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  1. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of the 30th annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents: plenary panel papers; research forum papers; short oral communication papers; and poster presentation papers from the meeting. Information relating to discussion groups and working sessions is also provided.…

  2. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Abr and Dri:…

  3. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Sac and Zaz: (1)…

  4. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Ead and Kou: (1)…

  5. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Kun and Ros: (1)…

  6. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereuawilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobiusalenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobiuscorrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobiuscreticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobiuserythrocephalusmohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobiusevae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiusmagurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobiuspurkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobiustatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiustatricusmonounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobiushomolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobiuskrali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymeriumdilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymeriumhanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendraaztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamiaolympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  7. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobius creticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobius erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobius evae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobius purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobius tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobius krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymerium hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid. PMID:26257531

  8. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereuawilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobiusalenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobiuscorrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobiuscreticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobiuserythrocephalusmohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobiusevae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiusmagurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobiuspurkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobiustatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiustatricusmonounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobiushomolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobiuskrali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymeriumdilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymeriumhanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendraaztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamiaolympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid. PMID:26257531

  9. International expert consensus conference on testosterone deficiency and its treatment held in Prague, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Zitzmann, Michael; Traish, A M; Fox, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    An international expert consensus conference regarding testosterone deficiency (TD) (also known as hypogonadism) and its treatment was held on 1 October 2015, in Prague, Czech Republic. The impetus for this meeting was to address several key scientific issues that have been misunderstood or distorted during the recent intense media attention to this topic. Eighteen experts from 11 countries participated, from the disciplines of urology, endocrinology, andrology, diabetology, and basic science research. The goal was to identify scientific concepts for which there was broad agreement. It was noted that recent public controversies regarding testosterone therapy have been anchored by two retrospective studies reporting increased cardiovascular (CV) risks. Both these studies contained major flaws, and are contradicted by a large body of evidence suggesting CV benefits with testosterone therapy. Other topics discussed included the negative impact of TD on male health; the questionable validity of restrictions on treatment based on age-specific cut-offs, presence of identified underlying conditions, or application of rigid biochemical thresholds; and the lack of evidence regarding prostate cancer risks. Final consensus statements (resolutions) are under development. It is hoped these will serve as a scientific foundation for further discussion, and will thereby reduce misinformation regarding TD and its treatment.

  10. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  11. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... by their foreign language curriculum. English is the first choice for a second language in this... while technical areas rank as their third choice. English is the standard second language in the Czech... recent government decision that will make English language mandatory for primary school students...

  12. Higher prevalence of smoking and lower BMI, waist circumference, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels in Prague's homeless compared to a majority of the Czech population

    PubMed Central

    Kubisová, Dana; Adámková, Věra; Lánská, Věra; Dlouhý, Pavel; Rambousková, Jolana; Anděl, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Background Homeless people have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. Research has shown that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in older homeless adults. This study was undertaken to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the homeless population in Prague. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2003. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerides (TAG) and smoking habits were assessed. The homeless participants in the study were recruited from a homeless center run by a Prague charitable organization called Naděje ("Hope") and at Prague's main railway station. Most participants were assessed at the Naděje center (134 persons) while the rest were assessed at Prague's Bulovka University Hospital (67 persons). Results A total of 201 homeless (174 males and 27 females) aged 19 – 70 years were examined. Mean values of BMI, WC, TC and TAG in homeless men and women were within normal limits. Compared with the majority of the Czech population, the homeless had significantly lower mean levels of TC and TAG and lower BMI and WC values. When compared to the majority of the Czech population, the incidence of smoking among the homeless was significantly higher. Among smokers in both populations, no differences were found in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusion Classical cardiovascular risk factors such as TC, TAG, BMI and WC, are significantly lower in Prague's homeless minority than in the majority of the Czech population. However, the prevalence of smoking is much higher in the homeless population. PMID:17411429

  13. Anthropogenic groundwater contamination by selenium at Suchomasty Village (Prague Basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlecova, Renata; Bruthans, Jiri; Buzek, Frantisek; Dousova, Barbora; Konecna, Stanislava; Zeman, Ondrej

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the project is to clarify and characterize the probable sources of increased selenium contamination in groundwater at Suchomasty Village located 35 km SW of Prague. The village is supplied by drinking water from a 25 m deep bore-hole with catchment formed by Ordovician to Devonian mostly sedimentary rocks of the Prague Basin. The selenium concentrations have suddenly exceeded limit 10 μg/l up to 123 μg/l since 2007. Several possible selenium sources were predicted in the bore-hole catchment: (i) Paleozoic bedrock, (ii) ash from coal power stations used for arable soil improvement, (iii) selenium-accumulating plants used as manure and (iv) an old rubbish dump. Samples of bedrock, soil and anthropogenic deposits were collected for selenium concentration analyses from five excavated test-holes up to 2.5 m deep. Concentration of selenium was analyzed in month intervals in the water from the bore-hole and from a shallow well. Groundwater residence time was determined using tritium and SF6. Oxygen isotopic composition could help us to better understanding of groundwater dynamics. The AAS and ICP-OES analyses of bedrock and soils revealed no distinct increased selenium concentrations. Devonian limestone contains 5 mg/kg, field soil with ash up to 25 mg/kg and selenium-accumulating plants 6 mg/kg. The highest selenium concentration was found in material from the dump (up to 45 mg/kg) stored in abandoned quarry located 1 km away from the bore-hole. We assume the dump is a main potential source of selenium contamination. Although the average groundwater residence time is up to 20 years, the selenium contamination has reached the bore-hole in 18 month since dump reclamation. It is possible that the fast groundwater circulation has been using more karstified rock. Based on obtained data the selenium is hold in suspension transported by groundwater. Filtration of drinking water should help in a case of continuing long-term increase of selenium contamination

  14. The Conception Approach to the Traffic Control in Czech Cities - Examples from Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichý, Tomáš; Krajčír, Dušan

    Modern and economic development of contemporary towns is without question highly dependent upon traffic infrastructure progress. Automobile transport intensity is dramatically rising in large towns and other Czech and European cities. At the same time number of traffic congestions and accidents is increasing, standing times are becoming longer and ecological stress is also escalated. To solve this situation seems to be the most effective solution to design intelligent traffic light intersection control system, variable message signs, preference of public transportation, road line traffic control and next telematics subsystems. This control system and subsystems should improve permeability of traffic road network with a respect for all demands on recent trends of traffic development in towns and regions.

  15. Microalgal biofilms on common yew needles in relation to anthropogenic air pollution in urban Prague, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Nováková, Radka; Neustupa, Jiří

    2015-03-01

    Excessive occurrence of microalgae on needles of gymnosperms was reported for the first time in the 1980s from the Scandinavian countries. Since then, it has been repeatedly encountered on needles from various European forest habitats. The abundance of these biofilms has been related to the climatic conditions, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as to the air pollution by nitrogen and sulfur oxides. Urban areas typically have relatively homogenous climates and profound variation in levels of air pollution. Therefore, variation in the occurrence of biofilms in localities within an urban area may be related to local anthropogenic air pollution. We investigated the abundance of biofilms occurring on needles of the common yew (Taxus baccata) in the city of Prague, Czech Republic. The biofilms were composed of algae, fungi and particulate matter. The cover area of the biofilms was marginally explained by a positive influence of short-term maximum atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The amounts of the microalgae were also positively influenced by short-term maximum NO2 levels. In addition, high atmospheric levels of particulate matter (PM10) were related to low abundance of algae. The microbial biofilms growing on widely cultivated conifers, such as the common yew, form one of the few commonly occurring natural communities in highly urbanized central areas of temperate European cities. Consequently, we propose that microscopic analysis of biofilms may be used as a rapid and cheap method to collect ecological data. Such data may be used in biomonitoring schemes illustrating the effects of anthropogenic air pollution on natural microcommunities in urban areas.

  16. Partnering to change the world for people with haemophilia: 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit, Prague, Czech Republic, 24-26(th) September 2015.

    PubMed

    Astermark, Jan; Hart, Dan; Lobet, Sébastien; Blatný, Jan; d'Oiron, Roseline; Kenet, Gili; Dolan, Gerry; Libotte, Valérie; Hermans, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    The 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in September 2015. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and aimed to share optimal management strategies for haemophilia at all life stages, explore recent potential advances in the management of haemophilia A and B and discuss challenges in haemophilia care. In this supplement from the meeting, Dan Hart reviews the lessons that can be learnt from cost-constrained environments with regard to improving care for people with haemophilia globally. Sébastien Lobet discusses the importance of physical activity for optimising care and Roseline d'Oiron and Jan Blatný consider the role of real-world data in understanding the effect of treatment in a clinical setting over the long term and the true impact of treatment on the day-to-day life of the patient. Gili Kenet addresses the current challenges relating to the optimal management of prophylaxis, and Gerry Dolan and Cedric Hermans discuss the value of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in informing treatment decisions. Cedric Hermans and Valérie Libotte explore the importance of considering social and occupational development factors as an integral part of haemophilia care, and Jan Astermark reviews key strategies to predict and prevent inhibitor development.

  17. Indoor damage of aged porous natural stone due to thermohygric stress: a case study of opuka stone altar from the St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Prikrylova, Jirina; Racek, Martin; Kreislova, Kateřina; Weishauptova, Zuzana

    2016-04-01

    Opuka stone (extremely fine-grained clayey-calcareous silicite) used for a carved stone altar located in the interior of the St. Vitus Cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic) was affected by decay phenomena (formation of the case-hardened surface, its later blistering, flaking and/or powdering of stone substrate) which are similar to those observed in outdoor environments. Through the detailed analytical study (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray elemental mapping of cross-sections of surface layers, x-ray diffraction of surface layers, ion-exchange chromatography for water-soluble salts, mercury porosimetry) and analysis of long-term indoor environmental monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, sulphur and nitrogen oxides deposition), it has been found that observed decay phenomena, which are manifested on microscale by brittle damage and formation of mode I (tensile) cracks along the exposed surface of the stone, can be interpreted as a result from thermohygric stress occurring on the interface between case hardened surface layer and stone substrate.

  18. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Spatial synoptic classification (SSC) is here first employed in assessing heat-related mortality and morbidity in Central Europe. It is applied for examining links between weather patterns and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity in an extended summer season (16 May-15 September) during 1994-2009. As in previous studies, two SSC air masses (AMs)—dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)—are associated with significant excess CVD mortality in Prague, while effects on CVD hospital admissions are small and insignificant. Excess mortality for ischaemic heart diseases is more strongly associated with DT, while MT has adverse effect especially on cerebrovascular mortality. Links between the oppressive AMs and excess mortality relate also to conditions on previous days, as DT and MT occur in typical sequences. The highest CVD mortality deviations are found 1 day after a hot spell's onset, when temperature as well as frequency of the oppressive AMs are highest. Following this peak is typically DT- to MT-like weather transition, characterized by decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. The transition between upward (DT) and downward (MT) phases is associated with the largest excess CVD mortality, and the change contributes to the increased and more lagged effects on cerebrovascular mortality. The study highlights the importance of critically evaluating SSC's applicability and benefits within warning systems relative to other synoptic and epidemiological approaches. Only a subset of days with the oppressive AMs is associated with excess mortality, and regression models accounting for possible meteorological and other factors explain little of the mortality variance.

  19. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  20. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  1. Prague: The City Is the Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    States that Prague, the capital of the Czech-Republic, is a virtual art museum because of the number of architectural styles and other artworks throughout the city. Explores the various architectural styles that are present in the city from the Gothic monasteries and churches to examples of contemporary styles. (CMK)

  2. Katya's Kids: Teaching Romany Children in Prague.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, Alison

    1996-01-01

    Provides an example of how one teacher in Prague learned her craft from her pupils and their community, resulting in a successful teaching style that is in direct contrast to general policy and practice in Czech education. Why this style is effective in light of the social, linguistic, and multicultural issues surrounding education of Romany…

  3. Human health and the environment in eastern and central Europe. Report of the conference Prague, Czech Republic, 12-15 April 1993.

    PubMed

    Bloom, A

    1994-06-01

    A group of 46 leading environmental health scientists from 15 nations unanimously agreed to join forces in a new scientific effort to protect human health around the world from the potentially harmful effects of environmental chemicals and radioactive materials. The scientists agreed to establish a non-political European-based, not-for-profit organization whose objectives will be to promote, coordinate and fund environmental health research in order to provide a scientific basis for environmental remediation. The organization will be affiliated with the Conte Institute. The research priorities decided upon for Eastern and Central Europe were as follows: 1. Research into the effects of toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and beryllium. 2. Research in the populations of the region on cancer, birth defects, and other diseases, with emphasis on data sharing across national boundaries, on quality control, and on use of biomarkers of reproductive and other effects. 3. Studies on the molecular, biochemical, and chromosomal bases for varying genetic susceptibilities to environmentally-induced diseases. 4. Coordination of research on radiation effects, especially on radiation-exposures resulting from nuclear power and weapons plants. 5. Research on approaches to bioremediation. 6. Education and training of professionals and nonprofessionals in environmental health issues, on an international basis. These and other issues will be taken up over time by this new, cooperative scientific research organization, as decided at the Prague Conference.

  4. Petrographic and porosimetric study of opuka stones from different construction phases of the medieval Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist in Dolní Chabry (Prague, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidova, Katerina; Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptova, Zuzana; Racek, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Opuka as a very fine-grained sedimentary rock deposited during Upper Cretaceous in relatively shallow (hemipelagic) marine conditions in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic) represents type of natural stone that has been widely exploited and used for construction from about 9th c. AD. Romanesque churches in Prague and central Bohemia are among the first preserved structures for which the opuka has been used. Question whether very local or more distant sources have been employed represents still unsolved matter. In the recent study, we focus on the detailed analysis of specimens of opuka taken from the Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist in Dolní Chabry (Prague). During the previous archaeological survey of the recent church (dated to 12th c. AD), remnants (basements constructed of opuka stone) of three older churches have recognized. The aim of recent material study is recognition of similarities or differences between opuka stones coming from these different construction phases and answering a question, whether material from a single source or from different localities has been employed. The study is based on the detailed petrographic examination using four sets of techniques: (1) microscopic observation (basic optical microscopy supplemented with the electron microscopy with microanalysis and X-ray elemental mapping), (2) X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue (composition of clay fraction and detection of some less organized silica forms), (3) chemical analysis and computation of modal composition by using normative minerals based on known mineralogical composition (input from microscopy and XRD), (4) study of physical properties, specifically by means of mercury porosimetry to quantify complex pore space of these rocks. Based on the results, three basic sets of specimens have been distinguished: (1) opuka stone with low content of carbonates (22-26 wt. %) and with higher content of kaolinite and illite (both WCI and PCI), (2) opuka stone

  5. The August 2002 flood in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marešová, I.; Mareš, K.; Vogel, T.

    2003-04-01

    In August 2002 the Czech Republic was struck by the largest flood in its history with the destruction of more than 1000 houses, tens of km of roads and dozens of bridges. The reconstruction of the country will take more than 2 years. The catastrophic flood was caused by two rainfall events following rapidly one after the other. Saturated basins and full river channels after the first rainstorm caused the highest water stages and discharges ever recorded in a number of river profiles in the country. In Prague two floods coincided, with run-off from the Vltava river cascade meeting the flood wave from the Berounka river. The floods in the Czech Republic and in Prague are still being assessed. The water level of this flood surpassed the flood marks from the last century by 70 - 100 cm. At the present time the value of the discharge in Prague is evaluated as 5200 {m^3 s-1}, whereas {Q100} is considered to be 3700 {m3s-1}. The Vltava in Prague is a trained river, protected by embankments ({Q50} and {Q20}) and protective dykes ({Q100} and {Q20}). In addition, a significant role in the flood protection of Prague was played by the manipulation of the dams of the Vltava river cascade, and by a new element - mobile walls protecting the historically valuable Old Town of Prague on the right bank of the Vltava. A conception for improving the flood protection of Prague was ready in the form of a design at the end of the {20th} century. It was ready for use in 2000, when the way in which it should be built was also checked. The calculation for the level of the mobile wall was based on mathematical modeling of the course of a hundred year flood in Prague. However, the mobile walls were constructed 50 cm higher than the calculated flood levels. During the flood, the water levels reached about 20 cm, and in some places only about 5 cm, below the top of the mobile walls, but the mobile walls were not overtopped. Mobile walls were not used on the left bank of the Prague city center

  6. Influence of mineralogical, petrographical, and geochemical characteristics of impure limestones on the composition of fired hydraulic lime: a case study on Lower Palaeozoic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Prague Basin, making part of the Barrandian area (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), is a rift-like depression filled with non-metamorphosed sedimentary series of Upper Proterozoic - Lower Palaeozoic age. Among other sedimentary rocks, different types of limestones are present. These limestone were historically exploited and used for various purposes including natural and decorative stone, common construction material, and also a raw material for firing of inorganic binders: aerial lime, hydraulic lime and/or, more recently, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Lithotypes with higher amount of silica and/or clay component were of special interest due to the hydraulicity of fired product known as "pasta di Praga" in Baroque. However, our recent knowledge of these limestones is incomplete in terms of the contribution of mineralogical, geochemical, and petrographical characteristics on the properties of fired hydraulic lime. In the recent study, representative samples of 4 facies of the Lower Devonian limestone (Kosoř ls., Řeporyje ls., Dvorce-Prokop ls., and Zlíchov ls.) were subjected to a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of raw material by means of polarizing microscopy, cathodoluminiscence of thin sections and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of insoluble residues obtained by treatment with both the hydrochloric acid and the acetic acid solution was used. Wet silicate analysis provided data on the content of major elements from which standard cement and lime indexes and modules were calculated. Laboratory firing experiments of these limestone were performed by a calcination at temperature ranging from 850 to 1200°C (after 50°C). XRD of fired products shows that limestones with high content of silica (some of the Dvorce-Prokop ls.) produced binder with high amount of newly formed calcium silicates (larnite). Gehlenite and others calcium aluminates and aluminosilicates are typical for

  7. 30th Apollo Lunar Landing Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The evening skies over the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL burst into life as members of the Huntsville community gathered to celebrate the 30th arniversary of the Lunar Landing. Commerating this historical achievement for NASA and the US Space Program, a replica of the original Saturn V rocket was built on the grounds of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. On the evening of the anniversary thousands of onlookers cheered as fireworks lit up the night sky behind the massive Saturn V rocket.

  8. 30TH Anniversary of the Geoscope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.; Bonaime, S.; Pardo, C.

    2012-12-01

    The year 2012 marks the 30th anniversary of the GEOSCOPE network. One of the most important challenges of GEOSCOPE was to instrument isolated sites to achieve homogeneous global geographical coverage. It now runs 30 seismic stations installed in 20 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2), 24 or 26 bit digitizers, local storage system, active lightning protection system, sensors for remote supervision and telecommunication system. Progressively stations are being equipped with warpfree base plates which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. In 2012, stations MPG (French Guyana) and NOUC (New Caledonia) have been upgraded and transmit real time data. Currently, 27 stations transmit data in real or near real time to the GEOSCOPE Data Center and to tsunami warning centers. Continuous data from all stations are collected by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users via different interfaces according to data type (http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). We provide continuous data in real time through the seedlink protocol, validated continuous waveforms through the NetDC, Arclink and Data Handler Interface, a selection of large earthquake seismograms through the geoscope web portal. Noise levels for the last 30 years of continuous data are now accessible via the geoscope web site. Seismic noise is systematically analyzed in order to study multidecade noise variability and to separate local to regional-scale noise sources.

  9. Bologna Process between Prague and Berlin. Report to the Ministers of Education of the Signatory Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel

    In Bologna, Italy, in 1999 a declaration was signed that spelled out the beginnings of a common European Higher Education Area. At a summit in Prague, Czech Republic, in 2001, the idea initiated in Bologna was clearly endorsed. In the successive period from 2001 to 2003, awareness of the importance of the Bologna process and the real need for the…

  10. Cogeneration plant serves Prague sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The new cogeneration plant at the sewage works in Prague, Czech Republic, was commissioned in June of this year. The plant is based on three gas engine modules from Deutz MWM-Gastechnik, which supply power and heat from the sewage gas. Also installed was a central plant control system (CPCS) for automation of the power plant, including long-term data storage for operation optimization. The gas engines are equipped with an individual total electronic management system (TEM) that optimizes engine operation and heat transfer. The TEM system also serves for safety monitoring of the relevant modules. Data communication between the TEM system and the CPCS is realized via a serial interface. The CPCS can thus test the availability of the individual heat generators and, depending on the condition of an individual module, switch over to another. With due consideration to environmental protection, Deutz MWM-Gastechnik guarantees NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} (at 5% O{sub 2}) and CO emissions of less than 650 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The plant operator has also encapsulated the three gas engine modules in soundproofing enclosures in order to reduce noise emissions from 105 down to 78 dB(A).

  11. CzechGeo/EPOS - Building a national data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, J.; Hejda, P.

    2012-04-01

    CzechGeo/EPOS is the consortium of seven geoscience institutions in the Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics AS CR Prague, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics AS CR Prague, Institute of Geonics AS CR Ostrava, Institute of Physics of the Earth, Masaryk University Brno, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Charles University Prague, and Research Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Topography Zdiby). These institutions operate a distributed system of seismic, GPS, magnetic, gravimetric and geodynamic observatories. The operational and personal costs of CzechGeo/EPOS are mostly covered by the Ministry of education, sports and youth within the support of twelve large research infrastructures in the Czech Republic. Web pages of the project www.czechgeo.cz are being built as a data portal which should integrate all the data and services provided by the involved institutions and research infrastructures. Seismic portal offers selected portions of digital data from permanent, local and temporary seismic stations, locations of seismic events in the country and worldwide, daily seismograms from permanent observatories and local seismic network Webnet, seismic bulletins and catalogs, and macroseismic observations on the territory of the Czech Republic. Magnetic portal involves besides real-time magnetograms also recent state of geomagnetic activity and its forecast for the next day. GPS portal will provide preprocessed data from regional GPS stations. Building the national portal is closely related with the development of the Preparatory phase of the EPOS (European Plate Observing System) project.

  12. [Czech eponyms in pathology].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Vaněk - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bednář - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans).

  13. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    PubMed

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (P<0.001), but not in HP; B-Pb levels in women (34.8microg/l) did not differ from those of HP men (36.5microg/l), but were significantly (P<0.001) higher than those of GP women (25.8microg/l). B-Pb levels were not influenced by smoking. B-Cd levels in the homeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (P<0.001) influenced by smoking in both groups, but, surprisingly, the values in GP smokers (men=0.96microg/l, women=0.93microg/l) were lower than those in HP nonsmokers (men=1.06microg/l, women=1.18microg/l). A positive correlation was found between cadmium and lead in both men (P<0.05) and women (P<0.01). Our results indicate that the homeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a

  14. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  15. A concise history of forensic medicine in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Miroslav; Strejc, Premysl; Krajsa, Jan; Hejna, Petr; Cisarova, Olga; Dvorak, Miroslav; Hladik, Jiri; Sokol, Milos; Klir, Premysl; Beran, Michal; Fialka, Jiri; Kubista, Pavel; Vorel, Frantisek; Dvoracek, Igor; Machacek, Rudolf; Toupalik, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the most important historical facts about all forensic medicine workplaces in the Czech Republic since the beginning till present day, including a perspective on how to establish a new one. Each of the University Forensic Medicine Institutes or district Departments is covered by at least one author. The oldest institute is in Prague and in Brno, the youngest is in Pardubice.

  16. Historical changes in frequency of extreme floods in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elleder, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study presents a flood frequency analysis for the Vltava River catchment using a major profile in Prague. The estimates of peak discharges for the pre-instrumental period of 1118-1824 based on documentary sources were carried out using different approaches. 187 flood peak discharges derived for the pre-instrumental period augmented 150 records for the instrumental period of 1825-2013. Flood selection was based on Q10 criteria. Six flood-rich periods in total were identified for 1118-2013. Results of this study correspond with similar studies published earlier for some central European catchments, except for the period around 1750. Presented results indicate that the territory of the present Czech Republic might have experienced extreme floods in the past, comparable - with regard to peak discharge (higher than or equal to Q10) and frequency - to the flood events recorded recently.

  17. [Czech paediatric cardiac surgery - history and presence].

    PubMed

    Hučín, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    The beginnings of the Paediatric Cardiac Surgery in the Czech Republic date back to the period immediately after the end of World War II. Its protagonists were Prof. Emerich Polák from the Surgical Clinic in Prague, Vinohrady, Prof. Jan Bedrna from Surgical Clinic in Hradec Kralove, Prof. Vladislav Rapant from Surgical Clinic in Olomouc and Prof. Václav Kafka from the Second Surgical Clinic in Prague. They started with operations of the patent ductus arteriosus, the Blalock-Taussig shunt in cyanotic heart defects and resection of coarctation of the aorta. Operations of congenital heart defects, on the open heart were elaborated namely by cardiosurgeons in Brno, under the leadership of Professor Jan Navrátil. On the extension of those methods participated Professor Jaroslav Procházka in Hradec Kralove and Prof. Václav Kafka at the newly opened department of Paediatric surgery in Prague. In the next period, attention of paediatric cardiac surgery was directed at operations of critical congenital heart defects in the smallest children. Palliative operations of the critical heart defects in newborns and infants were first introduced at the clinic of paediatric surgery of the Paediatric University Hospital in Prague. Radical operations of infants and newborns with extra-corporal circulation were elaborated in the Children's heart centre in Prague, Motol. Initiative in the further development of paediatric cardiac surgery was taken over by the Children's heart centre in Prague since its founding in 1977. There was concentrated all medical care of children born with a congenital heart defect in the Czech Republic. This concentration of specialized care at one institution allowed to accumulate extremely large experience with the diagnostics and surgical treatment of congenital heart defects in all age groups with the decrease of patients mortality after operations to 1% even for the smallest children and enabled continuously monitor the quality of life of patients

  18. Medical decision support and medical informatics education: roots, methods and applications in czechoslovakia and the czech republic.

    PubMed

    Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the history of medical informatics in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. It focuses on the topics of medical informatics education and decision support methods and systems. Several conferences held in Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic organized in cooperation with IMIA or EFMI are described. Support of European Union and Czech agencies in several European and national projects focused on medical informatics topics highly contributed to medical informatics development in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic and to the establishment of the European Center for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology as the joint workplace of Charles University in Prague and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1994.

  19. 30th anniversary of the 1967 Abortion Act. UK news.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th anniversary of the 1967 Abortion Act, October 27, 1997, Lord David Steel of Aikwood KBE, architect of the Act, reminded people that whatever one thinks about abortion, if it is going to happen, it's better that it be safe and legal than illegal and dangerous. The event received extensive coverage by the press and broadcast media which mostly discussed abortion as a necessary and legitimate part of reproductive health care, rather than as a controversial moral issue. Many of the articles and broadcasts were based upon material from two pro-choice books published to mark the anniversary: "Voices for Change" (by the National Abortion Campaign and Marie Stopes International) and "Abortion Law Reformers: Pioneers of Change" (by Birth Control Trust). One Parliamentary Early Day Motion (EDM) commemorated the Act and its benefits for women, while another called for the Act to be liberalized and extended to Northern Ireland. The anti-choice lobby argues that Britain has elected the most pro-choice parliament in its history. The major UK anti-choice groups had little public impact, with the Catholic Church voicing the most significant opposition to legal abortion. PMID:12321441

  20. Calibration of historical geomagnetic observations from Prague-Klementinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejda, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The long tradition of geomagnetic observations on the Czech territory dates back to 1839, when regular observations were started by Karl Kreil at the Astronomical Observatory Prague-Klementinum. Observations were carried out manually, at the beginning more than ten times per day and the frequency later decreased to 5 daily observations. Around the turn of century the observations became to be disturbed by the increasing urban magnetic noise and the observatory was closed down in 1926. The variation measurements were completed by absolute measurements carried out several times per year. Thanks to the diligence and carefulness of Karl Kreil and his followers all results were printed in the yearbooks Magnetische und meteorologische Beobachtungen zu Prag and have thus been saved until presence. The entire collection is kept at the Central Library of the Czech Academy of Sciences. As the oldest geomagnetic data have been recently recognized as an important source of information for Space Weather studies, digitization and analysis of the data have been now started. Although all volumes have been scanned with the OCR option, the low quality of original books does not allow for an automatic transformation to digital form. The data were typed by hand to Excel files with a primary check and further processed. Variation data from 1839 to 1871 were published in measured units (scales of divisions). Their reduction to physical units was not as straight forward as we are used in recent observatories. There were several reasons: (i) the large heavy magnetic rods were not as stable as recent systems, (ii) the absolute measurements of horizontal components were carried out by the genius but rather complicated Gauss method, (iii) the intervals between absolute measurements was on the scale of months and eventual errors were not recognized timely. The presentation will discuss several methods and give examples how to cope with the problem.

  1. The National Technical Museum in Prague.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the National Technical Museum in Prague. Museum holdings include 60,000 items, a vast amount of archived materials, and some 250,000 books that are used by research historians, modern industry, and polytechnic schools as well as the general public. (SAH)

  2. The 30th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek; Mahbub, Selim; Matevosyan, Hrayr; Thomas, Anthony; Williams, Anthony; Young, Ross; Zanotti, James

    Lattice 2012, the 30th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory was held in Cairns, Australia from Sunday the 24th of June to Friday the 29th June 2012. It was held at the Cairns Convention Centre, providing world-class facilities in a beautiful location. Fine weather and easy access to world heritage attractions including the Great Barrier Reef and the Wet Tropics Rainforests made for an extraordinary experience. The conference was organised by the Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM) in the School of Chemistry & Physics at the University of Adelaide. More than 285 participants from around the world attended the symposium. The scientific program contained 22 plenary talks and 248 parallel contributions including posters. Most of these are recorded in this proceedings. For 30 years, the Lattice meeting has provided researchers from around the world with an annual forum at which to disseminate and discuss ideas, developments and opportunities in the study of relativistic quantum fields regulated on a spacetime lattice. It fosters the exchange of ideas, networking, and builds relationships between researchers that are essential in facilitating rapid progress and the creation of new knowledge. The program included plenary talks, parallel talks and poster presentations on Algorithms and machines, Applications beyond QCD, Chiral symmetry, Hadron spectroscopy and interactions, Hadron structure, Nonzero temperature and density, Standard model parameters and renormalization, Theoretical developments, Vacuum structure and confinement and Weak decays and matrix elements. The International Advisory Committee provided excellent guidance in planning the scientific program of the conference and we thank the Committee for their important contributions. Thanks also to our presenters for the time and effort they put into preparing their talks and their proceedings. Many thanks to our Conference Secretariat, Sharon Johnson, Silvana Santucci

  3. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    challenging research domains in condensed form. The diversity of the different topics is especially impressive. The 25th anniversary of Inverse Problems was celebrated with a service to the community, the publication of an issue of topical reviews selected by board members, which presented the achievements and state-of-the-art of the field. The 30th birthday of the journal is now approaching and we found it appropriate to include in the celebration the scientific community that supports the journal by their submissions. A conference, IPTA 2014: Inverse Problems - From Theory to Application (http://ipta2014.iopconfs.org/home), will be held in the home town of our publisher, IOP Publishing, in Bristol on 26-28 August 2014. The conference brings together top researchers, both from academia and industry, and will look at the scientific future of the field. Presentations by keynote speakers, which summarize what the board considers to be new trends, are complemented by contributions submitted by specialists and younger researchers in several minisymposia. To build a bridge to the future generation of researchers, a scientist at the beginning of their career will be giving a lecture. Let me finish with cordial thanks to all of our authors, referees, the members of the Editorial Board and International Advisory Panel, and the publishing team. I wish all of you a successful and healthy New Year and hope to meet many of you in August in Bristol. References [1] Sabatier P C 2012 Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse (Paris: L'Harmattan)

  4. 10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Key moments in the history of czech psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Baudis, P; Raboch, J

    2003-06-01

    1783 - The Austrian Emperor Joseph II. established a department for mentally ill priests in the hospital of the Merciful Brothers in Prague. 1790 - Based on the Emperors decision, a new hospital was opened in Prague. A new two-storey building was used exclusively for treatment of the mentally ill patients. 1821 - Lectures about insanity were opened at Prague University. 1844 - A New house (nowadays a psychiatric University department) was established. Building of psychiatric hospitals: 1863 Brno-Cernovice, 1870 Kosmonosy, 1880 Dobrany, 1887 Oparany, 1889 Opava, 1890 Horní Berkovice, 1892 Sternberk, 1906 Kromeríz, 1902 Jihlava, 1908 Praha-Bohnice. 1904 - A Journal, later called Czechoslovak Psychiatry was founded. 1919 - The Czech, later the Czechoslovak and latest the Czech Psychiatric Society were established. 1955 - Specialization for psychiatry. 1956 - Separation psychiatry and neurology. Progress in the out-patient care from 1, 0 psychiatrist per 100.000 inhabitants (1963) to 4, 5 (1995). Form 1989 accent on human and patient's rights and ethical principles, end of abuse of psychiatry. 1993 - First community based-services.

