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Sample records for 30s 31cl deduced

  1. A dye-sensitized visible light photocatalyst-Bi24O31Cl10

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Shang, Jun; Hao, Weichang; Jiang, Shiqi; Huang, Shiheng; Wang, Tianmin; Sun, Ziqi; Du, Yi; Dou, Shixue; Xie, Tengfeng; Wang, Dejun; Wang, Jiaou

    2014-01-01

    The p-block semiconductors are regarded as a new family of visible-light photocatalysts because of their dispersive and anisotropic band structures as well as high chemical stability. The bismuth oxide halides belong to this family and have band structures and dispersion relations that can be engineered by modulating the stoichiometry of the halogen elements. Herein, we have developed a new visible-light photocatalyst Bi24O31Cl10 by band engineering, which shows high dye-sensitized photocatalytic activity. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the p-block elements determine the nature of the dispersive electronic structures and narrow band gap in Bi24O31Cl10. Bi24O31Cl10 exhibits excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of Rhodamine B, which is promoted by dye sensitization due to compatible energy levels and high electronic mobility. In addition, Bi24O31Cl10 is also a suitable photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells and shows power conversion efficiency of 1.5%. PMID:25488704

  2. 31Cl beta decay and the 30P31S reaction rate in nova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Michael; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; NSCL e12028 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The 30P31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, identifying the origin of presolar nova grains, and calibrating proposed nova thermometers. Unfortunately, this rate is essentially experimentally unconstrained because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonances are not known, due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using a 31Cl beam produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, we have populated several 31S states for study via beta decay and devised a new decay scheme which includes updated beta feedings and gamma branchings as well as multiple states previously unobserved in 31Cl beta decay. Results of this study, including the unambiguous identification due to isospin mixing of a new l = 0 , Jπ = 3 /2+ 31S resonance directly in the middle of the Gamow Window, will be presented, and significance to the evaluation of the 30P31S reaction rate will be discussed. Work supported by U.S. Natl. Sci. Foundation (Grants No. PHY-1102511, PHY-1404442, PHY-1419765, and PHY-1431052); U.S. Dept. of Energy, Natl. Nucl. Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0000979); Nat. Sci. and Eng. Research Council of Canada.

  3. Constructing Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing route for achieving enhanced photocatalytic activity and selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Su, Yiguo; Zhao, Qihang; Du, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the phase transformation from BiOCl to Bi24O31Cl10 could be realized during the thermal annealing process. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energy shifts, Raman spectra and Fouier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the formation of the Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction. The obtained Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl photocatalyst showed excellent conversion efficiency and selectivity toward photocatalytic conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The radical scavengers and electron spin resonance (ESR) results suggested that the photogenerated holes were the dominant reactive species responsible for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and superoxide radicals were not involved in the photocatalytic process. The in-situ generation of Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction may own superior interfacial contact than the two-step synthesized heterojunctions, which promotes the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers and is favorable for excellent photocatalytic activities. PMID:27340032

  4. Constructing Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing route for achieving enhanced photocatalytic activity and selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Su, Yiguo; Zhao, Qihang; Du, Chunfang; Liu, Zhiliang

    2016-06-01

    This work reports on the construction of a Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction via a simple thermal annealing method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that the phase transformation from BiOCl to Bi24O31Cl10 could be realized during the thermal annealing process. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energy shifts, Raman spectra and Fouier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the formation of the Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction. The obtained Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl photocatalyst showed excellent conversion efficiency and selectivity toward photocatalytic conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The radical scavengers and electron spin resonance (ESR) results suggested that the photogenerated holes were the dominant reactive species responsible for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and superoxide radicals were not involved in the photocatalytic process. The in-situ generation of Bi24O31Cl10/BiOCl heterojunction may own superior interfacial contact than the two-step synthesized heterojunctions, which promotes the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers and is favorable for excellent photocatalytic activities.

  5. Study of excited states of {sup 31}S through beta-decay of {sup 31}Cl for nucleosynthesis in ONe novae

    SciTech Connect

    Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Aeystoe, J.; Trache, L.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Bentley, M. A.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P. J.

    2011-11-30

    We have produced an intense and pure beam of {sup 31}Cl with the MARS Separator at the Texas A and M University and studied {beta}-decay of {sup 31}Cl by implanting the beam into a novel detector setup, capable of measuring {beta}-delayed protons and {gamma}-rays simultaneously. From our data, we have established decay scheme of {sup 31}Cl, found resonance energies with 1 keV precision, have measured its half-life with under 1% accuracy, found its Isobar Analog State decay and by using the IMME obtained an improved mass excess for its ground state. In this contribution, a description of the used method along with selected preliminary experimental results are given and their relevance for novae nucleosynthesis discussed.

  6. Nuclear structure of 30S and its implications for nucleosynthesis in classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoodehnia, K.; Chen, A. A.; Kahl, D.; Komatsubara, T.; José, J.; Longland, R.; Abe, Y.; Binh, D. N.; Chen, J.; Cherubini, S.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Fukuoka, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Hendriks, J.; Ishibashi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Kubono, S.; Lennard, W. N.; Moriguchi, T.; Nagae, D.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T.; Ozawa, A.; Parker, P. D.; Seiler, D.; Shizuma, T.; Suzuki, H.; Wrede, C.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yuasa, T.

    2013-06-01

    Background: The uncertainty in the 29P(p,γ)30S reaction rate over 0.1 ≤ T ≤ 1.3 GK was previously determined to span approximately four orders of magnitude due to the uncertain location of two previously unobserved 3+ and 2+ resonances in the Ex=4.7-4.8 MeV region in 30S. Therefore, the abundances of silicon isotopes synthesized in novae, which are relevant for the identification of presolar grains of putative nova origin, were uncertain by a factor of 3.Purpose: (a) To investigate the level structure of 30S above the proton threshold [4394.9(7) keV] via charged-particle spectroscopy using the 32S(p,t)30S reaction and in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the 28Si(3He, nγ)30S reaction to calculate the 29P(p,γ)30S reaction rate. (b) To explore the impact of this rate on the abundances of silicon isotopes synthesized in novae.Methods: Differential cross sections of the 32S(p,t)30S reaction were measured at 34.5 MeV. Distorted-wave Born approximation calculations were performed to constrain the spin-parity assignments of the observed levels, including the two astrophysically important levels. An energy-level scheme was deduced from γ-γ coincidence measurements using the 28Si(3He, nγ)30S reaction. Spin-parity assignments based on measurements of γ-ray angular distributions and γ-γ directional correlation from oriented nuclei were made for most of the observed levels of 30S.Results: The resonance energies corresponding to the states with 4.5 MeV ≲ Ex ≲ 6 MeV, including the two astrophysically important states predicted previously, are measured with significantly better precision than before. The spin-parity assignments of both astrophysically important resonances are confirmed. The uncertainty in the rate of the 29P(p,γ)30S reaction is substantially reduced over the temperature range of interest. Finally, the influence of this rate on the abundance ratios of silicon isotopes synthesized in novae are obtained via 1D hydrodynamic nova simulations

  7. {sup 30}S Beam Development and X-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Ohshiro, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Chen, A. A.; Chen, J.; Setoodeh nia, K.; Kaji, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kim, A.; Lee, N. H.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Over the past three years, we have worked on developing a well-characterized {sup 30}S radioactive beam to be used in a future experiment aiming to directly measure to extrapolate the {sup 30}S(alpha,p) stellar reaction rate within the Gamow window of Type I X-ray bursts. The importance of the {sup 30}S(alpha,p) reaction to X-ray bursts is discussed. Given the astrophysical motivation, the successful results of and challenges involved in the production of a low-energy {sup 30}S beam are detailed. Finally, an overview of our future plans regarding this on-going project are presented.

  8. An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, Megan W. T.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Self-assembling macromolecular machines drive fundamental cellular processes, including transcription, mRNA processing, translation, DNA replication, and cellular transport. The ribosome, which carries out protein synthesis, is one such machine, and the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome is the preeminent model system for biophysical analysis of large RNA-protein complexes. Our understanding of 30S assembly is incomplete, due to the challenges of monitoring the association of many components simultaneously. We have developed a new method involving pulse-chase monitored by quantitative mass spectrometry (PC/QMS) to follow the assembly of the 20 ribosomal proteins with 16S rRNA during formation of the functional particle. These data represent the first detailed and quantitative kinetic characterization of the assembly of a large multicomponent macromolecular complex. By measuring the protein binding rates at a range of temperatures, we have found that local transformations throughout the assembling subunit have similar but distinct activation energies. This observation shows that the prevailing view of 30S assembly as a pathway proceeding through a global rate-limiting conformational change must give way to a view in which the assembly of the complex traverses a landscape dotted with a variety of local conformational transitions. PMID:16319883

  9. Finite pure integer programming algorithms employing only hyperspherically deduced cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Three algorithms are developed that may be based exclusively on hyperspherically deduced cuts. The algorithms only apply, therefore, to problems structured so that these cuts are valid. The algorithms are shown to be finite.

  10. Insights into structure and function of 30S Ribosomal Protein S2 (30S2) in Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A potent target of pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Koteswara Reddy, G; Nagamalleswara Rao, K; Yarrakula, Kiran

    2017-02-01

    The gene 30S ribosomal protein S2 (30S2) is identified as a potential drug and vaccine target for Pneumonia. Its structural characterization is an important to understand the mechanism of action for identifying its receptor and/or other binding partners. The comparative genomics and proteomics studies are useful for structural characterization of 30S2 in C. Pneumoniae using different bioinformatics tools and web servers. In this study, the protein 30S2 structure was modelled and validated by Ramachandran plot. It is found that the modelled protein under most favoured "core" region was 88.7% and overall G-factor statistics with average score was -0.20. However, seven sequential motifs have been identified for 30S2 with reference codes (PR0095, PF0038, TIGR01012, PTHR11489, SSF52313 and PTHR11489). In addition, seven structural highly conserved residues have been identified in the large cleft are Lys160, Gly161and Arg162 with volume 1288.83Å(3) and average depth of the cleft was 10.75Å. Moreover, biological functions, biochemical process and structural constituents of ribosome are also explored. The study will be helped us to understand the sequential, structural, functional and evolutionary clues of unknown proteins available in C. Pneumoniae.

  11. {sup 30}S({alpha}, p) in X-Ray Bursts at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Ohshiro, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Chen, A. A.; Chen, J.; Setoodeh nia, K.; Kaji, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kim, A.; Lee, N. H.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    2010-08-12

    Over the past three years, we have worked on developing a well-characterized {sup 30}S radioactive beam to be used in a future experiment aiming to directly measure the {sup 30}S({alpha}, p) stellar reaction rate within the Gamow window of Type I X-ray bursts.

  12. Deducing Reaction Mechanism: A Guide for Students, Researchers, and Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Simon J.; Pitman, Catherine L.; Miller, Alexander J. M.

    2016-01-01

    An introductory guide to deducing the mechanism of chemical reactions is presented. Following a typical workflow for probing reaction mechanism, the guide introduces a wide range of kinetic and mechanistic tools. In addition to serving as a broad introduction to mechanistic analysis for students and researchers, the guide has also been used by…

  13. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  14. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, E. Han; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Coey, Aaron; Larsen, Kevin; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; DeMirci, Hasan

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.

  15. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Dao, E. Han; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; ...

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecondmore » X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.« less

  16. Relationship between anaerobic capacity estimated using a single effort and 30-s tethered running outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Sousa, Filipe Antônio de Barros; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between alternative anaerobic capacity method (MAODALT) and a 30-s all-out tethered running test. Fourteen male recreational endurance runners underwent a graded exercise test, a supramaximal exhaustive effort and a 30-s all-out test on different days, interspaced by 48h. After verification of data normality (Shapiro-Wilk test), the Pearson’s correlation test was used to verify the association between the anaerobic estimates from the MAODALT and the 30-s all-out tethered running outputs. Absolute MAODALT was correlated with mean power (r = 0.58; P = 0.03), total work (r = 0.57; P = 0.03), and mean force (r = 0.79; P = 0.001). In addition, energy from the glycolytic pathway (E[La-]) was correlated with mean power (r = 0.58; P = 0.03). Significant correlations were also found at each 5s interval between absolute MAODALT and force values (r between 0.75 and 0.84), and between force values and E[La-] (r between 0.73 to 0.80). In conclusion, the associations between absolute MAODALT and the mechanical outputs from the 30-s all-out tethered running test evidenced the importance of the anaerobic capacity for maintaining force during the course of time in short efforts. PMID:28182775

  17. Neutron Scattering and the 30 S Ribosomal Subunit of E. Coli

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Moore, P. B.; Engelman, D. M.; Langer, J. A.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Schindler, D. G.; Schoenborn, B. P.; Sillers, I. Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-06-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today.

  18. Neutron scattering and the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.B.; Engelman, D.M.; Langer, J.A.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Schindler, D.G.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Sillers, I.Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today. 30 references, 5 figures.

  19. Concurrent Nucleation of 16S Folding and Induced Fit in 30S Ribosome Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Adilakshmi, T.; Bellur, D; Woodson, S

    2008-01-01

    Rapidly growing cells produce thousands of new ribosomes each minute, in a tightly regulated process that is essential to cell growth. How the Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA and the 20 proteins that make up the 30S ribosomal subunit can assemble correctly in a few minutes remains a challenging problem, partly because of the lack of real-time data on the earliest stages of assembly. By providing snapshots of individual RNA and protein interactions as they emerge in real time, here we show that 30S assembly nucleates concurrently from different points along the rRNA. Time-resolved hydroxyl radical footprinting3 was used to map changes in the structure of the rRNA within 20 milliseconds after the addition of total 30S proteins. Helical junctions in each domain fold within 100 ms. In contrast, interactions surrounding the decoding site and between the 5', the central and the 3' domains require 2-200 seconds to form. Unexpectedly, nucleotides contacted by the same protein are protected at different rates, indicating that initial RNA-protein encounter complexes refold during assembly. Although early steps in assembly are linked to intrinsically stable rRNA structure, later steps correspond to regions of induced fit between the proteins and the rRNA.

  20. 30S(α , p) Thermonuclear Reaction Rate from Experimental Level Structure of 34Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, D.; Chen, A. A.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Binh, D. N.; Chen, J.; Cherubini, S.; Duy, N. N.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Iwasa, N.; Jung, H. S.; Kato, S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Ota, S.; Setoodehnia, K.; Teranishi, T.; Tokieda, H.; Yamada, T.; Yun, C. C.; Zhang, L. Y.

    Type I X-ray bursts are the most frequent thermonuclear explosions in the galaxy. Owing to their recurrence from known astronomical objects, burst morphology is extensively documented, and they are modeled very successfully as neutron-deficient, thermonuclear runaway on the surface of accreting neutron stars. While reaction networks include hundreds of isotopes and thousands of nuclear processes, only a small subset appear to play a pivotal role. One such reaction is the 30S(α , p) reaction, which is believed to be a crucial link in the explosive helium burning which is responsible for the large energy flux. However, very little experimental information is available concerning the cross section itself, nor the 34Ar compound nucleus at the relevant energies. We performed the first study of the entrance channel via 30S alpha resonant elastic scattering using a state-of-the-art, low-energy, 30S radioactive ion beam. The measurement was performed in inverse kinematics using a newly-developed active target. An R-matrix analysis of the excitation function reveals previously unknown resonances, including their quantum properties of spin, parity, width, and energy.

  1. Kinematics of ICMEs Deduced From Remote Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Low-frequency radio emissions, generated at the driven shock wave at the fundamental and harmonic of the plasma frequency, can directly reveal the kinematics of ICMEs as they propagate through the inner heliosphere. The reason is that the frequency of the radio emissions varies in a predictable way as a function of heliocentric distance. Hence, the observed frequency drift of these radio emissions is essentially a plot of the height above the Sun as a function of time. The derivative of the observed frequency-time curve at each point then gives the instantaneous speed of the propagating interplanetary shock. We have used these remote radio observations to determine the speed profiles for some 40 fast CMEs observed during solar cycle 23. The speed profiles for these fast ICMEs were found to imply an initial rapid deceleration at a constant rate, followed by a constant propagation speed to 1 AU (Reiner et al. ApJ 663, 1369, 2007), consistent with some earlier Doppler scintillation measurements (Woo et al., JGR 90, 154, 1985). Because of the large number of CME events for which this analysis was carried out, we were further able to study the correlations of the deceleration parameters of the ICME speed profiles. For most of those remote radio observations, there were no corresponding white-light observations beyond the 32 Rs (0.15 AU) limit of the LASCO coronagraph. After 2003, the all-sky camera SMEI permitted the first direct comparison between the remote radio and the white-light observations in interplanetary space (Reiner et al. JGR 110, A09S14, 2005). The STEREO spacecraft, launched in October of 2006, provide a new and unique opportunity to make direct comparisons between the radio and white-light observations of the ICME kinematics. The STEREO observations also allow the locations of the radio sources along the shock front to be directly deduced from two or three spacecraft triangulation measurement from STEREO and Wind (Reiner et al. Solar Physics 10.1007/s

  2. Deducing spectroscopic factors from wave-function asymptotics

    SciTech Connect

    Capel, P.; Danielewicz, P.; Nunes, F. M.

    2010-11-15

    In a coupled-channel model, we explore the effects of coupling between configurations on the radial behavior of the wave function and, in particular, on the spectroscopic factor (SF) and the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). We evaluate the extraction of a SF from the ratio of the ANC of the coupled-channel model to that of a single-particle approximation of the wave function. We perform this study within a core+n collective model, which includes two states of the core that connect by a rotational coupling. To get additional insights, we also use a simplified model that takes a {delta} function for the coupling potential. Calculations are performed for {sup 11}Be. Fair agreement is obtained between the SF inferred from the single-particle approximation and the one obtained within the coupled-channel models. Significant discrepancies are observed only for large coupling strength and/or large admixture, that is, a small SF. This suggests that reliable SFs can be deduced from the wave-function asymptotics when the structure is dominated by one configuration, that is, for a large SF.

  3. Crystal Structure of the 30S Ribosomal Subunit from Thermus Thermophilus. Purification, Crystallization and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, William M.; Brodersen, Ditlev E.; McCutcheonn, John P.; May, Joanna L.C.; Carter, Andrew P.; Morgan-Warren, Robert J.; Wimberly, Brian T.; Ramakrishnan, Venki

    2009-10-07

    We describe the crystallization and structure determination of the 30 S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Previous reports of crystals that diffracted to 10 {angstrom} resolution were used as a starting point to improve the quality of the diffraction. Eventually, ideas such as the addition of substrates or factors to eliminate conformational heterogeneity proved less important than attention to detail in yielding crystals that diffracted beyond 3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite improvements in technology and methodology in the last decade, the structure determination of the 30 S subunit presented some very challenging technical problems because of the size of the asymmetric unit, crystal variability and sensitivity to radiation damage. Some steps that were useful for determination of the atomic structure were: the use of anomalous scattering from the LIII edges of osmium and lutetium to obtain the necessary phasing signal; the use of tunable, third-generation synchrotron sources to obtain data of reasonable quality at high resolution; collection of derivative data precisely about a mirror plane to preserve small anomalous differences between Bijvoet mates despite extensive radiation damage and multi-crystal scaling; the pre-screening of crystals to ensure quality, isomorphism and the efficient use of scarce third-generation synchrotron time; pre-incubation of crystals in cobalt hexaammine to ensure isomorphism with other derivatives; and finally, the placement of proteins whose structures had been previously solved in isolation, in conjunction with biochemical data on protein-RNA interactions, to map out the architecture of the 30 S subunit prior to the construction of a detailed atomic-resolution model.

  4. Changes in muscle metabolites in females with 30-s exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, I; Bar-Or, O; Karlsson, J; Dotan, R; Tesch, P; Kaiser, P; Inbar, O

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in selected intramuscular metabolites associated with non-oxidative energy metabolism after performance of the Wingate Test (WT), a widely used, exhaustive, 30-s cycle test of short-time muscular power. Muscle biopsies were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of nine female physical education students at rest and immediately after performance of the WT. The concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), lactate, and glycogen were determined. The ATP decreased from 20.9 to 13.8; CP decreased from 62.7 to 25.1; lactate increased from 9.0 to 60.5; and glycogen decreased from 360 to 278 (all concentrations are mmol X kg-1 dry muscle). The absolute changes in CP and lactate were not as large as those reported in other exercise studies. Based on the metabolite changes, it was concluded that the WT is a satisfactory test of the maximal muscular power that can be generated from non-oxidative metabolism, but that the 30-s duration of the test probably does not tax the maximal capacity of such energy metabolism.

  5. Does power indicate capacity? 30-s Wingate anaerobic test vs. maximal accumulated O2 deficit.

    PubMed

    Minahan, C; Chia, M; Inbar, O

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between anaerobic power and capacity. Seven men and seven women performed a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power, mean power, and the fatigue index. Subjects also cycled at a work rate predicted to elicit 120 % of peak oxygen uptake to exhaustion to determine the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit. Peak power and the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit were significantly correlated (r = 0.782, p = 0.001). However, when the absolute difference in exercise values between groups (men and women) was held constant using a partial correlation, the relationship diminished (r = 0.531, p = 0.062). In contrast, we observed a significant correlation between fatigue index and the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit when controlling for gender (r = - 0.597, p = 0.024) and the relationship remained significant when values were expressed relative to active muscle mass. A higher anaerobic power does not indicate a greater anaerobic capacity. Furthermore, we suggest that the ability to maintain power output during a 30-s cycle sprint is related to anaerobic capacity.

  6. Empirical singular vectors of baroclinic flows deduced from experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlander, Uwe; Hoff, Michael; Seelig, Torsten; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Instability is related to exponentially growing eigenmodes. Interestingly, when finite time intervals are considered, growth rates of certain initial perturbations can exceed the growth rates of the most unstable modes. Moreover, even when all modes are damped, such particular initial perturbations can grow dramatically during finite time intervals. The perturbations with the largest growth rates are called singular vectors or optimal perturbations. They not only play an important role in atmospheric ensemble predictions, but also for the theory of instability and turbulence. Starting point for the singular vector analysis is a linear dynamical system with a known system matrix. In atmospheric ensemble prediction, linearization is generally done around a nonlinear solution and then the system matrix is time-dependent. In contrast, in turbulence research linearization is done around a mean state. In that case the system matrix is time-independent. We consider the mathematically simpler latter case here. We decompose surface temperature data of a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment into principal oscillation patterns, that are the empirically estimated linear eigenmodes of the system. Using these modes we can estimate the modes of maximal growth, which are thus the empirically estimated singular vectors. In contrast to the traditional approach we deduce these modes from the data alone without using a linear model operator and thus without actually knowing the system matrix (Penland and Sardeshmukh, 1995). In our study we will address the following questions: What is the appropriate filter technique to remove noise from the data prior to the empirical singular vector analysis? Is there an objective mean to distinguish between noise and signal? How accurate are the empirical singular vectors? To answer the last question we compare the data based results with findings from a numerical model for which the system matrix is known. We want to test the idea

  7. The aminoglycoside resistance methyltransferases from the ArmA/Rmt family operate late in the 30S ribosomal biogenesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Zarubica, Tamara; Baker, Matthew R; Wright, H Tonie; Rife, Jason P

    2011-02-01

    Bacterial resistance to 4,6-type aminoglycoside antibiotics, which target the ribosome, has been traced to the ArmA/RmtA family of rRNA methyltransferases. These plasmid-encoded enzymes transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to N7 of the buried G1405 in the aminoglycoside binding site of 16S rRNA of the 30S ribosomal subunit. ArmA methylates mature 30S subunits but not 16S rRNA, 50S, or 70S ribosomal subunits or isolated Helix 44 of the 30S subunit. To more fully characterize this family of enzymes, we have investigated the substrate requirements of ArmA and to a lesser extent its ortholog RmtA. We determined the Mg+² dependence of ArmA activity toward the 30S ribosomal subunits and found that the enzyme recognizes both low Mg+² (translationally inactive) and high Mg+² (translationally active) forms of this substrate. We tested the effects of LiCl pretreatment of the 30S subunits, initiation factor 3 (IF3), and gentamicin/kasugamycin resistance methyltransferase (KsgA) on ArmA activity and determined whether in vivo derived pre-30S ribosomal subunits are ArmA methylation substrates. ArmA failed to methylate the 30S subunits generated from LiCl washes above 0.75 M, despite the apparent retention of ribosomal proteins and a fully mature 16S rRNA. From our experiments, we conclude that ArmA is most active toward the 30S ribosomal subunits that are at or very near full maturity, but that it can also recognize more than one form of the 30S subunit.

  8. Characteristic views of E. coli and B. stearothermophilus 30S ribosomal subunits in the electron microscope.

    PubMed Central

    van Heel, M; Stöffler-Meilicke, M

    1985-01-01

    Large sets of electron microscopic images of the 30S ribosomal subunits of Bacillus stearothermophilus (914 molecules) and Escherichia coli (422 molecules) were analysed with image processing techniques. Using computer alignment and a new multivariate statistical classification scheme, three predominant views of the subunit were found for both species. These views, which together account for approximately 90% of the population of images, were determined to a reproducible resolution of up to 1.7 nm, thus elucidating many new structural details. The angular spread of the molecular orientations around the three main stable positions is remarkably small (less than 8 degrees). Some of the current models for the small ribosomal subunit are incompatible with our new results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3908096

  9. Conformational Response of 30S-bound IF3 to A-Site Binders Streptomycin and Kanamycin

    PubMed Central

    Chulluncuy, Roberto; Espiche, Carlos; Nakamoto, Jose Alberto; Fabbretti, Attilio; Milón, Pohl

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely used to treat infectious diseases. Among them, streptomycin and kanamycin (and derivatives) are of importance to battle multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both drugs bind the small ribosomal subunit (30S) and inhibit protein synthesis. Genetic, structural, and biochemical studies indicate that local and long-range conformational rearrangements of the 30S subunit account for this inhibition. Here, we use intramolecular FRET between the C- and N-terminus domains of the flexible IF3 to monitor real-time perturbations of their binding sites on the 30S platform. Steady and pre-steady state binding experiments show that both aminoglycosides bring IF3 domains apart, promoting an elongated state of the factor. Binding of Initiation Factor IF1 triggers closure of IF3 bound to the 30S complex, while both aminoglycosides revert the IF1-dependent conformation. Our results uncover dynamic perturbations across the 30S subunit, from the A-site to the platform, and suggest that both aminoglycosides could interfere with prokaryotic translation initiation by modulating the interaction between IF3 domains with the 30S platform. PMID:27983590

  10. Conformational Response of 30S-bound IF3 to A-Site Binders Streptomycin and Kanamycin.

    PubMed

    Chulluncuy, Roberto; Espiche, Carlos; Nakamoto, Jose Alberto; Fabbretti, Attilio; Milón, Pohl

    2016-12-13

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely used to treat infectious diseases. Among them, streptomycin and kanamycin (and derivatives) are of importance to battle multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both drugs bind the small ribosomal subunit (30S) and inhibit protein synthesis. Genetic, structural, and biochemical studies indicate that local and long-range conformational rearrangements of the 30S subunit account for this inhibition. Here, we use intramolecular FRET between the C- and N-terminus domains of the flexible IF3 to monitor real-time perturbations of their binding sites on the 30S platform. Steady and pre-steady state binding experiments show that both aminoglycosides bring IF3 domains apart, promoting an elongated state of the factor. Binding of Initiation Factor IF1 triggers closure of IF3 bound to the 30S complex, while both aminoglycosides revert the IF1-dependent conformation. Our results uncover dynamic perturbations across the 30S subunit, from the A-site to the platform, and suggest that both aminoglycosides could interfere with prokaryotic translation initiation by modulating the interaction between IF3 domains with the 30S platform.

  11. Muscle fibre conduction velocity during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David; Farina, Dario; Shen, Chao; Macaluso, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Ten male volunteers (age 29.2 ± 5.2 years, mean ± SD) were recruited to test the hypothesis that muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) would decrease with power output during a 30-s Wingate test on a mechanically-braked cycle ergometer. Prior to the main test, the optimal pre-fixed load corresponding to the highest power output was selected following a random series of six 10-s sprints. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the right vastus lateralis with linear adhesive arrays of eight electrodes. Power output decreased significantly from 6-s until the end of the test (860.9 ± 207.8 vs. 360.9 ± 11.4 W, respectively) and was correlated with MFCV (R=0.543, P<0.01), which also declined significantly by 26.8 ± 11% (P<0.05). There was a tendency for the mean frequency of the EMG power spectrum (MNF) to decrease, but average rectified values (ARV) remained unchanged throughout the test. The parallel decline of MFCV with power output suggests changes in fibre membrane properties. The unaltered ARV, together with the declined MFCV, would indicate either a decrease in discharge rate, de-recruitment of fatigued motor units or elongation of still present motor unit action potentials.

  12. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming.

    PubMed

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Izquierdo, Mikel; Neiva, Henrique; Marques, Mário C

    2015-01-01

    The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female) randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking). A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r = 0.77, P < 0.01), whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r = 0.81, P < 0.01). The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  13. Advance of the perihelion of Mercury deduced from QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    I deduce the new gravitational formula from the variance in mass of QFT and GR (H05-0029-08, E15-0039 -08, E14-0032-08, D31-0054-10) in the partial differential: f (QFT) = f (GR) = delta∂ (m v)/delta∂ t = f _{P} + f _{C} , f _{P} = m delta∂ v / delta∂ t = - ( G m M /r (2) ) r / r, f _{C} = v delta∂ m / delta∂ t = - ( G m M / r (2) ) v / c (1), f (QFT) is the quasi-Casimir pressure of net virtual neutrinos nuν _{0} flux (after counteract contrary direction nuν _{0}). f (GR) is equivalent to Einstein’s equation, Eq. (1) is a new version of GR and can be solved exactly. Its core content is that the gravity produced by particles collide cannot linear addition, i.e., the nonlinearity of Einstein equation had been replaced by the nonlinearity caused by the variable mass in Eq.(1). Einstein equation can be inferred from Eq.(1) thereby from QFT, but QFT cannot be inferred from Eq.(1) or GR. f (QFT) is essential but f (GR) is phenomenological. Eq.(1) is obtained just by to absorb the essence of corpuscule collided gravitation origin ism proposed by Fatio in 1690 and 1920 Majorana’s experiment concept about gravitational shield effect again fuse with QFT. In my paper ‘QFT’S advance of the perihelion of Mercury, China Science &Technology Overview 125 88-90 (2011)’ QFT gravitational potential U = - G M /r is just the distribution density of net nuν _{0} flux, from SR we again get that: f (QFT) = f _{P} + f _{C}, f _{P} = - m ( delta∂ U / delta∂ r) r / r, f _{C} = - m ( delta∂U / delta∂ r) v / c (2), f _{ P} correspond the change rate of three-dimensional momentum p, f _{C} correspond the change rate of fourth dimensional momentum i m c which show directly as a dissipative force of mass change. According to Eq.(2) the circular motion is instability and elliptic motion is in the auto-stability state. In the fluctuation vacuum a particle with mass M neighbor another particle with mass m, the renormalization mass M and m will be less than that when

  14. Analysis of conformational changes in 16 S rRNA during the course of 30 S subunit assembly.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kristi L; Culver, Gloria M

    2005-11-25

    Ribosome biogenesis involves an integrated series of binding events coupled with conformational changes that ultimately result in the formation of a functional macromolecular complex. In vitro, Escherichia coli 30 S subunit assembly occurs in a cooperative manner with the ordered addition of 20 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) with 16 S rRNA. The assembly pathway for 30 S subunits has been dissected in vitro into three steps, where specific r-proteins associate with 16 S rRNA early in 30 S subunit assembly, followed by a mid-assembly conformational rearrangement of the complex that then enables the remaining r-proteins to associate in the final step. Although the three steps of 30 S subunit assembly have been known for some time, few details have been elucidated about changes that occur as a result of these three specific stages. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the concerted early and late stages of small ribosomal subunit assembly. Conformational changes, roles for base-pairing and r-proteins at specific stages of assembly, and a polar nature to the assembly process have been revealed. This work has allowed a more comprehensive and global view of E.coli 30 S ribosomal subunit assembly to be obtained.

  15. Cross-validation of the 20- versus 30-s Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Laurent, C Matthew; Meyers, Michael C; Robinson, Clay A; Green, J Matt

    2007-08-01

    The 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (30-WAT) is the most widely accepted protocol for measuring anaerobic response, despite documented physical side effects. Abbreviation of the 30-WAT without loss of data could enhance subject compliance while maintaining test applicability. The intent of this study was to quantify the validity of the 20-s Wingate anaerobic test (20-WAT) versus the traditional 30-WAT. Fifty males (mean +/- SEM; age = 20.5 +/- 0.3 years; Ht = 1.6 +/- 0.01 m; Wt = 75.5 +/- 2.6 kg) were randomly selected to either a validation (N = 35) or cross-validation group (N = 15) and completed a 20-WAT and 30-WAT in double blind, random order on separate days to determine peak power (PP; W kg(-1)), mean power (MP; W kg(-1)), and fatigue index (FI; %). Utilizing power outputs (relative to body mass) recorded during each second of both protocols, a non-linear regression equation (Y (20WAT+10 )= 31.4697 e(-0.5)[ln(X (second)/1174.3961)/2.6369(2)]; r (2) = 0.97; SEE = 0.56 W kg(-1)) successfully predicted (error approximately 10%) the final 10 s of power outputs in the cross-validation population. There were no significant differences between MP and FI between the 20-WAT that included the predicted 10 s of power outputs (20-WAT+10) and the 30-WAT. When derived data were subjected to Bland-Altman analyses, the majority of plots (93%) fell within the limits of agreement (+/-2SD). Therefore, when compared to the 30-WAT, the 20-WAT may be considered a valid alternative when used with the predictive non-linear regression equation to derive the final power output values.

  16. Divergent marijuana trajectories among men: Socioeconomic, relationship, and life satisfaction outcomes in the mid-30s

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    Background Given recent changes in marijuana policy in the United States, it is important to understand the long-term effects of marijuana use on adult functioning. We examined whether men who displayed different trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence through emerging adulthood (age ~15–26) differed in terms of socioeconomic, social, and life satisfaction outcomes in their mid-30s. Methods Data came from a longitudinal sample of men who were recruited in early adolescence (N = 506) and followed into adulthood. Four trajectory groups based on patterns of marijuana use from adolescence into emerging adulthood were compared on adult outcomes (age ~36) before and after controlling for co-occurring use of other substances and several pre-existing confounding factors in early adolescence. The potential moderating effect of race was also examined. Results Although there were initially group differences across all domains, once pre-existing confounds and co-occurring other substance use were included in the model, groups only differed in terms of partner and friend marijuana use. Chronic marijuana users reported the highest proportions of both. Frequent and persistent marijuana use was associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES) for Black men only. Conclusions After statistically accounting for confounding variables, chronic marijuana users were not at a heightened risk for maladjustment in adulthood except for lower SES among Black men. Chronic users were more likely to have friends and partners who also used marijuana. Future studies should take into account pre-existing differences when examining outcomes of marijuana use. PMID:26365837

  17. New evidence for the antiquity of man in North America deduced from aspartic acid racemization.

    PubMed

    Bada, J L; Schroeder, R A; Carter, G F

    1974-05-17

    Ages of several Californzia Paleo-Indlian skeletons have been deduced from the extent of aspartic acid racemization. These dates suggest that man was present in North America at least 50,000 years before the present.

  18. PPARA intron polymorphism associated with power performance in 30-s anaerobic Wingate Test.

    PubMed

    Petr, Miroslav; Stastny, Petr; Št'astný, Petr; Pecha, Ondřej; Šteffl, Michal; Šeda, Ondřej; Kohlíková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To date, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with a strength/power performance including alpha 3 actinin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, vitamin D receptor, or angiotensin I converting enzyme, underlining the importance of genetic component of the multifactorial strength/power-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene (PPARA) intron 7 G/C (rs4253778; g.46630634G>C) has been repeatedly found to play a significant role in response to different types of physical activity. We investigated the effect of PPARA intron 7 G/C polymorphism specifically on anaerobic power output in a group of 77 elite male Czech ice hockey players (18-36 y). We determined the relative peak power per body weight (Pmax.kg(-1)) and relative peak power per fat free mass (W.kg(-1)FFM) during the 30-second Wingate Test (WT30) on bicycle ergometer (Monark 894E Peak bike, MONARK, Sweden). All WT30s were performed during the hockey season. Overall genotype frequencies were 50.6% GG homozygotes, 40.3% CG heterozygotes, and 9.1% CC homozygotes. We found statistically significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1) and marginally significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1)FFM values in WT30 between carriers and non-carriers for C allele (14.6 ± 0.2 vs. 13.9 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1) and 15.8 ± 0.2 vs. 15.2 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1)FFM, P = 0.036 and 0.12, respectively). Furthermore, Pmax.kg(-1)FFM strongly positively correlated with the body weight only in individuals with GG genotypes (R = 0.55; p<0.001). Our results indicate that PPARA 7C carriers exhibited higher speed strength measures in WT30. We hypothesize that C allele carriers within the cohort of trained individuals may possess a metabolic advantage towards anaerobic metabolism.

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Marijuana Use among Men: Examining Linkages with Criminal Behavior and Psychopathic Features into the Mid-30s

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine whether young men who chronically use marijuana are at risk for engaging in drug-related and non-drug-related criminal offending and exhibiting psychopathic personality features in their mid-30s. Methods Patterns of marijuana use were delineated in a sample of predominately Black and White young men from adolescence to the mid-20s using latent class growth curve analysis. Self-report and official records of criminal offending and psychopathic personality features were assessed in the mid-30s. Analyses controlled for multiple factors indicative of a preexisting antisocial lifestyle and co-occurring use of other substances and tested for moderation by race. Results Four latent marijuana trajectory groups were identified: chronic high, adolescence-limited, late increasing, and low/nonusers. Relative to low/nonusers, chronic high and late increasing marijuana users exhibited more adult psychopathic features and were more likely to engage in drug-related offending during their mid-30s. Adolescence-limited users were similar to low/nonusers in terms of psychopathic features but were more likely to be arrested for drug-related crimes. No trajectory group differences were found for violence or theft, and the group differences were not moderated by race. Conclusions Young men who engage in chronic marijuana use from adolescence into their 20s are at increased risk for exhibiting psychopathic features, dealing drugs, and enduring drug-related legal problems in their mid-30s relative to men who remain abstinent or use infrequently. PMID:26568641

  20. Characterization of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of chalcogenide Te40Se30S30 thin film: thickness effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elrahman, M. I.; Hafiz, M. M.; Qasem, Ammar; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Chalcogenide Te40Se30S30 thin films of different thickness (100-450 nm) are prepared by thermal evaporation of the Te40Se30S30 bulk. X-ray examination of the film shows some prominent peaks relate to crystalline phases indicating the crystallization process. The calculated particles of crystals from the X-ray diffraction peaks are found to be from 11 to 26 nm. As the thickness increases, the transmittance decreases and the reflectance increases. This could be attributed to the increment of the absorption of photons as more states will be available for absorbance in the case of thicker films. The decrease in the direct band gap with thickness is accompanied with an increase in energy of localized states. The obtained data for the refractive index could be fit to the dispersion model based on the single oscillator equation. The single-oscillator energy decreases, while the dispersion energy increases as the thickness increases.

  1. Single crystal XRD structure and theoretical analysis of the chiral Au30S(S-t-Bu)18 cluster.

    PubMed

    Crasto, David; Malola, Sami; Brosofsky, Grace; Dass, Amala; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2014-04-02

    Au30S(S-t-Bu)18 cluster, related closely to the recently isolated "green gold" compound Au30(S-t-Bu)18, has been structurally solved via single-crystal XRD and analyzed by density functional theory calculations. The molecular protecting layer shows a combination of monomeric (RS-Au-SR) and trimeric (RS-Au-SR-Au-SR-Au-SR) gold-thiolate units, bridging thiolates, and a single sulfur (sulfide) in a novel μ3-coordinating position. The chiral gold core has a geometrical component that is identical to the core of the recently reported Au28(SPh-t-Bu)20. Both enantiomers of Au30S(S-t-Bu)18 are found in the crystal unit cell. The calculated CD spectrum bears a close resemblance to that of Au28(SPh-t-Bu)20. This is the first time when two structurally characterized thiol-stabilized gold clusters are found to have such closely related metal core structures and the results may increase understanding of the formation of gold clusters when stabilized by bulky thiolates.

  2. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  3. Heterogeneity in Men’s Marijuana Use in the 20s: Adolescent Antecedents and Consequences in the 30s

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Isaac J.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent psychopathology is commonly connected to marijuana use. How changes in these adolescent antecedents and in adolescent marijuana use are connected to patterns of marijuana use in the 20s is little understood. Also not clearly understood is psychopathology in the 30s as predicted by marijuana use in the 20s. This study sought to examine these two issues – and associations with marijuana disorder diagnoses – using a longitudinal dataset of 205 men with essentially annual reports. Individual psychopathology and family characteristics from the men’s adolescence were used to predict their patterns of marijuana use across their 20s, and aspects of the men’s psychopathology in their mid 30s were predicted from these patterns. Three patterns of marijuana use in the 20s were identified using growth mixture modeling and were associated with diagnoses of marijuana disorders at age 26 years. Parental marijuana use predicted chronic use for the men in adulthood. Patterns of marijuana use in the 20s predicted antisocial behavior and deviant peer association at age 36 years (controlling for adolescent levels of the outcomes by residualization). These findings indicate that differential patterns of marijuana use in early adulthood are associated with psychopathology toward midlife. PMID:25017389

  4. The DEDUCE Guided Query Tool: Providing Simplified Access to Clinical Data for Research and Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Monica M.; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction—the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a guided query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. PMID:21130181

  5. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion.

  6. Automatic evaluation of the 30-s chair stand test using inertial/magnetic-based technology in an older prefrail population.

    PubMed

    Millor, Nora; Lecumberri, Pablo; Gomez, Marisol; Martinez-Ramirez, Alicia; Rodriguez-Manas, Leocadio; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco José; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inertial measures of the 30-s chair stand test using modern body-fixed motion sensors. Polynomial data fitting was used to correct the drift effect in the position estimation. Thereafter, the three most important test cycles phases ("impulse," "stand up," and "sit down") were characterized and automatically analyzed. Automated test control is provided, making it possible for researchers without engineering knowledge to run the test. A collection of meaningful data based on kinematic variables is selected for further research. The proposed methodology for data analysis is a feasible tool for use in clinical settings. This method may not only improve rehabilitation therapies but also identify people at risk for falls more accurately than simply evaluating the number of cycles.

  7. Estimation of uncertainty in isotherms deduced from Hugoniots resulting from shockwave generated defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of how defect concentrations produced in a shock experiment affect the isothermal equation of state is considered. From the few experimental results available that bear directly on this question, it appears the effect could be substantial, i.e., the pressure in material free of defects may be 10-25% lower at a given volume than the isothermal pressure deduced from Hugoniot data on the assumption that defects are negligible in the shocked material. This correction caused by the presence of defects is called the defect pressure.

  8. Deducing nanopore structure and growth mechanisms in porogen-templated silsesquioxane thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hua-Gen; Vallery, Richard S.; Liu, Ming; Frieze, William E.; Gidley, David W.; Yim, Jin-Heong; Jeong, Hyun-Dam; Kim, Jongmin

    2005-10-01

    Adjusting the functional group of a porogen is found to have a tremendous effect on the pore structre of porous low dielectric constant films with silsesquioxane as the matrix precursor. The pore size and interconnection length measured by positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy can be used to deduce the pore shape and its evolution with porosity from templates of isolated porogen molecules through film percolation. Inert, self-linkable, and amphiphilic porogens are demonstrated to randomly aggregate three-dimensionally, linearly polymerize, and form micelles, respectively.

  9. What are the causes for the spread of GLE parameters deduced from NM data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bütikofer, R.; Flückiger, E.

    2015-08-01

    Investigations have shown that the analysis results of ground level enhancements (GLEs) based on neutron monitor (NM) data for a selected event can differ considerably depending the procedure used. This may have significant consequences e.g. for the assessment of radiation doses at flight altitudes. The reasons for the spread of the GLE parameters deduced from NM data can be manifold and are at present unclear. They include differences in specific properties of the various analysis procedures (e.g. NM response functions, different ways in taking into account the dynamics of the Earth's magnetospheric field), different characterisations of the solar particle flux near Earth as well as the specific selection of NM stations used for the analysis. In the present paper we quantitatively investigate this problem for a time interval during the maximum phase of the GLE on 13 December 2006. We present and discuss the changes in the resulting GLE parameters when using different NM response functions, different model representations of the Earth's magnetospheric field as well as different assumptions for the solar particle spectrum and pitch angle distribution near Earth. The results of the study are expected to yield a basis for the reduction in the spread of the GLE parameters deduced from NM data.

  10. Near-Surface Flow Fields Deduced Using Correlation Tracking and Time-Distance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeRosa, Marc; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Toomre, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Near-photospheric flow fields on the Sun are deduced using two independent methods applied to the same time series of velocity images observed by SOI-MDI on SOHO. Differences in travel times between f modes entering and leaving each pixel measured using time-distance helioseismology are used to determine sites of supergranular outflows. Alternatively, correlation tracking analysis of mesogranular scales of motion applied to the same time series is used to deduce the near-surface flow field. These two approaches provide the means to assess the patterns and evolution of horizontal flows on supergranular scales even near disk center, which is not feasible with direct line-of-sight Doppler measurements. We find that the locations of the supergranular outflows seen in flow fields generated from correlation tracking coincide well with the locations of the outflows determined from the time-distance analysis, with a mean correlation coefficient after smoothing of bar-r(sub s) = 0.840. Near-surface velocity field measurements can used to study the evolution of the supergranular network, as merging and splitting events are observed to occur in these images. The data consist of one 2048-minute time series of high-resolution (0.6" pixels) line-of-sight velocity images taken by MDI on 1997 January 16-18 at a cadence of one minute.

  11. A combined quantitative mass spectrometry and electron microscopy analysis of ribosomal 30S subunit assembly in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Sashital, Dipali G; Greeman, Candacia A; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Williamson, James R

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome assembly is a complex process involving the folding and processing of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), concomitant binding of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), and participation of numerous accessory cofactors. Here, we use a quantitative mass spectrometry/electron microscopy hybrid approach to determine the r-protein composition and conformation of 30S ribosome assembly intermediates in Escherichia coli. The relative timing of assembly of the 3′ domain and the formation of the central pseudoknot (PK) structure depends on the presence of the assembly factor RimP. The central PK is unstable in the absence of RimP, resulting in the accumulation of intermediates in which the 3′-domain is unanchored and the 5′-domain is depleted for r-proteins S5 and S12 that contact the central PK. Our results reveal the importance of the cofactor RimP in central PK formation, and introduce a broadly applicable method for characterizing macromolecular assembly in cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04491.001 PMID:25313868

  12. Deducing the Kinetics of Protein Synthesis In Vivo from the Transition Rates Measured In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rudorf, Sophia; Thommen, Michael; Rodnina, Marina V.; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The molecular machinery of life relies on complex multistep processes that involve numerous individual transitions, such as molecular association and dissociation steps, chemical reactions, and mechanical movements. The corresponding transition rates can be typically measured in vitro but not in vivo. Here, we develop a general method to deduce the in-vivo rates from their in-vitro values. The method has two basic components. First, we introduce the kinetic distance, a new concept by which we can quantitatively compare the kinetics of a multistep process in different environments. The kinetic distance depends logarithmically on the transition rates and can be interpreted in terms of the underlying free energy barriers. Second, we minimize the kinetic distance between the in-vitro and the in-vivo process, imposing the constraint that the deduced rates reproduce a known global property such as the overall in-vivo speed. In order to demonstrate the predictive power of our method, we apply it to protein synthesis by ribosomes, a key process of gene expression. We describe the latter process by a codon-specific Markov model with three reaction pathways, corresponding to the initial binding of cognate, near-cognate, and non-cognate tRNA, for which we determine all individual transition rates in vitro. We then predict the in-vivo rates by the constrained minimization procedure and validate these rates by three independent sets of in-vivo data, obtained for codon-dependent translation speeds, codon-specific translation dynamics, and missense error frequencies. In all cases, we find good agreement between theory and experiment without adjusting any fit parameter. The deduced in-vivo rates lead to smaller error frequencies than the known in-vitro rates, primarily by an improved initial selection of tRNA. The method introduced here is relatively simple from a computational point of view and can be applied to any biomolecular process, for which we have detailed information

  13. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    PubMed Central

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  14. An asymmetric color image encryption method by using deduced gyrator transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lili; Yuan, Caojin; Qiang, Junjie; Feng, Shaotong; Nie, Shouping

    2017-02-01

    An encryption algorithm is proposed by using the properties of deduced gyrator transform (GT). After being transformed by the GT algorithm and multiplied by a phase distribution p*, the spectrum modulus of the input image is considered to be the encrypted image by further performing Fourier transformation. To resist the attack from iterative phase retrieval, the red, green and blue components of the input image is modulated by a random phase mask and then combined using convolution. The encryption result is real-valued, which is convenient for display, transmission and storage. In the decryption process, the three original color components can be recovered with decryption keys which are different from the encryption keys. An optoelectronic hybrid system for the encryption process is also presented. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate its performance, and the security of the proposed system is analyzed as well.

  15. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jacosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission for the first time make regular particle and field measurements down to ~150 km altitude. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) instrument provides 3-D measurements of the electron energy and angular distributions. This study presents the pitch angle-resolved shape parameters that can separate photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, therefore used to deduce the Martian magnetic topology. The three-dimensional view of the magnetic topology is manifested for the first time. The northern hemisphere is found to be dominated by the crustal closed field lines, instead of draped interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF), on the dayside and more day-night connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. This study can also single out open field lines attached to the dayside ionosphere, which provide possible passage for ion outflow. Magnetic topology governs energetic electrons' movement, thus necessary to understand nightside ionosphere, and aurora.

  16. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a new subtilisin from an alkaliphilic Bacillus isolate.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Magallones, Marietta V; Takimura, Yasushi; Hatada, Yuji; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kawai, Shuji; Ito, Susumu

    2003-10-01

    The gene for a new subtilisin from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. KSM-LD1 was cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of the gene encoded a 97 amino-acid prepro-peptide plus a 307 amino-acid mature enzyme that contained a possible catalytic triad of residues, Asp32, His66, and Ser224. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme (LD1) showed approximately 65% identity to those of subtilisins SprC and SprD from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. LG12. The amino acid sequence identities of LD1 to those of previously reported true subtilisins and high-alkaline proteases were below 60%. LD1 was characteristically stable during incubation with surfactants and chemical oxidants. Interestingly, an oxidizable Met residue is located next to the catalytic Ser224 of the enzyme as in the cases of the oxidation-susceptible subtilisins reported to date.

  17. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    PubMed

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-02-15

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist.

  18. Temperature structure of active regions deduced from helium-like sulphur lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Hiei, Eijiro; Bentley, Robert D.; Lang, James; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Pike, C. David; Fludra, Andrzej; Bromage, Barbara J. I.

    1995-01-01

    Solar active-region temperatures have been determined from the full-Sun spectra of helium-like sulfur (S XV) observed by the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on Board the Yohkoh satellite. The average temperature deduced from S XV is demonstrated to vary with the solar activity level: A temperature of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) K is derived from the spectra taken during low solar activity, similar to the general corona, while 4 x 10(exp 6) K is obtained during a higher activity phase. For the latter, the high- temperature tail of the differential emission measure of active regions is found most likely due to the superposition of numerous flare-like events (micro/nano-flares).

  19. Wind speeds in two tornadic storms and a tornado, deduced from Doppler Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Zrnic, D.; Istok, M.

    1980-12-01

    Doppler spectra of a tornado were collected with a radar having a large unambiguous velocity range, +- 91 m s/sup -1/. Thus for the first time a presentation of nonaliased spectra was possible, showing direct measurement of radial velocities. By fitting the tornado model spectrum to data, the radius of maximum winds and tornado center location are deduced. Tornado spectral signature is defined as a double peak, symmetric with respect to the mean wind spectrum. Histograms of maximum measured wind speeds (from spectrum skirts) for two tornadic storms are obtained, and the histograms of velocity difference (between the left and right spectrum skirt) suggest that smaller scale turbulence (<500 m) is principally responsible for spectrum broadness.

  20. Characteristics of middle and upper tropospheric clouds as deduced from rawinsonde data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, D. D. O.; Cox, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The static environment of middle and upper tropospheric clouds is characterized. Computed relative humidity with respect to ice is used to diagnose the presence of cloud layer. The deduced seasonal mean cloud cover estimates based on this technique are shown to be reasonable. The cases are stratified by season and pressure thickness, and the dry static stability, vertical wind speed shear, and Richardson number are computed for three layers for each case. Mean values for each parameter are presented for each stratification and layer. The relative frequency of occurrence of various structures is presented for each stratification. The observed values of each parameter and the observed structure of each parameter are quite variable. Structures corresponding to any of a number of different conceptual models may be found. Moist adiabatic conditions are not commonly observed and the stratification based on thickness yields substantially different results for each group.

  1. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-02-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist.

  2. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors.

  3. Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need.

    PubMed

    Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps < .01) and participants' race/ethnicity further differentiated men in need of preconception care (p < .01). More than half of men in need of family planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care.

  4. The dynamics of distance, velocity and acceleration of power output in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    PubMed

    Bell, W; Cobner, D

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the dynamics of distance, velocity and acceleration of the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test. Participants were 53 young adult Rugby Union football players of mean age 21.6±2.5 yr, 180.5±7.2 cm height and 89.3±12.7 kg body mass. Measurements of power were obtained using a friction-belt cycle ergometer (Monark 864, Varberg, Sweden). Individual data were aligned according to peak power output, which resulted in a mean value of 1 216±256 W, compared with one of 1 180±256 W when calculated cross-sectionally (p<0.0001). The derivatives of velocity and acceleration were obtained using the mathematical software Mathcad. Distance, velocity and acceleration curves were plotted simultaneously at 1 s intervals before and after peak power output (-4 s to +28 s). The initial rise of the distance curve was the result of a general trend in decreasing positive velocities as far as peak power output, followed thereafter by a gradual deterioration of power, the result of negative velocities from peak power output to +28 s peak power output. The initial values of the acceleration curve showed a fluctuating decelerating trend of negative values to peak power output; subsequently all values remained positive running along the zero acceleration time axis. Coefficients of correlation between peak power output and power values at -1 s to -3 s were 0.80, 0.65 and 0.63 respectively (p<0.001). The relationship between velocity and acceleration was - 0.968 (p<0.01).

  5. Atmospheric emissions and trends of nitrous oxide deduced from 10 years of ALE-GAGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R.; Cunnold, D.; Alyea, F.; Rasmussen, R.; Simmonds, P.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) obtained during the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE) and the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE) for a period from 1978 to 1988 are presented and interpreted. It is observed that the average concentration in the Northern Hemisphere is 0.75 +/- 0.16 ppbv higher than in the Southern Hemisphere and that the global average linear trend in N2O lies in the range from 0.25 to 0.31 percent/year. The measured trends and latitudinal distributions are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that stratospheric photodissociation is the major atmospheric sink for N2O, while the cause of the N2O trend is suggested to be a combination of a growing tropical source and a growing Northern mid-latitude source. A 10-year average global N2O emission rate of (20.5 +/- 2.4) x 10 to the 12th g N2O/year is deduced from the ALE/GAGE data.

  6. Relations between aliphatics and silicate components in 12 stratospheric particles deduced from vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.

    2014-01-10

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are among the most pristine extraterrestrial samples available in the laboratory for analyses with moderate to high spatial- and spectral-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Their composition can provide precious information on the early stages of the solar nebula as well as on the processes on the surfaces of different small bodies in the solar system from which IDPs originate. In this work, we have analyzed six anhydrous IDPs and six stratospheric particles possibly of cosmic origin through infrared (IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy to study and investigate their silicate and organic components. We find that the length/ramification of the aliphatic organics given by the CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios in the IDPs is closely linked to the silicate family (pyroxene or olivine) present in the samples. Both IR and Raman data suggest that this relation is not correlated with either aqueous (as evidenced by the absence of aqueous related minerals) or thermal processes (as deduced from Raman measurements). Therefore, this observation might be related to the initial path of formation of the organics on the silicate surfaces, thus tracing a possible catalytic role that silicates would play in the formation and/or ramification of organic matter in the primitive nebula.

  7. Function of longitudinal vs circular muscle fibers in esophageal peristalsis, deduced with mathematical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Brasseur, James G; Nicosia, Mark A; Pal, Anupam; Miller, Larry S

    2007-01-01

    We summarize from previous works the functions of circular vs. longitudinal muscle in esophageal peristaltic bolus transport using a mix of experimental data, the conservation laws of mechanics and mathematical modeling. Whereas circular muscle tone generates radial closure pressure to create a local peristaltic closure wave, longitudinal muscle tone has two functions, one physiological with mechanical implications, and one purely mechanical. Each of these functions independently reduces the tension of individual circular muscle fibers to maintain closure as a consequence of shortening of longitudinal muscle locally coordinated with increasing circular muscle tone. The physiological function is deduced by combining basic laws of mechanics with concurrent measurements of intraluminal pressure from manometry, and changes in cross sectional muscle area from endoluminal ultrasound from which local longitudinal shortening (LLS) can be accurately obtained. The purely mechanical function of LLS was discovered from mathematical modeling of peristaltic esophageal transport with the axial wall motion generated by LLS. Physiologically, LLS concentrates circular muscle fibers where closure pressure is highest. However, the mechanical function of LLS is to reduce the level of pressure required to maintain closure. The combined physiological and mechanical consequences of LLS are to reduce circular muscle fiber tension and power by as much as 1/10 what would be required for peristalsis without the longitudinal muscle layer, a tremendous benefit that may explain the existence of longitudinal muscle fiber in the gut. We also review what is understood of the role of longitudinal muscle in esophageal emptying, reflux and pathology. PMID:17457963

  8. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Line Mixing Deduced from Impulsive Solar Flare Particles.

    PubMed

    Mazur; Mason; Dwyer; Giacalone; Jokipii; Stone

    2000-03-20

    We have studied fine-scale temporal variations in the arrival profiles of approximately 20 keV nucleon-1 to approximately 2 MeV nucleon-1 ions from impulsive solar flares using instrumentation on board the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft at 1 AU between 1997 November and 1999 July. The particle events often had short-timescale ( approximately 3 hr) variations in their intensity that occurred simultaneously across all energies and were generally not in coincidence with any local magnetic field or plasma signature. These features appear to be caused by the convection of magnetic flux tubes past the observer that are alternately filled and devoid of flare ions even though they had a common flare source at the Sun. Thus, we have used the particles to study the mixing of the interplanetary magnetic field that is due to random walk. We deduce an average timescale of 3.2 hr for these features, which corresponds to a length of approximately 0.03 AU.

  9. Thin cirrus clouds - Seasonal distribution over oceans deduced from Nimbus-4 IRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Fraser, R. S.; Dalu, G.; Wu, Man-Li C.; Curran, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral differences in the extinction of the 10.8- and 12.6-micron bands of the IR window region, due to optically thin clouds, were found in the measurements made by both an airborne broadband IR radiometer and the IR interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) aboard the Nimbus-4 satellite; the extinction at 12.6 microns was significantly larger than that at 10.8 microns; both water and ice particles in the clouds can account for such spectral difference in extinction. Multiple scattering radiative transfer calculations of IRIS data revealed this spectral feature about 100 to 20 km away from the high-altitude cold clouds; it is assumed that this feature is related to the spreading of cirrus clouds. Based on this assumption, mean seasonal maps of the distribution of thin cirrus clouds over the oceans were deduced from the IRIS data. The maps show that such clouds are often present over the convectively active areas, such as ITCZ, SPCZ, and the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon.

  10. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F S; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Fallon, P; Clark, R M; Deleplanque, M A; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S; Ai, H; Beausang, C; Cridder, B

    2005-12-29

    The authors have deduced the cross section for {sup 237}U(n,f) over an equivalent neutron energy range from 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions: {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). Scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} and 131{sup o}.

  11. Bovine cone photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase structure deduced from a cDNA clone.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T S; Volpp, K; Applebury, M L

    1990-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding the alpha' subunit of cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) from bovine cone photoreceptors was selected by probing a retinal library with a DNA fragment encoding the catalytic core of the rod cGMP PDE alpha subunit. Identity of the clone was confirmed by comparing its deduced sequence with cone PDE peptide sequences determined by Charbonneau et al. [Charbonneau, H., Prusti, R. K., LeTrong, H., Sonnenburg, W. K., Mullaney, P. J., Walsh, K. A. & Beavo, J. A. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp. 288-292]. The cone PDE alpha' and the rod PDE alpha and beta subunits are encoded by distinct genes. cGMP PDE subunits share a common ancestry with cAMP PDEs and cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins. Sequence comparisons predict the presence of a catalytic core and possible secondary sites for noncatalytic cGMP binding. The presence of a C-terminal CAAX (Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-Xaa) motif suggests the cone enzyme may be posttranslationally modified by proteolysis, methylation, and isoprenylation. Images PMID:2153291

  12. Stratospheric aerosol acidity, density, and refractive index deduced from SAGE 2 and NMC temperature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; Wang, P.-H.; Chiou, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor concentrations obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) and collocated temperatures provided by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) from 1986 to 1990 are used to deduce seasonally and zonally averaged acidity, density, and refractive index of stratospheric aerosols. It is found that the weight percentage of sulfuric acid in the aerosols increases from about 60 just above the tropopause to about 86 at 35 km. The density increases from about 1.55 to 1.85 g/cu cm between the same altitude limits. Some seasonal variations of composition and density are evident at high latitudes. The refractive indices at 1.02, 0.694, and 0.532 micrometers increase, respectively, from about 1.425, 1.430, and 1.435 just above the tropopause to about 1.445, 1.455, and 1.458 at altitudes above 27 km, depending on the season and latitude. The aerosol properties presented can be used in models to study the effectiveness of heterogeneous chemistry, the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols, and the extinction and backscatter of aerosols at different wavelengths. Computed aerosol surface areas, rate coefficients for the heterogeneous reaction ClONO2 + H2O yields HOCl + HNO3 and aerosol mass concentrations before and after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 are shown as sample applications.

  13. On the strength of the hydrogen-carbon interaction as deduced from physisorption.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T X; Bae, J-S; Wang, Y; Bhatia, S K

    2009-04-21

    We deduce a new value for the potential well depth for the C-H2 interaction on the basis of experimental validations of isotherms of H2 and D2 predicted using independently characterized microstructural parameters. We use two carbons, one an activated carbon fiber whose structure has been recently characterized by us (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912) using hybrid reverse Monte Carlo simulation (HRMC) and the other the commercial Takeda 3A carbon molecular sieve whose pore size distribution is determined here from the 273 K CO2 adsorption isotherm. The conventional grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation technique incorporating a semiclassical Feynman and Hibbs (FH) potential approximation (FHGCMC) as well as path integral Monte Carlo calculations is employed to determine theoretical adsorption isotherms. It is found that curvature enhances the well depth for the LJ C-H2 interaction by a factor of 1.134 over that for a flat graphite surface, consistent with our recent study (Nguyen, T. X.; cohaut, N.; Bae, J.-S.; Bhatia, S. K. Langmuir 2008, 24, 7912). A value of the C-C well depth of 37.26 K, used for estimating the C-H2 well depth in conjunction with the Berthelot rules, with the Steele C-C well depth used for interaction with heavier gases (Ar, CO2 and CH4), leads to excellent agreement with experimental isotherms in all cases.

  14. Deducing the 237U(n,f) cross-section using the Surrogate Ratio Method

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J; Ahle, L; Church, J A; Dietrich, F; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L W; Fallon, P; Clark, R; Delaplanque, M; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Stephens, F S

    2005-08-16

    The authors have deduced the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross-section over an equivalent neutron energy range of 0 to 20 MeV using the Surrogate Ratio method. A 55 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam from the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was used to induce fission in the following reactions {sup 238}U({alpha},{alpha}'f) and {sup 236}U({alpha},{alpha}'f). The {sup 238}U reaction was a surrogate for {sup 237}U(n,f) and the {sup 236}U reaction was used as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,f). The energies of the scattered alpha particles were detected in a fully depleted segmented silicon telescope array (STARS) over an angle range of 35{sup o} to 60{sup o} with respect to the beam axis. The fission fragments were detected in a third independent silicon detector located at backward angles between 106{sup o} to 131{sup o}.

  15. Using Bayesian Evidence to Deduce the Dust-Attenuation Law at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Brett W.; Papovich, Casey J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Closson Ferguson, Henry; Long, James; CANDELS

    2016-01-01

    Although the nature of dust attenuation affects nearly all aspects of galaxy evolution, very little is known about the form of the dust-attenuation law in the distant Universe. Dust enshrouds and obscures UV star formation, convoluting our understanding of galaxy evolution at high redshift. Recent literature has recognized how the inferred physical properties of distant galaxies can be influenced by the non-universality of their attenuation curve shape. In this talk, I will present a Bayesian method to quantitatively constrain the dust-attenuation curve in high-redshift star-forming galaxies. This method is tested on galaxies at z~2 where we have CANDELS UV-to-optical photometry and Spitzer/Herschel IR luminosities. We find that the dust law implied from using only UV/optical data to calculate the full posterior probability densities supports the observed IR luminosities as predicted by that dust law. This method shows promise to deduce the shape of the attenuation curve at higher redshifts (z>4), as supported by our experiments using mock data from a semi-analytic model with qualities like those of the CANDELS GOODS fields.

  16. The Seismic risk perception in Italy deduced by a statistical sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Pessina, Vera; Peruzza, Laura; Cerbara, Loredana; Crescimbene, Cristiana

    2015-04-01

    In 2014 EGU Assembly we presented the results of a web a survey on the perception of seismic risk in Italy. The data were derived from over 8,500 questionnaires coming from all Italian regions. Our questionnaire was built by using the semantic differential method (Osgood et al. 1957) with a seven points Likert scale. The questionnaire is inspired the main theoretical approaches of risk perception (psychometric paradigm, cultural theory, etc.) .The results were promising and seem to clearly indicate an underestimation of seismic risk by the italian population. Based on these promising results, the DPC has funded our research for the second year. In 2015 EGU Assembly we present the results of a new survey deduced by an italian statistical sample. The importance of statistical significance at national scale was also suggested by ISTAT (Italian Statistic Institute), considering the study as of national interest, accepted the "project on the perception of seismic risk" as a pilot study inside the National Statistical System (SISTAN), encouraging our RU to proceed in this direction. The survey was conducted by a company specialised in population surveys using the CATI method (computer assisted telephone interview). Preliminary results will be discussed. The statistical support was provided by the research partner CNR-IRPPS. This research is funded by Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC).

  17. Structure of La Primavera caldera, Jalisco, Mexico, deduced from gravity anomalies and drilling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, I.; Mena, M.

