeF are involved in the acid stress response. Multiple mechanisms of regulation were found for these enzymes. In addition to LdcI, LdcC and SpeC were found to be inhibited by ppGpp; AdiA activity was found to be regulated by changes in oligomerization, while SpeF and SpeC activities were regulated by GTP. These findings indicate the presence of multiple mechanisms regulating the activity of this important family of decarboxylases. When the enzyme inhibition profiles are analyzed in parallel, a "zone of inhibition" between pH 6 and pH 8 is observed. Hence, the data suggest that E. coli utilizes multiple mechanisms to ensure that these decarboxylases remain inactive around neutral pH possibly to reduce the consumption of amino acids at this pH.

  15. Radial Glia Inhibit Peripheral Glial Infiltration into the Spinal Cord at Motor Exit Point Transition Zones

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cody J.; Johnson, Kimberly; Welsh, Taylor G.; Barresi, Michael J. F.; Kucenas, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In the mature vertebrate nervous system, central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS, respectively) GLIA myelinate distinct motor axon domains at the motor exit point transition zone (MEP TZ). How these cells preferentially associate with and myelinate discrete, non-overlapping CNS versus PNS axonal segments, is unknown. Using in vivo imaging and genetic cell ablation in zebrafish, we demonstrate that radial glia restrict migration of PNS glia into the spinal cord during development. Prior to development of radial glial endfeet, peripheral cells freely migrate back and forth across the MEP TZ. However, upon maturation, peripherally located cells never enter the CNS. When we ablate radial glia, peripheral glia ectopically migrate into the spinal cord during developmental stages when they would normally be restricted. These findings demonstrate that radial glia contribute to both CNS and PNS development and control the unidirectional movement of glial cell types across the MEP TZ early in development. PMID:27029762

  16. Morphologic and functional effects of gamma secretase inhibition on splenic marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    de Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Regenass-Lechner, Franziska; Ozmen, Laurence; Altmann, Bernd; Festag, Matthias; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz; Jacobsen, Helmut; Flohr, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The γ-secretase complex is a promising target in Alzheimer's disease because of its role in the amyloidogenic processing of β-amyloid precursor protein. This enzyme also catalyzes the cleavage of Notch receptor, resulting in the nuclear translocation of intracellular Notch where it modulates gene transcription. Notch signaling is essential in cell fate decisions during embryogenesis, neuronal differentiation, hematopoiesis, and development of T and B cells, including splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This B cell compartment participates in the early phases of the immune response to blood-borne bacteria and viruses. Chronic treatment with the oral γ-secretase inhibitor RO4929097 resulted in dose-dependent decreased cellularity (atrophy) of the MZ of rats and mice. Significant decreases in relative MZ B-cell numbers of RO4929097-treated animals were confirmed by flow cytometry. Numbers of MZ B cells reverted to normal after a sufficient RO4929097-free recovery period. Functional characterization of the immune response in relation to RO4929097-related MZ B cell decrease was assessed in mice vaccinated with inactivated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Compared with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, RO4929097 caused only mild and reversible delayed early neutralizing IgM and IgG responses to VSV. Thus, the functional consequence of MZ B cell decrease on host defense is comparatively mild.

  17. Josamycin: interpretation of inhibition zones with the Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion test as compared with erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Karthein, J; Spohr, M; Traub, W H

    1986-01-01

    A total of 432 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (128), coagulase-negative staphylococci (123), group A and B beta-hemolytic streptococci (61), group D streptococci (30), Streptococcus penumoniae (29), Haemophilus influenzae (19), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (12), and Legionella pneumophila (30) were examined with the agar dilution and Bauer-Kirby agar disk diffusion tests for susceptibility to josamycin as compared with erythromycin. On a weight-for-weight basis, erythromycin was more active than josamycin against all bacterial species, including L. pneumophila. Josamycin inhibited 18 of 23 S. aureus and 11 of 16 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains resistant to erythromycin. Utilizing minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) breakpoints of less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml (sensitive), 4 microgram/ml (intermediate) and of greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml (resistant), and inhibition zone criteria of greater than or equal to 18 mm diameter (sensitive), 14-17 mm (intermediate), and less than or equal to 13 mm (resistant), and excluding L. pneumophila, there was good correlation between erythromycin MIC and corresponding disk diffusion data for staphylococci and streptococci, but not for Haemophilus species. In comparison, josamycin yielded a significant number of minor discrepant data for group D streptococci and Haemophilus species. It is suggested that erythromycin and josamycin should not be tested against Haemophilus species, and that josamycin should be excluded from test batteries against enterococci. Erythromycin-resistant staphylococci require separate testing with josamycin.

  18. MicroRNA-7 Enhances Subventricular Zone Neurogenesis by Inhibiting NLRP3/Caspase-1 Axis in Adult Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zheng; Lu, Ming; Qiao, Chen; Zhou, Yan; Ding, Jian-Hua; Hu, Gang

    2016-12-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) has been recognized to induce neuroinflammation and to disturb nerve repair process in Parkinson's disease. However, the potential mechanisms underlying α-syn-induced impairment of adult neurogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, A53T mutant α--synuclein transgenic (A53T(tg/tg)) mice, caspase-1 knockout mice, and A53T(tg/tg);caspase-1(-/-) double transgenic mice were used to prepare adult neural stem cells (ANSCs) and to investigate inflammasome-related mechanism for α-syn-impaired neurogenesis in mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). We showed that α-syn inhibited neurogenesis in the SVZ of A53T(tg/tg) mice and impaired proliferation and differentiation in ANSCs cultured in vitro, accompanied by reduced microRNA-7 (miR-7) expression levels. We further found that ANSC expressed NLRP3-containing inflammasome and α-syn activated both TLR4/NF-κB and NLRP3/caspase-1 signals in ANSCs. Either Nlrp3 knockdown or Caspase-1 knockout could attenuate the inhibition of proliferation in ANSCs induced by α-syn. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-7 post-transcriptionally controlled Nlrp3 expression besides targeting α-syn. Most notably, stereotactic injection of miR-7 mimics into lateral ventricles significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and improved adult neurogenesis in mouse SVZ. Our study provides a direct link between NLRP3 inflammasome activation and α-syn-impaired neurogenesis in the pathogenesis of α-synucleinopathies.

  19. 17beta-estradiol attenuates programmed cell death in cortical pericontusional zone following traumatic brain injury via upregulation of ERalpha and inhibition of caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Zhuo; Bao, Yi-Jun; Zhao, Min

    2011-01-01

    Pericontusional zone (PCZ) of traumatic cerebral contusion is a target of pharmacological intervention. It is well studied that 17beta-estradiol has a protective role in ischemic brain injury, but its role in brain protection of traumatic brain damage deserves further investigation, especially in pericontusional zone. Here we show that 17beta-estradiol enhances the protein expression and mRNA induction of estrogen alpha receptor (ERalpha) and prevents from programmed cell death in cortical pericontusional zone. ERalpha specific antagonist blocks this protective effect of 17beta-estradiol. Caspase-3 activation occurs in cortical pericontusional zone of the oil-treated injured rat brain and its activation is inhibited by 17beta-estradiol treatment. Additionally, ERalpha specific antagonist reverses this inhibition. Pan-caspase inhibitor also protect cortical pericontusional zone from programmed cell death. Our present study indicates 17beta-estradiol protects from programmed cell death in cortical pericontusional zone via enhancement of ERalpha and decrease of caspase-3 activation.

  20. A Mycobacterium marinum zone of inhibition assay as a method for screening potential antimycobacterial compounds from marine extracts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Lucia P; Lien, Benjamin A; Brun, Olivier S; Schaak, Damen D; McDonough, Kathleen A; Chang, Leng Chee

    2007-06-01

    A novel screening method for antimycobacterial agents using Mycobacterium marinum was developed. M. marinum was selected as a model organism because it has a close phylogenetic relationship to M. tuberculosis, a relatively rapid doubling time, similar drug susceptibilities to M. tuberculosis, and less stringent safety requirements. More than 1000 crude marine and plant extracts were screened against M. marinum in a Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) assay, and twenty-one target extracts were identified. The crude organic extract of the marine sponge, Haliclona sp.10, was chosen for further investigation as it yielded a ZOI of 20 mm at a concentration of 80 microg/disk. Following bioassay-guided fractionation, (-)-papuamine was isolated, and yielded a 15 mm ZOI at a concentration of 25 microg/disk. In standard assays using M. marinum, (-)-papuamine exhibited both an MIC and an MBC95 of 6.25 microg/mL. This is the first report of antimycobacterial activity for (-)-papuamine. In addition, when (-)-papuamine and other natural product extracts were tested for activity against both M. marinum and M. tuberculosis, activity was comparable between the two species. These data indicate that (-)-papuamine is a promising lead for the development of new antimycobacterial agents and that M. marinum is a useful surrogate for the screening of antimycobacterial compounds.

  1. Inhibition of chlamydiae by primary alcohols correlates with the strain-specific complement of plasticity zone phospholipase D genes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Crane, Deborah D; Taylor, Lacey D; Dorward, David W; Goheen, Morgan M; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2006-01-01

    Members of the genus Chlamydia are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a unique biphasic developmental cycle and interactions with host cells. Many genes that dictate host infection tropism and, putatively, pathogenic manifestations of disease are clustered in a hypervariable region of the genome termed the plasticity zone (PZ). Comparative genomics studies have determined that an uncharacterized family of PZ genes encoding orthologs of eukaryotic and prokaryotic members of the phospholipase D (PLD) enzyme family varies among chlamydiae. Here, we show that the PZ PLD (pzPLD) of Chlamydia trachomatis are transcribed during both normal and persistent infection and that the corresponding PLD proteins are predominantly localized in reticulate bodies on the inner leaflet of the inclusion membrane. Further, we show that strains of chlamydiae encoding the pzPLD, but not a strain lacking these genes, are inhibited by primary alcohols, potent PLD inhibitors, during growth in HeLa 229 cells. This inhibitory effect is amplified approximately 5,000-fold during recovery from persistent infection. These findings suggest that the chlamydial pzPLD may be important, strain-specific, pathogenesis factors in vivo.

  2. Contact-mediated inhibition between oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and motor exit point glia establishes the spinal cord transition zone.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cody J; Morris, Angela D; Welsh, Taylor G; Kucenas, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Rapid conduction of action potentials along motor axons requires that oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells myelinate distinct central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS) domains along the same axon. Despite the importance of this arrangement for nervous system function, the mechanisms that establish and maintain this precise glial segregation at the motor exit point (MEP) transition zone are unknown. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging in zebrafish, we observed that prior to myelination, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) extend processes into the periphery via the MEP and immediately upon contact with spinal motor root glia retract back into the spinal cord. Characterization of the peripheral cell responsible for repelling OPC processes revealed that it was a novel, CNS-derived population of glia we propose calling MEP glia. Ablation of MEP glia resulted in the absence of myelinating glia along spinal motor root axons and an immediate breach of the MEP by OPCs. Taken together, our results identify a novel population of CNS-derived peripheral glia located at the MEP that selectively restrict the migration of OPCs into the periphery via contact-mediated inhibition.

  3. Smad6 promotes neuronal differentiation in the intermediate zone of the dorsal neural tube by inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihui; Chen, Yongfeng; Li, Zhenfei; Bai, Ge; Zhu, Yue; Yan, Rui; Tan, Fangzhi; Chen, Ye-Guang; Guillemot, Francois; Li, Lin; Jing, Naihe

    2011-07-19

    Proliferation of the neural/neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) at the ventricular zone of the dorsal spinal cord requires the stimuli of Wnt and bone morphogenic protein (BMP). However, how these two signaling pathways are regulated to initiate differentiation in the NPCs as they enter the intermediate zone is not known. Here, we show that Smad6, a negative regulator of BMP signaling, is expressed in the intermediate zone of the chick dorsal spinal cord. Knockdown experiments show that Smad6 is required for promoting NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate into neurons. Although we find that Smad6 inhibits BMP signaling, as expected, we also find that Smad6 unexpectedly inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by Smad6 is independent of its effect on the BMP pathway. Rather, Smad6 through its N-terminal domain and link region enhances the interaction of C-terminal binding protein with the β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) complex and the TCF-binding element to inhibit β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation. Our study provides evidence that transition of NPCs from a proliferative state to a differentiating state is controlled by the dual inhibitory role of Smad6 to both BMP and Wnt signaling at the level of transcription.

  4. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  5. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  6. Afferent inhibition and the functional properties of neurons in the projection zone of the whiskers in the somatosensory cortex of the cat.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of afferent evoked inhibition on the functional properties of neurons in the whisker projection zone were studied in the cat brain. These investigations showed that afferent inhibition produced significant changes in the receptive fields of neurons, resulting in the induction of directional sensitivity. These data provide evidence for a defined topical ordering of intracortical inhibitory interactions. It is suggested that in natural conditions, movement of an object across the whisker field, resulting in sequential stimulation of the whiskers, results in sequential tuning of the detector properties of neurons receiving afferent flows from the whiskers. This process may form part of the mechanism for recognizing the direction of stimulus movement.

  7. Stromal Fibroblasts from the Interface Zone of Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and its Inhibition by Emodin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Chi; Liu, Liang-Chih; Wang, Hao-Yu; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2017-01-01

    "Triple negative breast cancer" (TNBC) is associated with a higher rate and earlier time of recurrence and worse prognosis after recurrence. In this study, we aimed to examine the crosstalk between fibroblasts and TNBC cells. The fibroblasts were isolated from TNBC patients' tissue in tumor burden zones, distal normal zones and interface zones. The fibroblasts were indicated as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), normal zone fibroblasts (NFs) and interface zone fibroblasts (INFs). Our study found that INFs grew significantly faster than NFs and CAFs in vitro. The epithelial BT20 cells cultured with the conditioned medium of INFs (INFs-CM) and CAFs (CAFs-CM) showed more spindle-like shape and cell scattering than cultured with the conditioned medium of NFs (NFs-CM). These results indicated that factors secreted by INFs-CM or CAFs-CM could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in BT20 cells. Using an in vitro co-culture model, INFs or CAFs induced EMT and promoted cancer cell migration in BT20 cells. Interestingly, we found that emodin inhibited INFs-CM or CAFs-CM-induced EMT programming and phenotype in BT20 cells. Previous studies reported that CAFs and INFs-secreted TGF-β promoted human breast cancer cell proliferation, here; our results indicated that TGF-β initiated EMT in BT20 cells. Pretreatment with emodin significantly suppressed the TGF-β-induced EMT and cell migration in BT20 cells. These results suggest that emodin may be used as a novel agent for the treatment of TNBC.

  8. Stromal Fibroblasts from the Interface Zone of Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and its Inhibition by Emodin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao-Yu; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2017-01-01

    “Triple negative breast cancer” (TNBC) is associated with a higher rate and earlier time of recurrence and worse prognosis after recurrence. In this study, we aimed to examine the crosstalk between fibroblasts and TNBC cells. The fibroblasts were isolated from TNBC patients’ tissue in tumor burden zones, distal normal zones and interface zones. The fibroblasts were indicated as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), normal zone fibroblasts (NFs) and interface zone fibroblasts (INFs). Our study found that INFs grew significantly faster than NFs and CAFs in vitro. The epithelial BT20 cells cultured with the conditioned medium of INFs (INFs-CM) and CAFs (CAFs-CM) showed more spindle-like shape and cell scattering than cultured with the conditioned medium of NFs (NFs-CM). These results indicated that factors secreted by INFs-CM or CAFs-CM could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in BT20 cells. Using an in vitro co-culture model, INFs or CAFs induced EMT and promoted cancer cell migration in BT20 cells. Interestingly, we found that emodin inhibited INFs-CM or CAFs-CM-induced EMT programming and phenotype in BT20 cells. Previous studies reported that CAFs and INFs-secreted TGF-β promoted human breast cancer cell proliferation, here; our results indicated that TGF-β initiated EMT in BT20 cells. Pretreatment with emodin significantly suppressed the TGF-β-induced EMT and cell migration in BT20 cells. These results suggest that emodin may be used as a novel agent for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:28060811

  9. [Distribution of Luliconazole in Nail Plate by In Vitro Permeation and Efficacy by Zone of Inhibition Test after Treatment of Luliconazole Nail Solution].

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Miyamae, Akiko; Arai, Masakazu; Minemura, Aya; Nozawa, Akira; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the character of luliconazole nail solution we have developed, we investigated luliconazole distribution and antifungal activity in nail plate. An in vitro permeation study which measured luliconazole concentration of sliced nail in the transverse direction after treatment of luliconazole nail solution was conducted to investigate for concentration dependency and the influences of nail thickness and treatment duration. When 0.2, 1, 3, 5, and 7.5% luliconazole nail solutions were used, luliconazole was detected in the all the layers of nail and there was a concentration gradient from the dorsal side to deep nail layers. The luliconazole concentration was almost same after 14-day treatment with 5% luliconazole nail solution when using nails of different thicknesses. And we confirmed that concentration of luliconazole into the nail was increased depending on the treatment duration. In zone of inhibition test after 14-day treatment, 5% luliconazole nail solution showed statistically high formation rate of zones of inhibition compared to 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Above all, these data suggested that 5% luliconazole nail solution has the potential to show high therapeutic effect for onychomycosis.

  10. Adenosine A1 receptors mediate inhibition of cAMP formation in vitro in the pontine, REM sleep induction zone.

    PubMed

    Marks, Gerald A; Birabil, Christian G; Speciale, Samuel G

    2005-11-09

    Microinjection of adenosine A1 receptor agonist or an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase into the caudal, oral pontine reticular formation (PnOc) of the rat induces a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Here, we report significant inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP in dissected pontine tissue slices containing the PnOc incubated with the A1 receptor agonist, cyclohexaladenosine (10(-8) M). These data are consistent with adenosine A1 receptor agonist actions on REM sleep mediated through inhibition of cAMP.

  11. [Mechanisms of inhibition of the contractile activity in the ileo-caecal zone in rabbits under psychogenic stress].

    PubMed

    Berezina, T P; Ovsiannikov, V I

    2005-08-01

    In experiments on unanaesthetized rabbits, myoelectric activity (contractile activity index) of distal ileum, caecum, and proximal colon in two sites was studied under stress induced by fastening a rabbit to the table in supine position. The stress caused sharp decrease (up to complete disappearance) of the contractile activity in all studied compartments of the ileocaecal intestine with partial or complete restoration after release of the animal. Nonselective blockade of pre- and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor with dihydroergotoxin abolished the initial component of the specified inhibitory response. The latter was caused by "adrenergic inhibition" as a result of action of catecholamines circulating in blood on inhibitory smooth muscle alpha-adrenoceptor. Against the background of muscarinic cholinoceptor blockade, the stressor inhibition of ileocaecal contractile activity observed in control experiments was completely preserved. The periods of supression of ileoceacal contractile activity under stress resistant to blockade of alpha-, beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic cholinoceptor, are caused by the mechanism of "nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibition", which is realized at the expence of activation of the enteric inhibitory neurones.

  12. Adjacent positioning of cellular structures enabled by a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein-mediated zone of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zongtian; Gao, Xiang-Dong; Howell, Audrey S; Bose, Indrani; Lew, Daniel J; Bi, Erfei

    2007-12-31

    Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are born carrying localized transmembrane landmark proteins that guide the subsequent establishment of a polarity axis and hence polarized growth to form a bud in the next cell cycle. In haploid cells, the relevant landmark proteins are concentrated at the site of the preceding cell division, to which they recruit Cdc24, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the conserved polarity regulator Cdc42. However, instead of polarizing at the division site, the new polarity axis is directed next to but not overlapping that site. Here, we show that the Cdc42 guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP) Rga1 establishes an exclusion zone at the division site that blocks subsequent polarization within that site. In the absence of localized Rga1 GAP activity, new buds do in fact form within the old division site. Thus, Cdc42 activators and GAPs establish concentric zones of action such that polarization is directed to occur adjacent to but not within the previous cell division site.

  13. Nitric oxide decreases subventricular zone stem cell proliferation by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Torroglosa, Ana; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; Romero-Grimaldi, Carmen; Matarredona, Esperanza R; Campos-Caro, Antonio; Estrada, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits proliferation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neural precursor cells in adult mice in vivo under physiological conditions. The mechanisms underlying this NO effect have now been investigated using SVZ-derived neural stem cells, which generate neurospheres in vitro when stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). In these cultures, NO donors decreased the number of newly formed neurospheres as well as their size, which indicates that NO was acting on the neurosphere-forming neural stem cells and the daughter neural progenitors. The effect of NO was cytostatic, not proapoptotic, and did not involve cGMP synthesis. Neurosphere cells expressed the neuronal and endothelial isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) and produced NO in culture. Inhibition of NOS activity by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) promoted neurosphere formation and growth, thus revealing an autocrine/paracrine action of NO on the neural precursor cells. Both exogenous and endogenous NO impaired the EGF-induced activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and prevented the EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in neurosphere cells. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly reduced the number of newly formed neurospheres, which indicates that this is an essential pathway for neural stem cell self-renewal. Chronic administration of l-NAME to adult mice enhanced phospho-Akt staining in the SVZ and reduced nuclear p27(Kip1) in the SVZ and olfactory bulb. The inhibition of EGFR and PI3-K pathway by NO explains, at least in part, its antimitotic effect on neurosphere cells and may be a mechanism involved in the physiological role of NO as a negative regulator of SVZ neurogenesis in adult mice.

  14. TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex transition zone mediates the aluminum-induced inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Geng, Xiaoyu; He, Chunmei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Rong; Horst, Walter J; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-07-01

    The transition zone (TZ) of the root apex is the perception site of Al toxicity. Here, we show that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to Al induces a localized enhancement of auxin signaling in the root-apex TZ that is dependent on TAA1, which encodes a Trp aminotransferase and regulates auxin biosynthesis. TAA1 is specifically upregulated in the root-apex TZ in response to Al treatment, thus mediating local auxin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress is dependent on ethylene, as revealed by manipulating ethylene homeostasis via the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminoethoxyvinylglycine, or mutant analysis. In response to Al stress, ethylene signaling locally upregulates TAA1 expression and thus auxin responses in the TZ and results in auxin-regulated root growth inhibition through a number of auxin response factors (ARFs). In particular, ARF10 and ARF16 are important in the regulation of cell wall modification-related genes. Our study suggests a mechanism underlying how environmental cues affect root growth plasticity through influencing local auxin biosynthesis and signaling.

  15. Exclusion of mRNPs and ribosomal particles from a thin zone beneath the nuclear envelope revealed upon inhibition of transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kylberg, Karin; Bjoerk, Petra; Fomproix, Nathalie; Ivarsson, Birgitta; Wieslander, Lars; Daneholt, Bertil

    2010-04-01

    We have studied the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific messenger RNP (mRNP) particle, named Balbiani ring (BR) granule, and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) particles in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans. The passage of the RNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) was inhibited with the nucleoporin-binding wheat germ agglutinin, and the effects were examined by electron microscopy. BR mRNPs bound to the nuclear basket increased in number, while BR mRNPs translocating through the central channel decreased, suggesting that the initiation of translocation proper had been inhibited. The rRNPs accumulated heavily in nucleoplasm, while no or very few rRNPs were recorded within nuclear baskets. Thus, the transport of rRNPs had been blocked prior to the entry into the baskets. Remarkably, the rRNPs had been excluded both from baskets and the space in between the baskets. We propose that normally basket fibrils move freely and repel RNPs from the exclusion zone unless the particles have affinity for and bind to nucleoporins within the baskets.

  16. Exclusion of mRNPs and ribosomal particles from a thin zone beneath the nuclear envelope revealed upon inhibition of transport.

    PubMed

    Kylberg, Karin; Björk, Petra; Fomproix, Nathalie; Ivarsson, Birgitta; Wieslander, Lars; Daneholt, Bertil

    2010-04-01

    We have studied the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific messenger RNP (mRNP) particle, named Balbiani ring (BR) granule, and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) particles in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans. The passage of the RNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) was inhibited with the nucleoporin-binding wheat germ agglutinin, and the effects were examined by electron microscopy. BR mRNPs bound to the nuclear basket increased in number, while BR mRNPs translocating through the central channel decreased, suggesting that the initiation of translocation proper had been inhibited. The rRNPs accumulated heavily in nucleoplasm, while no or very few rRNPs were recorded within nuclear baskets. Thus, the transport of rRNPs had been blocked prior to the entry into the baskets. Remarkably, the rRNPs had been excluded both from baskets and the space in between the baskets. We propose that normally basket fibrils move freely and repel RNPs from the exclusion zone unless the particles have affinity for and bind to nucleoporins within the baskets.

  17. Exploring the sensitivity of the zone of inhibition test for leachable biocides from paper and board food contact materials, and improvements thereof.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Kelly, J; Jickells, S M; Johns, S M; Mountfort, K A

    2012-01-01

    The zone of inhibition method to test the release of biocides from paper and board food contact materials was evaluated. The method tests the paper by placing a small specimen directly onto culture plates of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The principle is that any extractable biocide will diffuse from the paper into the surrounding nutrient medium and so inhibit growth of the microorganism in the vicinity. The test was found to have insufficient sensitivity for assuring food safety, where detection limits for migration at or below the mg l(-1) (parts per million) level are needed. Also, the test does not mimic the actual or foreseeable conditions of use since most paper/board materials are not intended for direct contact with an aqueous medium for up to 3 days at 30°C (B. subtilis) or 25°C (A. niger), which are the incubation conditions used. The sensitivity of the test was increased approximately 100-fold by preparing a concentrated extract of the paper to be tested and applying this extract to the assay via a blank paper carrier. This was done using methanol as a good solvent for most biocides, as a proof of principle. Other solvents or food simulants could be used to mimic the conditions of use intended for the particular paper/board samples under examination, e.g. contact with dry, fatty, aqueous or acidic foods, hot or cold. Twenty-four plain (unconverted) paper and board samples and 100 food packaging samples were evaluated using the modified procedure. The results revealed that the method has been developed to the stage where background cytotoxic action of normal paper constituents gives a weak response. Unlike the original method, therefore, the modified method with its improved sensitivity and the facility to link with the intended food contact conditions may be considered a suitable bioassay screening test to complement chemical analysis of paper/board for composition and migration.

  18. Inhibition of the histone demethylase Kdm5b promotes neurogenesis and derepresses Reln (reelin) in neural stem cells from the adult subventricular zone of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiong; Obana, Edwin A; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Sukumar, Gauthaman; Wynder, Christopher; Dalgard, Clifton L; Doughty, Martin L

    2016-02-15

    The role of epigenetic regulators in the control of adult neurogenesis is largely undefined. We show that the histone demethylase enzyme Kdm5b (Jarid1b) negatively regulates neurogenesis from adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells (NSCs) in culture. shRNA-mediated depletion of Kdm5b in proliferating adult NSCs decreased proliferation rates and reduced neurosphere formation in culture. When transferred to differentiation culture conditions, Kdm5b-depleted adult NSCs migrated from neurospheres with increased velocity. Whole-genome expression screening revealed widespread transcriptional changes with Kdm5b depletion, notably the up-regulation of reelin (Reln), the inhibition of steroid biosynthetic pathway component genes and the activation of genes with intracellular transport functions in cultured adult NSCs. Kdm5b depletion increased extracellular reelin concentration in the culture medium and increased phosphorylation of the downstream reelin signaling target Disabled-1 (Dab1). Sequestration of extracellular reelin with CR-50 reelin-blocking antibodies suppressed the increase in migratory velocity of Kdm5b-depleted adult NSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Kdm5b is present at the proximal promoter of Reln, and H3K4me3 methylation was increased at this locus with Kdm5b depletion in differentiating adult NSCs. Combined the data suggest Kdm5b negatively regulates neurogenesis and represses Reln in neural stem cells from the adult SVZ.