  9. Charging systems for municipal solid waste: experience from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Petr; Parízková, Libuse; Hadrabová, Alena

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents results of research into municipal waste treatment in the Czech Republic. Its special focus is on the impacts of various municipal solid waste charging systems on separating and recycling efforts of municipalities and households. The municipal solid waste charging systems are shortly described first, including the principles of the relevant Czech legislation. It shows that the Czech waste legislation provides space for implementing Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) models in the Czech Republic. The main results of representative surveys conducted by the authors within the EU PAYT project in 2003 in selected Czech municipalities and Prague households are shown. The survey confirmed that in municipalities that apply the PAYT charging system, citizens separate more waste and produce less residual waste. The survey data analysis has also shown which factors contributing to satisfactory waste separation are relevant and should be taken into the account when providing policy recommendations for introducing PAYT charging systems in other cities. PMID:18804364

  10. Prague, NATO, and European security. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.

    1996-04-17

    One of the fundamental issues in European security is NATO expansion. This study examines the Czech Republic`s reasons for wanting to join NATO as well as its overall security policy in Europe. Because the Czech Republic is one of the premier candidates for NATO entry, understanding its motives and aspirations is important as a guide to promoting a better grasp of security issues in Central and Eastern Europe and to facilitating an improved understanding of the context in which NATO expansion will take place.

  11. Climatology of low-level temperature inversions at the Prague-Libuš aerological station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryhal, Jan; Huth, Radan; Sládek, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Temperature inversions (TIs) have been closely studied for a variety of reasons. Here, we present an analysis of low-level TIs, based on a dataset of atmospheric soundings from the aerological station at Prague-Libuš (Czech Republic). Measurements have been carried out here since 1974, at the four main synoptic hours. First, the homogeneity of both the radiosonde data and sounding-derived time series was investigated. Since the homogeneity of the derived time series was affected by changes in the observation routine, only the period of 1992-2012 was further analysed. Second, diurnal and annual regimes of surface-based (SBTIs) and elevated (ETIs) temperature inversions were described. Maximum frequency of the SBTIs occurred at 00 UTC and in September and October. During autumn, persistent SBTIs also often occurred, which could be linked to decreased cyclonicity. Third, changes in TIs were evaluated, and the strongest trends were compared with the nearby station at Kümmersbruck (Germany). In all seasons except spring, nocturnal SBTIs decreased almost identically at both stations. Morning SBTIs decreased as well; however, the trend was considerably stronger at Prague; and it was also mirrored by an increase in ETIs. Since only a part of these trends could be explained by changes in the large-scale circulation, other factors (low tropospheric warming, suburbanisation) are hypothesized to have affected the trends.

  12. [Anatomic illustration and its authors at the Medical School in Prague].

    PubMed

    Grim, M

    1999-01-01

    This article is a longer version of the introductory address opening the exhibition of anatomical illustration in the Academic Club of First Medical Faculty of Charles University in May 1999. The history of anatomical illustration, its significance and its two main forms, scientific drawing and didactical illustration, are shortly introduced. The development of this form of art at the Medical Faculty in Prague is shown and is demonstrated by examples of illustrations. Two old authors of illustrations are mentioned: an unknown author of illustrations of the first illustrated textbook of anatomy in Prague that was written by Ch. S. a Zeidlern, and F. Bĕlopotocký who illustrated the Atlas of Anatomy by W. Stanĕk written in Czech in 1840. In more detail are discussed the following artists and anatomical illustrators of 20th century connected with the Institute of Anatomy of Charles University: J. Rejsek, E. Illing, S. Machácek, M. Med, V. Seichert, I. Helekal a J. Kacvinský.

  13. Performance intensification of Prague wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Novák, L; Havrlíková, D

    2004-01-01

    Prague wastewater treatment plant was intensified during 1994--1997 by construction of new regeneration tank and four new secondary settling tanks. Nevertheless, more stringent effluent limits and operational problems gave rise to necessity for further intensification and optimisation of plant performance. This paper describes principal operational problems of the plant and shows solutions and achieved results that have lead to plant performance stabilisation. The following items are discussed: low nitrification capacity, nitrification bioaugmentation, activated sludge bulking, insufficient sludge disposal capacity, chemical precipitation of raw wastewater, simultaneous precipitation, sludge chlorination, installation of denitrification zones, sludge rising in secondary settling tanks due to denitrification, dosage of cationic polymeric organic flocculant to secondary settling tanks, thermophilic operation of digestors, surplus activated sludge pre-thickening, mathematical modelling.

  14. A comparison of male sex workers in Prague: Internet escorts versus men who work in specialized bars and clubs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Johnson, Michael David; Weiss, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Prague, the Czech Republic, is a popular sex tourism destination where sex work is decriminalized and young men offer sexual services at low prices relative to countries in Western Europe. This quantitative survey aimed to identify some of the demographic characteristics of these young men and their experiences in the sex industry. Internet escorts (N = 20) and sex workers in bars and clubs (N = 20) completed the survey anonymously in spring 2011. The results showed that sex workers in clubs often had troubled pasts and were forced into sex work to survive. They also reported incidents of violence, serious alcohol and drug use, as well as frequent gambling. The larger group of sex workers in Prague is made up of Internet escorts who have backgrounds that are not atypical for the average Czech youth. They had fewer problems with drugs and alcohol but were twice as likely as sex workers in bars and clubs to be victims of violent crime. Plans for interventions to help those who would change their line of work, as well as the importance of sociocultural context in understanding sex workers, are discussed.

  15. 14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. ATLAS VEHICLE BEING PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3E. NOTE EXTERNAL SHEATHING AND CUPOLA ON MOBILE SERVICE TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. THRUST AUGMENTED THOR PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3W. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. LAUNCH OF AN ATLAS FROM SLC-3. MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST) IN PARKED POSITION. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  19. Urban Air Quality Modelling with AURORA: Prague and Bratislava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldeman, N.; Viaene, P.; De Ridder, K.; Peelaerts, W.; Lauwaet, D.; Muhammad, N.; Blyth, L.

    2012-04-01

    The European Commission, in its strategy to protect the health of the European citizens, states that in order to assess the impact of air pollution on public health, information on long-term exposure to air pollution should be available. Currently, indicators of air quality are often being generated using measured pollutant concentrations. While air quality monitoring stations data provide accurate time series information at specific locations, air quality models have the advantage of being able to assess the spatial variability of air quality (for different resolutions) and predict air quality in the future based on different scenarios. When running such air quality models at a high spatial and temporal resolution, one can simulate the actual situation as closely as possible, allowing for a detailed assessment of the risk of exposure to citizens from different pollutants. AURORA (Air quality modelling in Urban Regions using an Optimal Resolution Approach), a prognostic 3-dimensional Eulerian chemistry-transport model, is designed to simulate urban- to regional-scale atmospheric pollutant concentration and exposure fields. The AURORA model also allows to calculate the impact of changes in land use (e.g. planting of trees) or of emission reduction scenario's on air quality. AURORA is currently being applied within the ESA atmospheric GMES service, PASODOBLE (http://www.myair-eu.org), that delivers information on air quality, greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone, … At present there are two operational AURORA services within PASODOBLE. Within the "Air quality forecast service" VITO delivers daily air quality forecasts for Belgium at a resolution of 5 km and for the major Belgian cities: Brussels, Ghent, Antwerp, Liege and Charleroi. Furthermore forecast services are provided for Prague, Czech Republic and Bratislava, Slovakia, both at a resolution of 1 km. The "Urban/regional air quality assessment service" provides urban- and regional-scale maps (hourly resolution

  20. LPHYS'13: 22nd International Laser Physics Workshop (Prague, 15-19 July 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyev, Alexander V.

    2013-04-01

    The 22nd annual International Laser Physics Workshop (LPHYS'13) will be held from 15-19 July 2013 in the city of Prague, Czech Republic, at the Hotel Krystal and Czech Technical University hosted this year by the Institute of Physics ASCR and Czech Technical University in Prague. LPHYS'13 continues a series of workshops that took place in Dubna, 1992; Dubna/Volga river tour, 1993; New York, 1994; Moscow/Volga river tour (jointly with NATO SILAP Workshop), 1995; Moscow, 1996; Prague, 1997; Berlin, 1998; Budapest, 1999; Bordeaux, 2000; Moscow, 2001; Bratislava, 2002; Hamburg, 2003; Trieste, 2004; Kyoto, 2005; Lausanne, 2006; León, 2007; Trondheim, 2008; Barcelona, 2009; Foz do Iguaçu, 2010; Sarajevo, 2011; and Calgary, 2012. The total number of participants this year is expected to be about 400. In the past, annual participation was typically from over 30 countries. 2013 Chairmen: Miroslav Jelinek (Czech Republic) and Pavel P Pashinin (Russia) LPHYS'13 will offer eight scientific section seminars and one general symposium: Seminar 1 Modern Trends in Laser Physics Seminar 2 Strong Field & Attosecond Physics Seminar 3 Biophotonics Seminar 4 Physics of Lasers Seminar 5 Nonlinear Optics & Spectroscopy Seminar 6 Physics of Cold Trapped Atoms Seminar 7 Quantum Information Science Seminar 8 Fiber Optics Symposium Extreme Light Technologies, Science and Applications Abstract of your presentation A one-page abstract should contain: title; list of all co-authors (the name of the speaker underlined); affiliations; correspondence addresses including phone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses; and the text of the abstract. Abstracts should be sent to the following co-chairs of the scientific seminars and the symposium: Kirill A Prokhorov (Seminar 1) E-mail: cyrpro@gpi.ru Mikhail V Fedorov (Seminar 2) E-mail: fedorov@ran.gpi.ru Sergey A Gonchukov (Seminar 3) E-mail: gonchukov@mephi.ru Ivan A Shcherbakov (Seminar 4) E-mail: gbufetova@lsk.gpi.ru Vladimir A Makarov (Seminar 5) E

  1. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2012-09-01

    Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the three industrial cities in the Czech Republic, Ostrava, Karvina and Havirov, while the city of Prague served as a control in a large-scale molecular epidemiological study identifying the impacts of air pollution on human health. Office workers from Ostrava and city policemen from Karvina, Havirov and Prague were monitored in the winter and summer of 2009. Only adult non-smokers participated in the study (N=160). Radiello-diffusive passive samplers were used to measure the exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, meta- plus para-xylene and ortho-xylene (BTEX). All participants completed a personal questionnaire and a time-location-activity diary (TLAD). The average personal BTEX exposure levels in both seasons were 7.2/34.3/4.4/16.1 μg/m(3), respectively. The benzene levels were highest in winter in Karvina, Ostrava and Prague: 8.5, 7.2 and 5.3 μg/m(3), respectively. The personal exposures to BTEX were higher than the corresponding stationary monitoring levels detected in the individual localities (P<0.001; except m,p-xylene in summer). The indoor environment, ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), cooking, a home-heating fireplace or gas stove, automobile use and being in a restaurant were important predictors for benzene personal exposure. Ostrava's outdoor benzene pollution was a significant factor increasing the exposure of the Ostrava study participants in winter (P<0.05).

  2. [The origins of the Czech Society of Cardiology and of Czech cardiology].

    PubMed

    Widimský, J

    2013-06-01

    The paper presents the origins of the Czech Society of Cardiology on the one hand, and the origins of Czech cardiology on the other. The Czech Society of Cardiology is the third oldest in the world (after the American and German Societies). It was founded in 1929 by Prof. Libenský. As early as in 1933, the Society organised the first international congress of cardiologists in Prague, which was attended by 200 doctors, out of which 50 were from abroad. The most participants came from France and Poland. Other participants came from England, Argentina, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Romania, Spain and Switzerland. The worldwide importance of this congress is apparent from the fact that both the World Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology (EKS) were founded after World War II in the years 1950 and 1952, i.e. almost 20 years after the first international congress of cardiology in Prague. In 1964, the Fourth Congress of European Society of Cardiology was held in Prague with the participation of 1,500 specialists from 31 countries and chaired by Prof. Pavel Lukl, the later president of EKS (1964- 1968). The paper also presents the work of our specialists in WHO and the history of the international journal Cor et Vasa issued by the Avicenum publishing house in Prague in English and Russian in the years 1958- 1992. An important role in the development of our cardiology was played by certain departments and clinics. In 1951, the Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ÚCHOK) was founded in PrahaKrč, thanks to the initiative of MU Dr. František Kriegl, the Deputy Minister of Health. Its first director was Klement Weber, who published, as early as in 1929, a monograph on arrhythmias -  50 years earlier than arrhythmias started to be at the centre of attention of cardiologists. Klement Weber was one of the doctors of President T. G. Masaryk during his serious disease towards the end of his life. Jan Brod was the deputy of Klement Weber in the

  3. Meteoritical Society Annual Meeting, 57th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 25-29, 1994. [Abstracts only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Ranging in size from mere grains and palm-size stones to boulders and many-mile- wide hunks of rock, meteorites hold many secrets of our solar system, and indeed of our universe. The 57th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society discussed many aspects of this fascinating 'chunk' of the evolution of the Solar System. Topics covered included: chemical composition, meteorite types, meteorite age determination, meteorite origins, and find locations, as well as a multitude of other important subjects.

  4. (PRAGUE)BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biomarkers in the Teplice Program, provided a key tool to relate health outcomes to individual personal exposures and to provide measures of confounding exposures. This research program on the health effects of air pollution studied a population living in the heavil...

  5. JANNAF 30th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Meeting. Volume I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. L. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 30th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee Meeting, held on 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The papers presented herein reflect work performed in the areas of green energetic materials (GEM) development; liquid and gel propellant development; propellant surveillance and aging; and propellant chemistry test methods.

  6. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

    2003-04-01

    The floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic were caused by very intensive and large-scale rainfall that hit mainly the southern and western part of the country. There were two following rainfall events, the first on the {6th} and {7th} August and the second on the {11th} and {12th} August. The total sum of areal rainfall was 150 to 200 mm; in mountain areas more than 250 mm and in some localities even more than 300 mm. Such large-scale rainfall amounts are extraordinary for Czech conditions. The first wave of rainfall caused floods in the majority of rivers. There were 10 to 20 year floods, exceptionally 100-year (and more) floods on rivers in the southern and western part of the country. When the second wave of rainfall followed the first one, rivers were already full of water and soils were saturated: therefore the runoff response was rapid and massive. Water levels in all rivers rose very quickly again and they reached their historical maxima in many places. Peak discharges in most streams reached or exceeded a 100-year flood and in some rivers a 1000-year flood. The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, is situated at the confluence of two rivers, the Moldau and the Berounka (left hand tributary of the Moldau). The flow in the Moldau River can be partly controlled by operation of many reservoirs in the upstream reaches of the river (the Moldau cascade), the flow in Berounka is not influenced. During the first flood event the major part of the wave was retained by the reservoirs and the discharge in Prague was reduced. During the second event the inflow into the reservoir system was so high that reservoirs were filled before the peak occurred. The peak flow from the Berounka River coincided with the maximum outflow from the Moldau. As a consequence, on 14th August the peak discharge in Prague was about 5200 {m3/s} (the long-term mean discharge is 150 {m3/s}) and is preliminarily judged to be a 500-year flood. The influence of the Moldau cascade on the

  7. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting held 1-3 December 1998 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel at Reston Town Center, Reston, Virginia. Papers are in the following categories: 1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based atomic frequency standards, and in trapped-ion and space clock technology; 2) National and international applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on GPS and GLONASS timing, atomic time scales, and telecommunications; 3) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military navigation and communication systems; geodesy; aviation; and pulsars; and 4) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, geosynchronous communication satellites, computer networks, WAAS, and LORAN.

  8. Proceedings of the X-15 First Flight 30th Anniversary Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technical symposium and pilot's panel discussion were held on June 8, 1989, to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the first free flight of the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, manufacturing, and flight research program activities. The X-15's technical contributions to the X-30 are cited. The panel discussion participants included seven of the eight surviving research pilots who flew the X-15 experimental aircraft to world altitude and speed records which still stand. Pilot's remarks include descriptions of their most memorable X-15 flight experience. The report also includes a historical perspective of the X-15.

  9. Johannes Kepler in Prague - and a new museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim, R.

    2010-06-01

    Four centuries ago in 1610, the Kepler family were living in their last place of residence in Prague, in a house in a courtyard off Karlova Street (Karlova ulice), very close to the east end of Charles Bridge (Karluv most). The house is No.188, U Francouzske koruny (French Crown House), and has a passage through to Anenska Street. Kepler spent 12 years in the city, publishing his most important works including Astronomia Nova.

  10. [Physical activity centre VSTJ MEDICINA Prague--rehabilitation for diabetics].

    PubMed

    Fábin, P; Matoulek, M

    2007-05-01

    Physical activity is the basic non-pharmacological instrument in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, only a small number of diabetics take regular physical exercise. One of the reasons why diabetics "do not exercise" is that they have little opportunity to try physical stress under expert supervision and to get to know its effects on, for example, sugar levels. It is a very complex matter to define the optimal intensity of physical activity of, for example, a diabetic who suffers from obesity. In 2001 VSTJ MEDICINA Prague opened its first physical activity centre at the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, in cooperation with the Third Internal Clinic and the Institute of Sports Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It now has over 2000 members, of whom around 60% are patients with metabolic syndrome. Over 150 patients exercise every day under the supervision of expert instructors. The main objective of the Physical Activity Centre is to teach patients the correct principles of physical exercise to enable them to continue carrying out their trainers' instructions at home. A correct understanding of the importance of physical exercise and practical experience under the supervision of experienced instructors improves compliance and has a strong effect on the compensation of diabetes, thereby improving the prognoses of these patients.

  11. Experience with banked skin in the Prague Burn Center.

    PubMed

    Broz, L; Vogtová, D; Königová, R

    1999-01-01

    Despite progress in materials science, the use of human allografts and xenografts of pig origin is in the Prague Burn Center among the preferred means of temporary burn wound cover since 1973. True closure is achieved only with living autografts or isografts (identical twins). The method for preparing fresh porcine grafts was introduced in Prague 25 years ago: dermoepidermal sheets are retrieved in strips, are treated with a lavage of chemotherapeutics and antibiotics, are spread onto sterile wet gauze and stored in Pétri dishes at 4 degrees centigrade in a refrigerator. Cellular viability is maintained for 10-14 days when transferred to patients. The Prague Skin Bank commenced its activity in 1986. The Protocol for the cryopreservation of skin was established: the pretreated skin is kept in aluminium vessels in containers with vapours of liquid nitrogen. Cryoprotective Medium is used with 15% glycerol. The skin viability has been verified by investigation of glucose metabolism. The production of fresh and long-term stored viable skin grafts has been increasing continuously and at present, the production represents 2 million square centimeters per year. About 15% of the harvest is distributed to other surgical and trauma departments. Any burn wound dressing may fail due to a failure to use them properly-lack of attention to the details in burn wound care can lead to disappointment.

  12. [Alfred Kohn, professor of histology at German University in Prague].

    PubMed

    Nanka, O; Grim, M

    2008-01-01

    Prof. Kohn (1867-1959) was the head of the Institute of Histology at the Medical Faculty of German University in Prague for 26 years. In 2007 we commemorated his 140th birthday, and 2009 we will remember the 50th anniversary of his death. He entered the history of medicine by discovery of nature and origin of parathyroid glands and by pioneer research into chromaffin cells and sympathetic paraganglia. Kohn's papers on the pituitary, interstitial cells of testes, and ovaries are also related to endocrinology. All his studies are based on descriptive and comparative histological and embryological observations. Kohn was twice the dean of German Medical Faculty, and a member or honorary member of many important scientific societies. He was repeatedly nominated for Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine. For his Jewish origin he was expelled from Deutsche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und Künste für die Tschechoslowakische Republik in 1939 and transported to Terezin ghetto in 1943. After the war he lived in Prague. On the occasion of his 90th birthday he was elected honorary president of Anatomische Gesellschaft and awarded by the Czechoslovak Order of Labour. Alfred Kohn died in 1959. He was one of the outstanding personalities that Prague gave to the world of science.

  13. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. 30th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act," 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This is the 30th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2008. Section 664(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as reauthorized in 2004, requires that the Department of Education report annually on the progress made toward the provision of a free appropriate…

  15. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  16. A Report on the 30th Annual Conference of the International Association of Scientific and Technological University Libraries (IATUL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Manorama

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report on the 30th IATUL Annual Conference held in Leuven, Belgium, 1-4 June, 2009. Design/methodology/approach: The paper summarises the major themes of the conference as well as giving some specific details of developments at the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India, which supplement the author's…

  17. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloupka, Petr; Jakl, Pavel; Kapitán, Jan; Zerola, Michal; Lauret, Jérôme; STAR Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations' experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called "Golias". It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  18. What Mathematics Is Hidden Behind the Astronomical Clock of Prague?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.; Somer, L.

    2006-08-01

    The mathematical model of the astronomical clock of Prague was developed by the professor of Prague University, Joannes Andreae, called Sindel. It was realized by Mikulas from Kadan around 1410. Over the centuries its construction has been renovated several times. The ingenuity of clockmakers of that time can be demonstrated by the following construction. The astronomical clock of Prague contains a large gear with 24 slots at increasing distances along its circumference. This arrangement allows for a periodic repetition of 1-24 strokes of the bell each day. There is also a small auxiliary gear whose circumference is divided by 6 slots into segments of arc lengths 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2. These numbers form a period which repeats after each revolution and their sum is s = 15. At the beginning of every hour a catch rises, both gears start to revolve and the bell chimes. The gears stop when the catch simultaneously falls back into the slots on both gears. The bell strikes 1 + 2 + ... + 24 = 300 times every day. Since this number is divisible by s = 15, the small gear is always at the same position at the beginning of each day. The large gear has 120 interior teeth which drop into a pin gear with 6 little horizontal bars that surround the centre of the small gear. The large gear revolves one time per day and therefore, the small gear revolves 20 times per day with approximately 4 times greater circumferential speed, since its circumference is 5 times smaller. This makes the regulation of strokes sufficiently precise despite the wearing out of the slots on the large gear. When the small gear revolves it generates by means of its slots a periodic sequence whose particular sums correspond to the number of strokes of the bell at each hour: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 3 + 2, 6 = 1 + 2 + 3, 7 = 4 + 3, 8 = 2 + 1 + 2 + 3, 9 = 4 + 3 + 2, ... We show that we could continue in this way until infinity. However, not all periodic sequences have such a nice summation property. The astronomical clock of

  19. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  20. Cestina pro Pokrocile (Intermediate Czech).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Grazyna; And Others

    The textbook in intermediate Czech is designed for second-year students of the language and those who already have a basic knowledge of Czech grammar and vocabulary. It is appropriate for use in a traditional college language classroom, the business community, or a government language school. It can be covered in a year-long conventional…

  1. Time-Site Survey of Substance Use, Sexual Behaviours and Hiv-Testing Practices Among Women Attending Social Venues in Prague

    PubMed Central

    Stemmler, M. Susan; Hall, Timothy M.; Prokopík, Petr; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim The rates of HIV acquired through heterosexual contact are increasing in the Czech Republic. This study explored potential HIV risk associations with alcohol, illicit drugs and sexual behaviours among adults from a community-based sample attending gay- and non-gay venues in Prague. Methods Women attending bars, cafes and beer gardens in central Prague responded to the self-administered, time-site survey. Alcohol use was measured by the AUDIT-C and CAGE questionnaires. Sexual network structuring identified number, gender and coital frequency with current and recent sexual partners. Statistical analysis included central tendency, chi-square and logistic regression. Female participants (n = 124) ranged from 18 to 67 years of age (mean 29 years); 25% self-identified as non-heterosexual. Results We found alcohol to be the preferred drug of choice. Younger heterosexual women with new and casual sexual partners were more likely to use alcohol excessively. Women with children reported the least alcohol use. Sixty percent of the sample had never used condoms; condom-use was associated with longer relationship duration and discussions about HIV status with a sexual partner; non-use tended to occur among unmarried women with multiple male partners in short, serial sexual relationships. Women who sought HIV testing tended to be younger and more self-identified as non-heterosexual. Protective practices were rarely reported even when HIV transmission increases via heterosexual sexual partnering. Conclusion Further research is recommended regarding cultural and contextual influences on HIV risk behaviours among Czech women. PMID:26851424

  2. The tornado history of the Czech Lands, AD 1119-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Dobrovolný, Petr; Černoch, Zbyněk

    2012-11-01

    Documentary evidence is employed to present the history of tornadoes in the Czech Lands (recently Czech Republic) in AD 1119-2010. Based on contemporaneous descriptions of events, tornadoes are categorised as proven or probable. They are analysed collectively in terms of their spatio-temporal changes, annual variation, specific features, and impacts according to the Enhanced Fujita (EF) scale. The first documented tornado, on 30 July 1119, did great damage to Vyšehrad Castle in Prague (EF3). Only three other tornadoes were recorded before AD 1500. In the following three centuries, the number fluctuated between 11 and 16 events per century. Documented tornado frequency increased significantly from the 19th century onwards, reaching peaks in 1931-1940 (44 tornadoes) and particularly in 2001-2010 (56 tornadoes); this rise, however, reflects the availability of relevant sources as well as increased social awareness and advances in communication technology. A total of 264 tornado days and 307 tornadoes were documented for the Czech Lands in 1119-2010. Although they are relatively homogeneously extended over the territory of the Czech Republic, tornadoes tend to occur more frequently at lower and medium altitudes. The highest frequency of tornadoes is recorded for the summer half-year (mainly from June to August), although they may develop between March and October. Probable tornadoes have also been recorded in the winter months. The strongest tornadoes in the Czech Lands may be classified as EF3, largely with significant damage to buildings and trees, but 13 related deaths have also been recorded. The paper presents not only a new chronology and climatology for Czech tornadoes but is also an important contribution to the study of tornadoes in Europe.

  3. PREFACE: 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lebedev, S.

    2003-12-01

    The 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics took place in St Petersburg, Russian Federation, on 7th--11th July 2003. It was jointly organized by the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, the St Petersburg State Polytechnical University and Technical University Applied Physics Ltd, on behalf of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society (EPS). The members of the local organizing committee were drawn from these institutions: B Kuteev, Chair, Polytechnical University S Lebedev, Vice-Chair, Ioffe Institute A Lebedev, Scientific Secretary, Ioffe Institute V Bakharev, TUAP Ltd V Grigor'yants, Ioffe Institute V Sergeev, Polytechnical University N Zhubr, Ioffe Institute Over the years, the annual conference of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society has widened its scope. Contributions to the present conference covered widely diversified fields of plasma physics, ranging from magnetic and inertial fusion to low temperature plasmas. Plasma sizes under investigation ranged from tiny to astronomical. The topics covered during the conference were distributed over the following categories: tokamaks, stellarators, high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement, alternative magnetic confinement, plasma edge physics, plasma heating and current drive, diagnostics, basic plasma physics, astrophysical and geophysical plasmas and low temperature plasmas. The scientific programme and paper selection were the responsibility of the Programme Committee appointed by the Board of the EPS Plasma Physics Division. The committee was composed of: R Koch, Chairman, ERM/KMS Brussels, Belgium E Ascasibar, CIEMAT Madrid, Spain S Atzeni, Università di Roma, Italy G Bonhomme, LPMI Nancy, France C Chiuderi, Università di Firenze, Italy B Kuteev, St Petersburg State Polytechnical,University, Russian Federation M Mauel, Contact person APS-DPP, Columbia University New York, USA R A Pitts, EPFL/CRPP Lausanne, Switzerland R Salomaa

  4. [Professor J.Hall's merit on the development of Prague Medical Faculty].

    PubMed

    Hlaváčková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Hall was a remarkable personality among professors in Prague Medical Faculty. He was an extremely capable organizer and founder of the successful institutions that made Prague Medical Faculty famous. In 1844 he founded the University Journal, in 1845 he initiated the establishment of a laboratory for chemical and clinical examination in the general hospital, in 1847 he opened the University outpatient clinic, the first in the Austrian monarchy. He was an excellent teacher; however, his publications activity was small. Professor Hall belongs to the principal representatives of the so-called Prague Medical School.

  5. [Professor J.Hall's merit on the development of Prague Medical Faculty].

    PubMed

    Hlaváčková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Hall was a remarkable personality among professors in Prague Medical Faculty. He was an extremely capable organizer and founder of the successful institutions that made Prague Medical Faculty famous. In 1844 he founded the University Journal, in 1845 he initiated the establishment of a laboratory for chemical and clinical examination in the general hospital, in 1847 he opened the University outpatient clinic, the first in the Austrian monarchy. He was an excellent teacher; however, his publications activity was small. Professor Hall belongs to the principal representatives of the so-called Prague Medical School. PMID:26311031

  6. Bibliotheca Tychoniana - books from Tycho Brahe's possession in the National Library of the Czech Republic in Prague Clementinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, Martin

    About 110 printed texts and 5 manuscripts collected in 52 bands, originally from the private library of Tycho Brahe, are preserved in Clementinum library. The titles show a wide spectrum of interests of Tycho, except of astronomy also medicine, ancient literature, geography, linguistics etc. are represented. Some books are in original leather bindings. Two books of Tycho are in other libraries - in the Saxonian Landesbibliothek in Dresden and at Bohemian castle Mnichovo Hradiste. The history of Tycho's books is briefly reviewed.

  7. Comparison of SSC and epidemiological approaches to evaluating links between heat stress and mortality in Prague, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Reduced numbers of deaths during heat waves related to introduction of heat early warning systems has been demonstrated in many areas of the world. These systems are most often based on synoptic or epidemiological approaches to assessing the impact of heat on mortality. While the synoptic approach is based on the classification of air masses and the subsequent identification of oppressive air masses (OAMs), the epidemiological approach identifies direct relationship between time series of mortality and meteorological data (mostly air temperature). In this study, OAMs and oppressive days (ODs) will be identified in the period May-September 1994-2013 using selected methods of the synoptic (SSC) and epidemiological approach (GAM, piecewise regression), respectively. Relations between mortality daily data (adjusted for long-term and seasonal changes) and both meteorological and non-meteorological factors (pollution, day of the season, the length of heat waves, year) within OAMs and ODs, will be identified in the "training" years. The resulting regression relationships will be tested on independent "testing" years to evaluate the ability of different approaches to predict days with increased mortality. The results of the project may help to refine the criteria for issuing biometeorological forecasts and warnings of possible adverse heat effects.

  8. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Tycho Brahe and Prague: Crossroads of European Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Christianson, J. R.; Hadravová, A.; Hadrava, P.; Solc, M.

    2003-01-01

    The 16th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of the International Symposium on the History of Science in the Rudolphine Period. The meeting was held in Prague from 22 to 25 October 2001, on the 400th anniversary of Tycho's sudden death, and was attended by approximately 65 scientists and historians. The volume contains 36 contributions dealing with the life and work of Tycho Brahe, the astronomy of the era, and many cultural aspects of Rudolphine Prague. One of the first papers is an eye-opener on the fact that Tycho Brahe was a cosmologically-driven observer. This is followed by a very illuminating paper on gender roles in science in the late 16th century, with emphasis on the role of Sophie Brahe, Tycho's youngest sister. Several subsequent papers reveal the existence of barely known links between Tycho and his contemporaneous colleagues. These extremely-well documented papers also deal with the broader philosophical investigation he was involved in, viz. meteorology, medicine, astrology, alchemy and even theology. Important names of Tycho's days are Petrus Severinus, Johannes Pratensis, Theophrastus Paracelsus, John Craig, Ursus (Nicolai Reymers Baer) etc. Very illuminating is the information on the relations between Tycho and the Jesuits in Prague, explaining the reason why this order was very supportive of the Tychonic cosmological model. The relationsship with Kepler, and also Kepler's observational activities (after Tycho's death) are highlighted as well as the hideous mode of communication between Galileo and Kepler. More than one paper deals with the accuracy and precision of Tycho's observations, and the causal impact of this accuracy on the scientific revolution. Another study discusses the study of Tycho's handwriting, this paper brings the aditional bonus of a list of accessible works which contain notes by him. One very interesting project was Brahe's proposal to the Republic of Venice to determine the exact latitudes of

  10. Implementation of the Decisions of the Prague Convention--A Case Study: Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowska-Kuszteljak, Julia; Rzycki, Jerzy

    1986-01-01

    Poland's participation in the 1972 Prague convention on the international recognition among socialist countries of secondary school diplomas, specialized secondary school credentials, higher education degrees, and higher academic titles and degrees is outlined. (MSE)

  11. Art and Relevance: The Small Theatres of Prague, 1958-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burian, Jarka M.