    1991-07-01

    Previous studies of La Primavera caldera have mostly been based on surface geology and topography. Since 1980, many wells, exploring for geothermal energy, have reached depths of about 2 to 3 km at the center of the caldera. The results of the drillings, together with those of the gravity surveys, provide information about the subsurface structure of the caldera, and shed light on its formation. The drilling results and gravity anomalies at La Primavera caldera and San Marcos, located at about 40 km distance from the caldera, suggest that regional gravity anomalies can be interpreted in terms of depths of the granitic basements: the basement beneath La Primavera caldera is about 3 km deep and consists of roughly the same horizon as that beneath San Marcos. The drilling results within the caldera reveal that the depth of the caldera fills ranges from 0.3 to 1 km at the drilling sites. The andesite basement, about 1 km deep, remains approximately horizontal, and the granitic basement has a depth of about 3 km. The surface topographies, such as the postcaldera domes, scarcely disturb the subsurface strata. The local gravity anomalies show two lows within the caldera reflecting the configuration of caldera bottom, two funnel-shaped depressions, one of which corresponds to a vent of the Tala tuff deduced from geological observations. The mass deficiency within the caldera estimated from the gravity anomaly, satisfies the general relationship that the mass deficiency is proportional to the caldera diameter cubed. This means that caldera structure is three-dimensional: the larger the diameter, the deeper the funnel-shape. At present this argument may be limited to funnel-shaped calderas.

  18. Deducing growth mechanisms for minerals from the shapes of crystal size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Drits, V.A.; Srodon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Crystal size distributions (CSDs) of natural and synthetic samples are observed to have several distinct and different shapes. We have simulated these CSDs using three simple equations: the Law of Proportionate Effect (LPE), a mass balance equation, and equations for Ostwald ripening. The following crystal growth mechanisms are simulated using these equations and their modifications: (1) continuous nucleation and growth in an open system, during which crystals nucleate at either a constant, decaying, or accelerating nucleation rate, and then grow according to the LPE; (2) surface-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with an essentially unlimited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (3) supply-controlled growth in an open system, during which crystals grow with a specified, limited supply of nutrients according to the LPE; (4) supply- or surface-controlled Ostwald ripening in a closed system, during which the relative rate of crystal dissolution and growth is controlled by differences in specific surface area and by diffusion rate; and (5) supply-controlled random ripening in a closed system, during which the rate of crystal dissolution and growth is random with respect to specific surface area. Each of these mechanisms affects the shapes of CSDs. For example, mechanism (1) above with a constant nucleation rate yields asymptotically-shaped CSDs for which the variance of the natural logarithms of the crystal sizes (??2) increases exponentially with the mean of the natural logarithms of the sizes (??). Mechanism (2) yields lognormally-shaped CSDs, for which ??2 increases linearly with ??, whereas mechanisms (3) and (5) do not change the shapes of CSDs, with ??2 remaining constant with increasing ??. During supply-controlled Ostwald ripening (4), initial lognormally-shaped CSDs become more symmetric, with ??2 decreasing with increasing ??. Thus, crystal growth mechanisms often can be deduced by noting trends in ?? versus ??2 of CSDs for

  19. Martian low-altitude magnetic topology deduced from MAVEN/SWEA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Liemohn, Michael; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Luhmann, Janet; Brain, David; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Mazelle, Christian; Connerney, Jack; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission has obtained comprehensive particle and magnetic field measurements. The Solar Wind Electron Analyzer provides electron energy-pitch angle distributions along the spacecraft trajectory that can be used to infer magnetic topology. This study presents pitch angle-resolved electron energy shape parameters that can distinguish photoelectrons from solar wind electrons, which we use to deduce the Martian magnetic topology and connectivity to the dayside ionosphere. Magnetic topology in the Mars environment is mapped in three dimensions for the first time. At low altitudes (<400 km) in sunlight, the northern hemisphere is found to be dominated by closed field lines (both ends intersecting the collisional atmosphere), with more day-night connections through cross-terminator closed field lines than in the south. Although draped field lines with 100 km amplitude vertical fluctuations that intersect the electron exobase ( 160-220 km) in two locations could appear to be closed at the spacecraft, a more likely explanation is provided by crustal magnetic fields, which naturally have the required geometry. Around 30% of the time, we observe open field lines from 200 to 400 km, which implies three distinct topological layers over the northern hemisphere: closed field lines below 200 km, open field lines with foot points at lower latitudes that pass over the northern hemisphere from 200 to 400 km, and draped interplanetary magnetic field above 400 km. This study also identifies open field lines with one end attached to the dayside ionosphere and the other end connected with the solar wind, providing a path for ion outflow.

  20. Characteristics of tropical thin cirrus clouds deduced from joint CloudSat and CALIPSO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haladay, Taryn; Stephens, Graeme

    2009-04-01

    The joint detection characteristics of both the CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) lidar are used to study tropical thin cirrus observed between 20°N and 20°S. The thin ice cloud category (TIC-1) of cirrus consists of those clouds detected by the lidar but not the radar whereas the TIC-2 cirrus category consists of clouds detected by both sensors. Tropical TIC-1 cirrus clouds between 20°N and 20°S are high, are optically thin, and have an approximate cloud cover in the defined region of 30%. Almost a third of this occurrence is in the form of single layers of cloudiness without any clouds below. These TIC-1 clouds also exhibit a marked seasonal variation, especially away from the equator, consistent with the shifts in annual cycle of convection with latitude. Lidar-based estimates of optical depth, uncorrected for multiple scattering, suggest that the TIC-1 optical depths range between 0.02 and 0.3. The ice water path of TIC-1 clouds is also estimated to be between 0.5 and 4 g m-2. The radiative properties of the TIC-1 clouds are also deduced from CloudSat flux data products at the top, at the bottom, and within the atmosphere. The influence of these clouds on the instantaneous reflected solar fluxes is determined to be less than 2 W m-2. The effects of TIC-1 clouds on the instantaneous outgoing longwave fluxes are estimated to be ˜20 W m-2, and the impact of these TIC-1 clouds on the tropics-wide average of the infrared heating is ˜4 W m-2.

  1. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Anantharaman; Modenese, Luca; Phillips, Andrew T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a “muscle synergy” based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings) and their control signals (termed synergy controls) have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements—movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of “simulated” synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1) synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution) (2) along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution). On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy) to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy) did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures. PMID:25520645

  2. Deducing Electronic Unit Internal Response During a Vibration Test Using a Lumped Parameter Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.

  3. Deducing logical relationships between spatially registered cortical parcellations under conditions of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Bezgin, Gleb; Wanke, Egon; Krumnack, Antje; Kötter, Rolf

    2008-10-01

    We propose a new technique, called Spatial Objective Relational Transformation (SORT), as an automated approach for derivation of logical relationships between cortical areas in different brain maps registered in the same Euclidean space. Recently, there have been large amounts of voxel-based three-dimensional structural and functional imaging data that provide us with coordinate-based information about the location of differently defined areas in the brain, whereas coordinate-independent, parcellation-based mapping is still commonly used in the majority of animal tracing and mapping studies. Because of the impact of voxel-based imaging methods and the need to attribute their features to coordinate-independent brain entities, this mapping becomes increasingly important. Our motivation here is not to make vague statements where more precise spatial statements would be better, but to find criteria for the identity (or other logical relationships) between areas that were delineated by different methods, in different individuals, or mapped to three-dimensional space using different deformation algorithms. The relevance of this problem becomes immediately obvious as one superimposes and compares different datasets in multimodal databases (e.g. CARET, http://brainmap.wustl.edu/caret), where voxel-based data are registered to surface nodes exploited by the procedure presented here. We describe the SORT algorithm and its implementation in the Java 2 programming language (http://java.sun.com/, which we make available for download. We give an example of practical use of our approach, and validate the SORT approach against a database of the coordinate-independent statements and inferences that have been deduced using alternative techniques.

  4. Joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms from the mid-20s to the mid-30s predicting generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S; Finch, Stephen J; De La Rosa, Mario; Brook, David W

    2017-03-10

    The current study examines longitudinal patterns of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms as predictors of generalized anxiety disorder using data from the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study. There were 674 African American (53%) and Puerto Rican (47%) participants. Among the 674 participants, 60% were females. In the logistic regression analyses, the indicators of membership in each of the joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms from the mid-20s to the mid-30s were used as the independent variables, and the diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder in the mid-30s was used as the dependent variable. The high cigarette smoking with high depressive symptoms group and the low cigarette smoking with high depressive symptoms group were associated with an increased likelihood of having generalized anxiety disorder as compared to the no cigarette smoking with low depressive symptoms group. The findings shed light on the prevention and treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

  5. DEDUCE Clinical Text: An Ontology-based Module to Support Self-Service Clinical Notes Exploration and Cohort Development.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher; Rusincovitch, Shelley A; Horvath, Monica M; Brinson, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Shang, Howard C; Ferranti, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of information, as well as opportunities for informing research, education, and operations, are contained within clinical text such as radiology reports and pathology reports. However, this content is less accessible and harder to leverage than structured, discrete data. We report on an extension to the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), a self-service query tool developed to provide clinicians and researchers with access to data within the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW). The DEDUCE Clinical Text module supports ontology-based text searching, enhanced filtering capabilities based on document attributes, and integration of clinical text with structured data and cohort development. The module is implemented with open-source tools extensible to other institutions, including a Java-based search engine (Apache Solr) with complementary full-text indexing library (Lucene) employed with a negation engine (NegEx) modified by clinical users to include to local domain-specific negation phrases.

  6. CMB and the elementary particles structure deduced from QFT of non-dot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    In my paper ‘Planck Constant Deduced from Metrical Results of Doppler Effect of Moving Particle —Uncertainty Principle Caused by Collision of a Particle with CMB Photons and Virtual Photons (H05-0036-10)’ the absolute velocity is decided by CMB which as a mark of the vacuum. CMB come from the thermal radiation of stars via gravitational redshift about 10 (13) year (E14- 0032-08). In my paper ‘Quanta turn-advance ism, China Science && Technology Overview 131 192-210 (2011)’, QFT four-dimensional uncertainty principle and momentum-energy conservation law had been generalized as a five-dimensional equations: de Broglie wavelength as a position vector \\underline{q}= (i c t, r, s), momentum \\underline{P} = (i E / c, P, U c), \\underline{q} = i h / \\underline{P}, \\underline{q} \\underline{q} = 0, \\underline{P} \\underline{P} = 0, Sigma∑ \\underline{P} = \\underline{P} (0) . The five-dimensional time-space-spin had been quantized as a non-dot model basic cell, the lowest energy state vertical polarized left spin 1/2 neutrino and right spin 1/2 antineutrino are just the left, right advance unit quanta _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0} and left, right back unit quanta (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , it again compose into spin 1 unit advance photons _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} and back (0) nuυnuυ (0) , spin 0 unit rest mass nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) and anti-mass _{0}nuυ (0) nuυ, spin 0 unit positive charge _{0}nuυnuυ (0) and negative charge nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ. It accord to the high energy physics experimental results of the transformation among the photons, masses quanta and charges quanta. The physical vacuum is the even collocation of non-combinational nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. QFT is no longer with divergence difficulty by the non-dot model. It is mathematically easy that from five-dimensional equations deduce out the Dirac, Klein-Gordan, Maxwell equations and Lorentz force formula, but appear some new results. The interactions between _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0}, (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , i.e., force f

  7. An evaluation of the 30-s chair stand test in older adults: frailty detection based on kinematic parameters from a single inertial unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing interest in frailty syndrome exists because it is regarded as a major predictor of co-morbidities and mortality in older populations. Nevertheless, frailty assessment has been controversial, particularly when identifying this syndrome in a community setting. Performance tests such as the 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST) are a cornerstone for detecting early declines in functional independence. Additionally, recent advances in body-fixed sensors have enhanced the sensors’ ability to automatically and accurately evaluate kinematic parameters related to a specific movement performance. The purpose of this study is to use this new technology to obtain kinematic parameters that can identify frailty in an aged population through the performance the 30-s CST. Methods Eighteen adults with a mean age of 54 years, as well as sixteen pre-frail and thirteen frail patients with mean ages of 78 and 85 years, respectively, performed the 30-s CST while threir trunk movements were measured by a sensor-unit at vertebra L3. Sit-stand-sit cycles were determined using both acceleration and orientation information to detect failed attempts. Movement-related phases (i.e. impulse, stand-up, and sit-down) were differentiated based on seat off and seat on events. Finally, the kinematic parameters of the impulse, stand-up and sit-down phases were obtained to identify potential differences across the three frailty groups. Results For the stand-up and sit-down phases, velocity peaks and “modified impulse” parameters clearly differentiated subjects with different frailty levels (p < 0.001). The trunk orientation range during the impulse phase was also able to classify a subject according to his frail syndrome (p < 0.001). Furthermore, these parameters derived from the inertial units (IUs) are sensitive enough to detect frailty differences not registered by the number of completed cycles which is the standard test outcome. Conclusions This study shows

  8. Development of a long-pulse (30-s), high-energy (120-keV) ion source for neutral-beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Multimegawatt neutral beams of hydrogen or deuterium atoms are needed for fusion machine applications such as MFTB-B, TFTR-U, DIII-U, and FED (INTOR or ETR). For these applications, a duoPIGatron ion source is being developed to produce high-brightness deuterium beams at a beam energy of approx. 120 keV for pulse lengths up to 30 s. A long-pulse plasma generator with active water cooling has been operated at an arc level of 1200 A with 30-s pulse durations. The plasma density and uniformity are sufficient for supplying a 60-A beam of hydrogen ions to a 13- by 43-cm accelerator. A 10- by 25-cm tetrode accelerator has been operated to form 120-keV hydrogen ion beams. Using the two-dimensional (2-D) ion extraction code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a 13- by 43-cm tetrode accelerator has been designed and is being fabricated. The aperture shapes of accelerator grids are optimized for 120-keV beam energy.

  9. Deducing the electron-beam diameter in a laser-plasma accelerator using x-ray betatron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Landgraf, Björn; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Jäckel, Oliver; Peth, Christian; Thiele, Tobias; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Willi, Oswald; Kaluza, Malte C; Spielmann, Christian

    2012-02-17

    We investigate the properties of a laser-plasma electron accelerator as a bright source of keV x-ray radiation. During the interaction, the electrons undergo betatron oscillations and from the carefully measured x-ray spectrum the oscillation amplitude of the electrons can be deduced which decreases with increasing electron energies. From the oscillation amplitude and the independently measured x-ray source size of (1.8±0.3) μm we are able to estimate the electron bunch diameter to be (1.6±0.3) μm.

  10. Adult Opisthorchis felineus major protein fractions deduced from transcripts: comparison with liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Pomaznoy, Mikhail; Tatkov, Sergey; Katokhin, Alexey; Afonnikov, Dmitry; Babenko, Vladimir; Furman, Dagmara; Brusentsov, Ilya; Belavin, Pavel; Najakshin, Alexandr; Guselnikov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Gennady; Sivkov, Anton; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiologically important liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis are of interest to health professionals, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. Recently the transcriptomes of the latter two species were intensively investigated. However our knowledge on molecular biology of O. felineus is scarce. We report the first results of the O. felineus transcriptome analysis. We isolated and annotated a total of 2560 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from adult O. felineus (deposited within the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST), under accession numbers GenBank: JK624271-JK626790, JK006511-JK006547, JK649790-JK649792). Clustering and analysis resulted in the detection of 267 contigs. Of the protein sequences deduced from these, 82% had homologs in the NCBI (nr) protein database and 63% contained conserved domains, allowing the functions to be interpreted using the Gene Ontology terms. Comprehensive analysis of Opisthorchiidae- and Trematoda-specific substitutions within amino acid sequences deduced for the proteins myoglobin, vitelline precursor protein, cathepsin F, and 28kDa glutathione transferase was carried out. The gene set of the 32 ribosomal proteins for the three Opisthorchiidae species with the addition of available Schistosoma and Fasciola orthologs was created and is provided in the supplementary. The orthologous gene set created was used for inferring phylogeny within the Trematoda with special attention to interrelations within the Opisthorchiidae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between C. sinensis and O. viverrini and some divergence of O. felineus from either O. viverrini or C. sinensis.

  11. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature using an X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Botha, Sabine; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Doak, R. Bruce; Gati, Cornelius; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Jogl, Gerwald; Dahlberg, Albert E.; Gregory, Steven T.; Bogan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution ribosome structures determined by X-ray crystallography have provided important insights into the mechanism of translation. Such studies have thus far relied on large ribosome crystals kept at cryogenic temperatures to reduce radiation damage. Here, the application of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain diffraction data from ribosome microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature is described. 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals diffracted to beyond 6 Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX for ribosome structural studies. The ability to collect diffraction data at near-physiological temperatures promises to provide fundamental insights into the structural dynamics of the ribosome and its functional complexes. PMID:23989164

  12. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G; Laksmono, Hartawan; Shoeman, Robert L; Botha, Sabine; Barends, Thomas R M; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Doak, R Bruce; Gati, Cornelius; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Jogl, Gerwald; Dahlberg, Albert E; Gregory, Steven T; Bogan, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    High-resolution ribosome structures determined by X-ray crystallography have provided important insights into the mechanism of translation. Such studies have thus far relied on large ribosome crystals kept at cryogenic temperatures to reduce radiation damage. Here, the application of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain diffraction data from ribosome microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature is described. 30S ribosomal subunit microcrystals diffracted to beyond 6 Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX for ribosome structural studies. The ability to collect diffraction data at near-physiological temperatures promises to provide fundamental insights into the structural dynamics of the ribosome and its functional complexes.

  13. Mutations of ribosomal protein S5 suppress a defect in late-30S ribosomal subunit biogenesis caused by lack of the RbfA biogenesis factor

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Stefan; Bhatt, Monika J.; Tükenmez, Hasan; Farabaugh, Philip J.; Wikström, P. Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits requires assistance by maturation proteins that are not part of mature ribosomes. One such protein, RbfA, associates with the 30S ribosomal subunits. Loss of RbfA causes cold sensitivity and defects of the 30S subunit biogenesis and its overexpression partially suppresses the dominant cold sensitivity caused by a C23U mutation in the central pseudoknot of 16S rRNA, a structure essential for ribosome function. We have isolated suppressor mutations that restore partially the growth of an RbfA-lacking strain. Most of the strongest suppressor mutations alter one out of three distinct positions in the carboxy-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S5 (S5) in direct contact with helix 1 and helix 2 of the central pseudoknot. Their effect is to increase the translational capacity of the RbfA-lacking strain as evidenced by an increase in polysomes in the suppressed strains. Overexpression of RimP, a protein factor that along with RbfA regulates formation of the ribosome's central pseudoknot, was lethal to the RbfA-lacking strain but not to a wild-type strain and this lethality was suppressed by the alterations in S5. The S5 mutants alter translational fidelity but these changes do not explain consistently their effect on the RbfA-lacking strain. Our genetic results support a role for the region of S5 modified in the suppressors in the formation of the central pseudoknot in 16S rRNA. PMID:26089326

  14. The effect of acute hypoxia at low altitude and acute normoxia at high altitude on performance during a 30-s Wingate test in children.

    PubMed

    Blonc, S; Falgairette, G; Bedu, M; Fellmann, N; Spielvogel, H; Coudert, J

    1994-10-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.137 +/- 0.001) at Low Altitude (LA: Clermont-Ferrand, 330 m) and acute normoxia (FIO2 = 0.306 +/- 0.006) at High Altitude (HA: La Paz, 3600 m) on performance during a 30-s Wingate test has been investigated in prepubertal children (Tanner stage 1). Twenty five boys (LA, n = 10; HA, n = 15) aged from 10.6 to 12.7 years performed two Wingate tests at random: at LA, one in normoxia (ambient air) and one in acute hypoxia and at HA, one in chronic hypoxia (ambient air) and one in acute normoxia. The subjects performed the two tests using the same calibrated cycle ergometer. Peak Power (PP), Mean Power (MP), O2 uptake during the 30 s (VO2) and blood lactate accumulation (delta [L]s) were measured. Compared to normoxia, acute hypoxia at LA did not alter PP (8.0 +/- 1.1 vs 7.9 +/- 1.3 W.kg-1 BW) and MP (6.1 +/- 0.7 vs 6.1 +/- 1.1 W.kg-1 BW). Similarly, compared to chronic hypoxia, acute normoxia at HA did not modify these parameters (PP: 7.4 +/- 1.5 vs 7.3 +/- 1.8; MP: 5.4 +/- 1.2 vs 5.5 +/- 1.1; W.kg-1 BW). VO2 and delta [L]s were neither significantly changed by acute hypoxia at LA (520 +/- 50 vs 550 +/- 60 ml O2; 5.3 +/- 1.7 vs 4.8 +/- 1.7 mmol.l-1) nor by acute normoxia at HA (530 +/- 110 vs 500 +/- 90 ml O2; 3.4 +/- 1.3 vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 mmol.l-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.

    2012-12-01

    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  16. The translational fidelity function of IF3 during transition from the 30 S initiation complex to the 70 S initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Grigoriadou, Christina; Marzi, Stefano; Pan, Dongli; Gualerzi, Claudio O; Cooperman, Barry S

    2007-10-26

    IF3 has a fidelity function in the initiation of translation, inducing the dissociation of fMet-tRNA(fMet) from the 30 S initiation complexes (30SIC) containing a non-canonical initiation triplet (e.g. AUU) in place of a canonical initiation triplet (e.g., AUG). IF2 has a complementary role, selectively promoting initiator tRNA binding to the ribosome. Here, we used parallel rapid kinetics measurements of GTP hydrolysis, Pi release, light-scattering, and changes in intensities of fluorophore-labeled IF2 and fMet-tRNA(fMet) to determine the effects on both 30SIC formation and 30SIC conversion to 70 S initiation complexes (70SIC) of (a) substituting AUG with AUU, and/or (b) omitting IF3, and/or (c) replacing GTP with the non-hydrolyzable analog GDPCP. We demonstrate that the presence or absence of IF3 has, at most, minor effects on the rate of 30SIC formation using either AUG or AUU as the initiation codon, and conclude that the high affinity of IF2 for both 30 S subunit and initiator tRNA overrides any perturbation of the codon-anticodon interaction resulting from AUU for AUG substitution. In contrast, replacement of AUG by AUU leads to a dramatic reduction in the rate of 70SIC formation from 30SIC upon addition of 50 S subunits. Interpreting our results in the framework of a quantitative kinetic scheme leads to the conclusion that, within the overall process of 70SIC formation, the step most affected by substituting AUU for AUG involves the conversion of an initially labile 70 S ribosome into a more stable complex. In the absence of IF3, the difference between AUG and AUU largely disappears, with each initiation codon affording rapid 70SIC formation, leading to the hypothesis that it is the rate of IF3 dissociation from the 70 S ribosome during IC70S formation that is critical to its fidelity function.

  17. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2017-01-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  18. Morphology of high-latitude plasma density perturbations as deduced from the total electron content measurements onboard the Swarm constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeheung; Lühr, Hermann; Kervalishvili, Guram; Rauberg, Jan; Stolle, Claudia; Kwak, Young-Sil; Lee, Woo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the climatology of high-latitude total electron content (TEC) variations as observed by the dual-frequency Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers onboard the Swarm satellite constellation. The distribution of TEC perturbations as a function of geographic/magnetic coordinates and seasons reasonably agrees with that of the Challenging Minisatellite Payload observations published earlier. Categorizing the high-latitude TEC perturbations according to line-of-sight directions between Swarm and GNSS satellites, we can deduce their morphology with respect to the geomagnetic field lines. In the Northern Hemisphere, the perturbation shapes are mostly aligned with the L shell surface, and this anisotropy is strongest in the nightside auroral (substorm) and subauroral regions and weakest in the central polar cap. The results are consistent with the well-known two-cell plasma convection pattern of the high-latitude ionosphere, which is approximately aligned with L shells at auroral regions and crossing different L shells for a significant part of the polar cap. In the Southern Hemisphere, the perturbation structures exhibit noticeable misalignment to the local L shells. Here the direction toward the Sun has an additional influence on the plasma structure, which we attribute to photoionization effects. The larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south than in the north is responsible for the hemispheric difference.

  19. Evolutionary relationships of a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism and Acholeplasma laidlawii deduced from two ribosomal protein gene sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, P O; Sears, B B

    1992-01-01

    The families within the class Mollicutes are distinguished by their morphologies, nutritional requirements, and abilities to metabolize certain compounds. Biosystematic classification of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) has been difficult because these organisms have not been cultured in vitro, and hence their nutritional requirements have not been determined nor have physiological characterizations been possible. To investigate the evolutionary relationship of the MLOs to other members of the class Mollicutes, a segment of a ribosomal protein operon was cloned and sequenced from an aster yellows-type MLO which is pathogenic for members of the genus Oenothera and from Acholeplasma laidlawii. The deduced amino acid sequence data from the rpl22 and rps3 genes indicate that the MLOs are more closely related to A. laidlawii than to animal mycoplasmas, confirming previous results from 16S rRNA sequence comparisons. This conclusion is also supported by the finding that the UGA codon is not read as a tryptophan codon in the MLO and A. laidlawii, in contrast to its usage in Mycoplasma capricolum. PMID:1556079

  20. New prospects for deducing the evolutionary history of metabolic pathways in prokaryotes: Aromatic biosynthesis as a case-in-point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Jensen, Roy A.

    1988-03-01

    Metabolic pathways of prokaryotes are more biochemically diverse than is generally recognized. Distinctive biochemical features are shared by phylogenetic clusters. The hierarchical levels of characterstate clustering depends upon evolutionary events which fortuitously became fixed in the genome of a common ancestor. Prokaryotes can now be ordered on a phylogenetic tree. This allows the evolutionary steps that underlie the construction and regulation of appropriately complex biochemical pathways to be traced in an evolutionary progression of prokaryote types that house these pathways. Essentially the approach is to deduce ancestral character states at ever deeper phylogenetic levels, utilizing logical principles of maximum parsimony. The current perspective on the evolution of the biochemical pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids is developed as a case-in-point model for analyses that should be feasible with many major metabolic systems. Phenylalanine biosynthesis probably arose prior to the addition of branches leading to tyrosine and tryptophan. An evolutionary scenario is developed that begins with non-enzymatic reactions which may have operated in primitive systems, followed by the evolution of an enzymatic system that pre-dated the divergence of major lineages of modern eubacteria (Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative purple bacteria, and cyanobacteria).

  1. Deducing solid liquid interfacial energy from superheating or supercooling: application to H2O at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Strachan, Alejandro; Swift, Damian C.

    2005-04-01

    We present a general method to determine the solid-liquid interfacial energy (γsl) from the maximum supercooling (or superheating), and apply it to the water-ice system. For solid-liquid phase transitions, the nucleation-theory-based systematics of maximum superheating and supercooling relate a dimensionless nucleation barrier to the superheating (supercooling) and heating (cooling) rates. Given superheating (or supercooling) values from either experiments or simulations, γsl can then be deduced from the dimensionless nucleation barrier, equilibrium melting temperature and enthalpy of fusion. We demonstrate the accuracy of this approach using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Lennard-Jones system: our predictions of γsl at various pressures are in excellent agreement with independent, direct MD simulations. With this approach, we predict γsl for the water-ice (Ih and III) system using experimental supercooling values in the pressure range of 0-0.3 GPa. The predicted value (28 ± 0.8 mJ m-2) agrees with measurements on H2O-Ih at ambient pressure.

  2. Metabolic potential of the organic-solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E deduced from its annotated genome

    PubMed Central

    Udaondo, Zulema; Molina, Lazaro; Daniels, Craig; Gómez, Manuel J; Molina-Henares, María A; Matilla, Miguel A; Roca, Amalia; Fernández, Matilde; Duque, Estrella; Segura, Ana; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E is an organic solvent tolerant strain capable of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we report the DOT-T1E genomic sequence (6 394 153 bp) and its metabolic atlas based on the classification of enzyme activities. The genome encodes for at least 1751 enzymatic reactions that account for the known pattern of C, N, P and S utilization by this strain. Based on the potential of this strain to thrive in the presence of organic solvents and the subclasses of enzymes encoded in the genome, its metabolic map can be drawn and a number of potential biotransformation reactions can be deduced. This information may prove useful for adapting desired reactions to create value-added products. This bioengineering potential may be realized via direct transformation of substrates, or may require genetic engineering to block an existing pathway, or to re-organize operons and genes, as well as possibly requiring the recruitment of enzymes from other sources to achieve the desired transformation. Funding Information Work in our laboratory was supported by Fondo Social Europeo and Fondos FEDER from the European Union, through several projects (BIO2010-17227, Consolider-Ingenio CSD2007-00005, Excelencia 2007 CVI-3010, Excelencia 2011 CVI-7391 and EXPLORA BIO2011-12776-E). PMID:23815283

  3. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  4. A blind trial evaluation of a crime scene methodology for deducing impact velocity and droplet size from circular bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Hulse-Smith, Lee; Illes, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, mechanical engineering models were utilized to deduce impact velocity and droplet volume of circular bloodstains by measuring stain diameter and counting spines radiating from their outer edge. A blind trial study was subsequently undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of this technique, using an applied, crime scene methodology. Calculations from bloodstains produced on paper, drywall, and wood were used to derive surface-specific equations to predict 39 unknown mock crime scene bloodstains created over a range of impact velocities (2.2-5.7 m/sec) and droplet volumes (12-45 microL). Strong correlations were found between expected and observed results, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.83 and 0.99. The 95% confidence limit associated with predictions of impact velocity and droplet volume was calculated for paper (0.28 m/sec, 1.7 microL), drywall (0.37 m/sec, 1.7 microL), and wood (0.65 m/sec, 5.2 microL).

  5. Confidence envelop of the global MSL time series deduced from TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2 altimeter missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Ablain, Michael; Zawadzki, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    With the satellite altimetry missions, the global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993. 'Verification' phases, during which the satellites follow each other in close succession (TOPEX/Poseidon--Jason-1, then Jason-1--Jason-2), help to link up these different missions by precisely determining any bias between them. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from these 3 altimetric missions provides a global rate of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2013 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL AVISO website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative program, the users requirements have been collected and for the users of the Sea Level ECV, it is crucial to know as much as possible the errors impacting the MSL calculation in order to analyze the MSL variations and in fine to interpret correctly the geophysical mechanisms underlying these variations. The characterization of these errors was performed over the whole altimetric period separating several time scales as the long-term evolution (mean sea level trend), but also the inter-annual and periodic signals. However, it will also be very useful to provide the confidence envelop (or error envelop) of the global MSL time series in order to know the exact error level at each time step. In this paper, we propose to describe in details the approach developed to compute this confidence envelop. We will also present the results obtained and how to interpret them.

  6. Light regulation of cGMP metabolism in toad rod outer segments (ROS) deduced from intact photoreceptor and cellfree kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Dawis, S.M.; Graeff, R.M.; Heyman, R.A.; Walseth, T.F.; Butz, E.A.

    1987-05-01

    The rate of cGMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterase (PDE) in intact ROS, monitored in dark-adapted isolated toad retina by the rate of /sup 18/O appearance in guanine nucleotide ..cap alpha..-phosphoryls, is 1/360th of that observed in disrupted ROS at a substrate concentration equivalent to the total (cGMP) in ROS. Low to moderate photic stimuli increase this cGMP hydrolytic rate up to 10-fold in intact ROS with little or no change in total (cGMP). G-protein activation determined in intact ROS by the fraction of GDP labeled with /sup 18/O corresponds with light-related increases in cGMP flux. In contrast, relatively high intensities and extended illumination cause attenuation of maximal cGMP hydrolysis with proportionate reductions in total (cGMP). From these observations combined with the effects of activated G-protein on kinetics and cGMP binding of ROS PDE the following model for light-regulation of cGMP metabolism was deduced: cGMP flux in intact ROS is severely restricted in the dark state because approximately 99% of the cGMP is bound to high affinity sites on the non-stimulated form of PDE. This constraint is relieved when activated G-protein converts the cGMP-binding form of PDE to a high K/sub m/ catalytic form. cGMP is then redistributed to a dynamic pool where it is available to PDE catalytic sites and lower affinity allosteric sites. The (cGMP) in the dynamic pool is maintained or further increased or decreased by modulating the activity of an apparently light-sensitive guanylyl cyclase.

  7. Implications of Late Pliocene-Pleistocene Humidity Fluctuations in the Qaidam Paleolake (NE Tibetan Plateau) Deduced from Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, C.; Appel, E.; Koutsodendris, A.; Zhang, W.; Pross, J.; Fang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau) contains a near-continuous, up to 12 km thick sequence of Cenozoic strata that offers a unique opportunity for studying long-term climate change. We investigate the 940-m-long drill core SG-1 from the western Qaidam Basin, which is characterized by a long-term transition from a semi-deep freshwater lake to nearly complete exsiccation of the water body, detected by several studies including geochemical and lithological observations. Based on magnetostratigraphy and optically stimulated luminescence dating, and refined by orbital tuning, the SG-1 core spans the interval from 2.69 to 0.1 Ma. Moisture availability in the western Qaidam Basin deduced from the pollen ratio Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C), suggests desert to steppe vegetation along core SG-1 as a long-term feature. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) is well suited for the high-resolution investigation of paleohumidity. The meaning of χ as a paleohydrology proxy is shown by comparing χ to other magnetic proxies for checking its relation to magnetic grain sizes and magnetic mineralogy as well as to pollen results. χ variations are analyzed to obtain regional information on the factors leading to the drying process of the Qaidam paleolake as well as potential driving factors for humidity fluctuations (e.g., insolation). An important topic that needs further investigation is the influence of monsoon in the Qaidam Basin. While the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau is directly affected by monsoon precipitation through the topographic barrier, its influence in the past is questionable in the hyper-arid Qaidam Basin. We check a potential coupling to the monsoon system in the western Qaidam Basin by comparing our χ record to reconstructions of the Asian monsoon system from other archives as well as searching evidence from orbital cyclicities found in the χ time series.

  8. Deducing Hybrid Performance from Parental Metabolic Profiles of Young Primary Roots of Maize by Using a Multivariate Diallel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Feher, Kristen; Lisec, Jan; Römisch-Margl, Lilla; Selbig, Joachim; Gierl, Alfons; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nikoloski, Zoran; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL). Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass), but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles). Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids. PMID:24409329

  9. Evaluation des programmes de techniques d'education en services de garde (Evaluation of Programs of Educational Methods in Child Care Services. 2410-0521.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigneau, Paul, Comp.

    In March 1994, Quebec's Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching initiated an evaluation of "Techniques d'education en services de garde" (TESG) programs, or educational methods in child care services. This report presents results from the evaluation in three parts. The first section describes the following four stages of the…

  10. 600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, A.; Vieten, R.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-proxy speleothem study tracks the regional hydrological variability in Puerto Rico and highlights its close relation to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Our proxy record extends instrumental observations 600 years into the past, and reveals the range of natural hydrologic variability for the region. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the speleothem climate record is achieved by the combination of multi-proxy measurements, thin section petrography, XRD analysis and cave monitoring results. The speleothem was collected in Cueva Larga, a one mile-long cave system that has been monitored since 2012. MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating reveals that the speleothem grew constantly over the last 600 years. Trace element ratios (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) as well as stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) elucidate significant changes in atmospheric precipitation at the site. Monthly cave monitoring results demonstrate that the epikarst system responds to multi-annual changes in seepage water recharge. The drip water isotope and trace element composition lack short term or seasonal variability. This hydrological system creates favorable conditions to deduce decadal climate variability from Cueva Larga's climate record. The speleothem time series mimics the most-recently published AMO reconstruction over the last 200 years with a time lag of 10-20 years. The time lag seems to results from slow atmospheric signal transmission through the epikarst but the effect of dating uncertainties cannot be ruled out. Warm SSTs in the North Atlantic are related to drier conditions in Puerto Rico. During times of decreased rainfall a relative increase in prior calcite precipitation seems to be the main process causing increased Mg/Ca trace element ratios. High trace element ratios correlate to higher δ13C values. The increase in both proxies indicates a shift towards time periods of decreased rainfall. Over the past 600 years there are two intervals of increased Mg/Ca and δ13C values

  11. 600 yr High-Resolution Climate Reconstruction of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation deduced from a Puerto Rican Speleothem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieten, Rolf; Winter, Amos; Scholz, Denis; Black, David; Spoetl, Christoph; Winterhalder, Sophie; Koltai, Gabriella; Schroeder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Terzer, Stefan; Zanchettin, Davide; Mangini, Augusto

    2016-04-01

    A multi-proxy speleothem study tracks the regional hydrological variability in Puerto Rico and highlights its close relation to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) describing low-frequency sea-surface temperature (SST) variability in the North Atlantic ocean. Our proxy record extends instrumental observations 600 years into the past, and reveals the range of natural hydrologic variability for the region. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the speleothem climate record is achieved by the combination of multi-proxy measurements, thin section petrography, XRD analysis and cave monitoring results. The speleothem was collected in Cueva Larga, a one mile-long cave system that has been monitored since 2012. MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating reveals that the speleothem grew constantly over the last 600 years. Trace element ratios (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) as well as stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) elucidate significant changes in atmospheric precipitation at the site. Monthly cave monitoring results demonstrate that the epikarst system responds to multi-annual changes in seepage water recharge. The drip water isotope and trace element composition lack short term or seasonal variability. This hydrological system creates favorable conditions to deduce decadal climate variability from Cueva Larga's climate record. The speleothem time series mimics the most recent AMO reconstruction over the last 200 years (Svendsen et al., 2014) with a time lag of 10-20 years. The lag seems to results from slow atmospheric signal transmission through the epikarst but the effect of dating uncertainties cannot be ruled out. Warm SSTs in the North Atlantic are related to drier conditions in Puerto Rico. During times of decreased rainfall a relative increase in prior calcite precipitation seems to be the main process causing increased Mg/Ca trace element ratios. High trace element ratios correlate to higher δ13C values. The increase in both proxies indicates a shift towards time

  12. SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surface temperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflaumann, Uwe; Duprat, Josette; Pujol, Claude; Labeyrie, Laurent D.

    1996-02-01

    leave the system.) (Paper 95PA01743,SIMMAX: A modern analog technique to deduce Atlantic sea surfacetemperatures from planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments, UwePflaumann, Josette Duprat, Claude Pujol, and Laurent D. Labeyrie).Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009; Payment mustaccompany order.

  13. Current Deformation in Central Afar and Triple Junction Kinematics Deduced from GPS and InSAR Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cécile, Doubre; Aline, Déprez; Frédéric, Masson; Anne, Socquet; Elias, Lewi; Raphael, Grandin; Alexandre, Nercessian; Patrice, Ulrich; Jean-Bernard, De Chabalier; Ibrahim, Saad; Ahmadine, Abayazid; Gilles, Peltzer; Arthur, Delorme; Eric, Calais; Tim, Wright

    2016-11-01

    Kinematics of divergent boundaries and Rift-Rift-Rift junctions are classically studied using long-term geodetic observations. Since significant magma-related displacements are expected, short-term deformation provides important constraints on the crustal mechanisms involved both in active rifting and in transfer of extensional deformation between spreading axes. Using InSAR and GPS data, we analyze the surface deformation in the whole Central Afar region in detail, focusing on both the extensional deformation across the Quaternary magmato-tectonic rift segments, and on the zones of deformation transfer between active segments and spreading axes. The largest deformation occurs across the two recently activated Asal-Ghoubbet (AG) and MH-D magmato-tectonic segments with very high strain rates, whereas the other Quaternary active segments do not concentrate any large strain, suggesting that these rifts are either sealed during inter-dyking periods or not mature enough to remain a plate boundary. Outside of these segments, the GPS horizontal velocity field shows a regular gradient following a clockwise rotation of the displacements from the Southeast to the East of Afar, with respect to Nubia. Very few shallow creeping structures can be identified as well in the InSAR data. However, using these data together with the strain rate tensor and the rotations rates deduced from GPS baselines, the present-day strain field over Central Afar is consistent with the main tectonic structures, and therefore with the long-term deformation. We investigate the current kinematics of the triple junction included in our GPS data set by building simple block models. The deformation in Central Afar can be described by adding a central micro-block evolving separately from the three surrounding plates. In this model, the northern block boundary corresponds to a deep EW-trending trans-tensional dislocation, locked from the surface to 10-13 km and joining at depth the active spreading axes of

  14. Current deformation in Central Afar and triple junction kinematics deduced from GPS and InSAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubre, Cécile; Déprez, Aline; Masson, Frédéric; Socquet, Anne; Lewi, Elias; Grandin, Raphaël; Nercessian, Alexandre; Ulrich, Patrice; De Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Saad, Ibrahim; Abayazid, Ahmadine; Peltzer, Gilles; Delorme, Arthur; Calais, Eric; Wright, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Kinematics of divergent boundaries and Rift-Rift-Rift junctions are classically studied using long-term geodetic observations. Since significant magma-related displacements are expected, short-term deformation provides important constraints on the crustal mechanisms involved both in active rifting and in transfer of extensional deformation between spreading axes. Using InSAR and GPS data, we analyse the surface deformation in the whole Central Afar region in detail, focusing on both the extensional deformation across the Quaternary magmato-tectonic rift segments, and on the zones of deformation transfer between active segments and spreading axes. The largest deformation occurs across the two recently activated Asal-Ghoubbet (AG) and Manda Hararo-Dabbahu (MH-D) magmato-tectonic segments with very high strain rates, whereas the other Quaternary active segments do not concentrate any large strain, suggesting that these rifts are either sealed during interdyking periods or not mature enough to remain a plate boundary. Outside of these segments, the GPS horizontal velocity field shows a regular gradient following a clockwise rotation of the displacements from the Southeast to the East of Afar, with respect to Nubia. Very few shallow creeping structures can be identified as well in the InSAR data. However, using these data together with the strain rate tensor and the rotations rates deduced from GPS baselines, the present-day strain field over Central Afar is consistent with the main tectonic structures, and therefore with the long-term deformation. We investigate the current kinematics of the triple junction included in our GPS data set by building simple block models. The deformation in Central Afar can be described by adding a central microblock evolving separately from the three surrounding plates. In this model, the northern block boundary corresponds to a deep EW-trending trans-tensional dislocation, locked from the surface to 10-13 km and joining at depth the

  15. Tables of Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section for Various Pu, U, and Th Isotopes, Deduced from Measured Fission Probabilites

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-03-31

    Cross sections for neutron-induced fission of {sup 231,233}Th, {sup 234,235,236,237,239}U, and {sup 240,241,243}Pu are presented in tabular form for incident neutron energies of 0.1 {le} E{sub n}(MeV) {le} 2.5. The cross sections were obtained by converting measured fission probabilities from (t,pf) reactions on mass-A targets to (n,f) cross sections on mass-A + 1 neutron targets, by using modeling to compensate for the differences in the reaction mechanisms. Data from Britt et al. were used for the {sup 234}U(t,pf) reaction, from Cramer et al. for the {sup 230,232}Th(t,pf), {sup 236,238}U(t,pf), and {sup 240,242}Pu(t,pf) reactions, and from Britt et al. for the {sup 233,235}U(t,pf) and {sup 239}Pu(t,pf) reactions. The fission probabilities P{sub (t,pf)}(E{sub x}), measured as a function of excitation energy E{sub x} of the compound system formed by the (t,p) reaction, are listed in the tables with the corresponding deduced cross sections as a function of incident neutron energy E{sub n}, {sigma}{sub (n,f)}(E{sub n}). The excitation energy and incident neutron energy are related by E{sub x} = E{sub n} + B{sub n}, where B{sub n}, where B{sub n} is the neutron binding energy. Comparison with ENDF/B-VI evaluations of the well-measured {sup 234,235,236}U(n,f) and {sup 240,241}Pu(n,f) cross sections confirms the accuracy of the present results within a 10% standard deviation above E{sub n} = 1 MeV. Below E{sub n} = 1 MeV, localized deviations of at most {+-} 20% are observed.

  16. Origin of platinum-group mineral assemblages in a mantle tectonite at Unst deduced from mineral chemistry and osmium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, Inna Yu.; Lord, Richard A.; Malitch, Kreshimir N.; Meisel, Thomas C.

    2013-04-01

    assemblage is likely to reflect processes such as in-situ serpentinisation, alteration during emplacement or regional greenschist metamorphism. Whole-rock platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations give negatively sloped chondrite-normalized PGE patterns, typical of podiform chromitite, where refractory PGE (Os, Ir and Ru) prevail over less refractory PGE (Rh, Pt and Pd). The osmium isotope results identify similarly 'unradiogenic' 187Os/188Os values for 'primary' and 'secondary' PGM assemblages (with mean 187Os/188Os values of 0.12419 and 0.12464, respectively), being within uncertainty of the chromitite composition (0.1240±0.0006). This implies that the whole-rock Os isotope budget is largely controlled by laurite-dominant assemblages, supporting the conclusion that the 'secondary' PGM assemblage inherited the subchondritic osmium isotope signature of the 'primary' PGM. No evidence for other source contributions during later thermal events has been observed. The Os-isotope data provide further support for an Enstatite Chondrite Reservoir model for the convective upper mantle as defined by Walker et al. (2002) and are consistent with origin of the complex as a Caledonian ophiolite formed in a supra-subduction zone. This study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 12-05-01166-a to IYuB) and the Uralian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences (project No 12-P-5-1020). References: Andrews, D.R.A., Brenan, J.M. (2002) Phase-equilibrium constraints on the magmatic origin of laurite and Os-Ir alloy. Can. Mineral. 40, 1705-1716. Walker, R.J., Prichard, H.M., Ishiwatari, A., Pimentel, M. (2002) The osmium isotopic composition of convecting upper mantle deduced from ophiolite chromites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 329-345.

  17. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

    2002-01-01

    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  18. Deducing the magma chamber processes of middle Eocene volcanics, Sivas and Tokat regions; NE Turkey: Insights from clinopyroxene chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelevic, Dejan

    2016-04-01

    Middle Eocene Tokat and Sivas volcanic successions occur within the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Different models are suggested for the development of the middle Eocene volcanism such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc magmatism. In both areas, volcanic units cover all the basement units with a regional disconformity and comprise lavas spanning a compositional range from mainly basalt-basaltic andesite to a lesser amount trachyte. Here, we report mineral chemistry of different basaltic lavas through transect from northern continent (Tokat region, Pontides) to southern continent (Sivas region, Kırşehir block) to deduce the characteristics of the magma chamber processes which are active during the middle Eocene. Basaltic lavas include olivine bearing basalts (Ol-basalt: ± olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase); amphibole bearing basaltic andesite (Amp-basaltic andesite: amphibole + clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± biotite) and pyroxene bearing basaltic andesite (Px-basaltic andesite: clinopyroxene + plagioclase). Microlitic, glomeroporphyric and pilotaxitic texture are common. Clinopyroxene phenocrystals (macro ≥ 750 μm and micro ≤300 μm) are common in all three lava series which are investigated by transecting core to rim compositional profiles. They are generally augite and diopside; euhedral to subhedral in shape with oscillatory, normal and reverse zoning patterns. Also, all clinopyroxene phenocrystals are marked by moderately high Mg# (for Ol-basalt: 67-91; avg. 80; Amp-basaltic andesite: 76-83, avg: 80; Px -basaltic andesite 68-95, avg: 81). In Ol-basalt, clinopyroxene phenocrystals show normal zonation (high Mg# cores and low Mg# rims). In Amp-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxenes are generally homogenous in composition with minor variation of Mg# towards the rims. On the contrary, in Px-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxene macro phenocrystals show reverse zonation with the core with low Mg# and the rims with

  19. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: The Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE)

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Monica M.; Rusincovitch, Shelley A.; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C.; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Methods Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of “smart dimensions”, and dynamically-generated user interfaces. Results DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort “join” functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Conclusions Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source

  20. Concentrations of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in the free upper troposphere and lower stratosphere deduced from ATMOS/Spacelab 3 infrared solar occultation spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the volume mixing ratio profiles of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, deduced from the spectroscopic analysis of IR solar absorption spectra obtained in the occultation mode with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument during its mission aboard Spacelab 3. A comparison of the ATMOS measurements for both northern and southern latitudes with previous field investigations at low midlatitudes shows a relatively good agreement. Southern Hemisphere volume mixing ratio profiles for both molecules were obtained for the first time, as were the profiles for the Northern Hemisphere covering the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere simultaneously.

  1. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes. PMID:27490571

  2. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach)

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches. PMID:26821048

  3. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2016-08-02

    RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  4. New Life for a '30s Monument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Michael

    1980-01-01

    As part of a districtwide construction and renovation program in Everett (Washington) an Art Deco auditorium was refurbished, theater support facilities were expanded into an old gymnasium, and cafeteria space was rebuilt to house studios. (MLF)

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence and deduced polypeptide sequence of a nonmuscle myosin heavy chain gene from Acanthamoeba: evidence of a hinge in the rodlike tail

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have completely sequenced a gene encoding the heavy chain of myosin II, a nonmuscle myosin from the soil ameba Acanthamoeba castellanii. The gene spans 6 kb, is split by three small introns, and encodes a 1,509-residue heavy chain polypeptide. The positions of the three introns are largely conserved relative to characterized vertebrate and invertebrate muscle myosin genes. The deduced myosin II globular head amino acid sequence shows a high degree of similarity with the globular head sequences of the rat embryonic skeletal muscle and nematode unc 54 muscle myosins. By contrast, there is no unique way to align the deduced myosin II rod amino acid sequence with the rod sequence of these muscle myosins. Nevertheless, the periodicities of hydrophobic and charged residues in the myosin II rod sequence, which dictate the coiled-coil structure of the rod and its associations within the myosin filament, are very similar to those of the muscle myosins. We conclude that this ameba nonmuscle myosin shares with the muscle myosins of vertebrates and invertebrates an ancestral heavy chain gene. The low level of direct sequence similarity between the rod sequences of myosin II and muscle myosins probably reflects a general tolerance for residue changes in the rod domain (as long as the periodicities of hydrophobic and charged residues are largely maintained), the relative evolutionary "ages" of these myosins, and specific differences between the filament properties of myosin II and muscle myosins. Finally, sequence analysis and electron microscopy reveal the presence within the myosin II rodlike tail of a well-defined hinge region where sharp bending can occur. We speculate that this hinge may play a key role in mediating the effect of heavy chain phosphorylation on enzymatic activity. PMID:3040773

  6. New constraints on the rupture process of the 1999 August 17 Izmit earthquake deduced from estimates of stress glut rate moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clévédé, E.; Bouin, M.-P.; Bukchin, B.; Mostinskiy, A.; Patau, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper illustrates the use of integral estimates given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 for constraining the rupture scenario of a large earthquake in the particular case of the 1999 Izmit mainshock. We determine the integral estimates of the geometry, source duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 by inverting long-period surface wave (LPSW) amplitude spectra. Kinematic and static models of the Izmit earthquake published in the literature are quite different from one another. In order to extract the characteristic features of this event, we calculate the same integral estimates directly from those models and compare them with those deduced from our inversion. While the equivalent rupture zone and the eastward directivity are consistent among all models, the LPSW solution displays a strong unilateral character of the rupture associated with a short rupture duration that is not compatible with the solutions deduced from the published models. With the aim of understand this discrepancy, we use simple equivalent kinematic models to reproduce the integral estimates of the considered rupture processes (including ours) by adjusting a few free parameters controlling the western and eastern parts of the rupture. We show that the joint analysis of the LPSW solution and source tomographies allows us to elucidate the scattering of source processes published for this earthquake and to discriminate between the models. Our results strongly suggest that (1) there was significant moment released on the eastern segment of the activated fault system during the Izmit earthquake; (2) the apparent rupture velocity decreases on this segment.

  7. Deduced amino acid sequence, functional expression, and unique enzymatic properties of the form I and form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J M; Baker, S H; Lorbach, S C; Shively, J M; Tabita, F R

    1996-01-01

    The cbbL cbbS and cbbM genes of Thiobacillus denitrificans, encoding form I and form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), respectively, were found to complement a RubisCO-negative mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to autotrophic growth. Endogenous T. denitrificans promoters were shown to function in R. sphaeroides, resulting in high levels of cbbL cbbS and cbbM expression in the R. sphaeroides host. This expression system provided high levels of both T. denitrificans enzymes, each of which was highly purified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form I enzyme indicated that the large subunit was closely homologous to previously sequenced form I RubisCO enzymes from sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The form I T. denitrificans enzyme possessed a very low substrate specificity factor and did not exhibit fallover, and yet this enzyme showed a poor ability to recover from incubation with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form II T. denitrificans enzyme resembled those of other form II RubisCO enzymes. The substrate specificity factor was characteristically low, and the lack of fallover and the inhibition by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were similar to those of form II RubisCO obtained from nonsulfur purple bacteria. Both form I and form II RubisCO from T. denitrificans possessed high KCO2 values, suggesting that this organism might suffer in environments containing low levels of dissolved CO2. These studies present the initial description of the kinetic properties of form I and form II RubisCO from a chemoautotrophic bacterium that synthesizes both types of enzyme.

  8. Genetic makeup of the Corynebacterium glutamicum LexA regulon deduced from comparative transcriptomics and in vitro DNA band shift assays.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, Nina; Kurze, Anna-Katharina; Czaja, Lisa F; Brinkrolf, Karina; Brune, Iris; Hüser, Andrea T; Hansmeier, Nicole; Pühler, Alfred; Borovok, Ilya; Tauch, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    The lexA gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was deleted to create the mutant strain C. glutamicum NJ2114, which has an elongated cell morphology and an increased doubling time. To characterize the SOS regulon in C. glutamicum, the transcriptomes of NJ2114 and a DNA-damage-induced wild-type strain were compared with that of a wild-type control using DNA microarray hybridization. The expression data were combined with bioinformatic pattern searches for LexA binding sites, leading to the detection of 46 potential SOS boxes located upstream of differentially expressed transcription units. Binding of a hexahistidyl-tagged LexA protein to 40 double-stranded oligonucleotides containing the potential SOS boxes was demonstrated in vitro by DNA band shift assays. It turned out that LexA binds not only to SOS boxes in the promoter-operator region of upregulated genes, but also to SOS boxes detected upstream of downregulated genes. These results demonstrated that LexA controls directly the expression of at least 48 SOS genes organized in 36 transcription units. The deduced genes encode a variety of physiological functions, many of them involved in DNA repair and survival after DNA damage, but nearly half of them have hitherto unknown functions. Alignment of the LexA binding sites allowed the corynebacterial SOS box consensus sequence TcGAA(a/c)AnnTGTtCGA to be deduced. Furthermore, the common intergenic region of lexA and the differentially expressed divS-nrdR operon, encoding a cell division suppressor and a regulator of deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis, was characterized in detail. Promoter mapping revealed differences in divS-nrdR expression during SOS response and normal growth conditions. One of the four LexA binding sites detected in the intergenic region is involved in regulating divS-nrdR transcription, whereas the other sites are apparently used for negative autoregulation of lexA expression.

  9. Deduced amino acid sequence, functional expression, and unique enzymatic properties of the form I and form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from the chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, J M; Baker, S H; Lorbach, S C; Shively, J M; Tabita, F R

    1996-01-01

    The cbbL cbbS and cbbM genes of Thiobacillus denitrificans, encoding form I and form II ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), respectively, were found to complement a RubisCO-negative mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to autotrophic growth. Endogenous T. denitrificans promoters were shown to function in R. sphaeroides, resulting in high levels of cbbL cbbS and cbbM expression in the R. sphaeroides host. This expression system provided high levels of both T. denitrificans enzymes, each of which was highly purified. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form I enzyme indicated that the large subunit was closely homologous to previously sequenced form I RubisCO enzymes from sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The form I T. denitrificans enzyme possessed a very low substrate specificity factor and did not exhibit fallover, and yet this enzyme showed a poor ability to recover from incubation with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the form II T. denitrificans enzyme resembled those of other form II RubisCO enzymes. The substrate specificity factor was characteristically low, and the lack of fallover and the inhibition by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were similar to those of form II RubisCO obtained from nonsulfur purple bacteria. Both form I and form II RubisCO from T. denitrificans possessed high KCO2 values, suggesting that this organism might suffer in environments containing low levels of dissolved CO2. These studies present the initial description of the kinetic properties of form I and form II RubisCO from a chemoautotrophic bacterium that synthesizes both types of enzyme. PMID:8550452

  10. Evolution of the Storm Magnetic Field Disturbance on Earth's Surface and the Associated Ring Current as Deduced from Multiple Ground Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Zeng, Gang; Li, Xinlin; Rong, Zhaojin

    2014-05-01

    Based on the continuous magnetic field measurements of the multiple ground observatories, the structure of the geomagnetic field disturbance and its temporal variations have been investigated, so as to deduce the evolution of the storm ring current. Assuming the geomagnetic field disturbance around Earth is linear in space, the gradient of the corrected H component is obtained from the multiple ground observations. It is found that, the maximum difference of the corrected H component around the Earth surface, as calculated by the gradient of the corrected H component multiplied by the Earth diameter, well represents the asymmetric index Asy-H, but is actually more sensitive to the substorm activities than the Asy-H index. The anti-direction of the gradient of the corrected H component may be regarded as pointing to the position of the maximum partial ring current. It is shown that, for the ordinary storms (Dst>-200nT) (which may be caused by CIRs, long lasting fast solar wind flows, or prolonged south IMF, etc), the maximum partial ring current is located around the duskside during the main phase and the earlier stage of the recovery phase. At the later stage of the recovery phase, the position of the maximum partial ring current keeps rotating eastward, indicating the energetic electrons may play a significant role and the main ring current carriers may be the electrons at this stage. For the severe storms (Dst<-200nT), the position of the maximum partial ring current is not so regular, and there is the evidence that the injected electrons may contribute significantly to the ring current during the main phase of supper storms. Based on physical considerations, this investigation also provides new definitions to the symmetric index Sym-H and asymmetric index Asy-H. It is made possible that, the symmetric index Sym-H and asymmetric index Asy-H may be deduced from the measurements of the geomagnetic observatories located at local but not global area on Earth.

  11. Imputation approach for deducing a complete mitogenome sequence from low-depth-coverage next-generation sequencing data: application to ancient remains from the Moon Pyramid, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Fuzuki; Kumagai, Masahiko; Kurosaki, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Michiko; Sugiyama, Saburo; Ueda, Shintaroh; Wang, Li

    2017-02-16

    It is considered that more than 15 depths of coverage are necessary for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to obtain reliable complete nucleotide sequences of the mitogenome. However, it is difficult to satisfy this requirement for all nucleotide positions because of problems obtaining a uniform depth of coverage for poorly preserved materials. Thus, we propose an imputation approach that allows a complete mitogenome sequence to be deduced from low-depth-coverage NGS data. We used different types of mitogenome data files as panels for imputation: a worldwide panel comprising all the major haplogroups, a worldwide panel comprising sequences belonging to the estimated haplogroup alone, a panel comprising sequences from the population most closely related to an individual under investigation, and a panel comprising sequences belonging to the estimated haplogroup from the population most closely related to an individual under investigation. The number of missing nucleotides was drastically reduced in all the panels, but the contents obtained by imputation were quite different among the panels. The efficiency of the imputation method differed according to the panels used. The missing nucleotides were most credibly imputed using sequences of the estimated haplogroup from the population most closely related to the individual under investigation as a panel.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 16 February 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.14.

  12. Experimental and data analysis techniques for deducing collision-induced forces from photographic histories of engine rotor fragment impact/interaction with a containment ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeghiayan, R. P.; Leech, J. W.; Witmer, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis method termed TEJ-JET is described whereby measured transient elastic and inelastic deformations of an engine-rotor fragment-impacted structural ring are analyzed to deduce the transient external forces experienced by that ring as a result of fragment impact and interaction with the ring. Although the theoretical feasibility of the TEJ-JET concept was established, its practical feasibility when utilizing experimental measurements of limited precision and accuracy remains to be established. The experimental equipment and the techniques (high-speed motion photography) employed to measure the transient deformations of fragment-impacted rings are described. Sources of error and data uncertainties are identified. Techniques employed to reduce data reading uncertainties and to correct the data for optical-distortion effects are discussed. These procedures, including spatial smoothing of the deformed ring shape by Fourier series and timewise smoothing by Gram polynomials, are applied illustratively to recent measurements involving the impact of a single T58 turbine rotor blade against an aluminum containment ring. Plausible predictions of the fragment-ring impact/interaction forces are obtained by one branch of this TEJ-JET method; however, a second branch of this method, which provides an independent estimate of these forces, remains to be evaluated.

  13. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2016-08-29

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level.

  14. Structure of LEP100, a glycoprotein that shuttles between lysosomes and the plasma membrane, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the encoding cDNA

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    LEP100, a membrane glycoprotein that has the unique property of shuttling from lysosomes to endosomes to plasma membrane and back, was purified from chicken brain. Its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was determined, and an oligonucleotide encoding part of this sequence was used to clone the encoding cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 414 residues of which the NH2-terminal 18 constitute a signal peptide. The sequence includes 17 sites for N-glycosylation in the NH2-terminal 75% of the polypeptide chain followed by a region lacking N-linked oligosaccharides, a single possible membrane-spanning segment, and a cytoplasmic domain of 11 residues, including three potential phosphorylation sites. Eight cysteine residues are spaced in a regular pattern through the lumenal (extracellular) domain, while a 32-residue sequence rich in proline, serine, and threonine occurs at its midpoint. Expression of the cDNA in mouse L cells resulted in targeting of LEP100 primarily to the mouse lysosomes. PMID:3339090

  15. Metabolic Switches and Adaptations Deduced from the Proteomes of Streptomyces coelicolor Wild Type and phoP Mutant Grown in Batch Culture*

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Louise; Hodgson, David A.; Wentzel, Alexander; Nieselt, Kay; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Moore, Jonathan; Morrissey, Edward R.; Legaie, Roxane; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F.; Burroughs, Nigel J.; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.; Smith, Margaret C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Streptomyces are soil-dwelling oligotrophs and important producers of secondary metabolites. Previously, we showed that global messenger RNA expression was subject to a series of metabolic and regulatory switches during the lifetime of a fermentor batch culture of Streptomyces coelicolor M145. Here we analyze the proteome from eight time points from the same fermentor culture and, because phosphate availability is an important regulator of secondary metabolite production, compare this to the proteome of a similar time course from an S. coelicolor mutant, INB201 (ΔphoP), defective in the control of phosphate utilization. The proteomes provide a detailed view of enzymes involved in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Trends in protein expression over the time courses were deduced from a protein abundance index, which also revealed the importance of stress pathway proteins in both cultures. As expected, the ΔphoP mutant was deficient in expression of PhoP-dependent genes, and several putatively compensatory metabolic and regulatory pathways for phosphate scavenging were detected. Notably there is a succession of switches that coordinately induce the production of enzymes for five different secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways over the course of the batch cultures. PMID:22147733

  16. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry in transition from equatorial plasma bubble to blob as deduced from 630.0 nm airglow observations at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeheung; Martinis, Carlos R.; Lühr, Hermann; Pfaff, Robert F.; Kwak, Young-Sil

    2016-01-01

    Transitions from depletions to enhancements of 630.0 nm nighttime airglow have been observed at Arecibo. Numerical simulations by Krall et al. (2009) predicted that they should occur only in one hemisphere, which has not yet been confirmed observationally. In this study we investigate the hemispheric conjugacy of the depletion-to-enhancement transition using multiple instruments. We focus on one event observed in the American longitude sector on 22 December 2014: 630.0 nm airglow depletions evolved into enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere while the evolution did not occur in the conjugate location in the Southern Hemisphere. Concurrent plasma density measured by low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and 777.4 nm airglow images support that the depletions and enhancements of 630.0 nm nighttime airglow reflect plasma density decreases and increases (blobs), respectively. Characteristics of the airglow depletions, in the context of the LEO satellite data, further suggest that the plasma density depletion deduced from the airglow data represents equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) rather than medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances from midlatitudes. Hence, the event in this study can be interpreted as EPB-to-blob transition.

  18. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a subtilisin-like serine protease from a deep-sea bacterium, Alkalimonas collagenimarina AC40(T).

    PubMed

    Kurata, Atsushi; Uchimura, Kohsuke; Shimamura, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tohru; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-11-01

    The acpI gene encoding an alkaline protease (AcpI) from a deep-sea bacterium, Alkalimonas collagenimarina AC40(T), was shotgun-cloned and sequenced. It had a 1,617-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 538 amino acids. Based on analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence, AcpI is a subtilisin-like serine protease belonging to subtilase family A. It consists of a prepropeptide, a catalytic domain, and a prepeptidase C-terminal domain like other serine proteases from the genera Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Alteromonas, and Xanthomonas. Heterologous expression of the acpI gene in Escherichia coli cells yielded a 28-kDa recombinant AcpI (rAcpI), suggesting that both the prepropeptide and prepeptidase C-terminal domains were cleaved off to give the mature form. Analysis of N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of purified rAcpI showed that the mature enzyme would be composed of 273 amino acids. The optimal pH and temperature for the caseinolytic activity of the purified rAcpI were 9.0-9.5 and 45 degrees C in 100 mM glycine-NaOH buffer. Calcium ions slightly enhanced the enzyme activity and stability. The enzyme favorably hydrolyzed gelatin, collagen, and casein. AcpI from A. collagenimarina AC40(T) was also purified from culture broth, and its molecular mass was around 28 kDa, indicating that the cleavage manner of the enzyme is similar to that in E. coli cells.

  19. How to deduce and teach the logical and unambiguous answer, namely L = ∑C, to “What is Life?” using the principles of communication?