  19. Light inhibits gravity-regulated peg formation and asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible CsIAA1 in the cortex of the transition zone in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Saito, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    When cucumber seedlings are grown horizontally, a specialized protuberance, termed the peg, develops on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Gravimorphogenesis regulates the lateral positioning of the peg in the transition zone and it has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in peg formation in cucumber seedlings. Here, we found that light inhibited auxin-regulated peg formation. In the transition zone of horizontally positioned cucumber seedlings grown in the dark, we detected an asymmetric accumulation of mRNA from the auxin-inducible gene CsIAA1 in the epidermis and cortex. However, in seedlings grown under illumination, this asymmetry was greatly reduced. In dark- and light-grown seedlings, application of 10 -3 M indole-3-acetic acid induced peg formation on both the lower and upper sides of the transition zone. These results suggest that light inhibits peg formation via modification of auxin distribution and/or levels in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  20. P2X7 Receptor Inhibition Increases CNTF in the Subventricular Zone, But Not Neurogenesis or Neuroprotection After Stroke in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong Su; Keasey, Matthew Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Increasing endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression with a pharmacological agent might be beneficial after stroke as CNTF both promotes neurogenesis and, separately, is neuroprotective. P2X7 purinergic receptor inhibition is neuroprotective in rats and increases CNTF release in rat CMT1A Schwann cells. We, first, investigated the role of P2X7 in regulating CNTF and neurogenesis in adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). CNTF expression was increased by daily intravenous injections of the P2X7 antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in naïve C57BL/6 or Balb/c mice over 3 days. Despite the ∼40–60 % increase or decrease in CNTF with BBG or the agonist BzATP, respectively, the number of proliferated BrdU+SVZ nuclei did not change. BBG failed to increase FGF2, which is involved in CNTF-regulated neurogenesis, but induced IL-6, LIF, and EGF, which are known to reduce SVZ proliferation. Injections of IL-6 next to the SVZ induced CNTF and FGF2, but not proliferation, suggesting that IL-6 counteracts their neurogenesis-inducing effects. Following ischemic injury of the striatum by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), a 3-day BBG treatment increased CNTF in the medial penumbra containing the SVZ. BBG also induced CNTF and LIF, which are known to be protective following stroke, in the whole striatum after MCAO, but not GDNF or BDNF. However, BBG treatment did not reduce the lesion area or apoptosis in the penumbra. Even so, this study shows that P2X7 can be targeted with systemic drug treatments to differentially regulate neurotrophic factors in the brain following stroke. PMID:24312160

  1. Time course of morphine's effects on adult hippocampal subgranular zone reveals preferential inhibition of cells in S phase of the cell cycle and a subpopulation of immature neurons.

    PubMed

    Arguello, A A; Harburg, G C; Schonborn, J R; Mandyam, C D; Yamaguchi, M; Eisch, A J

    2008-11-11

    Opiates, such as morphine, decrease neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ), raising the possibility that decreased neurogenesis contributes to opiate-induced cognitive deficits. However, there is an incomplete understanding of how alterations in cell cycle progression and progenitor maturation contribute to this decrease. The present study examined how morphine regulates progenitor cell cycle, cell death and immature SGZ neurons (experiment 1) as well as the progression of SGZ progenitors through key stages of maturation (experiment 2). In experiment 1, mice received sham or morphine pellets (s.c., 0 and 48 h) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 2 h prior to sacrifice (24, 72 or 96 h). Morphine decreased both the number of S phase and total cycling cells, as there were fewer cells immunoreactive (IR) for the S phase marker BrdU and the cell cycle marker Ki67. The percentage of Ki67-IR cells that were BrdU-IR was decreased after 24 but not 96 h of morphine, suggesting a disproportionate effect on S phase cells relative to all cycling cells at this time point. Cell death (activated caspase-3 counts) was increased after 24 but not 96 h. In experiment 2, nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice given BrdU 1 day prior to morphine or sham surgery (0 and 48 h, sacrifice 96 h) had fewer Ki67-IR cells, but no change in BrdU-IR cell number, suggesting that this population of BrdU-IR cells was less sensitive to morphine. Interestingly, examination of key stages of progenitor cell maturation revealed that morphine increased the percent of BrdU-IR cells that were type 2b and decreased the percent that were immature neurons. These data suggest that chronic morphine decreases SGZ neurogenesis by inhibiting dividing cells, particularly those in S phase, and progenitor cell progression to a more mature neuronal stage.

  2. P2X7 receptor inhibition increases CNTF in the subventricular zone, but not neurogenesis or neuroprotection after stroke in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Su; Keasey, Matthew Phillip; Hagg, Theo

    2013-10-01

    Increasing endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression with a pharmacological agent might be beneficial after stroke as CNTF both promotes neurogenesis and, separately, is neuroprotective. P2X7 purinergic receptor inhibition is neuroprotective in rats and increases CNTF release in rat CMT1A Schwann cells. We, first, investigated the role of P2X7 in regulating CNTF and neurogenesis in adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). CNTF expression was increased by daily intravenous injections of the P2X7 antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in naïve C57BL/6 or Balb/c mice over 3 days. Despite the ∼40-60 % increase or decrease in CNTF with BBG or the agonist BzATP, respectively, the number of proliferated BrdU+SVZ nuclei did not change. BBG failed to increase FGF2, which is involved in CNTF-regulated neurogenesis, but induced IL-6, LIF, and EGF, which are known to reduce SVZ proliferation. Injections of IL-6 next to the SVZ induced CNTF and FGF2, but not proliferation, suggesting that IL-6 counteracts their neurogenesis-inducing effects. Following ischemic injury of the striatum by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), a 3-day BBG treatment increased CNTF in the medial penumbra containing the SVZ. BBG also induced CNTF and LIF, which are known to be protective following stroke, in the whole striatum after MCAO, but not GDNF or BDNF. However, BBG treatment did not reduce the lesion area or apoptosis in the penumbra. Even so, this study shows that P2X7 can be targeted with systemic drug treatments to differentially regulate neurotrophic factors in the brain following stroke.

  3. Genotypical Differences in Aluminum Resistance of Maize Are Expressed in the Distal Part of the Transition Zone. Is Reduced Basipetal Auxin Flow Involved in Inhibition of Root Elongation by Aluminum?1

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Malte; Felle, Hubert H.; Horst, Walter J.

    2000-01-01

    Short-term Al treatment (90 μm Al at pH 4.5 for 1 h) of the distal transition zone (DTZ; 1–2 mm from the root tip), which does not contribute significantly to root elongation, inhibited root elongation in the main elongation zone (EZ; 2.5–5 mm from the root tip) to the same extent as treatment of the entire maize (Zea mays) root apex. Application of Al to the EZ had no effect on root elongation. Higher genotypical resistance to Al applied to the entire root apex, and specifically to the DTZ, was expressed by less inhibition of root elongation, Al accumulation, and Al-induced callose formation, primarily in the DTZ. A characteristic pH profile along the surface of the root apex with a maximum of pH 5.3 in the DTZ was demonstrated. Al application induced a substantial flattening of the pH profile moreso in the Al-sensitive than in the Al-resistant cultivar. Application of indole-3-acetic acid to the EZ but not to the meristematic zone significantly alleviated the inhibition of root elongation induced by the application of Al to the DTZ. Basipetal transport of exogenously applied [3H]indole-3-acetic acid to the meristematic zone was significantly inhibited by Al application to the DTZ in the Al-sensitive maize cv Lixis. Our results provide evidence that the primary mechanisms of genotypical differences in Al resistance are located within the DTZ, and suggest a signaling pathway in the root apex mediating the Al signal between the DTZ and the EZ through basipetal auxin transport. PMID:10712559

  4. Progressive inhibition by water deficit of cell wall extensibility and growth along the elongation zone of maize roots is related to increased lignin metabolism and progressive stelar accumulation of wall phenolics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Linker, Raphael; Gepstein, Shimon; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Neumann, Peter M

    2006-02-01

    Water deficit caused by addition of polyethylene glycol 6000 at -0.5 MPa water potential to well-aerated nutrient solution for 48 h inhibited the elongation of maize (Zea mays) seedling primary roots. Segmental growth rates in the root elongation zone were maintained 0 to 3 mm behind the tip, but in comparison with well-watered control roots, progressive growth inhibition was initiated by water deficit as expanding cells crossed the region 3 to 9 mm behind the tip. The mechanical extensibility of the cell walls was also progressively inhibited. We investigated the possible involvement in root growth inhibition by water deficit of alterations in metabolism and accumulation of wall-linked phenolic substances. Water deficit increased expression in the root elongation zone of transcripts of two genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1 and 2, after only 1 h, i.e. before decreases in wall extensibility. Further increases in transcript expression and increased lignin staining were detected after 48 h. Progressive stress-induced increases in wall-linked phenolics at 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 mm behind the root tip were detected by comparing Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-fluorescence images of isolated cell walls from water deficit and control roots. Increased UV fluorescence and lignin staining colocated to vascular tissues in the stele. Longitudinal bisection of the elongation zone resulted in inward curvature, suggesting that inner, stelar tissues were also rate limiting for root growth. We suggest that spatially localized changes in wall-phenolic metabolism are involved in the progressive inhibition of wall extensibility and root growth and may facilitate root acclimation to drying environments.

  5. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  6. Dicumarol, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation of CtBP3/BARS, fragments golgi non-compact tubular zones and inhibits intra-golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Alexander A; Colanzi, Antonino; Polishchuk, Roman S; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Mironov, Alexander A; Fusella, Aurora; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Silletta, Maria Giuseppina; Corda, Daniela; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta; Luini, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    Dicumarol (3,3'-methylenebis[4-hydroxycoumarin]) is an inhibitor of brefeldin-A-dependent ADP-ribosylation that antagonises brefeldin-A-dependent Golgi tubulation and redistribution to the endoplasmic reticulum. We have investigated whether dicumarol can directly affect the morphology of the Golgi apparatus. Here we show that dicumarol induces the breakdown of the tubular reticular networks that interconnect adjacent Golgi stacks and that contain either soluble or membrane-associated cargo proteins. This results in the formation of 65-120-nm vesicles that are sometimes invaginated. In contrast, smaller vesicles (45-65 nm in diameter, a size consistent with that of coat-protein-I-dependent vesicles) that excluded cargo proteins from their lumen are not affected by dicumarol. All other endomembranes are largely unaffected by dicumarol, including Golgi stacks, the ER, multivesicular bodies and the trans-Golgi network. In permeabilized cells, dicumarol activity depends on the function of CtBP3/BARS protein and pre-ADP-ribosylation of cytosol inhibits the breakdown of Golgi tubules by dicumarol. In functional experiments, dicumarol markedly slows down intra-Golgi traffic of VSV-G transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the medial Golgi, and inhibits the diffusional mobility of both galactosyl transferase and VSV-G tagged with green fluorescent protein. However, it does not affect: transport from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface; Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum traffic of ERGIC58; coat-protein-I-dependent Golgi vesiculation by AlF4 or ADP-ribosylation factor; or ADP-ribosylation factor and beta-coat protein binding to Golgi membranes. Thus the ADP-ribosylation inhibitor dicumarol induces the selective breakdown of the tubular components of the Golgi complex and inhibition of intra-Golgi transport. This suggests that lateral diffusion between adjacent stacks has a role in protein transport through the Golgi complex.

  7. 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] controls growth plate development by inhibiting apoptosis in the reserve zone and stimulating response to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in hypertrophic cells.

    PubMed

    Boyan, B D; Hurst-Kennedy, J; Denison, T A; Schwartz, Z

    2010-07-01

    Previously we showed that costochondral growth plate resting zone (RC) chondrocytes response primarily to 24R,25(OH)2D3 whereas prehypertrophic and hypertrophic (GC) cells respond to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 increases RC cell proliferation and inhibits activity of matrix processing enzymes, suggesting it stabilizes cells in the reserve zone, possibly by inhibiting the matrix degradation characteristic of apoptotic hypertrophic GC cells. To test this, apoptosis was induced in rat RC cells by treatment with exogenous inorganic phosphate (Pi). 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocked apoptotic effects in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, apoptosis was induced in ATDC5 cell cultures and 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocked this effect. Further studies indicated that 24R,25(OH)2D3 acts via at least two independent pathways. 24R,25(OH)2D3 increases LPA receptor-1 (LPA R1) expression and production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and subsequent LPA R1/3-dependent signaling, thereby decreasing p53 abundance. LPA also increases the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, 24R,25(OH)2D3 acts by increasing PKC activity. 24R,25(OH)2D3 stimulates 1-hydroxylase activity, resulting in increased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, and it increases levels of phospholipase A2 activating protein, which is required for rapid 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent activation of PKC in GC cells. These results suggest that 24R,25(OH)2D3 modulates growth plate development by controlling the rate and extent of RC chondrocyte transition to a GC chondrocyte phenotype.

  8. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    DOEpatents

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  9. Angiotensin receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone collagens and global diastolic dysfunction during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jugdutt, Bodh I; Idikio, Halliday; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2007-09-01

    To determine whether therapy with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan and the comparator angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril during healing after reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (RSTEMI) limit adverse remodeling of infarct zone (IZ) collagens and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, we randomized 24 dogs surviving anterior RSTEMI (90-min coronary occlusion) to placebo, candesartan, and enalapril therapy between day 2 and 42. Six other dogs were sham. We measured regional IZ and non-infarct zone (NIZ) collagens (hydroxyproline; types I/III; cross-linking), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and topography at 6 weeks, and hemodynamics, LV diastolic and systolic function, and remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to sham, placebo-RSTEMI differentially altered regional collagens, with more pronounced increase in TGF-beta, hydroxyproline, and type I, insoluble, and cross-linked collagens in the IZ than NIZ, and increased IZ soluble and type III collagens at 6 weeks, and induced persistent LV filling pressure elevation, diastolic and systolic dysfunction, and LV remodeling over 6 weeks. Compared to placebo-RSTEMI, candesartan and enalapril limited adverse regional collagen remodeling, with normalization of type III, soluble and insoluble collagens and decrease in pyridinoline cross-linking in the IZ at 6 weeks, and attenuation of LV filling pressure, diastolic dysfunction, and remodeling over 6 weeks. The results suggest that candesartan and enalapril during healing after RSTEMI prevent rather than worsen adverse remodeling of IZ collagens and LV diastolic dysfunction, supporting the clinical use of ARBs and ACEIs during subacute RSTEMI.

  10. New Madrid Seismic Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE BY COLONEL J.DAVID NORWOOD United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...mCTBB l USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT New Madrid Seismic Zone by J. David Norwood, COL, USA Michael A. Pearson, COL, USA Project Advisor The...ABSTRACT AUTHOR: J. David Norwood, Colonel, U.S. Army TITLE: New Madrid Seismic Zone FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 April 1998 . PAGES:

  11. Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone lymphomas are a group of indolent (slow-growing) NHL B-cell lymphomas, which account for approximately 12 percent of all B-cell lymphomas. The median age for diagnosis is 65 years old. There are three types of marginal zone lymphoma: ...

  12. Urban Terrain Zone Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    function . An example of the interaction of some of these can result in an exposed surface of decorative brick veneer on a framed stracture . Or, a...Classification System for HOUT Studies . . . . . . . . .- ..- . . . . . . 14 2. Urban Terrain Zones Function /Morphology Relationship...By Function --All Cities Aggregated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 6. Building Types: Major Terrain Zones . . . . ...... 103 7. Urban Terrain

  13. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  14. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  15. Subduction of fracture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  16. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  17. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  18. 75 FR 3859 - Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone AGENCY... establishing a temporary safety zone in all navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Baltimore zone. The... authorized by the Captain of the Port Baltimore, or his designated representative. This safety zone...

  19. Dueling Mechanisms for Dry Zones around Frozen Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbano, Caitlin; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Ice acts as a local humidity sink, due to its depressed saturation pressure relative to that of supercooled water. Hygroscopic chemicals typically exhibit annular dry zones of inhibited condensation; however, dry zones do not tend to form around ice because of inter-droplet frost growth to nearby liquid droplets that have already condensed on the chilled surface. Here, we use a humidity chamber with an embedded Peltier stage to initially suppress the growth of condensation on a chilled surface containing a single frozen droplet, in order to characterize the dry zone around ice for the first time. The length of the dry zone was observed to vary by at least two orders of magnitude as a function of surface temperature, ambient humidity, and the size of the frozen droplet. The surface temperature and ambient humidity govern the magnitudes of the in-plane and out-of-plane gradients in vapor pressure, while the size of the frozen droplet effects the local thickness of the concentration boundary layer. We develop an analytical model that reveals two different types of dry zones are possible: one in which nucleation is inhibited and one where the net growth of condensate is inhibited. Finally, a phase map was developed to predict the parameter space in which nucleation dry zones versus flux dry zones are dominant.

  20. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  1. Anomalous zones (domal)

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, D.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Each zone contains several anomalous salt properties (anomalous features). Zones cannot be characterized by any single property Zones are highly variable, lenticular, and discontinuous in detail; however, once established, they commonly have a predictable trend. The individual anomalous features can occur alone (locally in pairs) over areas of various sizes and shapes. These alone occurrences are not anomalous zones. Anomalous zones may be of any origin, and origin is not part of the definition. Typical origins include: primary (sedimentary), external sheath zone, separating two spines of salt, or caused by toroidal flow. The major importance of an anomalous zone is that it consists of various anomalous features distributed discontinuously along the zone. Thus, if three or more anomalous properties are observed together, one should look for others. The anomalous zones observed in the Gulf Coast thus far are vertical, linear, and semicontinuous. Most are reasonably straight, but some bend sharply, end abruptly, or coalesce. Textures in salt involve grain size, color (white to dark gray), grain shape, or grain distribution of the salt. Typical anomalous textures are coarse-grain, poikiloblastic, and friability. A change in color is commonplace and seldom anomalous. Structural anomalous features, broadly defined, account for most of the rest of the anomalous features. Not uncommonly they cause mining problems. Among the structural anomalous features: INCLUSIONS: Sediments, hydrocarbons, brine, gases. Common gases are air (as N{sub 2}), CH-compounds, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. STRUCTURES: Sheared salt, undue stabbing or jointing, voids (crystal-lined pockets), permeability, increased porosity COMPOSITION: High anhydrite content, visible anhydrite as grains or boudins, very black salt = disseminated impurities such as clay.

  2. 16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH TURN STILES - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  3. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  4. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  5. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  6. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  7. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  8. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  9. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning.

  10. Dilution Zone Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies to characterize dilution zone mixing; experiments on the effects of free-stream turbulence on a jet in crossflow; and the development of an interactive computer code for the analysis of the mixing of jets with a confined crossflow are reviewed.

  11. Microgravity Silicon Zoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This research program is directed toward the understanding of the float zone crystal growth process, the melt interactions which lead to crystal inhomogeneities, and the influence of microgravity on reducing these inhomogeneities. Silicon was selected as the model crystal because its inhomogeneities lead to known variations in device performance, and because the mechanisms involved in its growth are understood better than for other high temperature crystals. The objective of the program is to understand the growth mechanisms in float zone growth and thereby determine the feasibility and advantages of float zone growth of silicon under microgravity conditions. This will be done by characterizing the growth at g = 1, projecting the changes in melt flows due to microgravity, observing these in space growth and determining the effects on defective inhomogeneities. A Thin Rod Zoner was constructed as a laboratory prototype for flight growth of 5 mm diameter silicon crystals, which can be done within the power and cooling capabilities of shuttle flights. A new method of zoning silicon, using resistance heating, has resulted in melting 5 mm diameter ingots.

  12. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    PubMed

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  13. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  14. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  15. 76 FR 53051 - Safety Zone; ISAF Nations Cup Grand Final Fireworks Display, Sheboygan, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Lake Michigan in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. This zone is... Sector Lake Michigan, at 414-747-7148 or Adam.D.Kraft@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing the... and contrary to the public interest because it would inhibit the Captain of the Port, Sector...

  16. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  17. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  18. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets."

  19. Floristic zones and aeroallergen diversity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Richard W

    2003-08-01

    The interplay of geographic, geochemical, and meteorologic factors combines to define distinct floristic zones in North America. Latitude, elevation, Pacific or Atlantic Ocean influence, continental air mass influence, mountains, and hills are contributory geographic factors. Hardiness zones are defined by the nadir of temperature, which strongly affects the survival of individual plant species. There are 12 hardiness zones from the northernmost tundra to the tropics of Mexico. Although it is useful to consider the 10 major floristic zones, the hardiness zones cut across these zones and characterize subregions. A multiplicity of local terrain effects, such as soil porosity and acidity, and sun exposure also impact on plant growth. The ability of plant species, whether woody shrubs and trees, or herbaceous weeds and grasses, to adapt to conditions within the floristic zones determines their range. This article identifies the major aeroallergenic species and the regions in which they are most prevalent.

  20. Smartphones and Time Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  1. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  2. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation

  3. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    SciTech Connect

    Blackfield, Donald T.; Poole, Brian R.

    2016-03-11

    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  4. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  5. Soil nitrogen cycle processes in urban riparian zones.

    PubMed

    Groffman, Peter M; Boulware, Natalie J; Zipperer, Wayne C; Pouyat, Richard V; Band, Lawrence E; Colosimo, Mark F

    2002-11-01

    Riparian zones have been found to function as "sinks" for nitrate (NO3-), the most common groundwater pollutant in the U. S., in many areas. The vast majority of riparian research, however, has focused on agricultural watersheds. There has been little analysis of riparian zones in urban watersheds, despite the fact that urban areas are important sources of NO3- to nitrogen (N)-sensitive coastal waters in many locations. In this study, we measured stream incision, water table depths, and pools, production (mineralization, nitrification), and consumption (denitrification) of NO3- in urban soils. Samples were taken from soil profiles (0-100 cm) of three forested urban and suburban zones and one forested reference riparian zone in the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area. Our objectives were to determine (1) if stream incision associated with urbanization results in lower riparian water tables, and (2) if pools, production, and consumption of NO3- vary systematically with stream incision and riparian water table levels. Two of the three urban and suburban streams were more incised and all three had lower water tables in their riparian zones than the forested reference stream. Urban and suburban riparian zones had higher NO3- pools and nitrification rates than the forested reference riparian zone, which was likely due to more aerobic soil profiles, lower levels of available soil carbon, and greater N enrichment in the urban and suburban sites. At all sites, denitrification potential decreased markedly with depth in the soil profile. Lower water tables in the urban and suburban riparian zones thus inhibit interaction of groundwater-borne NO3- with near surface soils that have the highest denitrification potential. These results suggest that urban hydrologic factors can increase the production and reduce the consumption of NO3- in riparian zones, reducing their ability to function as sinks for NO3- in the landscape.

  6. Habitable zones in the universe.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2005-12-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review the historical development of the concept of habitable zones and the present state of the research. We also suggest ways to make progress on each of the habitable zones and to unify them into a single concept encompassing the entire universe.

  7. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  8. [Foot reflex zone massage].

    PubMed

    Kesselring, A

    1994-01-01

    Foot reflexology is defined as massage of zones on the feet which correspond to different parts of the body. A medline-search yielded no literature in the field of foot reflexology. Indications for and results of foot reflexology have been extrapolated from case-descriptions and two pilot studies with small samples. One study (Lafuente et al.) found foot reflexology to be as helpful to patients with headaches as medication (flunarizine), yet foot reflexology was fraught with less side-effects than medication. In a second study (Eichelberger et al.) foot reflexology was used postoperatively on gynecological patients. The intervention group showed a lesser need for medication to enhance bladder tonus than did the control group. The literature describes foot reflexology as enhancing urination, bowel movements and relaxation.

  9. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  10. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  11. Achieving That Elusive "Leadership Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Reaching the "leadership zone" happens when librarians tap into the extraordinary skills lying within to overcome obstacles and transform sometimes-difficult situations into meaningful outcomes. Maturing into an experienced leader who stays in the leadership zone requires knowledge, training, and practice. This article provides tactical…

  12. Myofilament dysfunction contributes to impaired myocardial contraction in the infarct border zone.

    PubMed

    Shimkunas, Rafael; Makwana, Om; Spaulding, Kimberly; Bazargan, Mona; Khazalpour, Michael; Takaba, Kiyoaki; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Lovett, David H; Simpson, Paul C; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Baker, Anthony J

    2014-10-15

    After myocardial infarction, a poorly contracting nonischemic border zone forms adjacent to the infarct. The cause of border zone dysfunction is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the myofilament mechanisms involved in postinfarction border zone dysfunction. Two weeks after anteroapical infarction of sheep hearts, we studied in vitro isometric and isotonic contractions of demembranated myocardium from the infarct border zone and a zone remote from the infarct. Maximal force development (Fmax) of the border zone myocardium was reduced by 31 ± 2% versus the remote zone myocardium (n = 6/group, P < 0.0001). Decreased border zone Fmax was not due to a reduced content of contractile material, as assessed histologically, and from myosin content. Furthermore, decreased border zone Fmax did not involve altered cross-bridge kinetics, as assessed by muscle shortening velocity and force development kinetics. Decreased border zone Fmax was associated with decreased cross-bridge formation, as assessed from muscle stiffness in the absence of ATP where cross-bridge formation should be maximized (rigor stiffness was reduced 34 ± 6%, n = 5, P = 0.011 vs. the remote zone). Furthermore, the border zone myocardium had significantly reduced phosphorylation of myosin essential light chain (ELC; 41 ± 10%, n = 4, P < 0.05). However, for animals treated with doxycycline, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases, rigor stiffness and ELC phosphorylation were not reduced in the border zone myocardium, suggesting that doxycycline had a protective effect. In conclusion, myofilament dysfunction contributes to postinfarction border zone dysfunction, myofilament dysfunction involves impaired cross-bridge formation and decreased ELC phosphorylation, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition may be beneficial for limiting postinfarct border zone dysfunction.

  13. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  14. The Intertropical Convergence Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone, or ITCZ, is the region that circles the Earth, near the equator, where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. The intense sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, raising its humidity and causing it to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Variation in the location of the ITCZ drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. This image is a combination of cloud data from NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-11) and color land cover classification data. The ITCZ is the band of bright white clouds that cuts across the center of the image. For more GOES images, visit the GOES Project Science site. Image Courtesy GOES Project Science Office

  15. Detecting livestock production zones.

    PubMed

    Grisi-Filho, J H H; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Neto, J S Ferreira; Negreiros, R L; Ossada, R

    2013-07-01

    Communities are sets of nodes that are related in an important way, most likely sharing common properties and/or playing similar roles within a network. Unraveling a network structure, and hence the trade preferences and pathways, could be useful to a researcher or a decision maker. We implemented a community detection algorithm to find livestock communities, which is consistent with the definition of a livestock production zone, assuming that a community is a group of farm premises in which an animal is more likely to stay during its lifetime than expected by chance. We applied this algorithm to the network of animal movements within the state of Mato Grosso for 2007. This database holds information concerning 87,899 premises and 521,431 movements throughout the year, totaling 15,844,779 animals moved. The community detection algorithm achieved a network partition that shows a clear geographical and commercial pattern, two crucial features for preventive veterinary medicine applications; this algorithm provides also a meaningful interpretation to trade networks where links emerge based on trader node choices.