    1971-01-01

    A discussion of the three small theatres of Prague, the Balustrade, the Drama Club, and the Gate, and their significance as a symptom and even as a contributory cause of socio-cultural realities." (Author/DR)

  12. TerraSAR-X Staring Spotlight Monitoring of a Highway Bridge in the Czech Republic (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Halounova, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Highway bridge in the southern part of Prague, Czech republic, is the longest bridge in the Czech republic and it is architectonically unique in Europe. It was built above the valley with confluence of two big rivers, Vltava and Berounka, in an area of frequent floods. On top, there is a five-lane highway with an important, circle-shape crossroad, and both ends of the bridge end up in a tunnel. During construction, steel was partially replaced by concrete in comparison to the plan, and first cracks arose just after opening of the bridge in September 2010, and are progressively getting bigger. We try to monitor this bridge using the InSAR technique with 22 TerraSAR-X scenes, acquired in the Staring Spotlight mode with a resolution of approximately 0.3 meters during June 2014 - February 2015 (11 days interval).

  13. [Tuberculosis in the Czech Republic in 1999].

    PubMed

    Trnka, L; Danková, D; Krejbich, F; Svandová, E

    2000-11-01

    Report is given on the tuberculosis (TB) prevalence and the new diseases monitoring in Czech Republic (CR) in 1999 using the register of notifiable TB diseases. 1631 new TB cases and relapse were notified (15.9/100,000 citizens). Majority TB cases, 1369 (13.3/100,000 citizens) were of the respiratory system and 262 TB cases were in other locations. 63% of the respiratory system diseases were bacteriologically verified. In comparison with the year 1998, the number of newly notified TB patients was 9.6% lower, number of TB cases of the respiratory system which were bacteriologically verified was 12.3% lower, cases of microscopically positive TB were 17.4% less frequent. Among the notified TB patients there were 91 foreigners. TB relapse was identified in 61 patients. Among the notified TB cases, 987 (60.5%) were males and 644 (39.5%) were females. In both sexes patients over 65 predominated. Prevalence of TB cases higher than the average for the whole state was found in Prague, northern and western Bohemia. Groups with TB prevalence higher than 50/100,000 citizens were identified (the risk groups). They include homeless people, drug addicts, asylum applicants, and prisoners. Due to subjective troubles of patients TB was diagnosed in 70.2% cases, by active investigation in 13.9% patients. Late TB diagnosis at autopsy came in 6.8% cases. Decease due to TB was notified in 79 patients. In 77 of them TB had not been diagnosed premortally. 106 new cases and relapses of non-TB mycobacterial disease were notified in 1999. The case of tuberculosis in CR was in 1999 restrainable. In comparison with 1998 significant decrease of TB prevalence in individual subgroups of TB disease was described (10 to 17%). Also the decrease of the long-term trend (10 years) of newly notified TB patients and TB of the respiratory system was depicted. It is necessary to maintain the quality and extend of the TB control program in order to prevent the new outbreak of TB disease.

  14. Enabling IPv6 at FZU - WLCG Tier2 in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, Tomáš; Chudoba, Jiří; Eliáš, Marek

    2014-06-01

    The usage of the new IPv6 protocol in production is becoming reality in the HEP community and the Computing Centre of the Institute of Physics in Prague participates in many IPv6 related activities. Our contribution presents experience with monitoring in HEPiX distributed IPv6 testbed which includes 11 remote sites. We use Nagios to check availability of services and Smokeping for monitoring the network latency. Since it is not always trivial to setup DNS in a dual stack environment properly, we developed a Nagios plugin for checking whether a domain name is resolvable when using only IP protocol version 6 and only version 4. We will also present local area network monitoring and tuning related to IPv6 performance. One of the most important software for a grid site is a batch system for a job execution. We will present our experience with configuring and running Torque batch system in a dual stack environment. We also discuss the steps needed to run VO specific jobs in our IPv6 testbed.

  15. IPv6 testing and deployment at Prague Tier 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, Tomáŝ; Chudoba, Jiří; Eliáŝ, Marek; Fiala, Lukáŝ

    2012-12-01

    Computing Center of the Institute of Physics in Prague provides computing and storage resources for various HEP experiments (D0, Atlas, Alice, Auger) and currently operates more than 300 worker nodes with more than 2500 cores and provides more than 2PB of disk space. Our site is limited to one C-sized block of IPv4 addresses, and hence we had to move most of our worker nodes behind the NAT. However this solution demands more difficult routing setup. We see the IPv6 deployment as a solution that provides less routing, more switching and therefore promises higher network throughput. The administrators of the Computing Center strive to configure and install all provided services automatically. For installation tasks we use PXE and kickstart, for network configuration we use DHCP and for software configuration we use CFEngine. Many hardware boxes are configured via specific web pages or telnet/ssh protocol provided by the box itself. All our services are monitored with several tools e.g. Nagios, Munin, Ganglia. We rely heavily on the SNMP protocol for hardware health monitoring. All these installation, configuration and monitoring tools must be tested before we can switch completely to IPv6 network stack. In this contribution we present the tests we have made, limitations we have faced and configuration decisions that we have made during IPv6 testing. We also present testbed built on virtual machines that was used for all the testing and evaluation.

  16. Climatic effects and impacts of the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in the Czech Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Kotyza, Oldřich

    2016-06-01

    The eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 1815 was one of the most powerful of its kind in recorded history. This contribution addresses climatic responses to it, the post-eruption weather, and its impacts on human life in the Czech Lands. The climatic effects are evaluated in terms of air temperature and precipitation on the basis of long-term homogenised series from the Prague-Klementinum and Brno meteorological stations, and mean Czech series in the short term (1810-1820) and long term (1800-2010). This analysis is complemented by other climatic and environmental data derived from rich documentary evidence. Czech documentary sources make no direct mention of the Tambora eruption, neither do they relate any particular weather phenomena to it, but they record an extremely wet summer for 1815 and an extremely cold summer for 1816 (the "Year Without a Summer") that contributed to bad grain harvests and widespread grain price increases in 1817. Possible reasons for the cold summers in the first decade of the 19th century reflected in the contemporary press included comets, sunspot activity, long-term cooling and finally - as late as 1817 - earthquakes with volcanic eruptions.

  17. Stories from Prague: Oral and Written Lifestorying by Students at the Prague Institute of Chemical Technology in the Process of Learning English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Sydney, Comp.; Butler, Anita Jana, Comp.

    The stories in this collection result from a class activity in an English-as-a-Second-Language course at Prague Institute of Chemical Technology (Czechoslovakia). The students, most in their third or fourth year of postsecondary education, had all studied English previously but primarily as an academic exercise, and had had little contact with…

  18. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Types in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Melter, O.; Santos Sanches, I.; Schindler, J.; Aires de Sousa, M.; Mato, R.; Kovárova, V.; Zemlicková, H.; de Lencastre, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular surveillance studies have documented the extensive spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones. Studies carried out by Centro de Epidemiologia Molecular-Network for Tracking Gram-Positive Pathogenic Bacteria (CEM/NET) led to the identification of two international multidrug-resistant strains, which were designated as the Iberian and Brazilian MRSA clones and which were defined by multiple genomic typing methods; these included ClaI restriction digests hybridized with mecA- and Tn554-specific DNA probes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genotypic characteristics of these clones are distinct: the Iberian clone is defined as mecA type I, Tn554 type E (or its variants), and PFGE pattern A (I:E:A), whereas the Brazilian clone is defined as mecA type XI (or its variants), Tn554 type B, and PFGE pattern B (XI:B:B). In this study, we characterized 59 single-patient isolates of MRSA collected during 1996 and 1997 at seven hospitals located in Prague and five other cities in the Czech Republic by using the methodologies mentioned above and by using ribotyping of EcoRI and HindIII digests hybridized with a 16S-23S DNA probe. The Brazilian MRSA clone (XI:B:B) was the major clone (80%) spread in two hospitals located in Prague and one located in Brno; the Iberian MRSA clone (I:E:A or its variant I:DD:A), although less representative (12%), was detected in two hospitals, one in Prague and the other in Plzen. Almost all the strains belonging to clone XI:B:B (45 of 47) corresponded to a unique ribotype, E1H1, whereas most strains of the I:E:A and I:DD:A clonal types (6 of 7) corresponded to ribotype E2H2. PMID:10449455

  19. [José Juan Verocay, "el patólogo de Praga" (on occasion of the 100th anniversary of his habilitation in Prague)].

    PubMed

    Čech, P

    2012-04-01

    José Juan Verocay was born on June 16, 1876 in Paysandú, Uruguay to Italian immigrants; in 1887 they sent him to Cortina d'Ampezzo to learn languages first; he then graduated from the high school in Trento (1897) and from the German Medical Faculty in Prague (1904) where he, a disciple of Hanns Chiari, became the 1st demonstrator (1902), 3rd (1904) to 1st assistant (1905), and volunteer (from 1908) at the Department of Pathological Anatomy. He repeatedly substituted the professors Chiari (until 1906), Kretz (1907-1910), and Ghon (from 1910) during their absence. Anomalies and neoplasms prevailed among his research subjects. In the paper "Zur Kenntnis der »Neurofibrome«" (1910) he introduced the term "neurinoma" for a tumor with characteristic structures later named "Verocay bodies". On the basis of the paper he was habilitated for pathological anatomy as private docent at the German Medical Faculty in Prague (1911). During World War I he served for the Austro-Hungarian army at military hospitals in Chrudim (Bohemia) and Vienna. After the war he returned to Uruguay to work as a general practitioner in his native region (1919-1921), thereafter in Montevideo as head of pathological laboratories at the military hospital (1921-1925), at the Dental School (1925-1927), and at the Medical Faculty Department of Neurology (from March 19, 1927). As early as on May 3, 1927, however, he had to retire due to rapid worsening of his pulmonary tuberculosis. The renowned scientist remained a stranger in his own country ("el patólogo de Praga"); he never gained professorship except for a symbolic proclamation by devoted students on August 24, 1927, two days before he left for Europe to undergo treatment. On December 26, 1927 he died in Dubí (a spa near Teplice in Bohemia, Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic).

  20. A study of summer and winter highly time-resolved submicron aerosol composition measured at a suburban site in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubelová, Lucie; Vodička, Petr; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Makeš, Otakar; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2015-10-01

    The variability of aerosol chemical composition and the impact of the origin of respective air masses were studied in high time resolution for selected periods of high and low levels of aerosol burden at a suburban station in Prague-Suchdol, Czech Republic in summer and winter. Ambient aerosol measurements were performed using the compact-Time of Flight-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (c-ToF-AMS) and variations in concentration of the main species are discussed. The average mass concentrations for the main species were (summer; winter): organic matter (4.2 μg/m3; 8.4 μg/m3), SO42- (2.0 μg/m3; 4.4 μg/m3), NH4+ (1.2 μg/m3; 2.8 μg/m3), NO3- (0.8 μg/m3; 5.4 μg/m3) and Cl- (0.1 μg/m3; 0.23 μg/m3). We found an inverse relationship between non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) levels and the boundary layer height, mainly in winter. Furthermore, levels of pollution were influenced by the air mass origin, where cleaner maritime air masses resulted in lower aerosol levels compared to those of continental origin. Analysis of the diurnal variation of NR-PM1 showed minimum concentrations in the afternoon caused by dilution as a result of an increase in the boundary layer height. Most maximum concentrations of the main species occurred in the morning or night except sulphate which had a midday maximum, probably due to downdraft from upper boundary layer air and photochemical formation in the afternoon.

  1. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  2. Reading Authentic Czech, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Privorotsky, Grazyna

    This book of instructional materials for reading in Czech are intended for college-level students, and are designed to bring native English-speakers from an 0+ (Novice High) to a 1+ (Intermediate High) language proficiency level on the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Interagency Language Roundtable proficiency scale. The…

  3. Czech Children's Drawing of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…

  4. Aging in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Andel, Ross

    2014-12-01

    The goal was to provide an overview of main issues relevant to aging in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is a former Eastern Bloc nation of about 10.5 million. Older adults are overrepresented relative to those under age 15. Life expectancy currently hovers around 78 years (75 for men/81 for women), a number slightly higher than most of Eastern Europe but lower than most of Western Europe. Cardiovascular diseases account for about 50% of all mortality, which is one of the highest rates in Europe and therefore of particular concern. Lifestyle habits, especially high alcohol consumption, a high rate of smokers, and high-fat diet relative to most other European countries and the United States, combined with relatively low expenditures for health promotion, appear important in the context of high cardiovascular mortality. Long-term care is funded mostly by state and local governments. The country has tried to address issues associated with insufficient capacity and low quality in long-term care, a particularly prominent problem in the Czech Republic compared with other European countries. The recently established International Clinical Research Center brings new possibilities for collaborative research in the Czech Republic, including research specific to aging. Improving long-term care and establishing methodologically sound longitudinal data sets are among the most pressing issues, although sustaining the pension system strained by increasing life expectancy, low retirement age, and extensive government-sponsored benefits has also recently emerged as a critical issue.

  5. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-02

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way.

  6. The 30th anniversary of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Related Organisms workshops—what have we learned in three decades?

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, Erin C.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    As we commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Related Organisms (CHRO) workshops with this special Frontiers edition, we look back upon three decades of research and provide some highlights from the 16th International CHRO meeting. Although Theodor Escherich himself provided drawings of campylobacters back in the 1880s, Campylobacter jejuni was not identified until the 1950s. Helicobacter pylori was first described to be the causative agent of stomach ulcers at a CHRO meeting by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren—who later received the Nobel Prize for their findings that bacteria could cause diseases previously believed to be caused by human factors. Now, several genome sequences for campylobacters, helicobacters, and related organisms are available and we have moved into an era examining the intersection between host microbial ecology and pathogen infection. Both pioneers and new investigators in the CHRO research field continue to obtain “unexpected results” demonstrating that campylobacters and helicobacters do not follow classic paradigms of other well-characterized gastrointestinal pathogens and we are learning that there is a plethora of interesting related organisms beyond C. jejuni and H. pylori. This review summarizes recent discoveries in CHRO research and the exciting directions ahead. PMID:22919612

  7. Czech Republic: health system review.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Jan; Recka, Lukas; Votapkova, Jana; van Ginneken, Ewout; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such as mortality due to respiratory disease) or even among the best in the world (in terms of infant mortality, for example). On the other hand, mortality rates for diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms are well above the EU average, as are a range of health-care utilization rates, such as outpatient contacts and average length of stay in acute care hospitals. In short, there is substantial potential in the Czech Republic for efficiency gains and to improve health outcomes. Furthermore, the need for reform in order to financially sustain the system became evident again after the global financial crisis, but there is as yet no consensus about how to achieve this. PMID:26106825

  8. Bringing the Convention of Prague to Life: The Case of Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonska-Skinder, Hanna

    1987-01-01

    The nature and implementation of the Convention of Prague, a 1972 agreement signed by ten Socialist countries, are discussed. The agreement concerns the mutual recognition of the equivalence of general and professional secondary school leaving certificates, final higher education degrees, and certificates marking conferment of academic ranks and…

  9. The International Symposium on Pre-School Education (Prague, November, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opravilova, Eva

    A symposium on the initial training and further education of preschool education personnel in Europe was arranged in 1976 by the European Information Centre for Further Education of Teachers (Prague, Czechoslovakia). Two main papers were presented, followed by a group discussion by participants on specific problems. The final day of the symposium…

  10. The International Symposium on the Further Education of Special School Teachers (Prague, October 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabele, Frantisek

    A symposium on the problems of educating teachers of handicapped youth was organized by the European Information Centre for Further Education of Teachers (Prague, Czechoslovakia) in 1977. The Czechoslovak position on special education teachers was given in the symposium's main paper. Co-authors Frantisek Kabele and Ludvik Edelsberger described the…

  11. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane, Ed.; Beswick, Kim, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is "Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice." The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and ties in with…

  12. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  13. Czech Comparative Education in the Bipolar World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walterova, Eliska

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the influence of official government policy on Czech comparative education, by tracing changes in its ideological and geopolitical orientation, as well as attempts by the Czech education community to sustain a balance in international orientation toward notions of democracy and human progress. The period of the cold war…

  14. A Bibliography of Czech Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henzl, Vera M.

    This bibliography, compiled to meet the needs of linguists and teachers who intend to teach courses in Czech to foreigners and are in need of materials to develop a practical and linguistically sound curriculum, is organized under the following headings: (1) dictionary and encyclopedic materials, including monolingual Czech dictionaries and…

  15. AN OUTLINE OF CZECH NOMINAL MORPHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIDWELL, CHARLES E.

    THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CZECH NOMINALS, WHICH CONSIST OF NOUNS, ADJECTIVE, NUMERALS AND PRONOUNS, ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS PREPRINT. THE PAPER DISCUSSED EACH CATEGORY SEPARATELY, DIVIDING IT INTO SUBCLASSES, AND PROVIDES ILLUSTRATIONS IN CZECH. IN THE PARADIGMS, SEPARATE FORMS FOR THE VOCATIVE ARE GIVEN FOR MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS…

  16. Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Zahradníček, Pavel; Pišoft, Petr; Štěpánek, Petr; Bělínová, Monika; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2012-10-01

    The history of early meteorological observations using instruments in the Czech Lands is described (the longest temperature series for Prague-Klementinum starts in 1775, precipitation series for Brno in 1803). Using the PRODIGE method, long-term monthly temperature and precipitation series from selected secular stations were homogenised (for 10 and 12 stations, respectively). All the seasonal and annual temperature series for the common period 1882-2010 show a significant positive linear trend with accelerated warming from the 1970s onwards. No significant linear trends were disclosed in the series of seasonal and annual precipitation totals. Correlation coefficients between the Czech series analysed decrease as distances between measuring stations increase. A sharper decrease of correlations for precipitation totals displays much weaker spatial relationships than those for mean temperatures. The highest correlations between all stations appeared in 1921-1950, the lowest in 1891-1920 (temperature) and 1981-2010 (precipitation). Wavelet analysis reveals that very distinct annual cycles as well as the slightly weaker semi-annual ones are better expressed for temperature series than for precipitation. Statistically significant cycles longer than 1 year are temporally unstable and sporadic for precipitation, while in the temperature series cycles of 7.4-7.7 and 17.9-18.4 years were recorded as significant by all stations in 1882-2010 (quasi-biennial cycle of 2.1-2.2 years for half the stations). Czech homogenous temperature series correlate best with those of the Northern Hemisphere for annual, spring and summer values (with significant correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70), but this relation is temporally unstable. Circulation indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Central European Zonal Index (CEZI), may explain the greater part of Czech temperature variability, especially from December to March and for the winter; however

  17. A biographical sketch of Johannes Jessenius: 410th anniversary of his Prague dissection.

    PubMed

    Kachlik, David; Vichnar, David; Musil, Vladimir; Kachlikova, Dana; Szabo, Kristian; Stingl, Josef

    2012-03-01

    This article focuses on Johannes Jessenius (Ján Jesenský) (1566-1621), with particular attention paid to his famous Prague dissection and its publication (2011 marking its 410(th) anniversary). Jessenius was a physician, surgeon, anatomist, scholar, philosopher, and university authority. We focus on the life and main contribution of Jessenius based on his 1600 Prague dissection, the Anatomiae, Pragae (1601). Borovanský described Jessenius' book as "not as a textbook, but as a publication aiming at educated laymen with the purpose of advertising, filled with quotations of old classical authors." This work presents an important part of the Central European scientific, cultural, and political life of the late Renaissance period.

  18. [The Coris, a married couple native to Prague and Nobel laureates].

    PubMed

    Cech, P

    2001-01-19

    The husband and wife Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896-1984) and Gerty Theresa Radnitz-Cori (1896-1957), two of five Prague-born Nobel laureates (the only ones in medicine), have so much slipped away from the citizens' memory in the course of the half-century totalitarian rule over the country of birth, that hardly anybody knows them nowadays, nothing to say of their relation to Prague. At pains to rescue them from oblivion, a recent search for the lost traces of Coris and their ancestors had revealed a number of hitherto unknown facts that have fundamentally contributed to the Corian genealogy; identification of both forgotten birth-houses (6 Salmovská st., 29 Petrská st.) at long last resulted in placement of memorial tablets (October 26th, 2000) to display the birth-place's pride and gratitude.

  19. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  20. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  1. [Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Nečas, P; Hejna, P

    2012-10-01

    The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology.

  2. Radon program of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Petrová, K; Pravdová, E

    2014-07-01

    The Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan is based on Governmental Decision No. 594/2009 (Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan, Government of the Czech Republic, Decision No. 594/2009, May 4 2009) and is coordinated by the State Office for Nuclear Safety. It covers both prevention in new house construction and intervention in existing houses with high indoor radon concentration. The Program is aimed at developing an effective public information system. It takes advantage of long-term experience and good scientific and technological background-staff, methods, standards and technologies.

  3. Czech Republic 20 years after Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Jozef; Kvasnák, Eugen; Suta, Daniel; Kostrhun, Tomás; Drábová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic was contaminated as a result of the breakdown in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The Czech population received low doses of ionising radiation which, though it could not cause a deterministic impact, could have had stochastic effects expressed in the years following the accident. Twenty years after the accident is a long enough time to assess its stochastic effects, primarily tumours and genetic impairment. The moderate amount of radioactive fallout received by the Czech population in 1986 increased thyroid cancer in the following years; on the other hand, no obvious genetic impact was found.

  4. [The important role of secondary prevention of congenital defects in decreasing early fetal losses in the Czech Republic in 1989].

    PubMed

    Kucera, J

    1991-01-01

    The secondary prevention (SP) of congenital defects (CDs) is an unplanned factor in infant mortality. The department of medical genetics (DMGs) is the tool for achieving the possible lowest mortality of infants by such unplanned measures. However, the functioning of this service is seriously limited by the insufficient number of workers and technical equipment. For instance, in 1987 in Prague there were 6.9 medical genetics positions/1 million inhabitants and in other provinces as low as 1/1 million, averaging 3.2 in the Czech Republic. 85% of these positions are filled in Prague and only 12% in Southern Moravia, averaging 40%. The situation is similar with positions requiring higher education and middle-level education. 73% and 99%, respectively, of these are filled in Prague vs. 12% and 21%, respectively, in the Northern Czech province. Starting in 1985, an SP effort made strides against early losses of infants, and perinatal mortality decreased to under 10/1000. By 1990, at least 270-280 defective births of fetuses were prevented, a rate of 9.4/1000, close to the European peak. DMGs screened abnormal phenotypes starting 1985; there were 67 such SP cases equaling .49/1000 live births. In 1987, the number was 115 or .88/1000 neonates. By 1989, it was 209 or 1.63/1000. Out of the 209 aborted fetuses there were 42 anencephalic, 38 sublethal defects of the central nervous system, 20 sublethal and lethal defects of the urinary system, 13 cases of omphalocele, 30 cases of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and 26 aneuploids. Out of 128,356 births in 1989 there were 209 unborn fetuses or a rate of 1.63/1000. At least 120 but more than 140 of these would have been born dead or died, within hours or within a few days after birth producing a rate of .94-1.09/1000. Without DMGs, prenatal mortality in 1989 would have been 10.3 or 10.4/1000 instead of 9.4/1000. PMID:1884415

  5. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    PubMed

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event.

  6. Life history of the individuals buried in the St. Benedict Cemetery (Prague, 15th-18th centuries): insights from (14)C dating and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O) analysis.

    PubMed

    Salesse, Kevin; Dufour, Élise; Castex, Dominique; Velemínský, Petr; Santos, Frédéric; Kuchařová, Hedvika; Jun, Libor; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Funerary practices and bioarchaeological (sex and age) data suggest that a mortality crisis linked to an epidemic episode occurred during the fifth phase of the St. Benedict cemetery in Prague (Czech Republic). To identify this mass mortality episode, we reconstructed individual life histories (dietary and mobility factors), assessed the population's biological homogeneity, and proposed a new chronology through stable isotope analysis (δ(13)C, δ(18)O and δ(15)N) and direct radiocarbon dating. Stable isotope analysis was conducted on the bone and tooth enamel (collagen and carbonate) of 19 individuals from three multiple graves (MG) and 12 individuals from individual graves (IG). The δ(15)N values of collagen and the difference between the δ(13)C values of collagen and bone carbonate could indicate that the IG individuals had a richer protein diet than the MG individuals or different food resources. The human bone and enamel carbonate and δ(18)O values suggest that the majority of individuals from MG and all individuals from IG spent most of their lives outside of the Bohemian region. Variations in δ(18)O values also indicate that all individuals experienced residential mobility during their lives. The stable isotope results, biological (age and sex) data and eight (14)C dates clearly differentiate the MG and IG groups. The present work provides evidence for the reuse of the St. Benedict cemetery to bury soldiers despite the funeral protest ban (1635 AD). The Siege of Prague (1742 AD) by French-Bavarian-Saxon armies is identified as the cause of the St. Benedict mass mortality event. PMID:23588853

  7. Trends in heat-related mortality in urban populations of the Czech Republic over 1994-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study resumes previous research that found significant effects of hot spells on increased mortality in highly urbanized regions of the Czech Republic, and declining trends in heat-related mortality in the Czech population as a whole. We analyze severe hot spells during 1994-2013 and temporal changes of their effects on total and cardiovascular mortality in several urban regions with a different overall socioeconomic level (city of Prague, city of Brno, Ostrava region, NW Bohemia). Mortality data were standardized to account for different population structure and its changes over time. The mortality baseline for each region was determined using a generalized additive model. Although declining trends in the mortality impacts of hot spells prevail in most regions in spite of rising temperature trends, the magnitude of the mortality decline was different with respect to the overall socioeconomic level and development of the regions. The results suggest that trends in heat-related mortality depend on the level of socioeconomic deprivation of population. It is essential to better understand the risks of climate change in different parts of population with respect to their adaptability.

  8. Lead isotope ratios in tree bark pockets: an indicator of past air pollution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Conkova, M; Kubiznakova, J

    2008-10-15

    Tree bark pockets were collected at four sites in the Czech Republic with differing levels of lead (Pb) pollution. The samples, spanning 1923-2005, were separated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Elevated Pb content (0.1-42.4 microg g(-1)) reflected air pollution in the city of Prague. The lowest Pb content (0.3-2.6 microg g(-1)) was found at the Kosetice EMEP "background pollution" site. Changes in (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb isotope ratios were in agreement with operation times of the Czech main anthropogenic Pb sources. Shortly after the Second World War, the (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotope ratio in bark pockets decreased from 1.17 to 1.14 and the (208)Pb/(206)Pb isotope ratio increased from 2.12 to 2.16. Two dominant emission sources responsible for these changes, lignite and leaded petrol combustion, contributed to the shifts in Pb isotope ratios. Low-radiogenic petrol Pb ((206)Pb/(207)Pb of 1.11) lead to lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb in bark pockets over time. High-radiogenic lignite-derived Pb ((206)Pb/(207)Pb of 1.18 to 1.19) was detected in areas affected by coal combustion rather than by traffic.

  9. Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.

    PubMed

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases. PMID:25622483

  10. Biomarkers in Czech workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene: a transitional epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Richard J; Srám, Radim J; Vacek, Pamela M; Lynch, Jeremiah; Nicklas, Janice A; van Sittert, Nico J; Boogaard, Peter J; Henderson, Rogene F; Swenberg, James A; Tates, Ad D; Ward, Jonathan B; Wright, Michael; Ammenheuser, Marinel M; Binkova, Blanka; Blackwell, Walter; de Zwart, Franz A; Krako, Dean; Krone, Jennifer; Megens, Hendricus; Musilová, Petra; Rajská, Gabriela; Ranasinghe, Asoka; Rosenblatt, Judah I; Rössner, Pavel; Rubes, Jiri; Sullivan, Linda; Upton, Patricia; Zwinderman, Ailko H

    2003-06-01

    A multiinstitutional, transitional epidemiologic study was conducted with a worker population in the Czech Republic to evaluate the utility of a continuum of non-disease biological responses as biomarkers of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD)* in an industrial setting. The study site included two BD facilities in the Czech Republic. Institutions that collaborated in the study were the University of Vermont (Burlington, Vermont, USA); the Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology (Prague, the Czech Republic); Shell International Chemicals, BV (Amsterdam, The Netherlands); the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA); University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (Galveston, Texas, USA); Leiden University (Leiden, The Netherlands); and the Health and Safety Laboratory (Sheffield, United Kingdom). Male volunteer workers (83) participated in the study: 24 were engaged in BD monomer production, 34 in polymerization activities, and 25 plant administrative workers served as unexposed control subjects. The BD concentrations experienced by each exposed worker were measured by personal monitor on approximately ten separate occasions for 8-hour workshifts over a 60-day exposure assessment period before biological samples were collected. Coexposures to styrene, benzene, and toluene were also measured. The administrative control workers were considered to be a homogeneous, unexposed group for whom a series of 28 random BD measurements were taken during the exposure assessment period. Questionnaires were administered in Czech to all participants. At the end of the exposure assessment period, blood and urine samples were collected at the plant; samples were. fractionated, cryopreserved, and kept frozen in Prague until they were shipped to the appropriate laboratories for specific biomarker analysis. The following biomarkers were analyzed: * polymorphisms in genes involved in BD metabolism (Prague and Burlington); * urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxy

  11. Early Childhood Presentation of Czech Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Burrage, Lindsay C.; Lu, James T.; Liu, David S.; Moss, Timothy J.; Gibbs, Richard; Schlesinger, Alan E.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Campeau, Philippe M.; Lee, Brendan H.

    2013-01-01

    Czech dysplasia, metatarsal type is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder that is characterized by early-onset, progressive arthritis, brachydactyly of the 3rd and 4th toes, and characteristic radiographic findings in patients of normal stature. Patients with Czech dysplasia typically present in late childhood or later. In the present report, whole exome sequencing identified a mutation in COL2A1 (c.823C>T, p.R275C) known to be associated with Czech dysplasia in a 3.5 year old female who had a family history of early-onset arthritis and who was asymptomatic except for prominent knees. The use of whole exome sequencing facilitated diagnosis of this rare disease (less than 15 families in the literature) in the presymptomatic period and thus enabled us to provide early anticipatory guidance and genetic counseling for the family. PMID:23448908

  12. Were the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquakes Natural, Induced, or Something in Between?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Two hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the Prague, Oklahoma earthquake sequence, which is under debate. I offer a third explanation, whereby this sequence was triggered by approximately 12 million cubic m of wastewater injected into the epicentral zone, from five high-volume injection wells. This sequence included three earthquakes of M5 or greater: a M5 foreshock, the M5.7 main shock, and a M5 aftershock (Keranen et al., Geology, 2013). The main shock, which caused substantial damage, is of exceptional importance in the central and eastern United States because it is the second largest earthquake that has been recorded in this vast region. Because of its importance in assessing seismic hazard, especially in central Oklahoma, there is an urgent need to understand its origin. The first hypothesis argues that the Prague earthquakes are of natural origin (Keller and Holland, OGS website, 2013). As shown by Ellsworth et al. (abstract, SSA Meeting, 2012,), the seismicity in central Oklahoma has increased dramatically starting in 2009. This increase is inconsistent with natural processes that are likely to occur in this geologically stable area. Instead, it seems more likely that the increase in seismicity is related to the increase of fluid injection activities related to expanding oil and gas operations. Even so, the Prague earthquakes themselves could be a natural sequence. The second hypothesis argues that the M5 foreshock was triggered by pore pressure increase due to wastewater injected from two wells near the northeast end of the epicentral zone. This M5 event, in turn, increased the Coulomb stress on a pre-existing fault triggering the M5.7 mainshock and its numerous aftershocks (Keranen, et al., 2013). This hypothesis focuses on two nearly co-located disposal wells, Stasta 1 and 2, that together injected nearly 100,000 cubic m of wastewater into the basal aquifer during the years leading up to the Prague earthquakes. There are, however, five much

  13. Drug-drug interactions in older patients with cancer: a report from the 15th Conference of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology, Prague, Czech Republic, November 2015.