    PubMed Central

    De Loof, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to understand the very nature of ‘Life’ and ‘Death’ based on contemporary biology? The usual spontaneous reaction is: “No way. Life is far too complicated. It involves both material- and an immaterial dimensions, and this combination exceeds the capacities of the human brain.” In this paper, a fully contrarian stand is taken. Indeed it will be shown that without invoking any unknown principle(s) unambiguous definitions can be logically deduced. The key? First ask the right questions. Next, thoroughly imbue contemporary biology with the principles of communication, including both its ‘hardware’ and its ‘software’ aspects. An integrative yet simple principle emerges saying that: 1. All living matter is invariably organized as sender-receiver compartments that incessantly handle and transfer information (= communicate); 2. The ‘communicating compartment’ is better suited to serve as universal unit of structure, function and evolution than ‘the (prokaryotic) cell’, the smallest such unit; 3. ‘Living matter’ versus ‘non-living’ are false opposites while ‘still alive’ and ‘just not alive anymore’ are true opposites; 4. ‘Death’ ensues when a given sender-receiver compartment irreversibly loses its ability to handle information at its highest level of compartmental organization; 5. The verb ‘Life’ (L) denotes nothing else than the total sum (∑) of all acts of communication (C) executed by a sender-receiver at all its levels of compartmental organization: L = ∑C; 6. Any act of communication is a problem-solving act; 6. Any Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) should have the definition of Life at its core. PMID:27064373

  20. Deducing the molecular properties of zwitterionic, protonated, deprotonated, and double-deprotonated forms of L-cysteine from vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman, VCD) and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moreno, María Mar; Avilés-Moreno, Juan Ramón; Márquez-García, A A; López-González, Juan Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of L-cysteine (C3H7NO2S, (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid) in water at different pH values was analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The behavior was studied at pH values of 5.21 (at this pH, L-cysteine is a zwitterionic species), 1.00 (protonated species), 8.84 (monodeprotonated species), and 13.00 (dideprotonated species). We carried out a vibrational study using nonchiroptical (IR-Raman) and chiroptical (VCD) techniques complemented by quantum chemical calculations. We adopted a dual strategy, as follows. (i) The hybrid density functionals B3LYP and M062X and the ab initio MP2 method were employed, with the same 6-311++G (d,p) basis set, in order to characterize the relative energies and structures of an extensive set of conformers of L-cysteine. The presence of water was included by utilizing the IEF-PCM implicit solvation model. (ii) The vibrational analysis was made using a chirality-sensitive using a chirality-sensitive technique (VCD) and chirality-insensitive techniques (IR, including MIR and FIR, and Raman), especially in aqueous solution. The results obtained theoretically and experimentally were compared in order to deduce the most stable structures at each pH. Moreover, for the first time, the monodeprotonated anion of L-cysteine was detected in aqueous solution by means of IR, Raman and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). Finally, analysis of the low-frequency region using the IR and Raman techniques was shown to be a very important way to understanding the conformational preference of the zwitterionic species.

  1. Sequence and tissue distribution of a second protein of hepatic gap junctions, Cx26, as deduced from its cDNA

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    While a number of different gap junction proteins have now been identified, hepatic gap junctions are unique in being the first demonstrated case where two homologous, but distinct, proteins (28,000 and 21,000 Mr) are found within a single gap junctional plaque (Nicholson, B. J., R. Dermietzel, D. Teplow, O. Traub, K. Willecke, and J.-P. Revel. 1987. Nature [Lond.]. 329:732-734). The cDNA for the major 28,000-Mr component has been cloned (Paul, D. L. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:123-134) (Kumar, N. M., and N. B. Gilula. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:767-776) and, based on its deduced formula weight of 32,007, has been designated connexin 32 (or Cx32 as used here). We now report the selection and characterization of clones for the second 21,000-Mr protein using an oligonucleotide derived from the amino-terminal protein sequence. Together the cDNAs represent 2.4 kb of the single 2.5- kb message detected in Northern blots. An open reading frame of 678 bp coding for a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 26,453 D was identified. Overall sequence homology with Cx32 and Cx43 (64 and 51% amino acid identities, respectively) and a similar predicted tertiary structure confirm that this protein forms part of the connexin family and is consequently referred to as Cx26. Consistent with observations on Cx43 (Beyer, E. C., D. L. Paul, and D. A. Goodenough. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2621-2629) the most marked divergence between Cx26 and other members of the family lies in the sequence of the cytoplasmic domains. The Cx26 gene is present as a single copy per haploid genome in rat and, based on Southern blots, appears to contain at least one intron outside the open reading frame. Northern blots indicate that Cx32 and Cx26 are typically coexpressed, messages for both having been identified in liver, kidney, intestine, lung, spleen, stomach, testes, and brain, but not heart and adult skeletal muscle. This raises the interesting prospect of having differential modes of regulating

  2. Impact delivery of organic matter on the acapulcoite-lodranite parent-body deduced from C, N isotopes and nanostructures of carbon phases in Acapulco and Lodran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, E.; Aléon, J.; Rouzaud, J.-N.

    2014-10-01

    Lodran. Carbon phases in Lodran would have been formed by the secondary carbonization of hydrocarbon fluids released during the primary carbonization of IOM. In the framework of this model, the C isotopic compositions can be reproduced using Rayleigh distillation at each carbonization step and the N isotopic compositions can be understood as resulting from the variable loss and preservation of 15N-rich nitriles (δ15N ∼ +800‰) and 15N-poor pyrroles (δ15N = -140‰) during carbonization. The combined interpretation of the temperatures deduced from this model, petrographic cooling rates, and thermochronological indicators suggest that the CI-CM IOM could have been introduced in the parent-body by an impact, about 10 Myr after solar system formation.

  3. On a Riesz basis of exponentials related to the eigenvalues of an analytic operator and application to a non-selfadjoint problem deduced from a perturbation method for sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouz, Hanen; Feki, Ines; Jeribi, Aref

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, we prove that the family of exponentials associated to the eigenvalues of the perturbed operator T(ɛ) ≔ T0 + ɛT1 + ɛ2T2 + … + ɛkTk + … forms a Riesz basis in L2(0, T), T > 0, where \\varepsilon in {C}, T0 is a closed densely defined linear operator on a separable Hilbert space H with domain D(T_0) having isolated eigenvalues with multiplicity one, while T1, T2, … are linear operators on H having the same domain Dsupset D(T_0) and satisfying a specific growing inequality. After that, we generalize this result using a H-Lipschitz function. As application, we consider a non-selfadjoint problem deduced from a perturbation method for sound radiation.

  4. On a Riesz basis of exponentials related to the eigenvalues of an analytic operator and application to a non-selfadjoint problem deduced from a perturbation method for sound radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellouz, Hanen; Feki, Ines; Jeribi, Aref

    2013-11-15

    In the present paper, we prove that the family of exponentials associated to the eigenvalues of the perturbed operator T(ε) ≔ T{sub 0} + εT{sub 1} + ε{sup 2}T{sub 2} + … + ε{sup k}T{sub k} + … forms a Riesz basis in L{sup 2}(0, T), T > 0, where ε∈C, T{sub 0} is a closed densely defined linear operator on a separable Hilbert space H with domain D(T{sub 0}) having isolated eigenvalues with multiplicity one, while T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, … are linear operators on H having the same domain D⊃D(T{sub 0}) and satisfying a specific growing inequality. After that, we generalize this result using a H-Lipschitz function. As application, we consider a non-selfadjoint problem deduced from a perturbation method for sound radiation.

  5. Deducing dust emission mechanisms from field measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field observations are needed to both develop and test theories on dust emission for use in global modeling systems. The mechanism of dust emission (aerodynamic entrainment, saltation bombardment, aggregate disintegration) and the amount and particle-size distribution of emitted dust may vary under ...

  6. Deducing a mechanism of all musculoskeletal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Verrall, Geoffrey; Dolman, Bronwyn

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The mechanism of musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries is not well understood. This research applies principles of elastic motion to the anatomy and movement patterns of MSK structures. From this an insight into the application and timing of forces on MSK structures can be established and the mechanism/s of injury derived. Methods (Current Knowledge) All MSK structures demonstrate varying degrees of elasticity. Movement occurs primarily as a consequence of Muscle Tendon Unit (MTU) shortening. The application of an applied external force results in MSK structure lengthening. Results The MTU acts as a non-idealised Hookean Spring. The resting length of MSK structures is the minimum distance between attachment points. The anatomical constraints results in MSK structures having adequate compressive strength during shortening. Thus MSK injuries only occur during lengthening of the MSK structure. From this with knowledge of MSK movement cycles, we can derive the mechanism of injury. Conclusions MSK injuries result from an inability to counter applied forces whilst lengthening. Muscles, tendons and ligaments can only injure during their lengthening contraction phase. Insertional tendons and bone near attachment points injure during the MTU shortening phase. Injuries to other MSK structures can occur independent of the lengthening and shortening phases such as direct contact injuries. PMID:27900289

  7. Deducing behaviors from primitive movement attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Danzhou; Hughes, Charles E.

    2005-03-01

    The research reported here anticipates the future of smart buildings by developing algorithms that categorize the movements of individuals based on such characteristics as motion vectors, velocity vectors, head orientation vectors and predetermined positions. The intended applications include detecting intrusions, helping lost visitors, and changing the artwork on virtual posters to reflect an individual's presumed interests. The vectors we capture represent trajectories in a multi-dimensional space. To make sense out of these, we first segment a trajectory into sub-trajectories, typically based on time. To describe each sub-trajectory, we use primitive patterns of body movement and additional information, e.g., average speed during this interval, head movement and place or object nearby. That is, for each sub-trajectory, we use a tuple of the following form: (interval_ID, body_movement, avg_speed, head_movement, places_passed). Since trajectories may have many outliers introduced by sensor failures or uneven human movement, we have developed a neural network-based pattern extraction subsystem that can handle intervals with noisy data. The choice of these attributes and our current classification of behaviors do not imply that these are the only or best ways to categorize behaviors. However, we do not see that as the focus of the research reported here. Rather, our goal is to show that the use of primitive attributes (low level), neural networks to identify categories of recognizable simple behaviors (middle level) and a regular expression-based means of describing intent (high level) is sufficient to provide a means to convert observable low-level attributes into the recognition of potential intents.

  8. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Climatologies of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the Unites States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. An altitude offset was applied to the sonde data to account for the slow response time of the ozone sensors. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with

  9. Long-term changes in UT/LS ozone between the late 1970s and the 1990s deduced from the GASP and MOZAIC aircraft programs and from ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; de Backer, H.; Stübi, R.

    2009-07-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s to compare them with respective measurements of the ongoing MOZAIC project. Multi-annual averages of UT/LS ozone were built using the aircraft data sets (1975-1979 and 1994-2001), and long-term changes between the 1970s and 1990s were derived by comparison. The data were binned relative to the dynamical tropopause to separate between UT and LS air masses. LS data were analysed using equivalent latitudes. In the UT, pronounced increases of 20-40% are found over the Middle East and South Asia in the spring and summer seasons. Increases are also found over Japan, Europe, and the eastern parts of the United States depending on season. LS ozone over northern mid- and high latitudes was found to be lower in the 1990s compared to the 1970s in all seasons of the year. In addition, a comparison with long-term changes deduced from ozonesondes is presented. The early 1970s European Brewer-Mast (BM) sonde data agree with GASP within the range of uncertainty (UT) or measured slightly less ozone (LS). In contrast, the 1990s BM sensors show consistently and significantly higher UT/LS ozone values than MOZAIC. This unequal behaviour of aircraft/sonde comparisons in the 1970s and 1990s leads to differences in the estimated long-term changes over Europe: while the comparison between GASP and MOZAIC indicates ozone changes of -5% to 10% over Europe, the sondes suggest a much larger increase of 10%-35% depending on station and season, although statistical significance is not conclusive due to data sample limitations. In contrast to the BM sondes, the Electrochemical Cell (ECC) sonde at Wallops Island, USA, measured higher UT ozone than both GASP and MOZAIC. Hence, long-term changes from GASP/MOZAIC agree within the range of uncertainty with the changes deduced from Wallops Island.

  10. Mass Measurements for the rp Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankainen, Anu; Canete, Laetitia; Eronen, Tommi; Gorelov, Dmitry; Hakala, Jani; Jokinen, Ari; Kolhinen, Veli S.; Koponen, Jukka; Moore, Iain D.; Nesterenko, Dimitrii; Reinikainen, Juuso; Rinta-Antila, Sami; Äystö, Juha

    One of the key parameters for the reaction network calculations for the rapid proton capture (rp) process, occurring e.g., in type I X-ray bursts, are the masses of the involved nuclei. Nowadays, masses of even rather exotic nuclei can be measured very precisely employing Penning-trap mass spectrometry. With the JYFLTRAP Penning trap at the IGISOL facility, masses of around 100 neutron-deficient nuclei have been determined with a typical precision of a few keV. Most recently, 25Al, 30P, 31Cl, and 52Co have been measured. Of these, the precision of the mass-excess value of 31Cl was improved from 50 to 3.4 keV, and the mass of 52Co was experimentally determined for the first time. The mass of 31Cl is relevant for estimating the waiting-point conditions for 30S as the 31Cl(γ, p)30S-30S(p, γ)31Cl equilibrium ratio depends exponentially on the Q value. For 52Co, located at the path towards 56Ni, a deviation from the extrapolated mass value has been revealed. In this contribution, recent JYFLTRAP experiments for the rp process will be discussed.

  11. L'evaluation des programmes d'etudes au Quebec. Etude de cas: Les programmes des techniques d'education en services de garde au Cegep de Saint-Jerome (The Evaluation of Programs of Study in Quebec. Case Study: Child Care Education Programs in CEGEP Saint Jerome).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quebec Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching (Quebec).

    Providing a case study of instructional organization and evaluation processes in Quebec's "Colleges d'enseignement general et professionnel" (CEGEPs), this report describes the provincial Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching and a 1994 evaluation of "Techniques d'education en services de garde" (TESG), or child…

  12. Density functional theory-based simulations of sum frequency generation spectra involving methyl stretching vibrations: effect of the molecular model on the deduced molecular orientation and comparison with an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchet, F.; Lis, D.; Caudano, Y.; Mani, A. A.; Peremans, A.; Champagne, B.; Guthmuller, J.

    2012-03-01

    The knowledge of the first hyperpolarizability tensor elements of molecular groups is crucial for a quantitative interpretation of the sum frequency generation (SFG) activity of thin organic films at interfaces. Here, the SFG response of the terminal methyl group of a dodecanethiol (DDT) monolayer has been interpreted on the basis of calculations performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level of approximation. In particular, DFT calculations have been carried out on three classes of models for the aliphatic chains. The first class of models consists of aliphatic chains, containing from 3 to 12 carbon atoms, in which only one methyl group can freely vibrate, while the rest of the chain is frozen by a strong overweight of its C and H atoms. This enables us to localize the probed vibrational modes on the methyl group. In the second class, only one methyl group is frozen, while the entire remaining chain is allowed to vibrate. This enables us to analyse the influence of the aliphatic chain on the methyl stretching vibrations. Finally, the dodecanethiol (DDT) molecule is considered, for which the effects of two dielectrics, i.e. n-hexane and n-dodecane, are investigated. Moreover, DDT calculations are also carried out by using different exchange-correlation (XC) functionals in order to assess the DFT approximations. Using the DFT IR vectors and Raman tensors, the SFG spectrum of DDT has been simulated and the orientation of the methyl group has then been deduced and compared with that obtained using an analytical approach based on a bond additivity model. This analysis shows that when using DFT molecular properties, the predicted orientation of the terminal methyl group tends to converge as a function of the alkyl chain length and that the effects of the chain as well as of the dielectric environment are small. Instead, a more significant difference is observed when comparing the DFT-based results with those obtained from the analytical approach, thus indicating

  13. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  14. Polyphyletism of Celastrales deduced from a chloroplast noncoding DNA region.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, V; Spichiger, R; Manen, J F

    1997-04-01

    In a previous study we examined the phylogeny of four families related to the angiosperm order Celastrales based on chloroplast rbcL 5' flanking sequences. We have added here several additional dicots, sampled from 6 of the 7 families of Celastrales sensu Cronquist and 19 putatively related genera. Based on a cladistic analysis of these DNA sequences, the order Celastrales appears polyphyletic: it is here restricted to Celastraceae (including Hippocrateaceae and Brexia) with Parnassia as sister; Aquifoliaceae plus Helwingia are included in Asteridae. Neither Salvadoraceae nor Geissolomataceae, Icacinaceae, Phellinaceae, Aextoxicaceae, Corynocarpaceae, Dichapetalaceae, Stackhousiaceae, or Goupiaceae are related to Celastrales. The usefulness of this noncoding region is discussed and the influence of the A + T content of neighboring bases on the increase of transversions is also observed as previously shown in chloroplast noncoding regions of monocots.

  15. Rain patterns motion over a region deduced from radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlina, A.

    1986-04-01

    The knowledge of spatial and temporal evolution of precipitation patterns becomes important in the design of communication systems operating at the frequencies above 10 GHz (SHF) that have to counteract the attenuation by rain. One year of ground rain data obtained from weather radar measurements performed near Milan in Italy is analyzed to find out the preferential directions of motion of precipitation patterns over the observed region. The pattern motion is estimated by means of the cross-correlation procedure applied to 461 pairs of ground rain maps 18 minutes apart, originating from 88 separate rain events. The average velocity field of pattern displacement is found, showing an evident polarization towards east directions. The results may be seen as a contribution to the radio-climatological characterization of the region, aimed to improve rain-attenuation models required in the engineering of the SHF systems.

  16. Paleorecharge by the Niger River (Mali) deduced from groundwater geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fontes, J.C. ); Andrews, J.N. ); Edmunds, W.M. ); Guerre, A. ); Travi, Y. )

    1991-02-01

    Stable isotopes, major elements, trace elements, and noble gases in groundwater from northern Mali permit a reconstruction of the paleohydrology of the Sahelian and sub-Saharan regions of west Africa. Major floods of the Niger River during the more humid episodes of the Holocene, probably associated with northward migration of the interior river delta (flood zone), were responsible for groundwater recharge. A marine aerosol input, somewhat modified by rock-water interaction, dominates the groundwater chemistry. stable isotope compositions distinguish the Saharan zone groundwater from waters recharged in the Sahelian zone south of the Azaouad ridge. Carbon 14 dating shows that whereas the latter are modern, the Saharan zone was recharged in the Early to Middle Holocene. Nobel gas contents suggest that recharge north of Azaouad occurred under cooler climatic conditions than presently prevail.

  17. Habitat-specific foraging of prothonotary warblers: Deducing habitat quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Foraging behavior often reflects food availability in predictable ways. For example, in habitats where food availability is high, predators should attack prey more often and move more slowly than in habitats where food availability is low. To assess relative food availability and habitat quality, I studied the foraging behavior of breeding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in two forest habitat types, cypress-gum swamp forest and coastal-plain levee forest. I quantified foraging behavior with focal animal sampling and continuous recording during foraging bouts. I measured two aspects of foraging behavior: 1) prey attack rate (attacks per minute), using four attack maneuvers (glean, sally, hover, strike), and 2) foraging speed (movements per minute), using three types of movement (hop, short flight [???1 m], long flight [>1 m]). Warblers attacked prey more often in cypress-gum swamp forest than in coastal-plain levee forest. Foraging speed, however, was not different between habitats. I also measured foraging effort (% time spent foraging) and relative frequency of attack maneuvers employed in each habitat; neither of these variables was influenced by forest type. I conclude that Prothonotary Warblers encounter more prey when foraging in cypress-gum swamps than in coastal-plain levee forest, and that greater food availability results in higher density and greater reproductive success for birds breeding in cypress-gum swamp.

  18. Deducing acidification rates based on short-term time series

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Hon-Kit; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2015-01-01

    We show that, statistically, the simple linear regression (SLR)-determined rate of temporal change in seawater pH (βpH), the so-called acidification rate, can be expressed as a linear combination of a constant (the estimated rate of temporal change in pH) and SLR-determined rates of temporal changes in other variables (deviation largely due to various sampling distributions), despite complications due to different observation durations and temporal sampling distributions. Observations show that five time series data sets worldwide, with observation times from 9 to 23 years, have yielded βpH values that vary from 1.61 × 10−3 to −2.5 × 10−3 pH unit yr−1. After correcting for the deviation, these data now all yield an acidification rate similar to what is expected under the air-sea CO2 equilibrium (−1.6 × 10−3 ~ −1.8 × 10−3 pH unit yr−1). Although long-term time series stations may have evenly distributed datasets, shorter time series may suffer large errors which are correctable by this method. PMID:26143749

  19. Climate change deduced from isotopes in tree rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pendall, E.G.; Leavitt, S.W.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the theory of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopic signatures in cellulose for the purpose of paleoclimatic reconstruction. Mechanisms governing tree ring cellulose isotopic variability are investigated, and applications to the southwestern United States are delineated. A monitoring program of pinyon trees and comparison to climatic parameters is briefly described. Variables measured included deviations in hydrogen and oxygen-18 isotopic composition in precipitation, soil water, stem and leaf water, and atmospheric vapor. Water from phloem tissue was found to be isotopically identical to the xylem sap, suggesting that cellulose precursors can exchange isotopically with source water before cellulose is made in the trunk, thus removing most of the isotopic signal from the leaves. Overall results suggest that, on arid sites in the southwestern US receiving adequate summer rain, a precipitation seasonality signal may be recorded. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere deduced from geoid observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the GEOS-3 and SEASAT Satellites provided a very accurate geoid map over the oceans. Broad bathymetric features in the oceans such as oceanic swells and plateaus are fully compensated. It is shown that the geoid anomalies due to the density structures of the lithosphere are proportional to the first moment of the density distribution. The deepening of the ocean basins is attributed to thermal isostasy. The thickness of the oceanic lithosphere increases with age due to the loss of heat to the sea floor. Bathymetry and the geoid provide constraints on the extent of this heat loss. Offsets in the geoid across major fracture zones can also be used to constrain this problem. Geoid bathymetry correlations show that the Hawaiian and Bermuda swells and the Cape Verde Rise are probably due to lithospheric thinning.

  1. Tracer transport by the diabatic circulation deduced from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Garcia, R. R.; Grose, W.

    1986-01-01

    Nimbus-7 sensor data were used to track the diabatic circulation in the stratosphere to study the advective transport of CH4 and N2O as tracer species. Advective transport by the mean circulation was found to be a function of the temperature field and associated deviations from radiative equilibrium. A photochemical model was applied to account for the disappearance of the tracer species from the stratosphere. Comparisons between the SAMS data and modeling on the basis of the chemical loss rates of the tracers and the LIMS circulation data showed that the model predictions underestimated the resident abundances, although the global distributions and circulations exhibited a good match.

  2. Deducing trapdoor primitives in public key encryption schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Chandra

    2005-03-01

    Semantic security of public key encryption schemes is often interchangeable with the art of building trapdoors. In the frame of reference of Random Oracle methodology, the "Key Privacy" and "Anonymity" has often been discussed. However to a certain degree the security of most public key encryption schemes is required to be analyzed with formal proofs using one-way functions. This paper evaluates the design of El Gamal and RSA based schemes and attempts to parallelize the trapdoor primitives used in the computation of the cipher text, thereby magnifying the decryption error δp in the above schemes.

  3. Deduced Inference in the Analysis of Experimental Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Any set of confidence interval inferences on J - 1 linearly independent contrasts on J means, such as the two comparisons [mu][subscript 1] - [mu][subscript 2] and [mu][subscript 2] - [mu][subscript 3] on 3 means, provides a basis for the deduction of interval inferences on all other contrasts, such as the redundant comparison [mu][subscript 1] -…

  4. Vegetation density as deduced from ERTS-1 MSS response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Richardson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Reflectance from vegetation increases with increasing vegetation density in the 0.75- to 1.35 micron wavelength interval. Therefore, ERTS-1 bands 6 (0.7 to 0.8 micron) and 7 (0.8 to 1.1 micron) contain information that should relate to the probable yield of crops and the animal carrying capacity of rangeland. The results of an experiment designed specifically to test the relations among leaf area index (LAI), plant population, plant cover and plant height, and the ERTS-1 MSS responses for 3 corn, 10 sorghum, and 10 cotton fields are given. Plant population was as useful as LAI for characterizing the sorghum and corn fields, and plant height was as good as LAI for characterizing cotton fields. These findings generally support the utility of ERTS-1 data for explaining variability in green biomass, harvestable forage and other indicators of productivity.

  5. Deducing chemical structure from crystallographically determined atomic coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Ian J.; Shields, Gregory P.; Taylor, Robin

    2011-01-01

    An improved algorithm has been developed for assigning chemical structures to incoming entries to the Cambridge Structural Database, using only the information available in the deposited CIF. Steps in the algorithm include detection of bonds, selection of polymer unit, resolution of disorder, and assignment of bond types and formal charges. The chief difficulty is posed by the large number of metallo-organic crystal structures that must be processed, given our aspiration that assigned chemical structures should accurately reflect properties such as the oxidation states of metals and redox-active ligands, metal coordination numbers and hapticities, and the aromaticity or otherwise of metal ligands. Other complications arise from disorder, especially when it is symmetry imposed or modelled with the SQUEEZE algorithm. Each assigned structure is accompanied by an estimate of reliability and, where necessary, diagnostic information indicating probable points of error. Although the algorithm was written to aid building of the Cambridge Structural Database, it has the potential to develop into a general-purpose tool for adding chemical information to newly determined crystal structures. PMID:21775812

  6. Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Mcpeters, Richard D.; Herman, Jay R.; Bloomfield, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to + or - 1.3 percent (2-sigma) relative to the data at the beginning of the record. A statistical model, including terms for seasonal variation, linear trend, quasi-biennial oscillation, solar cycle and second-order autoregressive noise has been fit to the TOMS time series of total ozone data. The linear trend obtained when this statistical model is fit to the TOMS data averaged between 65 N and 65 S latitudes is -0.26 + or - 0.14 percent/year or -3 percent over the 11.6 year time period from November 1978 to May 1990. The trend is near zero (0.0002 + or - 0.2 percent/year) at the equator and increases toward both poles.

  7. Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; McPeters, R.D.; Herman, J.R. ); Bloomfield, P. )

    1991-06-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 satellite has been measuring the total column amount of ozone over the globe for more than 11 years. Recent improvements in the data analysis have led to a technique for determining and removing drift in the calibration such that the data at the end of the record are precise to {plus minus} 1.3% (2{sigma}) relative to the data at the beginning of the record. A statistical model, including terms for seasonal variation, linear trend, quasi-biennial oscillation, solar cycle and second-order autoregressive noise has been fit to the TOMS time series of total ozone data. The linear trend obtained when this statistical model is fit to the TOMS data averaged between 65N and 65S latitudes is {minus}0.26 {plus minus} 0.14%/year or {minus}3% over the 11.6 year time period from November, 1978 through May, 1990. The trend is near zero (0.0002 {plus minus} 0.2%/year) at the equator and increases towards both poles. At 50N the annually averaged trend is {minus}0.5 {plus minus} .21%/year. The 50N trend over the 11.6 year time period shows a strong seasonal variation from more than {minus}0.8%/year in winter and early spring (February and March) to about {minus}0.2%/year in summer (July and August).

  8. Debris and meteoroid proportions deduced from impact crater residue analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Berthoud, L.; Mandeville, J.C.; Durin, C.; Borg, J. |

    1995-02-01

    This study is a further investigation of space-exposed samples recovered from the LDEF satellite and the Franco-Russian `Aragatz` dust collection experiment on the Mir Space Station. Impact craters with diameters ranging from 1 to 900 micron were found on the retrieved samples. Elemental analysis of residues found in the impact craters was carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The analyses show evidence of micrometeoroid and orbital debris origins for the impacts. The proportions of these two components vary according to particle size and experimental position with respect to the leading edge of the spacecraft. On the LDEF leading edge 17 percent of the impacts were apparently caused by micrometeoroids and 11 percent by debris; on the LDEF trailing edge 23 percent of the impacts are apparently caused by micrometeoroids and 4 percent consist of debris particles - mostly larger than 3 micron in diameter - in elliptical orbits around the Earth. For Mir, the analyses indicate that micrometeoroids form 23 percent of impacts and debris 9 percent. However, the authors note that 60-70 percent of the craters are unidentifiable, so the definitive proportions of natural vs. man-made particles are yet to be determined. Experiments carried out using a light gas gun to accelerate glass spheres and fragments demonstrate the influence of particle shape on crater morphology. The experiments also show that it is more difficult to analyze the residues produced by an irregular fragment than those produced by a spherical projectile. If the particle is travelling above a certain velocity, it vaporizes upon impact and no residues are left. Simulation experiments carried out with an electrostatic accelerator indicate that this limit is about 14 km/s for Fe particles impacting Al targets. This chemical analysis cut-off may bias interpretations of the relative populations of meteoroid and orbital debris.

  9. Magmatic Processes and Systems Deduced from Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J.; Bezard, R. C.; Morgan, D. J.; Ginibre, C.

    2014-12-01

    When crystals grow in liquids the composition of their outermost layer will reflect that of the host with which they are in equilibrium and will therefore record the liquid composition, pressure and temperature.. Following separation from their sources, magmas differentiate. This change in liquid composition is driven largely by crystallisation in response to cooling or decompression. Other open system processes such as mixing and contamination are common. These can lead to abrupt changes in trace element and isotopic composition, accompanied by petrographic features, such as dissolution surfaces or zones of melt inclusions. Where such careful mineral-scale studies have been performed, the prevalence of open system processes is clear. In many cases these are shown by core-rim isotopic variations. Crystal-scale compositional variations in the context of whole rock compositions and petrography have allowed us to show crustal assimilation even from regions of supposedly oceanic crust such as the Lesser Antilles. In tandem with tracking magma evolution, core-rim analyses of appropriate crystals have also provided diffusion profiles which reflect timescales of magmatic processes. A key point, long recognised by Bruce Marsh, is that in situ geochemical data should be considered in a petrographic context in order to gain the most (and most credible) insights on the workings of magma systems from hand specimen to whole volcano/pluton scales: The petrographic microscope is not dead yet Identification of magmatic processes from in situ scrutiny allows us to synthesise the architectures and inner workings of magma systems. The evidence for interaction among magmas in many systems is compelling and suggests that many exist as stacked dike-sill arrangements with wall-rock focussed crystal growth and mush zones. These are consistent with many of the systematics suggested some time ago by Bruce Marsh

  10. Dust-gas interaction deduced from Halley multicolor camera observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, W. F.; Keller, H. U.; Wilhelm, K.; Whipple, Fred L.; Delamere, W. A.; Reitsema, H. J.; Schmidt, H. U.

    1986-01-01

    The dust and gas productions of comet Halley were measured by the dust counter and the mass spectrometers on the Giotto spacecraft. These instruments give only little information about the spatial asymmetry of the activity. The asymmetry in the dust production is clearly evident from the dust jets seen in the Halley Multicolor Camera images. Since the dust is entrained by the gas, gas production must be similarly asymmetric. The intensity profiles along and across several dust jets are related to their source regions on the nucleus. Properties of the dust jets are investigated. A few compact, but highly active source regions on the nucleus produce most of the visible dust and can account for most of the gas produced by the comet.

  11. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-06-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland.

  12. Physical properties of conventional explosives deduced from radio frequency emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, Jeremiah D; Nemzek, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory collected broadband radio frequency (RF) electric field change measurements from multiple detonations of high explosives (HE). Three types of HE were used: small cylinders of flake TNT, solid TNT, and PBX-9501. Low frequency signals (<80 MHz) were shot-to-shot repeatable and occurred within the first 100 {mu} s at measured amplitudes of about 2 V m{sup -1} at 35 m distance. High frequency signals (>290 MHz) occurred later, were an order of magnitude lower in signal strength, and were not repeatable. There is a positive correlation between the maximum electric field change and the shock velocity of the HE. The amount of free charge produced in the explosion estimated from the first RF pulse is between 10 and 150 {mu} C. This implies a weakly ionized plasma with temperatures between 2600 and 2900 K.

  13. Altitude of Mars aurorae deduced from SPICAM limb detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, L.; Gérard, J.-C.; Libert, L.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Stiepen, A.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2015-10-01

    Martian aurorae have been detected with the SPICAM instrument on board Mars Express both in the nadir and the limb viewing modes. In this study, we focus on three limb detections to determine the altitudes of the auroral emissions and their intensities.We then use a model of electron transport in the Martian thermosphere based on a Monte-Carlo method to simulate and to understand the excitation processes leading to these auroral emissions.

  14. Paleoenvironmental conditions in a Travertine Complex deduced from rock magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinders, Jan; Hambach, Ulrich

    We present a rock magnetic study on ca. 100 specimens from a 7.5 m travertine section (BMH) and a parallel 1.0 m profile (BMP) to evaluate vertical and lateral variations. Concentration dependent parameters and inter-parametric ratios point to varying redox conditions through time and space suggesting local paleoenvironmental rather than paleoclimatic control of the rock magnetic properties.

  15. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-Ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; Piana, M.; Prato, M.; Schmahl, E. J.; Suarez-Garcia, E.

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  16. Nucleic-acid structural deformability deduced from anisotropic displacement parameters.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Heather E; Olson, Wilma K

    2011-04-01

    The growing numbers of very well resolved nucleic-acid crystal structures with anisotropic displacement parameters provide an unprecedented opportunity to learn about the natural motions of DNA and RNA. Here we report a new Monte-Carlo approach that takes direct account of this information to extract the distortions of covalent structure, base pairing, and dinucleotide geometry intrinsic to regularly organized double-helical molecules. We present new methods to test the validity of the anisotropic parameters and examine the apparent deformability of a variety of structures, including several A, B, and Z DNA duplexes, an AB helical intermediate, an RNA, a ligand-DNA complex, and an enzyme-bound DNA. The rigid-body parameters characterizing the positions of the bases in the structures mirror the mean parameters found when atomic motion is taken into account. The base-pair fluctuations intrinsic to a single structure, however, differ from those extracted from collections of nucleic-acid structures, although selected base-pair steps undergo conformational excursions along routes suggested by the ensembles. The computations reveal surprising new molecular insights, such as the stiffening of DNA and concomitant separation of motions of contacted nucleotides on opposite strands by the binding of Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII, which suggest how the protein may direct enzymatic action.

  17. Magnetospheric electric fields deduced from drifting whistler paths.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. L.; Stone, K.; Siren, J. C.; Crystal, T. L.

    1972-01-01

    Results of a study in which the amplitude of the E-W component E sub w of the convection electric field in the nightside magnetosphere has been inferred from the observed cross-L motions of whistler ducts within the plasmasphere, and several ducts distributed over 1 to 2 earth radii in L space and over plus or minus deg 15 around the longitude of the Eights, Antarctica, whistler station have been tracked simultaneously. The method appears capable of resolving fluctuations in E sub w with period T equal to approximately 15 min and rms amplitude as low as 0.05 mV/m. For variations with T greater than 1 hour the method has a sensitivity of the order of 0.01 mV/m. Three case studies are presented, two of which illustrate convection activity associated with relatively isolated substorms. In these two cases E sub w reversed from westward to eastward for a period following the decay of substorm bay activity. In the third case the substorm bay activity was prolonged, and E sub w remained westward and at enhanced levels until local dawn. Evidence was found that, at least in a limited longitudinal sector, perturbing substorm E sub w fields can penetrate deep within the plasmasphere. In two of the case studies comparisons of E sub w and the interplanetary magnetic-field theta component show evidence of a possible relation based on brief (less than or equal to 1 hour) southward excursions but not on long preceding southward events.

  18. Debris and meteoroid proportions deduced from impact crater residue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthoud, Lucinda; Mandeville, Jean-Claude; Durin, Christian; Borg, Janet

    1995-01-01

    This study is a further investigation of space-exposed samples recovered from the LDEF satellite and the Franco-Russian 'Aragatz' dust collection experiment on the Mir Space Station. Impact craters with diameters ranging from 1 to 900 micron were found on the retrieved samples. Elemental analysis of residues found in the impact craters was carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The analyses show evidence of micrometeoroid and orbital debris origins for the impacts. The proportions of these two components vary according to particle size and experimental position with respect to the leading edge of the spacecraft. On the LDEF leading edge 17 percent of the impacts were apparently caused by micrometeoroids and 11 percent by debris; on the LDEF trailing edge 23 percent of the impacts are apparently caused by micrometeoroids and 4 percent consist of debris particles - mostly larger than 3 micron in diameter - in elliptical orbits around the Earth. For Mir, the analyses indicate that micrometeoroids form 23 percent of impacts and debris 9 percent. However, we note that 60-70 percent of the craters are unidentifiable, so the definitive proportions of natural v. man-made particles are yet to be determined. Experiments carried out using a light gas gun to accelerate glass spheres and fragments demonstrate the influence of particle shape on crater morphology. The experiments also show that it is more difficult to analyze the residues produced by an irregular fragment than those produced by a spherical projectile. If the particle is travelling above a certain velocity, it vaporizes upon impact and no residues are left. Simulation experiments carried out with an electrostatic accelerator indicate that this limit is about 14 km/s for Fe particles impacting Al targets. This chemical analysis cut-off may bias interpretations of the relative populations of meteoroid and orbital debris. Oblique impacts and multiple foil detectors provide a higher likelihood of detection of residues as the velocities involved are lower.

  19. A Single 30-s Stretch Is Sufficient to Inhibit Maximal Voluntary Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Jason B.; Nelson, Arnold G.; Kokkonen, Joke

    2009-01-01

    While it has been well established that an acute stretching program can inhibit maximal muscle performance, the amount of stretching needed to produce the deleterious response is unknown. Therefore this study examined the dose-response relationship between acute stretching and strength inhibition. Eighteen college students performed a one…

  20. Effect of time of day on aerobic contribution to the 30-s Wingate test performance.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Nizar; Bessot, Nicolas; Chamari, Karim; Gauthier, Antoine; Sesboüé, Bruno; Davenne, Damien

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of time of day on aerobic contribution during high-intensity exercise. A group of 11 male physical education students performed a Wingate test against a resistance of 0.087 kg . kg(-1) body mass. Two different times of day were chosen, corresponding to the minimum (06:00 h) and the maximum (18:00 h) levels of power. Oxygen uptake (.VO(2)) was recorded breath by breath during the test (30 sec). Blood lactate concentrations were measured at rest, just after the Wingate test, and again 5 min later. Oral temperature was measured before each test and on six separate occasions at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00 h. A significant circadian rhythm was found in body temperature with a circadian acrophase at 18:16+/-00:25 h as determined by cosinor analysis. Peak power (P(peak)), mean power (P(mean)), total work done, and .VO(2) increased significantly from morning to afternoon during the Wingate Test. As a consequence, aerobic contribution recorded during the test increased from morning to afternoon. However, no difference in blood lactate concentrations was observed from morning to afternoon. Furthermore, power decrease was greater in the morning than afternoon. Altogether, these results indicate that the time-of-day effect on performances during the Wingate test is mainly due to better aerobic participation in energy production during the test in the afternoon than in the morning.

  1. SuhB Associates with Nus Factors To Facilitate 30S Ribosome Biogenesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Navjot; Bubunenko, Mikhail; Smith, Carol; Abbott, David M.; Stringer, Anne M.; Shi, Ronald; Court, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A complex of highly conserved proteins consisting of NusB, NusE, NusA, and NusG is required for robust expression of rRNA in Escherichia coli. This complex is proposed to prevent Rho-dependent transcription termination by a process known as “antitermination.” The mechanism of this antitermination in rRNA is poorly understood but requires association of NusB and NusE with a specific RNA sequence in rRNA known as BoxA. Here, we identify a novel member of the rRNA antitermination machinery: the inositol monophosphatase SuhB. We show that SuhB associates with elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) at rRNA in a NusB-dependent manner. Although we show that SuhB is required for BoxA-mediated antitermination in a reporter system, our data indicate that the major function of the NusB/E/A/G/SuhB complex is not to prevent Rho-dependent termination of rRNA but rather to promote correct rRNA maturation. This occurs through formation of a SuhB-mediated loop between NusB/E/BoxA and RNAP/NusA/G. Thus, we have reassigned the function of these proteins at rRNA and identified another key player in this complex. PMID:26980831

  2. Materials Data on H30S2O21 (SG:8) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-07-14

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Early risk factors, job strain, and atherosclerosis among men in their 30s: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Vahtera, Jussi; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2007-03-01

    We examined whether preemployment influences confounded the association between job strain and atherosclerosis. We assessed biological, familial, and socioeconomic risk factors of coronary heart disease at 12 to 18 years of age and job strain and carotid artery intima-media thickness at 33 to 39 years of age for a cohort of 358 men. Adolescent risk factors predicted adult intima-media thickness but had little effect on the dose-response relation between greater job strain and greater intima-media thickness. Pre-employment influences did not confound the association between job strain and atherosclerosis.

  4. Extracellular glutamate increases in the lateral hypothalamus during meal initiation, and GABA peaks during satiation: microdialysis measurements every 30 s.

    PubMed

    Rada, Pedro; Mendialdua, Ainhoa; Hernandez, Luis; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2003-04-01

    Glutamate injected into the lateral hypothalamus can initiate eating, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) can stop it. This leads to the hypothesis that glutamate inputs are active at the beginning of a meal, and GABA is released at the end. To test this theory, the authors used microdialysis to sample glutamate and GABA simultaneously before, during, and after a meal. Food-deprived rats ate a meal of chow. Glutamate increased during the first third of the meal, then decreased to below baseline while the rats were still eating. GABA also increased at the start of the meal but continued rising and peaked during the last third of the meal. Glutamate may drive a hypothalamic system for eating, and GABA may oppose it.

  5. Lower plate deformation at the Chile Triple Junction from the paleomagnetic record (45°30'S-46°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagabrielle, Yves; Bourgois, Jacques; Dyment, Jerôme; Pelletier, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    During the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) cruise, geophysical surveys were conducted between 45°S and 48°S, in the region of the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ), where the Nazca and Antarctica Plates are subducting beneath the South American Plate. Near the CTJ, the South Chile Rise (SCR), which separates the Nazca and Antarctica lower plates, consists of three spreading segments trending ~N160°, separated by a series of parallel fracture zones. The active spreading centers of the three segments consist of grabens with various widths and depths, bounded by steep fault scarps. We provide robust data showing that the SCR recorded remote and long-term effects of ridge subduction far from the subduction front. Magnetic profiles, multibeam bathymetric, and seismic data were acquired at intervals of 13 km along a N80°E direction across the SCR during the CTJ cruise of R/V L'Atalante. Deformation of the oceanic lithosphere includes (1) a segmentation of the spreading axes along strike, (2) some ridge jumps, and (3) local constriction and changes in trend of the fracture zone valleys. Off-axis volcanism is observed in places that may suggest a link with an abnormal stress field induced by ridge subduction. The tectonic and volcanic anomalies, which occurred in response to the subduction of the SCR1 axis, may be correlated with geochemical anomalies and slab fragmentation recognized by previous works.

  6. Tectonic and unroofing history of Neogene Manantiales foreland basin deposits, Cordillera Frontal (32°30'S), San Juan Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Daniel J.

    2001-12-01

    The Miocene Manantiales foreland basin is located in Cordillera Frontal of San Juan, between 32°30' and 33°S. The unroofing study of the synorogenic Miocene deposits provides information about the structural evolution of Cordón de La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These Tertiary deposits are represented by the Chinches Formation and comprise seven members (Tc0-Tc6). They are the result of the uplift of Mesozoic sequences that crop out in La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt of the Cordillera Principal. Quaternary deposits unconformably overlying the Chinches Formation are composed of granitic and rhyolitic blocks, and represent the final uplift of the Cordón del Espinacito and a series of out-of-sequence thrusts. The unroofing studies also provide sufficient information to establish the out-of-sequence timing of the deformation at this latitude. Initial deposition of the Tertiary deposits can be dated at about 20 Ma, or early Miocene. Andesitic lavas dated in 9.2±0.3, 10.7±0.7, and 12.7±0.7 Ma unconformably overlie the structure of La Ramada fold-and-thrust belt. These facts constrain the uplift of the High Andes between 20 and 10 Ma at this latitude. The unconformity between Tertiary and Quaternary deposits suggests final uplift during Pliocene-Pleistocene times.

  7. Pu236(n,f) , Pu237(n,f) , and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t) , (p,d) , and (p,p') surrogate reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; McCleskey, M.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.; Thompson, I. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5–7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5–7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5–10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5–7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  8. The optical luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts deduced from ROTSE-III observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X. H.; Wu, X. F.; Wei, J. J.; Yuan, F.; Zheng, W. K.; Liang, E. W.; Akerlof, C. W.; McKay, T. A.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Flewelling, H. A.; Göǧüş, E.; Güver, T.; Kızıloǧlu, Ü.; Pandey, S. B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rujopakarn, W.; Schaefer, B. E.; Wheeler, J. C.; Yost, S. A. E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: fang.yuan@anu.edu.au E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn

    2014-11-10

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs) and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). We derive R-band fluxes for these two sub-samples 100 s after the onset of the burst. The optical LFs at 100 s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star formation rate. While fitting the optical LFs using Monte Carlo simulations, we take into account the detection function of ROTSE-III. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100 s is well described by an exponential rise and power-law decay, a broken power law,and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  9. Deducing Wild 2 Components with a Statistical Dataset of Olivine in Chondrite Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A preliminary exam of the Wild 2 olivine yielded a major element distribution that is strikingly similar to those for aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, and CR) [1], in which FeO-rich olivine is preferentially altered. With evidence lacking for large-scale alteration in Wild 2, the mechanism for this apparent selectivity is poorly understood. We use a statistical approach to explain this distribution in terms of relative contributions from different chondrite forming regions. Samples and Analyses: We have made a particular effort to obtain the best possible analyses of both major and minor elements in Wild 2 olivine and the 5-30 micrometer population in chondrite matrix. Previous studies of chondrite matrix either include larger isolated grains (not found in the Wild 2 collection) or lack minor element abundances. To overcome this gap in the existing data, we have now compiled greater than 10(exp 3) EPMA analyses of matrix olivine in CI, CM, CR, CH, Kakangari, C2-ungrouped, and the least equilibrated CO, CV, LL, and EH chondrites. Also, we are acquiring TEM/EDXS analyses of the Wild 2 olivine with 500s count times, to reduce relative errors of minor elements with respect to those otherwise available. Results: Using our Wild 2 analyses and those from [2], the revised major element distribution is more similar to anhydrous IDPs than previous results, which were based on more limited statistics (see figure below). However, a large frequency peak at Fa(sub 0-1) still persists. All but one of these grains has no detectable Cr, which is dissimilar to the Fa(sub 0-1) found in the CI and CM matrices. In fact, Fa(sub 0-1) with strongly depleted Cr content is a composition that appears to be unique to Kakangari and enstatite (highly reduced) chondrites. We also note the paucity of Fa(sub greater than 58), which would typically indicate crystallization in a more oxidizing environment [3]. We conclude that, relative to the bulk of anhydrous IDPs, Wild 2 may have received a larger contribution from the Kakangari and/or enstatite chondrite forming regions. Alternatively, Wild 2 may have undergone accretion in an anomalously reducing region, marked by nebular condensation of this atypical forsterite. In [4], a similar conclusion was reached with an Fe-XANES study. We will also use similar lines of reasoning, and our previous conclusions in [5], to constrain the relative contributions of silicates that appear to have been radially transported from different ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite forming regions to the Kuiper Belt. In addition, the widespread depletion of Cr in these FeO-rich (Fa(sub greater than 20)) fragments is consistent with mild thermal metamorphism in Wild 2.

  10. Proton Spectroscopic Factors Deduced from Helium-3 Global Phenomenological and Microscopic Optical Model Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenny, Lee; Pang, Dan-Yang; Han, Yin-Lu; B. Tsang, M.

    2014-09-01

    Global phenomenological GDP08 and microscopic helium-3 optical model potentials have been recently derived. We evaluate these two potential sets by comparing the elastic scattering data of 25 MeV 3He on 16O, 18O, 19F, 23Na, 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 30Si, 31P, 32S, 34S, 35Cl, 37Cl, and 39K isotopes. Using the deuteron angular distributions calculated with the distorted wave Born approximation model, we extract the ground-state proton spectroscopic factors from (3He, d) reactions on the same set of nuclei. The extracted proton spectroscopic factors are compared with the large-basis shell-model calculations.

  11. Lower mantle thermal structure deduced from seismic tomography, mineral physics and numerical modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadek, O.; Yuen, D. A.; Steinbach, V.; Chopelas, A.; Matyska, C.

    1994-01-01

    The long-wavelength thermal anomalies in the lower mantle have been mapped out using several seismic tomographic models in conjunction with thermodynamic parameters derived from high-pressure mineral physics experiments. These parameters are the depth variations of thermal expansivity and of the proportionality factor between changes in density and seismic velocity. The giant plume-like structures in the lower mantle under the Pacific Ocean and Africa have outer fringes with thermal anomalies around 300-400 K, but very high temperatures are found in the center of the plumes near the base of the core-mantle boundary. These extreme values can exceed +1500 K and may reflect large hot thermal anomalies in the lower mantle, which are supported by recent measurements of high melting temperatures of perovskite and iron. Extremely cold anomalies, around -1500 K, are found for anomalies in the deep mantle around the Pacific rim and under South America. Numerical simulations show that large negative thermal anomalies in the mid-lower mantle have modest magnitudes of around -500 K. correlation pattern exists between the present-day locations of cold masses in the lower mantle and the sites of past subduction since the Cretaceous. Results from correlation analysis show that the slab mass-flux in the lower mantle did not conform to a steady-state nature but exhibited time-dependent behavior.

  12. Crustal structure deduced from receiver functions via single-scattering migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E.; Deschamps, A.; Virieux, J.

    2002-08-01

    An investigation of the teleseismic P-wave coda is performed using the single-scattering approximation. The method allows one to image short-wavelength scale (<=2 km) velocity and density heterogeneities and structures that are barely detected by traveltime tomography. Source effects are removed by using receiver functions for data interpretation, but the amplitude (especially the sign of the signal) is synthesized. Both broad-band seismological stations in the southwestern Alps (France) and Campanian plain (Italy) are used for the illustration of the proposed method. Because of the large aperture of our arrays, laterally small-scale heterogeneities are difficult to image and we must assume lateral continuity of the detectable structure. If so, we show that this depth migration based on a single-scattering approach can recover both the depth and the geometry of the main discontinuities below the studied areas. In the southwestern Alps, we underline a complex crustal structure and Moho dipping topography. The Moho depth increases from 20 to 30 km between the coastline and the Mercantour range. In the Campanian plain (surrounding Mount Vesuvius) we also find a southeastwards-dipping Moho. Furthermore, the three main discontinuities are imaged, showing a relatively shallow mantle-crust discontinuity and a deeper one near the coastline.

  13. Constructing a folding model for protein S6 guided by native fluctuations deduced from NMR structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, Heiko; Noel, Jeffrey K.; Haglund, Ellinor; Onuchic, José N.; Schug, Alexander

    2015-12-28

    The diversity in a set of protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures provides an estimate of native state fluctuations that can be used to refine and enrich structure-based protein models (SBMs). Dynamics are an essential part of a protein’s functional native state. The dynamics in the native state are controlled by the same funneled energy landscape that guides the entire folding process. SBMs apply the principle of minimal frustration, drawn from energy landscape theory, to construct a funneled folding landscape for a given protein using only information from the native structure. On an energy landscape smoothed by evolution towards minimal frustration, geometrical constraints, imposed by the native structure, control the folding mechanism and shape the native dynamics revealed by the model. Native-state fluctuations can alternatively be estimated directly from the diversity in the set of NMR structures for a protein. Based on this information, we identify a highly flexible loop in the ribosomal protein S6 and modify the contact map in a SBM to accommodate the inferred dynamics. By taking into account the probable native state dynamics, the experimental transition state is recovered in the model, and the correct order of folding events is restored. Our study highlights how the shared energy landscape connects folding and function by showing that a better description of the native basin improves the prediction of the folding mechanism.

  14. Radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field as deduced from Faraday rotation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, S.; Garzelli, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of the polarized emission from extragalactic radio sources occulted by the coronal plasma were used to infer the radial profile of the inner heliospheric magnetic field near the solar minimum. By inverting LASCO/SOHO polarized brightness (pB) data taken during the observations in May 1997, we retrieved the electron density distribution along the lines of sight to the sources, which allowed us to separate the two plasma properties that contribute to the observed RMs. By comparing the observed RM values with those theoretically predicted by a power law model of the radial component of the coronal magnetic field using a best-fitting procedure, we found that the radial component of the inner heliospheric magnetic field can be nicely approximated by a power law of the form Br = 3.76 r-2.29 G in a range of heights from about 5 to 14 R⊙. Finally, our analysis suggests that the radial computation of the potential field source surface model from the Wilcox Solar Observatory is the preferred choice near solar minimum assuming a radial field in the photosphere and a source surface located at Rss = 2.5 R⊙.

  15. Climatological Aspects of Aerosol Physical Characteristics in Tunisia Deduced from Sun Photometric Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chaâbane, Mabrouk; Azri, Chafai; Medhioub, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic data measured at Thala site (Tunisia) for a long-time period (1977–2001) are used to analyse the monthly, seasonal, and annual variations of the aerosol optical depth at 1 μm wavelength. We have shown that aerosol and microphysical properties and the dominating aerosol types depend on seasons. A comparison of the seasonal cycle of aerosol optical characteristics at Thala site showed that the contribution of long-range transported particles is expected to be larger in summer as a consequence of the weather stability typical of this season. Also, the winter decrease in atmospheric turbidity may result from increases in relative humidity and decreases in temperature, leading to increased particle size and mass and increased fall and deposition velocities. The spring and autumn weather patterns usually carry fine dust and sand particles for the desert area to Thala region. The annual behaviour of the aerosol optical depth recorded a period of stead increase started in 1986 until 2001. Trends in atmospheric turbidity after 1988 could be explained other ways by the contribution of the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and by local or regional changes in climate or in aerosol emissions. PMID:22629150

  16. Eastern Asian Emissions of Anthropogenic Halocarbons Deduced from Aircraft Concentration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickle, Loretta, J.; Blake, Donald R.; Sachse, Glen W.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Kiley, Christopher M.

    2003-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol restricts production of ozone-depleting halocarbons worldwide. Enforcement of the protocol has relied mainly on annual government statistics of production and consumption of these compounds (bottom-up approach). We show here that aircraft observations of ha1ocarbon:CO enhancement ratios on regional to continental scales can be used to infer halocarbon emissions, providing independent verification of the bottom-up approach. We apply this topdown approach to aircraft observations of Asian outflow &om the TRACE-P mission over the western Pacific (March-April 2001) and derive emissions from eastern Asia (China, Japan, and Korea). We derive an eastern Asian carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) source of 21.5 Gg yr(sup -1), several-fold larger than previous estimates and amounting to -30% of the global budget for this gas. Our emission estimate for CFC-11 from eastern Asia is 50% higher than inventories derived from manufacturing records. Our emission estimates for methyl chloroform (CH3CC13) and CFC-12 are in agreement with existing inventories. For halon 1211 we find only a strong local source originating from the Shanghai area. Our emission estimates for the above gases result in a approximately equal to 40% increase in the ozone depletion potential (ODP) of Asian emissions relative to previous estimates, corresponding to a approximately equal to 10% global increase in ODP.

  17. Atmospheric Visual and Infrared Transmission Deduced from Surface Weather Observations: Weather and Warplanes. V1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    continental dust, forest fire smoke, industrial effluents, etc.), such as different "dry" size distributions, different growth rates with relative humidity...Airborne Measure- ments of Optica Atmospheric Properties in Southern Illinois, Visibility Laboratory, UCSD, San Diego (AFCRL-TR-73-0422, Air Force

  18. An interplanetary magnetic field enhancement observed by five spacecraft: Deducing the magnetic structure, size and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Delzanno, G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2012-12-01

    Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) were discovered almost 30 years ago in the PVO magnetic-field records and attributed to the interaction between solar wind and dust particles from comets or asteroids, but the physics of this interaction remained obscure. Our current understanding is that IFEs result from collisions of small interplanetary bodies that produce electrically charged nanometer-scale dust particles possibly enhanced by tribo-electric charging in the collision. These charged dust particles in turn interact with the magnetized solar wind. Momentum is transferred from the solar wind to the dust cloud via the collective effect of the formation of a magnetic barrier. This momentum transfer accelerates the particles to near the solar wind speed and moves the dust outward through the solar gravitational potential well. Multi-spacecraft observations can help us to determine the speed of the IFE and the orientation of the current sheet. They enable us to reconstruct the pressure profile of an IFE in three dimensions and estimate the mass contained in the IFE. We have done these reconstructions with an IFE observed on March 3, 2011 with Wind, ACE, ARTEMIS P1 and P2 and Geotail. We find that the magnetic field near the center of the IFE is highly twisted indicating a complicated magnetic topology as expected in a plasma-charged dust interaction. The magnetic field and plasma properties during this event distinguish it from a typical flux rope. Based on the statistical results obtained at 1 AU and the assumption that all the IFEs are self-similar, we find that this IFE has a radial scale length several times longer than the cross flow radius and contains a mass of about 108 kg. The rates of collisions expected for objects of this size are consistent with the observed rates of these disturbances.

  19. Features of CO2 fracturing deduced from acoustic emission and microscopy in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Youqing; Bennour, Ziad; Yamashita, Hiroto; Inui, Shuhei; Nagaya, Yuya; Naoi, Makoto; Chen, Qu; Nakayama, Yoshiki; Nagano, Yu

    2016-11-01

    We conducted hydraulic fracturing (HF) experiments on 170 mm cubic granite specimens with a 20 mm diameter central hole to investigate how fluid viscosity affects HF process and crack properties. In experiments using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2), water, and viscous oil with viscosity of 0.051-336.6 mPa · s, we compared the results for breakdown pressure, the distribution and fracturing mechanism of acoustic emission, and the microstructure of induced cracks revealed by using an acrylic resin containing a fluorescent compound. Fracturing with low-viscosity fluid induced three-dimensionally sinuous cracks with many secondary branches, which seem to be desirable pathways for enhanced geothermal system, shale gas recovery, and other processes.

  20. Fishing for biodiversity: Novel methanopterin-linked C1 transfergenes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2004-07-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from anoligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1,800 of major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this paper we analyze the Sargasso Sea metagenome in terms of the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest are present in this environment, and a few of these are relatively abundant species. The sequences representative of the major phylotypes do not appear to belong to any known microbial group capable of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer. Instead, they separate from all known sequences on phylogenetic trees, pointing towards their affiliation with a novel microbial phylum. These data imply a broader distribution of methanopterin-linked functions in the microbial world than previously known.

  1. Surface currents in the Caribbean Sea as deduced from Lagrangian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Robert L.; Spillane, Michael; Brooks, Irving; Atwood, Donald; Duckett, Carol

    1981-07-01

    The results of a satellite tracked drifting buoy experiment conducted in the Caribbean Sea from October 1975 through June 1976 are presented. The buoy trajectories suggest that the Aves Rise, Beata Ridge, and Nicaraguan Rise are regions where considerable mesoscale variability occurs in the surface flow. The variability is in the form of current deflections; small diameter eddies ranging in size from 20 to 100 km; large amplitude meanders, with amplitudes greater than 150 km; and large diameter eddies, with diameters greater than 200 km which form on and near these rises and ridges. In the central Caribbean, where the topographic relief is not as dramatic, the flow is predominantly zonal. Intensifications in the surface flow occur off the coast of Colombia, south of the Nicaraguan Rise, and south of the Yucatan Strait.

  2. Variations of anthropogenic CO2 in urban area deduced by radiocarbon concentration in modern tree rings.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z; Nakamura, Toshio; Pazdur, Anna

    2008-10-01

    Radiocarbon concentration in the atmosphere is significantly lower in areas where man-made emissions of carbon dioxide occur. This phenomenon is known as Suess effect, and is caused by the contamination of clean air with non-radioactive carbon from fossil fuel combustion. The effect is more strongly observed in industrial and densely populated urban areas. Measurements of carbon isotope concentrations in a study area can be compared to those from areas of clear air in order to estimate the amount of carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel combustion by using a simple mathematical model. This can be calculated using the simple mathematical model. The result of the mathematical model followed in this study suggests that the use of annual rings of trees to obtain the secular variations of 14C concentration of atmospheric CO2 can be useful and efficient for environmental monitoring and modeling of the carbon distribution in local scale.

  3. Glycan family analysis for deducing N-glycan topology from single MS

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David; Bern, Marshall; North, Simon J.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: In the past few years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as the premier tool for identification and quantification of biological molecules such as peptides and glycans. There are two basic strategies: single-MS, which uses a single round of mass analysis, and MS/MS (or higher order MSn), which adds one or more additional rounds of mass analysis, interspersed with fragmentation steps. Single-MS offers higher throughput, broader mass coverage and more direct quantitation, but generally much weaker identification. Single-MS, however, does work fairly well for the case of N-glycan identification, which are more constrained than other biological polymers. We previously demonstrated single-MS identification of N-glycans to the level of ‘cartoons’ (monosaccharide composition and topology) by a system that incorporates an expert's detailed knowledge of the biological sample. In this article, we explore the possibility of ab initio single-MS N-glycan identification, with the goal of extending single-MS, or primarily-single-MS, identification to non-expert users, novel conditions and unstudied tissues. Results: We propose and test three cartoon-assignment algorithms that make inferences informed by biological knowledge about glycan synthesis. To test the algorithms, we used 71 single-MS spectra from a variety of tissues and organisms, containing more than 2800 manually annotated peaks. The most successful of the algorithms computes the most richly connected subgraph within a ‘cartoon graph’. This algorithm uniquely assigns the correct cartoon to more than half of the peaks in 41 out of the 71 spectra. Contact: goldberg@parc.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19073587

  4. Deducing the distribution of terminal electron-accepting processes in hydrologically diverse groundwater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; McMahon, Peter B.; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Fujii, Roger F.; Oaksford, Edward T.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of microbially mediated terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs( was investigated in four hydrologically diverse groundwater systems by considering patterns of electron acceptor (nitrate, sulfate) consumption, intermediate product (hydrogen (H2)) concentrations, and final product (ferrous iron, sulfide, and methane) production. In each hydrologic system a determination of predominant TEAPs could be arrived at, but the level of confidence appropriate for each determination differed. In a portion of the lacustrine aquifer of the San Joaquin Valley, for example, all three indicators (sulfate concentrations decreasing, H2concentrations in the 1–2 nmol range, and sulfide concentrations increasing along flow paths identified sulfate reduction as the predominant TEAP, leading to a high degree of confidence in the determination. In portions of the Floridan aquifer and a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are indicated by production of sulfide and methane, and hydrogen oncentrations in the 1–4 nmol and 5–14 nmol range, respectively. However, because electron acceptor consumption could not be documented in these systems, less confidence is warranted in the TEAP determination. In the Black Creek aquifer, no pattern of sulfate consumption and sulfide production were observed, but H2 concentrations indicated sulfate reduction as the predominant TEAP. In this case, where just a single line of evidence is available, the least confidence in the TEAP diagnosis is justified. Because this methodology is based on measurable water chemistry parameters and upon the physiology of microbial electron transfer processes, it provides a better description of predominant redox processes in groundwater systems than more traditional Eh-based methods.

  5. Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.

    2011-07-01

    Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.

  6. Outbreaks of Yuzu Dieback in Goheung Area: Possible Causes Deduced from Weather Extremes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Koh, Young Jin

    2015-09-01

    Starting in 2012, severe diebacks usually accompanied by abundant gum exudation have occurred on yuzu trees in Goheung-gun, Jeonnam Province, where severely affected trees were occasionally killed. On-farm surveys were conducted at 30 randomly-selected orchards located at Pungyang-myeon, Goheung-gun, and the resulting disease incidences were 18.5% and 39.6% for dieback and gumming symptoms, respectively. Black spots on branches and leaves also appeared on infected trees showing a typical dieback symptom. Morphological and molecular identifications of the isolated fungal organisms from lesions on the symptomatic leaves and branches revealed that they are identical to Phomopsis citri, known to cause gummosis. In order to find the reason for this sudden epidemic, we investigated the weather conditions that are exclusively distinct from previous years, hypothesizing that certain weather extremes might have caused the severe induction of pre-existing disease for yuzu. There were two extreme temperature drops beyond the yuzu's cold hardiness limit right after an abnormally-warm-temperature-rise during the winter of 2011-12, which could cause severe frost damage resulting in mechanical injuries and physiological weakness to the affected trees. Furthermore, there was an increased frequency of strong wind events, seven times in 2012 compared to only a few times in the previous years, that could also lead to extensive injuries on branches. In conclusion, we estimated that the possible damages by severe frost and frequent strong wind events during 2012 could cause the yuzu trees to be vulnerable to subsequent fungal infection by providing physical entries and increasing plant susceptibility to infections.

  7. Outbreaks of Yuzu Dieback in Goheung Area: Possible Causes Deduced from Weather Extremes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Koh, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Starting in 2012, severe diebacks usually accompanied by abundant gum exudation have occurred on yuzu trees in Goheung-gun, Jeonnam Province, where severely affected trees were occasionally killed. On-farm surveys were conducted at 30 randomly-selected orchards located at Pungyang-myeon, Goheung-gun, and the resulting disease incidences were 18.5% and 39.6% for dieback and gumming symptoms, respectively. Black spots on branches and leaves also appeared on infected trees showing a typical dieback symptom. Morphological and molecular identifications of the isolated fungal organisms from lesions on the symptomatic leaves and branches revealed that they are identical to Phomopsis citri, known to cause gummosis. In order to find the reason for this sudden epidemic, we investigated the weather conditions that are exclusively distinct from previous years, hypothesizing that certain weather extremes might have caused the severe induction of pre-existing disease for yuzu. There were two extreme temperature drops beyond the yuzu’s cold hardiness limit right after an abnormally-warm-temperature-rise during the winter of 2011–12, which could cause severe frost damage resulting in mechanical injuries and physiological weakness to the affected trees. Furthermore, there was an increased frequency of strong wind events, seven times in 2012 compared to only a few times in the previous years, that could also lead to extensive injuries on branches. In conclusion, we estimated that the possible damages by severe frost and frequent strong wind events during 2012 could cause the yuzu trees to be vulnerable to subsequent fungal infection by providing physical entries and increasing plant susceptibility to infections. PMID:26361477

  8. A Model of Median Auroral Electron Flux Deduced from Hardy 2008 Model Probability Density Maps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    example of the precipitating electron energy flux map in the Northern hemisphere for Kp=3 produced by AF- Geospace software...AF- Geospace Software (Hilmer, 2010) illustrates the precipitating electron energy flux map in the Northern hemisphere for Kp = 3...precipitating electron energy flux map in the Northern hemisphere for Kp=3 produced by AF- Geospace software. The green line specifies the auroral oval

  9. Holocene oceanographic and climatic variability of the Vega Drift deduced through foraminiferal interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szymcek, Phillip; Ishman, Scott E.; Domack, Eugene W.; Leventer, Amy

    2007-01-01

    fusiformis assemblages. Most agglutinated forms tend to decrease downcore, and comparisons to modern analogues imply post-depositional disintegration, while calcareous taxa indicate non-corrosive bottom waters. The lower to middle Holocene Vega Drift sediments are characterized by the calcareous S. fusiformis assemblage and glacial plume sediments. This assemblage is characterized by calcareous forms including Globocassidulina biora, G. subglobosa, and Nonionella iridea. The planktic species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma is associated with the S. fusiformis assemblage. The S. fusiformis assemblage is faunally similar to assemblages described in fjords of the western Antarctic Peninsula and indicates non-corrosive bottom water. Sediments of the mid to upper Holocene interval are characterized by the T. wiesneri and M. arenacea assemblages and indicate the presence of Hyper Saline Shelf Water. These assemblages are similar to modern assemblages directly to the south in the Prince Gustav Channel. The upper Holocene is marked by several small intervals with taxonomic characteristics similar to the S. fusiformis assemblage, indicating periodic introduction of non-corrosive bottom water to the Vega Drift

  10. Identification of widespread pollution in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Fakhruzzaman, K.; Cros, B.; Nganga, D.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville (Congo) and Ascension Island show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from this region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of CO2 and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed.