  16. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  17. Lithospheric flexure at fracture zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, D.; Schubert, G.

    1982-01-01

    Studies attempting to demonstrate that lithospheric flexure occurs across the Pioneer and Mendocino fracture zones, and that the flexural topography is a topographic expression at these fracture zones, are presented. The flexure is modelled and compared with predicted depths with five bathymetric profiles which cross the two fracture zones at different ages. The model uses a thin elastic plate overlying an incompressible fluid half-space, and incorporates a temperature-dependent effective elastic thickness. Several conclusions were derived from this study. First, it is found that no significant slip on the fossil fault planes of the Mendocino and Pioneer fracture zones exists. In addition, the flexural amplitude is determined to increase with age. Finally, it is concluded that there is elastic coupling between the Mendocino and Pioneer fracture zones since the separation is less than a flexural wavelength.

  18. Fluid migration in ductile shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Fluid migration in metamorphic environments depends on a dynamically evolving permeable pore space, which was rarely characterised in detail. The data-base behind our understanding of the 4-dimensional transport properties of metamorphic rocks is therefore fragmentary at best, which leaves conceptual models poorly supported. Generally, it seems established that deformation is a major driver of permeability generation during regional metamorphism, and evidence for metamorphic fluids being channelled in large scale shear zones has been found in all depth segments of the continental crust. When strain localizes in ductile shear zones, the microfabric is modified until a steady state mylonite is formed that supports large deformations. A dynamic porosity that evolves during mylonitisation controls the distinct transport pathways along which fluid interacts with the rock. This dynamic porosity is controlled by a limited number of mechanisms, which are intrinsically linked to the metamorphic evolution of the rock during its deformational overprint. Many mid- and lower-crustal mylonites comprise polyphase mixtures of micron-sized grains that show evidence for deformation by dissolution/precipitation-assisted viscous grain boundary sliding. The establishment of these mineral mixtures is a critical process, where monomineralic layers are dispersed and grain growth is inhibited by the heterogeneous nucleation of secondary mineral phases at triple junctions. Here we show evidence from three different mid- and lower-crustal shear zones indicating that heterogeneous nucleation occurs in creep cavities. Micro- and nanotomographic observations show that creep cavities provide the dominant form of porosity in these ultramylonites. They control a "granular fluid pump" that directs fluid migration and hence mass transport. The granular fluid pump operates on the grain scale driven by viscous grain boundary sliding, and requires only small amounts of fluid. The spatial arrangement of

  19. Creep Cavitation in Lower Crustal Shear Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegon, L. M.; Fusseis, F.; Stunitz, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    Shear zones channelize fluid flow in the Earth's crust. A number of mechanisms have been suggested to control fluid migration pathways in upper- and mid-crustal shear zones, amongst them creep cavitation, which is well-known from deforming metals and ceramics. However, little is known on deep crustal fluid migration and on how fluids are channelized and distributed in actively deforming lower crustal shear zones.This study investigates the deformation mechanisms, fluid-rock interaction, and development of porosity in a monzonite ultramylonite from Lofoten, northern Norway. The rock was deformed under lower crustal conditions (T=700-730° C, P=0.65-0.8 GPa). The ultramylonite consists of feldspathic layers and of domains of amphibole + quartz + calcite, which represent the products of hydration reactions of magmatic clinopyroxene. The average grain size in both domains is <25 μm. Microstructural observations and EBSD analysis are consistent with diffusion creep as the dominant deformation mechanism in both domains. In feldspathic layers, isolated quartz grains without a crystallographic preferred orientation occur along C'-type shear bands. All microstructures suggest that quartz precipitated in cavities. The orientation of such quartz bands overlaps with the preferred orientation of pores in the ultramylonites, as evidenced from synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Such C'-type shear bands are interpreted as high-strain cavitation bands resulting from diffusion creep deformation associated with grain boundary sliding. Mass-balance calculation indicates a 2% volume increase during the protolith-ultramylonite transformation. The volume increase is consistent with a synkinematic formation of cavities. Thus, this study presents clear evidence that high-strain cavitation bands may control deep crustal porosity and fluid flow. Nucleation of new phases in cavitation bands inhibits grain growth and enhances the activity of grain-size sensitive creep, thereby maintaining

  20. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  1. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  2. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  3. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  4. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  5. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  6. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  7. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  8. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  9. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  10. 47 CFR 73.505 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.505 Zones. For the purpose of assignment of noncommercial educational FM stations, the United States is divided into three zones, Zone I, Zone I-A, and Zone II,...

  11. 47 CFR 73.505 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.505 Zones. For the purpose of assignment of noncommercial educational FM stations, the United States is divided into three zones, Zone I, Zone I-A, and Zone II,...

  12. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  13. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  14. Zone purification of potassium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susman, S.

    1969-01-01

    Procedure for removal of sodium and bromine from KCl involves zone refining in dilute halogen atmosphere. Distribution of Na and Br at concentrations of parts per million is followed by neutron-activation analyses.

  15. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  16. Reflection-Zone-Plate Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, John M.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave antenna, based on reflection holography, designed and tested. Modified to produce arbitrary beam patterns by controlling relief pattern. Antenna planar or contoured to supporting structure. Low off-axis radar cross section at frequencies removed from operational frequency. Interference pattern produced by spherical wave intersecting plane wave consists of concentric circles similar to Newton's rings. Pattern identical to Fresnel zone plate, which has lens properties. Plane wave incident on hologram, or zone plate, focused to point.

  17. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    SciTech Connect

    Tippetts, Trevor

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  18. Ground based silicon zoning program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of building flight hardware and carrying out experiments in space was investigated. The ground based investigation phase A/B of the experimental float zoning of silicon is outlined. The overall program goals, leading to recommending experiments to be done in phase C/D are spelled out. Thermophysical properties which must be accurately known to compare thermophysical models to experimental zoning of silicon are listed.

  19. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones.

  20. The global aftershock zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  1. PP2A and GSK-3beta act antagonistically to regulate active zone development.

    PubMed

    Viquez, Natasha M; Füger, Petra; Valakh, Vera; Daniels, Richard W; Rasse, Tobias M; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-09-16

    The synapse is composed of an active zone apposed to a postsynaptic cluster of neurotransmitter receptors. Each Drosophila neuromuscular junction comprises hundreds of such individual release sites apposed to clusters of glutamate receptors. Here, we show that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is required for the development of structurally normal active zones opposite glutamate receptors. When PP2A is inhibited presynaptically, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot (Brp), an active zone protein required for normal transmitter release. These unapposed receptors are not due to presynaptic retraction of synaptic boutons, since other presynaptic components are still apposed to the entire postsynaptic specialization. Instead, these data suggest that Brp localization is regulated at the level of individual release sites. Live imaging of glutamate receptors demonstrates that this disruption to active zone development is accompanied by abnormal postsynaptic development, with decreased formation of glutamate receptor clusters. Remarkably, inhibition of the serine-threonine kinase GSK-3beta completely suppresses the active zone defect, as well as other synaptic morphology phenotypes associated with inhibition of PP2A. These data suggest that PP2A and GSK-3beta function antagonistically to control active zone development, providing a potential mechanism for regulating synaptic efficacy at a single release site.

  2. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. 75 FR 26650 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... No. USCG-2010-0129] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain... is amending the regulations establishing permanent safety zones in the Captain of the Port Lake... Captain of the Port Lake Michigan zone, in the Federal Register (75 FR 13707). We received 0...

  4. THE EFFECT OF DENSITY ZONING ON RACIAL SEGREGATION IN U.S. URBAN AREAS.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Massey, Douglas S

    2009-07-01

    We argue that anti-density zoning increases black residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas by reducing the quantity of affordable housing in white jurisdictions. Drawing on census data and local regulation indicators compiled by Pendall, we estimate a series of regression models to measure the effect of maximum density zoning on black segregation. Results estimated using ordinary least squares indicate a strong and significant cross-sectional relationship between low-density zoning and racial segregation, even after controlling for other zoning policies and a variety of metropolitan characteristics, a relationship that persists under two-stage least squares estimation. Both estimation strategies also suggest that anti-density zoning inhibits desegregation over time.

  5. Biostratigraphy: Interpretations of Oppel's zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, G. H.

    2013-11-01

    Zones like those of Oppel and Hedberg's Oppel-Zone are commonly interpreted as rock units delimited temporally. A more restricted view is that they are rock units empirically defined by bioevents that occur in the same order in all sections. Methods used by Oppel and definitions proposed by Hedberg are reviewed to assess their adequacy for definition of biostratigraphic units and their ability to support temporal inferences. Although they are usually interpreted as chronostratigraphic units, Oppel defined his zones in stratigraphic space, without temporal reference. In contrast, Hedberg required that bioevents for his Oppel-Zone should be approximately isochronous across their distribution but provided no operational way to identify such bioevents. Neither author clearly indicated how boundaries should be defined. Recourse to a principle of biosynchroneity to support inferences that stratigraphically ordered bioevents are temporal markers conflicts with knowledge of the biogeographies of modern taxa. Evolutionary theory explains why some bioevents occur in the same stratigraphic order but does not support the inference that they are isochronous events. Since its inception biostratigraphy has focused on ordered classifications, like those of Oppel. Stratigraphic codes should allow for a complementary category of biofacies zones that reflect depositional environments and are not constrained to occur in a particular order.

  6. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  7. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  8. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or...

  9. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section...

  10. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section...

  11. 10 CFR 37.47 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... security zone only through established access control points. A physical barrier is a natural or man-made... temporary security zones and in any security zone in which physical barriers or intrusion detection systems... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security zones. 37.47 Section 37.47 Energy...

  12. Laser Vacuum Furnace for Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.; Zurburg, F. W.; Penn, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Laser beam scanned to produce moving melt zone. Experimental laser vacuum furnace scans crystalline wafer with high-power CO2-laser beam to generate precise melt zone with precise control of temperature gradients around zone. Intended for zone refining of silicon or other semiconductors in low gravity, apparatus used in normal gravity.

  13. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  14. 15 CFR 400.44 - Zone schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Executive Secretary (in both paper and electronic copies) a zone schedule which sets forth the elements required in this section. No element of a zone schedule (including any amendment to the zone schedule) may... table of contents; (3) Internal rules/regulations and policies for the zone; (4) All rates or...

  15. Saccadic Inhibition in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Stampe, Dave M.

    2004-01-01

    In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60-70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the…

  16. The ciliary transition zone functions in cell adhesion but is dispensable for axoneme assembly in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, Clementine; Serwas, Daniel; Palfy, Mate; Dammermann, Alexander

    2015-07-06

    Cilia are cellular projections that perform sensory and motile functions. A key ciliary subdomain is the transition zone, which lies between basal body and axoneme. Previous work in Caenorhabditis elegans identified two ciliopathy-associated protein complexes or modules that direct assembly of transition zone Y-links. Here, we identify C. elegans CEP290 as a component of a third module required to form an inner scaffolding structure called the central cylinder. Co-inhibition of all three modules completely disrupted transition zone structure. Surprisingly, axoneme assembly was only mildly perturbed. However, dendrite extension by retrograde migration was strongly impaired, revealing an unexpected role for the transition zone in cell adhesion.

  17. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  18. 78 FR 29651 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone... enforce safety zones in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified dates and times. This... of the Captain of the Port (COTP). DATES: The regulation for the safety zones described in 33 CFR...

  19. 78 FR 41694 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone... enforce safety zones in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified dates and times. This... of the Captain of the Port (COTP). DATES: The regulation for the safety zones described in 33 CFR...

  20. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  1. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  2. 77 FR 75559 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone... enforce a safety zone in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified date and time. This action... of the Captain of the Port. DATES: The regulation for the safety zone described in 33 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 26508 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone... enforce safety zones in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified dates and times. This... of the Captain of the Port (COTP). DATES: The regulation for the safety zones described in 33 CFR...

  4. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone... enforce a safety zone in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified date and time. This action... from the Captain of the Port (COTP). DATES: The regulation for the safety zone described in 33 CFR...

  5. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  6. 78 FR 24068 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Fireworks Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone... enforce various safety zones in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified dates and times... permission of the Captain of the Port (COTP). DATES: The regulation for the safety zone described in 33...

  7. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  8. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone... enforce a safety zone in the Captain of the Port New York Zone on the specified date and time. This action... of the Captain of the Port (COTP). DATES: The regulation for the safety zone described in 33 CFR...

  9. 33 CFR 165.911 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... Security Zones; Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone. (a) Location. The following are security zones: (1) Nine... with § 165.33, entry into this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of...

  10. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    1999-10-05

    This invention provides a system for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, this system can be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  11. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    2001-10-09

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  12. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  13. Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of some Arid Zone Plants.

    PubMed

    Jain, S C; Pancholi, B; Singh, R; Jain, R

    2010-07-01

    Sequential extracts of some medicinally important arid zone plants of Rajasthan, viz. Lepidagathis trinervis Nees., Polycarpea corymbosa Lam. and Sericostoma pauciflorum Stocks. ex Wight. were tested against six bacterial (Gram +ve and Gram -ve) and five fungal strains using agar well diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract of L. trinervis showed maximum activity against Bacillus subtilis, Enterobactor aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus and Trichophyton rubrum (inhibition zone 16.00±0.81, 13.33±0.66, 14.33±1.85, 14.30±0.34 and 23.00±0.00 mm) at varied minimum inhibitory concentrations of 82, 20, 41, 41 and 20 μg/ml, respectively.

  14. Building a Subduction Zone Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Bodin, Paul; Bourgeois, Jody; Cashman, Susan; Cowan, Darrel; Creager, Kenneth C.; Crowell, Brendan; Duvall, Alison; Frankel, Arthur; Gonzalez, Frank; Houston, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Kelsey, Harvey; Miller, Una; Roland, Emily C.; Schmidt, David; Staisch, Lydia; Vidale, John; Wilcock, William; Wirth, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones contain many of Earth’s most remarkable geologic structures, from the deepest oceanic trenches to glacier-covered mountains and steaming volcanoes. These environments formed through spectacular events: Nature’s largest earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions are born here.

  15. Priority Education Zones in Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Mahadeo Santosh; Gurrib, Mahomed Aniff

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Priority Education Zones project (ZEP) in Mauritius. The original and innovative dimensions of the project are described, together with the difficulties encountered during the setting-up of the ZEP schools. The article covers five main issues: the status of the ZEP project; the minimal conditions for success; the…

  16. Comfort Zone: Model or Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The comfort zone model is widespread within adventure education literature. It is based on the belief that when placed in a stressful situation people will respond by overcoming their fear and therefore grow as individuals. This model is often presented to participants prior to activities with a highly perceived sense of risk and challenge which…

  17. Comparable Habitable Zones of Stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The habitable zone is the distance from a star where one can have liquid water on the surface of a planet. If a planet is too close to its parent star, it will be too hot and water would have evapo...

  18. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  19. Float zone experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Noack, M. A.; Gill, W. N.; Hau, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    The molten zone/freezing crystal interface system and all the mechanisms were examined. If Marangoni convection produces oscillatory flows in the float zone of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, then it is unlikely that superior quality crystals can be grown in space using this process. The major goals were: (1) to determine the conditions for the onset of Marangoni flows in molten tin, a model system for low Prandtl number molten semiconductor materials; (2) to determine whether the flows can be suppressed by a thin oxide layer; and (3) based on experimental and mathematical analysis, to predict whether oscillatory flows will occur in the float zone silicon geometry in space, and if so, could it be suppressed by thin oxide or nitride films. Techniques were developed to analyze molten tin surfaces in a UHV system in a disk float zone geometry to minimize buoyancy flows. The critical Marangoni number for onset of oscillatory flows was determined to be greater than 4300 on atomically clean molten tin surfaces.

  20. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration.

  1. Floating zone melting of cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Wen-Ming; Regel, L. L.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    To produce superior crystals of cadmium telluride, floating zone melting in space has been proposed. Techniques required for floating zone melting of cadmium telluride are being developed. We have successfully float-zoned cadmium telluride on earth using square rods. A resistance heater was constructed for forming the molten zone. Evaporation of the molten zone was controlled by adding excess cadmium to the growth ampoule combined with heating of the entire ampoule. An effective method to hold the feed rod was developed. Slow rotation of the growth ampoule was proven experimentally to be necessary to achieve a complete symmetric molten zone. Most of the resultant cylindrical rods were single crystals with twins. Still needed is a suitable automatic method to control the zone length. We tried a fiber optical technique to control the zone length, but experiments showed that application of this technique to automate zone length control is unlikely to be successful.

  2. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  3. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wairkar, Yogesh P; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Diantonio, Aaron

    2009-01-14

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosophila to demonstrate that the serine threonine kinase Unc-51 acts in the presynaptic motoneuron to regulate the localization of the active zone protein Bruchpilot opposite to glutamate receptors at each synapse. In the absence of Unc-51, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot, and ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that fewer active zones contain dense body T-bars. In addition to the presence of these aberrant synapses, there is also a decrease in the density of all synapses. This decrease in synaptic density and abnormal active zone composition is associated with impaired evoked transmitter release. Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development. In the unc-51 mutant, increased ERK activity leads to the decrease in synaptic density and the absence of Bruchpilot from many synapses. Hence, activated ERK negatively regulates synapse formation, resulting in either the absence of active zones or the formation of active zones without their proper complement of proteins. The Unc-51-dependent inhibition of ERK activity provides a potential mechanism for synapse-specific control of active zone protein composition and release probability.

  4. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    SciTech Connect

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  5. Local ammonia storage and ammonia inhibition in a monolithic copper-beta zeolite SCR catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Auvray, Xavier P; Partridge Jr, William P; Choi, Jae-Soon; Pihl, Josh A; Yezerets, Alex; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Currier, Neal; Olsson, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3} was studied on a Cu-beta zeolite catalyst, with specific focus on the distributed NH{sub 3} capacity utilization and inhibition. In addition, several other relevant catalyst parameter distributions were quantified including the SCR zone, or catalyst region where SCR occurs, and NO and NH{sub 3} oxidation. We show that the full NH{sub 3} capacity (100% coverage) is used within the SCR zone for a range of temperatures. By corollary, unused NH{sub 3} capacity exists downstream of the SCR zone. Consequently, the unused capacity relative to the total capacity is indicative of the portion of the catalyst unused for SCR. Dynamic NH{sub 3} inhibition distributions, which create local transient conversion inflections, are measured. Dynamic inhibition is observed where the gas phase NH{sub 3} and NO concentrations are high, driving rapid NH{sub 3} coverage buildup and SCR. Accordingly, we observe dynamic inhibition at low temperatures and in hydrothermally aged states, but predict its existence very near the catalyst front in higher conversion conditions where we did not specifically monitor its impact. While this paper addresses some general distributed SCR performance parameters including Oxidation and SCR zone, our major new contributions are associated with the NH{sub 3} capacity saturation within the SCR zone and dynamic inhibition distributions and the associated observations. These new insights are relevant to developing accurate models, designs and control strategies for automotive SCR catalyst applications.

  6. 77 FR 11426 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... remain in effect year round, the safety zones within it will be enforced only immediately before, during...: each safety zone in this proposed rule will be in effect for only a few hours within any given 24 hour period. Each of the safety zones will be in effect only once per ] year. Furthermore, these safety...

  7. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  8. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  9. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... deck, spaces separated by “A” or “B” Class bulkheads may be separately zoned. (b) On any particular... common area shall be of approximately the same size. Zones of this type shall overlap in such a...

  10. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... deck, spaces separated by “A” or “B” Class bulkheads may be separately zoned. (b) On any particular... common area shall be of approximately the same size. Zones of this type shall overlap in such a...

  11. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... deck, spaces separated by “A” or “B” Class bulkheads may be separately zoned. (b) On any particular... common area shall be of approximately the same size. Zones of this type shall overlap in such a...

  12. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  13. 46 CFR 76.25-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... System, Details § 76.25-5 Zoning. (a) The automatic sprinkling system shall be divided into separate... more than 250 sprinkler heads. (c) The sprinkling zone may cover more than one deck, in which case,...

  14. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  15. Is there an Unhabitable Zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    The universe is a vast place, and a blind search for life out there is short of impossible. Therefore, it is only natural to try and reduce the area to explore by putting in some additional assumptions based on a few educated guesses and a lot of "a priori" experience from what is life here on Earth. On our way along this appealing path, we have come up with a working definition of where life should be looked for: the so-called Traditional Habitable Zone (THZ). But as this concept has taken what seems to be an ever increasing significance in mission design and selection, it is important to understand the limitations to its definition and usefulness. To do so, I will thus try to address the following questions: Is a planet inside the THZ habitable? Is a planet outside this zone necessarily unhabitable? In fact, is there anything like an Unhabitable Zone, and don't we risk to miss the unexpected if we try too hard to find another version of ourselves among the stars?

  16. Float Zone Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to evaluate whether or not Marangoni flow could be suppressed in molten metals by the presence of very thin oxide films. Experimental work has been carried out on molten Sn under UHV conditions. A disk floating zone arrangement was developed to allow in situ Auger examination of molten surfaces. An electron energy loss technique was developed which allows detection of continuous tin oxide films of 6 A or greater. Experiments were planned to detect the effects of oxide formation upon Marangoni flow by measuring: (1) temperature profiles, (2) solid liquid interface shapes, (3) macrosegregation, and (4) the onset of oscillatory Marangoni flow by detecting oscillating temperature variations. Work on (4) showed that oscillatory temperature variations of frequency or = 10 Hz were not present in the disk float zone geometry under conditions of Ma = 4300 with an oxide free molten surface. The disk float zone geometry was modeled with a finite element analysis and temperature and velocity profiles were determined.

  17. Center-Surround Inhibition in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Kiyonaga, Anastasia; Egner, Tobias

    2016-01-11

    Directing visual attention toward a particular feature or location in the environment suppresses processing of nearby stimuli [1-4]. Echoing the center-surround organization of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields [5], and biasing of competitive local neuronal dynamics in favor of task-relevant stimuli [6], this "inhibitory surround" attention mechanism accentuates the demarcation between task-relevant and irrelevant items. Here, we show that internally maintaining a color stimulus in working memory (WM), rather than visually attending the stimulus in the external environment, produces an analogous pattern of inhibition for stimuli that are nearby in color space. Replicating a well-known effect of attentional capture by stimuli that match WM content [7], visual attention was biased toward (task-irrelevant) stimuli that exactly matched a WM item. This bias was curtailed, however, for stimuli that were very similar to the WM content (i.e., within the inhibitory zone surrounding the focus of WM) and recovered for less similar stimuli (i.e., beyond the bounds of the inhibitory surround). Moreover, the expression of this inhibition effect was positively associated with WM performance across observers. In a second experiment, inhibition also occurred between two similar items simultaneously held in WM. This suggests that maintenance in WM is characterized by an excitatory peak centered on the focus of (internal) attention, surrounded by an inhibitory zone to limit interference by irrelevant and confusable representations. Here, thus, we show for the first time that the same center-surround selection mechanism that focuses visual attention on sensory stimuli also selectively maintains internally activated representations in WM.

  18. Zone heating for fluidized bed silane pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iya, Sridhar K. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An improved heated fluidized bed reactor and method for the production of high purity polycrystalline silicon by silane pyrolysis wherein silicon seed particles are heated in an upper heating zone of the reactor and admixed with particles in a lower reaction zone, in which zone a silane-containing gas stream, having passed through a lower cooled gas distribution zone not conducive to silane pyrolysis, contacts the heated seed particles whereon the silane is heterogeneously reduced to silicon.

  19. Fluid pathways in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, M. W.; van Keken, P. E.; Hacker, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    A large amount of water captured in the oceanic crust and mantle is recycled in subduction zones. Upon compaction and heating most fluids are expelled, but a significant amount of water can be carried in hydrated mineral phases and point defects. While the qualitative role of volatiles and dehydration reactions is well appreciated in the mechanisms for intermediate depth seismicity, mantle wedge melting and arc volcanism, the quantitative details of the metamorphic reactions and the pathways of fluids and melts in the slab are poorly understood. We provide finite element models, combined with thermodynamic and mineralogical constraints, to estimate the water release and migration from the subducting slab to overlying arc. We use models from a selection of warm (e.g., Cascadia), cold (Central Honshu) and intermediate (Nicaragua) subduction zones, using slab geometries constrained from seismological observations. The fluid release is predicted from the breakdown of hydrated phases in sediments, oceanic crust and slab mantle. We use newly developed high resolution models for the flow of these released fluids that take into account permeability and compaction pressures. While the detailed structure depends on the chosen rheology and permeability, we find that for reasonable assumptions of permeability, a significant amount of fluids can travel through the wedge along nearly vertical pathways at rates and paths, consistent with geochronological and geochemical constraints. For models considered to date, we find that the principal source of fluids that feed the wedge come from the hydrated oceanic crust and particularly the hydrated slab mantle. Fluids released from the sediments and shallow crust, tend to travel along high permeability zones in the subducting slab before being released to hydrate the cold corner of subduction zones, suggesting that the cold and hydrated forearc region that is imaged in many subduction zones is maintained by an active hydrological cycle

  20. INEEL Vadose Zone Research Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, G.; Hull, L.; Ansley, S.; Versteeg, R.; Scott, C.; Street, L.

    2003-12-01

    The Vadose Zone Research Park was developed to address mission critical issues related to operations, waste management, and environmental restoration at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are located over thick vadose zones. The research park provides instrumentation and facilities for scientists to address vadose zone processes that are important in assessing operational activities, remedial measures, and long-term stewardship of DOE lands. The park, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is strategically located along the Big Lost River, an intermittent river, and around two new percolation ponds. This location provides the opportunity to study variable recharge from the river, continuous recharge from the ponds, and the interactions between the two sources. Drilling began in September 2000 and was completed in June 2001. Thirty one wells and instrumented boreholes have been installed at the park to monitor perched water, measure moisture movement, collect water and gas samples, and study intra-well geophysical properties. Nine of the boreholes, ranging in depth from 150 ft to 504 ft below land surface (bls), are instrumented to monitor moisture in the vadose zone. Instruments include: tensiometers, moisture content sensors, suction lysimeters, temperature sensors, gas ports and electrodes for electrical resistance tomography. Electrodes are evenly spaced throughout the borehole with hydrologic instruments concentrated in and near the sedimentary interbeds-discontinuous layers of silts and clays that occur between some basalt flows. Eighteen monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 60 ft to 250 ft bls, are completed with 4 or 6 inch PVC casing, and generally include an electrical resistivity electrode array attached to the casing. Three bore holes are constructed for testing cross-hole ground penetrating radar as well as for testing new nuclear logging tools being designed at the INEEL. The remaining borehole contains only

  1. Drug-Free School Zones: Taking Charge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carol F.

    Information for planning and implementing drug-free school zones within a broader school-community prevention and intervention program is provided in this guidebook. The first section provides background information on drug-free school zone legislation and common elements of drug-free school zones. The risk and protective factors for alcohol and…

  2. Do "Some" Enterprise Zones Create Jobs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, Jed; Neumark, David

    2010-01-01

    We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase…

  3. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.23-5 Section 76.23-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Sprinkling System, Details § 76.23-5 Zoning. (a) Separate zones may be used for each deck, and on any...