    PubMed

    Stepney, Rob; Lichtman, Stuart M; Danesi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Drugs taken for cancer can interact with each other, with agents taken as part of supportive care, with drugs taken for comorbid conditions (which are particularly common in the elderly patients), and with herbal supplements and complementary medicines. We tend to focus on the narrow therapeutic window of cytotoxics, but the metabolism of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme (CYP3A4) makes some TKIs particularly prone to interference with or from other agents sharing this pathway. There is also potential for adverse pharmacokinetic interactions with new hormonal agents used in advanced prostate cancer.

  14. Al lingva demokratio = Towards Linguistic Democracy = Vers la democratie linguistique. Proceedings of the Nitobe Symposium of International Organizations (Prague, Czech Republic, July 20-23, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fettes, Mark, Ed.; Bolduc, Suzanne, Ed.

    The proceedings of a 1996 symposium organized in conjunction with the 81st World Esperanto Congress include papers and summaries of discussions concerning the relevance of Esperanto to contemporary international life. The papers and discussion transcripts are presented in their entirety in the language (Esperanto, English, or French) in which they…

  15. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and in perch intestinal parasite (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the stream near Prague (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovska, Ivana; Miholova, Daniela; Lukesova, Daniela; Kalous, Lukas; Valek, Petr; Romocusky, Stepan; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Langrova, Iva; Cadkova, Zuzana

    2012-01-15

    We monitored concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in acantocephalan parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) and its final host (Perca fluviatilis). The concentrations in parasites were found to be significantly higher than those found in the muscle, gonads and liver of fish host. The bioaccumulation factor values were 194, 24.4, 2.2 and 4.7 for Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. This suggests a benefit for the host due to the high accumulation of toxic cadmium.

  16. Drug-drug interactions in older patients with cancer: a report from the 15th Conference of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology, Prague, Czech Republic, November 2015

    PubMed Central

    Stepney, Rob; Lichtman, Stuart M; Danesi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Drugs taken for cancer can interact with each other, with agents taken as part of supportive care, with drugs taken for comorbid conditions (which are particularly common in the elderly patients), and with herbal supplements and complementary medicines. We tend to focus on the narrow therapeutic window of cytotoxics, but the metabolism of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme (CYP3A4) makes some TKIs particularly prone to interference with or from other agents sharing this pathway. There is also potential for adverse pharmacokinetic interactions with new hormonal agents used in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:26823680

  17. Intestinal parasite Acanthocephalus lucii (Acanthocephala) from European perch (Perca fluviatilis) as a bioindicator for lead pollution in the stream "Jevanský potok" near Prague, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Petrtýl, Miloslav; Romočuský, Stěpán; Kalous, Lukáš; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Cadková, Zuzana; Langrová, Iva

    2011-03-01

    Lead concentrations in the tissues of perch and its parasites were determined as mg/kg dw. Lead was found at higher concentrations in the acanthocephalans (11.56) than in different tissues (liver, gonads and muscle with skin and bone) of perch. With respect to fish tissues, the highest concentrations of lead were present in the liver (1.24), followed by the gonads (0.57) whereas the lowest concentrations were in the muscle with skin and bone (0.21). The bioconcentration factors for lead indicated that parasites accumulate metals to a higher degree than fish tissues--lead concentrations in acanthocephalans were 9.32, 19.27 and 55.05 higher than in liver, gonads and muscles of host, respectively.

  18. April-August temperatures in the Czech Lands, 1499-2015, reconstructed from grape-harvest dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Možný, Martin; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dobrovolný, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav

    2016-07-01

    Viticulture has long been essential to the commercial and social well-being of parts of the Czech Lands (now the Czech Republic), and detailed records have been kept for centuries of the timing and relative success of the grape crop. Using such documentary data from the Bohemian wine-growing region (mainly northwest of the capital, Prague), series of grape-harvest dates (GHDs) were created for the 1499-2015 period. Because the link between harvest dates and temperatures is strong, GHD series, together with instrumental mean temperature series starting in 1801, were used to reconstruct mean April-August temperatures for the region from 1499 to 2015. Linear regression (LR) and variance scaling (VS) methods were used for calibration and compared in terms of explained variance and their ability to capture extreme values. It emerged that LR does not significantly underestimate temperature variability. However, VS shows far greater capacity to capture extremes. GHDs explain 64 % of temperature variability over the full calibration period. The 1986-2015 period was identified as the warmest 30-year period of the past 514 years, an observation consistent with recent global warming. The highest April-August temperatures appeared in a reconstruction for the year 1540, which was warmer than the next two very warm, and far more recent, seasons in 2003 and 2015. The coldest period occurred at the beginning of the 20th century (1900-1929). The series reconstructed for the Czech Lands is in close agreement with other (central) European reconstructions based on other proxies. The series created here makes an important contribution to a better understanding of long-term spatiotemporal temperature variability in central Europe.

  19. [Patients' rights in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Haskovcová, H

    1992-07-10

    The ethical code, the so-called Patients' rights, was published on February 25, 1992 and applies in Bohemia and Moravia. The initiative in this matter was taken by the Central ethical commission of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic. The latter commission prepared a draft of the Czech version and after comments supplemented the text approved and proclaimed it. In the submitted paper the text of the document is presented in extenso and the author explains the history of patients' rights in Europe.

  20. Modern Czech Studies. Brown Slavic Contributions, Volume XI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Alexander, Ed.; Ueda, Masako, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains the following papers: "Texas Czech of Texas Czechs: An Ethnolinguistic Perspective on Language Use in a Dying Language Community" (Lida Dutkova); "Language Variation in an Immigrant Community: Language and Community Maintenance" (Eva Eckert); "Some Special Problems of Imperfective Derivation in Czech" (Charles Townsend);…

  1. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  2. Modeling Floods under Climate Change Condition in Otava River, Czech Republic: A Time Scale Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhelka, J.; Krejci, J.; Vlasak, T.

    2009-04-01

    simulation differed by 10 to 36 % for different simulated scenarios including RC conditions. That supports the requirement of specific approach if assessing occurrence of rare events of return period longer than simulated period. REFERENCES Pretel, J. et al. (2008): Operating statement on Research Project: SP/1a6/108/07 - Precission of Current Estimates of Climate Change Impact on Water, Agriculture and Forestry and Adaptation Proposals, CHMI, Prague, Czech Republic, 2008 Semenov, M. A. (2008). Simulation of extreme weather events by a stochastic weather generator, Clim Res, 11:203-212

  3. Language Management in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neustupny, J. V.; Nekvapil, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    This monograph, based on the Language Management model, provides information on both the "simple" (discourse-based) and "organised" modes of attention to language problems in the Czech Republic. This includes but is not limited to the language policy of the State. This approach does not satisfy itself with discussing problems of language varieties…

  4. Grids and clouds in the Czech NGI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrát, Jan; Adam, Martin; Adamová, Dagmar; Chudoba, Jiří; Kouba, Tomáš; Lokajíček, Miloš; Mikula, Alexandr; Říkal, Václav; Švec, Jan; Vohnout, Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    There are several infrastructure operators within the Czech Republic NGI (National Grid Initiative) which provide users with access to high-performance computing facilities over a grid and cloud interface. This article focuses on those where the primary author has personal first-hand experience. We cover some operational issues as well as the history of these facilities.

  5. Changes in Information Systems in Czech Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavik, Milan

    2004-01-01

    A study carried out in 1998 (reported in the Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 2003) of the information systems used by farmers in the Czech Republic to access information and advice was repeated in 2003. The research aim was to assess whether, and how, the systems had changed during these five years. The perceived importance of 10…

  6. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  7. Subregional Workshop on Training of Teachers for Environmental Education, Final Report (Prague-Hluboka, CSSR, October 13-17, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Information Center of the Charles Univ. for Further Education of Teachers. Prague (Czechoslovakia).

    Described is the Subregional Workshop on Training of Teachers for Environmental Education, which took place in Prague and Hluboka, Czechoslovakia, October 13-17, 1980. Participants discussed needs in preservice and inservice teacher education, examined model programs, and visited several environmental education sites. Included in this report are…

  8. The International Symposium on the Further Education of Teachers in the Use of Educational Technology (Prague, November 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollingerova, Dana

    A symposium on the gap between equipping schools with educational media and teachers' effective use of the media was organized in 1977 by the European Information Centre for Further Education of Teachers (Prague, Czechoslovakia). It was attended by 35 Czechoslovak and 22 foreign experts from Europe and Russia, and a representative each from the…

  9. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  10. UTTC Celebrates 30th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellow Bird, Dorreen

    2000-01-01

    Describes United Tribes Technical College's (UTTC's) 30-year historical development. Thirty years ago major impediments to education were isolation and the lack of transportation. Introduces Dave Gipp, president of UTTC, as the driving force for most of the College's history. UTTC's growth makes it unique in serving the special training needs of…

  11. Comparison of overbank fines magnetic pollution in the rivers of Czech Republic by using MS/Fe ratio and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Martin Famera1, Tereza Novakova3,4, Tomas Matys Grygar3, Jitka Elznicová, Andrea Tipanová1, Ondrej Babek1,2, Martin Chadima5 1Department of Geology, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic 2Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic 3Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez, Czech Republic 4Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic 5Agico, s.r.o., Jecna 29a, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic Magnetic susceptibility (MS) normalized to the content of Fe is able to effectively remove the influence of facies (grain-size effect) in determining the background values, as well as Al normalization of heavy metal concentrations. Normalization MS/Fe is also used to determine the contamination of sediments by magnetic particles, using calculation of enrichment factor of magnetic susceptibility in sediments. In our study, we compared the magnetic enrichment of overbank fines of five rivers in Czech Republic (the Ploucnice, the Morava, the Jizera, the Litavka, and the Berounka rivers). Magnetic susceptibility was measured using KLY-2 Kappabridge (Agico, Czech Republic) and mass-specific data were expressed in m3×kg-1. X-ray fluorescence elementary analysis of powdered sediments was performed by ED XRF MiniPal 4.0 (PANalytical, the Netherlands). ED XRF results were calibrated to ppm values using results obtained from selected samples by ICP MS. Compared samples were taken from lithogenic parts of profiles, unaffected by anthropogenic contamination and pedogenetic and reductimorphic processes. Results showed high variability of the measured values. In the Litavka and the Morava River sediments were measured low values of MS (˂150×10-9) at relatively high contents of Fe (20-45 000 ppm). In contrast, lower flow of the Jizera River showed low Fe contents (˂12000 ppm) having MS values in a wide range (70-800×10-9). The Plou

  12. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  13. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  14. Health tourism in a Czech health spa.

    PubMed

    Speier, Amy R

    2011-04-01

    This paper is about the changing shape of health tourism in a Czech spa town. The research focuses on balneotherapy as a traditional Czech healing technique, which involves complex drinking and bathing therapies, as it is increasingly being incorporated into the development of a Czech health tourism industry. Today, the health tourism industry in Mariánske Lázne is attempting to 'harmoniously' combine three elements--balneology, travel and business activities. One detects subtle shifts and consequent incongruities as doctors struggle for control over the medical portion of spa hotels. At the same time, marketing groups are creating new packages for a general clientele, and the implementation of these new packages de-medicalizes balneotherapy. Related to the issue of the doctor's authority in the spa, the changes occurring with the privatization of tourism entails the entrance of 'tourists' to Mariánske Lázne who are not necessarily seeking spa treatment but who are still staying at spa hotels. There is a general consensus among spa doctors and employees that balneotherapy has become commodified. Thus, while balneotherapy remains a traditional form of therapy, the commercial context in which it exists has created a new form of health tourism.

  15. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, M.

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  16. Extreme wind climate in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, L.; Hanslian, D.; Jiri, H.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme wind events belong to the most damaging weather-related hazards in Czech Republic. Therefore a complex survey is performed to exploit the wind data available over the period of industrial measurements in Czech Republic for extreme wind analysis. The object of the survey is to find the limitations of wind data available, to analyze the conditions for extreme wind events and to try to enhance the knowledge about the statistical behavior of extreme wind. The data quality showed itself as a major issue. The homogeneity of extreme wind data is broken in many cases as the extreme wind values are highly dependent on the measuring instrumentation and changes in neighborhood. It also may be difficult to distinguish between correct high wind data and erroneous values. The individual analysis and quality assessment of wind data used in extremal analysis is therefore essential. There are generally two basic groups of extreme wind events typical in the Czech Republic and generally over the mid-latitudes: The "convective" events (can be also called as "squalls") are primarily initiated by deep convection, whereas the primary cause for "non-convective" (synoptic) events is large-scale pressure gradient. The subject is, however, a bit more complex, as the pressure gradient inducing high wind in higher atmospheric levels or wind shear can be a significant factor in convective events; on the other hand, convection may increase wind speeds in otherwise "non-convective" synoptic-scale windstorms. In addition, there are some special phenomena that should be treated individually: the physical principle and climatological behavior (frequency, magnitude and area affected) of tornadoes make them very different from common convective straight winds; this is in lesser scale also the case of "foehn" or "bora" effects belonging to non-convective events. These effects, however, do not play major role over the Czech Republic. In Czech Republic, the overall impact of convective and non

  17. New and old risk-factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection: prospective cross-sectional study among military personnel in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kolbekova, P; Kourbatova, E; Novotna, M; Kodym, P; Flegr, J

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate seroprevalence and the importance of various risk-factors for Toxoplasma infection in the Czech Republic. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted among military personnel in Prague. Consenting subjects (n = 3250) completed a questionnaire concerning demographics and risk-factors, and blood samples were taken to determine anti-Toxoplasma antibody titres according to complement fixation and ELISA IgG and IgM tests. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 23%. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of Toxoplasma seropositivity were age (OR 1.03 / year), consumption of raw meat (OR 1.35), owning a cat (OR 1.25), owning rabbits (OR 1.47), childhood residence in a town with a population of <10 000 inhabitants (OR 1.63) vs. location of the childhood residence in a town with population of >100 000 inhabitants, and blood group type A (OR 1.28), B (OR 1.33) or AB (OR 1.43) vs. O. These results suggested that horizontal toxoplasmosis transmission in the Czech Republic may occur through consumption of raw meat, contact with cat faeces and farming.

  18. Application of the Prague C and M criteria for endoscopic description of columnar-lined esophagus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung Wan; Kim, Young Choon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain whether the Prague circumferential (C) length and maximal (M) length criteria for grading the extent of Barrett’s esophagus can be applied prior to its widespread application in South Korea. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen consecutive cases with endoscopic columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were included and classified according to the Prague C and M criteria. RESULTS: Of 213 cases with CLE, the distribution of maximum CLE lengths was: 0.5-0.9 cm in 99 cases (46.5%); 1.0-1.4 cm in 63 cases (29.6%); 1.5-1.9 cm in 15 cases (7.0%); 2.0-2.4 cm in 14 cases (6.6%); 2.5-2.9 cm in 1 case (0.5%); and 7.0 cm in 1 case (0.5%). Twenty cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. Two hundred and eight cases (97.7%) lacked the circumferential CLE component (C0Mx). Columnar islands were found in 70 cases (32.9%), of which 20 cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. CONCLUSION: In regions where most CLE patients display short or ultrashort tongue-like appearance, more detailed descriptions of CLE’s in < 1.0 cm lengths and columnar islands, as well as avoidance of repeating the prefix “C0” need to be considered in parallel with the widespread application of the Prague system in South Korea. PMID:27114749

  19. Our Roots Feed Our Future: 30th Anniversary Conference of the Cornell Migrant Program. Presentations (May 22, 2002) = Nuestras raices nutren nuestro futuro: Conferencia del 30mo aniversario del Programa para Emigrantes de Cornell. Presentaciones (22 mayo 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    Presented in English and Spanish, this publication compiles 13 presentations at a conference celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Cornell Migrant Program. The entries examine experiences of migrant workers and children related to immigrating, finding work, enduring discrimination and police harassment, switching schools frequently, suffering…

  20. Excretion rates of 210Po and 210Pb in Prague inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the urine were investigated in 40 healthy inhabitants of Prague (22 males, 18 females, age: 23-70 y, non-smokers). In 20 inhabitants the excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb in faeces were also studied. The mean urinary excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb were 4.1 and 6.0 mBq d(-1), respectively. It was demonstrated, statistically, that the urinary excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb are higher in men than those in women. The highest excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb found in the participants were 10.8 and 16.6 mBq d(-1), respectively. The mean activity ratio of (210)Po/(210)Pb in the urine was 0.73. The mean excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb in faeces were 56.5 and 54.6 mBq d(-1). The mean activity ratio of (210)Po/(210)Pb in faeces was 1.0.

  1. [Past and present issues of the pulmonary circulation in the General University Hospital in Prague].

    PubMed

    Jansa, Pavel; Ambrož, David; Lindner, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    The development of right heart catheterization is closely connected not only with its pioneer Werner Forssmann but also with the University Hospital in Prague. Shortly after Forssmann´s pioneering performance of catheterization, Dr. Otto Klein measured cardiac output using the Fick´s principle in 11 patients in University Hospital. In the 60s and 70s of last century, there was established an research group represented by Severin Daum, Frantisek Boudik, Vlastimil Jezek, Alois Ourednik and Zdenek Suso at 2nd Internal Clinic of General Cardiopulmonary Hospital. After 1999, the issue of pulmonary hypertension has been re-emerged by Professor Michal Aschermann and this had significant clinical implications. The highly specialized centre for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was found at the clinic and in Cardio Centre of General University Hospital it has been initiated a successful program of pulmonary endarterectomy in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) since 2004. Surgical treatment is also provided to patients from Slovakia. The number of patients, wide range of therapy and its results, including the excellent results of surgical treatment situates the centre among the most important centres in Europe dealing with pulmonary hypertension.

  2. The response of hepatic transcriptome to dietary cholesterol in Prague hereditary hypercholesterolemic (PHHC) rat.

    PubMed

    Vlachová, M; Heczková, M; Jirsa, M; Poledne, R; Kovář, J

    2014-01-01

    To understand the pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemia in Prague hereditary hypercholesterolemic (PHHC) rat, we analyzed the response of hepatic transcriptome to dietary cholesterol in PHHC and control Wistar rats. Male PHHC and Wistar rats were fed chow (C), 5 % fat (palm kernel oil) (CF) or 1 % cholesterol + 5 % fat (CHOL) diet for three weeks. Hepatic transcriptome was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. No differences were found in the effect of both control diets (C and CF) on lipid metabolism and gene expression of 6500 genes. Therefore, these data were pooled for further analysis. Dietary cholesterol induced accumulation of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the liver in both strains and hypercholesterolemia in PHHC rats. However, there were no differences in response of hepatic transcriptome to CHOL diet. On the other hand, several genes were found to be differently expressed between both strains independently of the diet. Two of those genes, Apof and Aldh1a7, were studied in more detail, and their role in pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemia in PHHC rats could not been corroborated. In conclusion, the hypercholesterolemia in PHHC rats is due to physiological response of hepatic transcriptome to dietary cholesterol in different genetic background.

  3. Outdoor transmission measurement at 26 GHz: Results of a 4 year trial in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorvaldsen, Per; Henne, Ingvar

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results from a field trial that was performed during a 4 year period on a 5.5 km long radio link path operating at 26 GHz in Prague. The purpose was to investigate the amount of attenuation due to precipitation and its yearly variations. The attenuation of the radio link signal and the rain rate were measured. The measured attenuation results are compared to the models given by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The propagation measurements show large yearly variations due to variability in rain rate from one year to another. The measured results are in agreement with the ITU long-term statistical rain attenuation model if the measured rain rate for the individual year is used. For the worst year the number of fades, the fade duration, the fade speed, the worst month statistics, and the polarization correlation are presented. The measurements presented will add to the current knowledge of fading due to precipitation, and some of the results, such as the fade duration distributions, are new knowledge.

  4. [Hospitals in Prague from the high Middle Ages to the Enlightenment (1135-1800)].

    PubMed

    Karenberg, A

    1995-01-01

    Based on hitherto unknown layouts and documents from the Prague archives, this paper reviews the evolution of the health care system in the capital of Bohemia. From the high Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, the town's history as well as changing political and religious tendencies provide a unique background for the development of different types of institutions for the care of the poor and sick. The first charitable foundations of the sovereigns and the archbishops were soon followed by the semi-monasterial infirmaries of the Hospitallers. Leprosoria and other shelters for the contagious deserve special attention. After the counter-reformation, the newly built hospitals of orders like the Brothers of Saint John of God and the Sisters of Saint Elizabeth played an important role. From the architectural point of view, the baroque hospitals built by Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer belong to the most impressive examples of hospital architecture in Europe. Finally, the medical reforms of Emperor Joseph II. led to a series of completely new institutions, which can be regarded as the beginning of modern medicine im Bohemia. It was especially intended to describe exactly the site and the architectonic appearance of the preserved buildings. Thus, the medical historian can contribute to the care and preservation of these medical monuments. PMID:7631381

  5. Analyses of selected Maps of Czech Lands from the Period 1518 - 1720

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, T. B.; Potůčková, M. P.; Čábelka, M. Č.

    2009-04-01

    Preliminary results of research on old maps of Czech Lands deposited at the Map Collection of Charles University (CU) in Prague are presented. The extensive cartographic collection belongs among the most important collections in the Czech Republic. Maps of Czech Lands, i.e. Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, created by individuals in the period of 1518 - 1720 are part of our history and represent important cultural heritage of immense value. They give evidence about the period in which they originated. The goal of the research is to document the development of cartography during the period 1518 (Claudianus's map) to 1720 (Müller's map). More than 50 originals or facsimiles of different maps were found in the Map Collection of CU during inventory phase of the work. This paper concentrates on a description of most interesting maps discovered from the point of view of their content, map symbols and cartometric characteristics. The research is conducted within the project "Cartometric and semiotic analysis and visualization of the old Czech Lands maps in the period 1518 - 1720". The analysis of map content can provide us with answers to other relevant questions related to analysis and assessment of maps. Similarly to modern maps, old maps also include some map elements which were becoming more and more precise with the development of cartography and geodesy. The map research then centered on the analysis of the map content and on cartometric analysis using modern computation methods. The obtained results of the research will be described and compared with information presented in historical and cartographic studies of the last decades. Cartometric analyses of the map are important. They verify cartographic parameters of the map. The following cartometric analysis will be carried out: positional accuracy of the map, calculation of the map scale, calculation of the rotation of the map. The methodology of cartometric analysis used in this article is based on comparing a

  6. An optimization of the ALICE XRootD storage cluster at the Tier-2 site in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamova, D.; Horky, J.

    2012-12-01

    ALICE, as well as the other experiments at the CERN LHC, has been building a distributed data management infrastructure since 2002. Experience gained during years of operations with different types of storage managers deployed over this infrastructure has shown, that the most adequate storage solution for ALICE is the native XRootD manager developed within a CERN - SLAC collaboration. The XRootD storage clusters exhibit higher stability and availability in comparison with other storage solutions and demonstrate a number of other advantages, like support of high speed WAN data access or no need for maintaining complex databases. Two of the operational characteristics of XRootD data servers are a relatively high number of open sockets and a high Unix load. In this article, we would like to describe our experience with the tuning/optimization of machines hosting the XRootD servers, which are part of the ALICE storage cluster at the Tier-2 WLCG site in Prague, Czech Republic. The optimization procedure, in addition to boosting the read/write performance of the servers, also resulted in a reduction of the Unix load.

  7. Czech Schools and the Opportunities of Grant Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Rabusicova, Milada; Sedova, Klara

    2003-01-01

    One of the consequences of recent changes in Czech society and education is that schools are more than ever expected to be able to gain support for their activities, searching for them over and above the regular extra-school grant resources. It seems that today's opportunities of grant and foundation support to Czech schools are quite varied. The…

  8. Vocational Education and Training Reform in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in the Czech Republic consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on the Czech Republic. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET,…

  9. The Bologna Process and the Czech System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan

    2005-01-01

    The Czech system of education has been through several years of relatively intensive transformation efforts reflecting the international processes of transformation of higher education the Czech Republic joined. The most important external stimulus directing the transformation process is the so-called Bologna process. These complex and…

  10. Striving for Inclusive Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadova, Iva; Hajkova, Vanda

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education does not have a strong history in the Czech Republic. Initial efforts to educate students with different types of disabilities within the mainstream education system in the Czech Republic date back to the mid-20th century. These efforts were primarily from parent initiatives, which in some cases resulted in ensuring that the…

  11. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an…

  12. Assessment in the School Systems of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strakova, Jana; Simonová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Student assessment in the Czech Republic is still rather traditional, with classroom practice continuing to focus on summative assessment. The country has regularly participated in international surveys, but the findings from these only started to influence educational policy during the past decade, when Czech students' performance fell…

  13. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  14. [Gene therapy in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vonka, V

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy represents one of the most promising applications of molecular biology and genetic engineering in medicine. At present its introduction meets series of problems which are of technical, methodological and ethical nature. Although the research in the field of gene therapy in the Czech Republic is on a good level, there is little hope that its achievements will be tested in clinical trials in the near future. In the Czech Republic a law enabling the use of preparations based on the newest biotechnologies in human medicine is missing. Similarly, a production unit capable of preparing the new gene-based drugs according to the Good Manufactory Praxis is not available and the State Institute for Control of Drugs has not any working group fully qualified for their control. The paper proposes actions aimed at solving the present unfavourable situation. The fact that the interest of clinicians in gene therapy is rapidly growing, and that there are signs of increasing interest of public in its achievements, gives good prospects for the introduction of gene therapy into medical praxis in this country in the not very distant future.

  15. SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.

    PubMed

    Fojtíková, I

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. PMID:24729595

  16. SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.

    PubMed

    Fojtíková, I

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic.

  17. [Autosomal recessive ethnic diseases of Czech Gypsies].

    PubMed

    Seeman, P; Sisková, D

    2006-01-01

    Roma (Gypsy ethnic) form a genetically isolated ethnical group of the identical origin with the world population of 10 to 14 millions derived from a limited number of so-called founders. Majority (about 8 millions) of Roma ethnic live in Europe, namely at Balkan and in the southwest of Europe. Roma have specific hereditary diseases, namely those caused by recessive genetic mutations. The molecular-genetic mechanism has been recently elucidated and confirmed in several diseases of the Roma population. Owing to the significant proportion of Roma in the population, patients with those diseases are possible to meet also in the Czech Republic. However, the diagnostics of those diseases is frequently difficult and they are often under diagnosed or misdiagnosed. The article gives examples of autosomal recessive diseases, which can be confirmed at the DNA level which occur in Roma population of the Czech Republic: syndrome of congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy, non-syndromic prelingual deafness with GJB2 gene impairment and the congenital myastenic syndrome. PMID:16921785

  18. Effects of sudden air pressure changes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, Jan; Plavcova, Eva

    2013-04-01

    Sudden weather changes have long been supposed to be associated with negative impacts on human health. However, relatively few studies attempted to quantify these relationships. In this study, we use large 6-hour changes of atmospheric sea level pressure as proxy for sudden weather changes, and evaluate their association with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases. Winter and summer seasons and positive and negative pressure changes are analyzed separately, using data for the city of Prague (population of 1.2 million) over 16-year period (1994-2009). We find that sudden pressure drops in winter are associated with significant increases in the number of hospital admissions. Increases in morbidity are not observed for pressure drops in summer, nor pressure increases in any season. Analysis of synoptic weather maps shows that the large pressure drops in winter are associated with strong zonal (westerly) flow and rapidly moving low pressure systems with centres over Northern Europe and atmospheric fronts affecting the area of Western and Central Europe. Several of the largest pressure decreases were associated with infamous winter storms (such as Lothar on December 25, 1999 and Kyrill on January 18, 2007). Analysis of links between passages of strong atmospheric fronts and hospital admissions shows that the links are much weaker if weather changes are characterized by frontal passages. Since climate models project strengthening of the zonal circulation in winter and increased frequency of winter storms, the negative effects of such weather phenomena and their possible changes in a warmer climate of the 21st century need to be better understood, particularly as their importance in inducing excess morbidity and mortality in winter may increase compared to cold spells.

  19. [Pharmaceutical History of the Capuchin Monastery in Prague-Hradčany Part I. Monastic Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    Based on a profound examination and thorough evaluation of archival materials and preserved equipment, the article provides a unique perspective on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. The intramural pharmacy was established around the year 1680, and was practised to 1822. The article identifies the capuchin pharmacists and their line of succession. Pharmaceutical literature from the monastic library is listed and described, including rare manuscripts. The preserved high baroque equipment of the pharmacy is described in detail, and an iconography analysis of the hidden meaning of its unique decoration is offered.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins monastic pharmacies baroque.

  20. [Pharmaceutical History of the Capuchin Monastery in Prague-Hradčany Part I. Monastic Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    Based on a profound examination and thorough evaluation of archival materials and preserved equipment, the article provides a unique perspective on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. The intramural pharmacy was established around the year 1680, and was practised to 1822. The article identifies the capuchin pharmacists and their line of succession. Pharmaceutical literature from the monastic library is listed and described, including rare manuscripts. The preserved high baroque equipment of the pharmacy is described in detail, and an iconography analysis of the hidden meaning of its unique decoration is offered.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins monastic pharmacies baroque. PMID:26400231

  1. Methodology of C factor verification in conditions of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorakova, T.; Dostal, T.; David, V.; Kavka, P.; Krasa, J.; Koudelka, P.

    2012-04-01

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely used tool for the assessment of soil erosion in the Czech Republic as well as in many other countries. C factor is one of the six factors composing USLE. This factor represents vegetation cover and management on agricultural land. Its values were derived based on a comparison of the soil loss from a plot with given crops and management and the soil loss which is tilled as continuously fallow. The influence of vegetation cover on the soil loss varies during the vegetation season and it is important to determine the representative value of C factor for each vegetative stage. The year is, according to the original methodology, divided into 5 or 6 periods. Expected protective effect for each of these periods is calculated separately. The value of C factor was first published in the Czech Republic in 1984 and since then has never been revised. The values were taken from a USA catalog and it is uncertain how our conditions were verified. But in fact the C factor is very dependent on the technologies or climates in that particular country. The agriculture crops are cultivated [bred] and their protective effect may be different. For some crops there is no C factor value at all. The Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering CTU in Prague has dealt with the protection of soil and water for many years. For several years it has operated an experimental basin in which there are three erosion plots identical to those where the USLE was derived. On these plots the value of C factor can be measured very easily, but it would take a very long time to compile the new catalog of these values. The Department acquired a mobile rainfall simulator to quickly obtain a larger set of data. Parameters of the instrument and methodology of determination of individual C factor values using the mobile rainfall simulator are subject to contribution. The water erosion affects most the rainfall event

  2. Overview of healthcare system in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare system in the Czech Republic underwent and still is undergoing dramatic changes since the Velvet revolution in 1989. History of the Czech healthcare system, main healthcare laws, and the current status of healthcare documented in the main healthcare indicators is described based on the several main sources as well as delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in healthcare system. The material is based mainly on Czech Health Statistics 2009, and HiT Summary, Health Care Systems in Translation, 2005, public information of Ministry of Health CR. PMID:22738178

  3. Finite-fault slip model of the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake from regional waveforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The slip model for the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake is inferred using a linear least squares methodology. Waveforms of six aftershocks recorded at 21 regional stations are used as empirical Green's functions (EGFs). The solution indicates two large slip patches: one located around the hypocenter with a depth range of 3–5.5 km; the other located to the southwest of the epicenter with a depth range from 7.5 to 9.5 km. The total moment of the solution is estimated at 3.37 × 1024 dyne cm (Mw 5.65). The peak slip and average stress drop for the source at the hypocenter are 70 cm and 90 bars, respectively, approximately one half the values for the Mw 5.8 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. The stress drop averaged over all areas of slip is 16 bars. The relatively low peak slip and stress drop may indicate an induced component in the origin of the Prague earthquake from deep fluid injection.