  11. Light elements burning reaction rates at stellar temperatures as deduced by the Trojan Horse measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Puglia, S. M. R.

    2015-02-24

    Experimental nuclear astrophysics aims at determining the reaction rates for astrophysically relevant reactions at their Gamow energies. For charged-particle induced reactions, the access to these energies is usually hindered, in direct measurements, by the presence of the Coulomb barrier between the interacting particles or by electron screening effects, which make hard the determination of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor of interest for astrophysical codes. The use of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) appears as one of the most suitable tools for investigating nuclear processes of interest for astrophysics. Here, in view of the recent TH measurements, the main destruction channels for deuterium ({sup 2}H), for the two lithium {sup 6,7}Li isotopes, for the {sup 9}Be and the one for the two boron {sup 10,11}B isotopes will be discussed.

  12. Proxy late Holocene climatic record deduced from northwest Alaska beach ridges

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, O.K.; Jordan, J.W.

    1992-03-01

    A climatically sensitive, oscillatory pattern of progradation and erosion is revealed in late Holocene accretionary sand ridge and barrier island complexes of Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska. Archaeological and geological radiocarbon dates constrain the chronology for the Cape Espenberg beach ridge plain and the Shishmaref barrier islands, 50 km to the southwest. Cape Espenberg, the depositional sink for the northeastward longshore transport system, contains the oldest sedimentary deposits: 3700 +/- 90 B.P. (B-23170) old grass from a paleosol in a low dune. The oldest date on the Shishmaref barrier islands is 1550 +/- 70 B.P. (B-23183) and implies that the modern barrier is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Late Holocene sedimentation along the Seward Peninsula varied between intervals of rapid progradation and erosion. Rapid progradation predominated from 4000-3300 B.P. and from 2000-1200 B.P., with the generation of low beach ridges without dunes, separated by wide swales. During erosional periods higher dunes built atop beach ridges: as between 3300-2000 B.P. and intermittently from 1000 B.P. to the present. Dune formation correlates with the Neoglacial and Little Ice Age glacial advances and increased alluviation in northern and central Alaska, while rapid progradation is contemporaneous with warmer intervals of soil and/or, peat formation atop alluvial terraces, dated to 4000-3500 and 2000-1000 B.P.

  13. Evolution of geothermal fluids deduced from chemistry plots: Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazor, Emanuel; Thompson, J. M.

    1982-05-01

    Large amounts of chemical data, obtained in geothermal fields, may readily be sorted-out by the aid of a simple set of graphs that provide a clear over-all picture and facilitate the understanding of geochemical processes taking place. As a case study, data from several hundred samples of the thermal springs at the well-known Yellowstone National Park are discussed. The pattern obtained seems to indicate: (1) geochemical similarity between the spring groups of Heart Lake, Shoshone, Upper, Midway, Lower and Norris Geyser Basins, i.e., a geochemical uniformity of major spring groups located over 40 km apart; (2) these groups may be described as originating from a common fluid, most resembling the composition of Norris waters, accompanied by CO 2, and other volatiles, that react with igneous rocks, forming local variations; (3) the secondary reactions occur at (medium) depth, before the ascent to the surface; (4) extensive concentration-dilution processes occur during the ascent to the surface. The water of the Mammoth group may be described as originating from the same Norris-like fluid that has been diluted (low Na and Cl contents) and intensively reacted with carbonaceous rocks, thus gaining in Ca, Mg, SO 4, and HCO 3.

  14. Evolution of geothermal fluids deduced from chemistry plots: Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazor, E.; Thompson, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Large amounts of chemical data, obtained in geothermal fields, may readily be sorted-out by the aid of a simple set of graphs that provide a clear over-all picture and facilitate the understanding of geochemical processes taking place. As a case study, data from several hundred samples of the thermal springs at the well-known Yellowstone National Park are discussed. The pattern obtained seems to indicate: (1) geochemical similarity between the spring groups of Heart Lake, Shoshone, Upper, Midway, Lower and Norris Geyser Basins, i.e., a geochemical uniformity of major spring groups located over 40 km apart; (2) these groups may be described as originating from a common fluid, most resembling the composition of Norris waters, accompanied by CO2, and other volatiles, that react with igneous rocks, forming local variations; (3) the secondary reactions occur at (medium) depth, before the ascent to the surface; (4) extensive concentration-dilution processes occur during the ascent to the surface. The water of the Mammoth group may be described as originating from the same Norris-like fluid that has been diluted (low Na and Cl contents) and intensively reacted with carbonaceous rocks, thus gaining in Ca, Mg, SO4, and HCO3. ?? 1982.

  15. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author

  16. Storm Induced Changes of the Topside Ionosphere as Deduced from Incoherent Scatter Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    11484 Sep 18 05 16 to 1q84 Sep1, 9 05.16 UT Millstone Hill Ion teOMPO’dture (Til (K 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 LT 600 550 (b) j 500 450 350 b B 10 2...l 350 320 L/ 2 4 6 8 10 12 Id 16. )s 20 22 24 -1 1q84 Oct 17 00 08 o 19)84 Oct 18 00 08 UT Arecibo 22 24 2 4 6 8 0 12 14 16 8 20L 600 I (b) 450 400Y...22 24 UT 19B4 Sep iq 00.08 to 1q84 Sop 20 eZ.OB UT Arecibo Ion, tomp.o-atw-. IT1 K 1 22 24 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 LT 550 500J.50 (b) 45 400 350

  17. Shallow structure and recent evolution of the Aegean Sea deduced from the seismic reflection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laure, M.; Mascle, J.

    1988-08-01

    Together with the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Aegean Sea represents one of two marine basins still developing as a consequence of the subduction of the African lithosphere beneath Europe. Despite many geophysical similarities with the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Aegean displays a specific structural segmentation characterized by two distinct domains separated by the central Aegean. To the north of the basin, the so-called North Aegean trough likely represents the western marine extension of the transtensive Anatolian transform fault zone. The northern margin of this area contains a series of disconnected, often thickly sedimented small basins that probably initiated during the late Miocene as a consequence of a dominantly north-south extension; typical uppermost Miocene (Messinian) formations can be observed on seismic grounds. To the south, the Cretan Sea shows clear evidence of important distensive events occurring during two main episodes and following two main trends; a dominantly north-south-directed extension is responsibile for most of the structural features detected along both the Cretan and southern Cyclades margins.

  18. Distribution of buried hydrothermal alteration deduced from high-resolution magnetic surveys in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, Claire; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Blakely, Richard J.

    2014-04-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) displays numerous and extensive hydrothermal features. Although hydrothermal alteration in YNP has been extensively studied, the volume, geometry, and type of rock alteration at depth remain poorly constrained. In this study, we use high-resolution airborne and ground magnetic surveys and measurements of remanent and induced magnetization of field and drill core samples to provide constraints on the geometry of hydrothermal alteration within the subsurface of three thermal areas in YNP (Firehole River, Smoke Jumper Hot Springs, and Norris Geyser Basin). We observe that hydrothermal zones from both liquid- and vapor-dominated systems coincide with magnetic lows observed in aeromagnetic surveys and with a decrease of the amplitude of short-wavelength anomalies seen in ground magnetic surveys. This suggests a strong demagnetization of both the shallow and deep substratum within these areas associated with the removal of magnetic minerals by hydrothermal alteration processes. Such demagnetization is confirmed by measurements of rock samples from hydrothermal areas which display significantly decreased total magnetization. A pronounced negative anomaly is observed over the Lone Star Geyser and suggests a significant demagnetization of the substratum associated with areas displaying large-scale fluid flow. The ground and airborne magnetic surveys are used to evaluate the distribution of magnetization in the subsurface. This study shows that significant demagnetization occurs over a thickness of at least a few hundred meters in hydrothermal areas at YNP and that the maximum degree or maximum thickness of demagnetization correlates closely with the location of hydrothermal activity and mapped alteration.

  19. Une Experience Novatrice en Guinee-Bissau: Les Centres D'education Populaire Integree (CEPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Roland

    1980-09-01

    Since Guinea-Bissau attained independence, it has endeavoured to define a new system of education inspired chiefly by the experience gained in the liberated zones during the period of armed struggle. Thus, when primary education was extended by two years (from 4 to 6 years), an experiment with Centres of Integrated Popular Education (CEPI) was launched in 1977 in the region of Tombali in the Balante area. The present article gives an account of this altogether novel experiment. It underlines the basic principles of the CEPI: to involve adults in the elaboration of educational programmes; to introduce an alternation of school (where the children spend four days) with the community (where they spend the three following days); to link education with transformation. First evaluations have shown the interest taken by farmers in this new education system, which has now been extended to other regions of the country. However, major problems continue to arise, especially that of preparing new educators capable of reproducing the original pedagogical approach followed in the experimental zone without distorting it, and the problem of articulation of the CEPI with the rest of the educational system.

  20. A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity field and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Bills, B. G.; Rambaux, N.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Vaughan, A. T.; Ermakov, A. I.; Zuber, M. T.; Fu, R. R.; Toplis, M. J.; Russell, C. T.; Nathues, A.; Preusker, F.

    2016-09-01

    Remote observations of the asteroid (1) Ceres from ground- and space-based telescopes have provided its approximate density and shape, leading to a range of models for the interior of Ceres, from homogeneous to fully differentiated. A previously missing parameter that can place a strong constraint on the interior of Ceres is its moment of inertia, which requires the measurement of its gravitational variation together with either precession rate or a validated assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. However, Earth-based remote observations cannot measure gravity variations and the magnitude of the precession rate is too small to be detected. Here we report gravity and shape measurements of Ceres obtained from the Dawn spacecraft, showing that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium with its inferred normalized mean moment of inertia of 0.37. These data show that Ceres is a partially differentiated body, with a rocky core overlaid by a volatile-rich shell, as predicted in some studies. Furthermore, we show that the gravity signal is strongly suppressed compared to that predicted by the topographic variation. This indicates that Ceres is isostatically compensated, such that topographic highs are supported by displacement of a denser interior. In contrast to the asteroid (4) Vesta, this strong compensation points to the presence of a lower-viscosity layer at depth, probably reflecting a thermal rather than compositional gradient. To further investigate the interior structure, we assume a two-layer model for the interior of Ceres with a core density of 2,460-2,900 kilograms per cubic metre (that is, composed of CI and CM chondrites), which yields an outer-shell thickness of 70-190 kilometres. The density of this outer shell is 1,680-1,950 kilograms per cubic metre, indicating a mixture of volatiles and denser materials such as silicates and salts. Although the gravity and shape data confirm that the interior of Ceres evolved thermally, its partially differentiated interior indicates an evolution more complex than has been envisioned for mid-sized (less than 1,000 kilometres across) ice-rich rocky bodies.

  1. Dissecting mesenchymal stem cell movement: migration assays for tracing and deducing cell migration.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Erika L; Marini, Frank C

    2011-01-01

    Targeted migration is a necessary attribute for any gene delivery vehicle. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used as effective delivery vehicles for treatments against cancer, graft versus host disease, -arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and many other diseases. MSC migrate toward sites of inflammation, however, the true migratory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. There are several receptors and respective chemokines known to be involved in the migration of the MSC. Further insight to MSC migration will be revealed both in vivo and in vitro through the application of migration assays from the most simple, to the more technologically demanding.

  2. Irradiation History of Itokawa Regolith Material Deduced from Noble Gases in the Hayabusa Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Keisuke; Okazaki, Ryuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Miura, Yayoi N.; Osawa, Takahito; Bajo, Ken-ichi; Matsuda, Shintaro; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ireland, Trevor R.; Kitajima, Fumio; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Takaaki; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Zolensky, Michael E.; Uesugi, Masayuki; Shirai, Kei; Abe, Masanao; Yada, Toru; Ishibashi, Yukihiro; Fujimura, Akio; Mukai, Toshifumi; Ueno, Munetaka; Okada, Tatsuaki; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2011-08-01

    Noble gas isotopes were measured in three rocky grains from asteroid Itokawa to elucidate a history of irradiation from cosmic rays and solar wind on its surface. Large amounts of solar helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) trapped in various depths in the grains were observed, which can be explained by multiple implantations of solar wind particles into the grains, combined with preferential He loss caused by frictional wear of space-weathered rims on the grains. Short residence time of less than 8 million years was implied for the grains by an estimate on cosmic-ray-produced 21Ne. Our results suggest that Itokawa is continuously losing its surface materials into space at a rate of tens of centimeters per million years. The lifetime of Itokawa should be much shorter than the age of our solar system.

  3. Tropospheric OH and Cl levels deduced from non-methane hydrocarbon measurements in a marine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsene, C.; Bougiatioti, A.; Kanakidou, M.; Bonsang, B.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2007-09-01

    In situ continuous hourly measurements of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCS) have been performed from March to October 2006 at two coastal locations (natural and rural) on the island of Crete, in the Eastern Mediterranean. Well defined diel variations were observed for several short lived NMHCS (including ethene, propene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, 2-methyl-pentane). The daytime concentration of hydroxyl (OH) radicals estimated from these experimental data varied from 1.3×106 to ~4.0×106 radical cm-3, in good agreement with box-model simulations. In addition the relative variability of various hydrocarbon pairs (at least 7) was used to derive the tropospheric levels of Cl atoms. The Cl atom concentration has been estimated to range between 0.6×104 and 4.7×104 atom cm-3, in good agreement with gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) observations in the area. Such levels of Cl atoms can be of considerable importance for the oxidation capacity of the troposphere on a regional scale.

  4. Tropospheric OH and Cl levels deduced from non-methane hydrocarbon measurements in a marine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsene, C.; Bougiatioti, A.; Kanakidou, M.; Bonsang, B.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2007-05-01

    In situ continuous hourly measurements of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCS) have been performed from March to October 2006 at two coastal locations on the island of Crete, in the Eastern Mediterranean. Well defined diurnal variations were observed for several short lived NMHCS (including ethene, propene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, 2-methyl-pentane). The daytime concentration of hydroxyl (OH) radicals estimated from these experimental data varied from 1.3×106 to ~4.0×106 radical cm-3, in good agreement with box-model simulations. In addition the relative variability of various hydrocarbon pairs (at least 7) was used to derive the tropospheric levels of Cl atoms. The Cl atom concentration has been estimated to range between 0.6×104 and 4.7×104 atom cm-3, in good agreement with gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) observations in the area. Such levels of Cl atoms can be of considerable importance for the oxidation capacity of the troposphere on a regional scale.

  5. Identification of widespread pollution in the southern hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses. [AFRICA

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, J. ); Fakhruzzaman, K. ); Cros, B.; Nganga, D. )

    1991-06-21

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville, Congo (4{degree}S, 15{degree}E), and Ascension Island (98{degree}S, 15{degree}W) show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from the region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of carbon monoxide and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed.

  6. The Energy of Olivine Grain Boundaries Deduced from Grain Boundary Frequency Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, K.; Rohrer, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    The properties of grain boundaries strongly differ from those of the crystal lattice, and there is growing evidence that the presence of grain boundaries influence detected geophysical signals such as electrical conductivity and seismic velocities especially in aggregates with a LPO that favours the alignment of specific grain boundaries. However, neither the anisotropic frequency or energy distribution of grain boundary networks are understood in olivine dominated aggregates, neither with nor without LPO. We used electron backscatter diffraction, EBSD to detect the orientations of over 1.4x104 grains corresponding to roughly 5000mm length of grain boundary separating them. Subsequently we used a stereological approach to determine the grain boundary character distribution, GBCD, defined as the relative areas of grain boundaries of different types, distinguished by their five degrees of freedom (Rohrer, 2007). The grain boundary planes showed a preference for low index planes, which is in agreement with recent findings on other materials (e.g. MgO, TiO2, SrTiO3, MgAl2O4). However, our inferred surface energies are controversial with respect to previously simulated surface energies (Watson et al., 1997; de Leeuw et al., 2000; Gurmani et al., 2011). We find that the principal crystallographic planes have the lowest energies and that at 60° misorientation specific grain boundaries with common [100] axis of misorientation are favored compared to 60° misorientations about random axis of rotation. This seems to support the results of (Faul and Fitz Gerald, 1999), even though our data imply that 90°/[001] (100)(010) should be even less favorable for the propagation of melt films. These differences and similarities will be discussed with respect to the different methods and their limitations. References: Faul U. H. and Fitz Gerald J. D. (1999) Phys. Chem. Miner. 26, 187-197. Gurmani S. F. et al. (2011). J. Geophys. Res. 116, B12209. De Leeuw N. H. et al. (2000) Phys. Chem. Miner. 27, 332-341. Rohrer G. S. et al. (2004) Z. Metallkd. 95, 1-18. Watson G. W., Oliver P. M. and Parker S. C. (1997) Phys. Chem. Miner. 25, 70-78.

  7. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows.

    PubMed

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick

    2005-03-31

    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect.

  8. Millennial-scale hard rock erosion rates deduced from luminescence-depth profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbati, R.; Liu, J.; Murray, A. S.; Jain, M.; Pederson, J. L.; Guralnik, B.; Egholm, D. L.; Gupta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a well-established Quaternary dating method that is conventionally used to determine the time when sedimentary grains were last exposed to daylight. Recently, a very different approach to this concept has helped develop a new technique to estimate the length of time a rock surface was exposed to daylight. When a rock surface is first exposed to daylight the charge population (and so the latent luminescence signal) trapped in its constituent minerals (e.g. quartz and feldspar) starts to decrease. This charge had accumulated due to previous exposure to natural ionizing radiation. As the surface is exposed to light for longer periods, the latent luminescence signal is reduced farther into the rock. In a rock surface which has been exposed to light for a prolonged period (decades to millennia), the remaining luminescence will be zero (fully bleached) at the surface and then increase, initially exponentially, before approaching saturation at a depth where charge detrapping due to light penetration is negligible compared to the rate of charge trapping due to the environmental dose rate. By modelling the characteristic shape of luminescence resetting with depth into rock surfaces, Sohbati et al. (2012) proposed a new surface-exposure dating technique based on OSL. Here we further develop the current model to include the effect of erosion rate on luminescence-depth profiles. By fitting the model to local known-age calibration samples, we first determine the site-specific resetting rates of the luminescence signal at rock surfaces. We then use the calibration values in a numerical model to derive the steady-state erosion rate for rocks of different mineralogy and different geological settings. The preliminary erosion rates obtained from glacial and landslide granite boulders from the Chinese Pamir Plateau are ~1 mm.ka-1, whereas active streambeds of Permian sandstone in the Grabens district of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, are eroding at rates of >10 mm.ka-1, consistent with the existing denudation rates derived from cosmogenic nuclides.

  9. Requirements for a marine geoid compatible with geoid deducible from satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fubara, D. M. J.; Mourad, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Theory deficiencies, data, and potential computational procedures that make the physical determination of the ocean geoid with true scale, shape, and absolute orientation of an elusive target are outlined. Satellite altimetry potential, in combination with adequate ground support and sea truth to resolve accurate global marine geoid and other peripheral benefits associated with ocean physics, are stated. Results are given in tabular form.

  10. The mechanism of the acclimation of Nannochloropsis oceanica to freshwater deduced from its transcriptome profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of Nannochloropsis oceanica cultured in f/2 medium prepared with sea-water and freshwater, respectively, aiming to understand the acclimation mechanism of this alga to freshwater. Differentially expressed genes were mainly assigned to the degradation of cell components, ion transportation, and ribosomal biogenesis. These findings indicate that the algal cells degrade its components (mainly amino acids and fatty acids) to yield excessive energy (ATP) to maintain cellular ion (mainly K+ and Ca2+) homeostasis, while the depletion of amino acids and ATP, and the reduction of ribosomes attenuate the protein translation and finally slow down the cell growth.

  11. The age of the Veritas asteroid family deduced by chaotic chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Farinella, Paolo

    1994-07-01

    ASTEROID families are groups of objects produced in disruptive collisions of a parent body. Although family members are widely dispersed in real space, they cluster in the parameter space defined by their so-called proper elements, and can thus be distinguished from the background asteroid population1-3. For most asteroids, these parameters are very close to being invariants of motion and families are still apparent billions of years after their formation4'5. But these parameters undergo chaotic diffusion, and in some cases the rate of diffusion might be large enough that a family member exits from the region of proper-element space occupied by the family after a characteristic time which is shorter than the lifetime of the Solar System. In this case, the characteristic time should provide an approximate upper bound to the age of the family. Here we use this 'chaotic chronology' method to estimate the lifetime of the unusually compact Veritas family. Calculations of the evolu-tion of the proper elements of the family show that two members (including the largest, 490 Veritas) wander outside the borders of the family on a timescale of about 50 Myr, indicating that the family has an age of less than this.

  12. Low Angle Contact Between the Oaxaca and Juárez Terranes Deduced From Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzate-Flores, Jorge A.; Molina-Garza, Roberto; Corbo-Camargo, Fernando; Márquez-Ramírez, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    We present the electrical resistivity model along a profile perpendicular to the Middle America trench in southern Mexico that reveals previously unrecognized tectonic features at upper to mid-crustal depths. Our results support the hypotheses that the upper crust of the Oaxaca terrane is a residual ~20 km thick crust composed by an ~10 km thick faulted crustal upper layer and an ~10 km thick hydrated and/or mineralized layer. Oaxaca basement overthrust the younger Juárez (or Cuicateco) terrane. The electrical resistivity model supports the interpretation of a slab subducting at a low angle below Oaxaca. Uplift in the Oaxaca region appears to be related to fault reactivation induced by low angle subduction. In the Juárez terrane, isostatic forces may contribute to uplift because it is largely uncompensated. In the Sierra Madre del Sur, closer to the coast, uplift is facilitated by slab-dehydration driven buoyancy. Both gravity and resistivity models are consistent with a thinned upper crust in the northeast end of the profile.

  13. Can reliable values of Young's modulus be deduced from Fisher's (1971) spinning lens measurements?

    PubMed

    Burd, H J; Wilde, G S; Judge, S J

    2006-04-01

    The current textbook view of the causes of presbyopia rests very largely on a series of experiments reported by R.F. Fisher some three decades ago, and in particular on the values of lens Young's modulus inferred from the deformation caused by spinning excised lenses about their optical axis (Fisher 1971) We studied the extent to which inferred values of Young's modulus are influenced by assumptions inherent in the mathematical procedures used by Fisher to interpret the test and we investigated several alternative interpretation methods. The results suggest that modelling assumptions inherent in Fisher's original method may have led to systematic errors in the determination of the Young's modulus of the cortex and nucleus. Fisher's conclusion that the cortex is stiffer than the nucleus, particularly in middle age, may be an artefact associated with these systematic errors. Moreover, none of the models we explored are able to account for Fisher's claim that the removal of the capsule has only a modest effect on the deformations induced in the spinning lens.

  14. Substrate binding mode and reaction mechanism of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase deduced from crystallographic studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sing-Yang; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Annie P-C; Wang, Andrew H-J; Liang, Po-Huang

    2004-04-01

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPs) catalyzes eight consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) with isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to form a 55-carbon long-chain product. We previously reported the crystal structure of the apo-enzyme from Escherichia coli and the structure of UPPs in complex with sulfate ions (resembling pyrophosphate of substrate), Mg(2+), and two Triton molecules (product-like). In the present study, FPP substrate was soaked into the UPPs crystals, and the complex structure was solved. Based on the crystal structure, the pyrophosphate head group of FPP is bound to the backbone NHs of Gly29 and Arg30 as well as the side chains of Asn28, Arg30, and Arg39 through hydrogen bonds. His43 is close to the C2 carbon of FPP and may stabilize the farnesyl cation intermediate during catalysis. The hydrocarbon moiety of FPP is bound with hydrophobic amino acids including Leu85, Leu88, and Phe89, located on the alpha3 helix. The binding mode of FPP in cis-type UPPs is apparently different from that of trans-type and many other prenyltransferases which utilize Asprich motifs for substrate binding via Mg(2+). The new structure provides a plausible mechanism for the catalysis of UPPs.

  15. Structural Investigations of Afghanistan Deduced from Remote Sensing and Potential Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saibi, Hakim; Azizi, Masood; Mogren, Saad

    2016-08-01

    This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS), tilt derivative (TDR), horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR), Euler Deconvolution (ED) and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures. The analysis of remote sensing data and potential field data reveals the regional geological structural characteristics of Afghanistan. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic and gravity data suggests shallow basement rocks at around 1 to 1.5 km depth. The results of TDR of potential field data are in agreement with the location of the major regional fault structures and also the location of the basins and swells, except in the Helmand region (SW Afghanistan) where many high potential field anomalies are observed and attributed to batholiths and near-surface volcanic rocks intrusions. A high-resolution airborne geophysical survey in the data sparse region of eastern Afghanistan is recommended in order to have a complete image of the potential field anomalies.

  16. Observed and modeled global-ocean turbulence regimes as deduced from surface trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Jenny A. U.; Döös, Kristofer; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Artale, Vincenzo; Coward, Andrew; Brodeau, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to follow up and remember the work on Lagrangian diffusion undertaken by Volfango Rupolo, who died prematurely nearly three years ago. It was within this field that he achieved the highest of creativity, and his rather recent 2007 work Rupolo (2007) is undoubtedly the fullest and most important example. In that paper, he identified the utility of the relationship between the acceleration and velocity time scales of Lagrangian trajectories, and he separated these trajectories into four homogenous classes according to their correlation and dispersal properties. This classification is better known as 'trajectories taxonomy' and can be used to characterize and separate different turbulence regimes in the global ocean (Rupolo, 2007). He showed that the Lagrangian time scales could be obtained from the inverse use of Lagrangian Stochastic Models, and proposed a screening method for rationalizing the data analysis using the time scale relationships, and successfully applied it to both drifter and Argo-float observations. In the present study, his data analysis methods have been extended to study and evaluate trajectories from both surface drifters and an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) with different grid resolutions. The drifter data can most accurately be described as quasi-Lagrangian trajectories due to the fact that although the buoy is freely drifting in the horizontal plane, it is anchored at 15 m depth by its drogue, and thus the observed trajectories represent a two-dimensional (2D) approximation of the surrounding flow field. The model trajectories were obtained by analytical computations of the particle advection equation, using the Lagrangian open-source software package TRACMASS, in the near-surface velocity fields from three different configurations of the global NEMO Ocean/Sea-Ice general circulation model. In global-scale ocean modeling, compromises are frequently made in terms of grid resolution and time-averaging of the output fields since high-resolution data require considerable amounts of storage space. Here, the implications of such approximations on the modeled velocity fields and, consequently, on the particle dispersion, have been assessed through the validation against observed drifter tracks. This study aims, moreover, to shed some light on the relatively unknown turbulent properties of the near-surface ocean dynamics and its representation in numerical models globally and in a number of key regions. These results could be of interest for other studies within the field of turbulent eddy-diffusion parameterization in ocean models, or ocean circulation studies involving long-term coarse-grid model experiments.

  17. Topoclimatic features as deduced from remote sensing and their impacts on ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, Itamar; Dayan, Uri

    2010-05-01

    Several recent studies have shown that global models are not capable to predict accurately the evolution of climate changes and variability on the regional scale. Misinterpretation of the anticipated climate change impacts on plants and animals are caused by failure of models to capture topoclimatic conditions. In order to capture the climate spatial variability induced by topography it is necessary to conduct topoclimatological studies. The steady growth in remote sensing and its capacities to monitor spatial patterns in climate driven by topography seems to be an indispensable tool to fill the spatial gap existing in topoclimatic studies. We analyzed time series of Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's TERRA satellite using temporal Fourier analysis for the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). RGB display of the mean, amplitude and phase of the first harmonic (annual) were used to decipher topoclimatic features, e.g. cold patches of few kilometers differing much from their vicinity, driven by local topography. These time series were also used to calculate recent decadal trends on a fine spatial resolution of 1 km. The decadal trend over the EM is of about 0.3oC with very large local variability (-1.5 to 1.5oC). The day LST trends values are larger than those obtained for the night time, implying tendency towards a more continental climate (desertification). The thermal heterogeneity resulting from topographic diversity has strong impacts on ecological systems (e.g. biodiversity) and on agriculture (e.g. pest management, crop production). Examples of such impacts will be shown for present and predicted climate for 20 years over the EM.

  18. Cirrus properties deduced from CO2 lidar observations of zenith-enhanced backscatter from oriented crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.

    1993-01-01

    Many lidar researchers have occasionally observed zenith-enhanced backscatter (ZEB) from middle and high clouds. The ZEB signature consists of strong backscatter when the lidar is pointed directly at zenith and a dramatic decline in backscatter as the zenith angle dips slightly off zenith. Mirror-like reflection from horizontal facets of oriented crystals (especially plates) is generally accepted as the cause. It was found during a 3-year observation program that approximately 50 percent of ice clouds had ZEB, regardless of cloud height. The orientation of crystals and the ZEB they cause are important to study and understand for several reasons. First, radiative transfer in clouds with oriented crystals is different than if the same particles were randomly oriented. Second, crystal growth depends partly on the orientation of the particles. Third, ZEB measurements may provide useful information about cirrus microphysical and radiative properties. Finally, the remarkable effect of ZEB on lidar signals should be understood in order to properly interpret lidar data.

  19. Properties of CIRRUS Overlapping Clouds as Deduced from the GOES-12 Imagery Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Khaiyer, Mandana

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cirrus clouds on modifying both the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiations is crucial for climate studies. Unlike most boundary layer stratus and stratocumulus clouds that have a net cooling effect on the climate, high-level thin cirrus clouds can have a warming effect on our climate. Many research efforts have been devoted to retrieving cirrus cloud properties due to their ubiquitous presence. However, using satellite observations to detect and/or retrieve cirrus cloud properties faces two major challenges. First, they are often semitransparent at visible to infrared wavelengths; and secondly, they often occur over a lower cloud system. The overlapping of high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud poses a difficulty in determining the individual cloud top altitudes and optical properties, especially when the signals from cirrus clouds are overwhelmed by the signals of stratus clouds. Moreover, the operational satellite retrieval algorithms, which often assume only single layer cloud in the development of cloud retrieval techniques, cannot resolve the cloud overlapping situation properly. The new geostationary satellites, starting with the Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12), are providing a new suite of imager bands that have replaced the conventional 12-micron channel with a 13.3-micron CO2 absorption channel. The replacement of the 13.3-micron channel allows for the application of a CO2-slicing retrieval technique (Chahine et al. 1974; Smith and Platt 1978), which is one of the important passive satellite methods for remote sensing the altitudes of mid to high-level clouds. Using the CO2- slicing technique is more effective in detecting semitransparent cirrus clouds than using the conventional infrared-window method.

  20. Tracer transport in the stratosphere deduced from satellite data and a two-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    The effective transport velocity (e.g., the meridional circulation that can produce the observed seasonal variations in the tracer fields) is estimated from both observed tracer distributions and model simulations in the stratosphere. The equatorial double peak structure is emphasized among other features of tracer mixing ratio fields to validate the transport velocity. Three years of zonally averaged N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} data from the SAMS instrument on Nimbus 7 are utilized to investigate the annual and semiannual cycles in long-lived tracer mixing ratios. The annual and semiannual variations are shown to be approximately antisymmetric and symmetric about the equator, respectively. Using the first three components of the cycles to estimate the time tendency, the tracer continuity equation is solved diagnostically to obtain the effective transport velocity. A two dimensional isentropic coordinate model is constructed for further study. The meridional velocities and horizontal diffusion coefficients are calculated from the net radiative heating and the x-momentum equation respectively. The tracer continuity equation is integrated in time for N{sub 2}O by using the diabatic circulation and diffusion coefficients. To intensify the equinoctial subsidence, the climatological zonal mean wind and corresponding temperature fields are modified by using a stronger semiannual oscillation in the equatorial region. Thus, the new vertical velocity fields produced change in the resulting tracer patterns.

  1. Ozone trends deduced from combined Nimbus 7 SBUV and NOAA 11 SBUV/2 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, S. M.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Planet, W.; Miller, A. J.; Chandra, S.

    1995-01-01

    The long-term time series of global ozone from the Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) (Nov. 1978-June 1990) are extended through June 1994 by using measurements from the NOAA-11 SBUV/2. The data sets are merged based upon comparisons during the 18-month overlap period in which both instruments were operational. During this period, the average offset between the two time series is less than 2% in total ozone, and less than 6% in Umkehr layers 1-10. A linear-regression trend model is applied to the extended time series to calculate updated trends as a function of latitude and altitude. Trends through June 1994 are 1.5-2% per decade less negative than through June 1990 in the tropical middle stratosphere (35-40 km) and in the upper stratosphere (45-50 km) at mid-latitudes. In the lower stratosphere, the trends are nearly 1.5% per decade more negative in the southern hemisphere tropical regions to 25 deg S, but remain relatively unchanged elsewhere. The seasonal structure of the total ozone trends is similar to past trend study results, but the magnitude of the seasonal trend can vary by 2% per decade depending on the length of the time series. Both Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) (through April 1993) and SBUV total ozone time series show small negative trends in the equatorial region, though they are not statistically at the 2-sigma level.

  2. Dust charging and density conditions deduced from observations of PMWE modulated by artificial electron heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havnes, O.; La Hoz, C.; Rietveld, M. T.; Kassa, M.; Baroni, G.; Biebricher, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present an analysis of relatively strong Polar Mesospheric Winter Echoes (PMWE) under artificial electron heating that changes the PMWE intensity. A major purpose is to find reliable estimates of the relaxation time of the heater modified PMWE to their undisturbed state during the heater switch-off phase; the implications regarding charge/discharge mechanisms; and to exploit the diagnostic potential of artificial electron heating. The relaxation time is between 60 to 70 s for the regions with strong PMWE layers and substantial electron heating. This short relaxation time, related to the variation of charges on the nanometer dust which most likely is present in PMWE, rules out ion attachment as the mechanism to bring the dust charges to their equilibrium state. Neutral winds, sweeping the heated electrons out of the radar beam, are unlikely to be the cause of the observed relaxation, since this requires winds of around 100 m s-1. The most probable cause is photo detachment by which negatively charged dust can lose excess electrons by photon absorption with energies less than the dust material's work function. By comparing the observed heating with heating model profiles, the electron density at 65 km height must have been of the order of 3 × 109 m-3. This agrees with PMWE occurring mainly during disturbed conditions with high electron densities. Our results also indicate that in the strongest PMWE layers, electron bite-outs exist consistent with the role of charged dust particles in the mechanism of PMWE and implying larger dust densities.

  3. Enzymatic properties, crystallization, and deduced amino acid sequence of an alkaline endoglucanase from Bacillus circulans.

    PubMed

    Hakamada, Yoshihiro; Endo, Keiji; Takizawa, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Yamane, Takashi; Ito, Susumu

    2002-04-15

    A high-isoelectric-point (pI), alkaline endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (Egl-257) of Bacillus circulans KSM-N257 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with optima of pH 8.5 and 55 degrees C. The molecular mass was 43 kDa, and the pI was pH 9.3. The structural gene contained a single open reading frame of 1221 bp, corresponding to 407 amino acids (aa), including a 30-aa signal peptide (377 aa and 41,680 Da for the mature enzyme). Egl-257 hydrolyzed lichenan and showed 76.3% aa identity to a lichenase from B. circulans WL-12 belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 8 but did not hydrolyze laminarin, curdran, and xylan at all. This indicates that Egl-257 is a true endo-1,4-beta-glucanase. However, this enzyme was not active on p-nitrophenyl beta-D-cellotrioside and p-nitrophenyl beta-D-cellotetraoside. It was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method with phosphate plus CdCl(2) as precipitant. Pyramid-like crystals were formed, and they diffracted X-rays beyond 2.2 A resolution. It belongs to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell parameters of a=62.5 A, b=71.7 A, and c=88.6 A.

  4. Accretion timescale and impact history of Mars deduced from the isotopic systematics of martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Lars E.; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Symes, Steven J. K.

    2016-02-01

    High precision Sm-Nd isotopic analyses have been completed on a suite of 11 martian basaltic meteorites in order to better constrain the age of silicate differentiation on Mars associated with the formation of their mantle sources. These data are used to evaluate the merits and disadvantages of various mathematical approaches that have been employed in previous work on this topic. Ages determined from the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of individual samples are strongly dependent on the assumed Nd isotopic composition of the bulk planet. This assumption is problematic given differences observed between the Nd isotopic composition of Earth and chondritic meteorites and the fact that these materials are both commonly used to represent bulk planetary Nd isotopic compositions. Ages determined from the slope of 146Sm-142Nd whole rock isochrons are not dependent on the assumed 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the planet, but require the sample suite to be derived from complementary, contemporaneously-formed reservoirs. In this work, we present a mathematical expression that defines the age of formation of the source regions of such a suite of samples that is based solely on the slope of a 143Nd-142Nd whole rock isochron and is also independent of any a priori assumptions regarding the bulk isotopic composition of the planet. This expression is also applicable to mineral isochrons and has been used to successfully calculate 143Nd-142Nd model crystallization ages of early refractory solids as well as lunar samples. This permits ages to be obtained using only Nd isotopic measurements without the need for 147Sm/144Nd isotope dilution determinations. When used in conjunction with high-precision Nd isotopic measurements completed on martian meteorites this expression yields an age of formation of the martian basaltic meteorite source regions of 4504 ± 6 Ma. Because the Sm-Nd model ages for the formation of martian source regions are commonly interpreted to record the age at which large scale mantle reservoirs formed during planetary differentiation associated with magma ocean solidification, the age determined here implies that magma ocean solidification occurred several tens of millions of years after the beginning of the Solar System. Recent thermal models, however, suggest that Mars-sized bodies cool rapidly in less than ∼5 Ma after accretion ceases, even in the presence of a thick atmosphere. Assuming these models are correct, an extended period of accretion is necessary to provide a mechanism to keep portions of the martian mantle partially molten until 4504 Ma. Late accretional heating of Mars could either be associated with protracted accretion occurring at a quasi-steady state or alternatively be associated with a late giant impact. If this scenario is correct, then accretion of Mars-sized bodies takes up to 60 Ma and is likely to be contemporaneous with the core formation and possibly the onset of silicate differentiation. This further challenges the concept that isotopic equilibrium is attained during primordial evolution of planets, and may help to account for geochemical evidence implying addition of material into planetary interiors after core formation was completed.

  5. Diurnal Variation of Hydration from Lunar Soil Deduced from Albedo Proton Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Wilson, J. K.; Looper, M.; Jordan, A. P.; Spence, H. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Petro, N.; Stubbs, T. J.; Pieters, C.; Townsend, L. W.

    2016-11-01

    We show first results from CRaTER comparing horizon to nadir observations in morning and evening sectors. Significant differences in the ratio of horizon to nadir protons suggests migration of volatiles may cause observed variations.

  6. Structure-property relationships in major ampullate spider silk as deduced from polarized FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, P.; Sölter, J.; Kremer, F.

    2007-10-01

    Polarized Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to study structure-property relationships in major ampullate spider silk being exposed to an external mechanical strain. From the measured infrared dichroism of aminoacid-residue - specific bands the molecular order parameter, the frequency width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the spectral position of the absorption maximum are determined in dependence on the external strain. For the highly ordered alanine-rich β sheets a change in the vibrational potential is found for macroscopic strains as low as a few percent. It can be quantitatively described by a quantum-mechanical approach in which the mechanical strain is treated as a weak external perturbation. The immediate microscopic response to the external field proves that β -sheeted crystals are tightly interconnected by pre-stretched chains as suggested recently (Y. Liu et al., Nat. Mater. 4, 901 (2005)).

  7. High-frequency Earth rotation variations deduced from altimetry-based ocean tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madzak, Matthias; Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Bosch, Wolfgang; Hagedoorn, Jan

    2016-11-01

    A model of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations in Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is constructed based on altimetry-measured tidal heights from a multi-mission empirical ocean tide solution. Barotropic currents contributing to relative angular momentum changes are estimated for nine major tides in a global inversion algorithm that solves the two-dimensional momentum equations on a regular 0.5° grid with a heavily weighted continuity constraint. The influence of 19 minor tides is accounted for by linear admittance interpolation of ocean tidal angular momentum, although the assumption of smooth admittance variations with frequency appears to be a doubtful concept for semi-diurnal mass terms in particular. A validation of the newly derived model based on post-fit corrections to polar motion and universal time (Δ UT1) from the analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations shows a variance reduction for semi-diurnal Δ UT1 residuals that is significant at the 0.05 level with respect to the conventional ERP model. Improvements are also evident for the explicitly modeled K_1, Q_1, and K_2 tides in individual ERP components, but large residuals of more than 15 μ as remain at the principal lunar frequencies of O_1 and M_2. We attribute these shortcomings to uncertainties in the inverted relative angular momentum changes and, to a minor extent, to violation of mass conservation in the empirical ocean tide solution. Further dedicated hydrodynamic modeling efforts of these anomalous constituents are required to meet the accuracy standards of modern space geodesy.

  8. Climate stability as deduced from an idealized coupled atmosphere-ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, B.; Weaver, A.J.

    1995-04-01

    The stability of an idealized climate system is investigated using a simple coupled atmosphere-ocean box model. Motivated by the results from general circulation models. the main physical constraint imposed on the system is that the net radiation at the top of the atmosphere is fixed. The specification of an invariant equatorial atmospheric temperature. Consistent with paleoclimatic data, allows the hydrological cycle to be internally determined from the poleward heat transport budget, resulting in a model that has a plausible representation of the hydrological cycle-thermohaline circulation interaction. The model suggests that the stability and variability of the climate system depends fundamentally on the mean climatic state (total heat content of the system). When the total heat content of the climate system is low, a stable present-day equilibrium exists with high-latitude sinking. Conversely, when the total heat content is high, a stable equatorial sinking equilibrium exists. For a range of intermediate values of the total heat content, internal climatic oscillations can occur through a hydrological cycle-thermohaline circulation feedback process. Experiments conducted with the model reveal that under a 100-year 2xCO{sub 2} warming, the thermohaline circulation first collapses but then recovers. Under a 100-year 4 x CO{sub 2} warming, the thermohaline circulation collapses and remains collapsed. Recent paleoclimatic data suggest that the climate system may behave very differently for warmer climate. Our results suggest that this may be attributed to the enhanced poleward freshwater transport, which causes increased instability of the present-day thermohaline circulation. 50 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. How historical seismicity in oceans can be deduced from sailors' testimonies and related to modern tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Denis; Rouland, Daniel; Cisternas, Armando; Streng, Daniel; Gir, Roopa; Souriau, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Before seismological catalogs were routinely produced, seafarers experienced major seismic events at sea that were documented in their logs. This article analyzes some of these old records - mostly from eighteenth and nineteenth centuries - in the context of plate tectonics. Large shocks that were felt on ships are related either to earthquakes, sub-marine volcanic eruptions, or to sub-marine sliding of rocks and/or sediments. We analyze various related parameters such as the location and size of the shaking, the duration of the shock, and the associated noise. A total of 396 observations have been retained for this study, mostly located in the Atlantic Ocean, reflecting its intense maritime traffic during the period of interest. Some of the detailed accounts allow us to clearly identify the nature of the shocks, including a possible interpretation in terms of focal mechanism. Our results, when compared to historical catalogs, reveal many previously undetected large events. Macroseismic results for a few large historical events occurring near the coasts confirm the validity of our approach, but also reveal its limitations. The good locations of most of the events allow us to relate them to plate boundaries. The Romanche transform zone has deserved particular interest due to the large number of related testimonies. This study particularly illustrates that historical seismicity may be applied to oceans. The collected testimonies also show how impressive and dangerous these large earthquakes at sea are, despite the absence of S-waves.

  10. Neutrino properties deduced from the study of lepton number violating processes at low and high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoica, Sabin

    2012-11-20

    There is nowadays a significant progress in understanding the neutrino properties. The results of the neutrino oscillation experiments have convincingly showed that neutrinos have mass and oscillate, in contradiction with the Standard Model (SM) assumptions, and these are the first evidences of beyond SM physics. However, fundamental properties of the neutrinos like their absolute mass, their character (are they Dirac or Majorana particles?), their mass hierarchy, the number of neutrino flavors, etc., still remain unknown. In this context there is an increased interest in the study of the lepton number violating (LNV) processes, since they could complete our understanding on the neutrino properties. Since recently, the neutrinoless double beta decay was considered the only process able to distinguish between Dirac or Majorana neutrinos and to give a hint on the absolute mass of the electron neutrino. At present, the increased luminosity of the LHC experiments makes feasible the search of LNV processes at high energy as well. In this lecture I will make a brief review on our present knowledge of the neutrino properties, on the present status of the double-beta decay studies and on the first attempts to search LNV processes at LHC.

  11. Inner ear anatomy is a proxy for deducing auditory capability and behaviour in reptiles and birds.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Stig A; Barrett, Paul M; Milner, Angela C; Manley, Geoffrey; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2009-04-07

    Inferences of hearing capabilities and audition-related behaviours in extinct reptiles and birds have previously been based on comparing cochlear duct dimensions with those of living species. However, the relationship between inner-ear bony anatomy and hearing ability or vocalization has never been tested rigorously in extant or fossil taxa. Here, micro-computed tomographic analysis is used to investigate whether simple endosseous cochlear duct (ECD) measurements can be fitted to models of hearing sensitivity, vocalization, sociality and environmental preference in 59 extant reptile and bird species, selected based on their vocalization ability. Length, rostrocaudal/mediolateral width and volume measurements were taken from ECD virtual endocasts and scaled to basicranial length. Multiple regression of these data with measures of hearing sensitivity, vocal complexity, sociality and environmental preference recovered positive correlations between ECD length and hearing range/mean frequency, vocal complexity, the behavioural traits of pair bonding and living in large aggregations, and a negative correlation between ECD length/rostrocaudal width and aquatic environments. No other dimensions correlated with these variables. Our results suggest that ECD length can be used to predict mean hearing frequency and range in fossil taxa, and that this measure may also predict vocal complexity and large group sociality given comprehensive datasets.

  12. Shallow cumulus processes deduced from subcloud flux measurements and parameterization schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Oetles, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to improve understanding of shallow cumulus in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), to quantitatively measure their subcloud root processes, and to link those measurements to estimates of cloud layer processes. Subcloud aircraft turbulence data for three days from the 1986 HAPEX project in southwest France is extensively analyzed. Various parameterizations of cloud layer processes are used to estimate cumulus layer effects by employing the subcloud fluxes as boundary conditions. Case 1 (5/21/86) had active cumuli; over the forest they were deep and large in diameter, but clouds over farmland were shallow and small in diameter. Case 2 (5/9/86) has also weak active cumulus with a smaller vertical depth and case 3 (6/13/86) had only forced cumuli. Four methods of decomposition of turbulence data have been employed: by land surface-cumulus regime, by proximity to clouds and clear areas, by scale, and by turbulence process types. In the presence strong active cumuli from case 1, the turbulent fluxes and energy are intensified, due to the cloud [open quotes]root[close quotes] effects. The strong active cumuli are initiated by warm-moist thermals. Since cumulus layer flux measurements were not made during the HAPEX experiment, different parameterization schemes have been used to estimate cloud layer fluxes. The schemes are: the simple cumulus flux scheme, the Betts-Miller adjustment scheme, an eddy diffusion scheme, and a new eddy diffusion scheme with counter-gradient term which is developed as a part of this study. For the strong active cumulus regime from case 1, the liquid water potential temperature and total water fluxes obtained from different parameterization schemes yield very similar results. Unlike the other parameterization schemes, the new eddy diffusion scheme with a counter-gradient term yields upward buoyancy fluxes which are in a good agreement with earlier studies.

  13. Decadal variability in core surface flows deduced from geomagnetic observatory monthly means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaler, K. A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.

    2016-10-01

    Monthly means of the magnetic field measurements at ground observatories are a key data source for studying temporal changes of the core magnetic field. However, when they are calculated in the usual way, contributions of external (magnetospheric and ionospheric) origin may remain, which make them less favourable for studying the field generated by dynamo action in the core. We remove external field predictions, including a new way of characterizing the magnetospheric ring current, from the data and then calculate revised monthly means using robust methods. The geomagnetic secular variation (SV) is calculated as the first annual differences of these monthly means, which also removes the static crustal field. SV time-series based on revised monthly means are much less scattered than those calculated from ordinary monthly means, and their variances and correlations between components are smaller. On the annual to decadal timescale, the SV is generated primarily by advection in the fluid outer core. We demonstrate the utility of the revised monthly means by calculating models of the core surface advective flow between 1997 and 2013 directly from the SV data. One set of models assumes flow that is constant over three months; such models exhibit large and rapid temporal variations. For models of this type, less complex flows achieve the same fit to the SV derived from revised monthly means than those from ordinary monthly means. However, those obtained from ordinary monthly means are able to follow excursions in SV that are likely to be external field contamination rather than core signals. Having established that we can find models that fit the data adequately, we then assess how much temporal variability is required. Previous studies have suggested that the flow is consistent with torsional oscillations (TO), solid body-like oscillations of fluid on concentric cylinders with axes aligned along the Earth's rotation axis. TO have been proposed to explain decadal timescale changes in the length-of-day. We invert for flow models where the only temporal changes are consistent with TO, but such models have an unacceptably large data misfit. However, if we relax the TO constraint to allow a little more temporal variability, we can fit the data as well as with flows assumed constant over three months, demonstrating that rapid SV changes can be reproduced by rather small flow changes. Although the flow itself changes slowly, its time derivative can be locally (temporally and spatially) large, in particular when and where core surface secular acceleration peaks. Spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the flows are not well resolved, and many of them are strongly correlated. Averaging functions, a measure of our ability to determine the flow at a given location from the data distribution available, are poor approximations to the ideal, even when centred on points of the core surface below areas of high observatory density. Both resolution and averaging functions are noticeably worse for the toroidal flow component, which dominates the flow, than the poloidal flow component, except around the magnetic equator where averaging functions for both components are poor.

  14. Analysis of satellite data to deduce stratospheric constituents and UV spectroscopic properties of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to better understand the stratosphere, its constituents, and its ultraviolet optical properties, through detailed analysis of data from the SBUV instrument on Nimbus 7 and comparison with data from other instruments, including the NOAA 9 SBUV 2, SAGE, SME, and SMM. One conclusion to be drawn from the Ozone Trends Panel report is that there are unresolved differences in the ozone profiles measured by different instruments. While the purpose of the work is more to understand the details of the UV radiation field in the stratosphere than it is to assess the accuracy of the SBUV ozone measurement itself, improved understanding of specific problems in the UV will lead to more accurate ozone retrievals. Areas of study include the effect of aerosols on the backscattered albedo, the shape of the ozone profile near the stratopause, the effect of possible polar mesospheric clouds, and the measureability of nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide.

  15. Aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the United States deduced from tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Griffis, T. J.; Tessum, C.; Travis, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aromatic compounds including benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and xylenes (C8H10) are important anthropogenic precursors of secondary organic aerosol and ground-level ozone. In addition, benzene has been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, their emissions remain poorly constrained. Here we present a full year (2011) of continuous aromatic hydrocarbon measurements by PTR-MS at the University of Minnesota tall tower Tracer Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower, 244 m a.g.l, 44.689°N, 93.073°W). We interpret the tall tower data with a 0.5° ×0.667° GEOS-Chem nested grid simulation to constrain US sources of benzene, toluene, and xylenes. The tall tower observations reveal a clear high bias in the model, with model: measurement slopes of 1.8, 5.3, and 2.9 for benzene, toluene, and xylenes, respectively. The high bias reflects an overestimate of aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the model, which are based on the RETRO emission Inventory. In this work, we employ a Bayesian inversion to interpret the KCMP tall tower measurements in terms of quantitative constraints on US aromatic sources and the importance of sectors such as on-road transportation, waste treatment and disposal, solvent use, etc. We discuss our findings relative to other emission estimates (e.g., the EPA NEI) and in terms of their implications for air quality modeling.

  16. Use of Ra isotopes to deduce rapid transfer of sediment-derived inputs off Kerguelen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanial, V.; van Beek, P.; Lansard, B.; Souhaut, M.; Kestenare, E.; d'Ovidio, F.; Zhou, M.; Blain, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Southern Ocean is known to be the largest high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the global ocean due to iron limitation. However, a large phytoplankton bloom develops annually downstream of the Kerguelen Islands, a bloom which is sustained partly by iron released from the sediments deposited onto the shelves. In the framework of the KEOPS-2 project, we used radium isotopes (224Ra, T1/2 = 3.66 d; 223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d; 228Ra, T1/2 = 5.75 yr) to provide information on the origin of iron fertilization and on the timescales of the transfer of sediment-derived inputs (including iron and other micronutrients) towards offshore waters. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were found in the near vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands, in agreement with the short half-lives of these isotopes. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were also detected up to 200 km downstream of the islands and more unexpectedly in offshore waters south of the polar front. These observations thus clearly indicate (i) that the sediment-derived inputs are rapidly transferred towards offshore waters (on timescales on the order of several days up to several weeks) and (ii) that the polar front is not a physical barrier for the chemical elements released from the sediments of the Kerguelen Plateau. The Ra data set suggests that iron and other micronutrients released by the shelves of the Kerguelen Islands may contribute to fueling the phytoplankton bloom downstream of the islands, despite the presence of the polar front. However, the heterogeneous distribution of the 224Ra and 223Ra activities in surface waters suggests that this supply across the front is not a continuous process but rather a process that is highly variable in space and time.

  17. Use of Ra isotopes to deduce rapid transfer of sediment-derived inputs off Kerguelen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanial, V.; van Beek, P.; Lansard, B.; Souhaut, M.; Kestenare, E.; d'Ovidio, F.; Zhou, M.; Blain, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Southern Ocean is known as the largest High-Nutrient, Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) region of the global ocean due to iron limitation. However, a large phytoplankton bloom develops annually downstream of the Kerguelen Islands, which is sustained partly by iron released from the sediments deposited onto the margins. In the framework of the KEOPS-2 project, we used radium isotopes (224Ra, T1/2 = 3.66 d; 223Ra, T1/2 = 11.4 d; 228Ra, T1/2 = 5.75 yr) to provide information on the origin of iron fertilization and on the timescales of the transfer of sediment-derived inputs (including iron and other micronutrients) towards offshore waters. Significant 223Ra and 223Ra activities were found in the near vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands, in agreement with the short half-lives of these isotopes. Significant 224Ra and 223Ra activities were also detected up to 200 km downstream of the islands and more unexpectedly in offshore waters south of the Polar Front. These observations thus clearly indicate (i) that the sediment-derived inputs are rapidly transferred towards offshore waters (on timescales in the order of several days up to several weeks) and (ii) that the Polar Front is not a physical barrier for the chemical elements released from the sediments of Kerguelen Plateau. The Ra dataset suggests that iron and other micronutrients released by the shallow sediments of the Kerguelen margins may contribute to fuel the phytoplankton bloom downstream of the islands, despite the presence of the Polar Front. However, the heterogeneous distribution of the 224Ra and 223Ra activities in surface waters suggests that this supply across the front is not a continuous process, but rather a process that is highly variable in space and time.

  18. An inverse technique to deduce the elasticity of a large artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrée, P.-Y.

    2000-02-01

    Our purpose is to build an inverse method which best fits a model of artery flow and experimental measurements (we assume that we are able to measure the displacement of the artery as a function of time at three stations). Having no clinical data, we simulate these measurements with the numerical computations from a "boundary layer" code. First, we revisit the system of Ling and Atabek of boundary layer type for the transmission of a pressure pulse in the arterial system for the case of an elastic wall (but we solve it without any simplification in the upartial u/partial x term). Then, using a method analogous to the well known Von Kármán-Pohlhausen method from aeronautics but transposed here for a pulsatile flow, we build a system of three coupled non-linear partial differential equations depending only on time and axial co-ordinate. This system governs the dynamics of internal artery radius, centre velocity and a quantity related to the presence of viscous effects. These two methods give nearly the same numerical results. Second, we construct an inverse method: the aim is to find for the simple integral model, the physical parameters to put in the "boundary layer" code (simulating clinical data). This is done by varying in the integral model the viscosity and elasticity in order to fit best with the data. To achieve this in a rational way, we have to minimise a cost function, which involves the computation of the adjoint system of the integral method. The good set of parameters ({i.e.} viscosity, and two coefficients of a wall law) is effectively found again. It opens the perspective for application in real clinical cases of this new non-invasive method for evaluating the viscosity of the flow and elasticity of the wall.

  19. Education et Developpement. Une Approche aux Interventions d'Education en Milieux Defavorises. MEQ, Mars 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This document is a commentary on a report by the Quebec Ministry of Education on the problem of educating the disadvantaged. One basic criticism of the report is that it is not enough to decry the failure of the schools and propose a strategy of compensatory education to solve the problem of disadvantagement. It is necessary to realize that the…

  20. Rapid dewatering of the crust deduced from ages of mesothermal gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, R.J.; Snee, L.W.; Miller, L.D.; Newberry, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The large-scale migration of fluids through the continental crust has been well documented, but there is no consensus regarding the timing of fluid migration relative to erogenic episodes, or rates of crustal dewatering1. Here we present 40Ar/39Ar dates for muscovites from quartz veins along a major shear zone in southeast Alaska, which show that the veins were emplaced in the early Eocene, during the late stages of orogenic deformation. Hydrothermal activity took place for only about 1 Myr and along a distance of at least 200 km. The fluids were generated by metamorphic reactions in subducted crust along the North American plate margin, and were apparently trapped in the crust by the low permeabilities accompanying a convergent tectonic regime until 56 Myr ago. The rapid dewatering event coincided with a change in plate motion at 56-55 Myr, which caused a shift from convergent to partly transcurrent tectonics. We suggest that this change in tectonic regime led to increased crustal permeabilities and hence the possibility of large-scale fluid migration.

  1. Ionosphere/thermosphere dynamics as deduced from meridional ionosonde chain at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Uemoto, Junpei; Tsugawa, Takuya; Hidekatsu, Jin; Kubota, Minoru; Saito, Susumu

    Multipoint ionosonde observation was conducted to study ionosphere/thermosphere dynamics in Southeast Asia. For this study, data from three ionosonde stations aligned at 100° E were analyzed. Two of them are near the magnetic conjugate points in Northern Thailand and West Sumatra, Indonesia, and the other is near the magnetic equator in the Malay Peninsula; these are three of five SEALION (Southeast Asia low latitude ionospheric network) ionosonde stations. The F-layer critical frequency (foF2), the propagation factor (M3000F2), and the F-layer virtual height (h'F) were scaled from quarter hourly ionograms at the three stations. The ionospheric height is closely related to the thermospheric dynamics (neutral drags) as well as electromagnetic forces (EXB drifts) and chemical processes (productions and losses). Because h'F strongly depends on the chemical process during daytime, it is better to examine the peak height (hmF2) for the discussion of dynamics. hmF2 was determined from M3000F2 using the modified Shimazaki's formula. The peak height obtained by this method is less accurate near the magnetic equator because the electron density vertical profile around the peak is greatly distorted from the parabolic distribution and the formation of an additional layer (sometimes called the F3 layer). The peak heights at the low-latitude conjugate points were compared for the whole day. The height difference between the two stations is a good indicator of the transequatorial neutral wind as the equatorward wind lifts the ionosphere up, while the poleward wind lowers it. The diurnal variation of the transequatorial wind inferred from the height differences is examined for various seasons. We found that there exists a strong terdiurnal component, which was most significant around the March equinox. Also the results were compared with the HWM model wind. The terdiurnal amplitude inferred in this study was larger than the model wind and the phases of the diurnal variation showed a quite large difference between the model and the measurements depending on the season and time. For nighttime, on the other hand, h'F is a good indicator of the ionospheric height near the magnetic equator and at low latitudes because the chemical process becomes less important. Vertical EXB drifts were evaluated from the height variation at the magnetic equator. By the assist of numerical modeling incorporating with the EXB drift, neutral wind effects during nighttime were examined more quantitatively and accurately. The results of the transequatorial wind effects were generally consistent with that obtained by the hmF2 analysis.

  2. Characterization of defensin gene from abalone Haliotis discus hannai and its deduced protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xuguang; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Minggang; Qu, Lingyun; Zan, Jindong; Zhang, Jinxing

    2008-11-01

    Defensin is one of preserved ancient host defensive materials formed in biological evolution. As a regulator and effector molecule, it is very important in animals’ acquired immune system. This paper reports the defensin gene from the mixed liver and kidney cDNA library of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Sequence analysis shows that the gene sequence of full-length cDNA encodes 42 mature peptides (including six Cys), molecular weight of 4 323 Da, and pI of 8.02. Amino acid sequence homology analysis shows that the peptides are highly similar (70% in common) to other insects defensin. Because of a typical insect-defensin structural character of mature peptide in the secondary structure, the polypeptide named Haliotis discus defensin (hd-def), a novel of antimicrobial peptides, belongs to insects defensin subfamily. The RT-PCR result of Haliotis discus defensin shows that the gene can be expressed only in the hepatopancreas by Gram-negative and positive bacteria stimulation, which is ascribed to inducible expression. Therefore, it is revealed that the Haliotis discus defensin gene expression was related to the antibacterial infection of Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

  3. Atomic oxygen on the Venus nightside: Global distribution deduced from airglow mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, L.; Gérard, J.-C.; Montmessin, F.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2012-02-01

    The Visible and Infra-Red Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) instrument on board the Venus Express spacecraft has measured the O 2(a 1Δ) nightglow distribution at 1.27 μm in the Venus mesosphere for more than two years. Nadir observations have been used to create a statistical map of the emission on Venus nightside. It appears that the statistical 1.6 MR maximum of the emission is located around the antisolar point. Limb observations provide information on the altitude and on the shape of the emission layer. We combine nadir observations essentially covering the southern hemisphere, corrected for the thermal emission of the lower atmosphere, with limb profiles of the northern hemisphere to generate a global map of the Venus nightside emission at 1.27 μm. Given all the O 2(a 1Δ) intensity profiles, O 2(a 1Δ) and O density profiles have been calculated and three-dimensional maps of metastable molecular and atomic oxygen densities have been generated. This global O density nightside distribution improves that available from the VTS3 model, which was based on measurements made above 145 km. The O 2(a 1Δ) hemispheric average density is 2.1 × 10 9 cm -3, with a maximum value of 6.5 × 10 9 cm -3 at 99.2 km. The O density profiles have been derived from the nightglow data using CO 2 profiles from the empirical VTS3 model or from SPICAV stellar occultations. The O hemispheric average density is 1.9 × 10 11 cm -3 in both cases, with a mean altitude of the peak located at 106.1 km and 103.4 km, respectively. These results tend to confirm the modeled values of 2.8 × 10 11 cm -3 at 104 km and 2.0 × 10 11 cm -3 at 110 km obtained by Brecht et al. [Brecht, A., Bougher, S.W., Gérard, J.-C., Parkinson, C.D., Rafkin, S., Foster, B., 2011a. J. Geophys. Res., in press] and Krasnopolsky [Krasnopolsky, V.A., 2010. Icarus 207, 17-27], respectively. Comparing the oxygen density map derived from the O 2(a 1Δ) nightglow observations, it appears that the morphology is very different and that the densities obtained in this study are about three times higher than those predicted by the VTS3 model.

  4. Electric Potential Patterns Deduced for the SUNDIAL Period of 23-26 September 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    present study, the initial Ottawa, Canada 58.5 356.2 Saint Johns, Canada 57.6 29.1 electric potential patterns in AMIE use the four Point Tunguska , USSR...regional changes shown in Figure 4. Figure 5 shows an event where the two-cell convection appears to be distorted by a general clockwise rotation and a

  5. Estimation of Ionospheric Electrodynamic Parameters Using Ionospheric Conductance Deduced from Bremsstrahlung X-Ray Image Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-16

    for average geomagnetic conditions, they may not be adequate in studying individual events , where enhanced conductivities are highly variable and...inversion technique that are caused by the use of statistically-determined conduct- ance models during individual substorm events . In particular, an...numerical modeling by choosing four events , 0825-0840 UT, 1005-1020 UT, 1145-1200 UT and 2340-2355 UT, on July 23, 1983, as examples of the pre-expansion

  6. Petroleum potentialities of central Tunisia as deduced from identification and characterization of oil source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Saidi, M.; Acheche, M.H.; Inoubli, H. ); Belayouni, H. )

    1991-08-01

    Many potential oil source rocks occur within the Tunisian stratigraphic column, including Silurian-Devonian shales, Albian and upper Albian-Vraconian carbonates, Cenomanian-Turonian black shales and lower Eocene carbonates. This focuses on the inventory of potential oil source rocks in central Tunisia ranging from middle Jurassic to Turonian. The emphasis is on determining their genetic potential and whether they could have generated oil and gas. Geochemical data obtained from the analysis of at least 2,147 samples show this region to be of significant interest as a petroleum prospective area. The main source rocks identified are Toarcian shales, upper Albian-Vraconian carbonates and Cenomanian-Turonian black shales. They contain predominantly type 2 organic matter (oil and gas prone) and are at the low maturity limit of the oil window. The occurrence of those source rocks close to numerous potential reservoir facies supports the conclusion that central Tunisia is a very interesting area for petroleum exploration.

  7. Use of Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry to Deduce Selectivity of Reaction in Glycoside Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kai; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Chemically synthesized nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) probes derivatized with tetrasaccharides were used to study the reactivity of representative Clostridium thermocellum β-glucosidase, endoglucanases, and cellobiohydrolase. Diagnostic patterns for reactions of these different classes of enzymes were observed. Results show sequential removal of glucose by the β-glucosidase and a progressive increase in specificity of reaction from endoglucanases to cellobiohydrolase. Time-dependent reactions of these polysaccharide-selective enzymes were modeled by numerical integration, which provides a quantitative basis to make functional distinctions among a continuum of naturally evolved catalytic properties. Consequently, our method, which combines automated protein translation with high-sensitivity and time-dependent detection of multiple products, provides a new approach to annotate glycoside hydrolase phylogenetic trees with functional measurements. PMID:26579511

  8. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account for the loss of DSi from solution.

  9. Methanogenic capabilities of ANME-archaea deduced from (13) C-labelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Sebastian; Blumenberg, Martin; Michaelis, Walter; Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Seifert, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) are ubiquitous in marine sediments where sulfate dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. Despite considerable progress in the understanding of AOM, physiological details are still widely unresolved. We investigated two distinct microbial mat samples from the Black Sea that were dominated by either ANME-1 or ANME-2. The (13) C lipid stable isotope probing (SIP) method using labelled substances, namely methane, bicarbonate, acetate, and methanol, was applied, and the substrate-dependent methanogenic capabilities were tested. Our data provide strong evidence for a versatile physiology of both, ANME-1 and ANME-2. Considerable methane production rates (MPRs) from CO2 -reduction were observed, particularly from ANME-2 dominated samples and in the presence of methane, which supports the hypothesis of a co-occurrence of methanotrophy and methanogenesis in the AOM systems (AOM/MPR up to 2:1). The experiments also revealed strong methylotrophic capabilities through (13) C-assimilation from labelled methanol, which was independent of the presence of methane. Additionally, high MPRs from methanol were detected in both of the mat samples. As demonstrated by the (13) C-uptake into lipids, ANME-1 was found to thrive also under methane free conditions. Finally, C35 -isoprenoid hydrocarbons were identified as new lipid biomarkers for ANME-1, most likely functioning as a hydrogen sink during methanogenesis.