  4. 46 CFR 76.35-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.35-5 Section 76.35-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Manual Alarm System, Details § 76.35-5 Zoning. (a) The zoning of the manual alarm system shall meet the same requirements...

  5. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.33-5 Section 76.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones...

  6. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  7. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  8. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  9. 46 CFR 76.33-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Smoke Detecting System, Details § 76.33-5 Zoning. (a) The smoke detecting system shall be divided into separate zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) The smoke detecting zone shall not...

  10. Evolution of a Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Van Hoolst, Tim; Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how Earth's surface might have evolved with time and to examine in a more general way the initiation and continuance of subduction zones and the possible formation of continents on an Earth-like planet. Plate tectonics and continents seem to influence the likelihood of a planet to harbour life, and both are strongly influenced by the planetary interior (e.g. mantle temperature and rheology) and surface conditions (e.g. stabilizing effect of continents, atmospheric temperature), but may also depend on the biosphere. Employing the Fortran convection code CHIC (developed at the Royal Observatory of Belgium), we simulate a subduction zone with a pre-defined weak zone (between oceanic and continental crust) and a fixed plate velocity for the subducting oceanic plate (Quinquis et al. in preparation). In our study we first investigate the main factors that influence the subduction process. We simulate the subduction of an oceanic plate beneath a continental plate (Noack et al., 2013). The crust is separated into an upper crust and a lower crust. We apply mixed Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology and vary the parameters that are most likely to influence the subduction of the ocanic plate, as for example density of the crust/mantle, surface temperature, plate velocity and subduction angle. The second part of our study concentrates on the long-term evolution of a subduction zone. Even though we model only the upper mantle (until a depth of 670km), the subducted crust is allowed to flow into the lower mantle, where it is no longer subject to our investigation. This way we can model the subduction zone over long time spans, for which we assume a continuous inflow of the oceanic plate into the investigated domain. We include variations in mantle temperatures (via secular cooling and decay of radioactive heat sources) and dehydration of silicates (leading to stiffening of the material). We investigate how the mantle environment influences

  11. Potentiation of latent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Gabriel; Hall, Geoffrey

    2008-07-01

    Rats were given exposure either to an odor (almond) or a compound of odor plus taste (almond plus saline), prior to training in which the odor served as the conditioned stimulus. It was found, for both appetitive and aversive procedures, that conditioning was retarded by preexposure (a latent inhibition effect), and the extent of the retardation was greater in rats preexposed to the compound (i.e., latent inhibition to the odor was potentiated by the presence of the taste). In contrast, the presence of the taste during conditioning itself overshadowed learning about the odor. We argue that the presence of the salient taste in compound with the odor enhances the rate of associative learning, producing a rapid loss in the associability of the odor. This loss of associability will generate both overshadowing and the potentiation of latent inhibition that is observed after preexposure to the compound.

  12. Chitin deacetylase product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Malgorzata M

    2011-02-01

    Chitin deacetylase is the only known enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of the acetamino linkage in the N-acetylglucosamine units of chitin and chitosan. This reaction can play an important role in enzymatic production of chitosan from chitin, or in enzymatic modification of chitosan, which has applications in medicine, pharmacy or plant protection. It was previously shown that acetic acid, a product of the deacetylation process, may act as an inhibitor of chitin deacetylase. Here we show the mechanism of inhibition of chitin deacetylase isolated from Absidia orchidis vel coerulea by acetic acid released during the deacetylation process. The process follows competitive inhibition with respect to acetic acid with an inhibition constant of K(i) = 0.286 mmol/L. These results will help to find the optimal system to carry out the enzymatic deacetylation process for industrial applications.

  13. 75 FR 28194 - Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente... safety zone around San Clemente Island in support of potentially hazardous military training and testing... operations. The new safety zone will protect the public from hazardous, live-fire and testing operations...

  14. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas... entry into a zone described in this section must request express permission to enter from the Captain...

  15. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas... entry into a zone described in this section must request express permission to enter from the Captain...

  16. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas... entry into a zone described in this section must request express permission to enter from the Captain...

  17. 76 FR 40808 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Within the Sector Boston Captain... establishing temporary safety zones within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for various... within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for various fireworks displays. Discussion...

  18. 78 FR 32608 - Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Duluth Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port... Safety Unit Duluth Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone. The safety zones in this proposed rule are needed to... taking place in the Duluth Captain of the Port Zone. The legal basis for the rule is the Coast...

  19. 33 CFR 165.105 - Security Zones; Passenger Vessels, Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone. 165.105 Section 165.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.105 Security Zones; Passenger Vessels, Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone..., Maine, Captain of the Port zone as delineated in 33 CFR 3.05-15. (b) Location. The following areas...

  20. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas... entry into a zone described in this section must request express permission to enter from the Captain...

  1. 78 FR 27032 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone... enforce various safety zones for annual marine events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone from May 24... without permission of the Captain of the Port. DATES: The regulations in this notice of enforcement...

  2. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas... entry into a zone described in this section must request express permission to enter from the Captain...

  3. Using Valsiner's Zone Theory To Interpret Change in Classroom Practice: Beyond the Zone of Proximal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Maria L.; Westbrook, Susan L.; Carter, Glenda

    This study explores the use of Valsiner's zone theory as a way to interpret the zones of proximal development of three secondary school teachers in mathematics and science. Specifically, researchers used classroom discourse to identify what the participating teachers promoted (zone of promoted action) or allowed (zone of free movement) in the…

  4. Revisiting the physical characterisitics of the subduction interplate seismogenic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuret, Arnauld; Lallemand, Serge; Funiciello, Francesca; Piromallo, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    statistical analysis reveals that: 1- vs, the subduction velocity is the first order controlling parameter of seismogenic zone variability, both in term of geometry and seismic behaviour; 2- steep dip, large vertical extent and narrow horizontal extent of the seismogenic zone are associated to fast subductions, and cold slabs, the opposite holding for slow subductions and warm slabs; the seismogenic zone usually ends in the fore-arc mantle rather than at the upper plate Moho depth; 3- seismic rate () variability is coherent with the geometry of the seismogenic zone:  increases with the dip and with the vertical extent of the seismogenic zone, and it fits with vs and with the subducting plate thermal state; 4- mega-events occurrence determines the level of seismic energy released along the subduction interface, whatever  is; 5- to some extent, the potential size of earthquakes fits with vs and with the seismogenic zone geometry, but second order controlling parameters are more difficult to detect; 6- the plate coupling, measured through Upper Plate Strain, is one possible second order parameter: mega-events are preferentially associated to neutral subductions, i.e. moderate compressive stresses along the plate interface; high plate coupling (compressive UPS) is thought to inhibit mega-events genesis by enhancing the locking of the plate interface and preventing the rupture to extend laterally. This research was supported as part of the Eurohorcs/ESF — European Young Investigators Awards Scheme (resp. F.F.), by funds from the National Research Council of Italy and other National Funding Agencies participating in the 3rd Memorandum of Understanding, as well as from the EC Sixth Framework Programme.

  5. FLUX EMERGENCE IN A MAGNETIZED CONVECTION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-07-20

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux ropes and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code (anelastic spherical harmonics) and analyzed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The global nature of this model can only very crudely and inaccurately represent the local dynamics of the buoyant rise of the implanted magnetic structure, but nonetheless allows us to study the influence of global effects, such as self-consistently generated differential rotation and meridional circulation, and of Coriolis forces. Although motivated by the solar context, this model cannot be thought of as a realistic model of the rise of magnetic structures and their emergence in the Sun, where the local dynamics are completely different. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and consequently are in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly strong as the flux ropes evolve. During the buoyant rise across the convection zone, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength scales as B{proportional_to}{rho}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} {approx}< 1. An increase of radial velocity, density, and current density is observed to precede flux emergence at all longitudes. The geometry, latitude, and relative orientation of the flux ropes with respect to the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flow amplitudes (which develop within the flux ropes), and the corresponding surface signatures. This influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing, and the Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence. The emerged magnetic flux

  6. Geothermal Lost Circulation Zone Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Lost circulation is an expensive and often encountered problem when drilling into geothermal formations. A method is needed to more accurately describe loss zones encountered during geothermal drilling to allow for more realistic testing since present testing techniques are inadequate. A Lost Circulation Zone Mapping Tool (LCZMT) is being developed that will quickly locate a loss zone and then provide a visual image of this zone as it intersects the wellbore. A modified Sandia high temperature Acoustic Borehole Televiewer should allow modeling of geothermal loss zones, which would in turn lead to testing that can be performed to evaluate lost circulation materials under simulated downhole conditions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

    1983-10-01

    This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

  8. Vegetative growth and cluster development in Shiraz grapevines subjected to partial root-zone cooling.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Clarke, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in root-zone temperature both vertically and horizontally may contribute to the uneven vegetative and reproductive growth often observed across vineyards. An experiment was designed to assess whether the warmed half of a grapevine root zone could compensate for the cooled half in terms of vegetative growth and reproductive development. We divided the root system of potted Shiraz grapevines bilaterally and applied either a cool or a warm treatment to each half from budburst to fruit set. Shoot growth and inflorescence development were monitored over the season. Simultaneous cooling and warming of parts of the root system decreased shoot elongation, leaf emergence and leaf expansion below that of plants with a fully warmed root zone, but not to the same extent as those with a fully cooled root zone. Inflorescence rachis length, flower number and berry number after fertilization were smaller only in those vines exposed to fully cooled root zones. After terminating the treatments, berry enlargement and the onset of veraison were slowed in those vines that had been exposed to complete or partial root-zone cooling. Grapevines exposed to partial root-zone cooling were thus delayed in vegetative and reproductive development, but the inhibition was greater in those plants whose entire root system had been cooled.

  9. Investigations of Near-Zone Doppler Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, Dale Austen

    Far away from an electromagnetic source the normal Doppler shifts in frequency occur--a red shift for receding and a blue shift for approaching. As indicated by previous work with an infinitesimal dipole, different frequency shifts occur when the source and observer move closer together, into the near-zone. These "near-zone Doppler effects" are investigated for general sources and subsequently two specific examples are presented. The general results show that near-zone shifts are similar to far-zone shifts, but the local phase velocity must be used, i.e. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). In the far zone the phase velocity is the speed of light; in the near zone it differs. Fundamentally, the distance between surfaces of constant phase in the near zone is changed. The surfaces of constant phase for the waves are no longer spherical, but more ellipsoidal or spheroidal, so that a moving observer sees a different frequency shift. Two specific examples are presented to indicate the actual magnitude of near-zone effects. The examples include a prolate spheroidal antenna and a circular aperture. Once the magnitude of the effects is determined, the measurability of near-zone Doppler effects is discussed. The investigation concentrates on Fresnel zone effects due to the measurement problem. Finally, it is shown that for an electrically large wire antenna (the spheroidal example) near-zone Doppler effects are measurable.

  10. Holdridge life zone physical inconsistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, A., Sr.; Ochoa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Life zones is a very used classification system, developed by L.R. Holdridge in 1967, used to discern why plants have different adaptation mechanism to their surrounding environment. In this paper, the relation between potential evapotranspiration rate (ETr ), anual precipitation (P ) and biotemperature (Tb ) in the Holdridge triangle, is parametrized (P = (500/9)*ETr) to evaluate if the rain process is conserved in Colombia. Further, an adiabatic ascent of air with diurnal and interannual variability, and cluster analysis is view as a classification example of the advantage of using physical process to evaluate the plants adaptation mechanisms . The most inconsistency life zones are situated in the rainiest places of Colombian pacific costs in tropical latitudinal region, are non-exist places in holdridge triangle with annual biotemperature higher than 26◦ C, annual precipitation about 10.000mm and annual potential evapotranspiration rate about 0.1. The difference between Holdridge predicted precipitation and the precipitation measured with TRMM are about 5.000mm in these places. Classification systems based on an annual average, do not stablish adaptation as a function of diurnal variability, for example, the difference between valley sides vegetation could not being determined. This kind of limitations, added to a validation procces and the auscence of a physic procces in the variable interaction, make the Holdridge Life Zones a very useful tool, but physically inconsistent for caracterice vegetation as a function of precipitation. The rain process is very complex, depend of mass and energy exchanges and is still a controversial topic in atmospheric modeling, as a biotic pump.

  11. Peptide bioregulators inhibit apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V K; Kvetnoii, I M

    2000-12-01

    The effects of peptide bioregulators epithalon and vilon on the dynamics of irradiation-induced apoptotic death of spleen lymphocytes in rats indicate that these agents inhibit physiologically programmed cell death. The antiapoptotic effect of vilon was more pronounced, which corroborates the concept on tissue-specific effect of peptide bioregulators.

  12. Serine proteases inhibiting cyanopeptides.

    PubMed

    Radau, G

    2000-08-01

    There are many compounds inhibiting serine proteases which play an important role in the human organism. This article reviews publications on the low-molecular weight, serine protease inhibitory cyanopeptides and reports on new developments in establishing structure-activity relationships.

  13. Reinforcement of inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Anger, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    A differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule with trials and delayed reinforcement was investigated. Periodically a wheel was briefly available to rats, followed six seconds later by brief availability of a bar. Variable-ratio food reinforcement of wheel turns was adjusted to give 95% turns. After variable-ratio-five reinforcement of bar presses produced 100% pressing, then separate ratio schedules were used for presses following turns (turn presses) and presses following nonturns (nonturn presses). Increasing nonturn-press reinforcements decreased turns, even though total reinforcements increased. Reversal by decreasing nonturn-press reinforcements raised turns, though with hysteresis. Thus food reinforcement increased nonturns even though delayed six to ten seconds after nonturns, a delay that greatly reduces response reinforcement. Those and other results indicate that the turn decrease was not due to reinforcement of competing responses. Evidence against other alternatives, and the reduction of responding by increased reinforcement, indicate that the term inhibition is appropriate for the phenomenon reinforced. Response-specific inhibition appears appropriate for this particular kind, since its effects are more specific to particular responses than Pavlovian conditioned-inhibition. Response-specific inhibition seems best considered a behavioral output comparable to responses (e.g., both reinforcible) but with important properties different from responses (e.g., different reinforcement-delay gradients). PMID:16812315

  14. Subventricular zone microglia transcriptional networks.

    PubMed

    Starossom, Sarah C; Imitola, Jaime; Wang, Yue; Cao, Li; Khoury, Samia J

    2011-07-01

    Microglia play an important role in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. There is evidence of microglial diversity with distinct phenotypes exhibiting either neuroprotection and repair or neurotoxicity. However the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this diversity are still unknown. Using a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) we performed transcriptional profiling of isolated subventricular zone microglia from the acute and chronic disease phases of EAE. We found that microglia exhibit disease phase specific gene expression signatures, that correspond to unique gene ontology functions and genomic networks. Our data demonstrate for the first time, distinct transcriptional networks of microglia activation in vivo, that suggests a role as mediators of injury or repair.

  15. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  16. Correlation between linezolid zone diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration values determined by regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, G; Poiata, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Buiuc, D

    2006-01-01

    Linezolid is a new synthetic antibiotic belonging to the oxazolidinone class, available for the therapy of gram-positive infections, caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro activity of linezolid against staphylococci strains and also to determine the relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone diameter by calculating the regression analysis. We tested one hundred S. aureus isolates, obtained from healthy persons (naso-pharyngeal swabs) during 2005 year. The antibiotic susceptibility of strains was determined by disk diffusion standardized method and by agar dilution method using a multipoint inoculator. The relationship between the diameter of the inhibition zone produced by a linezolid disc impregnated with a fixed amount (30 eg) was determined by regression performed with the least squares method, considering the log2 of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as the independent variable and the zone diameter as the dependent variable. The MIC values expressed in logarithmic form are plotted against inhibition zone diameter (arithmetic scale) of the same strain. The activity of linezolid against staphylococci was very good, with MIC 90 of 1 mg/l. All strains were fully sensitive. The regression line for linezolid passes through a continuous series of points that all are approximately located on the a straight line. For each of the MIC values the differences result no greater than 23 mm in diameter sizes were registered. Regression equation was y= -0.188x + 8.048. In conclusion, the regression line analysis calculated for linezolid, demonstrates a significant correlation between MIC values and the inhibition zone diameters obtained by a 30 mg disc.

  17. Zipper and freeway shear zone junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees; Platt, John

    2016-04-01

    Ductile shear zones are usually presented as isolated planar high-strain domains in a less deformed wall rock, characterised by shear sense indicators such as characteristic deflected foliation traces. Many shear zones, however, form branched systems and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting geometry can be complicated and lead to unusual fabric geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone junctions with three simultaneously operating branches, and with slip directions at a high angle to the branch line, eight basic types of shear zone triple junctions are possible, divided into three groups. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense on all three branches. If shear sense is different on the three branches, this can lead to space problems. Some of these junctions have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch, named zipper junctions, or a single shear zone which splits to form two, known as wedge junctions. Closing zipper junctions are most unusual, since they form a non-active high-strain zone with opposite deflection of foliations. Shear zipper and shear wedge junctions have two shear zones with similar shear sense, and one with the opposite sense. All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic flow patterns in the shear zone and its wall rock. Shear zone junctions with slip directions normal to the branch line can easily be studied, since ideal sections of shear sense indicators lie in the plane normal to the shear zone branches and the branch line. Expanding the model to allow slip oblique and parallel to the branch line in a full 3D setting gives rise to a large number of geometries in three main groups. Slip directions can be parallel on all branches but oblique to the branch line: two slip directions can be parallel and a third oblique, or all three branches can have slip in different directions. Such more complex shear zone junctions cannot be studied to advantage in a

  18. Second-generation zone plate antenna design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, James C.

    1999-11-01

    A well-designed phase correcting Fresnel zone plate antenna can provide performance superior to a lens or, in some cases, a paraboloid antenna, particularly at millimeter wavelengths. This paper discusses design considerations and includes approaches to give improved characteristics, such as greater efficiency or higher gain. The approaches include the use of quarter-wave or better correction, thickness designs that permit the central zone and other zones to be air dielectric (for lower losses), and the use of low dielectric constant materials to reduce surface reflections and multiple reflections. At higher millimeter-wave or sub- millimeter wavelengths low loss materials are important. More sophisticated zoning is described, as well as the use of a compromise thickness to compensate for the fact that refraction of waves at the surfaces causes the path lengths through the zone plate to be different at different angles of incidence. Multiple-band zone plates are discussed.

  19. Tectonic zoning of Wrangel Island, Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.; Moiseev, A. V.; Verzhbitskii, V. E.; Malyshev, N. A.; Gushchina, M. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    The Northern, Central, and Southern zones are distinguished by stratigraphic, lithologic, and structural features. The Northern Zone is characterized by Upper Silurian-Lower Devonian sedimentary rocks, which are not known in other zones. They have been deformed into near-meridional folds, which formed under settings of near-latitudinal shortening during the Ellesmere phase of deformation. In the Central Zone, mafic and felsic volcanic rocks that had been earlier referred to Carboniferous are actually Neoproterozoic and probably Early Cambrian in age. Together with folded Devonian-Lower Carboniferous rocks, they make up basement of the Central Zone, which is overlain with a angular unconformity by slightly deformed Lower (?) and Middle Carboniferous-Permian rocks. The Southern Zone comprises the Neoproterozoic metamorphic basement and the Devonian-Triassic sedimentary cover. North-vergent fold-thrust structures were formed at the end of the Early Cretaceous during the Chukchi (Late Kimmerian) deformation phase.

  20. Crustal growth in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Castro, Antonio; Gerya, Taras

    2015-04-01

    There is a broad interest in understanding the physical principles leading to arc magmatisim at active continental margins and different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the composition and evolution of the continental crust. It is widely accepted that water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle allowing for "flux melting" of the hydrated mantle. However, relamination of subducted crustal material to the base of the continental crust has been recently suggested to account for the growth and composition of the continental crust. We use petrological-thermo-mechanical models of active subduction zones to demonstrate that subduction of crustal material to sublithospheric depth may result in the formation of a tectonic rock mélange composed of basalt, sediment and hydrated /serpentinized mantle. This rock mélange may evolve into a partially molten diapir at asthenospheric depth and rise through the mantle because of its intrinsic buoyancy prior to emplacement at crustal levels (relamination). This process can be episodic and long-lived, forming successive diapirs that represent multiple magma pulses. Recent laboratory experiments of Castro et al. (2013) have demonstrated that reactions between these crustal components (i.e. basalt and sediment) produce andesitic melt typical for rocks of the continental crust. However, melt derived from a composite diapir will inherit the geochemical characteristics of its source and show distinct temporal variations of radiogenic isotopes based on the proportions of basalt and sediment in the source (Vogt et al., 2013). Hence, partial melting of a composite diapir is expected to produce melt with a constant major element composition, but substantial changes in terms of radiogenic isotopes. However, crustal growth at active continental margins may also involve accretionary processes by which new material is added to the continental crust. Oceanic plateaus and other

  1. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  2. Surface Wave Dynamics in the Coastal Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    heights, rip currents etc), coastal management, and help mitigate pollution hazards for humans (recreation) and coastal ecosystems . TRANSITIONS...1 Surface Wave Dynamics in the Coastal Zone Gerbrant Ph. van Vledder Department of Civil engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of...will be applicable in the coastal zone from deep water up to and including the surf zone. Our efforts will focus on analyzing high quality datasets to

  3. Automated zone correction in bitmapped document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    1999-12-01

    The optical character recognition system (OCR) selected by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) as part of its system for automating the production of MEDLINER records frequently segments the scanned page images into zones which are inappropriate for NLM's application. Software has been created in-house to correct the zones using character coordinate and character attribute information provided as part of the OCR output data. The software correctly delineates over 97% of the zones of interest tested to date.

  4. Breaking Wave Turbulence in the Surf Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    the surf zone are indicated by the regions of brighter ( whiter ) pixel intensity ......................................................23 Figure 13. A...of the shoal can be seen as the whiter area along the +80 meter long-shore line; with the darker (lower wave breaking) rip channels on either side...visible within the surf zone. Areas of intense wave breaking within the surf zone are indicated by the regions of brighter ( whiter ) pixel intensity

  5. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a review and evaluation of vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring. It describes the applicability of selected monitoring methods to hazardous waste disposal sites. Topics covered include: geohydrologic framework of the vadose zone; premonitoring of storage at disposal sites; premonitoring of water movement at disposal sites; active and abandoned site monitoring methods; waste source pollutant characterization; geohydrologic settings for waste disposals and conceptual vadose zone monitoring descriptions.

  6. Semantic processing and response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Motes, Michael A; Mudar, Raksha A; Rao, Neena K; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Brier, Matthew R; Maguire, Mandy J; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2013-11-13

    The present study examined functional MRI (fMRI) BOLD signal changes in response to object categorization during response selection and inhibition. Young adults (N=16) completed a Go/NoGo task with varying object categorization requirements while fMRI data were recorded. Response inhibition elicited increased signal change in various brain regions, including medial frontal areas, compared with response selection. BOLD signal in an area within the right angular gyrus was increased when higher-order categorization was mandated. In addition, signal change during response inhibition varied with categorization requirements in the left inferior temporal gyrus (lIT). lIT-mediated response inhibition when inhibiting the response only required lower-order categorization, but lIT mediated both response selection and inhibition when selecting and inhibiting the response required higher-order categorization. The findings characterized mechanisms mediating response inhibition associated with semantic object categorization in the 'what' visual object memory system.

  7. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  8. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-10 Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  9. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA....

  10. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA....

  11. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-10 Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  12. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventeenth Coast Guard District § 3.85-10 Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  13. 33 CFR 3.35-20 - Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-20 Section 3.35-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-20 Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Jacksonville's office is located in Jacksonville,...

  14. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA....

  15. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-10 Section 3.25-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  16. 33 CFR 3.35-35 - Sector St. Petersburg Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-35 Section 3.35-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-35 Sector St. Petersburg Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector St. Petersburg's sector office is located in...

  17. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-10 Section 3.65-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Puget Sound's office is located in Seattle, WA....

  18. 33 CFR 3.35-20 - Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-20 Section 3.35-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-20 Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Jacksonville's office is located in Jacksonville,...

  19. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  20. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  1. 33 CFR 3.35-20 - Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-20 Section 3.35-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-20 Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Jacksonville's office is located in Jacksonville,...

  2. 33 CFR 3.35-35 - Sector St. Petersburg Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-35 Section 3.35-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-35 Sector St. Petersburg Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector St. Petersburg's sector office is located in...

  3. 33 CFR 3.55-15 - Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-15 Section 3.55-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-15 Sector San Diego Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Diego's office is located in San Diego, CA....

  4. 33 CFR 3.25-15 - Sector Baltimore Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-15 Section 3.25-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-15 Sector Baltimore Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Baltimore's office is located in Baltimore, MD....

  5. 33 CFR 3.35-20 - Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-20 Section 3.35-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-20 Sector Jacksonville Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Jacksonville's office is located in Jacksonville,...

  6. 33 CFR 3.35-35 - Sector St. Petersburg Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-35 Section 3.35-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-35 Sector St. Petersburg Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector St. Petersburg's sector office is located in...

  7. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  8. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-10 Section 3.25-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  9. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.25-10 Section 3.25-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA....

  10. Single-Heater, Three-Zone Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Shauback, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Temperature profile shaped with help of thermal barriers. Proposed furnace for use in experiments on growth of crystals of highly pure material in ampoule provides three temperature zones, yet contains only one heat-pipe liner and one heater and operates with only one controller. Three temperature zones established as thermal resistances of wicks and noncondensible gas reduces flows of heat into channel containing ampoule. Motion of ampoule along channel causes gradients of temperature to move along specimen in ampoule. Variety of three-zone temperature profiles in furnace created by changing thermal resistances of zones and injecting noncondensible gas at appropriate point. Furnace used for variety of experiments.

  11. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions.

  12. Specialized zones of development in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose using the term "distal elongation zone" (DEZ) rather than "postmitotic isodiametric growth zone" to refer to the group of cells between the apical meristem and the elongation zone in plant roots. Reasons presented for the change are that the proposed DEZ includes many cells that are still dividing, most cells in the region are not isodiametric, and the pattern of cell expansion in this region varies with position in the region. Cells in the DEZ respond to gravistimulation, mechanical impedance, electrotropic stimulation, water stress, and auxin. Differences in gene expression patterns between DEZ cells and cells in the main elongation zone are noted.

  13. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    PubMed

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  14. Reductive dechlorination in recalcitrant sources of chloroethenes in the transition zone between aquifers and aquitards.

    PubMed

    Puigserver, Diana; Herrero, Jofre; Torres, Mònica; Cortés, Amparo; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Kuntze, Kevin; Parker, Beth L; Carmona, José M

    2016-09-01

    In the transition zone between aquifers and basal aquitards, the perchloroethene pools at an early time in their evolution are more recalcitrant than those elsewhere in the aquifer. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that the biodegradation of chloroethenes from aged pools (i.e., pools after decades of continuous groundwater flushing and dissolution) of perchloroethene is favored in the transition zone. A field site was selected where an aged pool exists at the bottom of a transition zone. Two boreholes were drilled to obtain sediment and groundwater samples to perform chemical, isotopic, molecular, and clone library analyses and microcosm experiments. The main results were as follows: (i) the transition zone is characterized by a high microbial richness; (ii) reductively dechlorinating microorganisms are present and partial reductive dechlorination coexists with denitrification, Fe and Mn reduction, and sulfate reduction; (iii) reductively dechlorinating microorganisms were also present in the zone of the aged pool; (v) the high concentrations of perchloroethene in this zone resulted in a decrease in microbial richness; (vi) however, the presence of fermenting microorganisms supplying electrons for the reductively dechlorinating microorganisms prevented the reductive dechlorination to be inhibited. These findings suggest that biostimulation and/or bioaugmentation could be applied to promote complete reductive dechlorination and to enhance the dissolution of more nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL).