  4. Finite-fault slip model of the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma earthquake from regional waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaodan; Hartzell, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    The slip model for the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake is inferred using a linear least squares methodology. Waveforms of six aftershocks recorded at 21 regional stations are used as empirical Green's functions (EGFs). The solution indicates two large slip patches: one located around the hypocenter with a depth range of 3-5.5 km; the other located to the southwest of the epicenter with a depth range from 7.5 to 9.5 km. The total moment of the solution is estimated at 3.37 × 1024 dyne cm (Mw 5.65). The peak slip and average stress drop for the source at the hypocenter are 70 cm and 90 bars, respectively, approximately one half the values for the Mw 5.8 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. The stress drop averaged over all areas of slip is 16 bars. The relatively low peak slip and stress drop may indicate an induced component in the origin of the Prague earthquake from deep fluid injection.

  5. Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brát, L.; Zejda, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present activities of Czech variable star observers organized in the Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of the Czech Astronomical Society. We work in four observing projects: B.R.N.O. - eclipsing binaries, MEDUZA - intrinsic variable stars, TRESCA - transiting exoplanets and candidates, HERO - objects of high energy astrophysics. Detailed information together with O-C gate (database of eclipsing binaries minima timings) and OEJV (Open European Journal on Variable stars) are available on our internet portal http://var.astro.cz.

  6. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R

    2015-09-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented. PMID:26448298

  7. Application of Subspace Detection to the 6 November 2011 M5.6 Prague, Oklahoma Aftershock Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, N. D.; Benz, H.; Johnson, C. E.; Aster, R. C.; McNamara, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Subspace detection is a powerful tool for the identification of small seismic events. Subspace detectors improve upon single-event matched filtering techniques by using multiple orthogonal waveform templates whose linear combinations characterize a range of observed signals from previously identified earthquakes. Subspace detectors running on multiple stations can significantly increasing the number of locatable events, lowering the catalog's magnitude of completeness and thus providing extraordinary detail on the kinematics of the aftershock process. The 6 November 2011 M5.6 earthquake near Prague, Oklahoma is the largest earthquake instrumentally recorded in Oklahoma history and the largest earthquake resultant from deep wastewater injection. A M4.8 foreshock on 5 November 2011 and the M5.6 mainshock triggered tens of thousands of detectable aftershocks along a 20 km splay of the Wilzetta Fault Zone known as the Meeker-Prague fault. In response to this unprecedented earthquake, 21 temporary seismic stations were deployed surrounding the seismic activity. We utilized a catalog of 767 previously located aftershocks to construct subspace detectors for the 21 temporary and 10 closest permanent seismic stations. Subspace detection identified more than 500,000 new arrival-time observations, which associated into more than 20,000 locatable earthquakes. The associated earthquakes were relocated using the Bayesloc multiple-event locator, resulting in ~7,000 earthquakes with hypocentral uncertainties of less than 500 m. The relocated seismicity provides unique insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of the aftershock sequence along the Wilzetta Fault Zone and its associated structures. We find that the crystalline basement and overlying sedimentary Arbuckle formation accommodate the majority of aftershocks. While we observe aftershocks along the entire 20 km length of the Meeker-Prague fault, the vast majority of earthquakes were confined to a 9 km wide by 9 km deep

  8. CIVITAS@PRAGUE/1995 Viewed from Afar: A New Meaning for "World-Class Standards" in Education. Working Papers in Education, ED-95-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, R. Freeman

    This paper describes the importance of the CIVITAS@Prague meeting in June 1995. The conference provided a much-needed look at the role of education in the future of world peace. This international conference of educators is likely to affect world history in the obvious ways that international meetings of diplomatic, military, or financial leaders…

  9. Early stages of pediatric bipolar disorder: retrospective analysis of a Czech inpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Michal; Novak, Tomas; Vesela, Marie; Hlavka, Zdenek; Brunovsky, Martin; Povazan, Michal; Ptacek, Radek; Sebela, Antonin

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 30%–60% of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) report onset between the ages 15 and 19 years; however, a correct diagnosis is often delayed by several years. Therefore, investigations of the early features of BD are important for adequately understanding the prodromal stages of the illness. Methods A complete review of the medical records of 46 children and adolescents who were hospitalized for BD at two psychiatric teaching centers in Prague, Czech Republic was performed. Frequency of BD in all inpatients, age of symptom onset, phenomenology of mood episodes, lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, differences between very-early-onset (<13 years of age) and early-onset patients (13–18 years), and differences between the offspring of parents with and without BD were analyzed. Results The sample represents 0.83% of the total number of inpatients (n=5,483) admitted during the study period at both centers. BD often started with depression (56%), followed by hypomania (24%) and mixed episodes (20%). The average age during the first mood episode was 14.9 years (14.6 years for depression and 15.6 years for hypomania). Seven children (15%) experienced their first mood episode before age 13 years (very early onset). Traumatic events, first-degree relatives with mood disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly more frequent in the very-early-onset group vs the early-onset group (13–18 years) (P≤0.05). The offspring of bipolar parents were significantly younger at the onset of the first mood episode (13.2 vs 15.4 years; P=0.02) and when experiencing the first mania compared to the offspring of non-BD parents (14.3 vs 15.9 years; P=0.03). Anxiety disorders, substance abuse, specific learning disabilities, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were the most frequent lifetime comorbid conditions. Conclusion Clinicians must be aware of the potential for childhood BD onset in patients who suffer from

  10. [Pharmaceutical history of capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčan Part II. Capuchin balsam (Balsamum capucinorum)].

    PubMed

    Nesměrák, Karel; Kunešová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    The history of traditional capuchin balsam is the focal point of the second part of the article on the unknown history of pharmacy at the capuchin monastery in Prague-Hradčany. Capuchin balsam, a medicinal speciality, was being manufactured in the monastery from the end of the 18th century till the year 1950. It is a spirit tincture, its prescription originating from the formulation by Oswald Croll. Balsamum Peruvianum, Gummiresina myrrha, Gummiresina olibanum, and Styrax are the main ingredients, besides assorted plants. The balsam was taken as an antiseptic, antiphlogistic, and analgesic. The balsam was a favoured rustic medicine, and it was sold also abroad (Germany, Poland, USA, Ireland, Belgium). The profit made from the sale of the balsam supported the reconstruction and the maintenance of the monastery and the local theological studies. Other medical formulations connected with the name of the capuchin order are also mentioned.Key words: pharmaceutical history capuchins capuchin balsam monastics pharmacies.

  11. [The age of formation of Czech clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Sváb, J

    2002-11-22

    Era of Emperor Francis Joseph I is said to be a golden age for the Czech nation. It can be found in numerous panegyric articles to any jubilee of the emperor's rule. What was formally dictated by respect brought by education and by the system of the Greek and Roman tradition adopted in Austria in Middle Ages, seams to be valid today as most of the contemporary technical and economical progress roots within those days. The Czech cultures namely music and art reached international acknowledgement. Though with difficulties, Czech achieved in education and in science as a full-fledged language. After the year 1848 an average citizen was entitled to such freedom as never before. Technical, economical and cultural progress enabled real ascent of the Czech society and its social differentiation. In sixties, after the Austria-Hungary Alignment, Hapsburg government undertook no serious restrains. Such development was nothing unusual. Similar one underwent after the period of storms all European societies from south to north and form west to east. They brought ideas of the French revolution and years 1848/1849 are therefore called "the spring of European nations". In all countries where revolutionary ideas were represented and various countermeasures were accepted, governments were forced to accept temporary arrangements (in Austrian monarchy it was the promise of constitution, language compromise etc.). Nevertheless, in the second half of the 19th century the most important condition for further revival was the long period of peace and stability of international relations. The internal stability of the Austrian monarchy was achieved for long time by the Austria-Hungary Alignment in 1867. After the lost battle at Hradec Kralove in summer 1866 it became clear that contemporary centralistic organization of the state, balancing between absolutism and constitutionalism is not further tenable. Years long pressure of patriotic forces in the parliament brought about division of the

  12. [The age of formation of Czech clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Sváb, J

    2002-11-22

    Era of Emperor Francis Joseph I is said to be a golden age for the Czech nation. It can be found in numerous panegyric articles to any jubilee of the emperor's rule. What was formally dictated by respect brought by education and by the system of the Greek and Roman tradition adopted in Austria in Middle Ages, seams to be valid today as most of the contemporary technical and economical progress roots within those days. The Czech cultures namely music and art reached international acknowledgement. Though with difficulties, Czech achieved in education and in science as a full-fledged language. After the year 1848 an average citizen was entitled to such freedom as never before. Technical, economical and cultural progress enabled real ascent of the Czech society and its social differentiation. In sixties, after the Austria-Hungary Alignment, Hapsburg government undertook no serious restrains. Such development was nothing unusual. Similar one underwent after the period of storms all European societies from south to north and form west to east. They brought ideas of the French revolution and years 1848/1849 are therefore called "the spring of European nations". In all countries where revolutionary ideas were represented and various countermeasures were accepted, governments were forced to accept temporary arrangements (in Austrian monarchy it was the promise of constitution, language compromise etc.). Nevertheless, in the second half of the 19th century the most important condition for further revival was the long period of peace and stability of international relations. The internal stability of the Austrian monarchy was achieved for long time by the Austria-Hungary Alignment in 1867. After the lost battle at Hradec Kralove in summer 1866 it became clear that contemporary centralistic organization of the state, balancing between absolutism and constitutionalism is not further tenable. Years long pressure of patriotic forces in the parliament brought about division of the

  13. Droughts in the Czech Lands: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    The presentation highlights main results of the InterDrought project (2013-2015), which includes several Czech universities and research institutes, and also shows overview of multidisciplinary scientific monograph on drought. The basic data sources consisting of instrumental, documentary, tree-ring and satellite data are presented. Selected drought indices (SPI, SPEI, Z-index and PDSI) calculated from homogenised Czech temperature and precipitation series are used to describe spatial and temporal variability of droughts in the Czech Lands for the 1804-2010 period including selection of drought extreme episodes and their detail description with respect to meteorological and synoptic patterns and impacts as well. Analysis of droughts prior 1804 is based on documentary data and oak tree-ring widths used for compilation of 500-year Czech drought chronology. The occurrence of extreme droughts is further analysed with respect to sea-level pressure patterns in the Atlantic-European area, climate forcings and changes in land-use. Examples of agricultural and hydrological droughts are mentioned. High resolution soil moisture models are used to estimate drought trends in last five decades as well as estimate future development of droughts in the Czech Republic. Overview represented by this paper will be complemented by several individual detail studies of other InterDrought Team members.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen over Czech forests: refinement of estimation of dry deposition for unmeasured nitrogen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunova, Iva; Stoklasova, Petra; Kurfurst, Pavel; Vlcek, Ondrej; Schovankova, Jana

    2014-05-01

    + with 0.003 g.m-2.year-1, were negligible. If we summarized all nitrogen species considered, the dry deposition over most part of the CR was as high as 3.1 g.m-2.year-1, indicating six-fold higher deposition as compared to the value reported by Ostatnická (2009). Preliminary verification comparing measured and modeled wet deposition (particularly N/NO3- and N/NH4+) indicated that modeled values were two times lower for N/NO3-, and three times lower for N/NH4+ as compared to measured values. Substitution of unmeasured nitrogen species by modeled values seems to be a plausible way for approximation of total nitrogen deposition, and getting more realistic spatial pattern for further studies of likely nitrogen impacts on ecosystems. Acknowledgements: We would like acknowledge the grant NAZV QI112A168 (ForSoil) of the Czech Ministry for Agriculture for partial support of this contribution. The input data used for the analysis were provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. References: ESSS (2011): AirWare On-line Reference Manual. Simulation Models: CAMx (25.4.2013). http://www.ess.co.at/MANUALS/AIRWARE/PDF/CAMx.pdf. Flechard C.R., Nemitz E., Smith R I., Fowler D., Vermeulen A.T., Bleeker A., Erisman J.W., Simpson D., Zhang L., Tang Y.S., Sutton M.A. (2011): Dry deposition of reactive nitrogen to European ecosystems: a comparison of inferential models across the Nitro-Europe network. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 2703-2728. Hůnová I. (2001): Spatial Interpretation of ambient air quality for the territory of the Czech Republic. Environmental Pollution 112/2, 107-119. Hůnová I., Maznová J., Kurfurst P. (2014): Trends in atmospheric deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen in Czech forests. Environmental Pollution 184, 668-675. Ostatnická J., ed. (2009): Air Pollution in the Czech Republic in 2012. Prague, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Vlček O., Corbet L. (2011): Porovnání výstupů Eulerovského modelu CAMx s měřeními ze staniční s

  15. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  17. The State of Knowledge Management in Czech Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maresova, P.; Hedvicakova, M.

    In the globalised world, Czech economy faces many challenges brought by the processes of integration. The crucial factors for companies that want to succeed in the global competition are knowledge and abilities to use the knowledge in the best possible way. The purpose of the work is a familiarization with the results of a questionnaire survey with the topic of "Research of the state of knowledge management in companies in the Czech Republic" realized in the spring 2009 in the cooperation of the University of Hradec Králové and the consulting company Per Partes Consulting, Ltd under the patronage of the European Union.

  18. From Ethnocultural Pride to Promoting the Texas Czech Vernacular: Current Maintenance Efforts and Unexplored Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lida

    2011-01-01

    Texas Czech is a product of over a century and a half of contact between Moravian Czech and English in Texas. While Texans of this descent have largely maintained a sense of distinctive ethnic identity and have creatively re-authenticated their ancestors' traditions into a unique Texas Czech culture, their language is now on the verge of…

  19. Feedback in Educational Communication in Czech Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedova, Klara; Svaricek, Roman

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an empirical study that examines how teachers evaluate pupils' responses. The study draws on research undertaken at four secondary schools in the Czech Republic. It transpires that feedback has a stable position in the structure of communication; however, it is used only to verify pupils' responses and not to elaborate them.…

  20. [Development and current utility of infobases in Czech cancer care].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of health care is an integral part of modern health care. It can only be performed with sufficiently detailed data sources describing each segment of care. In case of significant heterogeneity and lack of standardization of hospital information systems it is necessary to fully exploit existing parametric data sources. The valid systems for Czech cancer care: the National Cancer Registry, clinical registries of Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J.E. Purkyne, registries of screening programs and administrative data form healthcare payers. From these registries we can obtain a very complex and detailed view on prevention, diagnosis and cancer treatment in the Czech Republic. To achieve this goal, which means more integrated and comprehensive utilization of national registries, surveys and administrative data, it is necessary to fully utilize and apply the current legislative framework, in particular provision of the Act no. 372/2011 Sb.Key words: clinical registry - evaluation of health care - information system - legislation - malignant tumor - population. PMID:25389092

  1. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  2. Listening to Authentic Czech. Authentic Listening Proficiency-Based Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Privorotsky-Kabat, Grazyna

    The set of materials for development of listening skills in Czech is designed for students with advanced language proficiency and is intended to be used with cassette tapes (not included here) to supplement other instructional materials. It consists of 20 units grouped into 2 levels (advanced and advanced plus). At each level there are 10 units,…

  3. School Psychology in the Czech Republic: Development, Status and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavenská, Veronika; Smékalová, Eleonora; Šmahaj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This intensive exploratory research maps the working conditions of school psychologists in the Czech Republic. An electronic questionnaire consisting of 71 questions (58 quantitative, 13 qualitative) from nine fields was used as a research tool. The respondent sample ("N"?=?63; 53 females, 10 males) indicate that they are largely…

  4. On the Morphology of Transitivity and Intransitivity in Czech Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plewes, S. Frank

    This paper examines the formal means by which Czech distinguishes transitive and intransitive verbs, and specifically the role of the particle "se" in the process usually called "derived intransitivization.""Se" is shown to perform a number of functions which preclude its being called simply an "intransitivizing particle." By way of comparison, a…

  5. Innovation and Education Policy in SMEs: A Czech Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd-Reason, Lester; Muller, Karel; Wall, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Czech government implemented policies to enhance the role of small/medium-sized enterprises in innovation, including grants, subsidies, and tax credits. Education and training have focused on information/communications technologies. Future policy developments must be guided by trends in the global knowledge-based economy as…

  6. Extent Matters: Exposure to Sexual Material among Czech Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…

  7. The Academic Voice in English and Czech Higher Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertova, Patricie; Webster, Len

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to report on a research project investigating the academic voice in higher education quality in the UK and the Czech Republic. It aims to describe the origins and reasons for introducing quality monitoring and assurance into higher education, showing the differences and impacts on higher education quality in England…

  8. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  9. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  10. Low stress drops observed for M1.5-5.6 Earthquakes During the 2011 Prague, Oklahoma sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Sumy, D. F.; Neighbors, C.; Keranen, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    In November 2011, three M≥4.8 earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks occurred along the structurally complex Wilzetta fault system near Prague, Oklahoma. Previous studies suggest that fluid injection in nearby wells was responsible for inducing the M4.8 foreshock [Keranen et al., 2013], which subsequently triggered the M5.6 mainshock [Sumy et al., 2014]. We examine earthquake source properties using waveforms collected by 47 temporary and permanent seismic stations installed within ~100 km of the events. Brune stress drops are calculated for a subset of 278 aftershocks of the Prague, Oklahoma sequence that range in magnitude from M1.0-4.9. We compute the horizontal amplitude spectra and smooth the spectra with a Konno and Ohmachi [1998] filter. We then assume a standard Brune source spectral model and iteratively solve for seismic moment (Mo), corner frequency (fc) and kappa (κ) using a Gauss-Newton method. We are able to recover reasonably fit Mo, fc, and κ for 172 earthquakes, but find the Mo determined by spectra fit are consistently overestimated for events with M<1.5. Therefore only stress drops for the 149 events with initial Mo > 1.5 are reported. The median stress drop is ~0.3 MPa (3 bars), which is significantly lower than typical values (10+ MPa) observed for CEUS events. We find minimal dependence of stress drop on focal depth for the depth range from 1-10 km. However, we observe some spatial variation of stress drops, with higher stress drops observed near the intersection of the mainshock rupture plane with the fault plane associated with the M4.8 aftershock. The low stress drops observed for events on both the foreshock and mainshock fault plane may indicate both of these segments of the Wilzetta fault system were influenced by local wastewater injection. Our results echo those of several recent studies [Hough, 2014; Sun and Hartzell, 2014], which conclude that induced earthquakes have lower stress drops than tectonic events.

  11. International intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived daughter products in the NRPI Prague.

    PubMed

    Jílek, K; Hýža, M; Kotík, L; Thomas, J; Tomášek, L

    2014-07-01

    During the 7th European Conference on Protection Against Radon at Home and at Work held in the autumn of 2013 in Prague, the second intercomparison of measuring instruments for radon and its short-lived decay products and the first intercomparison of radon/thoron gas discriminative passive detectors in mix field of radon/thoron were organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. In total, 14 laboratories from 11 different countries took part in the 2013 NRPI intercomparison. They submitted both continuous monitors for the measurement of radon gas and equivalent equilibrium radon concentration in a big NRPI chamber (48 m3) and sets of passive detectors including radon/thoron discriminative for the measurement of radon gas in the big chamber and thoron gas in a small thoron chamber (150 dm3).

  12. List of prints of leading Prague astronomers of the 16th - 17th century in the historical libraries in Bohemia and Moravia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horský, Z.; Tenorová, D.

    This publication presents a bibliography of the works of nine leading scholars of the Prague astronomical centre, about 1600. The following authors are taken into account: Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Jan Jessenius z Velké Jeseně, Tadeáš Hájek z Hájku, Martin Bacháček z Nauměřic, Martin Horký z Lochovic, Nicolaus Raimarus Ursus, Jost Bürgi, and David Gans.

  13. Toxicologically important trace elements and organic compounds investigated in size-fractionated urban particulate matter collected near the Prague highway.

    PubMed

    Sysalová, Jiřina; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Száková, Jiřina; Trejtnarová, Hana; Kotlík, Bohumil

    2012-10-15

    Urban particulate matter was collected in the most exposed area of Prague, near a busy highway, in order to provide petrographic and chemical characterization useful for health impact assessment in that locality or other applications. Samples were collected from filters of the air conditioning system in two years, 2009 and 2010, and sieved into four grain-size fractions: 0.507-0.119 mm, 0.119-0.063 mm, <0.063 mm and sub-fraction <0.025 mm. Methods of destructive and non-destructive analyses were used for the determination of total analyte (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) contents. Labile forms of some toxicologically important analytes were tested in 2 M HNO(3) extracted solutions. A composition of inorganic and carbonaceous particles of natural and anthropogenic origin and their morphology were studied by optical and electron microscopy. Organic solvent extracts of the samples were analyzed using gas chromatography to compare the organic compound distribution in fractions. Only slight differences between 2009 and 2010 years are visible. The relatively high extractable part of most investigated elements confirms mobility and potential availability to organisms. The changes can be recognized in the petrographic and organic composition in samples from both years, which were likely the result of various inputs of source materials. Specific organic marker compounds indicate contribution from fossil fuels, plant materials and bacteria.

  14. Effects of sudden air pressure changes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Prague, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Sudden weather changes have long been thought to be associated with negative impacts on human health, but relatively few studies have attempted to quantify these relationships. We use large 6-h changes in atmospheric pressure as a proxy for sudden weather changes and evaluate their association with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Winter and summer seasons and positive and negative pressure changes are analysed separately, using data for the city of Prague (population 1.2 million) over a 16-year period (1994-2009). We found that sudden pressure drops in winter are associated with significant rise in hospital admissions. Increased CVD morbidity was observed neither for pressure drops in summer nor pressure increases in any season. Analysis of synoptic weather maps shows that large pressure drops in winter are associated with strong zonal flow and rapidly moving low-pressure systems with centres over northern Europe and atmospheric fronts affecting western and central Europe. Analysis of links between passages of strong atmospheric fronts and hospital admissions, however, shows that the links disappear if weather changes are characterised by frontal passages. Sudden pressure drops in winter are associated also with significant excess CVD mortality. As climate models project strengthening of zonal circulation in winter and increased frequency of windstorms, the negative effects of such weather phenomena and their possible changes in a warmer climate of the twenty-first century need to be better understood, particularly as their importance in inducing excess morbidity and mortality in winter may increase compared to cold spells.

  15. Reverse transport of cholesterol is the reason for resistance to development of atherosclerosis in Prague Hereditary Hypercholesterolemic (PHHC) rat.

    PubMed

    Schmiedtova, M; Heczkova, M; Kovar, J; Kralova Lesna, I; Poledne, R

    2014-01-01

    The Prague Hereditary Hypercholesterolemic (PHHC) rat is a model of hypercholesterolemia. In previous experiments, it was found to be completely resistant to the development of atherosclerosis. It was assumed that the reverse transport of cholesterol (RCT) might be the reason for this resistance. In this study, RCT was measured in vivo by cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma, using previously established methods for RCT in mice (Rader 2003), optimized for measurements in rats. Primary cell culture of macrophages was labeled with (14)C-cholesterol and then injected intraperitoneally into rats. Plasma and feces were collected at 24 and 48 h. The plasma (14)C-cholesterol levels at both 24 and 48 h were significantly higher in male PHHC rats compared to control Wistar rats. The PHHC rats excreted less (14)C-cholesterol in feces in 24 and 48 h compared to Wistar rats. The largest pool of (14)C-cholesterol was found in the adipose tissue of PHHC rats and in contrast lower levels of (14)C-cholesterol were measured in the liver and muscle tissues of PHHC rats compared with Wistar rats. Increasing release of (14)C-cholesterol efflux from macrophages demonstrates accelerated RTC and leads to prevention of atherogenesis in PHHC rats.

  16. Effects of sudden air pressure changes on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Prague, 1994-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Sudden weather changes have long been thought to be associated with negative impacts on human health, but relatively few studies have attempted to quantify these relationships. We use large 6-h changes in atmospheric pressure as a proxy for sudden weather changes and evaluate their association with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Winter and summer seasons and positive and negative pressure changes are analysed separately, using data for the city of Prague (population 1.2 million) over a 16-year period (1994-2009). We found that sudden pressure drops in winter are associated with significant rise in hospital admissions. Increased CVD morbidity was observed neither for pressure drops in summer nor pressure increases in any season. Analysis of synoptic weather maps shows that large pressure drops in winter are associated with strong zonal flow and rapidly moving low-pressure systems with centres over northern Europe and atmospheric fronts affecting western and central Europe. Analysis of links between passages of strong atmospheric fronts and hospital admissions, however, shows that the links disappear if weather changes are characterised by frontal passages. Sudden pressure drops in winter are associated also with significant excess CVD mortality. As climate models project strengthening of zonal circulation in winter and increased frequency of windstorms, the negative effects of such weather phenomena and their possible changes in a warmer climate of the twenty-first century need to be better understood, particularly as their importance in inducing excess morbidity and mortality in winter may increase compared to cold spells.

  17. Minutes of the 30th Delegate Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Bert

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the topics covered in the resolutions passed by the House of Delegates including academic freedom, racial and ethnic content of instructional materials, research in social studies, early childhood/elementary social studies, instruction regarding religious freedom, apartheid, and astronaut Christa McAuliffe. (JDH)

  18. Facial soft tissue thicknesses in the present Czech Population.

    PubMed

    Drgáčová, Anna; Dupej, Ján; Velemínská, Jana

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find any relation between soft facial tissue thickness (FSTT) and sex, age and asymmetry in the contemporary Czech population. The studied sample consisted of head CT scans of 102 adult Czech individuals between the ages of 21 and 83. Forty FSTTs were evaluated and analysed using PCA, Hotelling's T(2) test, LDA, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, MANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon's paired test. The greatest sexual dimorphism was detected in the lower part of the face, which had discriminant power almost the same as the entire faces (approximately 80%). On the other hand, a significant influence of aging was shown, mostly in the area of the upper face (In females, twice as many landmarks displayed a significant influence, compared with males). The influence of asymmetry was confirmed in seven bilateral landmarks, five of them favouring the right side.

  19. Teaching Czech to the international medical students: teamwork approach.

    PubMed

    Hrubantová, L; Vrbová, H

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of team teaching Medical Czech to international medical students as a part of the mandatory curricular subject the Czech language are discussed on the basis of ten years of experience with the applied pedagogical method. As the patient is involved in the team, principles of medical ethics are to be strictly observed by both the teachers and the students. In the teaching situation, the roles of the linguist and medical specialist are not interchangeable. The examination results show the normal distribution curve, but the process of language skills acquisition may be so far measured only by usual pedagogical methods without deeper knowledge of the inborn language capabilities, brain potential and psychological differences of individual students.

  20. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  1. The use of rubber dam among Czech dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kapitán, Martin; Sustová, Zdenka

    2011-01-01

    Rubber dam is considered an ideal device for tooth isolation. Nevertheless, its usage is quite rare in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study was: firstly, to gather and evaluate information regarding the use of rubber dam by dentists in the Czech Republic and to compare it with other countries; secondly to find out whether there are any influencing factors as to rubber dam usage; and finally to find out frequency of rubber dam use separately in endodontic treatment and in placing fillings of different materials. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Dentists filled in the questionnaires during dental conventions, educational events, conferences and congresses. Rubber dam was routinely used by less than eight per cent of the respondents (n = 35); less than twenty-two per cent of the respondents (n = 97) used rubber dam occasionally, and more than seventy per cent of the respondents (n = 317) has never use it. The results showed that rubber dam is not used frequently in the Czech Republic. If rubber dam is used, then it is typically for endodontic treatment or composite fillings. There were several factors with a statistically significant influence on the usage of rubber dam, such as gender, length of professional career, percentage of direct payments, previous experience in using rubber dam, and undergraduate training in rubber dam use.

  2. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  3. Contribution of the road traffic to air pollution in the Prague city (busy speedway and suburban crossroads)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondráček, J.; Schwarz, J.; Ždímal, V.; Andělová, L.; Vodička, P.; Bízek, V.; Tsai, C.-J.; Chen, S.-C.; Smolík, J.

    2011-09-01

    Two measurement campaigns near busy freeway and suburban crossroad (different traffic intensity) were carried out in Prague city. Both of the two traffic related campaigns were supported with simultaneous measurements at suburban background site to compare measured values with corresponding city background. Extensive set of aerosol instrumentation was used during both campaigns at both measurement sites. Two aerosol spectrometer sets (SMPS and APS) were used to monitor aerosol particle number size distribution. Two BLPI provided information about mass size distribution and chemical composition of collected size resolved aerosol samples. The crossroad campaign was also supported by two EC/OC field analysers providing information about elemental and organic carbon concentrations. Consequent chemical analysis of collected size resolved samples comprised of ion chromatography (water soluble ions), PIXE (elements) and RBS (carbon). Results obtained from spectrometers and BLPIs showed that the main contribution of traffic in ultrafine size range can be attributed to direct exhaust emissions, while the coarse fraction was dominated mainly by regional background aerosol with small traces of brake and tyre abrasion as well as the resuspension of the road dust. Chemical analysis demonstrated that most of the water soluble ions can be found in fine fraction of mass distribution and mostly comes from regional background and long range transport. Most of major elements were found in coarse fraction of mass size distribution and it can be attributed to three different sources: abrasion of different vehicle parts (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), resuspension of the road dust (Si, Al, Ca) and long range transport or regional background (Ca and K). Elemental carbon concentration (diesel engine emissions) was found to be proportional to traffic intensity.

  4. Significant differences in the incidence of orofacial clefts in fifty-two Czech districts between 1983 and 1997.

    PubMed

    Peterka, M; Peterková, R; Tvrdek, M; Kuderová, J; Likovský, Z

    2000-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1997 a total of 2029 children with CL/P (cleft lip, cleft lip and palate or cleft palate), who were born in the Bohemian districts of the Czech Republic and who underwent surgery and treatment at the Clinic of Plastic Surgery in Prague, were analysed. One possibility for decreasing the risk of delivery of a child with CL/P is to decrease or eliminate its prenatal exposure to embryotoxic factors. Detection of the embryotoxic factors acting at the individual level (e.g. elevated temperature, drug consumption, x-ray examination or infection) is easier than the detection of embryotoxic factors operating at the population level (e.g. water contamination, air pollution). When searching for the latter factors, we first have to reveal regional differences in CL/P incidence. The aim of the present paper was to determine significant differences in the mean incidence of newborns with CL/P in Bohemian districts during a 15 year period. The correlation between the incidence of CL/P and the birth rate in the different districts was also examined. The mean incidence of CL/P in all Bohemian districts was 1.86 per 1000 newborns (1.86/1000). Districts were divided into three groups, according to significant differences in the incidence of CL/P using a confidence interval. The lowest mean incidence of CL/P was detected in the Svitavy district (0.72/1000) and Louny (1.05/1000). The highest mean incidence was found in the Beroun district (2.86/1000). Besides Beroun, a high mean incidence of CL/P (more than 1.96/1000) was also found in Klatovy, Mĕlník, Tábor, Kolín, Semily, Ceská Lípa, Pardubice, Teplice, Ceský Krumlov, Sokolov, Chomutov, Praha-západ, Jicín, Rakovník, Kladno, Prachatice, Rokycany, Tachov, Liberec, Pelhrimov. Paradoxically, the districts with a higher or lower birth rate exhibited a lower (1.62/1000) or higher (1.92/1000) incidence of CL/P, respectively. Future studies should elucidate whether the significant regional differences in the

  5. [History of the 4th Department of Internal Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine at Charles University and the General University Hospital in Prague].

    PubMed

    Bartůněk, Petr

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the doctors and nurses of the 4th Department of Internal Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and the General University Hospital in Prague celebrated the 70th anniversary of its founding. The article summarizes the clinics contribution to the field of internal medicine, and particularly to angiology, hepatogastroenterology and lipidology. It comments the clinics current activities and the possibilities of its further development. Attention is also paid to the tradition of high ethical and professional standards of medical care in accordance with the norms established by the clinic's founder, prof. MUDr. Bohumil Prusík.