  10. A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity field and shape.

    PubMed

    Park, R S; Konopliv, A S; Bills, B G; Rambaux, N; Castillo-Rogez, J C; Raymond, C A; Vaughan, A T; Ermakov, A I; Zuber, M T; Fu, R R; Toplis, M J; Russell, C T; Nathues, A; Preusker, F

    2016-09-22

    Remote observations of the asteroid (1) Ceres from ground- and space-based telescopes have provided its approximate density and shape, leading to a range of models for the interior of Ceres, from homogeneous to fully differentiated. A previously missing parameter that can place a strong constraint on the interior of Ceres is its moment of inertia, which requires the measurement of its gravitational variation together with either precession rate or a validated assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. However, Earth-based remote observations cannot measure gravity variations and the magnitude of the precession rate is too small to be detected. Here we report gravity and shape measurements of Ceres obtained from the Dawn spacecraft, showing that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium with its inferred normalized mean moment of inertia of 0.37. These data show that Ceres is a partially differentiated body, with a rocky core overlaid by a volatile-rich shell, as predicted in some studies. Furthermore, we show that the gravity signal is strongly suppressed compared to that predicted by the topographic variation. This indicates that Ceres is isostatically compensated, such that topographic highs are supported by displacement of a denser interior. In contrast to the asteroid (4) Vesta, this strong compensation points to the presence of a lower-viscosity layer at depth, probably reflecting a thermal rather than compositional gradient. To further investigate the interior structure, we assume a two-layer model for the interior of Ceres with a core density of 2,460-2,900 kilograms per cubic metre (that is, composed of CI and CM chondrites), which yields an outer-shell thickness of 70-190 kilometres. The density of this outer shell is 1,680-1,950 kilograms per cubic metre, indicating a mixture of volatiles and denser materials such as silicates and salts. Although the gravity and shape data confirm that the interior of Ceres evolved thermally, its partially differentiated interior indicates an evolution more complex than has been envisioned for mid-sized (less than 1,000 kilometres across) ice-rich rocky bodies.

  11. Formation des enseignants dans une perspective d'education permanente au benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboton, Sébastien; Moussa, Yaya Mede

    1994-05-01

    The history of teacher training in Benin, which provides evidence of social and cultural change, suggests that a system of lifelong education should be introduced which unites formal, non-formal and informal education, all of which already exist in embryo. The education originally given to every member of society was a continuing progression from initiate to initiator, a lifelong education that involved, among other things, knowledge of agricultural production. This traditional system was disrupted by the reorganization of teacher training after 1945. Recurrent training of teachers remained inadequate because of limited external funding for in-service training, the lack of teachers, the suspension of recruitment and the closure of teacher training colleges. The 1975 reform, through the initiative known as Operation Education and Development, envisaged links between school and social environment, allying intellectual work with production. This meant a radical change in the role of the teacher, who was confronted with technical advance and was obliged to enter a difficult continuing process of self-training. Furthermore, population growth and the restrictions imposed by the World Bank have brought about developments in both lifelong learning and apprenticeship. These two elements are brought together under an initiative known as Production Scolaire Artisanale, designed for out-of-school learners and artisans. The author concludes that the creation of a coherent system of voluntary education would be possible in a society that was itself favourably disposed to education.

  12. Traveling wave packets of total electron content disturbances as deduced from global GPS network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afraimovich, E. L.; Perevalova, N. P.; Voyeikov, S. V.

    2003-07-01

    We identified a specific class of mid-latitude medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs), namely traveling wave packets (TWPs) of total electron content (TEC) disturbances. For the first time, we present the TWP morphology for 105 days 1998-2001. A total number of the TEC series, with a duration of each series of about 2.3h (2h18m), exceeded 700,000. The data were obtained using the technology GLOBDET of global detection of ionospheric disturbances using a global network of GPS receivers, and the technique of GPS interferometry of TIDs, developed at the ISTP SD RAS. It was found that TWPs are observed no more than in 0.1-0.4% of all TEC series, most commonly during the daytime in winter and autumn. TWPs are quasi-periodic oscillations of TEC with a period of around 10-20min, and a time duration of the order of 1h. The TWP amplitudes exceed the amplitudes of ``background'' TEC fluctuations by one order of magnitude, as a minimum. The radius of spatial correlation of TWPs does not exceed 500-600km (3-5 wavelengths). We carried out a detailed analysis of the spatial-temporal properties of TWPs by considering an example of the most conspicuous manifestation of TWPs on October 18, 2001 over California, USA. The velocity and direction of TWP displacement correspond to those of mid-latitude MSTIDs.

  13. Horizontal and vertical distribution of freshwater in the Arctic Ocean deduced from historical hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, M. Y.; Tanaka, N.; Pivovarov, S.; Timokhov, L.

    2004-12-01

    Historical data (1935-2002) of two chemical tracers, oxygen isotope ratio and alkalinity, are combined and freshwater sources of sea ice meltwater (SIM), and other freshwater (OF) are distinguished from each pair of two conservative elements, salinity-oxygen isotope and salinity-alkalinity. The OF consists of mainly river runoff, with addition of precipitation and salinity deficit of inflowing Pacific water. Results give at first startling pictures of both horizontal and vertical distributions of freshwaters from the two designated sources almost throughout the Arctic Ocean. River water sources in Canada Basin: Distribution of OF at the 10 depth shows that river water from the Russian shelf seas flows out of the shelf between the Mendeleyev and the Lomonosov Ridges and exits thorough western part of the Fram Strait. Part of this freshwater enters into the Canadian Basin, where water contains large amount of OF but small fraction of American river water. This may suggest that river water from American continent should exit from the basin relatively fast though the Canadian Archipelago. Vertical mixing of fresh water: The atmospheric cooling and brine rejection during winter converts fresh surface water into denser water with high OF and negative SIM signals. High inventories of both OF and negative SIM, which implies mixing with brine, are found in the Canadian Basin, Baffin Bay and east of Novaya Zemlya in the Kara Sea. These signals in the Kara Sea and the Baffin Bay show occurrence of deep convection in winter, whereas those in the Canadian Basin come from adjacent shallow shelves. In the Canadian Basin, negative SIM distribution is well corresponding to the low temperature layer between surface and Atlantic origin waters. This layer characterized by nutrient maximum with a salinity of about 33.1 and is found to form from the water having salinity of 31-32. Our analysis advocates the importance of shelf water from the East Siberian Sea on formation of water mass in this layer. The shelf water vertically transports both OF and brine from the surface to the deeper layer and accumulates in the Canadian Basin. We appreciate Drs. Murata and Shimada of JAMSTEC for providing unpublished data from the past Arctic expeditions by R/V Mirai.

  14. Cooling rates of mid-ocean ridge lava deduced from clinopyroxene spherulites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James E.; Befus, Kenneth S.; Miller, Nathan R.; Monecke, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We present a compositional analysis of spherulites and their surrounding groundmass in basaltic andesite lava samples collected from the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. The spherulites consist of radiating dendritic branches of clinopyroxene, and contain abundant vesicles that are stretched parallel to the branches. Stretched vesicles require that the spherulites grew when the groundmass was liquid, and thus while it was hotter than its glass transition. Although chemical components incompatible in clinopyroxene should have been enriched in the melt by spherulite growth, no compositional variations occur at a scale larger than the 10 μm-wide slit aperture used for laser ablation ICP-MS. The absence of large-scale gradients implies that the spherulites grew faster than the elements could diffuse ~ 10 μm. Because diffusion is temperature controlled, cooling must have been rapid enough to prevent movement. If the spherulites nucleated when the melt was at between 1380 and 1223 K (i.e., undercooled by 0 to 157 K), then the constant concentrations of Li, Na, and K, the fastest diffusing elements analyzed, require temperature to have cooled faster than 106-7 K min- 1. If, instead, the spherulites nucleated at undercoolings of 357 to 465 K (or as cold as 915 K, equal to the glass transition temperature), then the cooling rate could have been as slow as those inferred for glassy rinds on submarine lavas by relaxation geospeedometry. At all possible cooling rates, however, the spherulites must have grown as fast as ~ 103-5 μm s- 1 to reach their final sizes of 1.4 to 3.2 mm. We speculate that the rapid growth resulted from low kinetic barriers to clinopyroxene growth in the basaltic andesite melt.

  15. Surface currents in the Caribbean Sea as deduced from lagrangian observations

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, R.L.; Spillane, M.; Brooks, I.; Atwood, D.; Duckett, C.

    1981-07-20

    The results of a satellite tracked drifting buoy experiment conducted in the Caribbean Sea from October 1975 through June 1976 are presented. The buoy trajectories suggest that the Aves Rise, Beata Ridge, and Nicaraguan Rise are regions where considerable mesoscale variability occurs in the surface flow. The variability is in the form of current deflections; small diameter eddies ranging in size from 20 to 100 km; large amplitude meanders, with amplitudes greater than 150 km; and large diameter eddies, with diameters greater than 200 km which form on and near these rises and ridges. In the central Caribbean, where the topographic relief is not as dramatic, the flow is predominantly zonal. Intensifications in the surface flow occur off the coast of Colombia, south of the Nicaraguan Rise, and south of the Yucatan Strait.

  16. Simulation of multilane freeway traffic with detailed rules deduced from microscopic driving behavior

    PubMed

    Goldbach; Eidmann; Kittel

    2000-02-01

    A simulation to model traffic on a multilane freeway is introduced starting from microscopic driving rules. The model takes each individual car into account with its individual features and actual situations, so that a distribution of parameters as well as different behaviors can easily be analyzed. Therefore, a detailed study of certain situations, driving tactics, vehicle properties, and their influence on the global traffic flow can be performed. The model is discussed, as are first results such as the influence of driver behavior on the fundamental diagram and, in addition, the dynamics of microscopic, individual quantities like separation and difference in speed between successive cars. It turns out that a hysteresis in the reaction of the driver for speeding up and slowing down plays an important role, and effects macroscopic quantities like the shape of the fundamental diagram, e.g., the metastable behavior around the maximum flow and on the speed of observed jams running backward. Furthermore, microscopic time resolved characteristics are strongly influenced, e.g., oscillations in the distance and relative speed between successive cars.

  17. Cenozoic marine geochemistry of thallium deduced from isotopic studies of ferromanganese crusts and pelagic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehkamper, M.; Frank, M.; Hein, J.R.; Halliday, A.

    2004-01-01

    Cenozoic records of Tl isotope compositions recorded by ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been obtained. Such records are of interest because recent growth surfaces of Fe-Mn crusts display a nearly constant Tl isotope fractionation relative to seawater. The time-series data are complemented by results for bulk samples and leachates of various marine sediments. Oxic pelagic sediments and anoxic marine deposits can be distinguished by their Tl isotope compositions. Both pelagic clays and biogenic oozes are typically characterized by ??205Tl greater than +2.5, whereas anoxic sediments have ??205Tl of less than -1.5 (??205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 997 Tl in parts per 104). Leaching experiments indicate that the high ??205Tl values of oxic sediments probably reflect authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. Time-resolved Tl isotope compositions were obtained from six Fe-Mn crusts from the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans and a number of observations indicate that these records were not biased by diagenetic alteration. Over the last 25 Myr, the data do not show isotopic variations that significantly exceed the range of Tl isotope compositions observed for surface layers of Fe-Mn crusts distributed globally (??205 Tl=+12.8??1.2). This indicates that variations in deep-ocean temperature were not recorded by Tl isotopes. The results most likely reflect a constant Tl isotope composition for seawater. The growth layers of three Fe-Mn crusts that are older than 25 Ma show a systematic increase of ??205Tl with decreasing age, from about +6 at 60-50 Ma to about +12 at 25 Ma. These trends are thought to be due to variations in the Tl isotope composition of seawater, which requires that the oceans of the early Cenozoic either had smaller output fluxes or received larger input fluxes of Tl with low ??205Tl. Larger inputs of isotopically light Tl may have been supplied by benthic fluxes from reducing sediments, rivers, and/or volcanic emanations. Alternatively, the Tl isotope trends may reflect the increasing importance of Tl fluxes to altered ocean crust through time. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sea level change and glacio-hydro isostasy deduced from some Italian marine notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, F.; Carulli, G. B.; Marocco, R.

    2003-04-01

    Sea level change along the Italian coast is the sum of eustatic, glacio-hydro-isostatic, and tectonic factors (Lambeck et al.,submitted 2003). Marine notches are frequently found in limestones lithologies. A marine notch is normally carved in 2-5 centuries and this range depends upon the lithology. The use of notches as sea level marker in a low-tide seas as Mediterranean, is crucial to study the sea level change. In many Italian tectonically active coastal zone uplifting (eastern Sicily) o subsiding (Trieste, north Adriatic sea) the Present day marine notches are lacking because the tectonic ratea are faster than the possibility of carving. A submerged marine notch was discovered at Trieste at an altitude (tidally corrected) of -1.9 m; a similar notch, at an altitude of -0.6, was measured by Fouache et al., (2000) along Croatian coast, but while at Trieste the Present day marine notch is lacking, along Croatian coast, instead, this notch is well carved. This should result from complex equilibrium between eustatic sea level, hydro-glacio isostasy and tectonic that must be different between Trieste and Croatian coast. The deeper submerged marine notch on limestones of Trieste is suitable with an Plio-quaternary tilting of the Carso plateau, gently dipping to NW, as illustrated by other observations by Carulli et al.,(1980). This fact may be related also to the increasing weight of the external fronts of the South-alpine chain and to the External Dinarides one. Both, characterized by strong seismic activity and consequent neotectonics effects, are rising and advancing not far from Trieste. In a tectonically stable zone as Gaeta (Central Tyrrhenian sea) the submerged cliff immediately belove the present day marine notch was monitored (Antonioli, 1989) and was discovered a smoothed morphology similar to a very large marine notch. Such composite morphology made off from two different notches (in 4-5 meters of submerged cliff) is present also as fossil and related to previous higstands (MIS 5.5 and 9) in numerous sites on Tyrrhenian sea: Sardinia, Caccia Cape and Orosei gulf (NW and E coast); Gaeta and Terracina, Latium, (central Tyrrenian sea); Campanella Promontory in Campania, and S.Vito lo Capo in Sicily (S Tyrrenian sea). All this sites show a tidal marine notch (younger) and an older smoothed notch with Lithophaga holes. It is reasonable to presume that these double marine notches (that was found only in stable coasts) should be due, the older and smooted to glacio-hydro isostatic crust movements and the younger (tidal) to the quasi-stillstand of eustatic and isostatic movements of the Present. The measurements and interpetation of these marine notches could be crucial to understand the present and future eustatic-isostatic-tectonic coastal movements.

  19. Seismic structure off the Kii Peninsula, Japan, deduced from passive- and active-source seismographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kaiho, Yuka; Obana, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-01

    We conduct seismic tomography to model subsurface seismicity between 2010 and 2012 and structural heterogeneity off the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, and to investigate their relationships with segmentation of the Nankai and Tonankai seismogenic zones of the Nankai Trough. In order to constrain both the shallow and deep structure of the offshore seismogenic segments, we use both active- and passive-source data recorded by both ocean-bottom seismometers and land seismic stations. The relocated microearthquakes indicate a lack of seismic activity in the Tonankai seismogenic segment off Kumano, whereas there was active intraslab seismicity in the Kii Channel area of the Nankai seismogenic segment. Based on comparisons among the distribution of seismicity, age, and spreading rate of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, and the slip-deficit distribution, we conclude that seismicity in the subducting slab under the Kii Channel region nucleated from structures in the Philippine Sea slab that pre-date subduction and that fluids released by dehydration are related to decreased interplate coupling of these intraslab earthquakes. Our velocity model clearly shows the areal extent of two key structures reported in previous 2-D active-source surveys: a high-velocity zone beneath Cape Shionomisaki and a subducted seamount off Cape Muroto, both of which are roughly circular and of 15-20 km radius. The epicenters of the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes are near the edge of the high-velocity body beneath Cape Shionomisaki, suggesting that this anomalous structure is related to the nucleation of these two earthquakes. We identify several other high- and low-velocity zones immediately above the plate boundary in the Tonankai and Nankai seismogenic segments. In comparison with the slip-deficit model, some of the low-velocity zones appear to correspond to an area of strong coupling. Our observations suggest that, unlike the Japan Trench subduction zone, in our study area there is not a simple correspondence between areas of large coseismic slip or strong interplate coupling and areas of high velocity in the overriding plate.

  20. Early chemo-dynamical evolution of dwarf galaxies deduced from enrichment of r-process elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Yutaka; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2017-04-01

    The abundance of elements synthesized by the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process elements) of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Local Group galaxies gives us clues to clarify the early evolutionary history of the Milky Way halo. The Local Group dwarf galaxies would have similarly evolved with building blocks of the Milky Way halo. However, how the chemo-dynamical evolution of the building blocks affects the abundance of r-process elements is not yet clear. In this paper, we perform a series of simulations using dwarf galaxy models with various dynamical times and total mass, which determine star formation histories. We find that galaxies with dynamical times longer than 100 Myr have star formation rates less than 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 and slowly enrich metals in their early phase. These galaxies can explain the observed large scatters of r-process abundance in EMP stars in the Milky Way halo regardless of their total mass. On the other hand, the first neutron star merger appears at a higher metallicity in galaxies with a dynamical time shorter than typical neutron star merger times. The scatters of r-process elements mainly come from the inhomogeneity of the metals in the interstellar medium whereas the scatters of α-elements are mostly due to the difference in the yield of each supernova. Our results demonstrate that the future observations of r-process elements in EMP stars will be able to constrain the early chemo-dynamical evolution of the Local Group galaxies.

  1. Deducing conformational variability of intrinsically disordered proteins from infrared spectroscopy with Bayesian statistics

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Anurag; Anunciado, Divina; Tian, Jianhui; Vu, Dung M.; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    As it remains practically impossible to generate ergodic ensembles for large intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, it becomes critical to compare spectroscopic characteristics of the theoretically generated ensembles to corresponding measurements. We develop a Bayesian framework to infer the ensemble properties of an IDP using a combination of conformations generated by MD simulations and its measured infrared spectrum. We performed 100 different MD simulations totaling more than 10 µs to characterize the conformational ensemble of αsynuclein, a prototypical IDP, in water. These conformations are clustered based on solvent accessibility and helical content. We compute the amide-I band for these clusters and predict the thermodynamic weights of each cluster given the measured amide-I band. Bayesian analysis produces a reproducible and non-redundant set of thermodynamic weights for each cluster, which can then be used to calculate the ensemble properties. In a rigorous validation, these weights reproduce measured chemical shifts. PMID:24187427

  2. Fishing for biodiversity: novel methanopterin-linked C transfer genes deduced from the Sargasso Sea metagenome.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Nercessian, Olivier; Lapidus, Alla; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2005-12-01

    The recently generated database of microbial genes from an oligotrophic environment populated by a calculated 1800 major phylotypes (the Sargasso Sea metagenome-SSM) presents a great source for expanding local databases of genes indicative of a specific function. In this article we analyse the SSM for the presence of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer genes that are signature for methylotrophy. We conclude that more than 10 phylotypes possessing genes of interest are present in this environment. The sequences representative of these major phylotypes do not appear to belong to any known microbial group capable of methanopterin-linked C1 transfer. Instead, these sequences separate from all known sequences on phylogenetic trees, pointing toward their affiliation with novel microbial phyla. These data imply a broader distribution of methanopterin-linked functions in the microbial world than has been previously known.

  3. Deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid: SPL(pVal)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.A.; Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.

    1987-05-01

    Hydrophobic, proteolipid-like protein of Mr 6500 was isolated from ether/ethanol extracts of human, canine and bovine pulmonary surfactant. Amino acid composition of the protein demonstrated a remarkable abundance of hydrophobic residues, particularly valine and leucine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human protein was determined: N-Leu-Ile-Pro-Cys-Cys-Pro-Val-Asn-Leu-Lys-Arg-Leu-Leu-Ile-Val4... An oligonucleotide probe was used to screen an adult human lung cDNA library and resulted in detection of cDNA clones with predicted amino acid sequence with close identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the human peptide. SPL(pVal) was found within the reading frame of a larger peptide. SPL(pVal) results from proteolytic processing of a larger preprotein. Northern blot analysis detected in a single 1.0 kilobase SPL(pVal) RNA which was less abundant in fetal than in adult lung. Mixtures of purified canine and bovine SPL(pVal) and synthetic phospholipids display properties of rapid adsorption and surface tension lowering activity characteristic of surfactant. Human SPL(pVal) is a pulmonary surfactant proteolipid which may therefore be useful in combination with phospholipids and/or other surfactant proteins for the treatment of surfactant deficiency such as hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants.

  4. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Hori, H; Lim, B L; Osawa, S

    1985-02-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land plants. The Bryophyta and the Pteridophyta separated from each other after emergence of the Spermatophyta. The result is consistent with the view that the Bryophyta evolved from ferns by degeneration. In the Pteridophyta, Psilotum (whisk fern) separated first, and a little later Lycopodium (club moss) separated from the ancestor common to Equisetum (horsetail) and Dryopteris (fern). This order is in accordance with the classical view. During the Spermatophyta evolution, the gymnosperms (Cycas, Ginkgo, and Metasequoia have been studied here) and the angiosperms (flowering plants) separated, and this was followed by the separation of Metasequoia and Cycas (cycad)/Ginkgo (maidenhair tree) on one branch and various flowering plants on the other.

  5. Evolution of green plants as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroshi; Lim, Byung-Lak; Osawa, Syozo

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a phylogenic tree for green plants by comparing 5S rRNA sequences. The tree suggests that the emergence of most of the uni- and multicellular green algae such as Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chlorella occurred in the early stage of green plant evolution. The branching point of Nitella is a little earlier than that of land plants and much later than that of the above green algae, supporting the view that Nitella-like green algae may be the direct precursor to land plants. The Bryophyta and the Pteridophyta separated from each other after emergence of the Spermatophyta. The result is consistent with the view that the Bryophyta evolved from ferns by degeneration. In the Pteridophyta, Psilotum (whisk fern) separated first, and a little later Lycopodium (club moss) separated from the ancestor common to Equisetum (horsetail) and Dryopteris (fern). This order is in accordance with the classical view. During the Spermatophyta evolution, the gymnosperms (Cycas, Ginkgo, and Metasequoia have been studied here) and the angiosperms (flowering plants) separated, and this was followed by the separation of Metasequoia and Cycas (cycad)/Ginkgo (maidenhair tree) on one branch and various flowering plants on the other. PMID:16593540

  6. High energy runaway electron transport deduced from photonuclear activation of the PLT limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Stavely, J.M. Jr.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    In large tokamaks, runaway electrons may be accelerated up to energies over 20 MeV by the toroidal electric field. When these particles leave the plasma, they impact the material limiters and emit bremsstrahlung hard x-rays. This bremsstrahlung may cause photonuclear reactions in the limiter, leaving radioisotopes behind. Both the amount of activation and its spatial distribution on the limiter provide information on the confinement of high energy electrons. The stainless steel poloidal ring limiter from the Princeton Large Torus has been analyzed and six observable photonuclear reactions with energy thresholds have been found for the reactions varying from 8 to 23 MeV. The amount of activation from each reaction determines the average number of runaway electrons above each activation threshold energy. The inferred runaway electron population decreases exponentially with energy as exp (-E/3.2 MeV) implying an energetic runaway electron confinement time of 50 to 80 msec. The poloidal variation of the activation can be described by a 0.02 cm scrape-off layer step size which implies about a 90 msec confinement time.

  7. Heterogeneity in maize starch granule internal architecture deduced from diffusion of fluorescent dextran probes.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Shelat, Kinnari J; Shrestha, Ashok K; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-04-02

    Heterogeneity in maize starch granules was investigated by studying the diffusion of fluorescent dextran probes (20, 70 and 150kDa) inside granules using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching combined with confocal microscopy. Access of probes to the interior of granules was greatly enhanced by limited (2.4%) amylolysis. The diffusion of probes within granules was found to be either 'fast' with diffusion coefficients in the order of 10(-6)cm(2)s(-1) or 'slow' with diffusion coefficients in the order of 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1), independent of the size of dextran probes or prior treatment of the granules by α-amylase. Results were compared with observations of pores and channels in granules by electron microscopy and by confocal microscopy after labelling with 8-amino-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid. It is proposed that there is an inherent heterogeneity of internal architecture in maize starch granules due to the presence or absence in individual granules of (a) pores leading to a central cavity, resulting in 'fast' diffusion of dextran probes and (b) accessibility of the starch polymer matrix to dextran probes, leading to 'slow' diffusion behaviour. The observed heterogeneity of maize starch granule porosity has implications for chemical modification reactions and the kinetics of digestion with amylases.

  8. Petrographically deduced triassic climate for the Deep River Basin, eastern piedmont of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    McCarn, S.T.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A petrographic comparison of Triassic, fluvial sandstones from the Deep River Basin in the eastern piedmont of North Carolina with nearby Holocene stream sands (1) indicates that he Triassic climate was more arid than today's and (2) distinguishes an eastern, more plutonic terrane from a western, more metamorphic source terrane. The paleoclimatic interpretation is based on differences in framework composition between modern and ancient sands of the same grain size, derived from the same rock type, transported similar distances and deposited in similar settings. The Triassic sandstones contain more lithic-fragments but less quartz than otherwise equivalent, modern sand in the Deep River Basin. Feldspar content is more complex, controlled by both source-rock composition and climate. Sand from the more plutonic terrane contains more feldspar and plutonic lithic-fragments than sand from the more metamorphic terrane, which contains more quartz and metamorphic lithic-fragments. This petrographic interpretation of the Triassic sandstones along with the presence of coal, limestone, chert and caliche in the middle of the section suggests that the Triassic climate was cyclic, changing from arid to humid and back to arid. Plate-tectonic reconstructions place the Deep River Basin between the Triassic equator and Tropic of cancer, where the easterly trade winds would predominate. Therefore, the arid portions of the cycle could have been due to a periodic, orographic, rain shadow formed as the result of intermittent movement along the Jonesboro Fault, creating a highland area east of the Deep River Basin.

  9. Crustal structure of the Hecataeus Rise (eastern Mediterranean) deduced by marine gravity and marine magnetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In the year 2010 extensive geophysical researches were carried out in the area of Hecataeus Rise using the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Beside the bathymetry, refraction and reflection seismic data, marine gravity and marine magnetic data were acquired during this cruise. The result of the research along one Wide-Angle reflection/refraction seismic line of this cruise is published 2015 by K. Welford et al.. Based on interpretation of reflection seismic and bathymetry data across the Hecataeus Rise, S. Reiche published 2015 the crustal structure and bathymetric features along some seismic profiles of this cruise. The focus of this work is to use the available sediments and crustal structures inferred by seismic information together with real marine gravity and marine magnetic data in order to produce gravity and magnetic 2-D models along all seismic profiles. While Welford et al. used the altimetry gravity data and magnetic data from EMAG3 database for their modelling, the real gravity and magnetic data measured exactly along the seismic profiles will be used in this work. The advantage of the real marine gravity and real marine magnetic data used for the modelling is that they have higher accuracy in the values as well as in the positions. Furthermore, Welford et al. calculated the gravity and Magnetic models along some seismic profiles, while in this work the result of gravity and magnetic modelling along all seismic profiles of this cruise will be presented. The marine gravity and marine magnetic data along all seismic profiles were recorded continuously. The accuracy of marine gravity data is about ± 1 mGal, while the accuracy of Marine magnetic data is in the range of ± 3 nT. The results of 2-D gravity and magnetic modelling will be presented and discussed in this work.

  10. Stratospheric warmings in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite radiation data, 1969-73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation is largely based on radiation data from the vertical temperature profile radiometers on the satellite NOAA 2. The physical-statistical interpretation of the radiance data is considered. Aspects regarding the nonuniqueness of the minor warming in August 1973 are discussed. It is pointed out that conditions leading to major warmings in the Northern Hemisphere were not satisfied in the Southern Hemisphere during the period from 1969 to 1973.

  11. Students' Dilemmas in Reaction Stoichiometry Problem Solving: Deducing the Limiting Reagent in Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Waldrip, Bruce G.; Chandrasegaran, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study was conducted to investigate the understanding of the limiting reagent concept and the strategies used by five Year 11 students when solving four reaction stoichiometry problems. Students' written problem-solving strategies were studied using the think-aloud protocol during problem-solving, and retrospective verbalisations…

  12. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  13. Ultramafic and mafic rocks from the Garret Transform Fault near 13°30'S on the East Pacific Rise: Igneous petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Réjean; Bideau, Daniel; Hekinian, Roger

    1983-10-01

    Serpentinized peridotites, metagabbros and fresh basaltic rocks were dredged from the Garret Transform Fault near 13°S on the East Pacific Rise. Two dredge hauls taken on the northern wall (from about 3100-3600 m) consisted of aphyric and picritic basalts; while peridotites, gabbros and moderately phyric basalts were recovered in a single dredge located near the deepest part (4616-4820 m) of the transform valley. Well preserved igneous textures and mineralogical assemblages enable us to differentiate between tectonites (including harzburgites and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites) and cumulates (consisting of plagioclase-dunite, troctolites, olivine-gabbros and ilmenite-gabbros). The harzburgites are likely to represent deep-seated peridotites left after extraction of basaltic melt during upper mantle partial melting of a lherzolite. The ultramafic cumulates underwent some deformation and show textural and mineralogical evidences which suggest formation at a minimum depth corresponding to the very lower crust. It is also inferred that the composition of the coexisting liquid along with early cumulus crystals has a ratio Mg/(Mg + Fe 2+) of 0.7, high CaO/Na 2O ratios and a low Ni content (about 150 ppm) when compared to similar rock types from Atlantic fracture zones. Subsequent uplift during rifting of the oceanic lithosphere enhanced plastic deformation, subsolidus recrystallization and retrogressive metamorphism of the gabbros and the ultramafics.

  14. Quinine, Malaria, and the Cinchona Bureau: Marketing Practices and Knowledge Circulation in a Dutch Transoceanic Cinchona–Quinine Enterprise (1920s–30s)

    PubMed Central

    Roersch Van Der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we will show how a Dutch pharmaceutical consortium of cinchona producers and quinine manufacturers was able to capitalize on one of the first international public health campaigns to fight malaria, thereby promoting the sale of quinine, an antimalarial medicine. During the 1920s and 1930s, the international markets for quinine were controlled by this Dutch consortium, which was a transoceanic cinchona–quinine enterprise centered in the Cinchona Bureau in the Netherlands. We will argue that during the interwar period, the Cinchona Bureau became the decision-making center of this Dutch cinchona–quinine pharmaceutical enterprise and monopolized the production and trade of an essential medicine. In addition, we will argue that capitalizing on the international public health campaign in the fight against malaria by the Dutch cinchona–quinine enterprise via the Cinchona Bureau can be regarded as an early example of corporate colonization of public health by a private pharmaceutical consortium. Furthermore, we will show how commercial interests prevailed over scientific interests within the Dutch cinchona–quinine consortium, thus interfering with and ultimately curtailing the transoceanic circulation of knowledge in the Dutch empire. PMID:26054829

  15. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow.

  16. In Your 20s it’s Quantity, in Your 30s it’s Quality: The Prognostic Value of Social Activity Across 30 Years of Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Cheryl L.; Reis, Harry T.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Lifespan development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Carstensen, 2003), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age-20 and age-30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age-50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age-20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age-30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  17. Effect of individual time to peak power output on the expression of peak power output in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    PubMed

    Bell, W; Cobner, D M

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to examine a proposal which stated that individual power values should be aligned according to peak power output (PPO) before calculating the mean value of PPO. This procedure removes the variation in time it takes for individuals to reach PPO. Participants were forty-one University Rugby Union Football players of mean age 21.7 +/- 2.6 years, height 181.4 +/- 6.9 cm and body mass 88.9 +/- 12.7 kg. Data were collected using a friction-belt cycle ergometer (Monark 864, Varberg, Sweden). A significantly larger mean value for PPO was found when results were calculated from time-aligned rather than cross-sectional data (1154 +/- 246 vs. 1121 +/- 254 W, p < 0.0001); the mean difference was approximately 3 %. Additionally, the average profile of the power output curve was more reflective of individual power curves. The negative correlation between PPO and the time taken to reach PPO was - 0.32 (p < 0.05), confirming the view that the earlier the time taken to reach PPO the larger the PPO. It was concluded that the mean value of PPO and the corresponding profile for power output curves are best represented by the analysis of time-aligned rather than cross-sectional data.

  18. Quinine, Malaria, and the Cinchona Bureau: Marketing Practices and Knowledge Circulation in a Dutch Transoceanic Cinchona-Quinine Enterprise (1920s-30s).

    PubMed

    Van Der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we will show how a Dutch pharmaceutical consortium of cinchona producers and quinine manufacturers was able to capitalize on one of the first international public health campaigns to fight malaria, thereby promoting the sale of quinine, an antimalarial medicine. During the 1920s and 1930s, the international markets for quinine were controlled by this Dutch consortium, which was a transoceanic cinchona-quinine enterprise centered in the Cinchona Bureau in the Netherlands. We will argue that during the interwar period, the Cinchona Bureau became the decision-making center of this Dutch cinchona-quinine pharmaceutical enterprise and monopolized the production and trade of an essential medicine. In addition, we will argue that capitalizing on the international public health campaign in the fight against malaria by the Dutch cinchona-quinine enterprise via the Cinchona Bureau can be regarded as an early example of corporate colonization of public health by a private pharmaceutical consortium. Furthermore, we will show how commercial interests prevailed over scientific interests within the Dutch cinchona-quinine consortium, thus interfering with and ultimately curtailing the transoceanic circulation of knowledge in the Dutch empire.

  19. Pushing up the size limit of chalcogenide supertetrahedral clusters: two- and three-dimensional photoluminescent open frameworks from (Cu(5)In(30)S(54))(13-) clusters.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xianhui; Zheng, Nanfeng; Li, Yuqi; Feng, Pingyun

    2002-10-30

    Direct band gap copper indium chalcogenides are of great technological importance in part because of their high photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Covalent superlattices constructed from copper indium chalcogenide clusters are of particular interest because they may combine open framework architecture with semiconducting properties. Here two photoluminescent covalent superlattices built from core-shell type copper indium sulfide supertetrahedral clusters are reported. Each cluster consists of 35 metal cations and is so far the largest known supertetrahedral cluster with a metal-to-metal distance of 1.6 nm. In addition, this is the first example of supertetrahedral clusters in heterometallic copper indium chalcogenides. The preparation of these large clusters has narrowed down the size gap between colloidal nanoclusters and small supertetrahedral clusters and revealed new possibilities in the construction of nanoporous semiconducting superlattices with tunable pore size. Through the combination of metal ions with different oxidation states to provide both overall and local charge neutrality, an effective approach has been demonstrated in the rational synthesis of chalcogenide open framework materials with large and unprecedented supertetrahedral clusters.

  20. Empirical study of the metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor device characteristics deduced from a microscopic model of memory traps

    SciTech Connect

    Ngai, K.L.; Hsia, Y.

    1982-07-15

    A graded-nitride gate dielectric metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) memory transistor exhibiting superior device characteristics is presented and analyzed based on a qualitative microscopic model of the memory traps. The model is further reviewed to interpret some generic properties of the MNOS memory transistors including memory window, erase-write speed, and the retention-endurance characteristic features.

  1. Empirical study of the metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor device characteristics deduced from a microscopic model of memory traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, Kia L.; Hsia, Yukun

    1982-07-01

    A graded-nitride gate dielectric metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) memory transistor exhibiting superior device characteristics is presented and analyzed based on a qualitative microscopic model of the memory traps. The model is further reviewed to interpret some generic properties of the MNOS memory transistors including memory window, erase-write speed, and the retention-endurance characteristic features.

  2. The pitfalls of deducing ethics from behavioral economics: why the Association of American Medical Colleges is wrong about pharmaceutical detailing.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is urging academic medical centers to ban pharmaceutical detailing. This policy followed from a consideration of behavioral and neuroeconomics research. I argue that this research did not warrant the conclusions drawn from it. Pharmaceutical detailing carries risks of cognitive error for physicians, as do other forms of information exchange. Physicians may overcome such risks; those determined to do so may ethically engage in pharmaceutical detailing. Whether or not they should do so is a prudential judgment about which reasonable people may disagree. The AAMC's ethical condemnation of detailing is unwarranted and will subvert efforts to maintain a realm of physician discretion in clinical work that is increasingly threatened in our present practice environment.

  3. Proof of concept study with an HER-2 mimotope anticancer vaccine deduced from a novel AAV-mimotope library platform

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Josef; Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Fazekas, Judit; Thell, Kathrin; Bentley-Lukschal, Anna; Stremnitzer, Caroline; Roth-Walter, Franziska; Weghofer, Margit; Ritter, Mirko; Pino Tossi, Kerstin; Hörer, Markus; Michaelis, Uwe; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Anticancer vaccines could represent a valuable complementary strategy to established therapies, especially in settings of early stage and minimal residual disease. HER-2 is an important target for immunotherapy and addressed by the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab. We have previously generated HER-2 mimotope peptides from phage display libraries. The synthesized peptides were coupled to carriers and applied for epitope-specific induction of trastuzumab-like IgG. For simplification and to avoid methodological limitations of synthesis and coupling chemistry, we herewith present a novel and optimized approach by using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) as effective and high-density mimotope-display system, which can be directly used for vaccination. Methods: An AAV capsid display library was constructed by genetically incorporating random peptides in a plasmid encoding the wild-type AAV2 capsid protein. AAV clones, expressing peptides specifically reactive to trastuzumab, were employed to immunize BALB/c mice. Antibody titers against human HER-2 were determined, and the isotype composition and functional properties of these were tested. Finally, prophylactically immunized mice were challenged with human HER-2 transfected mouse D2F2/E2 cells. Results: HER-2 mimotope AAV-vaccines induced antibodies specific to human HER-2. Two clones were selected for immunization of mice, which were subsequently grafted D2F2/E2 cells. Both mimotope AAV clones delayed the growth of tumors significantly, as compared to controls. Conclusion: In this study, a novel mimotope AAV-based platform was created allowing the isolation of mimotopes, which can be directly used as anticancer vaccines. The example of trastuzumab AAV-mimotopes demonstrates that this vaccine strategy could help to establish active immunotherapy for breast-cancer patients. PMID:27622022

  4. Deduced products of C4-dicarboxylate transport regulatory genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum are homologous to nitrogen regulatory gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Ronson, C W; Astwood, P M; Nixon, B T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    We have sequenced two genes dctB and dctD required for the activation of the C4-dicarboxylate transport structural gene dctA in free-living Rhizobium leguminosarum. The hydropathic profile of the dctB gene product (DctB) suggested that its N-terminal region may be located in the periplasm and its C-terminal region in the cytoplasm. The C-terminal region of DctB was strongly conserved with similar regions of the products of several regulatory genes that may act as environmental sensors, including ntrB, envZ, virA, phoR, cpxA, and phoM. The N-terminal domains of the products of several regulatory genes thought to be transcriptional activators, including ntrC, ompR, virG, phoB and sfrA. In addition, the central and C-terminal regions of DctD were strongly conserved with the products of ntrC and nifA, transcriptional activators that require the alternate sigma factor rpoN (ntrA) as co-activator. The central region of DctD also contained a potential ATP-binding domain. These results are consistent with recent results that show that rpoN product is required for dctA activation, and suggest that DctB plus DctD-mediated transcriptional activation of dctA may be mechanistically similar to NtrB plus NtrC-mediated activation of glnA in E. coli. PMID:3671068

  5. The Nature of Fault Creep and Weakening in the San Andreas System Deduced from Studies of SAFOD Core (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. E.; Rymer, M. J.; Lockner, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the processes operative at depth in fault zones is severely hampered by the general inability to study the actively deforming fault rocks in situ. One of the main goals of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), a key component of Earthscope, was the recovery of core to allow petrographic, chemical, and physical examination of an active, plate-boundary fault at seismogenic depths, something that had never before been attempted. The SAFOD drill site is located 14 km northwest of Parkfield in central California, along a portion of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) that is characterized by a combination of aseismic slip and microseismicity. Innovations in the design and implementation of SAFOD (summarized in Zoback, Hickman and Ellsworth, Scientific Drilling, No. 11, March 2011) led to the identification of two actively creeping fault traces at 2.65 and 2.70 km vertical depth (~112°C). Subsequent multilateral coring operations successfully sampled the two zones of foliated gouge where creep is localized: the 2.6-m-wide central deforming zone (CDZ) and the 1.6-m-wide southwest deforming zone (SDZ). The two gouge zones are closely similar in character, consisting of porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rock dispersed in a fine-grained, foliated matrix of Mg-rich smectitic clays (saponite × corrensite). The boundaries of the CDZ and SDZ with adjoining sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Group are mineralogically, chemically, and texturally sharp. The Mg-rich clay minerals in the gouge zones are interpreted to be the product of fluid-assisted, shear-enhanced metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite that was tectonically entrained in the SAF from a source in the Coast Range ophiolite. Laboratory friction tests indicate that gouge from the CDZ and SDZ deforms stably (i.e., creeps) at anomalously low levels of shear stress (coefficient of friction, μ ~ 0.15), which is sufficient to explain the long-term weakness of the SAF as inferred from stress and heat flow measurements. At the surface, similar rocks are found in the active trace of the SAF to distances of at least 4 km from SAFOD, and they are inferred to connect to one or both of the gouge zones at depth. The metasomatic reactions identified in the CDZ, SDZ and surface outcrops were duplicated in recent friction tests at hydrothermal conditions, in which serpentinite gouge was sheared slowly for ~15 days between quartz-bearing rocks. The serpentinite gouges in those experiments showed an immediate weakening and stabilization of shear, in contrast to the relatively strong and potentially unstable behavior of serpentinite in an ultramafic chemical system. This suggests that fault creep and weakening along the SAF may have initiated as soon as serpentinite was juxtaposed against crustal rocks. Long-term shear of the serpentinite eventually resulted in even more significant, reaction-induced weakening accompanying creep as Mg-rich clays progressively dominated the mechanical behavior of the SAF (μ ~ 0.05 for pure saponite at 100°C). The results obtained from SAFOD may also be applicable to the other creeping faults of the San Andreas system that are associated with the Coast Range ophiolite.

  6. Properties of hot electrons in the Jovian inner magnetosphere deduced from extended observations of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Murakami, Go; Suzuki, Fumiharu; Hikida, Reina; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Kimura, Tomoki; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Kagitani, Masato; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Tao, Chihiro; Nozawa, Hiromasa; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    One of the focal points of interest in Jovian magnetospheric physics is the transport of energy and particles into the inner region. While an explosive energy release event in the midmagnetosphere is manifested as an aurora transient, its connection to the inner part has not been investigated due to sparsity of observations. Here we take the advantage of long-term and quasi-continuous simultaneous monitoring of the polar aurora and the Io Plasma Torus (IPT) located in the inner magnetosphere by Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics/Hisaki. Studies on temporal characteristics over hours enable us to see slow ( 10 h) coupling between the middle and inner magnetosphere as well as to quantify the temperature of hot electrons in the IPT. We derive parameters that characterize the strong particle acceleration process.

  7. Variation of volatile concentration in a magma system of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano deduced from melt inclusion analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, G.; Kazahaya, K.; Shinohara, H.; Stimac, J.; Kawanabe, Y.

    2001-08-01

    Chemical analyses of 30 melt inclusions from Satsuma-Iwojima volcano, Japan, were carried out to investigate volatile evolution in a magma chamber beneath the volcano from about 6300 yr BP to the present. Large variations in volatile concentrations of melts were observed. (1) Water concentration of rhyolitic melts decreases with time; 3-4.6 wt.% at the time of latest caldera-forming eruption of Takeshima pyroclastic flow deposit (ca. 6300 yr BP), 3 wt.% for small pyroclastic flow (ca. 1300 yr BP) of Iwodake, post-caldera rhyolitic dome, and 0.7-1.4 wt.% for submarine lava eruption (Showa-Iwojima) in 1934. (2) Rhyolitic melts of the Takeshima and Iwodake eruptions contained CO 2 of less than 40 ppm, while the Showa-Iwojima melt has higher CO 2 concentration of up to 140 ppm. (3) Water and CO 2 concentrations of basaltic to andesitic melt of Inamuradake, a post-caldera basaltic scoria cone, are 1.2-2.8 wt.% and ≤290 ppm, respectively. Volatile evolution in the magma chamber is interpreted as follows: (1) the rhyolitic magma at the time of the latest caldera-forming eruption (ca. 6300 yr BP) was gas-saturated due to pressure variation in the magma chamber because the large variation in water concentration of the melt was attributed to exsolution of volatile in the magma prior to the eruption. Iwodake eruption (ca. 1300 yr BP) was caused by a remnant of the caldera-forming rhyolitic magma, suggested from the similarity of major element composition between these magmas. (2) Volatile composition of the Showa-Iwojima rhyolitic melt agrees with that of magmatic gases presently discharging from a summit of Iwodake, indicating the low pressure degassing condition. (3) The degassing of the magma chamber by magma convection in a conduit of Iwodake during non-eruptive but active degassing period for longer than 800 years decreased water concentration of the rhyolitic magma. (4) Geological and petrological observations indicate that a stratified magma chamber, which consists of a lower basaltic layer and an upper rhyolitic layer, might have existed during the post-caldera stage. Addition of CO 2 from the underlying basaltic magma to the upper gas-undersaturated (degassed) rhyolitic magma increased CO 2 concentration of the rhyolitic magma.

  8. Correlation between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the field-aligned current regions deduced from DE 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishii, M.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Slavin, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The satellite-observed high correlations between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the high-latitude field-aligned current regions are investigated by examining the dependence of the relationship between Delta-B and E on spatial scale, using the electric and magnetic field data obtained by DE 2 in the polar regions. The results are compared with the Pedersen conductivity inferred from the international reference ionosphere model and the Alfven wave velocity calculated from the in situ ion density and magnetic field measurements.

  9. Intelligent function deduced from change of state in TeO{sub 2}-ZnO glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nukui, A.; Shimizugawa, Y.; Inoue, S.; Maeseto, T.

    1994-12-31

    A variety of local structures at the most fundamental level in binary tellurite glasses and their considerable structural changes under appropriate condition are expected to be concerned with a primitive intelligent function for responding to environmental condition. While some of those glasses show a thermochromic phenomenon that the glass become darkening from transparent corresponding to appropriate temperatures. Those changes of state should lead to such intelligent functions as sensor, processor and effector in the glass. The aim of the present study is to develop an understanding of the suitable change of state in TeO{sub 2}-ZnO glasses for realizing the primitive intelligent materials.

  10. WBN-1 Cycle 10 TPBAR Tritium Release, Deduced From Analysis of RCS Data TTP-1-3046-00, Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Niehus, Mark T.; Love, Edward F.

    2012-02-19

    This document contains the calculation of the TPBAR tritium release from the Mark 9.2 design TPBARs irradiated in WBN cycle 10. The calculation utilizes the generalized cycle analysis methodology given in TTP-1-3045 Rev. 0.

  11. Application of geochemical techniques to deduce the reservoir performance of the Palinpinon Geothermal Field, Philippines - an update

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Garcia, S.E.; Hermoso, D.Z.

    1997-12-31

    Regular monitoring of various geochemical parameters in the water and vapor phases of the production wells at the Palinpinon I and II sectors of the Southern Negros Geothermal Field have been useful in the identification of the dominant reservoir processes occurring related to the present exploitation strategy. Observed geochemical and physical changes in the output of production wells have dictated production and injection strategies adopted to maximize production to meet the steam requirements of the power plant. Correlation of both physical and chemical data have identified the following reservoir processes: (1) Injection breakthrough via the Ticala Fault of the highly mineralized (Cl {approximately}8,000-10,500 mg/kg), isotopically enriched ({delta}{sup 18}O = -3.00{per_thousand}, {delta}{sup 2} H = -39{per_thousand}), and gas depleted brine for wells in the SW and central Puhagan. Injection breakthrough is also occurring in Palinpinon II and has resulted in temperature drops of 5-10{degrees}C.2. Pressure drawdown enhanced boiling in the liquid reservoir with steam separation of 220-240{degrees}C, feeding wells tapping the natural steam zone. However, enhanced drawdown has induced the entry of shallow acid steam condensate fluids in some wells (e.g. OK-7, PN-29D, PN-18D), which if not arrested could reduce production.

  12. A comprehensive model of postseismic deformation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake deduced from GPS observations in northern Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Endra; Sagiya, Takeshi; Ito, Takeo; Kimata, Fumiaki; Tabei, Takao; Ohta, Yusaku; Meilano, Irwan; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Agustan; Nurdin, Irwandi; Sugiyanto, Didik

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the postseismic deformation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) using 5 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) data located in northern Sumatra. Continuous GPS data from northern Sumatra suggest that the relaxation time in the vertical displacement is longer than horizontal displacements. This implies that there are multiple physical mechanisms that control the postseismic deformation, which refer to afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. In this study, we introduce an analysis strategy of postseismic deformation to simultaneously calculate multiple mechanisms of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. The afterslip inversion results indicate that the distribution of the afterslip and the coseismic slip are compensatory of each other. Also, afterslip has a limited contribution to vertical deformation in northern Sumatra. In our rheology model, we use a gravitational Maxwell viscoelastic response and the result indicates that the elastic layer thickness is 65 ± 5 km and the Maxwell viscosity is 8.0 ± 1.0 × 1018 Pa s. We find that afterslip plus Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation are appropriate to explain the deformation in northern Sumatra. We also find that our rheology model reproduces the long-term features of the GPS time series in Thailand. Applying our rheology model to the data in Andaman Islands our afterslip estimation is located at the down-dip part of the plate boundary. Finally, we showed that our rheology model is applicable to the GPS datasets of postseismic deformation of the 2004 SAE located in northern Sumatra, Thailand, and Andaman-Nicobar, respectively.

  13. Following the Viterbi Path to Deduce Flagellar Actin-Interacting Proteins of Leishmania spp.: Report on Cofilins and Twinfilins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Araújo, Fabiana F.; Kamimura, Michel T.; Medeiros, Sarah R.; Viana, Daniel A.; Oliveira, Fátima de Cássia E.; Filho, Raimundo Araújo; Costa, Marcília P.; Oliveira, Diana M.

    2007-11-01

    For performing vital cellular processes, such as motility, eukaryotic cells rely on the actin cytoskeleton, whose structure and dynamics are tightly controlled by a large number of actin-interacting (AIP) or actin-related/regulating (ARP) proteins. Trypanosomatid protozoa, such as Leishmania, rely on their flagellum for motility and sensory reception, which are believed to allow parasite migration, adhesion, invasion and even persistence on mammalian host tissues to cause disease. Actin can determine cell stiffness and transmit force during mechanotransduction, cytokinesis, cell motility and other cellular shape changes, while the identification and analyses of AIPs can help to improve understanding of their mechanical properties on physiological architectures, such as the present case regarding Leishmania flagellar apparatus. This work conveniently apply bioinformatics tools in some refined pattern recognition techniques (such as hidden Markov models (HMMs) through the Viterbi algorithm/path) in order to improve the recognition of actin-binding/interacting activity through identification of AIPs in genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of Leishmania species. We here report cofilin and twinfilin as putative components of the flagellar apparatus, a direct bioinformatics contribution in the secondary annotation of Leishmania and trypanosomatid genomes.

  14. Direction and timing of uplift propagation in the Peruvian Andes deduced from molecular phylogenetics of highland biotaxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Physical paleoaltimetric methods are increasingly used to estimate the amount and timing of surface uplift in orogens. Because the rise of mountains creates new ecosystems and triggers evolutionary changes, biological data may also be used to assess the development and timing of regional surface uplift. Here we apply this idea to the Peruvian Andes through a molecular phylogeographic and phylochronologic analysis of Globodera pallida, a potato parasite nematode that requires cool temperatures and thus thrives above 2.0-2.5 km in these tropical highlands. The Peruvian populations of this species exhibit a clear evolutionary pattern with deeper, more ancient lineages occurring in Andean southern Peru and shallower, younger lineages occurring progressively northwards. Genetically diverging G. pallida populations thus progressively colonized highland areas as these were expanding northwards, demonstrating that altitude in the Peruvian Andes was acquired longitudinally from south to north, i.e. in the direction of decreasing orogenic volume. This phylogeographic structure is recognized in other, independent highland biotaxa, and point to the Central Andean Orocline (CAO) as the region where high altitudes first emerged. Moreover, molecular clocks relative to Andean taxa, including the potato-tomato group, consistently estimate that altitudes high enough to induce biotic radiation were first acquired in the Early Miocene. After calibration by geological and biological tie-points and intervals, the phylogeny of G. pallida is used as a molecular clock, which estimates that the 2.0-2.5 km threshold elevation range was reached in the Early Miocene in southernmost Peru, in the Middle and Late Miocene in the Abancay segment (NW southern Peru), and from the latest Miocene in central and northern Peru. Although uncertainties attached to phylochronologic ages are significantly larger than those derived from geochronological methods, these results are fairly consistent with coeval geological phenomena along the Peruvian Andes. They strongly suggest that orogenic volume initially developed in the CAO during most of the Miocene until a breakthrough in the latest Miocene allowed the northward propagation of crustal thickening into central and northern Peru, possibly by ductile crustal flow from the CAO. Such a combined phylogeographic and phylochronologic approach to regional uplift opens perspectives to estimate the direction(s) and timing of acquisition of altitude over other Cenozoic orogens.

  15. A new estimate of the chondrule cooling rate deduced from an analysis of compositional zoning of relict olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-03-01

    Compositional zoning in chondrule phenocrysts records the crystallization environments in the early solar nebula. We modeled the growth of olivine phenocrysts from a silicate melt and proposed a new fractional crystallization model that provides a relation between the zoning profile and the cooling rate. In our model, we took elemental partitioning at a growing solid-liquid interface and time-dependent solute diffusion in the liquid into consideration. We assumed a local equilibrium condition, namely, that the compositions at the interface are equal to the equilibrium ones at a given temperature. We carried out numerical simulations of the fractional crystallization in one-dimensional planar geometry. The simulations revealed that under a constant cooling rate the growth velocity increases exponentially with time and a linear zoning profile forms in the solid as a result. We derived analytic formulae of the zoning profile, which reproduced the numerical results for wide ranges of crystallization conditions. The formulae provide a useful tool to estimate the cooling rate from the compositional zoning. Applying the formulae to low-FeO relict olivine grains in type II porphyritic chondrules observed by Wasson and Rubin, we estimate the cooling rate to be ∼200-2000 K s{sup –1}, which is greater than that expected from furnace-based experiments by orders of magnitude. Appropriate solar nebula environments for such rapid cooling conditions are discussed.

  16. Age of Giordano Bruno crater as deduced from the morphology of its secondaries at the Luna 24 landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    We undertook a photogeologic study of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of the ejecta of the very young 22-km diameter crater Giordano Bruno (GB) and for the Luna 24 landing site region, where secondary craters from Giordano Bruno are observed. Using the technique of Basilevsky (1976) for estimating the absolute ages of small lunar craters based on their morphologic prominence and size, craters near the Luna 24 site considered to be secondaries of Giordano Bruno crater and craters superposed on ejecta of Giordano Bruno crater are found to have approximately the same age: somewhere between 5 and 10 m.y. This suggests that the craters at the Luna 24 site are indeed secondaries of GB crater and that this age range is an estimate for the time of GB crater formation. Our results generally agree with estimates derived from counts of small craters superposed on GB ejecta: 1-10 m.y. and with the exposure age of one of the samples derived from Zone I of the Luna 24 core. Plescia et al. (2010b) interpreted a large fraction of the craters superposed on GB ejecta and floor not as primary craters, but rather as secondary craters formed from the GB event itself. On this basis, it was postulated that GB may be formed by an historic impact. Our new data and analysis do not support an age as young as historical. The general agreement of our results for age determination for the GB secondaries of the Luna 24 area, and for craters superposed on the GB ejecta, with the age estimate based on crater count and with the mentioned exposition age of one of the Luna 24 samples, also validates the technique of Basilevsky (1976). A special study of the Luna 24 samples should be undertaken designed to find records of the formation age of the crater on whose rim Luna 24 landed, thus better constraining the age of GB crater.

  17. Deduced primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor and expression of the mRNA in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, K; Hagiya, M; Nishizawa, T; Seki, T; Shimonishi, M; Shimizu, S; Nakamura, T

    1990-01-01

    The primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was elucidated by determining the base sequence of the complementary DNA (cDNA) of HGF. The cDNA for rat HGF was isolated by screening a liver cDNA library with oligonucleotides based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of purified rat HGF. HGF is encoded in an mRNA of about 6 kilobases. Both alpha and beta subunits of HGF are specified in a single open reading frame for a 728-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 82,904. The N-terminal part of HGF has a signal sequence and a prosequence with 30 and 25 amino acid residues, respectively. The mature heterodimer structure is derived proteolytically from this single pre-pro precursor polypeptide. The calculated molecular weights of the alpha and beta subunits are 50,664 and 25,883, respectively, and each subunit has two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The amino acid sequence of HGF is 38% identical with that of plasminogen. The alpha subunit of HGF contains four "kringle" structures, and the beta subunit has 37% amino acid identity with the serine protease domain of plasmin. Northern blot analysis revealed that HGF mRNA was expressed in rat various tissues, including the liver, kidney, lung, and brain. Images PMID:2139229

  18. Features of autumnal differential coastal cooling in south-eastern Baltic deduced from data of MODIS spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of profiles of sea surface temperature (SST) from the coastline to deep sea area in Russian sector of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea during seasonal autumnal cooling are identified using the data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua. Time periods are chosen when vertical convection and wind mixing make the upper layer (~ 30-40 m) in deep-sea area practically isothermal, and significant horizontal gradients of temperature/density are formed above shallows and underwater coastal slopes. This picture of differential cooling is formed by the combined action of heat exchange with the atmosphere (which is practically the same in coastal and open areas) and horizontal transport of heat from the sea to the shallow/coastal zone. This allows for estimation of horizontal heat and mass transport between the deep and the coastal area. The images of October-November 2002-2009 were analyzed, corresponding to periods of fast decrease of air temperature (at a rate of 0.86-2.54 °C/day). Significant linear portion in shallow-most paret is found to be a characteristic feature of the profiles, which is detected above all types of slopes (steep, sloping, irregular), reaching 20% to 70% of the length of the slope. Comparative analysis of the characteristics of the observed profiles above different slopes at the same image, and for the same slope at different dates was performed. The actual profiles of SST are compared with several theoretically predicted cases (in the absence of horizontal exchange, in of the quasi-stationary exchange), and the modeling results. Estimations suggest that horizontal gradient of water temperature favours seasonal slide of the cold/dense water along the underwater slopes (cascading) with a fairly high speed, reaching tens of cm/s at the shelf edge in the case of rapid cooling of water above the underwater slopes. Current speed at the end of the slopes may be quite high (8-20 cm/s), but comparable to the known values. On the base of numerical modeling results, the maximum speed of 5-7 cm/s obtained. The resulting specific volumetric flow rate, estimated from remote sensing data (1.2-4.8 m**2/s) is comparable to that obtained by numerical modeling (2.6-6.0 m**2/s). The specific volumetric flow-rates at the end of the slopes/shelf break is also similar to that observed in other basins (e.g., in Lake Geneva - 0.4-1 m**2/s, Lake Baikal - 5 m**2/s). The analysis was conducted with the support of RFBR, grants number 10-05-00540a, 10-05-00472a, 11-05-00674a. Intellectual property rights to the original data of MODIS Aqua belong to American space agency (NASA).

  19. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp (Cannabis-type) and rye (Secale-type). From the 15th to the 19th century AD, pollen diagrams are similar at three sites and differ from the fourth. At Assenoncourt, St Jean and Römersberg, the contribution of Quercus, Carpinus and Fagus remains almost constant: 40%, 10% and 10%. This pattern may be related to short rotation forestry management applied in order to provide fuel wood to the local salt industry. At the fourth site (Sarrebourg), pollen assemblage varies with successive Quercus and Carpinus phases, following a natural sylvicultural evolution. Finally, the present-day forest extension took place during the 19th century with the replacement of wood by coal in the salt industry and the recent collapse of this salt industry during the 20th century. This study confirms, in the context of low altitude forests with heavy soils, what had been observed on shallow calcareous soils of the Lorrain plateau. Most of our state forests, that were thought to be "very ancient" or "immemorial" forest, have been managed for agriculture in the deep past. Because agriculture lands were often limed, fertilized, and eroded, this former agriculture use may to a large extent explain present soil properties and, as a consequence, present biodiversity.

  20. High latitude field aligned light ion flows in the topside ionosphere deduced from ion composition and plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Hoegy, W. R.; Chen, T. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using a comprehensive ionospheric data set comprised of all available ion composition and plasma temperature measurements from satellites, the vertical distributions of ion composition and plasma temperatures are defined from middle latitudes up into the polar cap for summer conditions for altitudes below about 1200 km. These data are sufficient to allow a numerical estimation of the latitudinal variation of the light ion outflows from within the plasmasphere to the polar wind regions. The altitude at which significant light ion outflow begins is found to be lower during solar minimum conditions than during solar maximum. The H(+) outward speeds are of the order of 1 km/s near 1100 km during solar maximum but attain several km/s speeds for solar minimum. He(+) shows a similar altitude development of flow but attains polar cap speeds much less than 1 km/s at altitudes below 1100 km, particularly under solar maximum conditions. Outward flows are also found in the topside F-region for noontime magnetic flux tubes within the plasmasphere.

  1. Tectonics of the baikal rift deduced from volcanism and sedimentation: a review oriented to the Baikal and Hovsgol lake systems.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexei V; Demonterova, Elena I

    2009-01-01

    As known from inland sedimentary records, boreholes, and geophysical data, the initiation of the Baikal rift basins began as early as the Eocene. Dating of volcanic rocks on the rift shoulders indicates that volcanism started later, in the Early Miocene or probably in the Late Oligocene. Prominent tectonic uplift took place at about 20 Ma, but information (from both sediments and volcanics) on the initial stage of the rifting is scarce and incomplete. A comprehensive record of sedimentation derived from two stacked boreholes drilled at the submerged Akademichesky ridge indicates that the deep freshwater Lake Baikal existed for at least 8.4 Ma, while the exact formation of the lake in its roughly present-day shape and volume is unknown. Four important events of tectonic/environmental changes at about approximately 7, approximately 5, approximately 2.5, and approximately 0.1 Ma are seen in that record. The first event probably corresponds to a stage of rift propagation from the historical center towards the wings of the rift system. Rifting in the Hovsgol area was initiated at about this time. The event of ~5 Ma is a likely candidate for the boundary between slow and fast stages of rifting. It is reflected in a drastic change of sedimentation rate due to isolation of the Akademichesky ridge from the central and northern Lake Baikal basins. The youngest event of 0.1 Ma is reflected by the (87)0Sr/ (86)Sr ratio increase in Lake Baikal waters and probably related to an increasing rate of mountain growth (and hence erosion) resulting from glacial rebounding. The latter is responsible for the reorganization of the outflow pattern with the termination of the paleo-Manzurka outlet and the formation of the Angara outlet. The event of approximately 2.5 Ma is reflected in the decrease of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Na/Al ratios in Lake Baikal waters. We suggest that it is associated with a decrease of the dust load due to a reorganization of the atmospheric circulations in Mainland Asia. All these tectonic and climatic events could (and actually did) influence the biota of Lake Baikal. The Hovsgol rift basin was shaped to its recent form between 5.5 and 0.4 Ma. However, freshwater Lake Hovsgol appeared only in the latest pre-Holocene time as a result of meltwater inflow and increase of atmospheric precipitations during the Bølling-Allerød warming. Prior to this, a significantly smaller, saline outflow-free precursor of Lake Hovsgol existed. It explains why two, now connected, lakes of similar water chemistry within similar climatic and tectonic conditions differ so much in their biodiversity.

  2. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Kerr, Graham S.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Dennis, Brian R.; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 10{sup 31} erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 10{sup 30} erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  3. Amino acid sequence of rabbit kidney neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase) deduced from a complementary DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Devault, A; Lazure, C; Nault, C; Le Moual, H; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Kahn, P; Powell, J; Mallet, J; Beaumont, A

    1987-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) is a major constituent of kidney brush border membranes. It is also present in the brain where it has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of opioid peptides, methionine- and leucine-enkephalins. For this reason this enzyme is often called 'enkephalinase'. In order to characterize the primary structure of the enzyme, oligonucleotide probes were designed from partial amino acid sequences and used to isolate clones from kidney cDNA libraries. Sequencing of the cDNA inserts revealed the complete primary structure of the enzyme. Neutral endopeptidase consists of 750 amino acids. It contains a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (27 amino acids), a single membrane-spanning segment (23 amino acids) and an extracellular domain that comprises most of the protein mass. The comparison of the primary structure of neutral endopeptidase with that of thermolysin, a bacterial Zn-metallopeptidase, indicates that most of the amino acid residues involved in Zn coordination and catalytic activity in thermolysin are found within highly honmologous sequences in neutral endopeptidase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2440677

  4. The Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Lunar Mare Basalts As Deduced From Analysis of Data for Lunar Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence; Basilevsky, A.; Neukum, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we analyze chronological data for lunar meteorites with emphasis on the spatial and temporal distribution of lunar mare basalts. The data are mostly from the Lunar Meteorite Compendium (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/lmc/contents.cfm cited thereafter as Compendium) compiled by Kevin Righter and from the associated literature.

  5. The Radiated Energy Budget of Chromospheric Plasma in a Major Solar Flare Deduced from Multi-wavelength Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Kerr, Graham S.; Dennis, Brian R.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 1031 erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ~3 × 1030 erg about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  6. The Radiated Energy Budget Of Chromospheric Plasma In A Major Solar Flare Deduced From Multi-Wavelength Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan; Kerr, Graham Stewart; Dennis, Brian; Hudson, Hugh; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Allred, Joel; Chamberlin, Phillip; Ireland, Jack; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis

    2015-04-01

    The response of the lower solar atmosphere is an important diagnostic tool for understanding energy transport during solar flares. The 15 February 2011 X-class flare was fortuitously observed by a host of space-based instruments that sampled the chromospheric response over a range of lines and continua at <20s cadence. These include the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600Å and 1700Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504Å, 5550Å, and 6684Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968Å using Hinode/SOT. RHESSI also observed the entire event at energies up to ~100keV, making it possible to determine the properties of the nonthermal electrons deemed to be responsible for driving the enhanced chromospheric emission under the assumption of thick-target collisions. Integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2×1031 erg. By comparison, the summed energy detected by instruments onboard SDO and Hinode amounted to ~3×1030 erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses in contrast to the predictions of numerical simulations. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  7. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of diagenetic overprint. We intend to come up with a process-oriented understanding of alteration parameters and products as the change in microstructure, texture and mineral phase needs a careful action when it comes to the interpretation of paleoclimate reconstruction data.