  15. 78 FR 9640 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... effect year round, the safety zones within it will be enforced only immediately before, during, and after... reasons. Each safety zone in this proposed rule will be in effect for a relatively short period of time... assist small entities in understanding this proposed rule so that they can better evaluate its effects...

  16. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  17. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  18. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  19. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  20. A half-zone study of Marangoni convection in floating-zone crystal growth under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. W.; Kim, Y. J.; Kou, S.

    1990-01-01

    Floating-zone crystal growth under microgravity, though free from natural convection, can still be susceptible to Marangoni convection. The use of a ring heater in contact with most of the surface of the melt zone, has recently been considered as one way of reducing Marangoni convection in the melt zone. In order to study Marangoni convection in the melt zone in this modified floating-zone crystal growth process, a half-zone system was adopted. Computer simulation and direct observation of Marangoni convection in the half-zone system were carried out for two different cases. In the first case, the surface of the melt zone was completely free, while in the second it was mostly in contact with a quartz ring. The results of computer simulation and direct observation both indicated that in the second case Marangoni convection was significantly reduced near the melt/solid interface as well as in the bulk melt.

  1. The historical trend in float zone crystal diameters and power requirements for float zoned silicon crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The power needed to zone silicon crystals by radio frequency heating was analyzed. The heat loss mechanisms are examined. Curves are presented for power as a function of crystal diameter for commercial silicon zoning.

  2. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Padula

    2000-09-13

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations.

  3. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ..., DC Security Zone (Part 165). 1/25/2011 USCG-2011-0032 San Diego, CA Security Zone (Part 165). 2/8...)... 6/25/2011 USCG-2011-0152 Tennessee River Safety Zone (Part 165)... 3/7/2011 USCG-2011-0153 Lake...)... 4/12/2011 USCG-2011-0161 Port Everglades, FL....... Security Zone (Part 165). 4/25/2011...

  4. 75 FR 32666 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Port Detroit area of responsibility. This rule adds safety zones for fireworks events. These safety zones are necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with fireworks.... These additional safety zones are necessary to protect vessels and spectators from the...

  5. 76 FR 44880 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... USCG-2011-0318] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone... carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC) while they are being escorted in the navigable waters of the Captain..., the Captain of the Port, Ohio Valley proposes to establish security zones around certain...

  6. 33 CFR 165.749 - Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone. 165.749 Section 165.749 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.749 Security Zone: Escorted Vessels, Savannah, Georgia, Captain of the Port Zone. (a) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section: COTP means Captain of the...

  7. 33 CFR 165.916 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.916 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan. (a) Location. The following... authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Milwaukee. Section 165.33 also contains other...

  8. 33 CFR 165.916 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.916 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan. (a) Location. The following... authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Milwaukee. Section 165.33 also contains other...

  9. 77 FR 4900 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port... entitled ``Security Zone; Escorted Vessels in Captain of the Port Ohio Valley Zone'' that was published in... carrying Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC) while they are being escorted in the navigable waters of the...

  10. 75 FR 71408 - Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the... Safety Zones: Fireworks displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) * * * (7) * * * (ii...: November 5, 2010. D.E. Kaup, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Captain of the Port, Columbia River. BILLING...

  11. 77 FR 29898 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port... Guard will enforce the safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit zone... without permission of the Captain of the Port. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.941 will be...

  12. 77 FR 32021 - Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia... Guard will enforce the safety zones for fireworks displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the... safety zone without permission of the Captain of the Port Columbia River or his designated...

  13. 75 FR 33506 - Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Portland Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Portland... will enforce several safety zones for fireworks displays being held in the Captain of the Port Portland... in the zone unless authorized by the Captain of the Port or his designated representative. DATES:...

  14. 78 FR 45059 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port... zone without the permission of the Captain of the Port Buffalo. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165... Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone listed in 33 CFR 165.939 for the following...

  15. 77 FR 30245 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of... Coast Guard proposes to amend 33 CFR 165.941 by adding three permanent safety zones within the Captain... Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. DATES: Comments and related materials must be received by the...

  16. 33 CFR 165.916 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.916 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan. (a) Location. The following... authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Milwaukee. Section 165.33 also contains other...

  17. 33 CFR 165.916 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zones; Captain of the... § 165.916 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Milwaukee Zone, Lake Michigan. (a) Location. The following... authorized by the Coast Guard Captain of the Port Milwaukee. Section 165.33 also contains other...

  18. 77 FR 33970 - Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone... permission of the Captain of the Port (COTP). DATES: The regulations for the safety zones described in 33 CFR... enter the regulated area. Dated: May 21, 2012. G.P. Hitchen, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Acting...

  19. 77 FR 38484 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... 23, 2012. (2) St. Clair Shores Fireworks, St. Clair Shores, MI. The safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165... Pointe Shores, MI. The safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(42) will be enforced from 10:00 p.m. to 10... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the...

  20. 78 FR 75899 - Safety Zone; 2013 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... occur on the navigable waterways in the vicinity of Palm Beach and Miami, Florida. The safety zones... the Port Miami Zone. The safety zones are listed below. 1. Palm Beach, Florida. On December 7, 2013... marine parade will be held on the waters of the Intracoastal Waterway in Palm Beach, Florida. The...

  1. 76 FR 41073 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    .... This final rule creates a 100-yard radius security zone encompassing all navigable waters around any cruise ship anchored or moored, and 200-yard radius security zone encompassing all navigable waters... Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, extending from the surface to the sea floor: (1) Within a 200-yard...

  2. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Theodore, AL Security Zone (Part 165)... 7/22/2010 USCG-2010-0697 Panama City, FL Security Zone (Part 165)... 8/14/2010 USCG-2010-0698 Panama City, FL Security Zone (Part 165)... 8/14/2010 USCG-2010-0699...-2010-0729 Blynman Canal, MA Drawbridge Operations 8/8/2010 Regulation (Part 117). USCG-2010-0734...

  3. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  4. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  5. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  6. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  7. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  8. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  9. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security zones. 165.30 Section 165.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Security Zones §...

  10. Future float zone development in industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandfort, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

  11. 47 CFR 73.205 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zones. 73.205 Section 73.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.205 Zones. For the purpose of allotments and assignments, the United States...

  12. 47 CFR 73.205 - Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zones. 73.205 Section 73.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.205 Zones. For the purpose of allotments and assignments, the United States...

  13. 33 CFR 2.28 - Contiguous zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.28 Contiguous zone. (a) For the purposes of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33... of the territorial sea, as defined in § 2.22(a)(2), that was declared to exist in Department of State... from the territorial sea baseline. (b) For all other purposes, contiguous zone means all waters...

  14. One-zone rolling of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhan, L. S.; Morozov, Yu. A.; Slavgorodskaya, Yu. B.

    2016-12-01

    The energy-force parameters of free rolling of a strip without its tension and rolling with one backward or forward creep zone in the deformation zone are compared. The limiting backward or forward tensions are determined, and the change in the linear sizes of a composite billet during deformation in a rolling mill is considered.

  15. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Figure 3. Map of 2014 IBRV Araon Arctic cruise study area, indicating CTD, XCTD, sea- ice caps , and helicopter...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders...distribution of phytoplankton and particulate organic carbon in the Arctic under the ice and in the marginal ice zone, as well as to understand feedbacks

  17. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.30-5 Section 76.30-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Pneumatic Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.30-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into...

  18. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zoning. 76.27-5 Section 76.27-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Electric Fire Detecting System, Details § 76.27-5 Zoning. (a) The fire detecting system shall be divided into...

  19. Pharmacological inhibition of FTO.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Fiona; Demetriades, Marina; Aik, WeiShen; Merkestein, Myrte; Kramer, Holger; Andrew, Daniel S; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Hough, Tertius A; Wells, Sara; Ashcroft, Frances M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J; Cox, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells) and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO's demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity.

  20. Pharmacological Inhibition of FTO

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Fiona; Demetriades, Marina; Aik, WeiShen; Merkestein, Myrte; Kramer, Holger; Andrew, Daniel S.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Hough, Tertius A.; Wells, Sara; Ashcroft, Frances M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Cox, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells) and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO’s demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25830347

  1. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  2. Zoning, accessory dwelling units, and family caregiving: issues, trends, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Phoebe S; Koenig, Teresa; Pynoos, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between zoning regulations and co-residential family caregiving in the United States. It first provides an overview of U.S. housing policies, especially zoning. We then describe major changes in family structure and composition in the United States with their implications for caregiving and discuss how multigenerational housing options, particularly accessory dwelling units (ADUs) in single-family homes, can help support family caregiving. After an overview of zoning policies and actions that inhibit ADU production, we document current trends, incorporating information from a small non-random study of ADU activity we conducted in 2004. Finally, we present recommendations for promoting more multigenerational housing as a supplement to other family support programs (e.g., dependent care assistance, family caregiver payments) and as a source of affordable, supportive housing for those families choosing co-residence as their eldercare solution.

  3. Rainfall Morphology in Semi-Tropical Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Ferrier, Brad S.; Ray, Peter S.

    2000-01-01

    Central Florida is the ideal test laboratory for studying convergence zone-induced convection. The region regularly experiences sea breeze fronts and rainfall-induced outflow boundaries. The focus of this study is the common yet poorly-studied convergence zone established by the interaction of the sea breeze front and an outflow boundary. Previous studies have investigated mechanisms primarily affecting storm initiation by such convergence zones. Few have focused on rainfall morphology yet these storms contribute a significant amount precipitation to the annual rainfall budget. Low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture have both been shown to correlate with rainfall amounts in Florida. Using 2D and 3D numerical simulations, the roles of low-level convergence and mid-tropospheric moisture in rainfall evolution are examined. The results indicate that time-averaged, vertical moisture flux (VMF) at the sea breeze front/outflow convergence zone is directly and linearly proportional to initial condensation rates. This proportionality establishes a similar relationship between VMF and initial rainfall. Vertical moisture flux, which encompasses depth and magnitude of convergence, is better correlated to initial rainfall production than surface moisture convergence. This extends early observational studies which linked rainfall in Florida to surface moisture convergence. The amount and distribution of mid-tropospheric moisture determines how rainfall associated with secondary cells develop. Rainfall amount and efficiency varied significantly over an observable range of relative humidities in the 850- 500 mb layer even though rainfall evolution was similar during the initial or "first-cell" period. Rainfall variability was attributed to drier mid-tropospheric environments inhibiting secondary cell development through entrainment effects. Observationally, 850-500 mb moisture structure exhibits wider variability than lower level moisture, which is virtually always

  4. Convection in the east Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The eastern tropical Pacific exhibits a strong, cross-equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, which drives a southerly flow in the atmospheric boundary layer. Convergence in this flow is generally considered to drive deep convection in the east Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone. However, results from cloud modeling and recent field programs provide an alternative thermodynamic mechanism for controlling this convection. While shallow convection responds to boundary layer convergence, deep convection appears to be controlled by a combination of convective inhibition, surface moist entropy fluxes, tropospheric relative humidity, and moist convective instability. These factors explain the sharp minimum in infrared brightness temperature near 8°N while boundary layer convergence occurs over a much broader range of latitudes.

  5. Compressible plume dynamics in the transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossmann, A. B.; Van Keken, P. E.; Ritsema, J. E.; Goes, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Plumes rising from the deep mantle may explain hotspot volcanism, but their occurrence in the lower mantle is not unambiguously confirmed by seismological imaging studies. Additionally, the seismologically observed flat topography of the 670 km discontinuity below hotspots disagrees with the elevation expected due to its negative Clapeyron slope and plume excess temperature. Numerical models that account for realistic rheology, compressibility and consistently implemented phase transitions may help reconciling these observations with the mantle plume hypothesis. Here we present numerical mantle plume models in an axisymmetric spherical shell geometry. The Anelastic Liquid Approximation is applied to the governing equations to account for mantle compressibility, viscous dissipation and work done against gravity. Besides this, a depth- and temperature dependent viscosity and the main phase boundaries at 400 and 670 km depth as well as latent heat effects during the phase transitions are considered. The reference state is based on the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and considers PREM-like density jumps at 400 and 670 km depth and latent heat effects in the temperature profile. We include a dense layer above the core-mantle boundary from which the plume rises. Plume dynamics and morphology is studied for varying Clapeyron slope, especially at the endothermic phase transition, Rayleigh number and different viscosity models. We evaluate the importance of consistently implementing latent heat in the governing equations and reference state. Furthermore we vary excess density and thickness of the dense layer to study the effects on entrainment of the layer and the dynamics in the transition zone. Our models show that the seismologically observed flat topography of the 670 km phase boundary is consistent with a plume origin in the deep mantle and offer an additional explanation independent of previously proposed ones, as we observe a large plume head in the lower mantle

  6. Firefly luciferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Leitão, João M M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-10-05

    Firefly luciferase (Luc) is the most studied of the luciferase enzymes and the mechanism and kinetics of the reactions catalyzed by this enzyme have been relatively well characterized. Luc catalyzes the bioluminescent reaction involving firefly luciferin (D-LH(2)), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), magnesium ion and molecular oxygen with the formation of an electronically excited species (oxyluciferin), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), carbon dioxide and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Luc also catalyzes other non-luminescent reactions, which can interfere with the light production mechanism. Following electronic relaxation, the excited oxyluciferin emits radiation in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum (550-570 nm). Among the various possible compounds, several classes of inhibitory substances interfere with the activity of this enzyme: here, we consider substrate-related compounds, intermediates or products of the Luc catalyzed reactions, in addition to anesthetics and, fatty acids. This review summarizes the main inhibitors of Luc and the corresponding inhibition kinetic parameters.

  7. Anxiety and retrieval inhibition: support for an enhanced inhibition account.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Mia; Gregory, Josh; Zinbarg, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    Retrieval inhibition of negative associations is important for exposure therapy for anxiety, but the relationship between memory inhibition and anxiety is not well understood-anxiety could either be associated with enhanced or deficient inhibition. The present study tested these two competing hypotheses by measuring retrieval inhibition of negative stimuli by related neutral stimuli. Non-clinically anxious undergraduates completed measures of trait and state anxiety and completed a retrieval induced forgetting task. Adaptive forgetting varied with state anxiety. Low levels of state anxiety were associated with no evidence for retrieval inhibition for either threatening or non-threatening categories. Participants in the middle tertile of state anxiety scores exhibited retrieval inhibition for non-threatening categories but not for threatening categories. Participants in the highest tertile of state anxiety, however, exhibited retrieval inhibition for both threatening and non-threatening categories with the magnitude of retrieval inhibition being greater for threatening than non-threatening categories. The data are in line with the avoidance aspect of the vigilance-avoidance theory of anxiety and inhibition. Implications for cognitive behavioural therapy practices are discussed.

  8. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  9. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  10. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  11. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  12. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  13. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  14. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N2–CO2–H2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N2–CO2–H2O–H2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H2 warming is reduced in dense H2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  15. Shear zone junctions: Of zippers and freeways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passchier, Cees W.; Platt, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Ductile shear zones are commonly treated as straight high-strain domains with uniform shear sense and characteristic curved foliation trails, bounded by non-deforming wall rock. Many shear zones, however, are branched, and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting shape can be complicated and lead to unusual shear sense arrangement and foliation geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone triple junctions with three joining branches and transport direction at a high angle to the branchline, only eight basic types of junction are thought to be stable and to produce significant displacement. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense in all three branches. The other types show joining or separating behaviour of shear zone branches similar to the action of a zipper. Such junctions may have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch (closing zipper junction), or a single shear zone that splits to form two branches, (opening zipper junction). All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic foliation patterns and deflection of markers in the wall rock. Closing zipper junctions are unusual, since they form a non-active zone with opposite deflection of foliations in the wall rock known as an extraction fault or wake. Shear zipper junctions can form domains of overprinting shear sense along their flanks. A small and large field example are given from NE Spain and Eastern Anatolia. The geometry of more complex, 3D shear zone junctions with slip parallel and oblique to the branchline is briefly discussed.

  16. Secondary porosity in a transient vadose zone

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.T.; Grasso, T.X. Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    The Western New York Nuclear Service Center is the site of low and high level radioactive waster buried in a series of trenches excavated in a 28 m thick, Lavery-age silty clay diamicton that exhibits a 6 meter thick transient vadoes zone where exposed at the surface. Hydrostratigraphy of this till includes a 0.25 m thick poorly developed macroporous soil, a 3.5 m thick weathered zone of densely spaced and randomly orientated horizontal and vertical fractures, a 2 m thick unweathered zone of intermittently spaced fractures exhibiting east-west orientations, and a massive 23 m thick unweathered till zone that exhibits isolated, east-west orientated fractures. Bulk hydraulic conductivity of this active flow zone decreases with depth from 10[sup [minus]5] to 10[sup [minus]8] cm/s. The specific discharge of vertically flowing groundwater in the massive till zone is 1.25 cm/yr. A water surplus in the recharge season saturates the fractured zone to grade with up to 7.37 cm/yr of net infiltration. Tritium and radionuclides from the waste trenches and surrounding soil matrix hydrodynamically disperse into the field-saturated fracture network that contains meteoric recharge water. A soil moisture deficit in discharge season produces a vadose zone of widened fractures that via capillarity enhances the diffusion of contaminants into the soil matrix. These enlarged connecting conduits laterally channel the excess infiltration from the recharge season and diffused contaminants to local lowlands and incised streams that truncate the unweathered till. The current vadose and phreatic zone flow study will be used in numeric simulations that will delineate the areal extend and temporal duration of these seepage faces and the time frame of possible surfaces water contamination.

  17. Modeling of the transition zone porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdette, B.; Ringot, E.; Ollivier, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    The ion diffusion process in mortar is different from the one which occurs in cement paste. This difference is due to the presence of transition zones, which take place around the grains in mortar and which are very porous regions. Based on mercury intrusion porosimetry experimental data and on the analysis of percolation through a 3D mortar model, a computation of the transition zone porosity and of the bulk paste porosity has been carried out. The porosity of the transition zone has been analyzed as a function of the mortar composition and of the degree of hydration.

  18. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  19. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  20. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  1. Knowledge-based flow field zoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Alison E.

    1988-01-01

    Automation flow field zoning in two dimensions is an important step towards easing the three-dimensional grid generation bottleneck in computational fluid dynamics. A knowledge based approach works well, but certain aspects of flow field zoning make the use of such an approach challenging. A knowledge based flow field zoner, called EZGrid, was implemented and tested on representative two-dimensional aerodynamic configurations. Results are shown which illustrate the way in which EZGrid incorporates the effects of physics, shape description, position, and user bias in a flow field zoning.

  2. Global prevalence of double Benioff zones.

    PubMed

    Brudzinski, Michael R; Thurber, Clifford H; Hacker, Bradley R; Engdahl, E Robert

    2007-06-08

    Double Benioff zones provide opportunities for insight into seismogenesis because the underlying mechanism must explain two layers of deep earthquakes and the separation between them. We characterize layer separation inside subducting plates with a coordinate rotation to calculate the slab-normal distribution of earthquakes. Benchmark tests on well-established examples confirm that layer separation is accurately quantified with global seismicity catalogs alone. Global analysis reveals double Benioff zones in 30 segments, including all 16 subduction zones investigated, with varying subducting plate ages and stress orientations, which implies that they are inherent in subducting plates. Layer separation increases with age and is more consistent with dehydration of antigorite than chlorite.

  3. 33 CFR 3.40-10 - Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.40-10 Section 3.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eighth Coast Guard District § 3.40-10 Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Mobile's office is located in Mobile, AL. The boundaries of Sector...

  4. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.45-10 Section 3.45-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-10 Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Buffalo's office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of...

  5. 33 CFR 3.35-40 - Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-40 Section 3.35-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-40 Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Key West's office is located in Key West, FL. The boundaries...

  6. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  7. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  8. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  9. 33 CFR 3.40-10 - Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.40-10 Section 3.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eighth Coast Guard District § 3.40-10 Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Mobile's office is located in Mobile, AL. The boundaries of Sector...

  10. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  11. 33 CFR 3.45-20 - Sector Detroit Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.45-20 Section 3.45-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-20 Sector Detroit Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Detroit's office is located in Detroit, MI. The boundaries of...

  12. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  13. 33 CFR 3.35-40 - Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-40 Section 3.35-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-40 Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Key West's office is located in Key West, FL. The boundaries...

  14. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  15. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  16. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  17. 33 CFR 3.35-40 - Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-40 Section 3.35-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-40 Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Key West's office is located in Key West, FL. The boundaries...

  18. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Seattle: Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-10 Section 3.65-10 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Seattle... Zones start at latitude 48°29′35″ N, longitude 124°43′45″ W, proceeding along the Canadian border...

  19. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine... this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Long, Island Sound. (3)...

  20. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine... this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Long, Island Sound. (3)...

  1. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation... Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. The following areas are designated safety and... navigable waters of Long Island Sound, from surface to bottom, North and Northeast of a line running...

  2. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation... Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. The following areas are designated safety and... navigable waters of Long Island Sound, from surface to bottom, North and Northeast of a line running...

  3. Inhibition of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum with lactic acid bacteria and their bacteriocins at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, S; Peiris, P; Casadei, G

    2003-04-01

    Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum (strains 17B, Beluga, and 202F) was found to be inhibited by Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus species in tests by the spot-on-the-lawn simultaneous-antagonism method at 10, 15, and 25 degrees C. C. botulinum 17B was the most resistant strain. Inhibition zone size increased with decreasing incubation temperature. Six strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and seven strains of bifidobacteria failed to produce an inhibition zone on buffered reinforced clostridium Prussian blue agar seeded with spores of any of the selected C. botulinum strains. C. botulinum 17B was sensitive to 50 to 100 IU of nisin per ml and to 10 to 20 AU of pediocin A per ml.

  4. 26 CFR 1.1394-1 - Enterprise zone facility bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... enterprise zone business) and 1397C (relating to satisfaction of the rules for qualified zone property) do... deliver large print jobs to customers who reside outside of the zone. So long as K is able to...

  5. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  6. Monitoring Vadose Zone Desiccation with Geophysical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2013-05-01

    Soil desiccation was recently field tested as a potential vadose zone remediation technology. Desiccation removes water from the vadose zone and significantly decreases the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone, thereby decreasing movement of moisture and contaminants. The 2-D and 3-D distribution of moisture content reduction over time provides valuable information for desiccation operations and for determining when treatment goals have been reached. This type of information can be obtained through use of geophysical methods. Neutron moisture logging, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar approaches were evaluated with respect to their ability to provide effective spatial and temporal monitoring of desiccation during a treatability study conducted in the vadose zone of the DOE Hanford Site in WA.

  7. 46 CFR 76.30-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire detecting... not more than 3,000 feet. (2) Isolated rooms or lockers in such spaces as mast houses, wheelhouse...

  8. 46 CFR 76.27-5 - Zoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... zones to restrict the area covered by any particular alarm signal. (b) All spaces in a fire detecting..., wheelhouse top, etc., which are easily communicable with the area of the fire-detecting circuit to which...

  9. Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Doughty, C.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Moridis, G.J.; Pan,L.; Xu, T.; Zhang, Y.; Pruess, K.

    2007-02-01

    The vadose zone can be characterized as a complex subsurfacesystem in which intricate physical and biogeochemical processes occur inresponse to a variety of natural forcings and human activities. Thismakes it difficult to describe, understand, and predict the behavior ofthis specific subsurface system. The TOUGH nonisothermal multiphase flowsimulators are well-suited to perform advanced vadose zone studies. Theconceptual models underlying the TOUGH simulators are capable ofrepresenting features specific to the vadose zone, and of addressing avariety of coupled phenomena. Moreover, the simulators are integratedinto software tools that enable advanced data analysis, optimization, andsystem-level modeling. We discuss fundamental and computationalchallenges in simulating vadose zone processes, review recent advances inmodeling such systems, and demonstrate some capabilities of the TOUGHsuite of codes using illustrative examples.

  10. Strategic metal deposits of the Arctic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Lobanov, K. V.; Volkov, A. V.; Galyamov, A. L.; Vikent'ev, I. V.; Tarasov, N. N.; Distler, V. V.; Lalomov, A. V.; Aristov, V. V.; Murashov, K. Yu.; Chizhova, I. A.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mineral commodities rank high in the economies of Arctic countries, and the status of mineral resources and the dynamics of their development are of great importance. The growing tendency to develop strategic metal resources in the Circumarctic Zone is outlined in a global perspective. The Russian Arctic Zone is the leading purveyor of these metals to domestic and foreign markets. The comparative analysis of tendencies in development of strategic metal resources of the Arctic Zone in Russia and other countries is crucial for the elaboration of trends of geological exploration and research engineering. This paper provides insight into the development of Arctic strategic metal resources in global perspective. It is shown that the mineral resource potential of the Arctic circumpolar metallogenic belt is primarily controlled by large and unique deposits of nonferrous, noble, and rare metals. The prospective types of economic strategic metal deposits in the Russian Arctic Zone are shown.

  11. Permeable Reactive Zones for Groundwater Remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will cover aspects of the application of permeable reactive zones to treat contaminated ground water. Specific field studies will be discussed covering both granular iron-based and organic carbon-based reactive barriers. Specific contaminants addressed include:...

  12. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  13. Vulnerable Zone Indicator System (Option 2)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Enter your latitude and longitude to access the Vulnerable Zone Indicator System. VZIS can help you determine if your area could be affected by a chemical accident at a facility that submitted a Risk Management Plan (RMP).

  14. Seismic coupling and uncoupling at subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Kanamori, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the correlations concerning the properties of subduction zones are reviewed. A quantitative global comparison of many subduction zones reveals that the largest earthquakes occur in zones with young lithosphere and fast convergence rates. Maximum earthquake size is directly related to the asperity distribution on the fault plane. This observation can be translated into a simple model of seismic coupling where the horizontal compressive stress between two plates is proportional to the ratio of the summed asperity area to the total area of the contact surface. Plate age and rate can control asperity distribution directly through the horizontal compressive stress associated with the vertical and horizontal velocities of subducting slabs. The basalt to eclogite phase change in the down-going oceanic crust may be largely responsible for the uncoupling of subduction zones below a depth of about 40 km.

  15. No-Discharge Zones (NDZs) by State

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table that lists currently designated no discharge zones (NDZs) for vessel sewage. For each NDZ, information is provided including the designated water body, type of designation, Federal Register notice, and map.