  6. Exposure and risk assessment of the Czech population to chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls using archived serum samples from the period 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Černá, Milena; Krsková, Andrea; Šmíd, Jiří; Malý, Marek

    2016-07-01

    The serum samples from the years 1970-1990 archived at the temperature of -20°C in the biobank primarily intended for serological survey performed in the CR since 1960 were pooled and analyzed for DDT, its metabolites, HCB, HCHs, and indicator PCB congeners using up-to-date GC/MS/MS methods to retrospectively assess health risks according to current health guidelines. Samples were pooled based on the decade of sampling, age, gender, and three geographical areas; in adults, one pooled samples consisted of ten and in children of twenty individual samples. Altogether 233 pooled samples were analyzed. For all organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), significant downward trends were observed in the period 1970-1990 (p<0.001). The levels of HCB exceeded the Biomonitoring Equivalent (BE) value. The hazard quotient (HQ) in Prague and Ostrava during the 1970s and 1980s was about 40 and in the 1990s it had dropped to about five. In Uherské Hradiště, the HQ in 1975 was one order of magnitude higher (about 170), and had decreased to approximately 12 by 1987. For both HCB and the DDT sum, the BE-related carcinogenic risk of actual concentrations in the past exceeded significantly the individually accepted cancer risk level of 10(-4). The levels of the main PCB congeners in the 1970s through 1990s revealed an upward time trend in all analyzed strata. The highest concentrations were found in the serum of residents from the hot-spot area Uherské Hradiště. Critical PCB sum concentration levels (700ng/g lipid for vulnerable population groups and 1800ng/g lipid for other population groups) were substantially exceeded with an increasing time trend. PCB sum had exceeded HBM II values of 7μg/L of serum since 1980 in all age strata. In conclusion, the body burden of the Czech general population relative to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the period 1970 through 1990 significantly exceeded currently existing health based limit values. The past exposure might adversely affect the

  7. Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    linear model of position changes of test point coordinates based on results of the permanent and epoch observations had been performed. Then, applying linear site velocities, the surface deformation model for the Sudeten area was compiled. Results of this research constitute the base both for recognizing tectonic impacts to the area and for potential hazard assessments. This research had been granted by the Polish National Science Centre, project No. N526 278940, and accomplished in cooperation of specialists from the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague and the Polish State Geological Institute, Lower Silesia Branch in Wroclaw.

  8. Unravelling Orbital Climatic Cycles from Devonian Magnetic Susceptibility Signal - The Quest for a Better Age Model for the Lochkovian and Pragian Stages (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, A. C.; Chadimova, L.; Hladil, J.; Slavik, L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. When shown to reflect a detrital signal, which is influenced by climatic variations, Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) has been proven as a useful tool for identifying climatic cycles; which can subsequently be used to improve the time scale. Here, we focus on two sections from the Prague Synform (Czech Republic) cutting through the Lochkovian, Pragian and the lower part of the Emsian. Sedimentation is rhythmic, dominated by slightly clayey offshore limestones, being mostly calciturbidites and hemipelagites. We provide hysteresis analysis in order to get insight into the nature and the origin of the magnetic minerals driving the variation in the MS signal. The results point to a MS signal mostly carried by clay minerals. Subsequently, to improve estimation of the duration of the stages, we apply different spectral analysis techniques on this MS signal. From the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), Evolutive Harmonic Analysis (EHA) and field observations, we subdivide the section into portions with a steady sedimentation rate (a first estimate of this rate is also delivered by these analyzes). Then, we apply Multitaper Method (MTM) and Multitaper harmonic Analysis (F-test) and extract the frequencies reaching 95% Confidence Level. These frequencies are then implemented into the Average Spectral Misfit procedures (ASM) which enables comparison with orbital targets. By combining these different techniques, 405 kyr cyclicty is identifed, a powerful duration paleochronometer. These new results indicate a duration of 7.7 ± 2 Myr for the Lochkovian stage and of 1.7 Myr ± 1.4 for the Pragian stage (compared to respectively 8.4 ± 6 Myr and 3.2 ± 5.4 Myr in the 2012 Geological Time Scale).

  9. Unethical Behavior of the Students of the Czech University of Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dömeová, Ludmila; Jindrová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The cheating can be viewed as a major educational problem with a broad social concern. The unethical behaviour of students can crucially influence their qualification, future employment and manners in their professional carrier. The contribution investigates the unethical behaviour of the students of the University of Life Sciences in Prague. The…

  10. Differences between Czech and Slovak Economic Higher Education from 1945 to 1953

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalupecký, Petr; Johnson, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of economic higher education in Czechoslovakia from 1945 to 1953, ie before the emergence of new economic universities with the same name: University of Economics (Vysoká škola ekonomická) in Prague and Bratislava. Its aim is to determine possible similarities and differences in economic education between the…

  11. GPR use and activities in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek

    2014-05-01

    In the field of civil engineering applications in the Czech Republic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used particularly for the diagnostics of roads and bridges. There is no producer of GPR in the Czech Republic, sets of different producers are used, particularly Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (USA) and MALÅ GeoScience (Sweden). The measurement results are mostly processed by software Radan, Road Doctor Pro, ReflexW and RadEx. The only technical specification in the Czech Republic is TP 233 issued by the Ministry of Transport, which describes the diagnostics of roads by GPR. Apart from a basic description of the method and a measurement system, it mentions possible applications. The only application where accuracy is mentioned is the locating of dowels and tie bars in concrete road pavements, which states that if calibration is performed, the expected depth accuracy is up to 1.0 cm. The following R&D project is currently in progress: New diagnostics methods as a supporting decision tool for maintenance and repair of road pavements - their contribution and ways of their usage (2012-2014) The project aims to test possible non-destructive methods (particularly GPR and laser scanning), make recommendations when and how to use specific methods for individual applications and for changes in technical specifications. The following R&D projects have been recently completed: Position of dowels and tie bars in rigid pavements and importance of their correct placement to pavement performance and service life (2012-2013) The project included an analysis of individual NDT methods used for the location of dowels and tie bars and for testing of their accuracy - GPR, MIT-scan and GPR in combination with a metal detector. Multichannel ground penetrating radar as a tool for monitoring of road and bridge structures (2009-2011) The project included detection of hollow spaces under non-reinforced concrete pavements, detection of excessive amount of water in road construction

  12. Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Czech drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Dolejs, P; Ditrich, O; Machula, T; Kalousková, N; Puzová, G

    2000-01-01

    In Czech raw water sources for drinking water supply, Cryptosporidium was found in numbers from 0 to 7400 per 100 liters and Giardia from 0 to 485 per 100 liters. The summer floods of 1997 probably brought the highest numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts into one of the reservoirs sampled; since then these numbers decreased steadily. A relatively high number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was found in one sample of treated water. Repeated sampling demonstrated that this was a sporadic event. The reason for the presence of Cryptosporidium in a sample of treated drinking-water is unclear and requires further study.

  13. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  14. Word Order and Information Structure in Czech 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment that examined the comprehension of transitive sentences in Czech children and its relationship to case marking, word order and information structure. A total of 107 Czech children aged 2;9-4;5 were tested for comprehension of noun-verb-noun sentences in which word order and given-new status of individual nouns…

  15. Policies to Promote Innovation in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 498

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The Czech government considers innovation policy a key component of the effort to improve the business environment. This paper underscores the importance for the Czech Republic of expanding R&D activities that have a potential for commercial innovation. It also points to the relevance of good general business conditions in encouraging research and…

  16. Teachers and School Culture in the Czech Republic before and after 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of research on school culture in post-totalitarian society in the Czech Republic. The research explored restructuralisation and reculturalisation in the Czech school education system through analysis of school culture in one school located in a midsized town in the central part of the country. In-depth…

  17. "We Treat Them All the Same, But…". Disappearing Ethnic Homogeneity in Czech Classrooms and Teachers' Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarkovská, Lucie; Lišková, Katerina; Obrovská, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the Czech education system is structured to operate in an ethnically homogeneous society. Although the Czech Republic is becoming increasingly heterogeneous, teachers deploy discursive practices of "sameness despite difference" that obscure such growing diversity. This article is grounded in the historical…

  18. 75 FR 2858 - Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic AGENCY... Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic. DoD is requesting industry feedback regarding its experience in public defense procurements conducted by or on behalf of the...

  19. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  20. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education: The Case of Schools of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placek, Michal; Ochrana, František; Pucek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of benchmarking in universities in the Czech Republic and academics' experiences with it. It is based on research conducted among academics from economics schools in Czech public and private universities. The results identified several issues regarding the utilisation and understanding of benchmarking in the Czech…

  1. Czech cryogenic fluid dynamics inspired by Russ Donnelly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrbek, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Following nearly five years of work along with Russ in Eugene on cryogenic turbulent convection and quantum grid turbulence, two laboratories in Prague and in Brno have been established to continue experimental research in cryogenic fluid dynamics using all three forms of cryogenic 4He - cold helium gas, normal liquid He I and superfluid He - as excellent multi-purpose working fluids. We review some of our investigations of very high Rayleigh number cryogenic thermal convection and classical and quantum turbulence in liquid helium. In particular, we discuss heat transfer efficiency of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection and the role of non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq conditions on possible transition to its ultimate regime; our second sound attenuation experiments probing both steady state and decaying coflow, counterflow and pure superflow of He II through channels of square cross-section including the concept of effective kinematic viscosity. We then introduce visualization experiments of classical and quantum flows of liquid helium using micron-size hydogen/deuterium particles and our recent results on transition to quantum turbulence based on the revisited experiments with a torsionally oscillating disc. Supported by GACR P203/11/0442 and 203/14/02005S.

  2. The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Marie; Holasova, Marie; Maskova, Eva

    2013-10-01

    The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database (FCDB) was launched on http://www.czfcdb.cz in December 2010 as a main freely available channel for dissemination of Czech food composition data. The application is based on a complied FCDB documented according to the EuroFIR standardised procedure for full value documentation and indexing of foods by the LanguaL™ Thesaurus. A content management system was implemented for administration of the website and performing data export (comma-separated values or EuroFIR XML transport package formats) by a compiler. Reference/s are provided for each published value with linking to available freely accessible on-line sources of data (e.g. full texts, EuroFIR Document Repository, on-line national FCDBs). LanguaL™ codes are displayed within each food record as searchable keywords of the database. A photo (or a photo gallery) is used as a visual descriptor of a food item. The application is searchable on foods, components, food groups, alphabet and a multi-field advanced search.

  3. Experiences of the first PICC team in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lisova, Katerina; Paulinova, Vendula; Zemanova, Katerina; Hromadkova, Jaroslava

    The first specialist nursing team placing peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in the Czech Republic was established in September 2012. During 2013 the team placed 167 PICCs and 162 midline catheters. In another 6 patients the insertion was not successful. PICCs were inserted mainly for oncology patients; while midline catheters were inserted for patients admitted to general wards. Average duration of catheter insertion was 91 days (range 7-285 days) for PICCs and 14 days (range 2-40 days) for midline catheters. During follow up of PICCs, catheter infection rate was 0.3/1000 days, vein thrombosis rate 0.4/1000 days, catheter occlusion 0.4/1000 days, and catheter displacement 0.33/1000 days. For midline catheters infection rate was 1.4/1000 days, vein thrombosis 5.2/1000 days, catheter occlusion 2.6/1000 days, and catheter displacement 2.2/1000 days. The authors hope that these results will motivate other hospitals in the Czech republic to establish PICC teams, as in other European countries.

  4. Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR) is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison. Results Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves. Conclusions The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females. PMID:22472123

  5. Climate forcings of past droughts in the Czech Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikšovský, Jiří; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    Frequency and intensity of local droughts is governed by a complex interaction of diverse processes, originating from internal dynamics of the climate system as well as its responses to external forcings. Separating and quantifying the effects of individual drought-inducing agents is a nontrivial task, often approached via statistical methods. In this presentation, we employ multiple linear regression to identify components attributable to various forcing factors, both external (solar irradiance, volcanic activity, anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols) and internal (NAO, ENSO, AMO), in the monthly series of selected drought indices (PDSI, Z-index, SPI, SPEI) calculated for the territory of the recent Czech Republic during the 1883-2010 period. Moving block bootstrap is used for evaluation of the statistical significance of the results. Our analysis, carried out for drought index series characterizing a country-wide average as well as ten individual locations, suggests presence of a distinct component correlated with anthropogenic forcing (driven largely by the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases) in the temperature-sensitive drought indices (PDSI, Z-index, SPEI). There are also indications of an influence of major volcanic eruptions in some of the Czech drought series, whereas variations of solar activity do not seem to leave a significant imprint. Of the major oscillatory modes in the climate system, North Atlantic Oscillation can be linked to a relatively strong component in most of the drought characteristics. Effects of ENSO, while generally weaker and scattered, are also detectable. No significant relation to Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation phase was found.

  6. Theory and practice of informed consent in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Krizova, Eva; Simek, Jiri

    2007-05-01

    The large-scale change of Czech society since 1989 has involved the democratic transformation of the health system. To empower the patient was one important goal of the healthcare reform launched immediately after the Velvet Revolution. The process has been enhanced by the accession of the Czech Republic to the European Union and the adoption of important European conventions regulating the area. The concept of informed consent and a culture of negotiation are being inserted into a traditionally paternalistic culture. Our article describes the current situation on the issue of the communication of information on state of health and treatment, and on the question of the participation of the patient in decisions on treatment. We present empirical results of a public opinion survey on this issue. The results show a still prevailing submissive attitude towards the physicians, despite the fact that the concept of informed consent has become more and more publicly familiar (42% of respondents gave the completely correct answer regarding informed consent). The impact of age, education and sex on answers to the questionnaire was analysed. Men, younger and more educated respondents were more likely to show the autonomous attitude, whereas women, older and less educated people tended to show the traditional submissive attitude. Further, our article raises the question of the cultural and historical background within which the current ethically and legally binding norms (products of western democracies, in fact) are interpreted. The question is how far cultural modifications are tolerable in the practical implementation of universal ethical constructs (informed consent).

  7. The National Register of Joint Replacements of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vavřík, P; Landor, I; Popelka, S; Fialka, R; Hach, J

    2014-01-01

    The National Register of Joint Replacements of the Czech Republic was established as part of the National Health Information System in 2002. The register's administrator is the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic, the Czech Society for Orthopaedics and Traumatology acts as its guarantor of scientific quality. The register is financed from governmental sources. It was launched into full operation in 2003 and it currently focuses on hip joint replacements. Register of knee and shoulder joint replacements is in the process of preparation. The register provides aggregate epidemiological data and other statistics, including the Revision Rate (RR) and curves of cumulative survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the main monitored groups of patients and implants used. In years 2003-2012 there were 101,734 primary implantations and 13,459 revision surgeries registered. In terms of gender distribution there is a predominance of females amounting to 59.4% in primary implantations and to 63.49% in revision surgeries. The age structure covers the entire range of adult population; however, more than 50% of the replacements are being implanted between 60-74 years of age. Most frequent indications for primary implantation are primary coxarthrosis (69.85%), post-fracture conditions (13.41%) and post-dysplasia arthritis (8.73%). The most frequent indications for revision surgery are aseptic loosening of acetabular component (38.15%), aseptic loosening of femoral component (22.01%) and recurrent dislocation (6.5%). 45,450 (44.68%) of primary implantations were cemented, 36,477 (35.86%) uncemented, 16,559 (16.28%) hybrid with cemented femur and 656 (0.64%) hybrid with cemented acetabulum. There were also records of 2,592 cervicocapital prostheses (2.55%). Most commonly used is the classic anterolateral approach 75.86% in primary implantations and 50.06% in revision surgeries. Mini-invasive approaches in primary implantations did not exceed 3.2% of all

  8. Beginnings of rocket development in the czech lands (Czechoslovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavec, Michal

    2011-11-01

    Although the first references are from the 15th Century when both Hussites and crusaders are said to have used rockets during the Hussite Wars (also known as the Bohemian Wars) there is no strong evidence that rockets were actually used at that time. It is worth noting that Konrad Kyeser, who described several rockets in his Bellifortis manuscript written 1402-1405, served as advisor to Bohemian King Wenceslas IV. Rockets were in fact used as fireworks from the 16th century in noble circles. Some of these were built by Vavřinec Křička z Bitý\\vsky, who also published a book on fireworks, in which he described how to build rockets for firework displays. Czech soldiers were also involved in the creation of a rocket regiment in the Austrian (Austro-Hungarian) army in the first half of the 19th century. The pioneering era of modern rocket development began in the Czech lands during the 1920s. The first rockets were succesfully launched by Ludvík Očenášek in 1930 with one of them possibly reaching an altitude of 2000 metres. Vladimír Mandl, lawyer and author of the first book on the subject of space law, patented his project for a stage rocket (vysokostoupající raketa) in 1932, but this project never came to fruition. There were several factories during the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939-1945, when the Czech lands were occupied by Nazi Germany, where parts for German Mark A-4/V-2 rockets were produced, but none of the Czech technicians or constructors were able to build an entire rocket. The main goal of the Czech aircraft industry after WW2 was to revive the stagnant aircraft industry. There was no place to create a rocket industry. Concerns about a rocket industry appeared at the end of the 1950s. The Political Board of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party started to study the possibilities of creating a rocket industry after the first flight into space and particularly after US nuclear weapons were based in Italy

  9. [The strategy of the Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně for the organisation of oncological care in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vorlíček, J

    2013-08-01

    The Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J. E. Purkyně (ČOS ČLS JEP) builds on intensive collaboration at all levels of medical care during the organisation of oncological care. Over 77,000 malignant neoplasms are diagnosed in the Czech Republic annually. Every year, over 27,000 patients with a malignant tumour die in the Czech Republic. A total of over 450,000 patients with malignant tumours or patients with a history of an oncological disease are living in the Czech Republic. The specialised society analyses available data about the treatment history and offers them to the individual regions; it also plans population based treatment costs which are then discussed with the healthcare payers. The Czech National Cancer Control Programme (NOP) presents a strategic outline for the management and development of the treatment, and facilitates the communication with all stakeholders and the public. The ČOS ČLS JEP Society includes a specialised section responsible for data analysis, which provides a complex agenda of population based data, estimated numbers of treated patients, standards for reference of survival analysis and a system of collecting required clinical data. Even with a growing incidence, the Czech Republic shows a stabilised mortality in all cancer diagnoses. Screening programmes for breast, colorectal and cervical carcinoma are ongoing. We have a consolidated and cooperating network of oncology centres. We are able to actively plan diagnostic and treatment needs and we have a system of data collection that is able to respond to the needs of evaluation of cost efficiency. We are currently introducing a hospital care quality assessment.

  10. "Eurotrain for Training." Proceedings of a European Congress on Continuing Education and Training (4th, Berlin, Germany; Warsaw, Poland; Prague, Czechoslovakia; Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria, October 5-9, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisser, Ulrike, Ed.; Grootings, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A "travelling" congress was conducted in five European cities (Berlin, Warsaw, Prague, Budapest, and Vienna) to promote a mutual exchange of views between east and west. The participants stressed the growing European Community interest in current examples of cooperation with neighbors in central and eastern Europe. In addition to promoting…

  11. Selected parameters of social exclusion among immigrants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kajanová, Alena; Vacková, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the issue of social exclusion of immigrants in the Czech Republic. A review of expert sources indicates that immigrants are most often excluded from the labour market, housing market, and in communication with institutions. These areas became the target of our research. We observed how they were affect by knowledge of the Czech language, length of residence and type of work performed. The study was conducted using quantitative research strategies, interviews, and a questionnaire, the clarity of which was ensured by a double translation. The research group consisted of immigrants, namely Vietnamese, Slovak, Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish nationalities, living in selected regions of the Czech Republic. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences among the immigrant groups. The Vietnamese were least satisfied with housing conditions; they often reported living in overcrowded apartments and dormitories, and saw little chance of changing their situation because of discrimination by landlords. With regard to Czech language skills, the greater difference between Czech and Vietnamese and the relative similarity between Czech and the other studied immigrant languages also played a role. As a result, this indicator also showed the greatest dissatisfaction among the Vietnamese. For employees, poor knowledge of Czech corresponds to lower socioeconomic status.

  12. Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.

    PubMed

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; Růžička, Evžen; Poreh, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment.

  13. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  14. Mechanical and thermal properties of the Czech marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with selected parameters of four marbles with respect to their utilization as building materials. Stones from four function quarries in the Czech Republic were chosen and scopes of physical properties were determined. Basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties belong among studied characteristics. Bulk density of studied marbles is in average 2750 kg/m3, matrix density 2770 kg/m3, open porosity 0.7%. Pore structure show similar distributions. Mechanical properties show more differences; however minimal value of compressive strength was 66.5 MPa, while maximum was 174 MPa. Thermal conductivity of studied marbles was about 2.955 W/mK. Last measured characteristic was specific heat capacity; its average value was 609 J/kgK.

  15. [New psychoactive substances and their prevalence in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Mravčík, Viktor; Běláčková, Vendula; Grohmannová, Kateřina; Zábranský, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is a global growing concern over the new (mainly synthetic) psychoactive substances, known as legal highs, research chemicals or bath salts. They are represented by various chemical groups imitating "old" illicit drugs with stimulant, euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedative effects. In the Czech Republic, the peak of their use and supply was observed at the beginning of 2011, when new psychoactive substances were available in smart shops known locally as Amsterdam shops - in that time mainly synthetic cathinones and also synthetic cannabinoids were present. After legislative change that placed tens of new substances under the control of criminal law in April 2011, new psychoactive substances are available at Internet and their use is (after short and media driven boom in early 2011) rather limited and decreasing. Though, the use of new synthetic stimulants was recently reported locally among problem (injecting) drug users; new very potent synthetic opioids represent potential threat of further expansion in this users subgroup. PMID:26612328

  16. [New psychoactive substances and their prevalence in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Mravčík, Viktor; Běláčková, Vendula; Grohmannová, Kateřina; Zábranský, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is a global growing concern over the new (mainly synthetic) psychoactive substances, known as legal highs, research chemicals or bath salts. They are represented by various chemical groups imitating "old" illicit drugs with stimulant, euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedative effects. In the Czech Republic, the peak of their use and supply was observed at the beginning of 2011, when new psychoactive substances were available in smart shops known locally as Amsterdam shops - in that time mainly synthetic cathinones and also synthetic cannabinoids were present. After legislative change that placed tens of new substances under the control of criminal law in April 2011, new psychoactive substances are available at Internet and their use is (after short and media driven boom in early 2011) rather limited and decreasing. Though, the use of new synthetic stimulants was recently reported locally among problem (injecting) drug users; new very potent synthetic opioids represent potential threat of further expansion in this users subgroup.

  17. Pornography and sex crimes in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Milton; Jozifkova, Eva; Weiss, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence. Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change. As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse.

  18. Pornography and sex crimes in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Milton; Jozifkova, Eva; Weiss, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence. Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change. As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse. PMID:21116701

  19. Central system of psychosocial support to the Czech victims affected by the tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-01-01

    The tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  20. Central System of Psychosocial Support to the Czech Victims Affected by the Tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-02-01

    The Tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  1. 2014 ICHLNRRA intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived decay products measuring instruments in the NRPI Prague.

    PubMed

    Jílek, K; Timková, J

    2015-06-01

    During the Eighth International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas held in autumn 2014 at Prague, the third intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived decay products measurement instruments was organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI; SÚRO v.v.i.) in Prague. The intercomparison was newly focussed also on continuous monitors with active sampling adapters capable to distinguish radon/thoron gas in their mix field.The results of radon gas measurements carried out in the big NRPI radon chamber indicated very well an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 80 % of all the exposed instruments. The results of equilibrium equivalent concentration continuous monitors indicated an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 40 % of all the exposed instruments and their ~8-10 % shift compared with the NRPI. The results of investigated ambient conditions upon response of exposed continuous monitors indicated influence of aerosol changes upon response of radon monitors with an active air sampling adapters through the filter, only. The exposures of both radon/thoron gas discriminative continuous monitors and passive detectors have been indicated inconsistent results: on one hand, their excellent agreement up to several per cent for both the gases, and on the other hand, systematic unsatisfactory differences up to 40 %. Additional radon/thoron exercises are recommended to improve both the instruments themselves and quality of their operators.

  2. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  3. 77 FR 38736 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Czech Republic (DFARS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... signed a new reciprocal defense procurement agreement with the Czech Minister of Defense. The agreement removes discriminatory barriers to procurements of supplies and services produced by industrial... Federal Acquisition Regulation. Paragraph (a)(1) of the statute requires that a procurement...

  4. CzechGeo/EPOS - Distributed System of Permanent Observatory Measurements and Temporary Monitoring of Geophysical Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejda, Pavel; Čápová, Dana; Fischer, Tomáš; Kaláb, Zdeněk; Kostelecký, Jakub; Plicka, Vladimír; Stemberk, Josef; Špaček, Petr

    2016-04-01

    CzechGeo/EPOS is a distributed network of geoscience observations operated by the Czech research institutions and universities. The system consists of permanent observatories usually incorporated in global data networks, local stations or networks in areas significant in the long-term for basic research or applications and mobile stations which serve for repeated observations at selected points, or for field measurements, usually within the scope of large international projects. CzechGeo/EPOS is closely connected with the large European research infrastructure EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and its service covers continuous monitoring of geophysical fields on Czech territory and in selected areas abroad via long uninterrupted series of measurements on fixed sites, which are vital for understanding of Earth interior processes. The infrastructure is organized in 5 sections: Seismology, GNSS and Gravimetry, Geodynamics, Geomagnetism, Geological and Geophysical Databases. CzechGeo/EPOS provides user-friendly data access to global or regional data bases/repositories, including real-time data access whenever possible, transmits access to high-level products (e.g. waveform data, seismological bulletins and regional catalogues, geomagnetic indices) and integrates data in the frame of the Implementation Phase of the EPOS Project. CzechGeo/EPOS involves nearly all observational activities related to the solid Earth carried out by the Czech geoscience institutions and thus is indispensable for any geoscience research on our territory. Through participation in more than twenty global or regional networks CzechGeo/EPOS builds up close cooperation with European partners and contributes substantially to better understanding of the processes in the Earth's interior.

  5. Reported and intended behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and England.

    PubMed

    Winkler, P; Csémy, L; Janoušková, M; Mladá, K; Bankovská Motlová, L; Evans-Lacko, S

    2015-09-01

    This is one of the first studies, which compares the level of stigmatizing behaviour in countries that used to be on the opposite sides of the Iron Curtain. The aim was to identify the prevalence of reported and intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and to compare these findings with the findings from England. The 8-item Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) was used to assess stigmatising behaviour among a representative sample of the Czech population (n=1797). Results were compared with the findings of an analogous survey from England (n=1720), which also used the RIBS. The extent of reported behaviour (i.e., past and present experiences with those with mental health problems) was lower in the Czech Republic than in England. While 12.7% of Czechs reported that they lived, 12.9% that they worked, and 15.3% that they were acquainted with someone who had mental health problems, the respective numbers for England were 18.5%, 26.3% and 32.5% (P<0.001 in each of these items). On the other hand, the extent of intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems is considerably higher in the Czech Republic. Out of maximum 20 points attached to possible responses to the RIBS items 5-8, Czechs had a lower total score (x=11.0, SD=4.0) compared to English respondents (x=16.1, SD=3.6), indicating lower willingness to accept a person with mental health problems (P<0.001). The prevalence of stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic is worrying. Both, further research and evidence based anti-stigma interventions, should be pursued in order to better understand and decrease stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic and possibly across the post-communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:26113172

  6. An invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus found in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    PubMed

    Šebesta, O; Rudolf, I; Betášová, L; Peško, J; Hubálek, Z

    2012-01-01

    Between July and September 2012, seventeen larvae of the invasive mosquito species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) were discovered using 60 ovitraps at four study sites alongside two main road exits in South Moravia, Czech Republic. This is the first report of imported Ae. albopictus in the Czech Republic. The findings highlight the need for a regular surveillance programme to monitor this invasive species throughout western and central Europe. PMID:23137465

  7. Demonstration of FOODIE spcification on Czech pilot implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Karel; Reznik, Tomas; Lukas, Vojtěch; Charvat, Karel, Jr.; Horakova, Sarka; Mekotova, Jarmila

    2016-04-01

    of large quantities of spatially and non-spatially referenced data. For data integration of agriculture data FOODIE introduced the open data model. The open data model supported the evidence of all treatments that were used in a certain place as well as (where appropriate) to store relevant information on the application of those treatments. The stored data should together answer the questions like "What amount of which treatment was used in a certain place?", "When it will be safe to apply another treatment?" or "Is the treatment registered and allowed in the European Union/Member State?" The FOODIE data model is based on INSPIRE specification for Agricultural and Aquaculture Facilities., The FOODIE data model is based on the Activity Complex model.. Within INSPIRE, "Activity Complex" denotes a generic name agreed across thematic domains trying to avoid specific thematic connotations such as "Plant", "Installation", "Facility", "Establishment" or "Holding". Such scope may be identified for this paper as the Nitrate Directive or Water Framework Directive A Collection of data was verified on within the FOODIE Czech pilot farm with 1'214 ha of arable land to obtain information about farm machinery management and agro-meteorological observation. Selected tractors and implements were equipped by telemetry units to record vehicle trajectory in the fields and a wireless sensor network was established to observe meteorological conditions within a two fields with cereals. For these such purposes, a novel data model was developed to manage both sensor data and farm records within one platform simultaneously with the client application, which allows end-users to make visualization and analysis of farm data. The Czech Pilot is addressed to improve management and logistic of farms and agriculture service companies, introducing new tools and crop management methods for reduction of environmental burden while maintaining production level. In The Czech pilot machinery and meteo

  8. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  9. Radiocaesium levels in game in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Rulík, Petr; Fantínová, Karin; Mihalík, Ján; Timková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of monitoring of (137)Cs activities in game species roaming in the woods over the territory of the Czech Republic for the time interval of 1986-2012. Geometric means and other statistical characteristics were estimated from the data sets on the assumption of log-normal distribution of the data from the time interval 2004-2012 where the character of data distribution had displayed no significant change. Geometric means (in Bq/kg) in meat were: wild boar 5.1, red deer 1.9, roe deer 0.77 and feathered game 0.14. The mean value in the less frequent game amounted to 0.36 Bq/kg. The geometrical standard deviation (GSD) widely varied from 1.6 to 21 for the studied species. Based on mass activity dependence on time, we assessed the effective and environmental half-lives of activity decline. For red deer and roe deer, the effective (137)Cs half-life was 2.9 and 3.2 years, and environmental half-life 3.2 and 3.6 years respectively. The effective half-life of (137)Cs in wild boar of 38 years was determined with large uncertainty and it shows constant influx of (137)Cs activity to the digestive tract of wild boars. A statistically significant season-based (137)Cs level was found in red deer and wild boar. Higher winter and spring activities of (137)Cs in wild boar are linked with decreasing access to naturally occurring food with lower (137)Cs content (chestnuts, acorns, and beech nuts), making boar grub around for ground-deposited food (often for mushrooms with higher activity). Higher winter activities of (137)Cs in red deer meat, most probably, are due to lower access to green diet in winter. The average annual committed effective dose for Czech population based on estimates of game species meat consumption between 2004 and 2012 was insignificant, only 0.03 μSv. PMID:25464037

  10. Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of heavy metals in modern soils: the case study in the Jizera floodplain, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Vadinova, Nikola

    2013-04-01

    The timing and realistic quantification of the anthropogenic pollution of soils and sediments are among relevant topics of numerous current environmental geochemistry studies. Geochemical mapping and depth profiling of pollutants in soils and sediments is used for reconstruction of historical pollution and evaluation of previous (cumulative) impacts. In fact, the depth profiles of heavy metals in modern soils are a result of two main processes: deposition of atmospheric fallout (everywhere) or sediment (in floodplains) with anthropogenic components on one hand, and element migration due to biogeochemical processes (Fe oxide transformations, element recycling by plants and joint processes) on the other hand. These processes are not always taken into account, particularly when only one piece of the jigsaw puzzle is in focus, such as development of pollution proxy (e.g., stable lead isotope ratios, MS) or geochemical mapping. Mature soils, of which surface strata are enriched in heavy metals, are too complex systems to allow simple distinguishing natural and anthropogenic portions of that enrichment; possible natural enrichment factor (EF) ~1.5 has been assumed in the case of Pb and Zn by Reimann et al. Floodplains can offer a "natural isolation of pieces of jigsaw puzzle", if deposition and erosion in the floodplain have alternated in the past (such behaviour is relatively common). This alteration can produce terraces or related sediment units of different age, but composed of sediment with the same geochemistry, i.e. material with the same provenance and after the same hydraulic sorting before the deposition. We studied fluvisols in the Jizera floodplain (~50 north-east from Prague, Czech Republic), where a terrace is present along the currently inundated floodplain. We found that atmospheric fallout and/or past pedogenic processes in the terrace above that active floodplain do not cause enrichment of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn; perhaps there is an exception for Pb. In a

  11. Multiproxy evidence of Late Pleistocene environmental changes in the loess-paleosol sequence of Bůhzdař (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flašarová, Kristýna; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Juřičková, Lucie; Šefrna, Luděk; Verecchia, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences preserve information that can be used to reconstruct paleoenvironement, specifically the climatic conditions and the vegetation present at the time of their formation, or determine their age. A dense network of reliably analyzed sequences from different geographic locations is crucial for representation of ecological and climatic trends during the Pleistocene (Frechen, 2011). The aim of this study is to fill the gap in the geographical distribution of well described loess-paleosol sequences in Central Europe. Therefore, it focuses on a loess-paleosol sequence in Bůhzdař, situated 9 km NW of Prague, Czech Republic. This profile was last studied in 1952 by naturalist Vojen Ložek. This study uses a number of analyses in order to get a multi-proxy record of local paleoenvironmental changes archived in a sequence of alternating loess sediments and paleosols in Bůhzař. Geochemical approaches are combined with paleozoology to define climatic conditions at the time of formation of the strata. Oxygen isotope 18O values of pedogenic carbonates can be used as a proxy of climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation, whereas carbon isotope values can be used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric CO2 concentration (Obreht et al. 2013), perhaps also the relative proportions of plants using C3 and C4 metabolic pathways (Kaakinen et al., 2006). Findings of fossil malacofauna, which occupied specific ecological niches, can complement these results. The Bůhzdař locality is exceptional in terms of density of pedogenic carbonates, such as loess dolls, pseudomycelia and marl concretions. These concretions are, in some parts, more compact and form a compact layer. Analysis of pedogenic processes could bring new clues regarding the understanding of the way various forms of carbonates were formed. The analyses are in progress and the first results will be presented during an EGU session in April 2016. References Frechen, M. ed. (2011). Loess in

  12. Manganese biogeochemistry in a central Czech Republic catchment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navratil, T.; Shanley, J.B.; Skrivan, P.; Kram, P.; Mihaljevic, M.; Drahota, P.