  8. Properties of a two-dimensional asphaltene network at the water-cyclohexane interface deduced from dynamic tensiometry.

    PubMed

    Bouriat, Patrick; El Kerri, Nabil; Graciaa, Alain; Lachaise, Jean

    2004-08-31

    Static and dynamic tensiometries show that a newly prepared water/asphaltenated cyclohexane interface behaves as expected: the mean area occupied per asphaltene molecule is 2 nm2, and variations of interfacial tension and dilatational elastic modulus with time indicate that equilibrium is reached more slowly than that for usual surfactants. The use of the time/temperature superposition principle allows a detailed rheological study of a 2 day old interface of the same type which has reached equilibrium. It is found that the two-dimensional asphaltene network exhibits a glass transition zone, behaves as a gel near its gelation point, and is built by a universal process of aggregation.

  9. Combining Satellite Data, Trajectory Modeling and Surface Insolation Measurements to Deduce the Direct Radiative Effect of Smoke Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Baum, Bryan A.; DiPasquale, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have introduced a method of inferring the radiative effect of smoke aerosols using a technique that combines satellite remote sensing with trajectory modeling. The results shown here clearly show large flux biases between theoretical and measured radiative fluxes correlate with the arrival of smoke aerosol to the area. Further analysis is required to convincingly demonstrate that the reason for these differences is the radiative effect of the smoke aerosols. To do this, the estimated fluxes taken from the ERA-15 will be recomputed every 3 hours using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set entitled DX gridded to a 1o equal angle resolution (see paper 7B.2 for details). Surface radiometric and ancillary data for several more Canadian surface sites are being obtained at minute temporal resolution. The ultimate purpose of this research is to derive aerosol smoke maps for fire events such as this to be included in an aerosol climatology and be incorporated in the computation of the earth's surface radiation budget to better understand the radiative effect of aerosols.

  10. Primary structure of bovine pituitary secretory protein I (chromogranin A) deduced from the cDNA sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.G.; Cohn, D.V.; Gorr, S.U.; Ornstein, D.L.; Kashdan, M.A.; Levine, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    Secretory protein I (SP-I), also referred to as chromogranin A, is an acidic glycoprotein that has been found in every tissue of endocrine and neuroendocrine origin examined but never in exocrine or epithelial cells. Its co-storage and co-secretion with peptide hormones and neurotransmitters suggest that it has an important endocrine or secretory function. The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a bovine pituitary lambdagt11 expression library using an antiserum to parathyroid SP-I. The largest clone (SP4B) hybridized to a transcript of 2.1 kilobases in RNA from parathyroid, pituitary, and adrenal medulla. Immunoblots of bacterial lysates derived from SP4B lysognes demonstrated specific antibody binding to an SP4B/..beta..-galactosidase fusion protein (160 kDa) with a cDNA-derived component of 46 kDa. Radioimmunoassay of the bacterial lystates with SP-I antiserum yielded parallel displacement curves of /sup 125/I-labeled SP-I by the SP4B lysate and authentic SP-I. SP4B contains a cDNA of 1614 nucleotides that encodes a 449-amino acid protein (calculated mass, 50 kDa). The nucleotide sequences of the pituitary SP-I cDNA and adrenal medullary SP-I cDNAs are nearly identical. Analysis of genomic DNA suggests that pituitary, adrenal, and parathyroid SP-I are products of the same gene.

  11. Magnetic properties of hexagonal closed-packed iron deduced from direct observations in a diamond anvil cell

    PubMed

    Gilder; Glen

    1998-01-02

    The attraction of hexagonal closed packed (hcp) iron to a magnet at 16.9 gigapascals and 261 degrees centigrade suggests that hcp iron is either paramagnetic or ferromagnetic with susceptibilities from 0. 15 to 0.001 and magnetizations from 1800 to 15 amperes per meter. If dominant in Earth's inner core, paramagnetic hcp iron could stabilize the geodynamo.

  12. Culinary Herbs and Spices: Their Bioactive Properties, the Contribution of Polyphenols and the Challenges in Deducing Their True Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Opara, Elizabeth I.; Chohan, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy. PMID:25340982

  13. Wintertime haze deterioration in Beijing by industrial pollution deduced from trace metal fingerprints and enhanced health risk by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Charles C-K; Zhang, Renjian; Wu, Yunfei; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Luo, Li; Huang, Chao-Hao; Lin, Shuen-Hsin; Huang, Yi-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected in Beijing between 24 February and 12 March 2014 to investigate chemical characteristics and potential industrial sources of aerosols along with health risk of haze events. Results showed secondary inorganic aerosol was the major contributor to PM2.5 during haze days. Utilizing specific elements, including Fe, La, Tl and As, as fingerprinting tracers, four emission sources, namely iron and steel manufacturing, petroleum refining, cement plant, and coal combustion were explicitly identified; their elevated contributions to PM during haze days were also estimated. The average cancer risk from exposure to inhalable PM toxic metals was 1.53 × 10(-4) on haze days, which is one order of magnitude higher than in other developed cities. These findings suggested heavy industries emit large amounts of not only primary PM but also precursor gas pollutants, leading to secondary aerosol formation and harm to human health during haze days.

  14. The characteristic of the magnetopause reconnection X-line deduced from low-altitude satellite observations of cusp ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, M.; Onsager, T. G.; Davis, C. J.; Smith, M. F.; Denig, W. F.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of a 'quasi-steady' cusp ion dispersion signature observed at low altitudes. We reconstruct the field-parallel part of the Cowley-D ion distribution function, injected into the open low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) in the vicinity of the reconnection X-line. From this we find the field parallel magnetosheath flow at the X-line was only 20 +/- 60 km/s, placing the reconnection site close to the flow streamline which is perpendicular to the magnetosheath field. Using interplanetary data and assuming the subsolar magnetopause is in pressure balance, we derive a wealth of information about the X-line, including: the density, flow, magnetic field and Alfven speed of the magnetosheath; the magnetic shear across the X-line; the de-Hoffman Teller speed with which field lines emerge from the X-line; the magnetospheric field; and the ion transmission factor across the magnetopause. The results indicate that some heating takes place near the X-line as the ions cross the magnetopause, and that sheath densities may be reduced in a plasma depletion layer. We also compute the reconnection rate. Despite its quasi-steady appearance on an ion spectrogram, this cusp is found to reveal a large pulse of enhanced reconnection rate.

  15. Middle Miocene-early Pliocene paleo-oceanic environment of Japan Sea deduced from geochemical features of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, S.; Shikazono, N.; Kashiwagi, H.; Nohara, M.

    2004-02-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions (Sr isotopic ratio, major elements, trace elements, rare earth elements, total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur contents) of rock samples collected from middle Miocene to early Pliocene sedimentary rocks on the Oga Peninsula, northern Japan, were analyzed to elucidate the paleo-oceanic environment of the Japan Sea. The rocks studied were shales from the Nishikurosawa, Onnagawa and Funakawa formations in stratigraphically ascending order. The Onnagawa sedimentary rocks in the lower (ca. 12.6-11.4 Ma), middle (ca. 10.6-9.0 Ma) and upper (ca. 8.3-7.0 Ma) horizons have high Mo/Al, Ni/Al, and Ba/Al ratios and high total organic carbon as well as high K/Ti and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios and a positive Eu anomaly. These geochemical variations imply high primary productivity, and reducing conditions indicative of a deep paleo-ocean. The formation of petroleum source rocks on these horizons is attributed to increasing of nutrient delivery from the terrigenous system, which may have been induced by strong wind from Asian continent related to the uplift of Himalayan and Tibetan regions.

  16. Gene Content Evolution in Discobid Mitochondria Deduced from the Phylogenetic Position and Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Tsukubamonas globosa

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Kolisko, Martin; Nishimura, Yuki; Yabuki, Akinori; Brown, Matthew W.; Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Roger, Andrew J.; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryotic assemblage Discoba (Excavata) comprises four lineages: the Heterolobosea, Euglenozoa, Jakobida, and Tsukubamonadida. Discoba has been considered as a key assemblage for understanding the early evolution of mitochondrial (mt) genomes, as jakobids retain the most gene-rich (i.e., primitive) genomes compared with any other eukaryotes determined to date. However, to date, mt genome sequences have been completed for only a few groups within Discoba, including jakobids, two closely related heteroloboseans, and kinetoplastid euglenozoans. The Tsukubamonadida is the least studied lineage, as the order was only recently established with the description of a sole representative species, Tsukubamonas globosa. The evolutionary relationship between T. globosa and other discobids has yet to be resolved, and no mt genome data are available for this particular organism. Here, we use a “phylogenomic” approach to resolve the relationship between T. globosa, heteroloboseans, euglenozoans, and jakobids. In addition, we have characterized the mt genome of T. globosa (48,463 bp in length), which encodes 52 putative protein-coding and 29 RNA genes. By mapping the gene repertoires of discobid mt genomes onto the well-resolved Discoba tree, we model gene loss events during the evolution of discobid mt genomes. PMID:24448982

  17. The Dynamics of Seasonal Change of the Long Waves as Deduced from a Low-Order General Circulation Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, Bette Lou

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of seasonal change through analysis of long-term integrations of a global, low-order general circulation model. The behavior of the long waves, wavenumbers 1 through 5, are investigated in terms of vertically integrated and inter-harmonic exchanges of energy. The seasonal cycle is explored not only in the northern extratropics where observational data is available for comparison, but also in the tropics and southern extratropics where our current knowledge is incomplete. Special attention is given to the temporal variation of the statistics and step -function response of the circulation. The numerical model used in this study is a global, spectral, primitive equation model with five levels in the vertical and tri-angular truncation at wavenumber 10 in the horizontal. Included in the model are: orography; time-varying (but prescribed) sea-surface temperatures, snowcover, and solar declination angle; simplified parameterizations of radiation, convection, condensation, diffusion, and surface transports; and, a surface heat budget. The external seasonal forcing of the model atmosphere is composed of sinusoidal variations in the incoming solar radiation and latitude of the snowline and more complicated variations in the albedo of the snow and the sea-surface temperatures. A five year seasonal simulation has been analyzed. The model simulates the vertically integrated energetics of the long waves of the atmosphere reasonably well. The seasonal cycles and interannual variabilities of the energy statistics resemble those documented in observed studies. There are indications of asymmetric and steplike responses to the external seasonal forcing in the annual cycles of the energetics. The spring decrease of eddy kinetic energy at northern extratropical latitudes is less rapid than the fall increase. The fall increase is composed of equinoctial storminess periods which are characterized by an enhanced long wave pattern on which shorter waves are superimposed. Baroclinic conversions maintain both the long wave pattern and the superimposed medium waves. The Northern and Southern Hemispheres differ in their response to seasonal forcing. In the Northern Hemisphere, wavenumber 2, which is on the scale of the major continents and oceans, dominates the energy cycle. The Southern Hemisphere has more symmetric seasonal cycles and a predominance of energy at wavenumbers 4 and 5. The importance of the thermally direct east-west circulations, associated with land-sea and precipitation zonal asymmetries, is verified in the tropical energy cycle. The success of this model in simulating the atmospheric seasonal cycle illustrates the usefulness of models that are intermediate in complexity between zonally-averaged models and high-resolution general circulation models for climate studies.

  18. Sources and flow patterns of deep-ocean waters as deduced from potential temperature, salinity, and initial phosphate concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Takahashi, Taro; Takahashi, Timothy

    1985-01-01

    Through the deconvolution of ocean chemical data it has been shown that the ratio of O2 utilization to phosphate production in the sea is 175±6 (rather than 138, as proposed by Redfield et al. (1963)). We find no evidence that this ratio changes significantly with location or depth in the sea. We have used this new ratio to calculate the initial phosphate concentrations for the waters sampled during the GEOSECS and TTO programs. The important application of these new results is in constraining the origin and flow patterns of deep waters in the ocean. We believe that a strong case can be made that Antarctic salinity maximum water (i.e., the common water of Montgomery (1958)) is produced by the mixing of waters entering the Antarctic from mid-depths in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic with Weddell Sea bottom water (southern component). Antarctic common water consists of about 45% Weddell Sea bottom water, 30% intermediate waters from the Pacific and Indian oceans, and 25% deep water originating from the northern Atlantic.

  19. Climate change in the Turkana basin as deduced from a 4000 year long δO 18 record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, R. D.; Johnson, T. C.

    1996-07-01

    A model of the oxygen isotopic composition of Lake Turkana waters sheds insight into the paleoclimatic interpretation of a δ 18O profile of inorganic calcite from a core taken from the lake. The model indicates that high frequency fluctuations seen in the isotopic record are probably due to shifts in lake level, while the long term increase of 1.4‰ seen from 4 to 2 kyr BP cannot be due solely to lake level change. It must be due to changes in other climatic parameters, such as the isotopic composition of the inflow. These findings suggests that the abrupt change observed in Lake Turkana (and many other African lakes) at 4 ka was the precursor to a 2000 year long adjustment in the climate over the Ethiopian Plateau. The isotopic record from Lake Turkana agrees with other paleoclimate records from the basin, including the diatom stratigraphy and radiocarbon dates on exposed shoreline deposits.

  20. Late Quaternary coseismic uplift events on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, deduced from coral terrace data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yoko; Chappell, John

    1996-03-01

    Up to six regressive terraces occur on the Holocene raised reef tract and up to 15 occur on late Pleistocene raised reef tracts along 40 km of coastline at Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. We suggest that the regressive terraces represent repeated episodic uplift caused by great earthquakes. Ages of Holocene coseismic uplift events are established by radiocarbon dating; the late Pleistocene events are bracketed by U series ages of the raised reef tracts on which they occur. The mean recurrence interval of great earthquakes that caused the uplift events is 970 to 1165 years in the Holocene and probably the same in the late Pleistocene; the interval ranged from about 200 to 1900 years. The uplift rate increases parallel to the coast from northwest to southeast, and the amplitude of coseismic uplifts generally increases similarly, although some events produced uplift with little shore-parallel tilting. The mean amplitude of coseismic uplifts throughout the study area is ˜3 m in for both Holocene and late Pleistocene sequences. Large, late Quaternary landslides are numerous, and some probably were triggered by the great earthquakes that caused coseismic uplift. There appears to be no continuum between historical large earthquakes at Huon Peninsula of magnitudes >7 that produced no or only minor uplift, and the great earthquakes represented by meter-scale coseismic uplifts and very large landslides. Two tectonic subregions are recognized, which were uplifted together by some Holocene events but not by others. There is no surface trace of Holocene faulting between the subregions, and a buried fault is thought to separate them.

  1. Aerial Photographic Surveys Analyzed to Deduce Oil Spill Movement during the Decay and Breakup of Fast Ice, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Lissauer * Denise A. Baird U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center Avery Point Groton, Connecticut 06340 ’li 𔃾rl 5 0 SEPTEMBER 1982 FINAL REPORT...g Org On .zaon Code PRUDHOE BAY, ALASKA ___" . P,lorm ,q Ormi ng a, ,oon Retort No. 7. Aumo.s) I Ivan M. Lissauer and Denise A. Baird CGR&DC 21/82 9

  2. The characteristics of lower crust and upper mantle in the Cima volcanic field deduced from xenolith studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardon, K. P.; Anthony, E.

    2015-12-01

    A lithospheric model based on mineral chemistry, textures, and temperatures is used to interpret the seismic structure of the upper mantle and lower crust observed under the Cima Volcanic Field, CA. Seismic velocities calculated from xenolith compositions are used in conjunction with petrologic information to interpret geophysical models of the area. The lower crust is composed of mafic compositions and contains a high percentage of quenched partial melt. The combination of quenched partial melt and mafic composition explains the relatively low seismic velocities observed in seismic models. The mafic composition is consistent with a rift environment. Melt compositions, some with > 60 wt% SiO2 are found in all types of Cima xenoliths, although pyroxenites and gabbros contain the largest amount. Pyroxenite from the uppermost mantle transitions into gabbroic compositions and plagioclase rich lithologies in the crust. Temperatures calculated for peridotite xenoliths range from ~ 950 to 1030˚ C. Plagioclase bearing samples have the lowest temperatures and are interpreted as residing in the immediate sub-Moho mantle. Plagioclase bearing lherzolite structurally overlies spinel bearing peridotite. Strain accumulation is most prevalent in plagioclase bearing peridotite and virtually absent from pyroxenites and gabbros. Seismic velocities calculated for peridotite xenoliths are faster than pyroxenite and gabbroic samples. Despite the chemical heterogeneity and complex history of the Moho transitional are most mantle is composed dominantly by peridotite. Very little lithosphere, rhelologically speaking, remains under the volcanic field. We interpret lithospheric dismemberment to be caused by hot mantle working northward from the Gulf of California.

  3. Seismic velocity structure around the shallow megathrust zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Obana, K.; Machida, Y.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Suzuki, K.; Ito, Y.; Hino, R.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Murai, Y.; Sato, T.; Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Hirata, K.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Suetsugu, D.

    2012-12-01

    The coseismic rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake has been estimated to be over the wide region from the coastline to near the Japan Trench. Several kinds of studies, such as tsunami source inversion [e.g., Fujii et al., 2011], coseismic slip inversion [e.g., Ide et al., 2011], submarine topography change [Fujiwara et al., 2011] and seafloor displacement observation [Sato et al., 2011; Ito et al., 2011; Kido et al., 2011], share the common feature that the largest coseismic slip occurred at the shallow plate boundary in close vicinity to the Japan Trench. However, the structural image just beneath the largest coseismic slip area was unclear since the observation areas of previous ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) in this region were limited and there were few OBSs near the Japan Trench [e.g., Yamamoto et al., 2011]. To understand the relationship between the coseismic rupture behavior and structural heterogeneities, it is necessary to know the seismic velocity structure around the plate boundary near the trench axis. After the occurrence of the 2011 earthquake, some National Universities (Hokkaido, Tohoku, Chiba, Tokyo, Kyushu, and Kagoshima), JAMSTEC, and Meteorological Research Institute together have conducted the aftershock observations along the landward slope of the Japan Trench to obtain detail hypocenter distribution [Shinohara et al., 2012]. Tohoku University has performed the other OBS observation off Miyagi prefecture from 2010 to 2011. During this observation, a sequence of foreshocks, the mainshock, and aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake were recorded [Suzuki et al., 2012]. In addition, JAMSTEC has conducted the aftershock observation at outer slope of Japan Trench, around the epicenter of a Mw 7.6 earthquake that occurred about 40 minutes after the 2011 mainshock, from May to June in 2011[Obana et al., 2012]. In this study, we attempt to obtain the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the largest coseismic slip zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake by combining these OBS dataset and land seismic data. From our preliminary results, we could recognize the relatively low Vs and high Vp/Vs oceanic crust at landward side of the mainshock location. There is a possibility that the location of the mainshock is controlled by heterogeneous distribution of fluid in the oceanic crust. In addition, the velocity of uppermost slab mantle from 143° E to the trench axis showed low Vp, Vp/Vs (~1.70) and high Vs (> 5.0 km/s). This feature might reflect the existence of strongly anisotropy in the slab mantle or indicate the locally orthopyroxene enrichment. However, the spatial resolution around the plate boundary and upper plate in the vicinity of the Japan Trench is not enough to discuss the detail structure. We will show more reliable velocity image by adding the ray-paths which pass through around the Japan Trench.

  4. Evolution of multicellular animals as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences: a possible early emergence of the Mesozoa.

    PubMed

    Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1984-06-25

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a mesozoan Dicyema misakiense and three metazoan species, i.e., an acorn-worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a moss-animal Bugula neritina, and an octopus Octopus vulgaris have been determined. A phylogenic tree of multicellular animals has been constructed from 73 5S rRNA sequences available at present including those from the above four sequences. The tree suggests that the mesozoan is the most ancient multicellular animal identified so far, its emergence time being almost the same as that of flagellated or ciliated protozoans. The branching points of planarians and nematodes are a little later than that of the mesozoan but are clearly earlier than other metazoan groups including sponges and jellyfishes. Many metazoan groups seem to have diverged within a relatively short period.

  5. Calcium translocation mechanism in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, deduced from location studies of protein-bound spin labels.

    PubMed Central

    Champeil, P; Rigaud, J L; Gary-Bobo, C M

    1980-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles were exposed to various thiol-directed spin labels, and the position of the label on the inner or outer vesicle surface was investigated as a function of the ATPase (adenosinetriphosphatase; ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) chemical state. Previous measurements of label accessibility to externally added ascorbate had been considered to suggest an external-internal transition of protein-bound labels, coupled with ion translocation [Tonomura, Y. & Morales, M.F. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 3687-3691]. We show that these ascorbate studies do not lead to convincing conclusions. We demonstrate, on the contrary, that transition ions (nickel and ferricyanide) can be used as selective line-broadening agents for the signals arising from external labels. No significant difference in nickel- or ferricyanide-label interaction can be attributed to a different orientation of the label in any of the enzyme chemical states tested. Our results therefore contradict the current interpretation of ascorbate quenching experiments in terms of calcium ATPase rotatory motion; rather they are consistent with ion transport models involving only limited conformational rearrangements of the pump. PMID:6446710

  6. Large-eddy simulation and deduced scaling analysis of Rayleigh Bénard convection up to Ra = 109**

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, S.-H.; Hanjalic, K.; Davidson, L.

    Large-eddy simulation of turbulent Rayleigh Bénard (RB) convection has been performed for a 6:1:6 open-ended domain for Rayleigh numbers ranging from 6.3 × 105 to 109 at Prandtl number of Pr = 0.71. The scaling analysis based on the LES data shows that the heat transfer follows a single relation of Nu = 0.162 Ra0.286, which is consistent with the scaling law for the hard turbulence regime reported in several earlier experimental and DNS studies. The present LES also supports some earlier experimental and DNS findings that most of characteristic parameters can be scaled reasonably well with Ra number in the considered Ra number range using a single relation. Nonetheless, it is found that the scaling of several quantities shows a sensible offset from a single relation, and could be fitted better with the separate scaling relations for the soft and hard convective turbulence transitioned at about Ra = 4 × 107. It has been argued that the transition, reflected in the scaling relation, may be attributed to the increasing ‘containing effect’ of the plume leaving the horizontal wall on the plume approaching the wall at large Ra numbers in the near-wall region. **This paper is a modified version from the paper presented at the Forth International Symposium of Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (Williamsburg, Virginia, 27 29 June 2005).

  7. Transition state and ground state properties of the helix–coil transition in peptides deduced from high-pressure studies

    PubMed Central

    Neumaier, Sabine; Büttner, Maren; Bachmann, Annett; Kiefhaber, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Volume changes associated with protein folding reactions contain valuable information about the folding mechanism and the nature of the transition state. However, meaningful interpretation of such data requires that overall volume changes be deconvoluted into individual contributions from different structural components. Here we focus on one type of structural element, the α-helix, and measure triplet–triplet energy transfer at high pressure to determine volume changes associated with the helix–coil transition. Our results reveal that the volume of a 21-amino-acid alanine-based peptide shrinks upon helix formation. Thus, helices, in contrast with native proteins, become more stable with increasing pressure, explaining the frequently observed helical structures in pressure-unfolded proteins. Both helix folding and unfolding become slower with increasing pressure. The volume changes associated with the addition of a single helical residue to a preexisting helix were obtained by comparing the experimental results with Monte Carlo simulations based on a kinetic linear Ising model. The reaction volume for adding a single residue to a helix is small and negative (−0.23 cm3 per mol = −0.38 Å3 per molecule) implying that intrahelical hydrogen bonds have a smaller volume than peptide-water hydrogen bonds. In contrast, the transition state has a larger volume than either the helical or the coil state, with activation volumes of 2.2 cm3/mol (3.7 Å3 per molecule) for adding and 2.4 cm3/mol (4.0 Å3 per molecule) for removing one residue. Thus, addition or removal of a helical residue proceeds through a transitory high-energy state with a large volume, possibly due to the presence of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds, although steric effects may also contribute. PMID:24324160

  8. Hole size distributions in cardo-based polymer membranes deduced from the lifetimes of ortho-positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Kinomura, A.; Kazama, S.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y.; Haraya, K.; Mohamed, H. F. M.; O'Rourke, B. E.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the free volume size distributions of the cardo-based polymer membranes, where ortho-positronium (o-Ps) undergoes pick-off annihilation, the o-Ps lifetime distributions were analyzed by the LT9 programme. It was found that the cardo-based polysulfone membrane has much narrower o-Ps lifetime/hole size distributions than the cardo-based polyimide membranes with the 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) moiety. Further, the lifetime/hole size distributions of the cardo-based polymer membranes are appreciably broadened with increasing temperature. This suggests that in these membranes there are holes not only of different sizes but also of different thermal expansion coefficients. It is also shown that in a membrane with a wider hole size distribution the average o-Ps lifetime tends to be longer than would be expected from the correlation between the o-Ps lifetime and the total free volume for common polymers.

  9. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of the second decade acts as a rebound of the ground-water level.

  10. Mid-lithospheric Discontinuity Beneath the Malawi Rift, Deduced from Gravity Studies and its Relation to the Rifting Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njinju, E. A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Mickus, K. L.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The World Gravity Map satellite gravity data were used to investigate the lithospheric structure beneath the Cenozoic-age Malawi Rift which forms the southern extension of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. An analysis of the data using two-dimensional (2D) power spectrum methods indicates the two distinctive discontinuities at depths of 31‒44 km and 64‒124 km as defined by the two steepest slopes of the power spectrum curves. The shallower discontinuity corresponds to the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) and compares well with Moho depth determined from passive seismic studies. To understand the source of the deeper discontinuity, we applied the 2D power spectrum analysis to other rift segments of the Western Branch as well as regions with stable continental lithospheres where the lithospheric structure is well constrained through passive seismic studies. We found that the deeper discontinuity corresponds to a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD), which is known to exist globally at depths between 60‒150 km and as determined by passive seismic studies. Our results show that beneath the Malawi Rift, there is no pattern of N-S elongated crustal thinning following the surface expression of the Malawi Rift. With the exception of a north-central region of crustal thinning (< 35 km), most of the southern part of the rift is underlain by thick crust (~40‒44 km). Different from the Moho, the MLD is shallower beneath the axis of the Malawi Rift forming a N-S trending zone with depths of 64‒80 km, showing a broad and gentle topography. We interpret the MLD as representing a sharp density contrast resulting from metasomatized lithosphere due to lateral migration along mobile belts of hot mantle melt or fluids from a distant plume and not from an ascending asthenosphere. These fluids weaken the lithosphere enhancing rift nucleation. The availability of satellite gravity worldwide makes gravity a promising technique for determining the MLD globally.

  11. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the values are in accordance with expected ET values (up to about 5mm/day). Seasonal WSC are analyzed since 2008 using FG5 absolute gravity measurements four times a year and since 2010 using the continuous SG time series. They can reach up to 12 microGal (≈270mm) and show a clear interannual variability, as can be expected from rainfall variability in the area. This data set allows some estimates of an average specific yield for the local aquifer, together with a scaling factor for Magnetic Resonance Soundings-derived water content.

  12. Physical Map of the Linear Chromosome of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 10-22 Deduced by Analysis of Overlapping Large Chromosomal Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiuhua; Zhou, Xiufen; Sun, Yuhui; Deng, Zixin

    2002-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 10-22, a derivative of strain 5102-6, was digested with several restriction endonucleases and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Digestions with AseI gave 11 fragments with a total length of ca. 7.36 Mb. The AseI sites were mapped by analysis of overlapping chromosomal deletions in different mutants and confirmed by Southern hybridizations using partially digested genome fragments and linking cosmids as probes. PFGE analysis of DNA with and without proteinase K treatment, together with the hybridization results, suggested a linear organization with terminal proteins and large terminal inverted repeats. Some deletion mutants had circular chromosomes. PMID:11889104

  13. Changes in the earth's rate of rotation between A.D. 1672 and 1806 as deduced from solar eclipse timings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, F. R.; Lieske, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Solar eclipse timings measured between A.D. 1672 and 1806 are analyzed to study the variation of Delta T (= ET - UT) over this interval. These solar eclipse observations confirm the results of Brouwer (1952), Martin (1969), and Stephenson and Morrison (1969) which were obtained from the analysis of occultations in this period. It is believed that Goldstein's (1985) analysis inadequately represents the changes in Delta T.

  14. Thermospheric meridional winds as deduced from ionosonde chain at low and equatorial latitudes and their connection with midnight temperature maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Saito, Susumu; Kawamura, Masabumi; Nozaki, Kenro

    2008-09-01

    Multipoint ionosonde observation was conducted in Southeast Asia to study ionosphere-thermosphere coupling. For this observation three ionosondes were installed along the magnetic meridian at 100°E (Southeast Asia Low-latitude Ionospheric Network: SEALION); two of them were at magnetic conjugate points and the third was near the magnetic equator. The F layer virtual height, h'F, was scaled from nighttime ionograms obtained from September 2004 to August 2005, close to the solar minimum. The height variations at the three locations were used to derive thermospheric winds in the magnetic meridional plane for transequatorial and convergent/divergent components (with respect to the magnetic equator). During northern winter months, a prominent 6-hr periodic variation of a transequatorial component was found. During northern summer months, a diurnal or semidiurnal variation was dominant. Convergent winds toward the magnetic equator were associated with the occurrence of the midnight temperature maximum at the latitudes between the two conjugate stations as observed by satellite instruments during the solstices. However, no clear evidence was found of abatement of the wind due to the pressure bulge associated with the midnight temperature maximum.

  15. Storm-induced changes of the topside ionosphere as deduced from incoherent-scatter radars. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lunn, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Incoherent scatter radar observations from Millstone Hill, Saint Santin, and Arecibo are used to illustrate changes of the topside ionosphere during a geomagnetic storm. These observations consist of electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. These parameters can further describe changes in ion composition, electric fields, and neutral winds. Attention is given to a specific storm during the Equinox Transition Study (ETS) of September 1984. In order to isolate the storm effects in the topside ionosphere, a comparison will be made between a disturbed and quiet day. A novel result from this study is the finding of correlated oscillations between parallel and perpendicular ion velocity components which are apparently storm induced. Previously, these oscillations have been observed primarily at night, but now it's noticed that during storm conditions there are prominent oscillations during the day.

  16. Vertical neutral wind in the equatorial F-region deduced from electric field and ion density measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, Harri; Aggson, Thomas L.; Herrero, F. A.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Hanson, William B.

    1995-01-01

    Direct current (DC) electric field and ion density measurements near density depletion regions (that is, equatorial plasma bubbles) are used to estimate the vertical neutral wind speed. The measured zonal electric field in a series of density depletions crossed by the San Marco D satellite at 01.47-01.52 Universal Time (UT) on 25 October 1988, can be explained if a downward neutral wind of 15-30 m/s exists. Simultaneously, the F-region plasma was moving downward at a speed of 30-50 m/s. These events appear in the local time sector of 23.00-23.15 in which strong downward neutral winds may occur. Indeed, airglow measurements suggest that downward neutral velocities of 25-50 m/s are possible at time near midnight in the equatorial F-region.

  17. Global characteristics of the cold plasma in the equatorial plasmapause region as deduced from the geos 1 mutual impedance probe

    SciTech Connect

    Decreu, P.M.E.; Beghin, C.; Parrot, M.

    1982-02-01

    Thermal plasma parameters derived by the muntal impedance experiment on GEOS are described. The experiment is well suited to the measurement of the electron density and temperature of the outer plasmasphere (when kT/sub e//N/sub e/<1.6 eV/cm/sup 3/). This investigation of the whole set of data supplied by GEOS 1 (4

  18. Towards Evidence-Based Policy for Canadian Education = Vers des politiques candiennes d'education fondees sur la recherche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Broucker, Patrice, Ed.; Sweetman, Arthur, Ed.

    This book is a collection of 19 essays that broadly treat the use of evidence in informing educational policy and practice in Canada: (1) "Knowledge and Action in Educational Policy and Politics" (Benjamin Levin); (2) "Data, Data Everywhere (and We Don't Know What to Do): Using Data for Wise Decisions in Schools" (Lorna M.…

  19. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  20. Distribution of star formation rates during the rapid assembly of NGC 1399 as deduced from its globular cluster system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C.; Hilker, M.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) share many properties with globular clusters (GCs) and are found in similar environments. Here, a large sample of UCDs and GCs around NGC 1399, the central giant elliptical of the Fornax galaxy cluster, is used to infer their formation history and also to shed light on the formation of NGC 1399 itself. We assumed that all GCs and UCDs in our sample are the result of star cluster (SC) formation processes and used them as tracers of past star formation activities. After correcting our GC/UCD sample for mass loss, we interpreted their overall mass function to be a superposition of SC populations that formed coevally during different formation epochs. The SC masses of each population were distributed according to the embedded cluster mass function (ECMF), a pure power law with the slope - β. Each ECMF was characterized by a stellar upper mass limit, Mmax, which depended on the star formation rate (SFR). We decomposed the observed GC/UCD mass function into individual SC populations and converted Mmax of each SC population to an SFR. The overall distribution of SFRs reveals under which conditions the GC/UCD sample around NGC 1399 formed. Considering the constraints set by the age of the GCs/UCDs and the present stellar mass of NGC 1399, we found that the formation of the GCs/UCDs can be well explained within our framework with values for β below 2.3. This finding agrees very well with the observation of young SCs where β ≈ 2.0 is usually found. Even though we took into account that some of the most massive objects might not be genuine SCs and applied different corrections for the mass loss, we found that these considerations do not influence much the outcome. We derived the peak SFRs to be between approximately 300 and 3000 M⊙ yr-1, which matches the SFRs observed in massive high-redshift sub-millimeter galaxies and an SFR estimate inferred from NGC 1399 based on the so-called downsizing picture, meaning that more massive galaxies must have formed over shorter periods of time. Our findings give rise to the interpretation that NGC 1399 and its GC/UCD system formed in a relatively short, intense starburst early on.

  1. Extrapolating surface structures to depth in transpressional systems: the role of rheology and convergence angle deduced from analogue experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shang Yu; Neubauer, Franz; Cloetingh, Sierd; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The internal structure of major strike-slip faults is still poorly understood, particularly how the deep structure could be inferred from its surface expression (Molnar and Dayem, 2011 and references therein). Previous analogue experiments suggest that the convergence angle is the most influential factor (Leever et al., 2011). Further analogue modeling may allow a better understanding how to extrapolate surface structures to the subsurface geometry of strike-slip faults. Various scenarios of analogue experiments were designed to represent strike-slip faults in nature from different geological settings. As such key parameters, which are investigated in this study include: (a) the angle of convergence, (b) the thickness of brittle layer, (c) the influence of a rheological weak layer within the crust, and (d) influence of a thick and rheologically weak layer at the base of the crust. The latter aimed to simulate the effect of a hot metamorphic core complex or an alignment of uprising plutons bordered by a transtensional/transpressional strike-slip fault. The experiments are aimed to explain first order structures along major transcurrent strike-slip faults such as the Altyn, Kunlun, San Andrea and Greendale (Darfield earthquake 2010) faults. The preliminary results show that convergence angle significantly influences the overall geometry of the transpressive system with greater convergence angles resulting in wider fault zones and higher elevation. Different positions, densities and viscosities of weak rheological layers have not only different surface expressions but also affect the fault geometry in the subsurface. For instance, rheological weak material in the bottom layer results in stretching when experiment reaches a certain displacement and a buildup of a less segmented, wide positive flower structure. At the surface, a wide fault valley in the middle of the fault zone is the reflection of stretching along the velocity discontinuity at depth. In models with a thin and rheologically weaker layer in the middle of the brittle layer, deformation is distributed over more faults and the geometry of the fault zone below and above the weak zone shows significant differences, suggesting that the correlation of structures across a weak layer has to be supported by geophysical data, which help constraining the geometry of the deep part. This latter experiment has significantly similar phenomena in reality, such as few pressure ridges along Altyn fault. The experimental results underline the need to understand the role of the convergence angle and the influence of rheology on fault evolution, in order to connect between surface deformation and subsurface geometry. References Leever, K. A., Gabrielsen, R. H., Sokoutis, D., Willingshofer, E., 2011. The effect of convergence angle on the kinematic evolution of strain partitioning in transpressional brittle wedges: Insight from analog modeling and high-resolution digital image analysis. Tectonics, 30(2), TC2013. Molnar, P., Dayem, K.E., 2010. Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere, 6, 444-467.

  2. Rotational Dependence of Intramolecular Dynamics in Acetylene at Low Vibrational Excitation as Deduced from High Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, David S.; Miller, Anthony; Amyay, B.; Fayt, A.; Herman, M.

    2010-06-01

    The link between energy-resolved spectra and time-resolved dynamics is explored quantitatively for acetylene (12C2H2), X1Σg+ with up to 8,600 wn of vibrational energy. This comparison is based on the extensive knowledge of the vibration-rotation energy levels and on the model Hamiltonian used to fit them to high precision. Simulated intensity borrowing features in high resolution absorption spectra and predicted survival probabilities for intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) are first investigated for the ν4+ν5 and ν3 bright states, for J = 2, 30 and 100. The dependence of the results on the rotational quantum number and on the choice of vibrational bright state reflects the interplay of three kinds of off-diagonal resonances: anharmonic, rotational l-type, and Coriolis. The dynamical quantities used to characterize the calculated time-dependent dynamics are the dilution factor φd, the IVR lifetime τIVR, and the recurrence time τrec. For the two bright states ν3+2ν4 and 7ν4, the collisionless dynamics for thermally averaged rotational distributions at T = 27, 270 and 500 K were calculated from the available spectroscopic data. For the 7ν4 bright state, an apparent irreversible decay of is found. In all cases, the model Hamiltonian allows a detailed calculation of the energy flow among all of the coupled zeroth-order vibration-rotation states. B. Amyay, S. Robert, M. Herman, A. Fayt, B. Raghavendra, A. Moudens, J. Thiévin, B. Rowe, and R. Georges, J. Chem. Phys., 131, 114301 (2009).

  3. On the Distribution of Ion Density Depletion Along Magnetic Field Lines as Deduced Using C-NOFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, E.; Kelley, M. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Retterer, J. M.; Su, Y.-J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Roddy, P. A.; Ballenthin, J. O.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ion density depletion along magnetic field lines, we compare in situ-measured ion density fluctuations as seen from C/NOFS and compare them to the field-line-integrated depletion of the whole bubble as inferred from electric field measurements. Results show that, within C/NOFS' range, local measurement of the normalized density depletion, (Delta)n/n(sub 0), near the apex may be far less than at other points on the same field line. We argue that the distribution of (Delta)n/n(sub 0) is a weighted distribution concentrated at latitudes of the Appleton anomalies and becomes more heavily weighted the closer the field-aligned bubble rises to the peak of the anomalies. A three-dimensional simulation of an ionospheric bubble verifies our arguments.

  4. Sources of Educational Information: European Survey, 1984=Sources d'information en matiere d'education: Enquete europeenne, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    A survey was conducted to update a series of documents published by the Council of Europe in 1975. This survey covers the following countries: Austria, Belgium (Dutch-speaking area), Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. For each country, details are given concerning sources of…

  5. Gamow-Teller Strengths in Proton-Rich Exotic Nuclei Deduced in the Combined Analysis of Mirror Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Brentano, P. von; Fransen, C.; Pietralla, N.; Zell, K.O.; Berg, G.P.A.; Frenne, D. de; Jacobs, E.; Negret, A.; Popescu, L.; Fujita, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Tamii, A.

    2005-11-18

    Isospin symmetry is expected for the T{sub z}={+-}1{yields}0 isobaric analogous transitions in isobars with mass number A, where T{sub z} is the z component of isospin T. Assuming this symmetry, strengths of analogous Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions within A=50 isobars were determined from a high energy-resolution T{sub z}=+1{yields}0, {sup 50}Cr({sup 3}He,t){sup 50}Mn study at 0 deg. in combination with the decay Q value and lifetime from the T{sub z}=-1{yields}0, {sup 50}Fe{yields}{sup 50}Mn {beta} decay. This method can be applied to other pf-shell nuclei and can be used to study GT strengths of astrophysical interest.

  6. Gamow-teller strengths in proton-rich exotic nuclei deduced in the combined analysis of mirror transitions.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Y; Adachi, T; von Brentano, P; Berg, G P A; Fransen, C; De Frenne, D; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Hatanaka, K; Jacobs, E; Nakanishi, K; Negret, A; Pietralla, N; Popescu, L; Rubio, B; Sakemi, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Tameshige, Y; Tamii, A; Yosoi, M; Zell, K O

    2005-11-18

    Isospin symmetry is expected for the T(z)=+/-1-->0 isobaric analogous transitions in isobars with mass number A, where T(z) is the z component of isospin T. Assuming this symmetry, strengths of analogous Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions within A = 50 isobars were determined from a high energy-resolution study at 0 degrees in combination with the decay Q value and lifetime from the beta decay. This method can be applied to other pf-shell nuclei and can be used to study GT strengths of astrophysical interest.

  7. Structural geometry and evolution of the Dead Sea-Jordan rift system as deduced from new subsurface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashai, E. L.; Croker, P. F.

    1987-09-01

    Analysis of deep drilling data and seismic reflection surveys obtained in recent years permit establishment of a tectonic model of the Dead Sea-Jordan rift system that is in part conformable with some of the many, often controversial, theories on this subject, but which also introduces new information negating some concepts that are widely accepted in the literature. The Dead Sea-Jordan rift system is not a tensional graben between two parallel sets of faults, but instead can be best defined as a sinistral transform connecting an incipient oceanic ridge—the Red Sea—with an upthrusted collision zone, the Taurus range. The shear is caused by the opening of the Red Sea and the motion of the Arabian sub-plate away from the African plate. The shearing occurs along a largely south-north trending, slightly arcuate Une, consisting of a series of en echelon left-stepping left-lateral strike-slip master faults of varying lengths. These faults characteristically die out to the north by bending outward (northeast), and the movement is taken up by the strike-slip faults to the left (i.e. to the west). Where overlap of the two faults occurs, very narrow and very deep grabens have evolved, in places the width being equal to the depth. The narrowness of these grabens is dictated by the closeness of the overlapping segments of the successive strike-slip faults. This feature points to the probability that the en echelon strike-slip faults have a common root zone at great depth. These grabens are not typical "leaky" pull-aparts in that they have no gravimetric, magnetic or heat flow anomalies; nor are they closed on all four sides by large faults. Their northern ends are characterized by gradually rising graben floors without major diagonal cross faults. The Dead Sea-Jordan rift system sensu stricto extends over a distance of 420 km, from the northern shore of the Gulf of Elat to the northern margin of the Hula Valley. Southward, it is connected with the Red Sea along the Gulf of Elat transition zone, which has elements of strike-slip as well as tensional opening. A northern transition zone exists between the Hula Valley and the Taurus arc where diminishing strike-slip movement is compensated by several underthrust belts. The time of the beginning of the movement along the rift can be established as pre-middle Miocene, because mid-Miocene sediments overlie an Upper Cretaceous graben floor. Rifting has continued intermittently to the present. Volcanism in the northern fifth of the rift is genetically associated with the seismically active, tensional Golan-Hauran-Jebel Drouz-Wadi Sirhan tectonic trend, which has a north west-southeast orientation and not with the north-south trending Dead Sea-Jordan rift.

  8. Jumping and gliding rodents: mitogenomic affinities of Pedetidae and Anomaluridae deduced from an RNA-Seq approach.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Jønsson, Knud A; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2013-12-01

    An RNA-Seq strategy was used to obtain the complete set of protein-coding mitochondrial genes from two rodent taxa. Thanks to the next generation sequencing (NGS) 454 approach, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA genome from Graphiurus kelleni (Mammalia: Rodentia: Gliridae) and partial mitogenome from Pedetes capensis (Pedetidae), and compared them with published rodent and outgroup mitogenomes. We finished the mitogenome sequencing by a series of amplicons using conserved PCR primers to fill the gaps corresponding to tRNA, rRNA and control regions. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitogenomes suggest a well-supported rodent phylogeny in agreement with nuclear gene trees. Pedetes groups with Anomalurus into the clade Anomaluromorpha, while Graphiurus branches within the squirrel-related clade. Moreover, Pedetes+Anomalurus branch with Castor into the mouse-related clade. Our study demonstrates the utility of NGS for obtaining new mitochondrial genomes as well as the importance of choosing adequate models of sequence evolution to infer the phylogeny of rodents.

  9. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin is an important target for absolute age-dating. Vertical and lateral impact mixing ensures that regolith within SPA will contain rock fragments from SPA itself, local impact craters, and faraway giant basins. About 20% of the regolith at any given site is foreign [1, 2], but much of this material will be cold ejecta, not impact melt. We calculated the fraction of contributed impact melt using scaling laws to estimate the amount and provenance of impact melt, demonstrating that SPA melt is the dominant impact melt rock (>70%) likely to be present. We also constructed a statistical model to illustrate how many randomly-selected impact-melt fragments would need to be dated, and with what accuracy, to confidently reproduce the impact history of a site. A detailed impact history becomes recognizable after a few hundred to a thousand randomly-selected marbles, however, it will be useful to have more information (e.g. compositional, mineralogical, remote sensing) to group fragments. These exercises show that SPA melt has a high probability of being present in a scoop sample and that dating of a few hundred to a thousand impact-melt fragments will yield the impact history of the SPA basin.

  10. Pulling Marbles from a Bag: Deducing the Regional Impact History of the SPA Basin from Impact-Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Coker, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken (SPA) basin is the stratigraphically oldest identifiable lunar basin and is therefore one of the most important targets for absolute age-dating to help understand whether ancient lunar bombardment history smoothly declined or was punctuated by a cataclysm. A feasible near-term approach to this problem is to robotically collect a sample from near the center of the basin, where vertical and lateral mixing provided by post-basin impacts ensures that such a sample will be composed of small rock fragments from SPA itself, from local impact craters, and from faraway giant basins. The range of ages, intermediate spikes in the age distribution, and the oldest ages are all part of the definition of the absolute age and impact history recorded within the SPA basin.

  11. Detailed spatial distribution of microearthquakes beneath the Marmara Sea, Turkey, deduced from long-term ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Pinar, Ali; Kalafat, Doǧan; Citak, Seckin; Comoglu, Mustafa; Polat, Remzi; Çok, Özkan; Ogutcu, Zafer; Suvariklı, Murat; Tunc, Suleyman; Gürbüz, Cemil; Turhan, Fatih; Ozel, Nurcan; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) crosses the Marmara Sea in E-W direction, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. There are many large earthquakes along the 1500 km long NAF repeatedly occurred and interacted each other. The recent large northern Aegean earthquake with Mw=6.9 filled one of the last two seismic gaps on NAF that experienced extraordinary seismic moment release cycle during the last century and confirmed a remained blank zone in the Marmara Sea. However, this segment keeps its mystery due to its underwater location. Earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation studies in Marmara region are sensitive to detailed information on fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea. We have started ocean bottom seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the SATREPS collaborative project between Japan and Turkey namely "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey". The target area spans from western Marmara Sea to offshore Istanbul along the NAF. In the beginning of the project, we deployed ten Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs) between the Tekirdag Basin and the Central Basin (CB) in September 2014. Then, we added five Japanese OBSs and deployed them in the western end of the Marmara Sea and in the eastern CB to extend the observed area in March 2015. We retrieved all 15 OBSs in July 2015 and deployed them again in the same locations after data retrieve and battery maintenance. From continuous OBS records, we could detect more than 700 events near the seafloor trace of NAF during 10 months observation period whereas land-seismic network could detect less than 200 events. We estimated the micro-earthquake location using manual-picking arrival times incorporating station corrections. The tentative results show heterogeneous seismicity. The Western High (WH) and CB have relative high seismicity and the seismogenic zone was found to be thicker than the previous estimations done by other researchers. Our result clearly shows that the maximum depth of seismogenic zone is about 24 km beneath the WH and the western half of CB. This depth suddenly decrease to about 15 km in the eastern half of CB, suggesting that there is some structural or frictional boundary on NAF around 28°E. Our results also suggested that the dip angle of NAF is almost vertical beneath WH, whereas it is about 10 degrees southward dipping beneath the eastern CB. We will perform local seismic tomography to obtain more precious hypocenter location and fault geometry.

  12. Towards the kinetics of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration of modern Arctica islandica shell material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Laura A.; Griesshaber, Erika; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang W.

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at paleo-environment reconstructions. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium as they form local chemical environments for physiologic processes such as biological mineralization of their hard tissues. This disequilibrium is not sustained after death and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration with the surrounding environment: diagenesis. To understand transformation during diagenesis we performed laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments on Arctica islandica shells at four different temperatures between 100 °C and 175 °C treated in simulated meteoric and burial waters, respectively. We investigated, relative to unaltered shells, the kinetics of Arctica islandica bioaragonite to calcite transition as well as microstructural- and nanostructural characteristics of the altered shells with X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, high-resolution SEM and EBSD. At hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C bioaragonite - although metastable at 1 bar - does not transform to calcite, even in meteoric fluids and over a time period of 28 days. We noted a drastic recrystallization from the initial fine-grained fractal microstructure and pronounced axial texture to a new and still fine-grained microstructure with an almost randomized orientation distribution. At 175 °C the transformation to coarse-grained calcite is complete after 8 days. Calcite formation starts after a passive incubation period of 4 days; after 6 days the aragonite is almost completely transformed. In solutions simulating meteoric water the grain size of the newly formed calcite reaches 100-150 μm, while in burial fluids the calcite reaches sizes in the 1mm range during 28 days of alteration. Phase transformation proceeds where the hydrothermal fluid is in contact with the aragonite: at shell surfaces, around pores and in growth lines. Our observations lead us to the following conclusions: Surprisingly, we do not only observe transformation of nominally metastable bioaragonite to calcite, we also observe recrystallization of bioaragonite to aragonite and biocalcite to calcite. All these types of recrystallization significantly reduce the crystallographic preferred orientation, which is characteristic for the original biological hard tissue. The newly formed crystals do not nucleate epitaxially on the original material, and this causes the randomized crystallographic orientation after diagenetic overprinting. The driving force for recrystallization is due to internal stresses caused by organic matrices and interface energies related to the nanoscale fabric of the biomineral. The pores left behind by decomposed organic matrix apparently serve as nucleation sites for newly formed mineral.

  13. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrophobic surfactant-associated protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 was isolated from either/ethanol or chloroform/methanol extracts of mammalian pulmonary surfactant. Automated Edman degradation in a gas-phase sequencer showed the major N-terminus of the human low molecular weight protein to be Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-Try-Cys-Trp-Leu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Leu-. Because of the N-terminal phenylalanine, the surfactant protein was designated SPL(Phe). Antiserum generated against hydrophobic surfactant protein(s) from bovine pulmonary surfactant recognized protein of M/sub r/ 6000-14,000 in immunoblot analysis and was used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library constructed from adult human lung poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. This resulted in identification of a 1.4-kilobase cDNA clone that was shown to encode the N-terminus of the surfactant polypeptide SPL(Phe) (Phe-Pro-Ile-Pro-Leu-Pro-) within an open reading frame for a larger protein. Expression of a fused ..beta..-galactosidase-SPL (Phe) gene in Escherichia coli yielded an immunoreactive M/sub r/ 34,000 fusion peptide. Hybrid-arrested translation with the cDNA and immunoprecipitation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled in vitro translation products of human poly(A)/sup +/ RNA with a surfactant polyclonal antibody resulted in identification of a M/sub r/ 40,000 precursor protein. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated RNA from human lung detected a 2.0-kilobase RNA that was more abundant in adult lung than in fetal lung. These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states.

  14. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  15. Culinary herbs and spices: their bioactive properties, the contribution of polyphenols and the challenges in deducing their true health benefits.

    PubMed

    Opara, Elizabeth I; Chohan, Magali

    2014-10-22

    Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy.

  16. The role of angular-momentum removal in photonuclear reactions as deduced from the isomeric ratios for ? and ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, D.; Ernst, J.

    1998-03-01

    A model interpretation of isomeric ratios for 0954-3899/24/3/010/img7 and 0954-3899/24/3/010/img8 produced in the reactions 0954-3899/24/3/010/img9, 0954-3899/24/3/010/img10, 0954-3899/24/3/010/img11, 0954-3899/24/3/010/img12, 0954-3899/24/3/010/img13 and 0954-3899/24/3/010/img14 is presented. The experimental isomeric ratios were obtained using bremsstrahlung radiation with end-point energies of 18 and 43 MeV. The calculations were performed by means of the well known code STAPRE and the new code COMPLET. Angular-momentum removal in pre-equilibrium emission was found to be much more important for the observed isomeric ratios than subsequent compound-nucleus evaporation.

  17. Comparison of interannual CO2 fluxes as deduced by inverse modeling and by models of the biogeochemical carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peylin, P.; Bousquet, P.; Lequere, C.; Sitch, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; McKinley, G.; Ciais, P.; Rayner, P.; Gruber, N.

    2003-04-01

    Long record of atmospheric CO2 measurements have recently been used in conjunction with atmospheric transport model to estimate the interannual variation (IAV) of regional CO2 fluxes using inverse procedures (top-down approach). On the other hand, biogeochemical models of land ecosystems and of the ocean carbon cycle, provide direct estimates of these fluxes IAV (bottom-up approach). Reconciling the results from the 2 approaches is a key challenge in order to improve our current knowledge of the global carbon cycle and its major controls. In this study, we compare the fluxes IAV of 2 land biosphere models (SLAVE and LPJ) and of 2 ocean carbon models (OPA-HAMOC3 and MIT) together with an ensemble of inversions, for the 1980-1998 period on a monthly basis. Over land, fairly good agreement appears for major climatic anomalies, like the El-Nino events or the post Pinatubo period, when considering large continental regions. Insight from the model processes that control the IAV (Net Primary Production or Heterotrophic Respiration) will be presented. In particular, the differences between SLAVE and LPJ result from different sensitivity of the models' respiration fluxes to climate variability. For the ocean, extra-tropical areas show large discrepancies with much smaller IAV for the direct models than for the inversions, a feature not present in the tropics. The predominant role of the ocean mixing-layer depth variations in controling the flux IAV will be discuss and illustrated with data collected at the BATS atlantic stations.

  18. Using performance reference compounds in polyethylene passive samplers to deduce sediment porewater concentrations for numerous target chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loretta A; Harvey, Charles F; Gschwend, Philip M

    2009-12-01

    Polymeric passive samplers are useful for assessing hydrophobic organic chemical contamination in sediment beds. Here, an improved method is described for measuring concentrations of contaminants in porewater by using performance reference compounds (deuterated phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene) to calibrate sampler/site-specific mass transfer behavior. The method employs a one-dimensional diffusion model of chemical exchange between a polymer sheet of finite thickness and an unmixed sediment bed. The model is parametrized by diffusivities and partition coefficients for both the sampler and sediment. This method was applied to estimate porewater concentrations for seventeen PAHs from polymeric samplers deployed for 3-10 days in homogenized sediment from a coal-tar contaminated site. The accuracy of the method was verified by comparing the passive sampler results to concentrations measured through liquid-liquid extraction of physically separated porewaters, with corrections for sorption to colloidal organic carbon. The measurements made using the two methods matched within about a factor of 2.0 (+/-0.9) for the 17 target PAHs.

  19. Membrane fluidity profiles as deduced by saturation-recovery EPR measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times of spin labels.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Laxman; Feix, Jimmy B; Hyde, James S; Subczynski, Witold K

    2011-10-01

    There are no easily obtainable EPR spectral parameters for lipid spin labels that describe profiles of membrane fluidity. The order parameter, which is most often used as a measure of membrane fluidity, describes the amplitude of wobbling motion of alkyl chains relative to the membrane normal and does not contain explicitly time or velocity. Thus, this parameter can be considered as nondynamic. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (T(1)(-1)) obtained from saturation-recovery EPR measurements of lipid spin labels in deoxygenated samples depends primarily on the rotational correlation time of the nitroxide moiety within the lipid bilayer. Thus, T(1)(-1) can be used as a convenient quantitative measure of membrane fluidity that reflects local membrane dynamics. T(1)(-1) profiles obtained for 1-palmitoyl-2-(n-doxylstearoyl)phosphatidylcholine (n-PC) spin labels in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes with and without 50 mol% cholesterol are presented in parallel with profiles of the rotational diffusion coefficient, R(⊥), obtained from simulation of EPR spectra using Freed's model. These profiles are compared with profiles of the order parameter obtained directly from EPR spectra and with profiles of the order parameter obtained from simulation of EPR spectra. It is shown that T(1)(-1) and R(⊥) profiles reveal changes in membrane fluidity that depend on the motional properties of the lipid alkyl chain. We find that cholesterol has a rigidifying effect only to the depth occupied by the rigid steroid ring structure and a fluidizing effect at deeper locations. These effects cannot be differentiated by profiles of the order parameter. All profiles in this study were obtained at X-band (9.5 GHz).

  20. Concept model of the formation process of humic acid-kaolin complexes deduced by trichloroethylene sorption experiments and various characterizations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojing; He, Jiangtao; Su, Sihui; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Fei

    2016-05-01

    To explore the interactions between soil organic matter and minerals, humic acid (HA, as organic matter), kaolin (as a mineral component) and Ca(2+) (as metal ions) were used to prepare HA-kaolin and Ca-HA-kaolin complexes. These complexes were used in trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption experiments and various characterizations. Interactions between HA and kaolin during the formation of their complexes were confirmed by the obvious differences between the Qe (experimental sorbed TCE) and Qe_p (predicted sorbed TCE) values of all detected samples. The partition coefficient kd obtained for the different samples indicated that both the organic content (fom) and Ca(2+) could significantly impact the interactions. Based on experimental results and various characterizations, a concept model was developed. In the absence of Ca(2+), HA molecules first patched onto charged sites of kaolin surfaces, filling the pores. Subsequently, as the HA content increased and the first HA layer reached saturation, an outer layer of HA began to form, compressing the inner HA layer. As HA loading continued, the second layer reached saturation, such that an outer-third layer began to form, compressing the inner layers. In the presence of Ca(2+), which not only can promote kaolin self-aggregation but can also boost HA attachment to kaolin, HA molecules were first surrounded by kaolin. Subsequently, first and second layers formed (with inner layer compression) via the same process as described above in the absence of Ca(2+), except that the second layer continued to load rather than reach saturation, within the investigated conditions, because of enhanced HA aggregation caused by Ca(2+).

  1. Friction weakening in granular flows deduced from seismic records at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Clara; Mangeney, Anne; Bonilla, Fabian; Hibert, Clément; Calder, Eliza S.; Smith, Patrick J.

    2015-11-01

    Accurate modeling of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows is still an open issue, partly due to a lack of measurements related to their dynamics. Using seismic data from the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and granular flow modeling, we show that the power laws relating the seismic energy Es to the seismic duration ts and relating the loss of potential energy ΔEp to the flow duration tf are very similar, like the power laws observed at Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island. Observations showing that tf≃ts suggest a constant ratio Es/ΔEp≃10-5. This similarity in these two power laws can be obtained only when the granular flow model uses a friction coefficient that decreases with the volume transported. Furthermore, with this volume-dependent friction coefficient, the simulated force applied by the flow to the ground correlates well with the seismic energy, highlighting the signature of this friction weakening effect in seismic data.

  2. Friction weakening in granular flows deduced from seismic records at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Clara; Mangeney, Anne; Bonilla, Fabian; Hibert, Clément; Calder, Eliza; Smith, Paddy

    2015-04-01

    Accurate modelling of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows is still an open issue, partly due the lack of measurements related to the dynamics of such events. Using seismic data from the Soufrière Hills Volcano and granular flow modelling, we show that the power laws relating the seismic energy Es to the seismic duration ts and relating the loss of potential energy ΔEp to the flow duration tf are very similar (Ei ≈ tiβ with i = s,p), as observed previously at Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island. Observations showing that tf ≃ ts suggest a constant ratio Es/ΔEp ≃ 10-5. This similarity in the power laws can be obtained only when the granular flow model uses a friction coefficient that decreases with the volume involved. Furthermore, with this volume-dependent friction coefficient, the simulated force applied by the flow to the ground correlates well with the seismic energy, highlighting the signature of this friction weakening effect in seismic data.

  3. Structure of /sup 209/Bi deduced from the /sup 208/Pb(t,2n. gamma. ) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, K.H.; Nail, T.; Sheline, P.K.

    1983-04-01

    States in /sup 209/Bi were populated with the /sup 208/Pb(t,2n) reaction. Incident triton energies between 11 and 16 MeV were used. Gamma-ray excitation functions, angular distributions, and ..gamma..-..gamma..-time coincidence spectra were measured. Approximately 50 newly-observed ..gamma.. rays have been assigned to transitions in /sup 209/Bi. Previously-unresolved doublets at E/sub x/ = 2600, 3135, and 3154 keV have been identified. A new level at 3270 keV is reported, and the 3197-keV level is verified. /sup 209/Bi level energies are reported with an accuracy of 600 eV or less. A level scheme for E/sub x/<4.14 MeV is presented, including spin-parity assignments. A new M1 transition between the (5/2)/sup +/ and (3/2)/sup +/ members of the ..pi..h/sub 9/2/x3/sup -/ septuplet is reported. The 19 levels belonging to the ..nu..g/sub 9/2/p/sub 1/2/ /sup -1/, ..pi..h/sub 9/2/ are identified.

  4. Interannual fluctuations of sea-air CO2 fluxes and carbon transport between 1950 and 2000: Biological and temperature effects deduced from OBCMSs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winguth, A.; Dobbel, M.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Wentzel, P.

    2003-04-01

    Factors controlling the interannual variability of air-sea CO2 in response to the changes in temperature, circulation, and phytoplankton or zooplankton are not well known and controversially discussed. A recent analysis of pCO2 data by Takahasi et al. (2002) show the importance of high-latitude northern and southern oceans as a sink for atmospheric CO2. These areas are source areas for deep an intermediate water masses and hence represents a direct connection between the atmosphere and the deep oceans. We are using two coupled ocean general circulation - marine ecosystem models with different resolution, the NPZD-type HAMOCC4 coupled to the LSG and the C-HOPE, to explore how biology, temperature, and circulation changes can explain some of the agreements and discrepancies between the data and the model in these regions. These exploratory sensitivity experiments are designed to be a first step towards a currently developed inverse ecosystem model to quantify large-scale interannual-to-decadal fluctuations of the marine carbon cycle and to provide more accurate predictions of the climate system.

  5. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  6. Corporate proton dynamics in δ-KIO3+HIO3 crystal as deduced from ν(OH) and δ(OH) band profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, B.; Gavrilko, T.; Panthofer, M.; Puchkovska, Galina A.; Baran, J.; Ratajczak, H.

    2002-12-01

    IR spectra of polycrystalline δ-KIO3 HIO3 have been studied in the temperature range from 13 to 300 K. A systematic temperature dependent study has been performed for the hydrogen bond stretching and bending vibrations. Features observed in the high frequency region of vibrational spectra of the title crystal are discussed with respect to possible formation of new charge compensating protonic species in the proton sublattice.

  7. Aerial photographic surveys analyzed to deduce oil spill movement during the decay and breakup of fast ice, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, I.M.; Baird, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    During the summers of 1979 and 1980 aerial photographs of the land fast ice north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, were taken. These photographs, covering two-week periods, highlight the decay and break-up of the land fast ice sheet. During the period of photography, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, and tidal height measurements were recorded continuously. Several larger ice floes were 'tagged' with colored plywood markers during 1979. Both these marked flows and other distinctively shaped floes were tracked on the photographic surveys to determine the effect the wind had on their movement. Within the barrier islands, average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed exceeded the 3.5% figure 'normally' found in the literature. North of these islands average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed were less than the 3.5% value. In addition to the flow drift calculations the photographs provide information on melt pool formation and a comparison of the decay and breakup processes between the 1979 and 1980 seasons. The decay and breakup process appears to be triggered by strong wind events in early July.

  8. Effects of Bedrock Lithology and Subglacial Till on the Motion of Ruth Glacier, Alaska, Deduced from Five Pulses from 1973-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turrin, J.; Forster, R.; Sauber, Jeanne; Hall, Dorothy K.; Bruhn, R.

    2013-01-01

    A pulse is a type of unstable glacier flow intermediate between normal flow and surging. Using Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery and feature tracking software, a time-series of mostly annual velocity maps from 1973 to 2012 was produced that reveals five pulses of Ruth Glacier, Alaska. Peaks in ice velocity were found in the 1981, 1989, 1997, 2003, and 2010; approximately every 7 years. During these peak years the ice velocity increased 300%, from approximately 40 m/yr to 160 m/yr, and occurred in an area of the glacier underlain by sedimentary bedrock. Based on the spatio-temporal behavior of Ruth Glacier during the pulse cycles, we suggest the pulses are due to enhanced basal motion via deformation of a subglacial till. The cyclical nature of the pulses is theorized to be due to a thin till, with low permeability, that causes incomplete drainage of the till between the pulses, followed by eventual recharge and dilation of the till. These findings suggest care is needed when attempting to correlate changes in regional climate with decadal-scale changes in velocity, because in some instances basal conditions may have a greater influence on ice dynamics than climate.

  9. In vitro mutagenesis studies at the arginine residues of adenylate kinase. A revised binding site for AMP in the X-ray-deduced model.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Nishikawa, S; Tokutomi, Y; Takenaka, H; Hamada, M; Kuby, S A; Uesugi, S

    1990-02-06

    Although X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies have been made on the adenylate kinases, the substrate-binding sites are not unequivocally established. In an attempt to shed light on the binding sites for MgATP2- and for AMP2- in human cytosolic adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3, hAK1), we have investigated the enzymic effects of replacement of the arginine residues (R44, R132, R138, and R149), which had been assumed by Pai et al. [Pai, E. F., Sachsenheimer, W., Schirmer, R. H., & Schulz, G. E. (1977) J. Mol. Biol. 114, 37-45] to interact with the phosphoryl groups of AMP2- and MgATP2-. With use of the site-directed mutagenesis method, point mutations were made in the artificial gene for hAK1 [Kim, H. J., Nishikawa, S., Tanaka, T., Uesugi, S., Takenaka, H., Hamada, M., & Kuby, S. A. (1989) Protein Eng. 2, 379-386] to replace these arginine residues with alanyl residues and yield the mutants R44A hAK1, R132A hAK1, R138A hAK1, and R149A hAK1. The resulting large increases in the Km,app values for AMP2- of the mutant enzymes, the relatively small increases in the Km,app values for MgATP2-, and the fact that the R132A, R138A, and R149A mutant enzymes proved to be very poor catalysts are consistent with the idea that the assigned substrate binding sites of Pai et al. (1977) have been reversed and that their ATP-binding site may be assigned as the AMP site.