  16. Heterogeneous hyporheic zone dechlorination of a TCE groundwater plume discharging to an urban river reach.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Rivett, Michael O; Roche, Rachel S; Durrant Neé Cleverly, Megan; Walker, Caroline; Tellam, John H

    2015-02-01

    The typically elevated natural attenuation capacity of riverbed-hyporheic zones is expected to decrease chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) groundwater plume discharges to river receptors through dechlorination reactions. The aim of this study was to assess physico-chemical processes controlling field-scale variation in riverbed-hyporheic zone dechlorination of a TCE groundwater plume discharge to an urban river reach. The 50-m long pool-riffle-glide reach of the River Tame in Birmingham (UK) studied is a heterogeneous high energy river environment. The shallow riverbed was instrumented with a detailed network of multilevel samplers. Freeze coring revealed a geologically heterogeneous and poorly sorted riverbed. A chlorine number reduction approach provided a quantitative indicator of CHC dechlorination. Three sub-reaches of contrasting behaviour were identified. Greatest dechlorination occurred in the riffle sub-reach that was characterised by hyporheic zone flows, moderate sulphate concentrations and pH, anaerobic conditions, low iron, but elevated manganese concentrations with evidence of sulphate reduction. Transient hyporheic zone flows allowing input to varying riverbed depths of organic matter are anticipated to be a key control. The glide sub-reach displayed negligible dechlorination attributed to the predominant groundwater baseflow discharge condition, absence of hyporheic zone, transition to more oxic conditions and elevated sulphate concentrations expected to locally inhibit dechlorination. The tail-of-pool-riffle sub-reach exhibited patchy dechlorination that was attributed to sub-reach complexities including significant flow bypass of a low permeability, high organic matter, silty unit of high dechlorination potential. A process-based conceptual model of reach-scale dechlorination variability was developed. Key findings of practitioner relevance were: riverbed-hyporheic zone CHC dechlorination may provide only a partial, somewhat patchy barrier to CHC

  17. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  18. Optimization of modified volume Fresnel zone plates.

    PubMed

    Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Ersoy, Okan K; Xu, Xianfan

    2009-10-01

    Modified volume Fresnel zone plates (MVFZPs) fabricated with laser direct writing were optimized for higher diffraction efficiencies. The Fresnel radii in each layer of a volume zone plate were iteratively adjusted by a simulation-based direct search optimization. The results show that optimization is effective but depends strongly on the starting diffraction efficiencies determined by the MVFZP parameters. The simulations indicate that the optimized MVFZP can achieve 93% diffraction efficiency.

  19. DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    GB CHRONISTER; MJ TRUEX

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Treatability test plan published in 2008 {sm_bullet} Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) {sm_bullet} Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

  20. Precipitation zones of west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Medina, Rose L.

    2007-01-01

    Whether Nevada can sustain its fast rate of growth depends in part on accurately quantifying the amount of water that is available, including precipitation. The Precipitation-Zone Method (PZM) is a way of estimating mean annual precipitation at any point. The PZM was developed using data from west-central Nevada and northeastern California, but preliminary analysis indicates it can be applied to the entire state. Patterns in the spatial distribution of precipitation were identified by mapping station locations and plotting 1971-2000 precipitation normals versus station elevation. Precipitation zones are large areas where precipitation is linearly related to elevation. Four precipitation zones with different linear relations were delineated; these zones cover much of west-central Nevada. Regression equations with adjusted R2 values of 0.89 to 0.95 were developed for each zone. All regression equations estimate similar precipitation rates at 4,000 feet, but the slopes of the regression equations become progressively shallower to the south. A geographic information system, 30-meter digital elevation model, and the regression equations were used to estimate the distribution and volumes of precipitation in each zone and in hydrographic areas of the Walker River Basin. Comparison between the PZM and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) indicate PRISM estimates are linearly related to elevation at low elevations in each zone, but PRISM estimates become non-linear at high elevations and are up to 2.5 times greater than the normals. However, PRISM under-estimates more than it over-estimates precipitation compared to the PZM. The PZM estimated the same or larger volumes of precipitation compared to PRISM in three of the zones, and the larger volumes mostly were from areas that receive greater than 15 inches/year of precipitation. Additional work is needed to accurately estimate mean annual precipitation throughout Nevada.

  1. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  2. Variable Phase for Fresnel Zone Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, George W.

    2004-03-01

    It is not widely known that there is a free parameter in the usual design of zone plates. An earlier work treated the radius of the central Fresnel zone as the free parameter and investigated the effects of its variation numerically [1]. It is possible instead to treat the choice of reference phase in the design of a zone plate as the free parameter [2]. The standard zone plate construction assumes a specific choice for this phase which, however, can be chosen to have any value between 0^o and 360^o. Here we present analysis and measurements on zone plates for 39 GHz radiation with reference phase varied from 0^o to 360^o. When the reference phase is varied, measurements show that the phase of the focused beam is varied in a nearly linear fashion through 360^o with only small changes in beam amplitude. It is concluded that reference phase is an inherent and useful property of zone plates. 1) I.V. Minin and O.V. Minin, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. derline 20, 198 (1990). I thank I.V. Minin for calling this work to my attention. 2) G.W. Webb, Proc. 2003 Antenna Applications Symposium, Allerton Park, Monticello, IL, September 15-17, 2003 and arXiv:physics/0303002 28 Feb 2003.

  3. Purification of Germanium Crystals by Zone Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Kyler; Yang, Gang; Mei, Dongming

    2016-09-01

    Germanium zone refining is one of the most important techniques used to produce high purity germanium (HPGe) single crystals for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors. During zone refining the impurities are isolated to different parts of the ingot. In practice, the effective isolation of an impurity is dependent on many parameters, including molten zone travel speed, the ratio of ingot length to molten zone width, and number of passes. By studying the theory of these influential factors, perfecting our cleaning and preparation procedures, and analyzing the origin and distribution of our impurities (aluminum, boron, gallium, and phosphorous) identified using photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS), we have optimized these parameters to produce HPGe. We have achieved a net impurity level of 1010 /cm3 for our zone-refined ingots, measured with van der Pauw and Hall-effect methods. Zone-refined ingots of this purity can be processed into a detector grade HPGe single crystal, which can be used to fabricate detectors for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay detection. This project was financially supported by DOE Grant (DE-FG02-10ER46709) and the State Governor's Research Center.

  4. Gaseous contaminant distribution in the breathing zone.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, the "breathing zone" is defined as the zone within a 0.3 m (or 10 inches) radius of a worker's nose and mouth, and it has been generally assumed that a contaminant in the breathing zone is homogeneous and its concentration is equivalent to the concentration inhaled by the worker. However, several studies have mentioned that the concentration is not uniform in the breathing zone when a worker is close to the contaminant source. In order to examine the spatial variability of contaminant concentrations in a worker's breathing zone, comparative measurements of personal exposure were carried out in a laboratory. In experiment, ethanol vapor was released in front of a model worker (human subject and mockup mannequin) and the vapor concentrations were measured at two different sampling points, at the nose and at the chest, in the breathing zone. Then, the effects of the sampling location and the body temperature on the exposure were observed. The ratios of nose concentration to chest concentration for the human subject and the mannequin were 0-0.2 and 0.12, respectively. The exposure level of the mannequin was about 5.5-9.3 times higher than that of the human subject.

  5. Inhibition of cellulases by phenols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of enzymes by the end products that they make is a well-known phenomenon. Another form of inhibition is manifested by the decrease in hydrolysis of pretreated cellulosic material as the concentration of solid biomass material increases, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is...

  6. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  7. Forcing contact inhibition of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Roycroft, Alice; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion drives a variety of biological phenomenon, from cell dispersion to collective cell migration and cancer invasion. New imaging techniques have allowed contact inhibition of locomotion to be visualised in vivo for the first time, helping to elucidate some of the molecules and forces involved in this phenomenon.

  8. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    .../30/2009 USCG-2009-0207 Destin, FL Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 3/26/2009 USCG-2009-0208 Panama City...)...... 7/25/2009 USCG-2009-0334 Hood Canal, WA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 5/1/2009 USCG-2009-0336...-2009-1012 San Diego, CA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/4/2009 USCG-2009-1015 Sabine-Neches Canal,...

  9. Flame inhibition by hydrogen halides - Some spectroscopic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.; Cagliostro, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of an air-propane diffusion flame inhibited with hydrogen halides has been studied. Plots of the absorption of light by hydrogen halides as a function of position in the flame and also as a function of the amount of hydrogen halide added to the flame have been obtained. The hydrogen halides are shown to be more stable on the fuel side of the reaction zone than they are on the air side. Thermal diffusion is seen to be important in determining the concentration distribution of the heavier hydrogen halides in diffusion flames. The relationship between the concentration distribution of the hydrogen halides in the flame and the flame inhibition mechanism is discussed.

  10. Balanced feedforward inhibition and dominant recurrent inhibition in olfactory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Large, Adam M.; Vogler, Nathan W.; Mielo, Samantha; Oswald, Anne-Marie M.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the brain, the recruitment of feedforward and recurrent inhibition shapes neural responses. However, disentangling the relative contributions of these often-overlapping cortical circuits is challenging. The piriform cortex provides an ideal system to address this issue because the interneurons responsible for feedforward and recurrent inhibition are anatomically segregated in layer (L) 1 and L2/3 respectively. Here we use a combination of optical and electrical activation of interneurons to profile the inhibitory input received by three classes of principal excitatory neuron in the anterior piriform cortex. In all classes, we find that L1 interneurons provide weaker inhibition than L2/3 interneurons. Nonetheless, feedforward inhibitory strength covaries with the amount of afferent excitation received by each class of principal neuron. In contrast, intracortical stimulation of L2/3 evokes strong inhibition that dominates recurrent excitation in all classes. Finally, we find that the relative contributions of feedforward and recurrent pathways differ between principal neuron classes. Specifically, L2 neurons receive more reliable afferent drive and less overall inhibition than L3 neurons. Alternatively, L3 neurons receive substantially more intracortical inhibition. These three features—balanced afferent drive, dominant recurrent inhibition, and differential recruitment by afferent vs. intracortical circuits, dependent on cell class—suggest mechanisms for olfactory processing that may extend to other sensory cortices. PMID:26858458

  11. Biology of TACE inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Newton, R; Solomon, K; Covington, M; Decicco, C; Haley, P; Friedman, S; Vaddi, K

    2001-01-01

    Studies conducted over the past decade have demonstrated a central role for tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in inflammatory diseases. As a result of this work, a number of biological agents that neutralise the activity of this cytokine have entered the clinic. The recent clinical data obtained with etanercept and infliximab highlight the relevance of this strategy. TNFα converting enzyme (TACE) is the metalloproteinase that processes the 26 kDa membrane bound precursor of TNFα (proTNFα) to the 17 kDa soluble component. Although a number of proteases have been shown to process proTNFα, none do so with the efficiency of TACE. A series of orally bioavailable, selective, and potent TACE inhibitors are currently in clinical development. These inhibitors effectively block TACE mediated processing of proTNFα and can reduce TNF production by lipopolysaccharide stimulated whole blood by >95%. Through a series of studies it is shown here that >80% of the unprocessed proTNFα is degraded intracellularly. The remainder appears to be transiently expressed on the cell surface. Although, in vitro, TACE inhibition has also been implicated in shedding of p55 and p75 surface TNFα receptors, the in vivo data cast doubt on the consequences of this finding. In a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis, the inhibitors are efficacious both prophylactically and therapeutically. The efficacy seen is equivalent to strategies that neutralise TNFα. In many studies greater efficacy is observed with the TACE inhibitors, presumably owing to greater penetration to the site of TNFα production.

 PMID:11890648

  12. [Quantitative grain fluorescence responds to residual oil zones and paleo-oil zones].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Li, Feng

    2012-11-01

    In order to investigate quantitative grain fluorescence responding to residual oil zones and palaeo-oil zones, samples from sandstone reservoirs in well TZ421 in Tazhong area, Tarim Basin, NW China, were used to carry out quantitative grain fluorescence (QGF and QGF-E) measurement and analysis. A palaeo-oil zone can be delineated in well TZ421 between 3 720 and 3 620 m with strong QGF responds. A residual oil zone was discovered in well TZ421 between 3 680 and 3 620 m with strong QGF-E responds. The presence of a residual oil zone and a palaeo-oil zone in well TZ421 below the current oil-water contact indicates that some oils were lost after the initial charge. The reservoir is believed to have been charged initially down to 3 720 m at the depth of the palaeo-oil-water contact. The presence of a 60 m residual oil zone below the current oil-water contact, as delineated by QGF-E, suggests that the palaeo-oil zones leaked in two epochs and part of the oil lost quite recently. The strong QGF responds in the current condensate gas interval indicates that the initially charged oil was partly displaced by gas and formed an oil zone with a gas cap.

  13. Comparing denitrification estimates for a Texas estuary by using acetylene inhibition and membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bernot, Melody J; Dodds, Walter K; Gardner, Wayne S; McCarthy, Mark J; Sobolev, Dmitri; Tank, Jennifer L

    2003-10-01

    Characterizing denitrification rates in aquatic ecosystems is essential to understanding how systems may respond to increased nutrient loading. Thus, it is important to ensure the precision and accuracy of the methods employed for measuring denitrification rates. The acetylene (C2H2) inhibition method is a simple technique for estimating denitrification. However, potential problems, such as inhibition of nitrification and incomplete inhibition of nitrous oxide reduction, may influence rate estimates. Recently, membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) has been used to measure denitrification in aquatic systems. Comparable results were obtained with MIMS and C2H2 inhibition methods when chloramphenicol was added to C2H2 inhibition assay mixtures to inhibit new synthesis of denitrifying enzymes. Dissolved-oxygen profiles indicated that surface layers of sediment cores subjected to the MIMS flowthrough incubation remained oxic whereas cores incubated using the C2H2 inhibition methods did not. Analysis of the microbial assemblages before and after incubations indicated significant changes in the sediment surface populations during the long flowthrough incubation for MIMS analysis but not during the shorter incubation used for the C2H2 inhibition method. However, bacterial community changes were also small in MIMS cores at the oxygen transition zone where denitrification occurs. The C2H2 inhibition method with chloramphenicol addition, conducted over short incubation intervals, provides a cost-effective method for estimating denitrification, and rate estimates are comparable to those obtained by the MIMS method.

  14. Drought Induces Distinct Growth Response, Protection, and Recovery Mechanisms in the Maize Leaf Growth Zone1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Avramova, Viktoriya; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Fotschki, Bartosz; Casadevall, Romina; Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Taleisnik, Edith; Guisez, Yves; Asard, Han; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is the most important crop yield-limiting factor, and detailed knowledge of its impact on plant growth regulation is crucial. The maize (Zea mays) leaf growth zone offers unique possibilities for studying the spatiotemporal regulation of developmental processes by transcriptional analyses and methods that require more material, such as metabolite and enzyme activity measurements. By means of a kinematic analysis, we show that drought inhibits maize leaf growth by inhibiting cell division in the meristem and cell expansion in the elongation zone. Through a microarray study, we observed the down-regulation of 32 of the 54 cell cycle genes, providing a basis for the inhibited cell division. We also found evidence for an up-regulation of the photosynthetic machinery and the antioxidant and redox systems. This was confirmed by increased chlorophyll content in mature cells and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolite levels across the growth zone, respectively. We demonstrate the functional significance of the identified transcriptional reprogramming by showing that increasing the antioxidant capacity in the proliferation zone, by overexpression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) iron-superoxide dismutase gene, increases leaf growth rate by stimulating cell division. We also show that the increased photosynthetic capacity leads to enhanced photosynthesis upon rewatering, facilitating the often-observed growth compensation. PMID:26297138

  15. Experimental shear zones and magnetic fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Alford, C.

    Magnetic fabric analysis has been used as a non-destructive means of detecting petrofabric development during experimentally produced multi-stage, transpressive deformations in 'shear zones'. Artificial, magnetic-bearing silicate sands and calcite sands, bonded with Portland cement, were deformed at room temperature and at 100 and 150 MPa confining pressure. The slip-rate for the shear zone walls was 0.73 × 10 -4 mm s -1 and the maximum shear strains were about 0.38, across zones that were initially about 5 mm thick. The magnetic fabric ellipsoid rapidly spins so that the maximum and intermediate susceptibilities tend to become parallel to the shear zone walls throughout the sheared zone. The ellipsoid becomes increasingly oblate with progressive deformation. However, in all cases, the anisotropy is strongly influenced by the pre-deformation magnetic fabric. During deformation the cement gel collapses so that cataclasis of the mineral grains is suppressed. In the quartz-feldspar aggregates the magnetite's alignment is accommodated by particulate flow (intergranular displacements) of the grains. In the calcite aggregates stronger magnetic fabrics develop due to plastic deformation of calcite grains as well as particulate flow. However, the calcite grain fabrics are somewhat linear ( L ≥ S) whereas the magnetic fabrics are planar ( S > L). The preferred dimensional orientations of magnetite are weak and it is possible that the magnetic fabrics are due to intragranular rearrangements of magnetic domains. The transpressive shear zones are much more efficient than axial-symmetric shortening in the increase of anisotropy of the magnetic fabrics, especially in the case of the calcite aggregates. This suggests that flow laws derived for axial-symmetric shortening experiments may not be appropriate for non-coaxial strain histories such as those of shear zones.

  16. Ordovician chitinozoan zones of Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Within the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US, Ordovician chitinozoans have been recovered in two major lithic facies; the western eugeosynclinal facies and the eastern miogeosynclinal facies. Chitinozoans recovered from these facies range in age from Arenig to Ashgill. Extensive collections from this area make possible the establishment of chitinozoan faunal interval zones from the Ordovician of this area. Selected species of biostratigraphic value include, in chronostratigraphic order, Lagenochitina ovoidea Benoit and Taugourdeau, 1961, Conochitina langei Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitinia poumoti Combaz and Penique, Desmochitina cf. nodosa Eisenack, 1931, Conochitina maclartii Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitina robusta Eisenack, 1959, Angochitina capitallata Eisenack, 1937, Sphaerochitina lepta Jenkins. 1970, and Ancyrochitina merga Jenkins, 1970. In many cases, these zones can be divided into additional sub-zones using chitinozoans and acritarchs. In all cases, these chitinozoan faunal zones are contrasted with established American graptolite zones of the area, as well as correlated with British standard graptolite zones. The composition of these faunas of the western US Great Basin is similar to that of the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico, to which direct comparisons have been made. There also appears to be a great similarity with the microfaunas and microfloras of the Ordovician of the Canning basin of western Australia. The Ordovician chitinozoan faunal interval zones established for the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US also appear to be applicable to the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico.

  17. [Characteristics of soil denitrifying enzyme activity in riparian zones with different land use types in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang-Liang; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Chang-Ming

    2013-10-01

    By using acetylene inhibition method, this paper studied the soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and its affecting factors in the riparian zone with different land use types (cropland riparian, forested riparian, and grassy riparian zones) in Chongming Island, Shanghai of China. The riparian soil DEA was (0.69 +/- 0.11)--(134.93 +/- 33.72) microg N x kg(-1) x h(-1), which differed obviously among different land types, with a decreasing trend of forested riparian zone > cropland riparian zone > grassy riparian zone. The soil DEA was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in 0-10 cm in 10-30, 30-50, and 50-70 cm layers. There were significant positive relationships between soil DEA and soil TOC, TN, and NO(3-)-N (P < 0.01). Land use change mainly altered the soil natural structure and soil physical and chemical properties, decreased the accumulation of soil organic carbon, and affected the soil nitrogen transformation, and thus, inhibited the occurrence of riparian soil denitrification.

  18. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

  19. Incorporating conservation zone effectiveness for protecting biodiversity in marine planning.

    PubMed

    Makino, Azusa; Klein, Carissa J; Beger, Maria; Jupiter, Stacy D; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness ("zone effectiveness") for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84-88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing marine zoning that

  20. Deferred Growth Inhibition Assay to Quantify the Effect of Bacteria-derived Antimicrobials on Competition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Josephine C; Crank, Emma L; Ghabban, Hanaa A; Horsburgh, Malcolm J

    2016-09-03

    Competitive exclusion can occur in microbial communities when, for example, an inhibitor-producing strain outcompetes its competitor for an essential nutrient or produces antimicrobial compounds that its competitor is not resistant to. Here we describe a deferred growth inhibition assay, a method for assessing the ability of one bacterium to inhibit the growth of another through the production of antimicrobial compounds or through competition for nutrients. This technique has been used to investigate the correlation of nasal isolates with the exclusion of particular species from a community. This technique can also be used to screen for lantibiotic producers or potentially novel antimicrobials. The assay is performed by first culturing the test inhibitor-producing strain overnight on an agar plate, then spraying over the test competitor strain and incubating again. After incubation, the extent of inhibition can be measured quantitatively, through the size of the zone of clearing around the inhibitor-producing strain, and qualitatively, by assessing the clarity of the inhibition zone. Here we present the protocol for the deferred inhibition assay, describe ways to minimize variation between experiments, and define a clarity scale that can be used to qualitatively assess the degree of inhibition.

  1. Deferred Growth Inhibition Assay to Quantify the Effect of Bacteria-derived Antimicrobials on Competition

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Josephine C.; Crank, Emma L.; Ghabban, Hanaa A.; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive exclusion can occur in microbial communities when, for example, an inhibitor-producing strain outcompetes its competitor for an essential nutrient or produces antimicrobial compounds that its competitor is not resistant to. Here we describe a deferred growth inhibition assay, a method for assessing the ability of one bacterium to inhibit the growth of another through the production of antimicrobial compounds or through competition for nutrients. This technique has been used to investigate the correlation of nasal isolates with the exclusion of particular species from a community. This technique can also be used to screen for lantibiotic producers or potentially novel antimicrobials. The assay is performed by first culturing the test inhibitor-producing strain overnight on an agar plate, then spraying over the test competitor strain and incubating again. After incubation, the extent of inhibition can be measured quantitatively, through the size of the zone of clearing around the inhibitor-producing strain, and qualitatively, by assessing the clarity of the inhibition zone. Here we present the protocol for the deferred inhibition assay, describe ways to minimize variation between experiments, and define a clarity scale that can be used to qualitatively assess the degree of inhibition. PMID:27684443

  2. En echelon knolls in the Nosappu Fracture Zone, NW Pacific: A possible leaky transform fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hirano, N.; Shipboard Scientific Party Kr03-07, .

    2003-12-01

    During JAMSTEC R/V KAIREI cruise KR03-07, we mapped significant en echelon arrays of knolls and ridges on the NNW-trending Nosappu Fracture Zone between Hokkaido and Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific. This fracture zone has been known to be irregular, including a deep-sea channel, the Nakwe Channel, enigmatic for inside the wide oceanic plate. Considering the previously recognized magnetic lineament dislocation, the fracture zone has long (more than 150 km) left-lateral strike-slip component as a ridge-ridge transform fault zone between the Izanagi and Pacific plates during Early Cretaceous. Detail multi-narrowbeam mapping around 37 N latitude, 150 E longitude (covering 78 km x 137 km), indicated many small knolls and ridges that form en echelon arrangement. Some are boomerang, sock or E-letter in shape. The two dominant directions of ridges are recognized, one is parallel to the fracture zone and the other is in left-handed en echelon fashion. Besides these ridges, there are other types of ridges or conical knolls lower than 500 m in relief; one is a group of rather large knolls extending to NE, roughly perpendicular to the fracture zone direction, and the other is independent small knolls, summing up to five or six in number. Another expression of a depression zone was recognized with a moderate angle to the fracture zone in a crank fashion. This may correspond to the so-called _gNakwe Channel_h which has been wrongly mistaken. Such en echelon arrays are involved in a 50 km wide NNW-SSE zone, which is sharply demarcated by fault scarps. These characteristics in the fracture zone area and associated knolls suggest that this part of the Nosappu Fracture Zone might have developed in a fault interaction area which has a left-lateral component of leaky transform faulting close to the spreading ridge.

  3. Catalase is inhibited by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Krych, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2013-07-01

    Catalases, heme enzymes, which catalyze decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, belong to the antioxidant defense system of the cell. In this work we have shown that catalase from bovine liver is inhibited by flavonoids. The inhibition is, at least partially, due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between catalase and flavonoids. In the presence of some flavonoids the formation of unreactive catalase compound II has been detected. The most potent catalase inhibitors among the tested flavonoids have appeared myricetin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate. The relationship between the degree of enzyme inhibition and molecular structure of flavonoids has been analyzed.

  4. Inhibition of the gravitropic response of snapdragon spikes by the calcium-channel blocker lanthanum chloride.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H; Meir, S; Rosenberger, I; Halevy, A H; Kaufman, P B; Philosoph-Hadas, S

    1998-10-01

    The putative Ca(2+)-channel blocker LaCl3 prevented the gravitropic bending of cut snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes (S. Philosoph-Hadas, S. Meir, I. Rosenberger, A.H. Halevy [1996] Plant Physiol 110: 301-310) and inhibited stem curvature to a greater extent than vertical and horizontal stem elongation at the bending zone. This might indicate that LaCl3, which modulates cytosolic Ca2+, does not influence general stem-growth processes but may specifically affect other gravity-associated processes occurring at the stem-bending zone. Two such specific gravity-dependent events were found to occur in the bending zone of snapdragon spikes: sedimentation of starch-containing chloroplasts at the bottom of stem cortex cells, as seen in cross-sections, and establishment of an ethylene gradient across the stem. Our results show that the lateral sedimentation of chloroplasts associated with gravity sensing was prevented in cross-sections taken from the bending zone of LaCl3-treated and subsequently gravistimulated spikes and that LaCl3 completely prevented the gravity-induced, asymmetric ethylene production established across the stem-bending zone. These data indicate that LaCl3 inhibits stem curvature of snapdragon spikes by preventing several gravity-dependent processes. Therefore, we propose that the gravitropic response of shoots could be mediated through a Ca(2+)-dependent pathway involving modulation of cytosolic Ca2+ at various stages.

  5. Mesopelagic zone ecology and biogeochemistry - a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carol; Steinberg, Deborah K.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Arístegui, Javier; Carlson, Craig A.; Frost, Jessica R.; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Hernández-León, Santiago; Jackson, George A.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Quéguiner, Bernard; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rassoulzadegan, Fereidoun; Robison, Bruce H.; Tamburini, Christian; Tanaka, Tsuneo; Wishner, Karen F.; Zhang, Jing

    2010-08-01

    The mesopelagic zone is the oceanic region through which carbon and other elements must pass in order to reach deeper waters or the sea floor. However, the food web interactions that occur in the mesopelagic zone are difficult to measure and so, despite their crucial importance to global elemental cycles, are not very well known. Recent developments in technology and new approaches have advanced the study of the variability in and controls upon the distribution and diversity of organisms in the mesopelagic zone, including the roles of respiration, recycling, and repackaging of particulate and dissolved organic material. However, there are remarkably few syntheses of the ecology and biogeochemistry of the microbes and metazoa that permanently reside or habitually visit this 'twilight zone'. Without this synthesis, it is difficult to assess the impact of ongoing changes in ocean hydrography and chemistry, due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, on the biological carbon pump. This paper reviews what is known about the distribution of microbes and metazoa in the mesopelagic zone in relation to their activity and impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Thus, gaps in our knowledge are identified and suggestions made for priority research programmes that will improve our ability to predict the effects of climate change on carbon sequestration.