    2007-01-01

    Mn biogeochemistry was studied from 1994 to 2003 in a small forested catchment in the central Czech Republic using the watershed mass balance approach together with measurements of internal stores and fluxes. Mn inputs in bulk deposition were relatively constant during a period of sharply decreasing acidic deposition, suggesting that the Mn source was terrestrial, and not from fossil fuel combustion. Mn inputs in bulk deposition and Mn supplied by weathering each averaged 13 mg m-2 year-1 (26 mg m -2 year-1 total input), whereas Mn export in streamwater and groundwater averaged 43 mg m-2 year-1. Thus an additional Mn source is needed to account for 17 mg m-2 year -1. Internal fluxes and pools of Mn were significantly greater than annual inputs and outputs. Throughfall Mn flux was 70 mg m-2 year-1, litterfall Mn flux was 103 mg m-2 year -1, and Mn net uptake by vegetation was 62 mg m-2 year-1. Large pools of labile or potentially labile Mn were present in biomass and surficial soil horizons. Small leakages from these large pools likely supply the additional Mn needed to close the watershed mass balance. This leakage may reflect an adjustment of the ecosystem to recent changes in atmospheric acidity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis in Adults: The Czech Republic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Hanus; Smiskova, Dita; Benes, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is currently the third most frequent pathogen of bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods. A prospective study of patients with LM meningitis in a Czech tertiary care hospital, carried out from 1997 to 2012. Results. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with LM meningitis, which was 7% of a total of 440 adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) over a 16-year period. Their median age was 63 years, range 26–80 years. Nineteen patients (61%) had underlying immunocompromising comorbidity; 15 patients (48%) were older than 65 years. Fourteen patients (45%) had arterial hypertension. The typical triad of fever, neck stiffness, and altered mental status was present in 21 patients (68%). The median count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes was 680/μL, protein level 2.6 g/L, and glucose ratio 0.28. Four patients (13%) died, and nine (29%) survived with moderate to severe sequelae. Conclusion. LM meningitis is known to affect immunosuppressed and elderly patients. Arterial hypertension seems to be another important predisposing factor. Clinical symptoms, CSF findings, and disease outcomes, did not significantly differ from other community-acquired ABM in our study, although the CSF leukocyte count was lower. Ampicillin showed good clinical and bacteriological efficacy in the majority of patients. PMID:24106719

  14. [West Nile virus transmission risk in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vlčková, J; Rupeš, V; Horáková, D; Kollárová, H; Holý, O

    2015-06-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, capable of sucking blood on birds and mammals, most often by mosquitoes of the genus Culex. In humans, the virus was first identified in 1937 in the West Nile region, Uganda, Africa. Later, the virus spread and caused more or less severe epidemics of West Nile fever in North Africa, Europe, Asia, and North and South America. During the last two decades, WNV has been on the rise and is currently ranked as one of the most prevalent arboviruses in the world. In humans, WNV infection mostly occurs as asymptomatic, but may have a more severe or even fatal course in older and weakened patients. Humans may become infected not only by mosquitoes that acquire the virus from infected birds, but also through a blood transfusion, organ transplant, breast milk and transplacental transmission, or contact with infected animals, their blood, and tissues. The first autochthonous human case of West Nile fever in the Czech Republic was reported from South Moravia in 1997. In 2013, another case of West Nile fever emerged in this country, in the Ostrava area. The issue of WNV has recently been studied from many different perspectives, as evidenced by many original and review papers. This article briefly reviews the essential knowledge about this virus and its spread.

  15. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: a Czech case study.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, Martina; Kroeze, Carolien

    2010-07-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the OEI in 2020 by 20% are 12 MEuro. It is most cost effective to achieve this reduction by improving the efficiency of animal manure used as fertilizer. We tested the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the following: 1) the relative importance of environmental problems as expressed in weighting factors, and 2) future cattle numbers and milk yield per milking cow. The first case indicates that disagreement on which problem is most urgent need not lead to disagreement about policies to be undertaken. Regardless of the weighting factors used, aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the most important problems. However, the overall costs of reducing the OEI differ with alternative sets of weighting factors, because the costs of emission reduction differ among pollutants. The second case shows that the DAIRY model results are more sensitive to changes in cattle numbers than to changes in milk yield. This study is the first integrated assessment of dairy cattle production for a Central European country and illustrates how systematic analyses may help to find optimal solutions.

  16. Development of the local quasigeoid model for the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvadba, Otakar; Holota, Petr; Lederer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Increasing demands for precise GNSS levelling in the Czech Republic as well as exclusively available gravity and terrain data raised up the realization of a more accurate transformation between the ETRS and the vertical reference system Bpv (Baltic after adjustment), known also as a quasigeoid model. In order to meet high accuracy requirements for the model, the setting and the solution of the geodetic boundary value problem were reconsidered. The problem is formulated for gravity disturbances and the representation formula for the solution was derived by means of the Green's function method constructed for an oblate ellipsoid of revolution. Resulting integral kernel, as an analogue to the so-called Hotine function, was used in the convolution for numerical evaluation of the disturbing potential. The difference between the ellipsoid and the terrain was taken into account through successive approximations. The resulting solution leads to a detailed knowledge of the residual disturbing potential T on the Earth's surface in the area of interest. In addition, restoring the global low-frequency part of T and inserting non-gravitational systematical effects associated with Bpv, that have been identified too, make it possible to interpret the results in terms of height anomalies or quasigeoid heights within the Bpv system. The resolution, accuracy and precision of the transformation between ETRS and Bpv is discussed and compared with the quasigeoid models available today.

  17. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T.

    1998-04-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently necessary steps in making coal utilisation more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. Preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fuelled by pulverised coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper then coal) do not oblige to increase efficiency of the standing equipment applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalisation of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in near future.

  18. Congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy (CCFDN) in 10 Czech gypsy children – frequent and underestimated cause of disability among Czech gypsies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital Cataract Facial Dysmorphism and demyelinating Neuropathy (CCFDN, OMIM 604468) is an autosomal recessive multi-system disorder which was first described in Bulgarian Gypsies in 1999. It is caused by the homozygous founder mutation c.863 + 389C > T in the CTDP1 gene. The syndrome has been described exclusively in patients of Gypsy ancestry. The prevalence of this disorder in the Gypsy population in the Czech Republic and Central Europe is not known and is probably underestimated and under-diagnosed. Methods We clinically diagnosed and assessed 10 CCFDN children living in the Czech Republic. All patients are children of different ages, all of Gypsy origin born in the Czech Republic. Molecular genetic testing for the founder CTDP1 gene mutation was performed. Results All patients are homozygous for the c.863 + 389C > T mutation in the CTDP1 gene. All patients presented a bilateral congenital cataract and microphthalmos and had early cataract surgery. Correct diagnosis was not made until the age of two. All patients had variably delayed motor milestones. Gait is characteristically paleocerebellar in all the patients. Mental retardation was variable and usually mild. Conclusions Clinical diagnosis of CCFDN should be easy for an informed pediatrician or neurologist by the obligate signalling trias of congenital bilateral cataract, developmental delay and later demyelinating neuropathy. Our data indicate a probably high prevalence of CCFDN in the Czech Gypsy ethnic subpopulation. PMID:24690360

  19. The Teacher as a Significant Part of Inclusive Education in the Conditions of Czech Schools: Current Opinions of Czech Teachers about the Inclusive Form of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šmelová, Eva; Ludíková, Libuše; Petrová, Alena; Souralová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education and related aspects are currently the priorities of the educational policy in the Czech Republic. Should inclusion be successful, it needs to be supported not only by public administration authorities and legislation, but also by schools, families, school authorities and counselling services. The present research study analyses…

  20. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P. Ochodek, T.

    1998-07-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently, necessary steps in making coal utilization more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fueled by pulverized coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper than coal) do not result in an increased efficiency of the standing equipment by applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalization of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in the near future.

  1. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  2. Demonstration of FOODIE spcification on Czech pilot implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Karel; Reznik, Tomas; Lukas, Vojtěch; Charvat, Karel, Jr.; Horakova, Sarka; Mekotova, Jarmila

    2016-04-01

    of large quantities of spatially and non-spatially referenced data. For data integration of agriculture data FOODIE introduced the open data model. The open data model supported the evidence of all treatments that were used in a certain place as well as (where appropriate) to store relevant information on the application of those treatments. The stored data should together answer the questions like "What amount of which treatment was used in a certain place?", "When it will be safe to apply another treatment?" or "Is the treatment registered and allowed in the European Union/Member State?" The FOODIE data model is based on INSPIRE specification for Agricultural and Aquaculture Facilities., The FOODIE data model is based on the Activity Complex model.. Within INSPIRE, "Activity Complex" denotes a generic name agreed across thematic domains trying to avoid specific thematic connotations such as "Plant", "Installation", "Facility", "Establishment" or "Holding". Such scope may be identified for this paper as the Nitrate Directive or Water Framework Directive A Collection of data was verified on within the FOODIE Czech pilot farm with 1'214 ha of arable land to obtain information about farm machinery management and agro-meteorological observation. Selected tractors and implements were equipped by telemetry units to record vehicle trajectory in the fields and a wireless sensor network was established to observe meteorological conditions within a two fields with cereals. For these such purposes, a novel data model was developed to manage both sensor data and farm records within one platform simultaneously with the client application, which allows end-users to make visualization and analysis of farm data. The Czech Pilot is addressed to improve management and logistic of farms and agriculture service companies, introducing new tools and crop management methods for reduction of environmental burden while maintaining production level. In The Czech pilot machinery and

  3. Properties of poliovirus strains isolated over the period 1969-1978 from the main municipal sewerage system of the city of Prague.

    PubMed

    Matyásová, I; Koza, J

    1982-01-01

    Biological properties (rct marker and antigenic relatedness) were compared in vaccine prototype strains and in 62 poliovirus strains isolated during a period 1969-1978 from the main municipal sewerage system of the City of Prague. None of the strains isolated from the municipal sewerage showed biologic properties that would fully differ from those observed in vaccine-derived strains. The strains detected very late postvaccination (after about a year) showed a lesser extent of changes than strains isolated earlier after vaccination. The most frequent changes were recorded in type 2 strains, less frequent in type 3 strains and the least frequency of changes was found in type 1 strains. To facilitate comparisons of these changes in dependence on time of postvaccination virus excretion a supporting evaluation criterion has been developed to help express the dynamics of changes in the isolated poliovirus strains. The recorded degree of the dynamics of changes was highest in type 2 strains, lower in type 3 strains and lowest in type 1 strains. The dynamics of changes detected in strains of various types was not always constant in the course of years: in a given year (or in a period of several years) changes occurred always in strains of the same serologic type, whereas strains of the other two types changed only insignificantly during the respective period.

  4. FTO first intron rs1558902 variant and platelets count in white middle-aged women: prague pre- and post-menopausal females (3PMFs) study.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Dlouha, Dana; Lanska, Vera; Stavek, Petr; Pagacova, Libuse; Kralova-Lesna, Ivana; Pitha, Jan

    2013-02-01

    The polymorphisms within the FTO gene play an important role in the genetic determination of body weight and body mass index and have been associated with cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanism is still a matter of debate. The possible effect on the platelet count as a marker of hemocoagulation status as a possible cardiovascular risk factor was suggested in Japanese population. We have analyzed both rs1558902 FTO polymorphism (T > A) and platelet counts in the Prague Pre and Post Menopausal Females (3PMFs) study, including those of 669 women (mean age, 55.7 ± 2.7 years). The frequencies of the FTO genotypes were similar to other populations (TT, 30.4%; TA, 48.1%; and AA, 21.5%). We have not detected a significant association between the FTO rs1558902 variant and platelet counts in white women (TT, 242 ± 55 × 10; TA, 246 ± 67 × 10; and AA, 247 ± 55 × 10; F[2.642] = 0.30, P = 0.75). At least in white persons, platelet count seems not to be a link between the FTO variation and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Geospatial Data for Computerisation of Public Administration in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cada, V.; Mildorf, T.

    2011-08-01

    The main aim of the eGovernment programme in the Czech Republic is to enhance the efficiency of public administration. The Digital Map of Public Administration (DMVS) should be composed of digital orthophotographs of the Czech Republic, digital and digitised cadastral maps, digital purpose cadastral map (ÚKM) and a technical map of municipality, if available. The DMVS project is a part of computerisation of public administration in the Czech Republic. The project enhances the productivity of government administration and also simplifies the processes between citizens and public administration. The DMVS project, that should be compliant with the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) initiative, generates definite demand for geodata on the level of detail of land data model. The user needs that are clearly specified and required are not met due to inconsistencies in terminology, data management and level of detail.

  6. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities.

  7. [The decentralization of settlements--vision and reality. Part two: decentralization and reality in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Librova, H

    1997-03-01

    The author presents "a statistical portrait of contemporary migration flows in the Czech Republic.... Data confirm the general low migration [rates] of Czech people.... In the deconcentration shifts, regions with high landscape and ecological value are becoming the centre of migrants' interest. They are moving in particular to suburbs--suburban migration of people within the highest income categories." (EXCERPT)

  8. Improving Public-spending Efficiency in Czech Regions and Municipalities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 499

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ways of ensuring Czech regions and municipalities are fully motivated to make efficiency improvements in public service provision and so help achieve countrywide fiscal sustainability. The very large number of small municipalities in the Czech Republic means that scale economies are difficult to exploit and the policy options…

  9. [Developing trends in divorce after 1950 in the Czech and the Slovak Socialist Republics in the context of legislative changes].

    PubMed

    Tutterova, J; Rychtarikova, J

    1989-01-01

    Trends in and determinants of divorce in Czechoslovakia since 1950 are analyzed using data from official sources. The analysis is presented separately for the Czech and Slovak parts of the country. The results indicate that Czechoslovakia, particularly the Czech region, has a high divorce rate. Factors considered include divorce legislation, marriage rates, and age at marriage. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  10. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  11. Native dialect matters: perceptual assimilation of Dutch vowels by Czech listeners.

    PubMed

    Chládková, Kateřina; Podlipský, Václav Jonáš

    2011-10-01

    Naive listeners' perceptual assimilations of non-native vowels to first-language (L1) categories can predict difficulties in the acquisition of second-language vowel systems. This study demonstrates that listeners having two slightly different dialects as their L1s can differ in the perception of foreign vowels. Specifically, the study shows that Bohemian Czech and Moravian Czech listeners assimilate Dutch high front vowels differently to L1 categories. Consequently, the listeners are predicted to follow different paths in acquiring these Dutch vowels. These findings underscore the importance of carefully considering the specific dialect background of participants in foreign- and second-language speech perception studies.

  12. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin

  13. [Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency. Overview of Czech patients].

    PubMed

    Elleder, M; Poupĕtová, H; Ledvinová, J; Hyánek, J; Zeman, J; Sýkora, J; Stozický, F; Chlumská, A; Lohse, P

    1999-11-29

    Lysosomal lipase deficiency is a hereditary autosomal recessive enzymopathy leading to lysosomal storage of triacylglycerols (TAG) and cholesterol esters (CE). In particular cells with a permanently high receptor-mediated LDL endocytosis are affected (liver, kidneys). There are two basic phenotypes. The fatal infantile phenotype (Wolman's disease) with generalized storage of both types of apolar lipids. This form was diagnosed in this country only once. The opposite is the protracted, oligosymptomatic form encountered in all age groups. It is characterized by the storage of CE (which gave this entity the name of cholesteryl storage disease--CESD). Its main sign is affection of the liver (hepatomegaly, hepatopathy), which in some instances may lead to organ failure, directly or after cirrhotic transformation. Furthermore there is permanent hypercholesterolaemia (high LDL cholesterol) due to increased VLDL synthesis by hepatocytes, low HDL cholesterol and variably raised TAG. This constellation of blood lipids is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. In the course of 25 years in the Czech Republic 13 cases of CESD were diagnosed in 11 families. Ten of these cases were characterized by clinically manifest hepatopathy with hepatomegaly, detected incidentally during medical examinations (at the age of 2-14 years). In three adult patients with permanent hypercholesterolaemia the storage process was subclinical and the diagnosis was established quite incidentally by examination of non-specific secondary and tertiary manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis was established in all cases of CESD at the tissue level (liver biopsy), at the biochemical (acid lipase deficiency) and molecular genetic level (mutation in enzyme locus). In all instances mutation of G934A was found leading to reduction and loss of the eighth exon. This mutation was present in five patients in a homozygous state. Six mutations were heterozygous. In one instance for technical

  14. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  15. Neointimal coverage and late apposition of everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds implanted in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: OCT data from the PRAGUE-19 study.

    PubMed

    Toušek, Petr; Kočka, Viktor; Malý, Martin; Lisa, Libor; Buděšínský, Tomáš; Widimský, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Incomplete stent apposition and uncovered struts are associated with a higher risk of stent thrombosis. No data exist on the process of neointimal coverage and late apposition status of the bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) when implanted in the highly thrombogenic setting of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess the serial changes in strut apposition and early neointimal coverage of the BVS using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in selected patients enrolled in the PRAGUE-19 study. Intracoronary OCT was performed in 50 patients at the end of primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI. Repeated OCT of the implanted BVS was performed in 10 patients. Scaffold area, scaffold mean diameter and incomplete strut apposition (ISA) were compared between baseline and control OCT. Furthermore, strut neointimal coverage was assessed during the control OCT. Mean scaffold area and diameter did not change between the baseline and control OCT (8.59 vs. 9.06 mm(2); p = 0.129 and 3.31 vs. 3.37 mm; p = 0.202, respectively). Differences were observed in ISA between the baseline and control OCT (0.63 vs. 1.47 %; p < 0.05). We observed 83.1 % covered struts in eight patients in whom the control OCT was performed 4-6 weeks after BVS implantation, and 100 % covered struts in two patients 6 months after BVS implantation. Persistent strut apposition and early neointimal coverage were observed after biodegradable vascular scaffold implantation in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  16. [A brief overview of the history of the Institute of Human Studies in Medicine at the First Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague].

    PubMed

    Belohoubková, M

    2003-01-01

    The Institute of Human Studies in Medicine (UHSL) was initiated at the First Medical Faculty of Charles University (1. LF UK) in Prague in 1989. At the beginning, the Institute drew upon the ideas and work of a number of medical professionals who were dealing with the issues of their discipline in a wider context. Thus, they created a foundation for current disciplines such as medical ethics, the philosophy of medicine, psychology, psychotherapy and others. These scholars included, for example: prof. Mihajlo Rostohar, prof. MUDr. Vladimír Vondrácek, prof. MUDr. Zdenek Myslivecek, doc. MUDr. Jaroslav Dobrý, CSc., doc. Nikolaj Jevgrafovic Osipov, prof. MUDr. Bohuslav Boucek, and prof. MUDr. Ferdinand Knobloch, CSc. UHSL was first listed in the Curriculum of the 1. LF UK (Karolinka) in the school year 1991-1992. In the following years, the Institute underwent rapid changes such as personnel structure, areas of specification, and educational programs. The structure of UHSL was divided into the following departments: the Department of Medical Ethics and Anthropology, the Department of Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, the Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, since the school year 1996-1997 the Department of Psychotherapy and Psychology and Psychotherapy Counselling Office. In 1998, UHSL was assigned the project "Goals of Medicine: Quality of Life", which required the participation of doctors, philosophers, psychologists, theologians, historians, mathematicians and others. The decisive factor for UHSL was the appointiment of the dean of the 1. LF UK on January 24, 2002, and thus establishing UHSL as a separate institution with its own organizational structure and fields of study. Later, UHSL was divided into two independent institutions: UHSL, and the Institute for Social Medicine and Public Health (USMVZ). The history of UHSL is documented by the facts about its directors, professors and doctors, visits of foreign specialists, international

  17. 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 90Sr and 137Cs in soils around nuclear research centre Rez, near Prague.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Schlesingerová, E; Tecl, J; Filgas, R

    2004-01-01

    Forty-four soil samples were taken around the nuclear research centre Rez, near Prague. The mean activity concentrations of 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 90Sr and 137Cs in uncultivated soil were 0.010, 0.26, 0.12, 2.7 and 23 Bq.kg(-1), respectively. Contents of radionuclides in cultivated soil were lower and in forest soil higher than in uncultivated soil. The mean activity ratios of 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 90Sr/239,240Pu and 239,240Pu/137Cs in uncultivated soil were 0.041, 0.47, 10.9 and 0.013, respectively. The mean activity ratios in cultivated and forest soils were close to the values given above. It follows from the results that the source of 239,240Pu, 90Sr and 137Cs in the studied area is deposition from atmospheric nuclear tests, in the case of 137Cs also deposition from Chernobyl accident. The contribution of the research centre effluents was not proved for these radionuclides. Increased activity ratio of 241Am/239,240Pu indicates the presence of 241Am in the soils studied emanating from sources other than nuclear tests. Uniform distribution of the 241Am/239,240Pu activity ratio around the nuclear research centre and the absence of an area with evidently higher activity ratio, including at sites lying in the main wind direction, suggest that the additional activity of 241Am does not originate from the nuclear research centre. The additional source might be the deposition following the Chernobyl accident.

  18. Variability of aerosols and chemical composition of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 on a platform of the Prague underground metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Talbot, N.; Ondráček, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Martins, V.; Klouda, K.; Schwarz, J.; Ždímal, V.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 and particle number concentration and size distribution were measured for 24 h on a platform of the Prague underground metro in October 2013. The three PM fractions were analysed for major and minor elements, secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) and total carbon (TC). Measurements were performed both when the metro was inoperative and closed to the public (referred to as background), and when the metro was in operation and open to passengers. PM concentrations were elevated during both periods, but were substantially increased in the coarse fraction during hours when the metro was in operation. Average PM concentrations were 214.8, 93.9 and 44.8 μg m-3 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, respectively (determined gravimetrically). Average particle number concentrations were 8.5 × 103 cm-3 for background hours and 11.5 × 103 cm-3 during operational hours. Particle number concentrations were found to not vary as significantly as PM concentrations throughout the day. Variations in PM were strongly governed by passing trains, with highest concentrations recorded during rush hour. When trains were less frequent, PM concentrations were shown to fluctuate in unison with the entrance and exit of trains (as shown by wind velocity measured on the platform). PM was found to be highly enriched with iron, especially in the coarse fraction, comprising 46% of PM10 (98.9 μg m-3). This reduces to 6.7 μg m-3 during background hours, proving that the trains themselves were the main source of iron, most probably from wheel-rail mechanical abrasion. Other enriched elements relative to background hours included Ba, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, Ni and Co, among others. Many of these elements exhibited a similar size distribution, further indicating their sources were common and were attributed to train operations.

  19. [Education model at the Clinic of Internal Medicine of the Faculty Hospital Motol Prague - our experience with local education project for young physicians on postgraduate education].

    PubMed

    Kratochvílová, Renata; Kvapil, Milan

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 the principal legislative changes were accepted in the field of postgraduate medical education in Czech Republic (law No. 95/2004 Code). Replacement of two-stage system of specialized education by its one- stage option has brought some problems and according to our opinion did not lead to clear improvement of postgraduate education, more likely the other way around. Our effort to improve the quality of process of postgraduate specialization in internal medicine brought us to creation of own local system of postgraduate education using the next 4 basic principles: principle of robust internal base as a platform for the following specialization, principle of repeating to fix the knowledge, principle of knowledge control and last but not least principle of active participation in educational system.

  20. Nucleic acid testing of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus 1, 2 in blood donors in the General University Hospital, Prague.

    PubMed

    Dušková, D; Darebníček, L

    2014-01-01

    The Roche Cobas TaqScreen MPX Test v1 - multiplex reverse transcription-real time (MPX RT-Real Time) PCR, performed on Cobas s201 for HCV RNA, HBV DNA, HIV-1 RNA /group M and O/, and HIV-2 RNA was introduced as a supplement to the currently used imunoanalysis method for blood donor´s testing (Abbott CMIA - chemiluminescent microparticle imunoassay, performed on Architect i2000 for anti-HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), anti-HIV-1 /group M and O/, anti-HIV-2 and p24 HIV). The results of study could provide valuable arguments to support the discussion about the NAT implementation into the standards of blood donor´s testing in the Czech Republic. Two groups of samples were tested. In the first one, 5074 samples from consecutive blood donors, and in the second one, 5 repository preseroconverted samples from repeat blood donors, who were subsequently confirmed positive for Viral Hepatitis and/or HIV/AIDS by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), were tested. One sample was found reactive by chemiluminescent microparticle immuno assay (CMIA) and nucleic acid test (NAT) (confirmed HBV-positive in NRL), 31 samples were CMIA-only reactive (15 anti-HCV, 4 HBsAg, 12 anti-HIV/p24, all confirmed negative in NRL) and one pool (6 samples) was found reactive (further individual NAT was negative for all samples) in the first group of samples. One sample was NAT-only reactive (confirmed HCV-positive in NRL) in the second group of samples. Our study confirmed that screening of infectious markers using NAT can reduce the risk of transmitting the monitored infections by blood transfusion in the Czech Republic, even as a country with currently good epidemiological situation.

  1. Nucleic acid testing of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus 1, 2 in blood donors in the General University Hospital, Prague.

    PubMed

    Dušková, D; Darebníček, L

    2014-01-01

    The Roche Cobas TaqScreen MPX Test v1 - multiplex reverse transcription-real time (MPX RT-Real Time) PCR, performed on Cobas s201 for HCV RNA, HBV DNA, HIV-1 RNA /group M and O/, and HIV-2 RNA was introduced as a supplement to the currently used imunoanalysis method for blood donor´s testing (Abbott CMIA - chemiluminescent microparticle imunoassay, performed on Architect i2000 for anti-HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), anti-HIV-1 /group M and O/, anti-HIV-2 and p24 HIV). The results of study could provide valuable arguments to support the discussion about the NAT implementation into the standards of blood donor´s testing in the Czech Republic. Two groups of samples were tested. In the first one, 5074 samples from consecutive blood donors, and in the second one, 5 repository preseroconverted samples from repeat blood donors, who were subsequently confirmed positive for Viral Hepatitis and/or HIV/AIDS by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), were tested. One sample was found reactive by chemiluminescent microparticle immuno assay (CMIA) and nucleic acid test (NAT) (confirmed HBV-positive in NRL), 31 samples were CMIA-only reactive (15 anti-HCV, 4 HBsAg, 12 anti-HIV/p24, all confirmed negative in NRL) and one pool (6 samples) was found reactive (further individual NAT was negative for all samples) in the first group of samples. One sample was NAT-only reactive (confirmed HCV-positive in NRL) in the second group of samples. Our study confirmed that screening of infectious markers using NAT can reduce the risk of transmitting the monitored infections by blood transfusion in the Czech Republic, even as a country with currently good epidemiological situation. PMID:24957719

  2. Preservation and Access to Manuscript Collections of the Czech National Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karen, Vladimir; Psohlavec, Stanislav

    In 1996, the Czech National Library started a large-scale digitization of its extensive and invaluable collection of historical manuscripts and printed books. Each page of the selected documents is scanned using a high-resolution, full-color digital camera, processed, and archived on a CD-ROM disk. HTML coded description is added to the entire…

  3. Lost in Translation: Ever Changing and Competing Purposes for National Examinations in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greger, D.; Kifer, E.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to central control of schooling by the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic countered with what some say was the most decentralized system in Europe. While the political move to democracy was extraordinarily successful, there were numerous governments between 1989 and the present. The combination of the decentralized control of schooling…

  4. Digitization of Manuscripts in the National Library of the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psohlavec, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Considers the relationship of the quality of images with the needs of users of digitized manuscripts. Highlights include goals of digitization; for whom to digitize; experiences of the National Library of the Czech Republic digitizing and providing electronic access to historical documents; preparation of manuscript descriptions; usability of…

  5. [The first kidney block transplantation in the Czech Republic--results].

    PubMed

    Michalský, R

    2001-04-01

    A case report of the fate of the first cadaveric pediatric kidney block transplantation into adult recipient in the Czech republic. The operation was done in Regional transplant centre in Faculty hospital Ostrava in February 1994. The whole postoperative period has been recapitulated since the operation to the end 2000. Pediatric kidney graft is functional 7 years after transplantation.

  6. SEMEN QUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF YOUNG CZECH MEN EXPOSED TO SEASONAL AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.

    Selevan SG, Borkovec L, Slott VL, Zudova Z, Rubes J, Evenson DP, Perreault SD.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA.

    This study of male repr...

  7. Managing Cognitive Dissonance: Experience from an Environmental Education Teachers' Training Course in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of seven in-service environmental education teacher training courses conducted in the Czech Republic in 2009-2011. The evaluation applied a grounded theory approach. 14 focus groups, 13 interviews and two post-programme questionnaires were used. The evaluation describes a process of managing cognitive…

  8. Personality and Religion among Secondary School Pupils in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Quesnell, Michael; Lewis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The short-form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,780 boys and 1,634 girls attending secondary schools in the Czech Republic, together with the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity. On the one hand, two of the findings are consistent with those from a series of studies employing the same measure of religiosity…

  9. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  10. Adolescents during and after Times of Social Change: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a set of four studies focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic. In the first part, authors reflect on the cultural background, the political, social, and psychological factors that have had influence on several generations of adolescents in the period of the communist totalitarian regime. They also describe the social…

  11. Typology of Perfectionism in a Group of Mathematically Gifted Czech Adolescents over One Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portešová, Šárka; Urbánek, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed differences in Parker's typology of perfectionism (healthy perfectionist, unhealthy perfectionist, and nonperfectionist). We compared the results from previous research with follow-up 2005 and 2010 data collected from highly gifted Czech mathematicians aged 12 to 16 years. The study examined whether the same three…

  12. Teachers' Ideas about Multicultural Education in a Changing Society: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana; Klaassen, Cees; Veugelers, Wiel

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on Czech teachers' ideas about multicultural education at a time when the teaching of multicultural education has become obligatory for primary and secondary schools. After describing the broader context within which this reform has taken place--specifically, the transformation of the educational system and the changing ethnic…

  13. Reported Prevalence of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices by Special Educators in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Strnadova, Iva; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The reported level of use of eight instructional strategies in a sample of 531 special educators in the Czech Republic was examined in this study. Consistent with recent parallel studies in North America and Australia, the respondents reported that they used a combination of evidence-based instructional practices (such as direct instruction and…

  14. Attitudes to Education and Educational Pathway Preferences in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czesana, Vera; Kofronova, Olga

    2004-01-01

    The importance of education and its prestige has grown as a result of the socio-economic changes after 1989. However, the Czech population still attributes less importance to education as a success factor for life compared to more developed countries. Still, young people strive for as high a level of education as possible, the primary incentive…

  15. Efficiency at Faculties of Economics in the Czech Public Higher Education Institutions: Two Different Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flégl, Martin; Vltavská, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates research and teaching efficiency at faculties of economics in the public higher education institutions in the Czech Republic. Evaluation is provided in two periods between the years 2006-2010 and 2007-2011. For this evaluation the Data Envelopment Analysis and Index approach are used. Data Envelopment Analysis measures research…

  16. Czech-German Relations in the Context of Shadows of the Past and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matušková, Alena; Rousová, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Czech-German relations developed in a complex way during the twentieth century. This article addresses the mutual historical and current relations of these nations, in light of historical events in the last century. The analysis is based on the study of period geography textbooks (as an example of one of the tools used to create a picture of the…

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Posture in School Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratenova, Jana; Zejglicova, Kristyna; Maly, Marek; Filipova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and the main risk factors of poor posture in school children in the Czech Republic. Methods: The cross-sectional study examined representative sample of children aged 7, 11, and 15 years in the year 2003. From the overall number of 3600 children, 3520 (97.7%) attended and were…

  18. Solving the "Gypsy Problem": "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the "discourse moment" constituted by "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic" might affect the future of schooling for Roma youth. In this article, the authors follow the scheme proposed by Lilie Chouliaraki and Norman Fairclough, who suggest a five-part framework for critical discourse analysis: statement of the problem,…

  19. Usutu virus in blackbirds (Turdus merula), Czech Republic, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I; Čapek, M; Bakonyi, T; Betášová, L; Nowotny, N

    2014-06-01

    The central European lineage of Usutu virus was isolated from a blackbird (Turdus merula), which was found dead in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. The virus RNA was detected in two other dead blackbirds in Brno during 2012.