  10. Phylogeny of the genus Hegeter (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera) and its colonization of the Canary Islands deduced from Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Juan, C; Oromi, P; Hewitt, G M

    1996-04-01

    The genus Hegeter comprises 23 species of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos, with 21 of them exclusive to the Canary Islands. We have sequenced 438 bp of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene in 17 species (24 taxa) of Canarian Hegeter. Estimates of nucleotide composition, transition/transversion ratios and nucleotide change frequencies are very similar to those found in another tenebrionid Canarian genus Pimelia, indicating that similar molecular mechanisms are driving the sequence evolution. The sequence variation found allows phylogenetic analyses of the genus and the deduction of colonization patterns. These involve sequential island invasion with more rapid establishment and radiation than found in the related beetles of the genus Pimelia.

  11. Role of pyroclast recycling on style of small basaltic explosions at Stromboli Volcano, Italy, deduced from real-time collected ash samples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, T.; Kawaguchi, R.; Nishimura, T.; Aoyama, H.; Yamada, T.; Fujita, E.

    2015-12-01

    Understandings of controlling mechanism on the style of volcanic explosion is one of the most important subject not only for volcanology but also for hazard mitigation. Vesiculation, outgassing and crystallization of magma, and interaction with external water have been considered as essential factors for the controlling mechanism (e.g., Houghton and Gonnerman, 2005). In contrast, recent studies suggested that vigorous recyclings of pyroclast into the vent occur at basaltic volcanoes with repeating small explosions (D'Oriano et al., 2014). The recycling of pyroclast that fills the shallow conduit can affect explosion dynamics such as shape and ejection speed of jet cloud (e.g., Ohba et al., 2002). This study examined component, texture and chemical composition of ash samples collected during normal activity at Stromboli to discuss a controlling mechanism of small explosion styles in basaltic volcano. During studied term (14:26-18:29, May 21th, 2014), ash-rich explosion occurred in NE crater, and ash-poor explosion occurred in the central and SW craters. We performed real-time collection of falling ash every 4-18 minutes. The real-time collection permits direct comparison of the ash samples with explosion activity. We classify the ash particles into Juvenile (glassy particles having similar composition with HP magma), Recycled (similar texture with reheated basaltic ash; D'Oriano et al., 2013), Altered, and Crystal particles. Bulk component of recycled particle calculated from componentry variations with grain size and grain size distribution shows that the volume fraction of recycled particles increases with ash falling rate at sampling site. The ash falling rate at sampling site increased after the occurrence of ash rich explosions at NE crater. Our ash observation indicates that burial of eruptive vent by recycled pyroclasts relates with occurrence of ash rich explosion at NE crater. Therefore, we suggest that combination of the amount of gas supplied from a deeper conduit and thickness of the buried sediment in the vent controls the style of small basaltic explosion in Stromboli (Burton et al., 2007; Patrick et al., 2007; Quane et al., 2009). Depositional structure of the vent determined by the pyroclast recycling and history of the explosions are important for understanding the explosion styles.

  12. Politics and You: An Approach to Political Education in the Elementary School. = La Politique et Toi: un Modele d'Education Politique a l'Elementaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Written in both English and French, this newsletter discusses how politics should be taught to elementary students. There are three major failings in the teaching of politics to elementary students: (1) concentration on the formal institutions of government and failure to teach about the concepts that underlie politics, e.g., power, authority, and…

  13. The evolution of co-orbiting material in the orbit of 2201 Oljato from 1980 to 2012 as deduced from Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Venus Express magnetic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hairong; Russell, Christopher T.; Wei, Hanying; Zhang, Tielong

    2014-01-01

    Asteroid 2201 Oljato passed through perihelion inside the orbit of Venus near the time of its conjunction with Venus in 1980, 1983, and 1986. During those three years, many interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs) were observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) in the longitude sector where the orbit of Oljato lies inside Venus' orbit. We attribute IFEs to clouds of fine-scale, possibly highly charged dust picked up by the solar wind after an interplanetary collision between objects in the diameter range of 10-1000 m. We interpret the increase rate in IFEs at PVO in these years as due to material in Oljato's orbit colliding with material in, or near to, Venus' orbital plane and producing a dust-anchored structure in the interplanetary magnetic field. In March 2012, almost 30 yr later, with Venus Express (VEX) now in orbit, the Oljato-Venus geometry is similar to the one in 1980. Here, we compare IFEs detected by VEX and PVO using the same IFE identification criteria. We find an evolution with time of the IFE rate. In contrast to the results in the 1980s, the recent VEX observations reveal that at solar longitudes in which the Oljato orbit is inside that of Venus, the IFE rate is reduced to the level even below the rate seen at solar longitudes where Oljato's orbit is outside that of Venus. This observation implies that Oljato not only lost its co-orbiting material but also disrupted the "target material," with which the co-orbiting material was colliding, near Venus.

  14. Seasonal climate variability in historical and prehistorical times deduced from varved lake sediments: Calibration of records from Lakes Woseriner See and Tiefer See

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czymzik, Markus; Kienel, Ulrike; Dreibrodt, Stefan; Brauer, Achim

    2013-04-01

    Societies are susceptible to the effects of even short-term climate variations on water supply, health, and agricultural productivity. However, understanding of human-climate interactions is limited due to the lack of high-resolution climate records in space and time. Varved lake sediments provide long time-series of seasonal climate variability directly from populated areas that can be compared to historical and archeological records. Calibration against meteorological data enables process-based insights into sediment deposition within the lake that can be extrapolated into the past using transfer functions. Lakes Woseriner See (53°40'N/12°2'E; 37 m asl.) and Tiefer See (53°23'N/13°97'E, 65 m asl.) in northeastern Germany are located only 35 km apart. Situated within the former settlement areas, the lakes are well suited for studying climate influences on society related to the Neolithic Funnelbeaker culture or the Slavic colonization. Sub-recent annual laminations allow to establish climate proxy data-series at seasonal resolution that can be calibrated against the long meteorological record from the nearby City of Schwerin. Seasonal climate proxy data-series covering the last 90 years have been obtained from short sediment cores applying a combination of microfacies analyses, X-ray fluorescence scanning (µ-XRF), and varve counting. Main sediment microfacies in both lakes are endogenic calcite varves comprising calcite and organic layer couplets of varying thickness, diatom layers, and dispersed detrital grains. Calibration against meteorological data indicates that variations in sediment layer thickness and composition are not stationary through time but influenced by inter-annual variations in meteorological conditions.

  15. Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere (SIGMA) II: Inverse modeling with high-latitude observations to deduce irregularity physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, K. B.; Bust, G. S.; Clauer, C. R.; Scales, W. A.; Frissell, N. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Spogli, L.; Mitchell, C.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-09-01

    Ionospheric scintillation is caused by irregularities in the ionospheric electron density. The characterization of ionospheric irregularities is important to further our understanding of the underlying physics. Our goal is to characterize the intermediate (0.1-10 km) to medium (10-100 km) scale high-latitude irregularities which are likely to produce these scintillations. In this paper, we characterize irregularities observed by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) during a geomagnetically active period on 9 March 2012. For this purpose, along with the measurements, we are using the recently developed model: "Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere" (SIGMA). The model is particularly applicable at high latitudes as it accounts for the complicated geometry of the magnetic field lines in these regions and is presented in an earlier paper. We use an inverse modeling technique to derive irregularity parameters by comparing the high rate (50 Hz) GNSS observations to the modeled outputs. In this investigation, we consider experimental observations from both the northern and southern high latitudes. The results include predominance of phase scintillations compared to amplitude scintillations that imply the presence of larger-scale irregularities of sizes above the Fresnel scale at GPS frequencies, and the spectral index ranges from 2.4 to 4.2 and the RMS number density ranges from 3e11 to 2.3e12 el/m3. The best fits we obtained from our inverse method that considers only weak scattering mostly agree with the observations. Finally, we suggest some improvements in order to facilitate the possibility of accomplishing a unique solution to such inverse problems.

  16. The relationship between seismic velocity structure and the seismic coupling in the Hyuga-nada region, southwest Japan, deduced from onshore and offshore seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehira, K.; Yakiwara, H.; Yamada, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Nakao, S.; Kobayashi, R.; Goto, K.; Miyamachi, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Nakahigashi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Hino, R.; Goda, M.; Shimizu, H.

    2011-12-01

    In Hyuga-nada region, the Philippine Sea (PHS) plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian (EU) plate (the southwest Japan arc) along the Nankai trough at a rate of about 5 cm per year. Big earthquakes (M7 class) have occurred in the north region from latitude 31.6 degrees north, but it has not occurred in the south region from latitude 31.6 degrees north. The largest earthquake ever recorded in Hyuga-nada region is the 1968 Hyuga-nada earthquake (Mw 7.5). And microseismicity varies spatially. There are non-seismic slip events in Hyuga-nada region. For example, the after-slips associated with events for 19 October 1996 and 3 December 1996 were observed (Yagi et al., 2001), and in the same region, the slow-slip events were also observed by GPS measurements (GSI, 2011). We performed extraordinary seismic observations for 75 days from April to July 2006, for 73 days from April to July 2008, and for 77 days from April to July 2009. About 25 pop-up type ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed above hypocentral region in Hyuga-nada using Nagasaki-maru. And three data loggers were deployed on land in order to compensate a regular seismic network. We used these data and permanent stations for this analysis. In order to obtain precise hypocenter distribution, focal mechanisms, and a 3D seismic velocity structure around the Hyuga-nada region, we used Double-Difference (DD) Tomography method developed by Zhang and Thurber (2003). In northern part of Hyuga-nada, Vp/Vs ratio is high along the upper part of PHS slab, and this layer is interpreted as the subducting oceanic crust. On the other hand, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.73 in southern part of Hyuga-nada, and this is interpreted as the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge, old island arc, which is made by granitic rock. More over, there is a difference of Poisson's ratio at mantle wedge. This value is high (> 0.3) in northern part of Hyuga-nada. The high Poisson's mantle wedge is suggesting that the zone probably corresponds to a serpentinized wedge mantle. This region correlates with that of the after-slips and slow-slip events. This results is consistent with weak plate coupling. In southern part of Hyuga-nada, Poisson's ratio at mantle wedge is about 0.25. Uehira et al. (2007) was estimated that plate coupling is strong in southern part of Hyuga-nada, so, this result is consistent with this estimation.

  17. A simple approach to quantifying the noise-ENSO interaction. Part I: deducing the state-dependency of the windstress forcing using monthly mean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Aaron F. Z.; Jin, Fei Fei

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic forcing has been used conceptually to explain ENSO irregularity. More recently, the concept of state-dependent stochastic forcing has also been explored to further explain a number of ENSO properties. Here we propose a method using monthly mean data to isolate "the stochastic part" in the zonal windstress anomalies as the residual after both the linear and low-order nonlinear parts of the deterministic ENSO signal are removed. We then further use a conditional variance approach to quantify the ENSO state-dependency in this stochastic forcing represented by this windstress residual. This methodology of isolation and quantification of state-dependent stochastic forcing is demonstrated and validated in a conceptual model and then applied to examine reanalysis and two coupled model data sets. The stochastic windstress forcing term is shown to be dependent on the ENSO state both in the reanalysis and the model data. Both of the coupled model simulations examined here have a stronger the state-dependence than in the reanalysis data. These results also reveal a threshold dependence on SST for the windstress stochastic forcing of ENSO, likely due to the nonlinearity in atmospheric convection.

  18. On the accuracy of the relativistic parameters beta, gamma, and the solar oblateness coefficient J2, as deduced from ranging data of a drag-free space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Motion in the general gravity field is described mathematically. A covariance analysis, based on two simple models, is presented. Two drag-free space probes were considered, for which the orbital elements are given.

  19. Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: Further comments on the relationship between post-equinox properties deduced from magnetic field and Saturn kilometric radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the planetary period oscillations (PPOs) observed by the Cassini spacecraft in Saturn's magnetosphere, in particular the relationship between the properties of the PPOs in the post-equinox interval as observed in magnetic field data by Andrews et al. (2012) and Provan et al. (2013, 2014) and in Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) emissions by Fischer et al. (2014, 2015), whose results are somewhat discrepant. We show that differences in the reported PPO periods, a fundamental property which should be essentially identical in the two data sets, can largely be accounted for by the phenomenon of dual modulation of the SKR emissions in polarization-separated data, in which the modulation associated with one hemisphere is also present in the other. Misidentification of the modulations results in a reported reversal in the SKR periods in the initial post-equinox interval, south for north and vice versa, relative to the magnetic oscillations whose hemispheric origin is more securely identified through the field component phase relations. Dual modulation also results in the apparent occurrence of phase-locked common periods in the northern and southern SKR data during later intervals during which two separate periods are clearly discerned in the magnetic data through beat modulations in both phase and amplitude. We further show that the argument of Fischer et al. (2015) concerning the phase relation between the magnetic field oscillations and the SKR modulations is erroneous, the phase difference between them revealing the local time (LT) of the upward field-aligned current of the PPO current system at times of SKR modulation maxima. Furthermore, this LT is found to vary significantly over the Cassini mission from dawn, to dusk, and to noon, depending on the LT of apoapsis where the spacecraft spends most time. These variations are consistent with the view that the SKR modulation is fundamentally a rotating system like the magnetic perturbations, though complicated by the strong LT asymmetry in the strength of the sources, and rule out a mainly clock-like (strobe) modulation as argued by Fischer et al. (2015), for which no physical mechanism is suggested. We also elucidate the nature of the magnetic periods, criticized by Fischer et al. (2015), which have previously been derived in ∼100-200 day post-equinox intervals between abrupt changes in PPO properties, and further show that their argument that the magnetic phase data provide evidence for the occurrence of common phase-locked magnetic oscillations in some intervals is fallacious. The most important consequence of our results, however, is that they demonstrate the essential compatibility of the post-equinox magnetic field and SKR data, despite the contrary results published to date. They also show that due to the dual modulation effect in polarization-separated SKR data, analysis and interpretation may contain more subtleties than previously realized. Joint examination of the combined magnetic and SKR data clearly provides greater insight and enhanced confidence compared with analyses of these data sets individually.

  20. Seismicity near the hypocenter of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake deduced by using Ocean Bottom Seismographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Hino, R.; Ito, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Inazu, D.; Iinuma, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Shinohara, M.; Kaneda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A megathrust earthquake (M9.0), the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake), occurred on Mar. 11, 2011 along the Japan Trench subduction zone. Its hypocenter and the area of major moment release are located in the Miyagi-Oki region, middle part of the Japan Trench area, where large interplate earthquake (~M7.5) have repeatedly occurred at about 40 years intervals. Since 2002, we have repeatedly deployed and retrieved pop-up type Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) to monitor the seismicity in the region. By this OBS network, we could observe a sequence of the foreshocks, the mainshock and aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in their close vicinity. When the mainshock occurred, 23 OBSs were in place and we used the data from 15 OBSs successfully recovered from the seafloor of the focal area of the M9 earthquake. This observation provides us improved hypocenter distribution allowing detailed discussion on its temporal-spatial variation as well as its relation to the crustal structure. The seismicity of the region became active about 25 days before the mainshock along the up-dip limit of the background seismicity defined by our repeated OBS observation result. On Mar. 9, two days before the mainshock, an interplate earthquake of M 7.3 occurred slightly landward of the up-dip limit, followed by swarm-like activity including a number of moderate sized (M 5 - 6) events. This activity, interpreted as the foreshocks of the M 9.0 earthquake, seems to have expanded toward the hypocenter of the mainshock, located 40 km to the southwest of the hypocenter of the M 7.3 foreshock. It seems that this migration of the seismicity is caused by expansion of aseismic slip along the plate interface toward the hypocenter of the M9 mainshock. By comparing the obtained hypocenters with the P-wave velocity structure model by the seismic survey (Ito et al., 2004), it turns out that the mainshock hypocenter coincides with the intersection of the plate boundary and the Moho of the overriding Tohoku arc crust. In the area of the foreshock activity, trenchward side of the mainshock hypocenter, the shallow dipping subducting Pacific slab contact to the crustal layer. Almost no aftershocks with thrust type focal mechanisms were found in the zone of foreshock activity where a lot of interplate earthquakes took place until the mainshock happened.

  1. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and lidar data - Case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Muñoz-Cobo Belart, J.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) can be used to extract glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne lidar in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high-resolution lidar DEM. The lidar DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice- and snow-free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical semivariogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice- and snow-free areas were used as inputs into 1000 sequential Gaussian simulations (SGSims). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM and the 95 % confidence level of this bias. This results in bias correction varying in magnitude between 0.03 m (in 1975) and 1.66 m (in 1946) and uncertainty values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional seasonal bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree-day model to obtain the volume change between the start of 2 glaciological years (1 October). This correction was largest for the 1960 DEM, corresponding to an average elevation change of -3.5 m or approx. three-quarters of the volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total uncertainty of the derived mass balance record is dominated by uncertainty in the volume changes caused by uncertainties of the SGSim bias correction, the seasonal bias correction and the interpolation of glacier surface where data are lacking. The record shows a glacier-wide mass balance rate of Ḃ = -0.26 ± 0.04 m w.e. a-1 for the entire study period (1946-2011). We observe significant decadal variability including periods of mass gain, peaking in 1985-1994 with Ḃ = 0.27 ± 0.11 m w.e. a-1. There is a striking difference when Ḃ is calculated separately for the western and eastern halves of Drangajökull, with a reduction of eastern part on average ˜ 3 times faster than the western part. Our study emphasizes the need for applying rigorous geostatistical methods for obtaining uncertainty estimates of geodetic mass balance, the importance of seasonal corrections of DEMs from glaciers with high mass turnover and the risk of extrapolating mass balance record from one glacier to another even over short distances.

  2. Transfer of Learning: Planning Effective Workplace Education Programs = Transfert d'apprentissage: La Planification de programmes d'education efficaces en milieu de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice

    Given the centrality of the topic of transfer of learning to so many areas of workplace education, this discussion paper (in both English and French versions) draws together research results and practical techniques to help practitioners in the field. Part 1 defines transfer of learning. Part 2 describes factors that influence the transfer of…

  3. A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984-1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomason, L. W.; Poole, L. R.; Deshler, T.

    1997-04-01

    A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density has been developed using the multiwavelength aerosol extinction measurements of the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II for 1984-1994. The spatial and temporal variability of aerosol surface area density at 15.5, 20.5, and 25.5 km are presented as well as cumulative statistical distributions as a function of altitude and latitude. During this period, which encompassed the injection and dissipation of the aerosol associated with the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption as well as the low loading period of 1989-1991, aerosol surface area density varied by more than a factor 30 at some altitudes. Aerosol surface area density derived from SAGE II and from the University of Wyoming optical particle counters are compared for 1991-1994 and are shown to be in generally good agreement though some differences are noted. An extension of the climatology using single-wavelength measurements by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II (1978-1994) and SAGE (1979-1981) instruments is also presented.

  4. Global patterns and climate drivers of water-use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems deduced from satellite-based datasets and carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yan; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Mengtian; Ciais, Philippe; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Cheng, Lei; Li, Xiran; Zhang, Xinping; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Shi, Xiaoying; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Ying-Ping; Zeng, Hui

    2015-12-23

    Our aim is to investigate how ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) varies spatially under different climate conditions, and how spatial variations in WUE differ from those of transpiration-based water-use efficiency (WUEt) and transpiration-based inherent water-use efficiency (IWUEt). LocationGlobal terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated spatial patterns of WUE using two datasets of gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) and four biosphere model estimates of GPP and ET. Spatial relationships between WUE and climate variables were further explored through regression analyses. Global WUE estimated by two satellite-based datasets is 1.9 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.6g C m-2mm-1 lower than the simulations from four process-based models (2.0 ± 0.3g C m-2mm-1) but comparable within the uncertainty of both approaches. In both satellite-based datasets and process models, precipitation is more strongly associated with spatial gradients of WUE for temperate and tropical regions, but temperature dominates north of 50 degrees N. WUE also increases with increasing solar radiation at high latitudes. The values of WUE from datasets and process-based models are systematically higher in wet regions (with higher GPP) than in dry regions. WUEt shows a lower precipitation sensitivity than WUE, which is contrary to leaf- and plant-level observations. IWUEt, the product of WUEt and water vapour deficit, is found to be rather conservative with spatially increasing precipitation, in agreement with leaf- and plant-level measurements. In conclusion, WUE, WUEt and IWUEt produce different spatial relationships with climate variables. In dry ecosystems, water losses from evaporation from bare soil, uncorrelated with productivity, tend to make WUE lower than in wetter regions. Yet canopy conductance is intrinsically efficient in those ecosystems and maintains a higher IWUEt. This suggests that the responses of each component flux of evapotranspiration should be analysed separately when investigating regional gradients in WUE, its temporal variability and its trends.

  5. The mass balance record and surge behavior of Drangajökull Ice Cap (Iceland) from 1946 to 2011 deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Cobo Belart, Joaquín; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur

    2014-05-01

    High resolution and accuracy (e.g. based on LiDAR survey) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of glaciers and their close vicinity have significantly improved the methods for calculation of geodetic mass balance and study of changes in glacier dynamics. However additional data is needed to extend such studies back in time. Here we present a geodetically derived mass balance record for Drangajökull ice cap (NW-Iceland) since 1946 to present. The mass balance is calculated from a series of DEMs derived by photogrammetric processing of aerial photographs (years: 1946, 1975, 1985, 1994) and a LiDAR DEM (2011). All Ground Control Points (GCPs) used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs, used in the photogrammetric processing, are picked from the LiDAR derived DEM, thus eliminating the time consuming and expensive in situ survey of GCPs. The LiDAR DEM also helps to assess the accuracy of the photogrammetrically derived DEMs, by analyzing the residuals in elevation in ice-free areas. For the DEMs of 1975, 1985 and 1994 the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the residuals is less than 2 m, whereas the accuracy of the DEM of 1946 is worse, with RMSE of 5.5 m, caused by the deteriorated images. The geodetic mass balance yields a negative specific mass balance of ~-0.5 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1946-1975, followed by periods of positive mass balance: ~0.2 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1975-1985 and ~0.3 m w.e.a-¹ for the period 1985-1994. Negative specific mass balance of ~-0.6 m w.e.a-¹ is derived for the period 1994-2011. High mass redistribution is observed during 1985-1994 and 1994-2011 on the three main outlets of the ice cap, related to surges. The derived orthophotographs allow tracking of stable features at individual locations on the northern part of Drangajökull, indicating an average velocity of 5-10 m a-¹ for the period 1946-1985 and speeding up in the last two periods due to a surge.

  6. On the early processing of terrestrial organic matter released to (sub-)Arctic coastal waters as deduced from biomarkers, isotopes and a simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; van Dongen, Bart; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The surface layer of the vast sub-Arctic and Arctic tundra and taiga holds over a third of the global soil carbon and this area is now experiencing among the largest climate warming of anywhere on Earth. Yet, there is a shortage of investigations of the biogeochemical fate of coastally exported terrestrial organic matter (terrOM) from these systems, in part due to the inaccessibility of the large Eurasian-Arctic shelves. This paper seeks to synthesize initial findings from a large-scale survey of single surface sediments outside the five Great Russian Arctic Rivers (GRARs; Ob,Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma and Indigirka) and from detailed process-studies of a water column and surface sediment transect off pristine sub-Arctic Kalix River, one of the largest unregulated rivers in Europe draining into the northernmost Baltic Sea. There is at present a discrepancy in the literature of how the early (water column) fate of terrestrial organic matter is believed to occur between the northern Baltic Sea and the Eurasian Arctic shelf seas. For the Baltic, one suggests substantial DOC degradation but no consideration of POC degradation. For the Arctic, terrestrial DOC is believed to be conservatively mixed while POC is assumed to follow a generic "global" average degradation. Our studies to date show that terrOM entering sub-Arctic Baltic and Eurasian-Arctic seas follows continent-scale trends in molecular and isotopic composition. Sphagnum is a key contributor to the pre-aged (1000s of 14C years) terrOM in these coastal waters with greatest Sphagnum contribution but youngest terrOM toward the west. The Kalix-Baltic transect revealed rapid degradation of acyl lipids along the 80 km distance from river mouth to the open bay. For instance, the ratio of HMW n-alkanoic acids to HMW n-alkanes in surface water suspended particles dropped from 2.7 to 1.2. There was also rapid degradation during settling and in the surface sediment as the same ratio in sediments dropped between the estuary - open bay from 1.5 to 0.2. A simple box model was parameterized with measurements of advective river input, settling fluxes and advective export and solved for degradation. The model was run for both individual biomarkers, bulk POC and bulk DOC. Rapid terrPOC degradation was constrained (65% during 5-day box transit). This translated into a degradation rate for terrPOC that is nearly 20 times more rapid as for terrDOC, which makes both pools roughly equally important for the total terrOM degradation. Similar trends for POC-biomarkers and degradation indexes between the Kalix-Baltic and GRAR systems suggest that the early processing may be similar on the Eurasian Arctic shelf.

  7. On the early processing of terrestrial organic matter released to (sub-)Arctic coastal waters as deduced from biomarkers, isotopes and a simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Ö.; Vonk, J.; van Dongen, B.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I.

    2009-04-01

    The surface layer of the vast sub-Arctic and Arctic tundra and taiga holds over a third of the global soil carbon and this area is now experiencing among the largest climate warming of anywhere on Earth. Yet, there is a shortage of investigations of the biogeochemical fate of coastally exported terrestrial organic matter (terrOM) from these systems, in part due to the inaccessibility of the large Eurasian-Arctic shelves. This paper seeks to synthesize initial findings from a large-scale survey of single surface sediments outside the five Great Russian Arctic Rivers (GRARs; Ob,Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma and Indigirka) and from detailed process-studies of a water column and surface sediment transect off pristine sub-Arctic Kalix River, one of the largest unregulated rivers in Europe draining into the northernmost Baltic Sea. There is at present a discrepancy in the literature of how the early (water column) fate of terrestrial organic matter is believed to occur between the northern Baltic Sea and the Eurasian Arctic shelf seas. For the Baltic, one suggests substantial DOC degradation but no consideration of POC degradation. For the Arctic, terrestrial DOC is believed to be conservatively mixed while POC is assumed to follow a "global" average degradation. Our studies to date show that terrOM entering sub-Arctic Baltic and Eurasian-Arctic seas follows continent-scale trends in molecular and isotopic composition. Sphagnum is a key contributor to the pre-aged (1000s of 14C years) terrOM in these coastal waters with greatest Sphagnum contribution but youngest terrOM toward the west. The Kalix-Baltic transect revealed rapid degradation of acyl lipids along the 80 km distance from river mouth to the open bay. For instance, the ratio of HMW n-alkanoic acids to HMW n-alkanes in surface water suspended particles dropped from 2.7 to 1.2. There was also rapid degradation during settling and in the surface sediment as the same ratio in sediments dropped between the estuary - open bay from 1.5 to 0.2. A simple box model was parameterized with measurements of advective river input, settling fluxes and advective export and solved for degradation. The model was run for both individual biomarkers, bulk POC and bulk DOC. Rapid terrPOC degradation was constrained (65% during 5-day box transit). This translated into a degradation rate for terrPOC that is nearly 20 times more rapid as for terrDOC, which makes both pools equally important for the total terrOM degradation. Similar trends for POC-biomarkers and degradation indexes between the Kalix-Baltic and GRAR systems suggest that the early processing may be similar on the Eurasian Arctic shelf.

  8. Volcanic Signatures in Estimates of Stratospheric Aerosol Size, Distribution Width, Surface Area, and Volume Deduced from Global Satellite-Based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, J. J.; Russell, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    Volcanic signatures in the stratospheric aerosol layer are revealed by two independent techniques which retrieve aerosol information from global satellite-based observations of particulate extinction. Both techniques combine the 4-wavelength Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II extinction measurements (0.385 <= lambda <= 1.02 microns) with the 7.96 micron and 12.82 micron extinction measurements from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instrument. The algorithms use the SAGE II/CLAES composite extinction spectra in month-latitude-altitude bins to retrieve values and uncertainties of particle effective radius R(sub eff), surface area S, volume V and size distribution width sigma(sub R). The first technique is a multi-wavelength Look-Up-Table (LUT) algorithm which retrieves values and uncertainties of R(sub eff) by comparing ratios of extinctions from SAGE II and CLAES (e.g., E(sub lambda)/E(sub 1.02) to pre-computed extinction ratios which are based on a range of unimodal lognormal size distributions. The pre-computed ratios are presented as a function of R(sub eff) for a given sigma(sub g); thus the comparisons establish the range of R(sub eff) consistent with the measured spectra for that sigma(sub g). The fact that no solutions are found for certain sigma(sub g) values provides information on the acceptable range of sigma(sub g), which is found to evolve in response to volcanic injections and removal periods. Analogous comparisons using absolute extinction spectra and error bars establish the range of S and V. The second technique is a Parameter Search Technique (PST) which estimates R(sub eff) and sigma(sub g) within a month-latitude-altitude bin by minimizing the chi-squared values obtained by comparing the SAGE II/CLAES extinction spectra and error bars with spectra calculated by varying the lognormal fitting parameters: R(sub eff), sigma(sub g), and the total number of particles N(sub 0). For both techniques, possible biases in retrieved-parameters caused by assuming a unimodal functional form are removed using correction factors computed from representative in situ measurements of bimodal size distributions. Some interesting features revealed by the LUT and PST retrievals include: (1) Increases in S and V (but not R(sub eff)) after the Ruiz and Kelut injections, (2) Increases in S, V, R(sub eff) after Pinatubo, (3) Post-Pinatubo increases in S, V, and R(sub eff) that are more rapid in the tropics than elsewhere, (4) Mid-latitude post-Pinatubo increases in R(sub eff) that lag increases in S and V, (5) S and V returning to pre-Pinatubo values sooner than R(sub eff) does, (6) Sharp increases in sigma(sub g), after Pinatubo and slight increases in sigma(sub g) after Ruiz, Etna, Kelut, Spurr and Rabaul, and (7) Gradual declines in the heights at which R(sub eff), S and V peak after Pinatubo.

  9. The primary composition beyond 10 to the 5th power GeV as deduced from high energy hadrons and muons in air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    1985-01-01

    Data obtained from a large set of air shower simulation calculations with use of highly refined hadronic interaction and shower simulation model are presented, in an attempt to solve the problem of primary chemical composition beyond 100,000 GeV total energy. It is rated that high energy hadrons in air showers offer a rather unique primary mass signature and show that the interpretation of high energy muon data is much more ambiguous. Predictions are compared with experimental data.

  10. Magma Degassing and Evolution Processes of the 2000 Eruption of Miyakejima Volcano, Japan, Deduced From of Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusion Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, G.; Morishita, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Chemical analyses of melt inclusions in Mg-poor (Mg#68-73) and Mg-rich (Mg#76-84)"@olivines from a bomb and lapilli from the 18 August 2000 eruption of Miyakejima volcano, Japan, were carried out in order to investigate degassing and evolution process "Íf the magma. Analyses of major elements, S and Cl of the melt inclusions were made by EPMA, and H2O and CO2 by FTIR and SIMS (Miyagi et al., 1995; Hauri et al., 2002). Major element composition of Mg-poor olivine-hosted melt inclusions (Mg-poor Ol MIs) is similar to that of groundmass in the bomb, indicating the melt entrapment just before the eruption. The Mg-poor Ol MIs have volatile contents of 0.7-2.5 wt.% H2O, 0.005-0.02 wt.% CO2, 0.05-0.17 wt. % S, and 0.06-0.1 wt. % Cl, that are roughly similar to those of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions (Saito et al., 2005). Gas saturation pressure of the magma is calculated to be 20-100 MPa on the basis of the H2O and CO2 contents of Mg-poor Ol MIs, corresponds to the depth of 1-4 km. On the other hand, the Mg-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (Mg-rich Ol MIs) have SiO2 and K2O-poor but Al2O3-rich composition than the whole rock composition of the bomb and lapilli. They have volatile contents of 1.9-3.5 wt.% H2O, 0.003-0.025 wt.% CO2, 0.06-0.21 wt.% S, and 0.04-0.07 wt.% Cl, that are a little higher H2O and S and lower Cl contents than those of Mg-rich Ol MIs. Gas saturation pressure of the magma is calculated to be 50-150 MPa on the basis of the H2O and CO2 contents of Mg-rich Ol MIs. Ratios of H2O and S contents of both the Mg-poor and Mg-rich Ol MIs are similar to that of volcanic gas emitted from the summit after the 2000 eruption, while their ratios of CO2 and H2O contents are lower than that of volcanic gas. Existence of the Al2O3-rich less-evolved melt with high H2O content is consistent with the petrological and experimental studies that low-MgO high-alumina basalt is derived from primary magma with high H2O content (Uto, 1986; Sisson and Grove, 1993). The volatile contents and major element composition of the Mg-rich Ol MIs suggest degassing of the less-evolved magma occurred together with fractional crystallization at the depth of 2-6 km. The Mg-poor Ol MIs having lower H2O and higher CO2 contents than those of the Mg-rich Ol MIs suggest addition of CO2-rich gas to the degassed and evolved magma. It is necessary to investigate volatile evolution process of the magma at the shallow depth (<4 km) in more detail.

  11. Influence of Dopants on Electrical Properties of ZnO-V2O5 Varistors Deduced from AC Impedance and Variable-Temperature Dielectric Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Li, Taotao; Qi, Ting; Qin, Qingwei; Li, Guangqiang; Zhu, Bailin; Wu, Run; Xie, Changsheng

    2012-07-01

    The influence of MnO2, PbO, and a mixture of MnO2, PbO, and B2O3 on the electrical and dielectric properties of ZnO-V2O5 ceramics was studied by alternating-current (AC) impedance and variable-temperature dielectric spectroscopy. The results show that, compared with the resistivity of the intervening layer at the grain boundary, the Schottky barrier present at the grain boundary is much more important for varistor performance, which can be significantly improved by using a mixture of MnO2, PbO, and B2O3. Consequently, better varistor performance is achieved for 94.5 mol.% ZnO + 0.5 mol.% V2O5 + 1.0 mol.% MnO2 + 2.0 mol.% PbO + 2.0 mol.% B2O3 (ZVMPB), i.e., nonlinear coefficient α = 35.3 and leakage current density I l = 2.72 μA/cm2. The activation energy for the characteristic dielectric relaxation process is in the range of 0.339 eV to 0.365 eV, indicating that it is only associated with oxygen vacancy V{O/·}.

  12. Astrophysical Impact of the Updated 9Be(p,α)6Li and 10B(p,α)7Be Reaction Rates As Deduced By THM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2015-10-01

    The complete understanding of the stellar abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron represents one of the most interesting open problems in astrophysics. These elements are largely used to probe stellar structure and mixing phenomena in different astrophysical scenarios, such as pre-main-sequence or main-sequence stars. Their different fragility against (p,α) burning reactions allows one to investigate different depths of the stellar interior. Such fusion mechanisms are triggered at temperatures between T ≈ (2-5) × {10}6 K, thus defining a corresponding Gamow energy between ≈ 3-10 keV, where S(E)-factor measurements need to be performed to get reliable reaction rate evaluations. The Trojan Horse Method is a well defined procedure to measure cross sections at Gamow energies overcoming the uncertainties due to low-energy S(E)-factor extrapolation as well as electron screening effects. Taking advantage of the {\\mathtt{THM}} measure of the 9Be(p,α)6Li and 10B(p,α)7Be cross sections, the corresponding reaction rates have been calculated and compared with the evaluations by the NACRE collaboration, widely used in the literature. The impact on surface abundances of the updated 9Be and 10B (p,α) burning rates is discussed for pre-MS stars.

  13. Ground deformation effects from the M6 earthquakes (2014-2015) on Cephalonia-Ithaca Islands (Western Greece) deduced by GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2017-03-01

    The implications of the earthquakes that took place in the central Ionian Islands in 2014 (Cephalonia, M w6.1, M w5.9) and 2015 (Lefkas, M w6.4) are described based on repeat measurements of the local GPS networks in Cephalonia and Ithaca, and the available continuous GPS stations in the broader area. The Lefkas earthquake occurred on a branch of the Cephalonia Transform Fault, affecting Cephalonia with SE displacements gradually decreasing from north ( 100 mm) to south ( 10 mm). This earthquake revealed a near N-S dislocation boundary separating Paliki Peninsula in western Cephalonia from the rest of the island, as well as another NW-SE trending fault that separates kinematically the northern and southern parts of Paliki. Strain field calculations during the interseismic period (2014-2015) indicate compression between Ithaca and Cephalonia, while extension appears during the following co-seismic period (2015-2016) including the 2015 Lefkas earthquake. Additional tectonically active zones with differential kinematic characteristics were also identified locally.

  14. Global ionospheric current patterns associated with the development of the R1 and R2 FACs deduced by the GEMSIS-POT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamizo, A.; Hiraki, Y.; Hori, T.; Seki, K.; Ieda, A.; Tsuji, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Kikuchi, T.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the GEMSIS project (Geospace Environment Modeling System for Integrated Studies), we have developed a two-dimensional ionospheric global potential solver. There has been considerable research on the mid-and low-latitude ionospheric system driven by neutral wind [e.g., Richmond, 1973]. However, there are few researches on the relationship between the high-latitude system and middle and low latitude system, which is important for the integrated studies of the magnetosphere-inner magnetosphere system coupled through the ionosphere. Our model basically follows a methodology provided by Tsunomura [1999]; it solves the Ohm's law under the thin-shell approximated 2-D ionosphere, with FACs in the polar region and height-integrated ionospheric conductivities. The most important extension from previous studies is that our model covers both hemispheres without a boundary at the equator. The values of Pedersen and Hall conductivities are calculated as exactly as possible with the MSIS-2000, IRI-2007, and IGRF-2005 reference models. In addition, we consider the effect of auroral particle precipitation on conductivities with reference to the empirical models [e.g., Hardy et al., 1987]. Although the FACs and ionospheric conductivity are intrinsically related to each other, we set them a priori at present because there is still no theory describing the development of the FACs-conductivity coupled system self-consistently. By using the solver, we investigate (1) the relationship between the conductivity and electric field in the middle and low latitude ionosphere and (2) how the current density ratio and latitudinal/longitudinal distribution of R1-FAC and R2-FAC affect the electric field distribution and current pattern in the middle and low latitude ionosphere. Here, FACs are distributed with reference to the empirical model by Hori et al. [in preparation] and the location of the conductivity enhancement associated with auroral activities given by empirical models is adjusted according to that of the distributed FACs. As for the point (1), it is confirmed that the difference and gradient between dayside and nightside conductivities are the keys to reproducing the realistic electric field pattern. As for the point (2), the low latitude electric field is reversed when the current density of R2-FAC reaches 0.6-0.7 times that of R1-FAC under the current distribution assumed here, depending on the relative position of FACs and conductivity enhancement. This state is considered to be representing a stationary state during an overshielding by R2-FAC. In this talk, we especially discuss the global ionospheric current patterns both for the R1-dominated case (undershielding) and R2-dominated case (overshielding).

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Lacher, David W; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse S. neurona. Phylogenies obtained by the four tree-building methods were consistent with the classical taxonomy based on morphological criteria. The "isosporid" coccidia Neospora, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Isospora lacking stieda bodies, and Hyaloklossia formed a sister group to the Sarcocystis spp. Sarcocystis species were divided into three main lineages; S. neurona isolates were located in the second lineage and clustered with S. mucosa, S. dispersa, S. lacertae, S. rodentifelis, S. muris, and Frenkelia spp. Alignment of S. neurona SSU rRNA gene sequences of Michigan opossum isolates (MIOP5, MIOP20) and a S. neurona Michigan horse isolate (MIH8) showed 100% identity. These Michigan isolates differed in 2/1085 bp (0.2%) from a Kentucky S. neurona horse isolate (SN5). Additionally, S. neurona isolates from horses and opossums were identical based on the ultrastructural features and PCR-RFLP analyses thus forming a phylogenetically indistinct group in these regions. These findings revealed the concordance between the morphological and molecular data and confirmed that S. neurona from opossums and horses originated from the same phylogenetic origin.

  16. Mutation-selection balance accounting for genetic variation for viability in Drosophila melanogaster as deduced from an inbreeding and artificial selection experiment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, S T; Pérez-Figueroa, A; Fernández, B; Fernández, J; Caballero, A

    2004-05-01

    We carried out an experiment of inbreeding and upward artificial selection for egg-to-adult viability in a recently captured population of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as computer simulations of the experimental design, in order to obtain information on the nature of genetic variation for this important fitness component. The inbreeding depression was linear with a rate of 0.70 +/- 0.11% of the initial mean per 1% increase in inbreeding coefficient, and the realized heritability was 0.06 +/- 0.07. We compared the empirical observations of inbreeding depression and selection response with computer simulations assuming a balance between the occurrence of partially recessive deleterious mutations and their elimination by selection. Our results suggest that a model assuming mutation-selection balance with realistic mutational parameters can explain the genetic variation for viability in the natural population studied. Several mutational models are incompatible with some observations and can be discarded. Mutational models assuming a low rate of mutations of large average effect and highly recessive gene action, and others assuming a high rate of mutations of small average effect and close to additive gene action, are compatible with all the observations.

  17. The distribution of cosmic rays in the galaxy and their dynamics as deduced from recent gamma-ray observations. [X-ray intensity variations with galactocentric distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puget, J. L.; Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Recent data from SAS-2 on the galactic gamma ray line flux as a function of longitude reveal a broad maximum in the gamma ray intensity in the region absolute value of l approximately smaller than 30 deg. These data imply that the low energy galactic cosmic ray flux varies with galactocentric distance and is about an order of magnitude higher than the local value in a toroidal region between 4 and 5 kpc from the galactic center. This enhancement can be plausibly accounted for by first order Fermi acceleration, compression and trapping of cosmic rays consistent with present ideas of galactic dynamics and galactic structure theory. Calculations indicate that cosmic rays in the 4 to 5 kpc region are trapped and accelerated over a mean time of the order of a few million years or about 2 to 4 times the assumed trapping time in the solar region of the galaxy.

  18. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Tharwat H.; Saleh, Hassan S.; Mohamed, Waheed H.

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP) magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP) data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  19. Formation of highly oxidized multifunctional compounds: autoxidation of peroxy radicals formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes - deduced from structure-product relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, T. F.; Springer, M.; Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Pullinen, I.; Kurtén, T.; Rissanen, M.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.

    2015-06-01

    It has been postulated that secondary organic particulate matter plays a pivotal role in the early growth of newly formed particles in forest areas. The recently detected class of extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOC) provides the missing organic vapors and possibly contributes a significant fraction to atmospheric SOA (secondary organic aerosol). The sequential rearrangement of peroxy radicals and subsequent O2 addition results in ELVOC which are highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM). Key for efficiency of such HOM in early particle growth is that their formation is induced by one attack of the oxidant (here O3), followed by an autoxidation process involving molecular oxygen. Similar mechanisms were recently observed and predicted by quantum mechanical calculations e.g., for isoprene. To assess the atmospheric importance and therewith the potential generality, it is crucial to understand the formation pathway of HOM. To elucidate the formation path of HOM as well as necessary and sufficient structural prerequisites of their formation we studied homologous series of cycloalkenes in comparison to two monoterpenes. We were able to directly observe highly oxidized multifunctional peroxy radicals with 8 or 10 O atoms by an Atmospheric Pressure interface High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (APi-TOF-MS) equipped with a NO3--chemical ionization (CI) source. In the case of O3 acting as an oxidant, the starting peroxy radical is formed on the so-called vinylhydroperoxide path. HOM peroxy radicals and their termination reactions with other peroxy radicals, including dimerization, allowed for analyzing the observed mass spectra and narrowing down the likely formation path. As consequence, we propose that HOM are multifunctional percarboxylic acids, with carbonyl, hydroperoxy, or hydroxy groups arising from the termination steps. We figured that aldehyde groups facilitate the initial rearrangement steps. In simple molecules like cycloalkenes, autoxidation was limited to both terminal C atoms and two further C atoms in the respective α positions. In more complex molecules containing tertiary H atoms or small, constrained rings, even higher oxidation degrees were possible, either by simple H shift of the tertiary H atom or by initialization of complex ring-opening reactions.

  20. Formation of highly oxidized multifunctional compounds: autoxidation of peroxy radicals formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes - deduced from structure-product relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, T. F.; Springer, M.; Ehn, M.; Kleist, E.; Pullinen, I.; Kurtén, T.; Rissanen, M.; Wahner, A.; Wildt, J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that secondary organic particulate matter plays a pivotal role in the early growth of newly formed particles in forest areas. The recently detected class of extremely low volatile organic compounds (ELVOC) provides the missing organic vapours and possibly contributes a~significant fraction to atmospheric SOA. ELVOC are highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM), formed by sequential rearrangement of peroxy radicals and subsequent O2 addition. Key for efficiency in early particle growth is that formation of HOM is induced by one attack of the oxidant (here O3) and followed by an autoxidation process involving molecular oxygen. Similar mechanisms were recently observed and predicted by quantum mechanical calculations e.g. for isoprene. To assess the atmospheric importance and therewith the potential generality, it is crucial to understand the formation pathway of HOM. To elucidate the formation path of HOM as well as necessary and sufficient structural prerequisites of their formation we studied homologues series of cycloalkenes in comparison to two monoterpenes. We were able to directly observe highly oxidized multifunctional peroxy radicals with 8 or 10 O-atoms by an Atmospheric Pressure interface High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer equipped with a NO3--Chemical Ionization (CI) source. In case of O3 acting as oxidant the starting peroxy radical is formed on the so called vinylhydroperoxide path. HOM peroxy radicals and their termination reactions with other peroxy radicals, including dimerization, allowed for analysing the observed mass spectra and narrow down the likely formation path. As consequence we propose that HOM are multifunctional percarboxylic acids; with carbonyl-, hydroperoxy-, or hydroxy-groups arising from the termination steps. We figured that aldehyde groups facilitate the initial rearrangement steps. In simple molecules like cyloalkenes autoxidation was limited to both terminal C-atoms and two further C-atoms in the respective α-positions. In more complex molecules containing tertiary H-atoms or small constraint rings even higher oxidation degree were possible, either by simple H-shift of the tertiary H-atom or by initialisation of complex ring-opening reactions.

  1. Energetic Particle Propagation in the Inner Heliosphere as Deduced from Low Frequency (less than 100 kHz) Observations of Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are well-associated with solar flares. It is observed that the delay between the time of the flare and the first-arriving particles at a spacecraft increases with increasing difference between the flare longitude and the footpoint of the field line on which the spacecraft is located. This difference we call the "connection angle" and can be as large as approximately 120 deg. Recently it has been found that all SEP events are preceded by type III radio bursts. These bursts are plasma emission caused by the propagation of 2-50 keV flare electrons through the solar corona and into the solar wind. The drift of these type III radio bursts to lower and lower frequencies enables the propagation of the flare electrons to be traced from the Sun to about 1 AU. We have made an extensive analysis of the type III bursts associated with greater than 20 MeV proton events and find that, in most cases, the radio emission extends to the local plasma frequency when the energetic particles arrive within a few hours of the flare. We conclude that this emission at the lowest possible frequency is generated close to the spacecraft. We then use the time from when the burst started at the Sun to when it reached the local plasma frequency to infer the time it took the radio producing electrons to travel to the spacecraft. We find that these delay times are organized by the connection angle and correlate with the proton delay times. We also find that the differences between the radio delays at Wind and Ulysses are matched by differences in the relative arrival times of the energetic particles at the two spacecraft. The consistent timing between the relative arrival times of energetic electrons and protons and the start of the lowest frequency radio emissions suggests that the first arriving particles of both species are accelerated as part of the flare process and that they propagate to the spacecraft along trajectories similar to those of the lower energy flare electrons. To be detected by observers at locations distant from the nominal field lines originating in the flaring regions the particles must undergo lateral transport. The continuity of the radio bursts suggests that the cross-field transport may occur in the interplanetary medium.

  2. Rapid coastal subsidence in the central Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh) since the 17th century deduced from submerged salt-producing kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, T. J.; Kudrass, H.; Linstädter, J.; Islam, B.; Zander, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The densely populated low lying Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta is highly vulnerable to the global sea-level rise. In order to estimate the subsidence of the delta over historical time scales, we examined submerged salt-producing kiln sites in the coastal Sundarbans. These kilns were built just above the previous winterly spring high-tide level, but are currently located ~155 × 15 cm below the corresponding modern level. According to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, the kilns were ultimately fired ~300 years ago (1705 × 35 AD) and salt production was terminated abruptly by a catastrophic event (major cyclone), which affected the kiln sites at different levels and locations. Two particular buried mangrove root horizons 80 cm below this kiln level also indicate catastrophic scenarios (probably subsidence events related to a regional earthquake). AMS-14C ages measured on the charcoal layers at the kiln's bases and on these associated mangrove stump horizons support the OSL dates. Based on the respective elevations of these kiln and mangrove palaeo-horizons and on the ages, the 300-year-average rate of sinking of the outer delta is 5.2 × 1.2 mm/a, which includes 0.8 mm/a of eustatic sea-level rise over this historical period. Expecting further acceleration of the eustatic sea-level rise of up to 7 mm/a, we calculate a rise in relative sea level of up to 8.9 × 3.3 mm/a for the next few decased, which will dramatically aggravate the already present problematic situation. Only a prudently-managed control of sediment accretion will keep southern Bangladesh above the sea level. (Hanebuth et al., Geology, Sept 2013, doi: 10.1130/G34646.1.)

  3. Properties of a large-scale interplanetary loop structure as deduced from low-energy proton anisotropy and magnetic field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranquille, C.; Sanderson, T. R.; Marsden, R. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Correlated particle and magnetic field measurements by the ISEE 3 spacecraft are presented for the loop structure behind the interplanetary traveling shock event of Nov. 12, 1978. Following the passage of the turbulent shock region, strong bidirectional streaming of low-energy protons is observed for approximately 6 hours, corresponding to a loop thickness of about 0.07 AU. This region is also characterized by a low relative variance of the magnetic field, a depressed proton intensity, and a reduction in the magnetic power spectral density. Using quasi-linear theory applied to a slab model, a value of 3 AU is derived for the mean free path during the passage of the closed loop. It is inferred from this observation that the proton regime associated with the loop structure is experiencing scatter-free transport and that either the length of the loop is approximately 3 AU between the sun and the earth or else the protons are being reflected at both ends of a smaller loop.

  4. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    PubMed

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource.

  5. Marked longevity of human lung parenchymal elastic fibers deduced from prevalence of D-aspartate and nuclear weapons-related radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.D.; Endicott, S.K.; Province, M.A.; Pierce, J.A.; Campbell, E.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Normal structure and function of the lung parenchyma depend upon elastic fibers. Amorphous elastin is biochemically stable in vitro, and may provide a metabolically stable structural framework for the lung parenchyma. To test the metabolic stability of elastin in the normal human lung parenchyma, we have (a) estimated the time elapsed since the synthesis of the protein through measurement of aspartic acid racemization and (b) modeled the elastin turnover through measurement of the prevalence of nuclear weapons-related {sup 14}C. Elastin purified by a new technique from normal lung parenchyma was hydrolyzed; then the prevalences of D-aspartate and {sup 14}C were measured by gas chromatography and accelerator-mass spectrometry, respectively. D-aspartate increased linearly with age; Kasp (1.76 x 10{sup {minus} 3} yr{sup {minus} 1}) was similar to that previously found for extraordinarily stable human tissues, indicating that the age of lung parenchymal elastin corresponded with the age of the subject. Radiocarbon prevalence data also were consistent with extraordinary metabolic stability of elastin; the calculated mean carbon residence time in elastin was 74 yr (95% confidence limits, 40-174 yr). These results indicate that airspace enlargement characteristic of 'aging lung' is not associated with appreciable new synthesis of lung parenchymal elastin. The present study provides the first tissue-specific evaluation of turnover of an extracellular matrix component in humans and underscores the potential importance of elastin for maintenance of normal lung structure. Most importantly, the present work provides a foundation for strategies to directly evaluate extracellular matrix injury and repair in diseases of lung (especially pulmonary emphysema), vascular tissue, and skin.

  6. Late Pliocene-Quaternary humidity fluctuations on the NE Tibetan Plateau deduced from the magnetic record in lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam paleolake (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herb, C.; Zhang, W.; Appel, E.; Koutsodendris, A.; Pross, J.; Fang, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin on the NE fringe of the Tibetan Plateau is well-suited for studying past environmental changes as it contains a thick sediment sequence that was deposited almost continuously since the Eocene. The deep drilling core SG-1 (~940-m-long) from the Chahansilatu sub-basin in the western part of the Qaidam Basin offers a time span from 2.8 Ma to the complete drying of the lake near the drilling location at ~0.1 Ma (average sedimentation rate 35.1 cm/kyr). The presently hyper-arid Qaidam Basin is located in the area of influence of the Westerlies and may have been reached by the East Asian and possible even the Indian monsoon in the past. The integrated observation of several magnetic proxies recorded in drill core SG-1 allows detecting magnetic susceptibility (χ) as a useful high-resolution (~1 ka) climate proxy with supporting information from other parameters. Long-term trends of χ can be attributed to changing lake levels inferred from the comparison to lithological studies of SG-1 and to local tectonic activity. Short-term cyclic variation of χ, which exceed the magnitude of the long-term shift, can be correlated to marine oxygen isotope records. Spectral analysis suggests that the χ variation contains a response to orbital forcing. The cyclic χ variation can be attributed to a mixture between (i) low-temperature oxidation (LTO) in the catchment area and (ii) a change of the catchment area during past times. LTO in the catchment implies strong weathering and accordingly higher lake levels in times of low χ values and vice versa. In contrast, a spatial change of the catchment area points to more humid times with prevailing surface erosion in lower elevations accompanied by sediment supply with higher χ values. We compared the magnetic signature to palynological results in order to confirm the link between χ in the lacustrine sediments of drill core SG-1 and past environmental changes and to use lows and highs of χ for high-resolution reconstruction of humidity changes. As Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae are the predominant pollen taxa (average 60% of total pollen grains), the Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae (A/C) ratio is used to identify vegetation dynamics of the Qaidam Basin: lower A/C ratios prevail during desert environments and higher A/C ratios during steppe conditions. Pollen counting of 41 samples along the Middle Pleistocene Transition (MPT; ~1.2-0.7 Ma), during which a shift from the dominating 41-kyr obliquity cycle to the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle took place, reveals the dominance of steppe and desert plants in that time span as well as a high correlation between χ values and A/C ratios. This shows that χ is an indicator for humidity in the time span around the MPT, whereby χ values are higher in dryer phases and lower in more humid (or rather less dry) times. Along the remaining core palynological results of 40 additional samples are available showing the same behavior between χ and humidity fluctuations, beside a minor part of the core probably due to changes in the lake system. Our results show that magnetic susceptibility of drill core SG-1 is a suitable proxy for reconstructing past environmental changes of the Qaidam paleolake in a high resolution, concluded from its response to orbital forcing and sensitivity to humidity fluctuations detected by the comparison to other magnetic proxies and palynological results.

  7. Metamorphic fluids and uplift-erosion history of a portion of the Kapuskasing structural zone, Ontario, as deduced from fluid inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Ashwal, L. D.; Henry, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Fluid inclusions can be used to determine the compositional evolution of fluids present in high grade metamorphic rocks (Touret, 1979) along with the general P-T path followed by the rocks during uplift and erosion (Hollister et al., 1979). In this context, samples of high grade gneisses from the Kapuskasing structural zone (KSZ, Fig. 1) of eastern Ontario were studied in an attempt to define the composition of syn- and post-metamorphic fluids and help constrain the uplift and erosion history of the KSZ. Recent work by Percival (1980), Percival and Card (1983) and Percival and Krogh (1983) shows that the KSZ represents lower crustal granulites that form the lower portion of an oblique cross section through the Archean crust, which was up faulted along a northeast striking thrust fault. The present fluid inclusion study places constraints upon the P-T path which the KSZ followed during uplift and erosion.

  8. Deducing the functional characteristics of the human selenoprotein SELK from the structural properties of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Polo, Andrea; Colonna, Giovanni; Guariniello, Stefano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Costantini, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) cannot be described by a single structural representation but, due to their high structural fluctuation, through conformational ensembles. Certainly, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations represent a useful tool to study their different conformations capturing the conformational distribution. Our group is focusing on the structural characterization of proteins belonging to the seleno-proteome due to their involvement in cancer. They present disordered domains central for their biological function, and, in particular, SELK is a single-pass transmembrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (ER) with a C-terminal domain exposed to the cytoplasm that is known to interact with different components of the endoplasmic reticulum associated to the protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. This protein is found to be up-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and in other cancers. In this work we performed a detailed analysis of the C-terminal domain sequence of SELK and discovered that it is characterized by many prolines, and four negatively and eleven positively charged residues, which are crucial for its biological activity. This region can be considered as a weak polyelectrolyte and, specifically, a polycation, with high disordered propensity and different phosphorylation sites dislocated along the sequence. Then, we modeled its three-dimensional structure by performing MD simulations in water at neutral pH to analyze the structural stability as well as to identify the presence of HUB residues that play a key structural role as evidenced by the residue-residue interaction network analysis. Through this approach, we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of SELK (i) presents a poor content of regular secondary structure elements, (ii) is dynamically stabilized by a network of intra-molecular H-bonds and H-bonds with water molecules, (iii) is highly fluctuating and, therefore, can be described only through a conformational ensemble, where we evidenced a distribution of equilibrium conformers which continuously inter-change their conformations. Finally to verify the specific role played by the negative charges, we also performed MD simulations at acidic pH. Overall, all the obtained results evidenced that SELK has the dynamic structural features to be defined as a HUB protein able to interact with multiple members. Therefore, considering the possible role that this protein can have in cancer development and progression, it can represent a target for drug design studies.

  9. Aging, Maturation and Growth of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from Growth Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Griebeler, Eva Maria; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Information on aging, maturation, and growth is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological growth record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct growth models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and maximum growth rates from the growth record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp.) and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti). Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. Growth models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM), all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is reached to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha reached full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar maximum growth rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but growth rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average mammals, but younger than scaled-up megaherbivores. PMID:23840575

  10. Past freeze and thaw cycling in the margin of the El'gygytgyn crater deduced from a 141 m long permafrost record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamborn, G.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Fedorov, G.

    2014-06-01

    The continuous sediment record from Lake El'gygytgyn in the northeastern Eurasian Arctic spans the last 3.6 Ma and for much of this time permafrost dynamics and lake level changes have likely played a crucial role for sediment delivery to the lake. Changes in the ground-ice hydrochemical composition (δ18O, δD, pH, electrical conductivity, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4-) of a 141 m long permafrost record from the western crater plain are examined to reconstruct repeated periods of freeze and thaw at the lake edge. Stable water isotope and major ion records of ground ice in the permafrost reflect both a synsedimentary palaeo-precipitation signal preserved in the near-surface permafrost (0.0-9.1 m core depth) and a post-depositional record of thawing and refreezing in deeper layers of the core (9.1-141.0 m core depth). These lake marginal permafrost dynamics were controlled by lake level changes that episodically flooded the surfaces and induced thaw in the underlying frozen ground. During times of lake level fall these layers froze over again. At least three cycles of freeze and thaw are identified and the hydrochemical data point to a vertical and horizontal talik refreezing through time. Past permafrost thaw and freeze may have destabilised the basin slopes of Lake El'gygytgyn and this has probably promoted the release of mass movements from the lake edge to the deeper basin as known from frequently occurring turbidite layers in the lake sediment column.

  11. New behaviour of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano feeding system (La Réunion Island) deduced from GPS data: Influence of the 2007 Dolomieu caldera collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Aline; Staudacher, Thomas; Bachèlery, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    After 15 months of summit deflation, the unrest of Piton de La Fournaise renewed in August 2008 with several seismic crises and the re-pressurization of the plumbing system. The successive seismic crises, sometime accompanied by ground displacements detected by GPS, were associated with inter-eruptive dyke intrusions. It was the first time since the implementation of the observatory that such successive inter-eruptive magma migrations, not reaching the surface, were observed at Piton de La Fournaise. The change in the volcano activity, with an increase in the frequency of pure dyke intrusions, have followed the Dolomieu caldera collapse of April 2007 and reveals its strong influence on the new eruptive regime. Stress changes in the volcanic edifice have, temporarily at least, favoured the arrest of dykes in depth. During these successive dyke intrusions, magma stopped at shallow depth to form transitory magma storages before to erupt during three successive small summit eruptions (September 21st-October 2nd, 2008; November 27th; and December 14th, 2008-February 4th, 2009). The same kind of change in the pre-eruptive and eruptive behaviour can be expected on other volcanoes having experienced a summit caldera collapse.

  12. Oceanic density fronts steering bottom-current induced sedimentation deduced from a 50 ka contourite-drift record and numerical modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Zhang, Wenyan; Hofmann, Antonia L.; Löwemark, Ludvig A.; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2015-03-01

    How the various bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of contourite drifts, i.e. of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters, usually remains widely speculative. This study uses a transect of six sediment cores and a sediment echosounder profile across a whole contourite system off NW Spain to address the sediment dynamics responsible for the depositional pattern. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep channel (moat) has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Deposition on the contourite drift in the past was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: <4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 μm) in the entire basin. This regime was interrupted by periods of short-lasting waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP), resulting in the deposition of coarse sediments (70 μm). Process-based numerical modeling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts traveling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sands stored inside the drift's moat and to subsequent upward transport towards the drift's crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes not only a sharp contact between two water masses but also the transition zone between those as an important high-energy regime, offering oceanic density fronts a travel medium. These fronts are strong enough to distribute fine sands across highly pronounced seabed topography. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote source and a long-distance sediment transport unnecessary.

  13. Oceanic Density Fronts Steering Bottom-Current Induced Sedimentation Deduced from a 50 ka Contourite-Drift Record and Numerical Modeling (off NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanebuth, T. J. J.; Zhang, W.; Hofmann, A. L.; Lowemark, L. A.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    How bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters remains widely speculative. The geological approach of this study uses a transect of sediment cores and sediment echosounder profiles across a whole contourite system off NW Spain. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep moat has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Past deposition was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: < 4 cal ka BP) led to slightly current-influenced deposition of fine-grained sediments (10 µm) over the entire basin. In contrast, waxing-and-waning high-energy conditions (D/O events during Marine Isotope Stage 3; the Deglacial/early Holocene time interval at 17-4 cal ka BP) resulted in coarse grained (70 µm) deposition. Process-based numerical modelling demonstrates that pulse-like oceanic density fronts travelling within the transition zone of two water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sand from the moat and to subsequent upward transport over the crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes water mass transition zone as an important high-energy medium, for oceanic density fronts to travel. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote source and a long-distance sediment transport unnecessary.

  14. The properties and environment of primitive solar nebulae as deduced from observations of solar-type pre-main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan; Strom, Karen M.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: (1) current observation evidence for the presence of circumstellar disks associated with solar type pre-main sequence (PMS) stars; (2) the properties of such disks; and (3) the disk environment.

  15. Major Contribution of Flowering Time and Vegetative Growth to Plant Production in Common Bean As Deduced from a Comparative Genetic Mapping.

    PubMed

    González, Ana M; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Saburido, Soledad; Bretones, Sandra; De Ron, Antonio M; Lozano, Rafael; Santalla, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Determinacy growth habit and accelerated flowering traits were selected during or after domestication in common bean. Both processes affect several presumed adaptive traits such as the rate of plant production. There is a close association between flowering initiation and vegetative growth; however, interactions among these two crucial developmental processes and their genetic bases remain unexplored. In this study, with the aim to establish the genetic relationships between these complex processes, a multi-environment quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach was performed in two recombinant inbred line populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses between determinate and indeterminate genotypes. Additive and epistatic QTLs were found to regulate flowering time, vegetative growth, and rate of plant production. Moreover, the pleiotropic patterns of the identified QTLs evidenced that regions controlling time to flowering traits, directly or indirectly, are also involved in the regulation of plant production traits. Further QTL analysis highlighted one QTL, on the lower arm of the linkage group Pv01, harboring the Phvul.001G189200 gene, homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) gene, which explained up to 32% of phenotypic variation for time to flowering, 66% for vegetative growth, and 19% for rate of plant production. This finding was consistent with previous results, which have also suggested Phvul.001G189200 (PvTFL1y) as a candidate gene for determinacy locus. The information here reported can also be applied in breeding programs seeking to optimize key agronomic traits, such as time to flowering, plant height and an improved reproductive biomass, pods, and seed size, as well as yield.

  16. Oceanographic parameters in continental margin of the State of Ceará (northeastern Brazil) deduced from C and O isotopes in foraminifers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Wanessa S; Menor, Eldemar de A; Sial, Alcides N; Manso, Valdir A V; Freire, Satander S

    2007-03-01

    Specimens of Recent foraminifera of Amphistegina radiata, Peneroplis planatus and Globigerinoides ruber, from fifty samples of surface sediments of the continental margin of the State of Ceará, Brazil, have been analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes to investigate oceanographic parameters and determine the values of delta18O of the oceanic water. From a comparison between values of delta18O obtained for ocean water using the linear equations by (Craig and Gordon 1965) and the one by Wolff et al. (1998), it became evident that the former yielded a more reliable value (0.2 per thousand SMOW) than the latter. Lower values of delta18O for the ocean water in this continental margin resulted from continental water influence. Values of 18O (-0.3 per thousand to -1.5 per thousand PDB for benthic foraminifera and -0.6 per thousand to -2.4 per thousand PDB for planktic foraminifera), attest to a variation of temperatures of oceanic water masses, in average, between 20 to 22 degrees C in deep water and 24 to 27 degrees C, in surface water. Values of delta13C from +3.2% to -0.2 per thousand PDB (benthic foraminifera) reflect a variation in the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in the continental margin and indicate that the environments of bacteriological decomposition of organic matter are not continuous along the investigated area.

  17. Human impacts on karst groundwater contamination deduced by coupled nitrogen with strontium isotopes in the Nandong Underground River System in Yunan, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongjun; Wu, Yuexia; Yuan, Daoxian

    2009-10-15

    With the rapid increase in population and economy, groundwater quality has degraded in the Nandong Underground River System (NURS), a typical karst underground river developed in carbonate rocks (limestone and dolomite), which is located in an agriculture-dominated area in the southeast Yunnan Province, China. Determining sources of contamination in the groundwater is an important first step toward us improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we reviewed here the benefit of using a coupled isotopic approach (delta15N and 87Sr/86Sr) to trace the origin of contamination in groundwater. Thirty-six representative groundwater samples, which were collected at different aquifers and land use types, showed significant disparities for major element concentrations and Sr and N isotopic composition in the NURS. Nitrate, along with Cl- and SO4(2-) and some Na+ and K+, pollution of groundwater is a significant problem in the NURS. The joint use of nitrogen and strontium isotope systematics in each context deciphered the origin of contamination in groundwater in the NURS as agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents. Therefore, an increase in knowledge of groundwater geochemistry by means of hydrochemical and isotopic data will be helpful for understanding water-rock interactions and the influence of human activities on the hydrogeochemical environment of karst groundwater and provide a scientific basis for protection and rational utilization of groundwater resources in karst regions.