  6. Perchlorate natural attenuation in a riparian zone.

    PubMed

    Borden, Robert C; Knox, Sheri L; Lieberman, M Tony; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence were used to document the natural attenuation of perchlorate in a shallow alluvial aquifer. In the upgradient, aerobic portion of the aquifer, perchlorate did not biodegrade. However, natural flushing by groundwater flow is reducing perchlorate concentrations in the aquifer over time. Perchlorate concentrations in the source area are expected to meet cleanup criteria in 11 to 27 years without active remedial measures. At the distal end of the plume, perchlorate is rapidly degraded as it migrates upward through organic rich littoral zone sediments. Apparent first-order degradation rates in groundwater were about 0.20 d(-1) and are consistent with laboratory macrocosm rates (0.12 d(-1)). qPCR results show a distinct region of the littoral zone where perchlorate degraders are elevated. The Eh within this zone varies from +0.1 to +0.3 V indicating perchlorate degraders can thrive in moderately oxidizing conditions. The study has shown that (i) there was no apparent perchlorate biodegradation in aerobic aquifer; (ii) perchlorate declines over time in aerobic aquifer due to flushing; (iii) there was a rapid perchlorate attenuation in organic rich littoral zone; and, (iv) qPCR results show large increases in perchlorate degraders in the littoral zone.

  7. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    PubMed

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering.

  8. Overlay improvement by zone alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ai-Yi; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Yang, Richer; Yuan, Michael; Chen, Henry; Chang, Ray

    2008-03-01

    It is evident that DRAM ground rule continues to shrink down to 90nm and beyond, overlay performance has become more and more critical and important. Wafer edge shows different behavior from center by processes, e.g. a tremendous misalignment at wafer edge makes yield loss . When a conventional linear model is used for alignment correction, higher uncorrectable overlay residuals mostly happen at wafer edge. Therefore, it's obviously necessary to introduce an innovational alignment correction methdology to reduce unwanted wafer edge effect. In this study, we demonstrate the achievement of moderating poor overlay in wafer edge area by a novel zone-dependent alignment strategy, the so-called "Zone Alignment (ZA)". The main difference between the conventional linear model and zone alignment strategy is that the latter compensates an improper averaging effect from first modeling through weighting all surrounding marks with a nonlinear model. In addition, the effects of mark quantity and sampling distribution from "Zone Alignment" are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that ZA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual and improve wafer-to-wafer variation significantly. Furthermore, obvious yield improvement is verified by ZA strategy. In conclusion, Zone alignment is the noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, suitable alignment map and mark numbers should be taken into consideration carefully when ZA is applied for further technology node.

  9. ON HYDRODYNAMIC MOTIONS IN DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or

    2009-10-20

    We investigate fluid motions near the midplane of vertically stratified accretion disks with highly resistive midplanes. In such disks, the magnetorotational instability drives turbulence in thin layers surrounding a resistive, stable dead zone. The turbulent layers in turn drive motions in the dead zone. We examine the properties of these motions using three-dimensional, stratified, local, shearing-box, non-ideal, magnetohydrodynamical simulations. Although the turbulence in the active zones provides a source of vorticity to the midplane, no evidence for coherent vortices is found in our simulations. It appears that this is because of strong vertical oscillations in the dead zone. By analyzing time series of azimuthally averaged flow quantities, we identify an axisymmetric wave mode particular to models with dead zones. This mode is reduced in amplitude, but not suppressed entirely, by changing the equation of state from isothermal to ideal. These waves are too low frequency to affect sedimentation of dust to the midplane, but may have significance for the gravitational stability of the resulting midplane dust layers.

  10. Wildfires dynamic in the larch dominance zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, K. Jon; Dvinskaya, Maria L.

    2008-01-01

    A fire return intervals (FRI) for zone of larch dominance and ``larch-mixed taiga'' ecotone was studied. Extreme fire events were connected with summer air temperature deviations. Average FRI determined from stem fire scar dating was 82 +/- 7 years for the zone of larch dominance, and 77 +/- 20 for the ``larch-mixed taiga'' ecotone. For the zone of larch dominance FRI on north-east facing slopes was 86 +/- 11 years, for south-west facing slopes at 61 +/- 8 years, for flat terrain at 68 +/- 14 years, and for bogs 139 +/- 17 years. FRI decreased from 101 years in the 19th century to 65 years in the 20th century, for the zone of larch dominance, and from 97 years to 50 years for the ``larch-mixed taiga'' ecotone. A climate and anthropogenic impact on this phenomenon was analyzed. The decrease of FRI may interfere with climate-driven migration of competitor species into zone of larch dominance, affecting biodiversity at high latitudes.

  11. Earthquake hazards on the cascadia subduction zone

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, T.H.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1987-04-10

    Large subduction earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone pose a potential seismic hazard. Very young oceanic lithosphere (10 million years old) is being subducted beneath North America at a rate of approximately 4 centimeters per year. The Cascadia subduction zone shares many characteristics with subduction zones in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, where comparably young oceanic lithosphere is also subducting. Very large subduction earthquakes, ranging in energy magnitude (M/sub w/) between 8 and 9.5, have occurred along these other subduction zones. If the Cascadia subduction zone is also storing elastic energy, a sequence of several great earthquakes (M/sub w/ 8) or a giant earthquake (M/sub w/ 9) would be necessary to fill this 1200-kilometer gap. The nature of strong ground motions recorded during subduction earthquakes of M/sub w/ less than 8.2 is discussed. Strong ground motions from even larger earthquakes (M/sub w/ up to 9.5) are estimated by simple simulations. If large subduction earthquakes occur in the Pacific Northwest, relatively strong shaking can be expected over a large region. Such earthquakes may also be accompanied by large local tsunamis. 35 references, 6 figures.

  12. Earthquake hazards on the cascadia subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Heaton, T H; Hartzell, S H

    1987-04-10

    Large subduction earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone pose a potential seismic hazard. Very young oceanic lithosphere (10 million years old) is being subducted beneath North America at a rate of approximately 4 centimeters per year. The Cascadia subduction zone shares many characteristics with subduction zones in southern Chile, southwestern Japan, and Colombia, where comparably young oceanic lithosphere is also subducting. Very large subduction earthquakes, ranging in energy magnitude (M(w)) between 8 and 9.5, have occurred along these other subduction zones. If the Cascadia subduction zone is also storing elastic energy, a sequence of several great earthquakes (M(w) 8) or a giant earthquake (M(w) 9) would be necessary to fill this 1200-kilometer gap. The nature of strong ground motions recorded during subduction earthquakes of M(w) less than 8.2 is discussed. Strong ground motions from even larger earthquakes (M(w) up to 9.5) are estimated by simple simulations. If large subduction earthquakes occur in the Pacific Northwest, relatively strong shaking can be expected over a large region. Such earthquakes may also be accompanied by large local tsunamis.

  13. 78 FR 54588 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone... Captain of the Port. This action is necessary for the security of Department of Defense assets and... prohibited unless otherwise exempted or excluded under 33 CFR 165.1321 or unless authorized by the Captain...

  14. 78 FR 12595 - Safety Zone for Ice Conditions; Baltimore Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone for Ice Conditions; Baltimore Captain of the...: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in all navigable waters of the Captain of the... effective period, unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Baltimore or his designated...

  15. 75 FR 4490 - Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, SC, Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted Vessels, Charleston, SC, Captain of the Port Zone Correction Rule document E8-11863 was inadvertently published in the Proposed...

  16. 76 FR 33154 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port... Guard will enforce various safety zones for annual fireworks events in the Captain of the Port Detroit... the Captain of the Port. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 165.941 will be enforced at various...

  17. 76 FR 34862 - Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia... Guard will enforce the safety zones in 33 CFR 165.1315 for fireworks displays in the Captain of the Port... without permission of the Captain of the Port, Columbia River or his designated representative. DATES:...

  18. 77 FR 41688 - Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing seven temporary security zones on the waters and adjacent land 20... August 31, 2012. The Department of Homeland Security has designated the 2012 Republican...

  19. 76 FR 9646 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation Regulations and Regulated Navigation Areas AGENCY:...

  20. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule and... Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload...

  1. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... vicinity of the Jardine Water Treatment Plant, Chicago, Illinois. The Jardine Water Filtration Plant... operate in the Jardine Water Filtration Plant security zone. Regulatory Analyses We developed this... surrounding the intake cribs or areas near shore to Chicago's water filtration plants; the security zones...

  2. 76 FR 31853 - Safety Zone; Annual Events requiring safety zones in Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Port, Sector Lake Michigan zone at various times from 9:15 p.m. on June 11, 2011 through 11 p.m. on June 29, 2011. This action is necessary and intended to ensure safety of life on the navigable waters... zone without permission of the Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan. DATES: The regulations in...

  3. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on... is prohibited unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is...

  4. 77 FR 36396 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters... unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from June 23,...

  5. 76 FR 61947 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Sound Zone. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during these... authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR from October...

  6. 78 FR 40961 - Safety Zones; Annual Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Adrian Palomeque, Prevention, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Detroit, 110 Mount Elliot Ave., Detroit MI 48207... Festival Fireworks, New Baltimore, MI. The safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.941(a)(29) will be enforced.... (2) St. Clair Shores Fireworks, St. Clair Shores, MI. The safety zone listed in 33 CFR...

  7. 78 FR 19161 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Detroit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Detroit AGENCY... permanent security zone within the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. This proposed security zone is intended... event will likely recur annually, the Captain of the Port Detroit is proposing to establish a...

  8. 27 CFR 28.290 - Receipt in foreign trade zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt in foreign trade zone. 28.290 Section 28.290 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... in Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.290 Receipt in foreign trade zone. On receipt at the zone, the...

  9. 76 FR 28895 - Safety Zone; Ohio River, Sewickley, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ohio River, Sewickley, PA AGENCY: Coast... zone on specified waters of the Ohio River in Sewickley, Pennsylvania. The safety zone is needed to... safety zone on the Ohio River from mile marker 11.7 to mile marker 12.0, extending the entire width...

  10. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  11. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  12. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  13. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1304 - Ice fall hazard zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ice fall hazard zones. 13.1304 Section 13.1304 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Provisions § 13.1304 Ice fall hazard zones. Entering an ice fall hazard zone is prohibited. These zones...

  15. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  16. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  17. Zoning for Day Care (from Models for Day Care Licensing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day Care and Child Development Council of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Recommendations and regulations regarding the zoning of child development day care programs are discussed. Zoning in general is discussed, as is the treatment of child development day care in zoning ordinance, the background of program planning, modular housing, the impelmentation of zoning, and model provisions regarding characteristics of…

  18. Cancer chemopreventive and anticancer evaluation of extracts and fractions from marine macro- and microorganisms collected from Twilight Zone waters around Guam.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Peter J; Kohlert-Schupp, Claudia; Whitefield, Susanna; Engemann, Anna; Rohde, Sven; Hemscheidt, Thomas; Pezzuto, John M; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Marler, Laura; Rostama, Bahman; Wright, Anthony D

    2009-12-01

    The cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic properties of 50 extracts derived from Twilight Zone (50-150 m) sponges, gorgonians and associated bacteria, together with 15 extracts from shallow water hard corals, as well as 16 fractions derived from the methanol solubles of the Twilight Zone sponge Suberea sp, were assessed in a series of bioassays. These assays included: Induction of quinone reductase (QR), inhibition of TNF-alpha activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB), inhibition of aromatase, interaction with retinoid X receptor (RXR), inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, inhibition 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), and inhibition of HL-60 and MCF-7 cell proliferation. The results of these assays showed that at least 10 extracts and five fractions inhibited NFkappaB by greater than 60%, two extracts and two fractions inhibited DPPH by more than 50%, nine extracts and two fractions affected the survival of HL-60 cells, no extracts or fractions affected RXR, three extracts and six fractions affected quinone reductase (QR), three extracts and 12 fractions significantly inhibited aromatase, four extracts and five fractions inhibited nitric oxide synthase, and one extract and no fractions inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells by more than 95%. These data revealed the tested samples to have many and varied activities, making them, as shown with the extract of the Suberea species, useful starting points for further fractionation and purification. Moreover, the large number of samples demonstrating activity in only one or sometimes two assays accentuates the potential of the Twilight Zone, as a largely unexplored habitat, for the discovery of selectively bioactive compounds. The overall high hit rate in many of the employed assays is considered to be a significant finding in terms of "normal" hit rates associated with similar samples from shallower depths.

  19. The Cora Lake Shear Zone: Strain Localization in an Ultramylonitic, Deep Crustal Shear Zone, Athabasca Granulite Terrain, Western Churchill Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.; Orlandini, O. F.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Leslie, S. R.; Holland, M.

    2012-12-01

    Ultramylonitic shear zones typically involve intense strain localization, and when developed over large regions can introduce considerable heterogeneity into the crust. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) displays several 10's to 100's of meters-wide zones of ultramylonite distributed throughout its full 3-5 km mylonitized width. Detailed mapping, petrography, thermobarometry, and in-situ monazite geochronology suggest that it formed during the waning phases of granulite grade metamorphism and deformation, within one of North America's largest exposures of polydeformed lower continental crust. Anastomosing zones of ultramylonite contain recrystallized grain-sizes approaching the micron scale and might appear to suggest lower temperature mylonitization. However, feldspar and even clinopyroxene are dynamically recrystallized, and quantitative thermobarometry of syn-deformational assemblages indicate high P and T conditions ranging from 0.9 -10.6 GPa and 775-850 °C. Even at these high T's, dynamic recovery and recrystallization were extremely limited. Rocks with low modal quartz have extremely small equilibrium volumes. This is likely the result of inefficient diffusion, which is further supported by the unannealed nature of the crystals. Local carbonate veins suggests that H2O poor, CO2 rich conditions may have aided in the preservation of fine grain sizes, and may have inhibited dynamic recovery and recrystallization. The Cora Lake shear zone is interpreted to have been relatively strong and to have hardened during progressive deformation. Garnet is commonly fractured perpendicular to host rock fabric, and statically replaced by both biotite and muscovite. Pseudotachylite, with the same sense of shear, occurs in several ultramylonitized mafic granulites. Thus, cataclasis and frictional melt are interpreted to have been produced in the lower continental crust, not during later reactivation. We suggest that strengthening of rheologically stiffer lithologies led to

  20. A two-dimensional time domain near zone to far zone transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Ryan, Deirdre; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    A time domain transformation useful for extrapolating three dimensional near zone finite difference time domain (FDTD) results to the far zone was presented. Here, the corresponding two dimensional transform is outlined. While the three dimensional transformation produced a physically observable far zone time domain field, this is not convenient to do directly in two dimensions, since a convolution would be required. However, a representative two dimensional far zone time domain result can be obtained directly. This result can then be transformed to the frequency domain using a Fast Fourier Transform, corrected with a simple multiplicative factor, and used, for example, to calculate the complex wideband scattering width of a target. If an actual time domain far zone result is required, it can be obtained by inverse Fourier transform of the final frequency domain result.

  1. A two-dimensional time domain near zone to far zone transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Ryan, Deirdre; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper, a time domain transformation useful for extrapolating 3-D near zone finite difference time domain (FDTD) results to the far zone was presented. In this paper, the corresponding 2-D transform is outlined. While the 3-D transformation produced a physically observable far zone time domain field, this is not convenient to do directly in 2-D, since a convolution would be required. However, a representative 2-D far zone time domain result can be obtained directly. This result can then be transformed to the frequency domain using a Fast Fourier Transform, corrected with a simple multiplicative factor, and used, for example, to calculate the complex wideband scattering width of a target. If an actual time domain far zone result is required it can be obtained by inverse Fourier transform of the final frequency domain result.

  2. Dynamics of Vadose Zone Transport: a Field and Modeling Study using the Vadose Zone Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C R

    2001-01-01

    A stated need of the DOE EM program is a better understanding of basic vadose zone fluid flow and contaminant transport processes for the purpose of making improved estimates of contaminant release rates and fluxes across the vadose zone to the water table at DOE sites such as the tank farms at Hanford. We investigate details of the modes of contaminant transport with the aid of infiltration experiments designed to elucidate how vadose zone characteristics such as preferential pathways, heterogeneities, and relative permeabilities influence the transport of contamination in liquid, gas and colloidal phases to the water table. Beyond enhancing our basic understanding of vadose zone transport processes, this EMSP project is designed result in a vadose-zone-transport-characterization methodology that can be generalized to other DOE sites.

  3. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  4. Infrared inhibition of embryonic hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yves T.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Infrared control is a new technique that uses pulsed infrared lasers to thermally alter electrical activity. Originally developed for nerves, we have applied this technology to embryonic hearts using a quail model, previously demonstrating infrared stimulation and, here, infrared inhibition. Infrared inhibition enables repeatable and reversible block, stopping cardiac contractions for several seconds. Normal beating resumes after the laser is turned off. The block can be spatially specific, affecting propagation on the ventricle or initiation on the atrium. Optical mapping showed that the block affects action potentials and not just calcium or contraction. Increased resting intracellular calcium was observed after a 30-s exposure to the inhibition laser, which likely resulted in reduced mechanical function. Further optimization of the laser illumination should reduce potential damage. Stopping cardiac contractions by disrupting electrical activity with infrared inhibition has the potential to be a powerful tool for studying the developing heart.

  5. The 1977 intertropical convergence zone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G. (Editor); Page, W. A. (Editor); Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented from the 1977 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Experiment conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977. Measurements were made daily over a 16-day period when the ITCZ moved across the Canal Zone. Two aircraft (Learjet and U-2) flew daily and provided data from horizontal traverses at several altitudes to 21.3 km of ozone, temperature, pressure, water vapor, aerosols, fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitric acid. Balloonsondes flown four times per day provided data on ozone, wind fields, pressure, temperature, and humidities to altitudes near 30 km. Rocketsondes provided daily data to altitudes near 69 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

  6. The thermoneutral zone: implications for metabolic studies.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Boris; Frijns, Arjan; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    A thermoneutral environment is important for many human physiological studies. The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is defined as the range of ambient temperatures without regulatory changes in metabolic heat production or evaporative heat loss. Many factors influence the thermoneutral zone, such as body composition, clothing, energy expenditure, age and gender. These factors have the potential to introduce bias in study results and therefore need to be taken into consideration in many metabolic studies or studies on obesity, medical conditions, thermal comfort or vigilance. Given new developments on the TNZ combined with historical views the aim of this review is to 1) provide insight in how the human TNZ is affected by internal and external factors, 2) indicate how skin blood flow characteristics could be used as an objective criterion for determining whether someone is in the thermoneutral zone, 3) explain implications of the TNZ on metabolic studies and 4) indicate future directions to enhance understanding of the TNZ, especially for the elderly and obese.

  7. Circumstellar habitable zones for deep terrestrial biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Sean; O'Malley-James, Jack; Parnell, John

    2013-09-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is conventionally the thin shell of space around a star within which liquid water is thermally stable on the surface of an Earth-like planet (Kasting et al., 1993). However, life on Earth is not restricted to the surface and includes a “deep biosphere” reaching several km in depth. Similarly, subsurface liquid water maintained by internal planetary heat could potentially support life well outside conventional HZs. We introduce a new term,subsurface-habitability zone (SSHZ) to denote the range of distances from a star within which rocky planets are habitable at any depth below their surfaces up to a stipulated maximum, and show how SSHZs can be estimated from a model relating temperature, depth and orbital distance. We present results for Earth-like, Mars-like and selected extrasolar terrestrial planets, and conclude that SSHZs are several times wider and include many more planets than conventional surface-based habitable zones.

  8. Compositional zoning of the bishop tuff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Wilson, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Compositional data for >400 pumice clasts, organized according to eruptive sequence, crystal content, and texture, provide new perspectives on eruption and pre-eruptive evolution of the >4600 km3 of zoned rhyolitic magma ejected as the BishopTuff during formation of Long Valley caldera. Proportions and compositions of different pumice types are given for each ignimbrite package and for the intercalated plinian pumice-fall layers that erupted synchronously. Although withdrawal of the zoned magma was less systematic than previously realized, the overall sequence displays trends toward greater proportions of less evolved pumice, more crystals (0-5 24 wt %), and higher FeTi-oxide temperatures (714-818??C). No significant hiatus took place during the 6 day eruption of the BishopTuff, nearly all of which issued from an integrated, zoned, unitary reservoir. Shortly before eruption, however, the zoned melt-dominant portion of the chamber was invaded by batches of disparate lower-silica rhyolite magma, poorer in crystals than most of the resident magma but slightly hotter and richer in Ba, Sr, andTi. Interaction with resident magma at the deepest levels tapped promoted growth ofTi-rich rims on quartz, Ba-rich rims on sanidine, and entrapment of near-rim melt inclusions relatively enriched in Ba and CO2.Varied amounts of mingling, even in higher parts of the chamber, led to the dark gray and swirly crystal-poor pumices sparsely present in all ashflow packages. As shown by FeTi-oxide geothermometry, the zoned rhyolitic chamber was hottest where crystal-richest, rendering any model of solidification fronts at the walls or roof unlikely.The main compositional gradient (75-195 ppm Rb; 0.8-2.2 ppm Ta; 71-154 ppm Zr; 0.40-1.73% FeO*) existed in the melt, prior to crystallization of the phenocryst suite observed, which included zircon as much as 100 kyr older than the eruption.The compositions of crystals, though themselves largely unzoned, generally reflect magma temperature and

  9. Multi-zone cooling/warming garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, Victor S. (Inventor); Leon, Gloria R. (Inventor); Dancisak, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamically efficient garment for cooling and/or heating a human body. The thermodynamic efficiency is provided in part by targeting the heat exchange capabilities of the garment to specific areas and/or structures of the human body. The heat exchange garment includes heat exchange zones and one or more non-heat exchange zones, where the heat exchange zones are configured to correspond to one or more high density tissue areas of the human body when the garment is worn. A system including the garment can be used to exchange heat with the adjacent HD tissue areas under the control of a feedback control system. Sensed physiological parameters received by the feedback control system can be used to adjust the characteristics of heat exchange fluid moving within the heat exchange garment.

  10. Seismomagnetic response of a fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adushkin, V. V.; Loktev, D. N.; Spivak, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of instrumental observations of geomagnetic variations caused by the propagation of seismic waves through a fault zone, the dependences between the amplitudes of the induced seismomagnetic effect and seismic signal as a function of distance r to the midline of the fault are obtained. For the first time, it is shown that the amplitude of the seismomagnetic effect is maximal in the fault damage zone. The phenomenological model describing the generation of magnetic signals by seismic waves propagating through the crushed rock in the tectonic fault zone is suggested. It is assumed that geomagnetic variations are generated by the changes in the electrical conductivity of the fragmented rocks as a result of the deformation of the rock pieces contacts. The amplitudes of the geomagnetic variations calculated from the model agree with the instrumental observations.

  11. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  12. Presynaptic active zones in invertebrates and vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Frauke; Waites, Clarissa L; Garner, Craig C

    2015-01-01

    The regulated release of neurotransmitter occurs via the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane called active zones (AZs). These regions are defined by a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at AZs (CAZ), which functions to direct SVs toward docking and fusion sites and supports their maturation into the readily releasable pool. In addition, CAZ proteins localize voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at SV release sites, bringing the fusion machinery in close proximity to the calcium source. Proteins of the CAZ therefore ensure that vesicle fusion is temporally and spatially organized, allowing for the precise and reliable release of neurotransmitter. Importantly, AZs are highly dynamic structures, supporting presynaptic remodeling, changes in neurotransmitter release efficacy, and thus presynaptic forms of plasticity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the study of active zones, highlighting how the CAZ molecularly defines sites of neurotransmitter release, endocytic zones, and the integrity of synapses. PMID:26160654

  13. Inhibition of tobramycin diffusion by binding to alginate.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, W W; Dorrington, S M; Slack, M P; Walmsley, H L

    1988-01-01

    [3H]tobramycin bound to sodium alginate and to exopolysaccharide prepared from two mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Binding to sodium alginate was similar to binding to exopolysaccharide, both in the dependence on tobramycin concentration and in the maximum binding observed at saturation. Incorporation of sodium alginate into agar plates reduced the zone sizes of growth inhibition caused by tobramycin. The reductions in zone sizes were quantitatively accounted for by the binding of tobramycin to sodium alginate during diffusion of the antibiotic away from the well in which it had been placed at the start of the experiment. However, the binding of tobramycin to the exopolysaccharide of P. aeruginosa, and the resulting inhibition of diffusion of the antibiotic, did not significantly increase the penetration time of a spherical microcolony with a radius of 125 micron, such as might be found in the respiratory tract of a patient with cystic fibrosis (from a 90% penetration time of 12 s in the absence of exopolysaccharide to one of 35 s with an exopolysaccharide concentration of 1.0% [wt/vol]). PMID:3132093

  14. Inhibition of tobramycin diffusion by binding to alginate

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, W.W.; Dorrington, S.M.; Slack, M.P.; Walmsley, H.L.

    1988-04-01

    (/sup 3/H)tobramycin bound to sodium alginate and to exopolysaccharide prepared from two mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Binding to sodium alginate was similar to binding to exopolysaccharide, both in the dependence on tobramycin concentration and in the maximum binding observed at saturation. Incorporation of sodium alginate into agar plates reduced the zone sizes of growth inhibition caused by tobramycin. The reductions in zone sizes were quantitatively accounted for by the binding of tobramycin to sodium alginate during diffusion of the antibiotic away from the well in which it had been placed at the start of the experiment. However, the binding of tobramycin to the exopolysaccharide of P. aeruginosa, and the resulting inhibition of diffusion of the antibiotic, did not significantly increase the penetration time of a spherical microcolony with a radius of 125 micron, such as might be found in the respiratory tract of a patient with cystic fibrosis (from a 90% penetration time of 12 s in the absence of exopolysaccharide to one of 35 s with an exopolysaccharide concentration of 1.0% (wt/vol)).

  15. Fracture zone traces across the north Pacific cretaceous quiet zone and their tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Tanya; Sclater, John; Sandwell, David; Severinghaus, Jeff; Marlow, Michael S.

    We present a new, more complete mapping of the fracture zones as they cross the Cretaceous Quiet Zone in the central north Pacific. We compile and combine observations of lineations from three distinct data bases: deflection-of-the-vertical profiles from GEOSAT altimetry measurements, magnetic and topographic profiles collected on closely spaced north-south ship tracks by the Pioneer survey, and magnetic and Gloria side-scan records from the concentrated Exclusive Economic Zone surveys around the Hawaiian chain and Johnston Island. We adopt and emphasize a northern relocation of the Quiet Zone portion of the Mendocino fracture zone. We find that all the fracture zones from the Surveyor to the Clarion reflect the same plate history; they were all formed on the Pacific-Farallon spreading system by relatively smooth spreading. One or more major ridge jumps are required to explain geometric differences in the Quiet Zone edges; we argue that these occurred early in the Superchron. Most of the fracture zones are seen to consist of groups of multiple strands that widen and narrow appropriately following changing plate motion directions. We contend that the shape of the Mendocino contra-indicates the existence of a Chinook plate in the late Superchron. We explored the fitting of Euler stage poles to our fracture zone shapes and to other Quiet Zone features. We conclude that the youngest Superchron stage pole must lie very near the spin axis. Stage poles for earlier stages of the Superchron probably lie at lower latitudes in the south Pacific but their locations are poorly constrained by the data presently in hand.

  16. Phosphanilic Acid Inhibits Dihydropteroate Synthase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    dihydropteroate synthases of P. aeruginosa and E . coli were about equally susceptible to inhibition by PA. These results suggest that cells of P. aeruginosa...are more permeable to PA than cells of E . coli . Although a weak inhibitor, PA acted on dihydropteroate synthase in the same manner as the sulfonamides...with which PA is structurally related. Inhibition of E . coli by PA in a basal salts-glucose medium was prevented by p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA). However

  17. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  18. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site.