  18. Partial deduced sequence of the 110-kD-calmodulin complex of the avian intestinal microvillus shows that this mechanoenzyme is a member of the myosin I family

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The actin bundle within each microvillus of the intestinal brush border is laterally tethered to the membrane by bridges composed of the protein complex, 110-kD-calmodulin. Previous studies have shown that avian 110-kD-calmodulin shares many properties with myosins including mechanochemical activity. In the present study, a cDNA molecule encoding 1,000 amino acids of the 110-kD protein has been sequenced, providing direct evidence that this protein is a vertebrate homologue of the tail-less, single-headed myosin I first described in amoeboid cells. The primary structure of the 110-kD protein (or brush border myosin I heavy chain) consists of two domains, an amino-terminal "head" domain and a 35-kD carboxy-terminal "tail" domain. The head domain is homologous to the S1 domain of other known myosins, with highest homology observed between that of Acanthamoeba myosin IB and the S1 domain of the protein encoded by bovine myosin I heavy chain gene (MIHC; Hoshimaru, M., and S. Nakanishi. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:14625- 14632). The carboxy-terminal domain shows no significant homology with any other known myosins except that of the bovine MIHC. This demonstrates that the bovine MIHC gene most probably encodes the heavy chain of bovine brush border myosin I (BBMI). A bacterially expressed fusion protein encoded by the brush border 110-kD cDNA binds calmodulin. Proteolytic removal of the carboxy-terminal domain of the fusion protein results in loss of calmodulin binding activity, a result consistent with previous studies on the domain structure of the 110-kD protein. No hydrophobic sequence is present in the molecule indicating that chicken BBMI heavy chain is probably not an integral membrane protein. Northern blot analysis of various chicken tissue indicates that BBMI heavy chain is preferentially expressed in the intestine. PMID:2687288

  19. Global average concentration and trend for hydroxyl radicals deduced from ALE/GAGE trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) data for 1978-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R.; Cunnold, D.; Simmonds, P.; Alyea, F.; Boldi, R.; Crawford, A.; Fraser, P.; Gutzler, D.; Hartley, D.; Rosen, R.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal estimation inversion scheme is utilized with atmospheric data and emission estimates to determined the globally averaged CH3CCl3 tropospheric lifetime and OH concentration. The data are taken from atmospheric measurements from surface stations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and show an annual increase of 4.4 +/- 0.2 percent. Industrial emission estimates and a small oceanic loss rate are included, and the OH concentration for the same period (1978-1990) are incorporated at 1.0 +/- 0.8 percent/yr. The positive OH trend is consistent with theories regarding OH and ozone trends with respect to land use and global warming. Attention is given to the effects of the ENSO on the CH3CCl3 data and the assumption of continuing current industrial anthropogenic emissions. A novel tropical atmospheric tracer-transport mechanism is noted with respect to the CH3CCl3 data.

  20. Upper boundaries of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates near the triple junction off the Boso Peninsula deduced from ocean-bottom seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Aki; Sugioka, Hiroko; Obana, Koichiro; Hino, Ryota; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Nakahigashi, Kazuo; Shinohara, Masanao; Nakano, Masaru; Yamamoto, Yojiro

    2017-02-01

    We determined hypocenter distributions and focal mechanisms of earthquakes off the Boso Peninsula, Japan, based on seafloor observations using ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). From OBS data, we detected and located earthquakes that were closer to the trenches than had previously been reported. The determined focal depths of relocated hypocenters were systematically shallower than those in the Japan Meteorological Agency catalog determined from land-based data. The hypocenter distribution was separated into two groups: one associated with the Pacific plate (PAC) and the other with the North American and/or Philippine Sea plates (PHS). For the former group, both the focal depths and mechanisms of low-angle thrust-faulting earthquakes were consistent with the geometry of the PAC determined by previous studies. Among the latter group, we selected low-angle thrust-faulting earthquakes with a slip direction parallel to the direction of PHS subduction or with a dip direction parallel to the PHS to delineate the upper boundary of the PHS. The depth of the plate upper boundary off the Boso Peninsula was found to be approximately 6 km shallower than previously reported estimates.

  1. Major Contribution of Flowering Time and Vegetative Growth to Plant Production in Common Bean As Deduced from a Comparative Genetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M.; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Saburido, Soledad; Bretones, Sandra; De Ron, Antonio M.; Lozano, Rafael; Santalla, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Determinacy growth habit and accelerated flowering traits were selected during or after domestication in common bean. Both processes affect several presumed adaptive traits such as the rate of plant production. There is a close association between flowering initiation and vegetative growth; however, interactions among these two crucial developmental processes and their genetic bases remain unexplored. In this study, with the aim to establish the genetic relationships between these complex processes, a multi-environment quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach was performed in two recombinant inbred line populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses between determinate and indeterminate genotypes. Additive and epistatic QTLs were found to regulate flowering time, vegetative growth, and rate of plant production. Moreover, the pleiotropic patterns of the identified QTLs evidenced that regions controlling time to flowering traits, directly or indirectly, are also involved in the regulation of plant production traits. Further QTL analysis highlighted one QTL, on the lower arm of the linkage group Pv01, harboring the Phvul.001G189200 gene, homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) gene, which explained up to 32% of phenotypic variation for time to flowering, 66% for vegetative growth, and 19% for rate of plant production. This finding was consistent with previous results, which have also suggested Phvul.001G189200 (PvTFL1y) as a candidate gene for determinacy locus. The information here reported can also be applied in breeding programs seeking to optimize key agronomic traits, such as time to flowering, plant height and an improved reproductive biomass, pods, and seed size, as well as yield. PMID:28082996

  2. Uplift rates of the marine terraces in the south coast of Japan deduced from in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Nagano, G.; Nakamura, A.; Maemoku, H.; Miyairi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-12-01

    Marine terraces are low-relief platforms located along coastal areas. They are formed by waves action with the changes in the relative sea level (RSL) that is affected by combined effects of the eustatic sea level (ESL) and the tectonic movements (e.g. uplift, subsidence and isostatic effect). Therefore, determining the ages and the elevations of the marine terraces allows us to reconstruct the ESL and/or the tectonic history of the study area. The Kii Peninsula and the southern coast of the Shikoku Island are located along the Nankai Trough where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Eurasian plate. There exist relatively well-preserved marine terraces along the coastal line with the elevation of ca. 50 -100 m. Because of this unique tectonic setting, the terraces are regarded as the suitable counterparts to reconstruct uplift history of the south coast of Japan. However, the ages of these terraces are poorly understood due to the lack of the ash layers that is suitable for the tephrochronology. In this study, we determine the age of the marine terraces using terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic radionuclides (TCN), 10Be and 26Al. This is the first age estimation of the marine terraces in Japan using TCN, allowing us to determine the uplift rates and the seismic history of the region.

  3. Experimental limits for heavy neutrino admixture deduced from 177Lu β decay and constraints on the life time of a radiative neutrino decay mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönert, S.; Oberauer, L.; Hagner, C.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Schreckenbach, K.; Declais, Y.; Mayerhofer, U.

    1996-05-01

    From cosmological constraints, the requirement for stable neutrinos is to have masses less than 30 eV. In the case that neutrino masses exceed this bound, neutrinos must decay sufficiently fast in order to satisfy the presently observed energy density of the universe. The experiments presented in this contribution consist of the complementary search for heavy neutrino admixture in nuclear beta decay of 177Lu and of the search for a radiative neutrino decay mode at the nuclear power station in Bugey, France. The data obtained from the 177Lu beta decay restrict the mixing probability of a heavy neutrino to the electron | U eh| 2 < 0.2 - 0.3% (90% Cl) for neutrino masses between 10 and 95 keV. The radiative lifetime is constrained to exceed t/ m > 180 × | U eh| 2 sec/eV which is one order of magnitude more restrictive than previous laboratory limits.

  4. Supply of terrestrial organic matter to Amazon Shelf sediments of the last 1000 years deduced from bacteriohopanepolyols and other lipid biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, Wiebke; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Talbot, Helen M.; Wagner, Thomas; Zabel, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the Amazon Shelf and Fan region large amounts of particulate material - mainly derived from the Andes - are transported via the Amazon River into the western tropical Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies have shown that the Amazon Fan sediments dominantly consist of terrigenous material. In this study we investigate the distribution of lipid biomarkers for terrigenous and soil organic matter (SOM), in particular bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), and other lipid biomarkers in a sediment core covering approximately the last 1000 years, recovered on the Amazon Shelf about 350 km north of the Amazon River mouth at about 50 m water depth. Here we present the first evidence for the presence of soil-specific and other BHPs in these sediments. Concentrations of soil BHP within the range of 70 to 220 µg/g TOC are amongst the highest reported to date from marine environments confirming the exceptional role of SOM export from major tropical rivers. Enhanced concentrations of 35-amino-BHPs in the sediments also suggest intense aerobic methane-oxidation, testifying for intense and active microbial cycling of labile organic matter. However, we can not rule out the possibility that this signal is exported from the catchment with the soil-marker BHPs. The concentrations of n-alkanes also show fluctuations, albeit less distinctive and not correlated with the cyclic variations of the BHPs. Very low concentrations of alkenones as molecular markers for prymnesiophyte algae imply comparatively small contributions of marine organic matter. The relative abundances of different groups of BHPs remain rather constant downcore, arguing that the type of SOM being exported over the last >1000 years was uniform. The concentrations of all individual BHPs reveal a cyclic pattern that might be related to changes in the supply of terrestrial material due to climatic fluctuations. This is also supported by the Al/Ti record of our core showing a similar cyclicity as the BHPs. The current observations support the conclusions that the land-ocean linkage of the Amazon system is highly sensitive exporting even subtle climate variations in the continental interior to the shelf sediments. Ongoing biomarker analysis will explore the potential of these sediments to produce continuous palaeo climate records in the Holocene and further investigate the importance of SOM supply and burial during glacial climate conditions.

  5. E × B flow velocity deduced from the poloidal motion of fluctuation patterns in neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas on KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Leem, J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; Ko, S. H.; Choi, M. J.; Wang, W. X.; Budny, R. V.; Ethier, S.; Park, Y. S.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W. H.; Kim, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    A method for direct assessment of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity ( E ×B flow shear is responsible for the turbulence suppression and transport reduction in tokamak plasmas) is investigated based on two facts. The first one is that the apparent poloidal rotation speed of density fluctuation patterns is close to the turbulence rotation speed in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field line within the flux surface. And the second "well-known" fact is that the turbulence rotation velocity consists of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity and intrinsic phase velocity of turbulence in the E × B flow frame. In the core region of the low confinement (L-mode) discharges where a strong toroidal rotation is induced by neutral beam injection, the apparent poloidal velocities (and turbulence rotation velocities) are good approximations of the E ×B flow velocities since linear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the intrinsic phase velocity of the dominant turbulence is significantly lower than the apparent poloidal velocity. In the neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas, temporal and spatial scales of the measured turbulence are studied by comparing with the local equilibrium parameters relevant to the ion-scale turbulence.

  6. Downslope strengthening millennial-scale climatic change signals deduced from high-resolution clay mineralogy during the last glaciation in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, Z.; Wang, X.; Xie, X.; Shi, J.; Christophe, C.

    2015-12-01

    Clay mineralogy provides a powerful tool to reconstruct glacial-cyclic paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes in the South China Sea. However, whether the clay mineralogy could also reserve millennial-scale climatic change is still poorly understood, because clay minerals usually produced through the long-term chemical weathering are not sensitive to the fast environmental change. This study presents the high-resolution clay mineralogy of three high-quality sediment cores, which were retrieved from a transect on the continental slope of the northern South China Sea during the cruise of MD190 (2012). Our results show that time series changes of clay mineral assemblages display a clear occurrence of millennial-scale climatic change events, such as Younger Dryas, Bolling-Allerod, and Heinrich events 1-6. The reconstructed relative contributions of clay minerals from their source areas of Taiwan and Luzon are closely related to the millennial-scale climatic changes, while the clay mineral contribution from the source area of the Pearl River presents a relationship to the sea level change. Following the transect with increasing water depths, the Pearl River contribution decreases, whereas the Taiwan and Luzon contributions present more complex changes, and the millennial-scale climatic change signals are also gradually strengthened. The Luzon/Taiwan contribution ratio is used for the proxy of the millennial-scale paleoclimate evolution. The lower ratio presents colder events, while the high ratio indicates warmer periods. The distinct downslope strengthening millennial-scale climatic change indicates that deepwater sediments in the South China Sea could well reserve fast climatic change events that usually occurred in high latitudes.

  7. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    This thesis provides a detailed survey and analysis of whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by IMAGE/RPI satellite during the years 2000-2005 below the altitude of 5000 km. Approximately 2500 WM echoes have been observed by IMAGE during this period. This includes mostly specularly reflected whistler mode (SRWM) echoes and ~400 magnetospherically reflected whistler mode (MRWM) echoes. Stanford 2D raytracing simulations and the diffusive equilibrium density model have been applied to 82 cases of MRWM echoes, observed during August-December of the year 2005 below 5000 km to determine electron and ion density measurements along Earth's magnetic field line. These are the first results of electron and ion density measurements from WM sounding covering L-shells ~1.6-4, a wide range of geomagnetic conditions (Kp 0+ to 7), and during solar minima (F10.2~70-120) in the altitude range 90 km to 4000 km. The electron and ion density profiles obtained from this analysis were compared with in situ measurements on IMAGE (passive recording; electron density (Ne)), DMSP (~850 km; Ne and ions), CHAMP (~350 km; Ne), Alouette (~500-2000 km; Ne and ions), ISIS-1, 2 (~600-3500 km; Ne, ions), AE (~130-2000 km; ions) satellites, bottom side sounding from nearby ionosonde stations (Ne), and those by GCPM (Global Core Plasma Model), IRI-2012 (International Reference Ionosphere). Based on this analysis it is found that: (1) Ne shows a decreasing trend from L-shell 1.6 to 4 on both the day and night sides of the plasmasphere up to altitude ~1000 km, which is also confirmed by the GCPM and IRI-2012 model. (2) Above ~2000 km altitude, GCPM underestimates Ne by ~30-90% relative to RPI passive measurements, WM sounding results. (3) Below 1500 km, the Ne is higher at day side than night side MLT (Magnetic Local Time). Above this altitude, significant MLT dependence of electron density is not seen. (4) Ion densities from WM sounding measurements are within 10-35% of those from the Alouette, AE, and DMSP satellites. (5) The effective ion mass in the day side is more than two times higher than night side below altitude ~500 km. (6) The O+/H+ and O+/(H ++He+) transition heights at day side are ~300-500 km higher than night side; the transition heights from the IRI-2012 model lie within the uncertainty limit of WM sounding for night side, but for day side (L-shell>2.5) they are 200 km higher than WM uncertainty limits. (7) foF2 (F2 peak plasma densities) from ionosonde stations and the IRI-2012 model are ~1.5-3 MHz higher than those from WM sounding during daytime. These measurements are very important as the ion density profile along geomagnetic field lines is poorly known. They can lead to a better understanding of global cold plasma distribution inside the plasmasphere at low altitude and thereby bridge the gap between high topside ionosphere and plasmasphere measurements. These results will provide important guidance for the design of future space-borne sounders in terms of frequency and virtual range, in order to adequately cover ion density measurements at low altitudes and wide range of MLTs, solar and geophysical conditions.

  8. DeNovoID: a web-based tool for identifying peptides from sequence and mass tags deduced from de novo peptide sequencing by mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Halligan, Brian D; Ruotti, Victor; Twigger, Simon N; Greene, Andrew S

    2005-07-01

    One of the core activities of high-throughput proteomics is the identification of peptides from mass spectra. Some peptides can be identified using spectral matching programs like Sequest or Mascot, but many spectra do not produce high quality database matches. De novo peptide sequencing is an approach to determine partial peptide sequences for some of the unidentified spectra. A drawback of de novo peptide sequencing is that it produces a series of ordered and disordered sequence tags and mass tags rather than a complete, non-degenerate peptide amino acid sequence. This incomplete data is difficult to use in conventional search programs such as BLAST or FASTA. DeNovoID is a program that has been specifically designed to use degenerate amino acid sequence and mass data derived from MS experiments to search a peptide database. Since the algorithm employed depends on the amino acid composition of the peptide and not its sequence, DeNovoID does not have to consider all possible sequences, but rather a smaller number of compositions consistent with a spectrum. DeNovoID also uses a geometric indexing scheme that reduces the number of calculations required to determine the best peptide match in the database. DeNovoID is available at http://proteomics.mcw.edu/denovoid.

  9. Permian macro- and miofloral diversity, palynodating and palaeoclimate implications deduced from the coal-bearing sequences of Singrauli coalfield, Son-Mahanadi Basin, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kamal Jeet; Murthy, Srikanta; Saxena, Anju; Shabbar, Husain

    2017-03-01

    The coal-bearing sequences of Barakar and Raniganj formations exposed in Bina and Jhingurdah open-cast collieries, respectively, are analysed for their macro- and miofloral content. The sediment successions primarily comprise of sandstones, shales, claystones and coal seams. In addition to the diverse glossopterid assemblage, four palynoassemblage zones, namely Zones I and II in Bina Colliery and Zones III and IV in Jhingurdah Colliery, have also been recorded in the present study. The megafossil assemblage from the Barakar strata of Bina Colliery comprises of three genera, namely Gangamopteris, Glossopteris and cf. Noeggerathiopsis. Palynoassemblage-I is characterised by the dominance of non-striate bisaccate pollen genus Scheuringipollenites and subdominance of striate bisaccate Faunipollenites and infers these strata to be of Early Permian (Artinskian) age (Lower Barakar Formation). The palynoassemblage has also yielded a large number of naked fossil spore tetrads, which is the first record of spore tetrads from any Artinskian strata in the world and has a significant bearing on the climatic conditions. The palynoassemblage-II is characterised with the dominance of Faunipollenites over Scheuringipollenites and is indicative of Kungurian age (Upper Barakar Formation). The megafossil assemblage from the Raniganj Formation of Jhingurdah Colliery comprises of five genera with 26 species representing four orders, viz., Equisetales, Cordaitales, Cycadales and Glossopteridales. The order Glossopteridales is highly diversified with 23 taxa and the genus Glossopteris, with 22 species, dominates the flora. The mioflora of this colliery is represented by two distinct palynoassemblages. The palynoassemblage-III is correlatable with the palynoflora of Early Permian (Artinskian) Lower Barakar Formation. The assemblage suggests the continuity of older biozones into the younger ones. The palynoassemblage-IV equates the beds with composition V: Striatopodocarpites-Faunipollenites-Gondisporites assemblage zone of Tiwari and Tripathi (1992) of Late Permian (Lopingian) Raniganj Formation in Damodar Basin. The FAD's of Alisporites, Klausipollenites, Falcisporites, Arcuatipollenites pellucidus and Playfordiaspora cancellosa palynotaxa in this assemblage enhance the end Permian level of the Jhingurdah Top seam, as these elements are the key species to mark the transition of Permian into the Lower Triassic.

  10. Global patterns and climate drivers of water-use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems deduced from satellite-based datasets and carbon cycle models

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Yan; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Mengtian; ...

    2015-12-23

    Our aim is to investigate how ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) varies spatially under different climate conditions, and how spatial variations in WUE differ from those of transpiration-based water-use efficiency (WUEt) and transpiration-based inherent water-use efficiency (IWUEt). LocationGlobal terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated spatial patterns of WUE using two datasets of gross primary productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) and four biosphere model estimates of GPP and ET. Spatial relationships between WUE and climate variables were further explored through regression analyses. Global WUE estimated by two satellite-based datasets is 1.9 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.6g C m-2mm-1 lower than the simulations frommore » four process-based models (2.0 ± 0.3g C m-2mm-1) but comparable within the uncertainty of both approaches. In both satellite-based datasets and process models, precipitation is more strongly associated with spatial gradients of WUE for temperate and tropical regions, but temperature dominates north of 50 degrees N. WUE also increases with increasing solar radiation at high latitudes. The values of WUE from datasets and process-based models are systematically higher in wet regions (with higher GPP) than in dry regions. WUEt shows a lower precipitation sensitivity than WUE, which is contrary to leaf- and plant-level observations. IWUEt, the product of WUEt and water vapour deficit, is found to be rather conservative with spatially increasing precipitation, in agreement with leaf- and plant-level measurements. In conclusion, WUE, WUEt and IWUEt produce different spatial relationships with climate variables. In dry ecosystems, water losses from evaporation from bare soil, uncorrelated with productivity, tend to make WUE lower than in wetter regions. Yet canopy conductance is intrinsically efficient in those ecosystems and maintains a higher IWUEt. This suggests that the responses of each component flux of evapotranspiration should be analysed separately when investigating regional gradients in WUE, its temporal variability and its trends.« less

  11. Thick- and thin-skinned tectonics of the eastern border of the Leinetal Graben, Lower Saxony, Germany, as deduced from reflection seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, David C.; Musmann, Patrick; Wawerzinek, Britta; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Buness, Hermann; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    The Leinetal Graben in northern Germany is a N-S striking, intra-plate tectonic graben that, according to the youngest sediments within the graben, occurred post-Jurassic, probably late Cretaceous. We show, by interpreting two (1.8 and 3.2 km long), 2D, P-wave, reflection-seismic profiles which cross the eastern border faults of the Leinetal Graben, that the tectonic evolution began much earlier, probably in the Early Triassic. The profiles show information to a depth of approx. 1 km. Using two deep boreholes to calibrate the seismic, we interpreted the Mesozoic sedimentary layers down to Triassic Zechstein salt and the faults that affect these strata. We recognize two sets of faults: firstly steep, planar faults, that are closely clustered and terminate in the Zechstein salt, and secondly shallow faults that connect between two of the first set of faults and have very variable dip, depending on the lithology they cut at that point. These two systems represent thick- and thin-skinned tectonics, respectively. We envisage the late Triassic pro-Leinetal Graben structure as a salt down-building area or as the result of rafting of sandstone units on the salt layer. The system was later reactivated in the Late Cretaceous during intra-plate N-S compression and E-W extension. By restoring the deformation caused by the thin-skinned fault, we are able to determine the amount of area change in the hanging-wall caused by the fault, due to its undulating geometry. Area change is heterogeneous, but reaches 3-4% locally. This may well be sufficient to allow fluids to flow in the fault damage zone in these areas. It would also account for the different seismic appearance of the fault in the two profiles if fluids were heterogeneously distributed along it. This method of retro-deformation is entirely appropriate to determine the suitability of a brittle fault for, for instance, geothermal applications.

  12. Primitive Extracellular Lipid Components on the Surface of the Charophytic Alga Klebsormidium flaccidum and Their Possible Biosynthetic Pathways as Deduced from the Genome Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Satoshi; Hori, Koichi; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Kato, Tsubasa; Yuno-Ohta, Naoko; Nobusawa, Takashi; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Klebsormidium flaccidum is a charophytic alga living in terrestrial and semiaquatic environments. K. flaccidum grows in various habitats, such as low-temperature areas and under desiccated conditions, because of its ability to tolerate harsh environments. Wax and cuticle polymers that contribute to the cuticle layer of plants are important for the survival of land plants, as they protect against those harsh environmental conditions and were probably critical for the transition from aquatic microorganism to land plants. Bryophytes, non-vascular land plants, have similar, but simpler, extracellular waxes and polyester backbones than those of vascular plants. The presence of waxes in terrestrial algae, especially in charophytes, which are the closest algae to land plants, could provide clues in elucidating the mechanism of land colonization by plants. Here, we compared genes involved in the lipid biosynthetic pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana to the K. flaccidum and the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genomes, and identified wax-related genes in both algae. A simple and easy extraction method was developed for the recovery of the surface lipids from K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Although these algae have wax components, their surface lipids were largely different from those of land plants. We also investigated aliphatic substances in the cell wall fraction of K. flaccidum and C. reinhardtii. Many of the fatty acids were determined to be lipophilic monomers in K. flaccidum, and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that their possible binding mode was distinct from that of A. thaliana. Thus, we propose that K. flaccidum has a cuticle-like hydrophobic layer composed of lipids and glycoproteins, with a different composition from the cutin polymer typically found in land plant cuticles. PMID:27446179

  13. Global Density of the Earth Plasmasphere Deduced from the Images of its Phantom by Using a Fbp and Art Computer Tomographic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ronglan; Huang, Ya; Zhao, Hua; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang; Jin, Xin; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Hua

    The similarity of the projection in X ray Computer Tomography (CT) with the column density of the EUV Imager, provide the possibility to deduct the global density of Plasmasphere from the image of plasmaspheric, by using CT technique. Similar with the Medical CT, a phantom consists of plasmasphere and ionosphere had been used. The boundary of the plasmasphere is supposed as a dipole field line, with L= 4 Earth radii (Re), and the density within is equal to 1 and uniform. The ionosphere can be expected as a shell, with an inner and outer radius equal to 1.1 and 1. 2Re. And the density is supposed as 10.A Filtered Back-projection (FBP) Algorithm, and Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) CT had been used. The FBP is the simplest and basic algorithm in CT Techniques by using parallel projections. It can be used in the lunar based Earth's Plasmaspheric EUV Imager, since the field of view of the EUV Imager is small. In the EUV Imager of IMAGE satellite, since the imager is near to the Earth, so that the reconstruction algorithm will be a cone-beam. By using a cone beam to parallel beam rebinning, where the noise-ratio of cone beam versus parallel back-projection is acceptable, we can also use parallel back projection in the EUV Imager of IMAGE satellite. An improve accuracy of reconstruction algorithm is achieved by using a more complicate ART. The reconstruction quality is more efficient than FBP, when the image included the Earth's shelter and limit view angle imaging. To illustrate our result, we divide our reconstruction into some typical slices, parallel with the noon meridian plane of the Erath. For FBP, when the distance of the slice from the noon meridian plane is smaller than an Earth radius, we find some discrepancies between the reconstruction and the initial phantom, where ART is much better than FBT

  14. Maple syrup urine disease. Complete primary structure of the E1 beta subunit of human branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex deduced from the nucleotide sequence and a gene analysis of patients with this disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nobukuni, Y; Mitsubuchi, H; Endo, F; Akaboshi, I; Asaka, J; Matsuda, I

    1990-01-01

    A defect in the E1 beta subunit of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex is one cause of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). In an attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of MSUD, we isolated and characterized a 1.35 kbp cDNA clone encoding the entire precursor of the E1 beta subunit of BCKDH complex from a human placental cDNA library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the isolated cDNA clone (lambda hBE1 beta-1) contained a 5'-untranslated sequence of four nucleotides, the translated sequence of 1,176 nucleotides and the 3'-untranslated sequence of 169 nucleotides. Comparison of the amino acid sequence predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA insert of the clone with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified mature bovine BCKDH-E1 beta subunit showed that the cDNA insert encodes for a 342-amino acid subunit with a Mr = 37,585. The subunit is synthesized as the precursor with a leader sequence of 50 amino acids and is processed at the NH2 terminus. A search for protein homology revealed that the primary structure of human BCKDH-E1 beta was similar to the bovine BCKDH-E1 beta and to the E1 beta subunit of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, in all regions. The structures and functions of mammalian alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes are apparently highly conserved. Genomic DNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from normal and five MSUD patients, in whom E1 beta was not detected by immunoblot analysis, gave the same restriction maps on Southern blot analysis. The gene has at least 80 kbp. Images PMID:2365818

  15. A Cysteine-Rich CCG Domain Contains a Novel [4Fe-4S] Cluster Binding Motif As Deduced From Studies With Subunit B of Heterodisulfide Reductase From Methanothermobacter Marburgensis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, N.; Mander, G.J.; Shokes, J.E.; Scott, R.A.; Bennati, M.; Hedderich, R.

    2009-06-01

    Heterodisulfide reductase (HDR) of methanogenic archaea with its active-site [4Fe-4S] cluster catalyzes the reversible reduction of the heterodisulfide (CoM-S-S-CoB) of the methanogenic coenzyme M (CoM-SH) and coenzyme B (CoB-SH). CoM-HDR, a mechanistic-based paramagnetic intermediate generated upon half-reaction of the oxidized enzyme with CoM-SH, is a novel type of [4Fe-4S]{sup 3+} cluster with CoM-SH as a ligand. Subunit HdrB of the Methanothermobacter marburgensis HdrABC holoenzyme contains two cysteine-rich sequence motifs (CX{sub 31-39}CCX{sub 35-36}CXXC), designated as CCG domain in the Pfam database and conserved in many proteins. Here we present experimental evidence that the C-terminal CCG domain of HdrB binds this unusual [4Fe-4S] cluster. HdrB was produced in Escherichia coli, and an iron-sulfur cluster was subsequently inserted by in vitro reconstitution. In the oxidized state the cluster without the substrate exhibited a rhombic EPR signal (g{sub zyx} = 2.015, 1.995, and 1.950) reminiscent of the CoM-HDR signal. {sup 57}Fe ENDOR spectroscopy revealed that this paramagnetic species is a [4Fe-4S] cluster with {sup 57}Fe hyperfine couplings very similar to that of CoM-HDR. CoM-{sup 33}SH resulted in a broadening of the EPR signal, and upon addition of CoM-SH the midpoint potential of the cluster was shifted to values observed for CoM-HDR, both indicating binding of CoM-SH to the cluster. Site-directed mutagenesis of all 12 cysteine residues in HdrB identified four cysteines of the C-terminal CCG domain as cluster ligands. Combined with the previous detection of CoM-HDR-like EPR signals in other CCG domain-containing proteins our data indicate a general role of the C-terminal CCG domain in coordination of this novel [4Fe-4S] cluster. In addition, Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy identified an isolated Zn site with an S{sub 3}(O/N){sub 1} geometry in HdrB and the HDR holoenzyme. The N-terminal CCG domain is suggested to provide ligands to the Zn site.

  16. Seven Strategies for Improving the Quality and Efficiency of the Education System. Notes, Comments... No. 192 = Sept strategies visant a ameliorer la qualite et l'efficacite du systeme d'education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    Seven strategies for improving the quality and efficiency of educational system in Latin American are delineated within the context of background information on the coverage and efficiency of school systems from 1970 to 1980, technical and institutional limitations to educational progress, and an estimate of the impact of the strategies.…

  17. Accelerated electron distributions with high- and low-energy cutoffs deduced from the application of a return-current model to solar flare X-ray spectra observed by RHESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.

    2015-04-01

    The X-ray bremsstrahlung emission observed from solar flares requires a high flux, and corresponding high current, of non-thermal electrons. This current is thought to be stabilized by a co-spatial return current, which also resupplies electrons to the acceleration region. In the standard collisional thick-target model (CTTM), electrons accelerated in the corona lose all of their energy through Coulomb collisions when they reach the higher densities in the lower atmosphere of the sun. In the presence of the return current, however, the electrons also lose energy in the corona as they propagate downward. These losses introduce a break into the observed X-ray spectrum if the potential drop associated with the return current is sufficiently high.We analyzed the temporal evolution of RHESSI (Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) spectra from a solar flare with strong spectral breaks in terms of a return-current collisional thick-target model (RCCTTM). The presence of strong breaks ensures that albedo and non-uniform ionization are not sufficient to explain the spectral flattening at energies below the break. We find that the model successfully fits the spectral data. The fits were significantly improved with the inclusion of a high-energy cutoff to the injected electron distribution (better chi-squared values and residuals), providing the time evolution of the highest energy to which electrons were accelerated. A lower limit to the low-energy cutoff to the electron distribution was obtained by restricting the beam density to a value less than the ambient coronal density. The derived plasma resistivity and the drift speed of the return-current electrons both suggest that plasma turbulence might have been important in the corona.This work was supported by the NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Program and the RHESSI Project.

  18. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR data - case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Belart, J. M. C.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be used as constraints for extracting glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high resolution LiDAR DEM (2 m × 2 m cell size and vertical accuracy < 0.5 m). The LiDAR DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice and snow free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical variogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice and snow free areas were used as inputs into 1000 Sequential Gaussian Simulations (SGSim). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM. The derived bias correction, varying in magnitude between DEMs from 0.03 to 1.66 m (1946 DEM) was then applied. The simulation results were also used to calculate the 95 % confidence level of this bias, resulting in values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree day model to obtain the volume change between the start of two hydrological years (1 October). This correction corresponds to an average elevation change of ~ -3 m in the worst case for 1960, or about ~ 2/3 of volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total uncertainty of the derived mass balance record is mostly due to uncertainty of the SGSim bias correction, the uncertainty of the seasonal bias correction and the uncertainty of the interpolated glacier surface where data is lacking. The record shows a glacier-wide mass balance rate of Ḃ = -0.250 ± 0.040 m w.e. a-1 for the entire study period (1946-2011). We observe significant decadal variability including positive periods, peaking in 1985-1994 with Ḃ = 0.26 ± 0.11 m w.e. a-1. There is a striking difference if Ḃ is calculated separately for the western and eastern halves of Drangajökull, with a reduction of eastern part on average ~ 3 times faster than the western part. Our study emphasises the need of applying rigorous geostatistical methods for obtaining uncertainty estimates of geodetic mass balance, the importance of seasonal corrections of DEMs from glaciers with high mass turnover and the risk of extrapolating mass balance record from one glacier to another even over short distances.

  19. In situ diagnostic of dusty plasmas at Saturn using the electric antennas of Cassini/RPWS: deduced constraints on dust and plasma in the E ring and around Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncuquet, Michel; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Evgenia Gkini, Magda; Lecacheux, Alain

    Since July 1st, 2004, the Cassini spacecraft is exploring in situ the inner magnetosphere of Saturn and especially the plasma populating the ring of dust E. The Radio and Plasma Waves Science (RPWS) experiment carries a large panoply of plasma and wave sensors, among which the wire electric antennas (dipole or monopole), used here as electrodes immersed in a dusty plasma, are the object of our study. The spectral analysis of the antenna voltage is done by the HF receiver built at LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, within the two frequency decades from 3 kHz to 300 kHz. Depending on the spacecraft distance to the ring plane, these antennas could detect (i) quasi thermal noise (QTN, mainly exploitable in the dipole configuration) and (ii) dust grain impacts on the spacecraft (only detectable in the monopole configuration). On one hand, the spectroscopy of QTN allows us to determine the electron density and temperature of the plasma torus. On the other hand, the spectroscopy of the low frequency band from the monopole antenna yields constraints on the dust, mainly on the typical size and distribution of the dust grains in the ring plane. I will show the plasma/dust measurements acquired during the SOI (from 2.3 to 6 Rs, so mainly within the E ring), then around the perikrone of 9 March 2005 (at 3.5 Rs, including a closest approach to Enceladus) and some other cases within the E ring. Finally, I will discuss these results in terms of source and sink of the plasma torus, and I will especially focus on the cooling effect of the plasma due to its interaction with the dust of the E ring.

  20. For Education and Training Policies Which Foster Competitiveness and Employment: UNICE's Seven Priorities = Pour les Politiques d'Education et de Formation au Service de la Competitivite et de l'Emploi: Les Sept Priorites de l'UNICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe, Brussels (Belgium).

    Qualifications and skills are of fundamental economic and social importance. In a context marked by increased globalization of economies and technological development, European companies are faced with far-reaching changes. Because companies need a highly skilled, competent, and adaptable workforce, there is a need to develop strategies for…

  1. Lifetime-Broadening-Suppressed X-ray Absorption Spectrum of β-YbAlB4 Deduced from Yb 3d → 2p Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Naomi; Kanai, Noriko; Hayashi, Hisashi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Kuga, Kentaro; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Watanabe, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the Yb 3d → 2p (Yb Lα1,2) resonant X-ray emission spectrum of β-YbAlB4 was acquired using excitation energies around the Yb L3-edge, at 2 K. Subsequently, the lifetime-broadening-suppressed (LBS) X-ray absorption structure (XAS) spectrum was obtained using the SIM-RIXS program. This spectrum was found to exhibit clearly resolved pre-edge and shoulder structures. Resonant Lα1 emission spectra were well reproduced from LBS-XAS profiles over wide ranges of excitation and emission energies. In contrast, noticeable discrepancies appeared between the experimental and simulated Lα2 emission spectra, suggesting an effect resulting from M4M5O1 Coster-Kronig transitions. LBS-XAS, in conjunction with partial fluorescence yield (PFY) XAS and transmission XAS, determined a value for the Yb valence (v) in β-YbAlB4 of 2.76 ± 0.08 at 2 K. Despite this relatively large uncertainty in v, each method provided a consistent variation in valence (δv) as the temperature was raised from 2 to 280 K: 0.060 ± 0.004 (LBS-XAS), 0.061 ± 0.005 (PFY-XAS) and 0.058 ± 0.007 (transmission XAS). The smaller δv associated with LBS-XAS demonstrates the greater precision of this method.

  2. Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Robert John; Mortensen, James Keith; Lebarge, William P.

    2011-12-01

    Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated, exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains has been applied to illuminate the style(s) of source mineralization and their relationship to placer gold from the Klondike gold district immediately to the north. A total of 2,613 placer gold grains from 22 localities were characterised in terms of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg content of their alloy and associated suite of opaque mineral inclusions. A combination of alloy and inclusion mineralogy was used to define gold signatures which augmented the previous classification of orogenic gold in the Klondike. Gold type 3b (8-25% Ag) is the main component of the placers in lower Dominion Creek but is augmented and eventually replaced by type 3a gold (10-40% Ag) in placers in the main Indian River valley, probably through erosion of gold-bearing veins in the valley floor. Type 4 gold exhibits highly variable Ag which may contain Hg to a maximum of 11 wt.%. This gold type also hosts a distinctive inclusion assemblage of complex polymetallic sulphides, tellurides, sulfotellurides, and sulfosalts and has previously been ascribed to local low sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Placer gold in drainages radiating from Eureka Dome exhibits various proportions of types 3 and 4 gold depending on location, but type 3 gold forms the major component in Black Hills Creek and northerly flowing tributaries of the Indian River with the exception of Eureka and Montana creeks. Type 5 gold is found only in placers in the middle and lower Indian River. It is distinguished by slightly elevated (0.05-0.17%) Cu in the gold alloy, together with low (5-9%) Ag contents. Inclusions of Bi minerals, Cr-bearing magnetite and molybdenite within type 5 gold suggest derivation from an intrusion-related source. Candidates for such a source include undiscovered lode occurrences associated with Cretaceous age intrusions to the south of the Indian River, or deformed Cu-Au (-Mo) porphyry occurrences which are known to be present in the same area. This analysis of placer gold has indicated that the contribution of low sulfidation epithermal gold from Eureka Creek to the larger placers of the Indian River is minor. Consequently, the placer gold inventory of the Indian River is primarily orogenic in origin. Similarly, the characterization of placer gold in Blackhills Creek strongly suggests an orogenic source. This study has demonstrated for the first time that orogenic lode gold mineralization extends a considerable distance to the south of the southern Klondike goldfield. This information contributes to the regional models of gold mineralization in an area which is currently the focus of intensive exploration.

  3. Effects of groundwater residence time and recharge rate on nitrate contamination deduced from δ18O, δD, 3H/ 3He and CFCs in a small agricultural area in Chuncheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaown, Dugin; Koh, Dong-Chan; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2009-03-01

    SummaryStable isotopes of water, chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs), and 3H/ 3He were applied in combination with hydrogeochemical data to analyze recharge patterns and nitrate contamination of shallow groundwater systems in a small agricultural area, Yupori, Chuncheon (Korea), where the eastern part is on hill slopes and the western part is low lands. The values of δ18O and δD indicated that groundwater is derived mainly from summer precipitation, which is more pronounced in the western part than in the eastern part. The apparent groundwater ages using CFC-113 and 3H/ 3He ranged from 13 to 31 yr, and are younger in the western part than in the eastern part. Dispersion models fit concentrations of 3H and CFC-113 for most wells of the eastern part with intermediate dispersion parameters. Nitrate concentrations were higher in the western part than the eastern part due to the land use pattern and topography. Stable isotopes of water and groundwater ages indicated that higher recharge rate affected by multiple sources of contamination is dominant in the western part whereas limited recharge with weak nitrate sources is considerable in the eastern part. This groundwater flow pattern corresponds to the different nitrate concentrations in the western and the eastern part. Groundwater residence time and recharge rate play an important role in the spatial distribution of NO 3 concentration in the study area as well as land use pattern.

  4. A Cysteine-Rich CCG Domain Contains a Novel [4Fe-4S] Cluster Binding Motif As Deduced from Studies with Subunit B of Heterodisulfide Reductase from Methanothermobacter marburgensis†

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Nils; Mander, Gerd J.; Shokes, Jacob E.; Scott, Robert A.; Bennati, Marina; Hedderich, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Heterodisulfide reductase (HDR) of methanogenic archaea with its active-site [4Fe-4S] cluster catalyzes the reversible reduction of the heterodisulfide (CoM-S-S-CoB) of the methanogenic coenzyme M (CoM-SH) and coenzyme B (CoB-SH). CoM-HDR, a mechanistic-based paramagnetic intermediate generated upon half-reaction of the oxidized enzyme with CoM-SH, is a novel type of [4Fe-4S]3+ cluster with CoM-SH as a ligand. Subunit HdrB of the Methanothermobacter marburgensis HdrABC holoenzyme contains two cysteine-rich sequence motifs (CX31–39CCX35–36CXXC), designated as CCG domain in the Pfam database and conserved in many proteins. Here we present experimental evidence that the C-terminal CCG domain of HdrB binds this unusual [4Fe-4S] cluster. HdrB was produced in Escherichia coli, and an iron–sulfur cluster was subsequently inserted by in vitro reconstitution. In the oxidized state the cluster without the substrate exhibited a rhombic EPR signal (gzyx= 2.015, 1.995, and 1.950) reminiscent of the CoM-HDR signal. 57Fe ENDOR spectroscopy revealed that this paramagnetic species is a [4Fe-4S] cluster with 57Fe hyperfine couplings very similar to that of CoM-HDR. CoM-33SH resulted in a broadening of the EPR signal, and upon addition of CoM-SH the midpoint potential of the cluster was shifted to values observed for CoM-HDR, both indicating binding of CoM-SH to the cluster. Site-directed mutagenesis of all 12 cysteine residues in HdrB identified four cysteines of the C-terminal CCG domain as cluster ligands. Combined with the previous detection of CoM-HDR-like EPR signals in other CCG domain-containing proteins our data indicate a general role of the C-terminal CCG domain in coordination of this novel [4Fe-4S] cluster. In addition, Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy identified an isolated Zn site with an S3(O/N)1 geometry in HdrB and the HDR holoenzyme. The N-terminal CCG domain is suggested to provide ligands to the Zn site. PMID:17929940

  5. Glacier changes since Local Last Glacial Maximum in the South-West slope of Nevado Hualcán, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, deduced from moraine mapping and GIS-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giráldez, Claudia; Palacios, David; Haeberli, Wilfried; Úbeda, Jose; Schauwecker, Simone; Torres, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Anticipating and assessing hazards and risks associated with the shrinking of surface and subsurface ice in cold mountain chains is facilitated by empirical-quantitative data on present and past rates of change, as well as by a general understanding of related landforms and landscape evolution through time. Rock/ice avalanches and devastating outburst floods from glacial lakes indeed constitute a major cause of severe damage in populated mountain areas such as the Cordillera Blanca whose combination of tectonic, topographic and glaciological characteristics make it a threatened region. This study focuses on the Río Chucchún catchment above the city of Carhuaz, which was recently affected by a flood/debris flow from a rock/ice avalanche impacting a recently grown lake (Laguna 513). Traces left by past glaciations strongly affect the current geomorphodinamic behaviour of the catchment. For instance, a prominent sediment-filled glacial overdeepening behind Younger Dryas (YD) moraines (Pampa de Shonquil) with its retention function strongly influenced the chain of processes initiated by the outburst of Laguna 513. The aim of this study is to reconstruct earlier glacial phases in the SW slope of Nevado Hualcán (Río Chucchún catchment), in order to compile quantitative information on surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs). To do so, glacier stages were assigned to five different glacial phases, through photointerpretation and moraine cartography: 2003; 1962; Hualcán-I-LIA (15th to 18th centuries); Hualcán-II-YD (~12,5 ka BP); and Hualcán-III-LLGM (~34 to 21 ka BP). Glacial stages Hualcán-I-LIA, Hualcán-II-YD and Hualcán-III-LLGM present relative dating based on previous studies from different authors in the Peruvian Andes. Once glaciers were delimited, their surface areas and Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) were calculated. For ELA estimation three different methods were used: the mid-range elevation, the Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR), and the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio (AABR). The results show a decrease in surface area with respect to Hualcán-III-LLGM of 16% for Hualcán-II-YD; 50% for Hualcán-I-LIA; and 74% for 2003. With respect to 2003, ELAs shifted ~520 m since the Local Last Glacial Maximum (LLGM), ~470 m since a marked late-glacial stage (YD?), ~130 m since the Little Ice Age (LIA) and about ~100 m since 1962. If the changes are exclusively attributed to temperature effects, warming since LLGM can be estimated at some 3°C and since the maximum glacier extent of LIA at about 0.8°C. Such values are rather close to mean global temperature change during the corresponding intervals. Most of the ELA shift since LIA appears to have taken place during recent decades characterized by very rapid glacier shrinkage, although air temperature does not seem to have risen considerably during the last 30 years. These results along with other environmental and social approaches will contribute to a better understanding of impacts from climate change and glacier shrinkage in order to develop adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk reduction strategies in the Peruvian Andes.

  6. Mechanism of pH-dependent decomposition of monoalkylamine diazeniumdiolates to form HNO and NO, deduced from the model compound methylamine diazeniumdiolate, density functional theory, and CBS-QB3 calculations.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Andrew S; Suhrada, Christopher P; Miranda, Katrina M; Wink, David A; Fukuto, Jon M; Houk, K N

    2006-03-20

    Isopropylamine diazeniumdiolate, IPA/NO, the product of the reaction of isopropylamine and nitric oxide, NO, decomposes in a pH-dependent manner to afford nitroxyl, HNO, in the pH range of 13 to above 5, and NO below pH 7. Theoretical studies using B3LYP/6-311+G(d) density functional theory, the polarizable continuum and conductor-like polarizable continuum solvation models, and the high-accuracy CBS-QB3 method on the simplified model compound methylamine diazeniumdiolate predict a mechanism involving HNO production via decomposition of the unstable tautomer MeNN+(O-)NHO-. The production of NO at lower pH is predicted to result from fragmentation of the amide/NO adduct upon protonation of the amine nitrogen.

  7. Insights into the genetic organization of the Bacillus mycoides cryptic plasmids pDx14.2 and pSin9.7 deduced from their complete nucleotide sequence.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Carmen; Santini, Tiziana; Pisaneschi, Giuseppe; Beccari, Elena

    2005-11-01

    Bacillus mycoides, a member of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, can be easily distinguished from close species because of colony shape, made by filaments of cells, resembling fungal hyphae, curving clock- or counterclockwise depending on the strain. Two plasmids, one from a strain curving to the right (pDx14.2), the other from a strain curving to the left (pSin9.7), were sequenced and analyzed for gene content and replication mode. Rolling-circle replication modules and mobilization proteins were found, very similar to those of other plasmids of the B. cereus group bacilli, mostly Bacillus thuringiensis living in the same ecosystem, suggesting active plasmid exchange in nature.

  8. Biophysical analyses of synthetic amyloid-beta(1-42) aggregates before and after covalent cross-linking. Implications for deducing the structure of endogenous amyloid-beta oligomers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brenda D; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan; Tay, William M; Milkovic, Nicole M; Rosenberry, Terrone L

    2009-12-15

    A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of large numbers of senile plaques in the brain. These deposits are rich in fibrils that are composed of 40- and 42-residue amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides. Several lines of evidence indicate that soluble Abeta aggregates as well as fibrils are important in the etiology of AD. Low levels of endogenous soluble Abeta aggregates make them difficult to characterize, but several species in extracts of AD brains have been detected by gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and immunoblotting. Individual Abeta oligomers ranging in size from dimers through dodecamers of 4 kDa monomeric Abeta have been resolved in other laboratories as discrete species by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). In an effort to reconstitute soluble Abeta aggregates in vitro that resemble the endogenous soluble Abeta aggregates, we previously found that monomeric Abeta(1-42) rapidly forms soluble oligomers in the presence of dilute SDS micelles. Here we extend this work in two directions. First, we contrast the size and secondary structure of these oligomers with those of synthetic Abeta(1-42) fibrils. SEC and multiangle light scattering were used to obtain a molecular mass of 150 kDa for the isolated oligomers. The oligomers partially dissociated to monomers through nonamers when incubated with SDS, but in contrast to endogenous oligomers, we saw no evidence of these discrete species prior to SDS treatment. One hypothesis to explain this difference is that endogenous oligomers are stabilized by covalent cross-linking induced by unknown cellular agents. To explore this hypothesis, optimal mass spectrometry (MS) analysis procedures need to be developed for Abeta cross-linked in vitro. In our second series of studies, we began this process by treating monomeric and aggregated Abeta(1-42) with three cross-linking agents: transglutaminase, glutaraldehyde, and Cu(II) with peroxide. We compared the efficiency of covalent cross-linking with these agents, the effect of cross-linking on peptide secondary structure, the stability of the cross-linked structures to thermal unfolding, and the sites of peptide cross-linking obtained from proteolysis and MS.

  9. The distribution of cosmic rays in the galaxy and their dynamics as deduced from recent gamma ray observations. [noting maximum in toroidal region between 4 and 5 kpc from galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puget, J. L.; Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Data from SAS-2 on the galactic gamma ray line flux as a function of longitude is examined. It is shown that the gamma ray emissivity varies with galactocentric distance and is about an order of magnitude higher than the local value in a toroidal region between 4 and 5 kpc from the galactic center. This enhancement is accounted for in part by first-order Fermi acceleration, compression, and trapping of cosmic rays consistent with present ideas of galactic dynamics and galactic structure theory. Calculations indicate that cosmic rays in the 4 to 5 kpc region are trapped and accelerated over a mean time of the order of a few million years or about 2 to 4 times the assumed trapping time in the solar region of the galaxy on the assumption that only an increased cosmic ray flux is responsible for the observed emission. Cosmic ray nucleons, cosmic ray electrons, and ionized hydrogen gas were found to have a strikingly similar distribution in the galaxy according to both the observational data and the theoretical model discussed.

  10. Directory of Personnel, Canadian Association of Departments of Extension and Summer Schools. Annuaire du Personnel, Association des Services d'Education des Adultes et Ecoles d'Ete des Universites du Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Dept. of Univ. Extension.

    This bilingual directory of the Canadian Association of Departments of Extension and Summer Schools (CADESS) lists CADESS administrators and faculty, by subject area or division and alphabetically by institutions, associated with the Memorial University of Newfoundland, the Banff School of Fine Arts and Centre for Continuing Education, Saint…

  11. Kinetic study on Michael-type reactions of β-nitrostyrenes with cyclic secondary amines in acetonitrile: transition-state structures and reaction mechanism deduced from negative enthalpy of activation and analyses of LFERs.

    PubMed

    Um, Ik-Hwan; Kang, Ji-Sun; Park, Jong-Yoon

    2013-06-07

    A kinetic study is reported for the Michael-type reactions of X-substituted β-nitrostyrenes (1a-j) with a series of cyclic secondary amines in MeCN. The plots of pseudo-first-order rate constant k(obsd) vs [amine] curve upward, indicating that the reactions proceed through catalyzed and uncatalyzed routes. The dissection of k(obsd) into Kk2 and Kk3 (i.e., the rate constants for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes, respectively) revealed that Kk3 is much larger than Kk2, implying that the reactions proceed mainly through the catalyzed route when [amine] > 0.01 M. Strikingly, the reactivity of β-nitrostyrene (1g) toward piperidine decreases as the reaction temperature increases. Consequently, a negative enthalpy of activation is obtained, indicating that the reaction proceeds through a relatively stable intermediate. The Brønsted-type plots for the reactions of 1g are linear with β(nuc) = 0.51 and 0.61, and the Hammett plots for the reactions of 1a-j are also linear with ρX = 0.84 and 2.10 for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes, respectively. The reactions are concluded to proceed through six-membered cyclic transition states for both the catalyzed and uncatalyzed routes. The effects of the substituent X on reactivity and factors influencing β(nuc) and ρX obtained in this study are discussed.

  12. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  13. Les caracteristiques des apprenantes et des apprenants ages de 15 a 18 ans dans le systeme d'education en langue francaise en Ontario (The Characteristics of Female and Male Students Aged 15 to 18 Years in the French Language Educational System in Ontario).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herry, Yves; Levesque, Denis

    A study undertaken to create a profile of 15- to 18-year-old students in minority French language schools in Ontario is reported. The first chapter describes the study's methodology, which included review of education ministry documents and other research, and interviews with students and educators. The second chapter summarizes research findings…

  14. List of Participating Institutions: Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-operation and Peace = Liste des establissements participants: Systeme des ecoles associees appliquant un programme d'education pour la cooperation internationale et la paix = Lista de Instituciones Participantes: Plan de Escuelas Asociadas en la Educacion para la Cooperacion Internacional y la Paz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A list of participating institutions at the Associated Schools Project in Education for International Co-Operation and Peace, December 31, 1985 is presented. A total of 1,970 institutions in 94 countries participated, including 47 nursery schools, 556 primary schools, 1,123 secondary schools, and 248 teacher training institutions. Addresses of…

  15. Manuel d'Education Speciale a l'Usage des Parents: le droit de votre enfant a une education dans l'Etat de New York (Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    Written in French, this guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs for their child. Part 1 of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York public schools. A historical view of…

  16. Synthetically tuneable biomimetic artificial photosynthetic reaction centres that closely resemble the natural system in purple bacteria† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Electrochemistry, fitting of data measured by femtosecond laser flash photolysis, vibrational parameters deduced for the molecular fragments from B3LYP vibrational frequency analysis, and vibrational parameters used in the determination of Franck–Condon factors for charge-transfer processes. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01076h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sai-Ho; Blake, Iain M.; Larsen, Allan G.; McDonald, James A.; Ohkubo, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrin-based photosynthetic reaction centre (PRC) mimics, ZnPQ-Q2HP-C60 and MP2Q-Q2HP-C60 (M = Zn or 2H), designed to have a similar special-pair electron donor and similar charge-separation distances, redox processes and photochemical reaction rates to those in the natural PRC from purple bacteria, have been synthesised and extensive photochemical studies performed. Mechanisms of electron-transfer reactions are fully investigated using femtosecond and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. In benzonitrile, all models show picosecond-timescale charge-separations and the final singlet charge-separations with the microsecond-timescale. The established lifetimes are long compared to other processes in organic solar cells or other organic light harvesting systems. These rigid, synthetically flexible molecules provide the closest mimics to the natural PRC so far synthesised and present a future direction for the design of light harvesters with controllable absorption, redox, and kinetics properties. PMID:27928494

  17. Passion and Politics: 99 Years of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education (18th, Montreal, Canada, June 10-12, 1999) = Passion et Politique: 99 Ans d'Education des Adultes. Actes Annuel de L'Association Canadienne pour L'Etude de L'Education des Adultes (18e, Montreal, Canada, 10-12 Juin, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrimech, Mohamed, Ed.

    This document contains 35 papers and 4 symposia/poster sessions presented at a Canadian conference on the study of adult education. The following papers are among those included: "Adult Education on the Internet: New Dawn Breaking or Sky Falling?" (Archer); "'Shapeshifting': Negotiating Identity in First Nations Adult…

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of Phosphorylated Proteins of E. coli Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soung, George Y.; Miller, Jennifer L.; Koc, Hasan; Koc, Emine C.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of bacterial ribosomal proteins has been known for decades; however, there is still very limited information available on specific locations of the phosphorylation sites in ribosomal proteins and the role they might play in protein synthesis. In this study, we have mapped the specific phosphorylation sites in twenty-four E. coli ribosomal proteins by tandem mass spectrometry. Specific detection of phosphorylation was achieved by either phosphorylation specific visualization techniques, ProQ staining and antibodies for phospho-Ser, Thr, and Tyr, or by mass spectrometry equipped with a capability to detect addition and the loss of the phosphate moiety. Enrichment by immobilized metal affinity and/or strong cation exchange chromatography was used to improve the success of detection of the low abundance phosphopeptides. We found the small subunit (30S) proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S11, S12, S13, S18, and S21 and the large subunit (50S) proteins L1, L2, L3, L5, L6, L7/L12, L13, L14, L16, L18, L19, L21, L22, L28, L31 to be phosphorylated at one or more residues. Potential roles for each specific site in ribosome function were deduced through careful evaluation of the given site of the phosphorylation in 3D-crystal structure models of ribosomes and the previous mutational studies of E. coli ribosomal proteins. PMID:19469554

  19. Fast Flat Fields from Moving Extended Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalrymple, N. E.; Bianda, M.

    2002-05-01

    A person wearing dirty spectacles corrects images by observing an extended object and moving his or her head. Details that do not appear to move with the observed object must be due to optical imperfections. In the same manner, the relative pixel gains of a CCD camera observing through a movable optical system can be calculated. The result is a flat field table that may be used repeatedly to correct subsequent images. A fast flat fielding algorithm has been developed for solar observations that uses only two exposures to compute a flat field. During each exposure the source image is linearly scanned across the field of view. The two images are then mated together. The method is valid in cases where the intensity of the observed source changes slowly with respect to the camera exposure time, where the optical configuration remains constant during the scans, and where the path of motion is known or can be deduced from the images. For a camera with 2048x2048 pixels the computation requires about 30 s of processing time on a Sun 450 and yields a result that is comparable to a Kuhn-Lin flat field, which requires one hour of processing time on the same system.

  20. Rheology of the gel formed in the California Mastitis Test.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, C Johan R; Xia, Stephen S; Whyte, David

    2008-11-01

    The California Mastitis Test has previously been adapted for use in an inline, cow-side sensor and relies on the fact that the viscosity of the gel formed during the test is proportional to the somatic cell concentration. In this paper, the use of capillary and rotational viscometry was compared in light of the expected rheology of the gel formed during the test. It was found that the gel is non-Newtonian, but the initial phase of viscosity increase was not due to shear dependence, but rather due to the gelation reaction. The maximum apparent viscosity of the gel was shear dependent while the time it took to reach the maximum was not truly shear dependent, but was rather dependent on the degree of mixing during gelation. This was confirmed by introducing a delay time prior to viscosity measurement, in both capillary and rotational viscometry. It was found that by mixing the reagent and infected milk, then delaying viscosity measurement for 30 s, shortened the time it took to reach maximum viscosity by more than 60 s. The maximum apparent viscosity, however, was unaffected. It was found that capillary viscometry worked well to correlate relative viscosity with somatic cell count, but that it was sensitive to the reagent concentration. It can therefore be deduced that the rheology of the gel is complicated not only by it being non-Newtonian, but also by the strong dependence on test conditions. These make designing a successful sensor much more challenging.

  1. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments and secondary structure analysis of translation initiation factor 1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Alejandra; Hu, Yanmei; Palmer, Stephanie O; Silva, Aaron; Bullard, James; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and a primary cause of infection in humans. P. aeruginosa can acquire resistance against multiple groups of antimicrobial agents, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, and multidrug resistance is increasing in this organism which makes treatment of the infections difficult and expensive. This has led to the unmet need for discovery of new compounds distinctly different from present antimicrobials. Protein synthesis is an essential metabolic process and a validated target for the development of new antibiotics. Translation initiation factor 1 from P. aeruginosa (Pa-IF1) is the smallest of the three initiation factors that acts to establish the 30S initiation complex to initiate translation during protein biosynthesis, and its structure is unknown. Here we report the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shift assignments of Pa-IF1 as the basis for NMR structure determination and interaction studies. Secondary structure analyses deduced from the NMR chemical shift data have identified five β-strands with an unusually extended β-strand at the C-terminal end of the protein and one short α-helix arranged in the sequential order β1-β2-β3-α1-β4-β5. This is further supported by (15)N-{(1)H} hetero NOEs. These secondary structure elements suggest the Pa-IF1 adopts the typical β-barrel structure and is composed of an oligomer-binding motif.

  2. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments and secondary structure analysis of translation initiation factor 1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Alejandra; Hu, Yanmei; Palmer, Stephanie O.; Silva, Aaron; Bullard, James; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and a primary cause of infection in humans. P. aeruginosa can acquire resistance against multiple groups of antimicrobial agents, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, and multidrug resistance is increasing in this organism which makes treatment of the infections difficult and expensive. This has led to the unmet need for discovery of new compounds distinctly different from present antimicrobials. Protein synthesis is an essential metabolic process and a validated target for the development of new antibiotics. Translation initiation factor 1 from P. aeruginosa (Pa-IF1) is the smallest of the three initiation factors that acts to establish the 30S initiation complex to initiate translation during protein biosynthesis, and its structure is unknown. Here we report the 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift assignments of Pa-IF1 as the basis for NMR structure determination and interaction studies. Secondary structure analyses deduced from the NMR chemical shift data have identified five β-strands with an unusually extended β-strand at the C-terminal end of the protein and one short α-helix arranged in the sequential order β1–β2–β3–α1–β4–β5. This is further supported by 15N–{1H} hetero NOEs. These secondary structure elements suggest the Pa-IF1 adopts the typical β-barrel structure and is composed of an oligomer-binding motif. PMID:26983940

  3. The physics of a thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, John; Mason, Nigel

    2003-09-01

    The salient facts concerning the dynamical, physical and electrical properties of a thunderstorm, and of the detailed structure and associated electric field-changes of lightning flashes, are marshalled to deduce the criteria for a satisfactory quantitative theory of charge generation and separation leading to the growth of electric fields strong enough to initiate and to sustain lightning activity. A quantitative theory is presented of how charges are generated and separated when supercooled cloud droplets make grazing contact with the undersides of hail pellets (graupel) polarized initially by the Earth's fine-weather electric field. The rebounding droplets acquire a positive charge and are carried by the convective updraught towards the top of the cloud, while the hail pellets carrying a net negative charge fall towards cloud base. This creates a vertical dipole field which increases the polarizing charges on the hail pellets and so accelerates the rates of charge generation and separation, and so reinforces the vertical electrical field, which grows exponentially until insulation of the air breaks down and triggers a lightning flash. It is demonstrated that a thunderstorm cell, 2 km in diameter, producing small hail falling at 30 mm h-1 can produce vertical electric fields of ~5000 V cm-1 in about 10 min involving the separation of ~50 C of charge, enough to initiate a lightning flash which, on average, neutralizes about 20 C. As long as the hail persists, it continues to generate and separate sufficient charge to produce a succession of lightning flashes at about 30 s intervals. More frequent discharges at say 10 s intervals would require high rates of hail production in larger cells but are more likely to be produced by large multi-cellular storms sustained by strong convective currents for perhaps several hours.

  4. Actual Operation Simulation of RESSOX Ground Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    One, every 30 s , we expect to receive orbit forecast information in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) for a duration of 3 minutes...values, every 30 s , RC will receive orbit estimation and forecast values in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) for a duration of 3...Fig. 3. System diagram of Experiment Two using QZSS. 30 s Orbit estimation values

  5. Estimating the energy contribution during single and repeated sprint swimming.

    PubMed

    Peyrebrune, M C; Toubekis, A G; Lakomy, H K A; Nevill, M E

    2014-04-01

    The extent to which aerobic processes contribute to energy supply during short duration sprint swimming is not known. Therefore, the energy contribution to a maximal 30 s fully tethered swim (FTS), and repeated 4 × 30 s high intensity semi-tethered swimming bouts (STS) with 30 s of passive rest at 95% of the 30 s FTS intensity was estimated in eight elite male swimmers. Blood lactate concentration and pH after the 4 × 30 s test were 12.1 ± 3.6 mmol/L and 7.2 ± 0.1, respectively. Accumulated oxygen demand was estimated to be 50.9 ± 9.6 mL/kg and 48.3 ± 8.4, 47.2 ± 8.5, 47.4 ± 8.3, and 45.6 ± 6.8 mL/kg for the 30 s FTS and 4 × 30 s bouts, respectively. Accumulated oxygen uptake was 16.6 ± 3.6 for the 30 s FTS and progressively increased during the 4 × 30 s bouts 12.2 ± 2.1, 21.6 ± 2.5, 22.8 ± 1.8, and 23.5 ± 2.0 mL/kg (P < 0.01). The estimated aerobic contribution therefore was 33 ± 8% for the 30 s FTS and 25 ± 4, 47 ± 9, 49 ± 8, 52 ± 9% for bouts 1-4 during the 4 × 30 s STS test (P < 0.01). The results underline the importance of aerobic energy contribution during single and repeated high intensity swimming, which should be considered when prescribing swimming training sets of this nature.

  6. Accumulation and depuration of sediment-sorbed C{sub 12}- and C{sub 16}-polychlorinated alkanes by oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, A.T.; Wiens, S.C.; Webster, G.R.B.; Bergman, A.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1998-10-01

    Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed to sediment spiked with four {sup 14}C-polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) (C{sub 12}H{sub 20}Cl{sub 6} [56% Cl by weight], C{sub 12}H{sub 16}Cl{sub 10} [69% Cl], C{sub 16}H{sub 31}Cl{sub 3} [35% Cl], and C{sub 16}H{sub 21}Cl{sub 13} [69% Cl]) to measure bioaccumulation parameters and biotransformation. Chlorinated paraffins are industrial products that consist of thousands of different PCAs. Chlorinated paraffins are hydrophobic and are reported to have relatively high concentrations in sediment compared with other persistent organochlorines; however, no data exist on their bioavailability from sediment. The PCAs C{sub 12}H{sub 20}Cl{sub 6}, C{sub 12}H{sub 16}Cl{sub 10}, and C{sub 16}H{sub 31}Cl{sub 3} were readily available to sediment-ingesting oligochaetes, whereas C{sub 16}H{sub 21}Cl{sub 13} had lower bioavailability. Uptake rates of the C{sub 12}-PCAs were greater than the C{sub 16}-PCAs, but half-lives (t{sub {1/2}}s) were greater for the C{sub 16}-PCAs (t{sub {1/2}} = 30-33 d) than for the C{sub 12}-PCAs (t{sub {1/2}} = 12-14 d). Biota-sediment accumulation factors were >1 for C{sub 12}H{sub 20}Cl{sub 6}, C{sub 12}H{sub 16} Cl{sub 10}, and C{sub 16}H{sub 31}Cl{sub 3}, but <1 for C{sub 16}H{sub 21}Cl{sub 13}. Comparison of toluene-extractable and -nonextractable {sup 14}C suggest that PCAs were biotransformed in aerobic sediments and by oligochaetes, and that the susceptibility to degradation in sediments decreases with increasing chlorine content. The relative abundance of individual PCAs may differ between sediment and benthic invertebrates because of differences in the bioaccumulation and degradation of PCAs of varying carbon chain length and chlorine content.

  7. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  8. Effects of Early and Late Rest Intervals on Performance and Overnight Consolidation of a Keyboard Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Carla Davis

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-six nonmusicians practiced a five-element key-press sequence on a digital pian