  19. Development and testing of a compartmentalized reaction network model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams, R.H.; Loague, K.; Kent, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The work reported here is the first part of a larger effort focused on efficient numerical simulation of redox zone development in contaminated aquifers. The sequential use of various electron acceptors, which is governed by the energy yield of each reaction, gives rise to redox zones. The large difference in energy yields between the various redox reactions leads to systems of equations that are extremely ill-conditioned. These equations are very difficult to solve, especially in the context of coupled fluid flow, solute transport, and geochemical simulations. We have developed a general, rational method to solve such systems where we focus on the dominant reactions, compartmentalizing them in a manner that is analogous to the redox zones that are often observed in the field. The compartmentalized approach allows us to easily solve a complex geochemical system as a function of time and energy yield, laying the foundation for our ongoing work in which we couple the reaction network, for the development of redox zones, to a model of subsurface fluid flow and solute transport. Our method (1) solves the numerical system without evoking a redox parameter, (2) improves the numerical stability of redox systems by choosing which compartment and thus which reaction network to use based upon the concentration ratios of key constituents, (3) simulates the development of redox zones as a function of time without the use of inhibition factors or switching functions, and (4) can reduce the number of transport equations that need to be solved in space and time. We show through the use of various model performance evaluation statistics that the appropriate compartment choice under different geochemical conditions leads to numerical solutions without significant error. The compartmentalized approach described here facilitates the next phase of this effort where we couple the redox zone reaction network to models of fluid flow and solute transport.

  20. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Okubo, Paul G; Shearer, Peter M

    2003-04-18

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (>/=13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  1. SAR observations of coastal zone conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, G. A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to the observation of coastal zones phenomena are detailed. The conditions observed include gravity wave detection, surf zone location, surface currents, and long-period 'surf beats'. Algorithms have been developed and successfully tested that determine significant wave and current parameters from the sea surface backscatter of microwave energy. Doppler information from the SAR optical correlator allows a rough estimation of near shore surface flow velocities that has been found in agreement with both theory and in situ observations as well. Seasat SAR data of the Scotland and North Carolina coasts are considered, as well as the results of bathymetric updating of coastal area charts.

  2. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  3. Possible novel agents in marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Broccoli, Alessandro

    Efficacy, safety and mechanisms of action of novel agents in marginal zone lymphoma patients, both with a nodal and extranodal presentation, are reviewed. Data on lenalidomide, bortezomib and (90)yttrium-ibrutumomab tiuxetan are obtained from trials specifically designed for patients affected by marginal zone lymphoma and with various disease presentations. The role of targeted agents, such as obinutuzumab, ibrutinib and idelalisib, and of some very new drugs (venetoclax, copanlisib, ublituximab and TGR-1202) is also discussed, taking into account the most relevant experiences in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. A glance to some possible drug combinations will also be provided, along with an update of the most relevant ongoing trials.

  4. Validation of EUCAST zone diameter breakpoints against reference broth microdilution.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, S; Bjelkenbrant, C; Kahlmeter, G

    2014-06-01

    The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) began harmonizing clinical breakpoints in Europe 2002. In 2009, work to develop a disc diffusion method began and the first disc diffusion breakpoints calibrated to EUCAST clinical MIC breakpoints were published in December 2009. In this study we validated EUCAST clinical zone diameter breakpoints against the International Standard Organization (ISO) reference broth microdilution. A collection of 544 isolates (238 Gram-negative and 306 Gram-positive) were tested against a panel of antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with broth microdilution as described by ISO and disc diffusion in accordance with EUCAST methodology. Inhibition zone diameters and MIC values were interpreted and categorized (S, I and R) according to EUCAST clinical breakpoint table version 2.0. Categorical agreement (CA) as well as minor (mD), major (MD) and very major (VMD) discrepancies were determined. There was in general good correlation between susceptibility test results obtained with disc diffusion and broth microdilution. Overall CA was 97.3% for all combinations of organisms and antimicrobial agents (n = 5231) and the overall discrepancy rates were 110 (2.1%) mD, 24 (0.5%) MD and 7 (0.1%) VMD. The overall CA for Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were 98.7% (2346 tests) and 96.2% (2942 tests), respectively. Seven VMD were observed, five for Gram-positive organisms (coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 2) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3)) and two for Gram-negative organisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Minor discrepancies were mainly observed in Gram-negatives and were related to different antimicrobial agents and species.

  5. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth Harbor, Portsmouth, New... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone,...

  6. 77 FR 22525 - Safety Zone; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New... temporary safety zones ] for swim events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone. These proposed... navigable waters within the COTP Sector New York Zone. The COTP has determined that swimming events in...

  7. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.65-10 Section 3.65-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Puget Sound Marine...″ N, longitude 124°43′45″ W, proceeding along the Canadian border east to the Montana-North...

  8. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Puget Sound Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Puget Sound's office is located in Seattle, WA....

  9. 33 CFR 3.05-35 - Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Long Island Sound Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-35 Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Long Island Sound's office is located in...

  10. 33 CFR 3.65-10 - Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Puget Sound Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 3.65-10 Sector Puget Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Puget Sound's office is located in Seattle, WA....

  11. 33 CFR 3.05-35 - Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Long Island Sound Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-35 Sector Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Long Island Sound's office is located in...

  12. 33 CFR 3.05-20 - Sector Southeastern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-20 Section 3.05-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE... England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Southeastern New England's office...

  13. 33 CFR 3.85-10 - Sector Juneau: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. 3.85-10 Section 3.85-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE...: Southeast Alaska Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zones. Sector Juneau's office is located...

  14. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE... England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  15. 49 CFR 222.42 - How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones? 222.42 Section 222.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.42 How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and..., if the public authority provides Notice of Quiet Zone Continuation, in accordance with § 222.43...

  16. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... which this zone will be enforced by methods in accordance with 33 CFR 165.7. (14) Cruise ships—(i) Definition. For the purposes of this section, cruise ship means a passenger vessel as defined in 46 U.S.C... cruise ship under this section will also include ferries as defined in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are...

  17. 77 FR 21439 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... waters of Lake Michigan and the Black River within the arc of a circle with a 1000-foot radius from the... this safety zone will be enforced July 5; 9 p.m. to 11 p.m. (25) St. Joseph Fourth of July Fireworks; St. Joseph, MI. (i) Location. All waters of Lake Michigan and the St. Joseph River within the arc...

  18. ROCK inhibition enhances neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by upregulating YAP expression in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xu-feng; Ye, Fei; Wang, Yan-bo; Feng, Da-xiong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous axonal regeneration of neurons does not occur after spinal cord injury because of inhibition by myelin and other inhibitory factors. Studies have demonstrated that blocking the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway can promote neurite outgrowth in spinal cord injury models. In the present study, we investigated neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation in neural stem cells from the mouse subventricular zone after inhibition of ROCK in vitro. Inhibition of ROCK with Y-27632 increased neurite length, enhanced neuronal differentiation, and upregulated the expression of two major signaling pathway effectors, phospho-Akt and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the Hippo pathway effector YAP. These results suggest that inhibition of ROCK mediates neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells by activating the Hippo signaling pathway. PMID:27482229

  19. Analysis of Gene Promoters for Two Tomato Polygalacturonases Expressed in Abscission Zones and the Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Sexton, Roy; Tucker, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Ailsa Craig) polygalacturonase genes TAPG1 (LYCes;Pga1;2) and TAPG4 (LYCes;Pga1;5) are abundantly expressed in both abscission zones and the pistils of mature flowers. To further investigate the spatial and temporal expression patterns for these genes, the TAPG gene promoters were ligated to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes and transformed into tomato. GUS expression with both constructs was similar and entirely consistent with the expression patterns of the native gene transcripts. GUS activity was observed in the weakening abscission zones of the leaf petiole, flower and fruit pedicel, flower corolla, and fruit calyx. In leaf petiole and flower pedicel zones this activity was enhanced by ethylene and inhibited by indole-3-acetic acid. On induction of abscission with ethylene, GUS accumulation was much earlier in TAPG4:GUS than in TAPG1:GUS transformants. Moreover, TAPG4:GUS staining appeared to predominate in the vascular bundles relative to surrounding cortex cells whereas TAPG1:GUS was more evenly distributed across the separation layer. Like the native genes, GUS was also expressed in the stigma. Activity was not apparent in pistils until the flowers had opened and was confined to the stigma and style immediately proximal to it. A minimal promoter construct consisting of a 247-bp 5′-upstream element from TAPG1 was found to be sufficient to direct GUS expression in both abscission zones and the stigma. PMID:10889236

  20. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers--2, Field-scale simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper, the second of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], reports the field-scale application of COMPTRAN (compartmentalized solute transport model) for simulating the development of redox zones. COMPTRAN is fully developed and described in the companion paper. Redox zones, which are often delineated by the relative concentrations of dissolved oxygen, have been observed around the globe. The distribution of other redox-sensitive species is affected by redox zonation. At the U.S. Geological Survey's Cape Cod research site, an anoxic zone containing high concentrations of dissolved iron has been observed. Field data were abstracted from the Cape Cod site for the one-dimensional and two-dimensional COMPTRAN simulations reported in this paper. The purpose of the concept-development simulations was to demonstrate that the compartmentalized approach reported by Abrams et al. [1998] can be linked with a solute transport model to simulate field-scale phenomena. The results presented in this paper show that COMPTRAN successfully simulated the development of redox zones at the field scale, including trends in pH and alkalinity. Thermodynamic constraints were used to prevent lower-energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium among all redox species. Empirical methods of reaction inhibition were not needed for the simulations conducted for this study. COMPTRAN can be extended easily to include additional compartments and reactions and is capable of handling complex velocity fields in more than one dimension.

  1. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers: 2. Field-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-08-01

    This paper, the second of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], reports the field-scale application of COMPTRAN (compartmentalized solute transport model) for simulating the development of redox zones. COMPTRAN is fully developed and described in the companion paper. Redox zones, which are often delineated by the relative concentrations of dissolved oxygen, have been observed around the globe. The distribution of other redox-sensitive species is affected by redox zonation. At the U.S. Geological Survey's Cape Cod research site, an anoxic zone containing high concentrations of dissolved iron has been observed. Field data were abstracted from the Cape Cod site for the one-dimensional and two-dimensional COMPTRAN simulations reported in this paper. The purpose of the concept-development simulations was to demonstrate that the compartmentalized approach reported by Abrams et al. [1998] can be linked with a solute transport model to simulate field-scale phenomena. The results presented in this paper show that COMPTRAN successfully simulated the development of redox zones at the field scale, including trends in pH and alkalinity. Thermodynamic constraints were used to prevent lower-energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium among all redox species. Empirical methods of reaction inhibition were not needed for the simulations conducted for this study. COMPTRAN can be extended easily to include additional compartments and reactions and is capable of handling complex velocity fields in more than one dimension.

  2. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone Safety and Security Zones. 165.154 Section 165.154 Navigation... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones; Captain of the Port...) Notification. The Captain of the Port will notify the maritime community of periods during which this...

  3. Inhibition of Hageman factor activation

    PubMed Central

    Nossel, H. L.; Rubin, H.; Drillings, M.; Hsieh, R.

    1968-01-01

    A method for studying inhibitors of the contact stages of blood coagulation is described. A number of positively charged substances were shown to inhibit the contact stages. The inhibitory substances include spermine, cytochrome c, ribonuclease, and lysozyme. The inhibitory effect of these substances was neutralized by the addition of an activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent, factor XI, (PTA) fraction. Other positively charged substances including protamine, hexadimethrine, polylysine, polyornithine, methylene blue, and ortho-toluidine blue also inhibited the contact stages of coagulation, but the inhibitory effect on coagulation was not neutralized by the activated PTA fraction. Negatively charged substances such as heparin and insulin did not inhibit the contact stages of coagulation. Cytochrome c inhibited Celite adsorption of a partially purified Hageman factor fraction, and cytochrome, ribonuclease, spermine, and lysozome inhibited the adsorption of Hageman factor from PTA-deficient plasma. Very much smaller quantities of Celite completely adsorbed Hageman factor from the fraction rather than from whole plasma, which suggested the possibility that plasma contains an inhibitor or inhibitors of Hageman factor adsorption. Furthermore cytochrome c, spermine, ribonuclease, and lysozyme inhibited the coagulant activity of the following activators of the Hageman and PTA factors: Celite, kaolin, sodium stearate, ellagic acid, and skin. It is suggested that negatively charged sites on these activators are critical for adsorption and activation and that inhibition results from neutralization of the negatively charged sites by the adsorbed inhibtor. Tests with polylysine polymers indicate that inhibitory activity is directly related to molecular size over the molecular weight range of 4000 to 100,000. PMID:5645860

  4. Evaluation of rear-end crash risk at work zone using work zone traffic data.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Weng, Jinxian

    2011-07-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area and merging area, as well as analyze the impacts of contributing factors by using work zone traffic data. Here, the rear-end crash risk is referred to as the probability that a vehicle is involved in a rear-end crash accident. The deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) is used in measuring rear-end crash risk. Based on work zone traffic data in Singapore, three rear-end crash risk models are developed to examine the relationship between rear-end crash risk at activity area and its contributing factors. The fourth rear-end crash risk model is developed to examine the effects of merging behavior on crash risk at merging area. The ANOVA results show that the rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area is statistically different from lane positions. Model results indicate that rear-end crash risk at work zone activity area increases with heavy vehicle percentage and lane traffic flow rate. An interesting finding is that the lane closer to work zone is strongly associated with higher rear-end crash risk. A truck has much higher probability involving in a rear-end accident than a car. Further, the expressway work zone activity area is found to have much larger crash risk than arterial work zone activity area. The merging choice has the dominated effect on risk reduction, suggesting that encouraging vehicles to merge early may be the most effective method to reduce rear-end crash risk at work zone merging area.

  5. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrova, V. V.; Bardsley, W. E.

    2012-04-01

    Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  6. Technical Note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrova, V. V.; Bardsley, W. E.

    2012-01-01

    Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  7. Evaluation of Camellias for zone 6b

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent hybridization of camellias has yielded several selections recognized as cold hardy to USDA Hardiness Zone 6. Several of the cold hardy camellias, in an established camellia evaluation since 2004, were damaged with foliar bronzing and stem dieback after a severe freeze in November 2013 in McMi...

  8. New Variable for Fresnel Zone Plate Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Gomez- Reino , Selected Papers on ZONE PLATES, SPIE Milestone Series VOL. MS 128 (1996). 96 [2] J. Ojeda-Castanada and C. Gomez- Reino , ibid. This work...der Physic und Chemie, Vol. 156, pp. 99-113 (1875). Reprinted in J. Ojeda-Castanada and C. Gomez- Reino , ibid. Soret also demonstrated the existence of

  9. Small Gas Turbine Combustor Primary Zone Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. E.; Young, E. R.; Miles, G. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A development process is described which consists of design, fabrication, and preliminary test evaluations of three approaches to internal aerodynamic primary zone flow patterns: (1) conventional double vortex swirl stabilization; (2) reverse flow swirl stabilization; and (3) large single vortex flow system. Each concept incorporates special design features aimed at extending the performance capability of the small engine combustor. Since inherent geometry of these combustors result in small combustion zone height and high surface area to volume ratio, design features focus on internal aerodynamics, fuel placement, and advanced cooling. The combustors are evaluated on a full scale annular combustor rig. A correlation of the primary zone performance with the overall performance is accomplished using three intrusion type gas sampling probes located at the exit of the primary zone section. Empirical and numerical methods are used for designing and predicting the performance of the three combustor concepts and their subsequent modifications. The calibration of analytical procedures with actual test results permits an updating of the analytical design techniques applicable to small reverse flow annular combustors.

  10. The formation of grounding zone wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Katarzyna; Worster, Grae

    2016-11-01

    Ice sheets are generally lubricated by a layer of sub-glacial sediment, or till, which plays a central role in determining their large-scale dynamics. Sub-glacial till has been found to accumulate into distinctive sedimentary wedges at ice-sheet grounding zones, separating floating ice shelves from grounded ice sheets. These grounding-zone wedges have important implications for stabilizing ice sheets against grounding-zone retreat in response to rising sea levels. We develop a theoretical model of wedge formation in which we treat both ice and till as viscous fluids spreading under gravity into an inviscid ocean and present a fluid-mechanical explanation of the formation of these wedges in terms of the jump in hydrostatic loading and unloading of till across the grounding zone. We also conduct a series of fluid-mechanical experiments in a confined setting in which we find that the underlying layer of less viscous fluid accumulates spontaneously in a similar wedge-shaped region at the experimental grounding line. We also extend our theory to more natural, unconfined settings in two dynamical regimes in which the overlying ice is resisted dominantly either by vertical shear or by extensional stresses and compare our findings with available geophysical data. Currently at Northwestern University.

  11. English Higher Education and Its Vocational Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Distinctions between academic, vocational and professional education inform but do not define the divisions of English higher education. Nevertheless, there are zones where courses, qualifications and institutions are specifically oriented to the world of work. These include most short-cycle higher education, large parts of undergraduate and…

  12. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  13. Body Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, John C.; Bahs, Clarence W.

    This paper investigates the effect of personal body buffer zones on compositional arrangements staged by novice directors. Relationships between directors' concepts of personal space and their projection of its dimensions into staging are studied through the use of a variety of proximity measures--distance, area angles of approach, and physical…

  14. 19 CFR 146.7 - Zone changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the risk and expense of the operator. The port director may require an accounting of all merchandise... operator or a zone user. If a list was previously furnished, the port director may make a written demand for the same information in respect to new persons employed in the carriage, receipt, or delivery...

  15. Analysis Links Zoning Policies and Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Location, location, location. This mantra of real estate agents and their clients alike is now the target of a new report from the Brookings Institution linking housing prices and zoning practices to effectively depriving low-income students of high-quality schools. Using test scores from schools in the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the…

  16. 47 CFR 1.924 - Quiet zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impact on the operations of radio astronomy or other facilities that are highly sensitive to interference. Consent throughout this paragraph means written consent from the quiet zone, radio astronomy, research... Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at...

  17. 47 CFR 1.924 - Quiet zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact on the operations of radio astronomy or other facilities that are highly sensitive to interference. Consent throughout this paragraph means written consent from the quiet zone, radio astronomy, research... Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at...

  18. VISUAL PLUMES MIXING ZONE MODELING SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has a long history of both supporting plume model development and providing mixing zone modeling software. The Visual Plumes model is the most recent addition to the suite of public-domain models available through the EPA-Athens Center f...

  19. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  20. Liquid encapsulated float zone process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald O. (Inventor); Lehoczky, Sandor L. (Inventor); Vlasse, Marcus (Inventor); Facemire, Barbara R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The process and apparatus for growing crystals using float zone techniques are described. A rod of crystalline materials is disposed in a cylindrical container, leaving a space between the rod and container walls. This space is filled with an encapsulant, selected to have a slightly lower melting point than the crystalline material. The rod is secured to a container end cap at one end and to a shaft at its other end. A piston slides over the rod and provides pressure to prevent loss of volatile components upon melting of the rod. Prior to melting the rod the container is first heated to melt the encapsulant, with any off-gas from this step being vented to a cavity behind the piston. The piston moves slightly forward owing to volume change upon melting of the encapsulant, and the vent passageway is closed. The container is then moved longitudinally through a heated zone to progressively melt sections of the rod as in conventional float zone processes. The float zone technique may be used in the microgravity environment of space.

  1. Applications of ISES for coastal zone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the discipline- and process-oriented topics addressed, coastal zone studies are defined geographically by the special circumstances inherent in the interface between land and water. The characteristics of coastal zones which make them worthy of separate consideration are: (1) the dynamic nature of natural and anthropogenic processes taking place; (2) the relatively restricted spatial domain of the narrow land/water interface; and (3) the large proportion of the Earth's population living within coastal zones, and the resulting extreme pressure on natural and human resources. These characteristics place special constraints and priorities on remote sensing applications, even though the applications themselves bear close relation to those addressed by other elements of this report (e.g., oceans, ice, vegetation/land use). The discussion which follows first describes the suite of remote sensing activities relevant to coastal zone studies. Potential Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) experiments will then be addressed within two general categories: applications of real-time data transmission and applications of onboard data acquisition and processing.

  2. The Four Energy Zones of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George

    2012-01-01

    How can schools provide every child with an environment where they can grow and thrive? The answer lies in creating facilities that support quality educational delivery and promote a high level of engagement. The author discusses four energy zones of schools: (1) Resignation; (2) Comfort; (3) Aggression; and (4) Passion. This model provides an…

  3. EPA MODELING TOOLS FOR CAPTURE ZONE DELINEATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Research and Development supports a step-wise modeling approach for design of wellhead protection areas for water supply wells. A web-based WellHEDSS (wellhead decision support system) is under development for determining when simple capture zones (e.g., centri...

  4. Water percolation through a clayey vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Kurtzman, D.; Dahan, O.

    2012-03-01

    SummaryHeavy clay soils are regarded as less permeable due to their low saturated hydraulic conductivities, and are perceived as safe for the construction of unlined or soil-lined waste lagoons. Water percolation dynamics through a smectite-dominated clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy waste lagoon, waste channel and their margins was investigated using three independent vadose-zone monitoring systems. The monitoring systems, hosting 22 TDR sensors, were used for continuous measurements of the temporal variation in vadose zone water-content profiles. Results from 4 years of continuous measurements showed quick rises in sediment water content following rain events and temporal wastewater overflows. The percolation pattern indicated dominance of preferential flow through a desiccation-crack network crossing the entire clay sediment layer (depth of 12 m). High water-propagation velocities (0.4-23.6 m h-1) were observed, indicating that the desiccation-crack network remains open and serves as a preferential flow pathway year-round, even at high sediment water content (˜0.50 m3 m-3). The natural formation of desiccation-crack networks at the margins of waste lagoons induces rapid infiltration of raw waste to deep sections of the vadose zone, bypassing the sediment's most biogeochemically active parts, and jeopardizing groundwater quality.

  5. 40 CFR 227.28 - Release zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.28 Release zone. The... conveyance engaged in dumping activities, beginning at the first moment in which dumping is scheduled...

  6. Framework Al zoning in zeolite ECR-1.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jiho; Ahn, Nak Ho; Cho, Sung June; Ren, Limin; Xiao, Feng-Shou; Hong, Suk Bong

    2014-02-25

    Rietveld analyses of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for various cation forms of zeolite ECR-1 have demonstrated framework Al zoning, which parallels the alternation of Al-rich maz and Al-poor mor layers. This can be further supported by notable differences in the average bond valence of its 10 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites.

  7. Family Day Care Zoning Advocacy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Carol; And Others

    Designed to help family day care providers and the agencies that support them reform local zoning laws that make it difficult or impossible to legally care for children in their homes, this guide outlines the process of obtaining a use permit, changing local laws, and strategizing for the passage of state legislation that preempts local laws. A…

  8. Family Day Care Zoning. Local Officials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Abby; And Others

    This guide discusses city planning issues related to family day care zoning. The guide is divided into five sections. The first section discusses child care as a planning issue and focuses on changes in working patterns of families and in residential neighborhoods. The second section describes components of the child care delivery system, which…

  9. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... across latitude 46 20'00'' N, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to... in Minnesota South of a line drawn across latitude 46 20'00'' N, extending the entire width of the... those in Minnesota South of a line drawn across latitude 46 20'00'' N, extending the entire width of...

  10. Marginal Ice Zone: Biogeochemical Sampling with Gliders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    nutrient rich waters into the euphotic zone in supporting these blooms. 4. Evaluate the potential role of phytoplankton pigment absorption on the...vertical gradient of heating under the ice and apply a light and chlorophyll primary productivity model to estimate and compare phytoplankton ...melt and phytoplankton optical properties under Arctic ice. The project specific goals are to build collaboration with Arctic biogeochemists at

  11. Genecology for seed zones: Problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed zones are needed to guide the choice of genetic resources used in restoration. Their development using genecology is ongoing in numerous grass and forb species cooperative among the ARS, BLM, US Forest Service and the University of Nevada-Reno. The interaction of genetic variation and long-t...

  12. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  13. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  14. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  15. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  16. Stresses Modelling Across The Andean Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, T.; Rebetsky, Yu.; Goetze, H.-J.

    A tectonophysical model, including geological-geophysical-tectonic structure, phys- ical properties of the medium (density and rheology), and its loading mechanism (boundary conditions on forces and movements) is constructed along a 21S profile. The model stresses and strains produced by separate plate motions and density inho- mogeneities and by their net effect. The inferred results are qualitatively compared with the stress state parameters of the medium, reconstructed from data on the earth- quake centroid moment tensor, and with the available tectonic, geological, and geo- physical data. The orientation analysis of the principal deviatoric axes of maximum compression and extension yields evidence for a few deformation mechanisms that function both along the subducting slab and in the junction zone of the oceanic and continental plates. The inferred intense rearrangement areas of the stress field indicate possible fragmentation zones in the oceanic plate. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes at depths below 70 km yield evidence of over-lithostatic tectonic dilatation; along with mathematical modeling results, this supports the idea of a more rapid motion of the lower denser part of the slab beneath South America as compared with its overlying portions. Plate motions directly control solely the stresses within the subducting slab and around its shallower (above 50 km) parts. The recent tectonics and stresses in the Andean mountain belt are dominated by density inhomogeneities. Stress distribution details caused by density inhomogeneities are shown to correlate well with large-scale geological features. Thus, the Pre-Cordilleran fault zone separating coastal zones from the Andean mountain belt distinctly correlates with the reorientation of the deviatoric compression-extension axes. The entire thickened crust of the belt is under conditions of over-lithostatic dilatation, and the inferred zones of the negative total isotropic pres- sure correlate with local dilatation

  17. Noise zoning around airports in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, F. W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.

  18. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    PubMed

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  19. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  20. Lateral Inhibition during Nociceptive Processing.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Alexandre S; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole K; Coghill, Robert C

    2017-02-11

    Spatial summation of pain is the increase of perceived intensity that occurs as the stimulated area increases. Spatial summation of pain is sub-additive in that increasing the stimulus area produces a disproportionately small increase in the perceived intensity of pain. A possible explanation for sub-additive summation may be that convergent excitatory information is modulated by lateral inhibition. To test the hypothesis that lateral inhibition may limit spatial summation of pain, we delivered different patterns of noxious thermal stimuli to the abdomens of 15 subjects using a computer-controlled CO2-laser. Lines (5mm wide) of variable lengths (4cm, 8cm) were compared to two-point stimuli delivered at the same position/separation as the length of lines. When compared to one-point control stimuli, two-point stimulus patterns produced statistically significant spatial summation of pain, while no such summation was detected during line stimulus patterns. Direct comparison of pain intensity evoked by two-point pattern stimuli with line pattern stimuli revealed that two-point patterns were perceived as significantly more painful, despite the fact that the two-point pattern stimulated far smaller areas of skin. Thus, the stimulation of the skin region between the endpoints of the lines appears to produce inhibition. These findings indicate that lateral inhibition limits spatial summation of pain and is an intrinsic component of nociceptive information processing. Disruption of such lateral inhibition may contribute substantially to the radiation of some types of chronic pain.