  20. Adult Learning in the Nineteenth Century in the Mirror of Novels and Short Stories: Czech Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    Czech novels and short stories dealing with life in the 19th century were reviewed for information about how adults in rural areas of Czechoslovakia learned and the topics that interested them. The literature review confirmed that adults living in rural areas of Czechoslovakia in the 19th century generally had a great desire for education,…

  1. Documentary and instrumental-based drought indices for the Czech Lands back to AD 1501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Dobrovolný, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Büntgen, Ulf; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, Oldřich; Valášek, Hubert; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    This study addresses the reconstruction of four slightly different drought indices in the Czech Lands (recent Czech Republic) back to 1501 AD. Reconstructed monthly temperatures for central Europe that are representative for the Czech territory, together with reconstructed seasonal precipitation totals from the same area, are used to calculate monthly, seasonal and annual drought indices (SPI, SPEI, Z-index, and PDSI). The resulting time-series reflect interannual-to multi-decadal drought variability. The driest episodes cluster around the beginning and end of the 18th century, while 1540 emerges as a particularly dry extreme year. The temperature-driven dryness of the past three decades is well captured by SPEI, Z-index and PDSI, whereas precipitation totals show no significant trend during this period (as reflected in SPI). Data and methodological uncertainty associated with Czech drought indices, as well as their position in a greater European context, are critically outlined. Further discussion is devoted to comparison with fir tree-rings from southern Moravia and a spatial subset of the "Old World Drought Atlas" (OWDA), which reveals significant correlation coefficients, of around 0.40 and 0.50, respectively. This study introduces a new documentary-based approach for the robust extension of standardized drought indices back into pre-instrumental times, which we also believe has great potential in other parts of the world where high-resolution paleoclimatic insight remains as yet limited.

  2. Are Boys That Bad? Gender Gaps in Measured Skills, Grades and Aspirations in Czech Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines gender gaps in academic performance (grades in mathematics and reading) between boys and girls of ninth-grade elementary schools in the Czech Republic. Our analysis is based on 2003 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment, encompassing the academic performance and family background of ninth-grade pupils.…

  3. Action Learning, Team Learning and Co-Operation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubatova, Slava

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve cooperation and…

  4. Higher Education Finance Reform in the Czech Republic: Transitions in Thought and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in the Czech Republic is going through an important transition, both politically and economically. New methods of financing university operations are necessary during the transition to a market economy as government funds are increasingly being drawn to other areas. Government and academic officials have worked together in the…

  5. Comparing Eighth-Grade Diagnostic Test Results for Korean, Czech, and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunkyoung; Dogan, Enis; Im, Seongah; Tatsuoka, Kimumi; Corter, James E.

    Diagnostic analyses were conducted on data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study second population (TIMSS-R; 1999) from the United States, Korea, and the Czech Republic in terms of test item attributes (i.e., content, processing skills, and item format) and inferred students' knowledge. The Rule Space model (K. Tatsuoka, 1998)…

  6. Receptive Multilingualism in "Monolingual" Media: Managing the Presence of Slovak on Czech Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Marián; Nábelková, Mira

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the presence of a minority language closely related to the majority language is received and treated on the World Wide Web. Specifically, it deals with the acceptability and treatment of texts written in Slovak in the .cz domain, which belongs to the Czech Republic, more than a decade after the split of Czechoslovakia.…

  7. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  8. Educational Leadership Training in the Czech Republic and England: A Brief Comparative Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murden, Brendan; Brundrett, Mark; Slavikova, Lenka; Karabec, Stanislav; Dering, Ann; Nicolaidou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The development of educational leadership programs and qualifications has become an international phenomenon in recent years. This article is one of a series that springs out of a British Council sponsored conference held in the Czech Republic in 2003, organized jointly by the Educational Management Centre of the Faculty of Education at Charles…

  9. Educational Leadership Development in England and the Czech Republic: Comparing Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundrett, Mark; Slavikova, Lenka; Karabec, Stanislav; Murden, Brendan; Dering, Ann; Nicolaido, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The development of educational leadership programmes and qualifications has become an international phenomenon in recent years. This article is one of a series that springs out of a British Council sponsored conference held in the Czech Republic in 2003, organized jointly by the Educational Management Centre of the Faculty of Education at Charles…

  10. The Third Round of the Czech Validation of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaculíková, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The authors present findings on the third round of the Czech validation of the Motivated Strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ), originally developed by Pintrich et al. (1991). The validation only covered an area designed to access motivation in self-regulated learning. Data was collected from a sample of university students in regular…

  11. Project Risk Management in Educational Organizations: A Case from the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eger, Ludvík; Egerová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The past 20 years have been a period of reforms for school systems in Visegrad countries. However, the successful implementation of educational reforms requires effective leaders and managers and, to produce effective leaders, changes in the system of leadership and management programmes need to be adopted. From 2004, the Czech Republic saw a…

  12. Usutu virus in blackbirds (Turdus merula), Czech Republic, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I; Čapek, M; Bakonyi, T; Betášová, L; Nowotny, N

    2014-06-01

    The central European lineage of Usutu virus was isolated from a blackbird (Turdus merula), which was found dead in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. The virus RNA was detected in two other dead blackbirds in Brno during 2012. PMID:23095331

  13. Experiential Learning in Education for Sustainable Development: Experiences from a Czech-Kazakh Social Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents experience from a joint Czech-Kazakh project based on experiential education. The goal of the project was to develop trust and cooperation between various stakeholders to promote effective public participation in local sustainable development issues in Kazakhstan. The article describes the methodology of the programme and its…

  14. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    PubMed Central

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

  15. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  16. Civic Education in the Czech Republic: Curriculum Reform for Democratic Citizenship. Evaluator's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    This report evaluates a project undertaken in the Czech Republic to create lesson scenarios to revise the existing social studies curricular framework for the third form of secondary school (ages 17-18) with special reference to the overarching objectives for civic education reform started in 1989. These objectives included the elimination of…

  17. [Recommendation of the Czech Society of Endocrinology for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome in adults].

    PubMed

    Kršek, M; Cáp, J; Hána, V; Marek, J; Ceské Lékařské Společnosti J E Purkyně, Za Výbor České Endokrinologické Společnosti

    2013-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare disorder with variable aetiology which is connected with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early determination of correct aetiology and early treatment are essential for a decrease of morbidity and mortality of patients. Present article introduces review and current recommendation of Czech Society of Endocrinology for the treatment of Cushings syndrome.

  18. Sentence Imitation as a Marker of SLI in Czech: Disproportionate Impairment of Verbs and Clitics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolík, Filip; Vávru, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined sentence imitation as a potential clinical marker of specific language impairment (SLI) in Czech and its use to identify grammatical markers of SLI. Method: Children with SLI and the age-and language-matched control groups (total N = 57) were presented with a sentence imitation task, a receptive vocabulary task, and…

  19. Windstorm of the eighteenth century in the Czech Lands: course, extent, impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Szabó, Péter; Dobrovolný, Petr; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Kotyza, Oldřich; Suchánková, Silvie; Valášek, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    This paper addresses the course, extent, and impacts of a windstorm that occurred on 20-21 December 1740, in the Czech Lands. The analysis is based on documentary data included in chronicles, "books of memory", memoirs, damage reports, urbaria, and cadastral records, as well as secondary sources. The windstorm started with a thunderstorm in the afternoon of 20 December, continued during the night, and was followed by a flood. It also appeared in documentary data from Bavaria, Thuringia, Saxony, Silesia, Slovakia, and Hungary. The event may be related to a cyclone north-west of the Czech territory moving to the east with an intense western flow over central Europe. The storm did great material damage to houses, farm buildings, churches, and forests and is recorded in various documentary sources for 85 places in the Czech Lands. The windstorm had a significant influence on the development of local plantation forestry (discussed in greater detail). Judging by territorial extent and damage done, this windstorm, compared to other similar events, has been classified as "the windstorm of the eighteenth century" in the Czech Lands. This contribution demonstrates the potential of documentary evidence for the elucidation of heavy windstorms in the pre-instrumental period in Europe.

  20. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Doruska, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  1. Relationship between drought severity and observed regional yields in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Možný, Martin; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Although the Czech Republic is not generally characterized as a drought prone region within European context, drought occurs and is one of the most important climatic extremes in terms of economic damages. Crop production is highly sensitive to soil water availability and the rainfed agriculture almost dominantly prevails in the Czech Republic. Generally we can observe trends towards drier conditions with more often and more severe drought episodes. Based on this, the impact analyzes are very important. The relationship between drought episodes (with various timing and severity) and observed decrease of yields at district level (NUTS4) during the period from 2000 to 2014 was analyzed within submitted study. The observed yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape from 14 districts were used (210 seasons are included). All districts are positioned within southeastern part of the Czech Republic and represent various agro-climatic conditions. The regressions between various drought indicators (as independent variables) and yields (dependent variable) were established. For this purpose the several drought indicators in monthly time step were derived as spatial average for arable land (each district separately). The difference between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), average soil moisture content available for crops up to 40 cm and 100 cm depth, percent of time with soil moisture below 50 % and below 30 % of available soil moisture up to 100 cm depth were used. For reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and soil water estimates SoilClim model was used. This software is the main module used within Drought monitoring system in the Czech Republic (www.intersucho.cz). Within this study SoilClim was used in resolution 500 x 500 meters within grids of arable land. The soil water holding capacity as well as vegetation development was considered. By this way the yield losses due to various drought intensity was identified and compared. In case

  2. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D.

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  3. Frequency of BLAD and CVM alleles in sires and elite heifers of Czech Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Cítek, J; Rehout, V; Schröffelová, D; Hradecká, E

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse the occurrence of BLAD and CVM heterozygous animals in Holstein cattle in the Czech Republic in 1993-2005. The occurrence of BLAD heterozygous sires and heifers (BL) during the period 1993-1998 in Czech Holsteins was 13.9% and 10.7%. Radical measures have been taken to restore the population. Evidently, the measures have been efficient, in 2005 one BLAD heterozygous sire of 101 was found. Continuous testing is necessary, because in commercial herds, the eradication process is not short-term. The found occurrence ofCVM heterozygous sires (CV) decreased from 20% in 2001 to 8% (7 positive of 85) in 2005.This is still quite a high frequency. The occurrence in CV females of 20% remains higher. Therefore, the use of CV sires should be restricted thoroughly. Identification of the molecular basis for inherited diseases, should lead to control measures which would enable the quick recovery of the population. PMID:19113030

  4. Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; Němec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Červený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Štípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

  5. Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Jarmila; Kyselý, Zdeněk; Horáková, Dagmar; Vlčková, Jana; Kollárová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Czech Republic and worldwide. Also, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a high proportion of smokers in the population, and one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption rates are typical for the Czech population. The role of general practitioners in the prevention of colorectal cancer is crucial. In primary prevention, the doctor should emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle - a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, maintaining a normal body weight, adequate physical activity, and non-smoking. In secondary prevention, patients should be informed about the possibilities of colorectal cancer screening and the benefits of early detection of the disease. Participation rates of the target population for colorectal cancer screening are low. Steps leading to increased participation in colorectal cancer screening (including postal invitations) play an important role in influencing the mortality of colorectal cancer.

  6. Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Azeem, Kateřina; Ševčíková, Jarmila; Kyselý, Zdeněk; Horáková, Dagmar; Vlčková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Czech Republic and worldwide. Also, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a high proportion of smokers in the population, and one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption rates are typical for the Czech population. The role of general practitioners in the prevention of colorectal cancer is crucial. In primary prevention, the doctor should emphasise the importance of a healthy lifestyle – a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, maintaining a normal body weight, adequate physical activity, and non-smoking. In secondary prevention, patients should be informed about the possibilities of colorectal cancer screening and the benefits of early detection of the disease. Participation rates of the target population for colorectal cancer screening are low. Steps leading to increased participation in colorectal cancer screening (including postal invitations) play an important role in influencing the mortality of colorectal cancer. PMID:27110303

  7. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy. PMID:26693997

  8. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    PubMed

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; Němec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cervený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  9. Reproductive agency and projects: Germans searching for egg donation in Spain and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-11-01

    German patients in search of IVF with egg donation (which is prohibited by German law) are increasingly deciding to travel to clinics in other countries (mostly to the Czech Republic and Spain) that are able to provide them with the eggs of other women. Through three case studies of German couples who crossed international borders for IVF with egg donation, this article provides insight into these transnational practices aiming to circumvent restrictions in reproduction, whatever they may be. The material for this article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in Germany, Spain and the Czech Republic, as well as research undertaken on IVF internet bulletin boards. The concepts of 'reproductive agency' and 'reproductive projects' are used to analyse the ways in which people search for information about treatments and clinics in other countries, how they embed the practice into their daily lives and how they deal with and position themselves regarding the need for reproductive travel. PMID:21840759

  10. The abolition of user charges and the demand for ambulatory visits: evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Votapkova, Jana; Zilova, Pavlina

    2016-12-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the abolition of user charges for children's outpatient care (30 CZK/1.2 EUR) in 2009 on the demand for ambulatory doctor visits in the Czech Republic. Because the reform applied only to children, we can employ the difference-in-differences approach, where children constitute a treatment group and adults serve as a control group. The dataset covers 1841 observations. Aside from the treatment effect, we control for a number of personal characteristics using micro-level data (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions). Using the zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found no significant effect from the abolition of user charges on doctor visits, suggesting either that user charges are ineffective in the Czech environment or that their value was set too low. On the contrary, personal income, the number of household members and gender have a significant effect. A number of robustness checks using restricted samples confirm the results.

  11. Possibilities of production of smokeless fuel via carbonization of Czech coals

    SciTech Connect

    Buchtele, J.; Straka, P.

    1995-12-01

    It was consumed 48 -51 % of hard coal (total output 28 - 30 Mt/year) in a long period for the production of coke. It appears to be anomaly in comparison with other coke producers in Europe and in the world, it was predeterminated by {open_quotes}steel conception{close_quotes} of state`s economics. The production of coke reached 10-11 Mt/year in former Czechoslovakia in the period 1970-1990. A considerable quantity 1.2 - 1.7 Mt/year of produced coke was utilized for heating. In comparison, 7-5.4 Mt coke/year was it in Poland for the heating. Al coke production is realized on the basis of Czech hard coals mined in the southern part of Upper Silesian Coal District. The coke production is operated in multi-chamber system with full recovery of chemical products (gas, raw tar, raw benzene, amonium etc.). The future trend of smokeless fuel production in Czech Republic makes for to the non-recovery coke oven, it means to two-product processes (coke + reduction gas, coke + electricity and so on). Jewell--Thompson coke oven (hard coal) and Salem oven (ignites) represent nonrecovery nowadays. The possibility of it`s application in Czech Republic are discussed. Jumbo coking reactor system (European project No. 500 to the Eureka programme) produces primarily metallurgical coke. The strong Clean Air Act suspends the production of smokeless fuel in multi-chamber system also in Czech Republic for the future period 2010-2020.

  12. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-06-30

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda.

  13. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  14. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  15. OPINIONS AND ATTITUDES OF CZECH CITIZENS ON SELECTED ISSUES OF DRUGS IN SOCIETY.

    PubMed

    Kostriba, Jan; Kotlarova, Jana; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The social sciences within health care and pharmacy provide various points of view on issues often managed by professionals both inside and outside of the health care system. This multidisciplinary perspective often leads to divergent views and sometimes seemingly contradictory viewpoints and solutions. This paper is devoted to the opinions and attitudes of Czech citizens on selected issues of healthcare and pharmacy, the elucidation of which could be a source for understanding the relationships among participants in our pluralist health care system as a whole. This article presents the results of a sociological survey featuring a representative sample in terms of gender, age and region of 1,797 respondents from the Czech population aged 15 and over. The research is focused on the issues of self-medication, choice of pharmacy, out of pocket expenditures on prescription drugs and over-the-counter medicines, experiences with side effects and finally an evaluation of patient comprehension of information leaflets accompanying health care products. According to the results presented here, at the onset of a health problem most of the population tries to treat the condition themselves before seeing a doctor (54.1% always, 30.9% sometimes). Over-the-counter drugs are purchased generally in classic pharmacies without self-service (96.1%). The choice of pharmacy is determined primarily by proximity, with much less importance placed on personal experience or lower price. According to the survey, Czechs spend around 150 CZK (€ 5.9) for over-the-counter medicines and around 143 CZK (€ 5.6) for prescription drugs per month; 77.9% of Czech citizens were shown to understand the information provided on package leaflets. These data help to understand the perception, orientation and behavior of the patient in the healthcare system, with the ultimate goal of leading to higher system effectiveness as well as greater satisfaction for all parties involved. PMID:26665410

  16. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  17. An inquiry into good hospital governance: A New Zealand-Czech comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ditzel, Elizabeth; Štrach, Pavel; Pirozek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper contributes to research in health systems literature by examining the role of health boards in hospital governance. Health care ranks among the largest public sectors in OECD countries. Efficient governance of hospitals requires the responsible and effective use of funds, professional management and competent governing structures. In this study hospital governance practice in two health care systems – Czech Republic and New Zealand – is compared and contrasted. These countries were chosen as both, even though they are geographically distant, have a universal right to 'free' health care provided by the state and each has experienced periods of political change and ensuing economic restructuring. Ongoing change has provided the impetus for policy reform in their public hospital governance systems. Methods Two comparative case studies are presented. They define key similarities and differences between the two countries' health care systems. Each public hospital governance system is critically analysed and discussed in light of D W Taylor's nine principles of 'good governance'. Results While some similarities were found to exist, the key difference between the two countries is that while many forms of 'ad hoc' hospital governance exist in Czech hospitals, public hospitals in New Zealand are governed in a 'collegiate' way by elected District Health Boards. These findings are discussed in relation to each of the suggested nine principles utilized by Taylor. Conclusion This comparative case analysis demonstrates that although the New Zealand and Czech Republic health systems appear to show a large degree of convergence, their approaches to public hospital governance differ on several counts. Some of the principles of 'good governance' existed in the Czech hospitals and many were practiced in New Zealand. It would appear that the governance styles have evolved from particular historical circumstances to meet each country's specific requirements

  18. 200 Years of Pb deposition throughout the Czech Republic: Patterns and sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vile, M.A.; Wieder, R.K.; Novak, M.

    2000-01-01

    Historical rates of Pb deposition were determined over the past 150--200 years for eight sites throughout the Czech Republic using {sup 210}Pb-dated, Sphagnum-derived peat cores. Maximum historical Pb deposition was greater at sites in the northern and western parts of the Czech Republic than at sites in the southern part of the Czech Republic. Lead deposition patterns generally reflect increasing industrialization over the past 100--200 years, especially in the post-World War II era. For seven of the eight sites, maximum Pb deposition occurred between 1965 and 1992, corresponding to a period of peak production and burning of lignite coal. A decrease in Pb deposition rates since 1975--1980 was evident in seven of the sites. The most recent Pb deposition rates (1992), estimated from the uppermost peat core sections, averaged 32, 11, and 7 mg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} for the northern, western, and southern sites, respectively, are higher than current Pb deposition in the eastern United States of 4 mg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}. Lead deposition rates prior to Czech industrialization, estimated from the deepest dateable peat core sections, averaged 8, 5, and 1 mg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} for the northern, western, and southern sites, respectively. Using acid-insoluble ash concentrations in peat and peat magnetic susceptibility determinations, the authors were able to identify past periods of elevated Pb deposition related to local mining of Pb-containing ore deposits at three of the sites and periods of elevated Pb deposition from fossil fuel combustion at five of the sites. Without stable Pb isotopic determinations, the importance of leaded gasoline-derived Pb could not be determined.

  19. Revison of an Atheloptic Visean Trilobite Association in the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Štěpán; Viktorýn, Tomáš; Otava, JiŘí

    2015-01-01

    Recently two new trilobite occurrences were discovered during geological mapping of fossiliferous shales of the Březina Formation around the village of Březina in the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic). The newly discovered localities are extraordinary because of the unexpected occurrence of articulated trilobite exoskeletons associated with brachiopods including supporting spines. The new atheloptic association of Mississippian trilobites is described for the first time from the Moravian Karst.

  20. Steady increase of lymphogranuloma venereum cases, Czech Republic, 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Krutáková, Helena; Zákoucká, Hana; Vaňousová, Daniela; Kružicová, Zuzana; Machala, Ladislav; Veselý, Dan; Jilich, David; Hercogová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Since the notification of the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in the Czech Republic in 2010, the numbers of LGV cases have steadily increased in the country. In 2015, 40 LGV cases were diagnosed, bringing the total for 2010-2015, to 88 cases. The profile of the most affected group, HIV-positive men who have sex with men with a previous sexually transmitted infection, matches that of those described in LGV outbreaks in western Europe. PMID:27020297

  1. A study of mining-induced seismicity in Czech mines with longwall coal exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Holub, K.

    2007-01-15

    A review is performed for the data of local and regional seismographical networks installed in mines of the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin (Czech Republic), where underground anthracite mining is carried out and dynamic events occur in the form of rockbursts. The seismological and seismoacoustic observations data obtained in panels that are in limiting state are analyzed. This aggregate information is a basic for determining hazardous zones and assigning rockburst prevention measures.

  2. Is Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity Decreasing in Czech Adults? Findings from 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pelclová, Jana; Frömel, Karel; Řepka, Emil; Bláha, Ladislav; Suchomel, Aleš; Fojtík, Igor; Feltlová, Dana; Valach, Petr; Horák, Svatopluk; Nykodým, Jiří; Vorlíček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Objective measured trend data are important for public health practice. However, these data are rare for an adult population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe time trends in pedometer-determined physical activity of Czech adults (25–65 years) from 2008 to 2013. Participants were Czech national citizens whose physical activity was assessed objectively using a Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for seven consecutive days in the period 2008 to 2013. The final sample was 4647 Czech adults [M age 41.4 ± 10 years; M body mass index (BMI) 25.1 ± 3.7 kg/m2]. The results showed that men took more steps/day (M (Mean) = 10,014; 95% CI (Confidence Interval) = 9864–10,164) than women (M = 9448; 95% CI = 9322–9673) in all age and BMI groups. Mean steps/day declined from 2008 to 2013 by 852 steps/day in men and 1491 steps/day in women. In the whole sample, the proportion of participants who had a sedentary lifestyle (<5000 steps/day) increased by 5.8%; the proportion taking ≥10,000 steps/day decreased by 15.8%. In 2013, men and women were 2.67 and 2.05 times, respectively, more likely to have a physically inactive lifestyle (<7500 steps/day) than in 2008. Conversely, in 2008, men and women were 1.68 and 2.46 times, respectively, less likely to have very active lifestyle (>12,500 steps/day). In conclusion, this study suggests that there has been a substantial reduction in physical activity in Czech adults over time. PMID:27783062

  3. Long-term hospitalizations for schizophrenia in the Czech Republic 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Mladá, Karolína; Krupchanka, Dzmitry; Agius, Mark; Ray, Manaan Kar; Höschl, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Deinstitutionalization has not been pursued in the post-communist Europe until recently. The population of psychiatric patients institutionalized in the regional mental hospitals is, however, largely understudied. The aim of this study is to assess discharges of long-term inpatients with schizophrenia from Czech psychiatric hospitals and to analyse re-hospitalizations within this group. The nationwide register of all-cause inpatient hospitalizations was merged with the nationwide register of all-cause deaths on an individual level basis. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and logistic regression were performed. 3601 patients with schizophrenia previously hospitalized for more than a year were discharged from Czech mental hospitals between 1998 and 2012. This included 260 patients hospitalized for >20years. Nearly one fifth (n=707) of the long-term patients died during the hospitalization; and discharges of 19.36% (n=697) were only administrative in their nature. Out of 2197 truly discharged patients, 14.88% (n=327) were re-hospitalized within 2weeks after the discharge. The highest odds of rehospitalization were associated with being discharged against medical advice (OR 5.27, CI: 3.77-7.35, p<0.001). These data are important for the ongoing mental health care reforms in the Czech Republic and other countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:27094718

  4. Major clonal lineages in impetigo Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals.

    PubMed

    Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Machová, Ivana; Kostýlková, Karla; Doškař, Jiří

    2012-11-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven exfoliative toxin-producing (ET-positive) strains of Staphylococcus aureus collected in 23 Czech and one Slovak maternity hospitals from 1998 to 2011 were genotypically characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling, spa gene polymorphism analysis, and ETA-converting prophage carriage, which resulted in the identification of 21 genotypes grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CC). Ninety-one isolates carried the eta gene alone whilst 12 isolates harboured only the etb gene. Two new, to date not defined, spa types (t6644 and t6645) and 2 novel sequence types (ST2194 and ST2195) were identified in the set of strains under study. The predominant CC121 occurred in 13 Czech hospitals. CC15, CC9, and ST88 (CC88) exclusively included eta gene-positive strains while the strains belonging to ST121 harboured the eta and/or etb genes. This study highlights not only significant genomic diversity among impetigo strains and the distribution of major genotypes disseminated in the Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals, but also reveals their impact in epidermolytic infections.

  5. Management of Spent and Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Czech Republic - 12124

    SciTech Connect

    Podlaha, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Czech Republic is a country with a well-developed peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Sealed Radioactive Sources (further also SRS) are broadly used in many areas in the Czech Republic, e.g. in research, industry, medicine, education, agriculture, etc. Legislation in the field of ionizing radiation source utilization has been fully harmonized with European Community legislation. SRS utilization demands a proper system which must ensure the safe use of SRS, including the management of disused (spent) and orphaned SRS. In the Czech Republic, a comprehensive system of SRS management has been established that is comparable with systems in other developed countries. The system covers both legal and institutional aspects. The Central Register of Ionizing Radiation Sources is an important part of the system. It is a tracking system that covers all activities related to SRS, from their production or import to the end of their use (recycling or disposal). Many spent SRS are recycled and can be used for other purposes after inspection, repacking or reprocessing. When the disused SRS are not intended for further use, they are managed as radioactive waste (RAW). The system of SRS management also ensures the suitable resolution of situations connected with improper SRS handling (in the case of orphaned sources, accidents, etc.). (author)

  6. First experience with the application of the METRo model in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr; Sedlák, Pavel; Hošek, Jiří; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Chládová, Zuzana; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents our first experience with the application of the METRo model, which forecasts road surface temperature and road conditions (e.g., wet or dry surface, ice) in the Czech Republic. In our version, the model uses online measurements from road weather stations (RWS) in the Czech Republic and weather forecasts from ALADIN, the operational numerical weather prediction NWP model of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The METRo model was quasi-operationally tested during the winter season (November 2012-February 2013) using data from 25 RWS. We compared three model runs with an emphasis on road surface temperature. The first run used the original model and served as a reference. The second run applied model output statistics (MOS) to ALADIN forecasts of temperature and humidity at 2 m above the ground, which are required by METRo. The third run applied METRo in a nowcasting mode by starting the model every hour and using new measurements available from the RWS. The results indicated that MOS improved the accuracy of the temperature and humidity at 2 m but had little impact on the forecasted road surface temperature. However, the nowcasting scheme significantly improved the accuracy of the forecasts for the initial 3 to 4 h. The evaluation of the METRo results suggests that the radiation flux forecast is crucial for an accurate road surface temperature forecast.

  7. April-August temperatures in the Czech Lands, 1499-2012, reconstructed from grape harvest dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Možný, Martin; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dobrovolný, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Various sources of documentary evidence from Bohemian wine-growing region (NW part of the Czech Republic, CR) were used to compile series of grape-harvest dates (GHDs) for the 1499-2012 period. As the higher temperatures lead to earlier harvest dates and vice versa, GHDs series and mean Czech instrumental temperature series starting in 1801 were used to reconstruct mean April-August temperatures for the Czech Lands (recent CR) from 1499 to 2012. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression and variance scaling (VS) methods were used for calibration and compared as for explained variance and their ability to capture extreme values. The OLS does not underestimate temperature variability significantly and captures extremes well. The GHDs explain 79% of temperature variability in overlapping period. The 1971-2012 period, consistent with recent global warming, was identified as the warmest during the past 515 years. The highest April-August temperatures were reconstructed for the year 1540, which was warmer than two last very warm and more recent seasons in 2000 and 2003. The coldest period occurred at the beginning of the 20th century (1900-1929). The new reconstruction shows good agreement with existing Central European reconstructions that are based on different proxies. Reconstructed temperature series represents an important contribution to the better understanding of the long-term spatial-temporal temperature variability in Central Europe.

  8. [Current situation in clinical trials with vaccines in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Čečetková, B; Smetana, J; Chlíbek, R

    2014-11-01

    Clinical trials are an important part of clinical research. The conduction of clinical trials is strictly regulated and has to comply with an approved protocol. Local regulatory authorities, independent ethic committees, sponsors of clinical trials as well as the investigators are involved from the submission until the very end of the trial. All clinical trials performed in the Czech Republic have to be approved by the State Institute for Drug Control and by the Ethics Committee. The regulatory bodies and independent ethics committees evaluate and continuously supervise the justification and protocol of the clinical trial, quality of the investigational medicinal products and, primarily, the safety of the participants (patients and/or healthy volunteers) in clinical trials. In the Czech Republic there are many advanced clinical research centres, either located in private practices or within hospitals. The investigators are able to conduct a wide variety of clinical trials and recruit a high number of subjects for the trials, as well as to comply with the Good Clinical Practice guidelines and other regulatory requirements. The aim of this article is to summarise the current situation of clinical trials in the Czech Republic as well as the opportunities for getting involved in clinical trials and obligations arising for health professionals from such an involvement.

  9. Documentary evidence for the study of droughts in the Czech Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řezníčková, Ladislava; Brázdil, Rudolf; Kotyza, Oldřich; Valášek, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The study of droughts in the instrumental period can be based on various drought indices calculated usually from precipitation and temperature series. Documentary evidence, overlapping partly also with meteorological measurements, represents another important source utilisable particularly for the pre-instrumental period. Direct reports of drought or indirect indications of its impacts may be found in various individual or institutional sources: narrative written sources (annals, chronicles, commemorative records), weather diaries, personal and official correspondence, stall-keepers' and market songs, journalism, financial-economic records, religious sources (rogations, sermons, praying), special printed sources, chronograms, epigraphic sources ("hunger" stones). Corresponding data indicate directly meteorological drought and with describing of drought impacts also agricultural and hydrological droughts. The first credible direct drought information from the Czech Lands reports not any rain or snowfall during the 1090/1091 winter (Monk of Sázava). But data before AD 1500 are relatively scarce and they are related prevailingly to Bohemia. Density of precipitation/drought documentary records in the Czech Lands increases significantly after 1500. This allows create series of precipitation indices with classification of dry months in the scale -1 as dry, -2 as very dry and -3 as extremely dry month. Such dataset is important for the creation of 500-year Czech drought chronology.

  10. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. PMID:22504401

  11. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    The field of inverse problems is a fast-developing domain of research originating from the practical demands of finding the cause when a result is observed. The woodpecker, searching for insects, is probing a tree using sound waves: the information searched for is whether there is an insect or not, hence a 0-1 decision. When the result has to contain more information, ad hoc solutions are not at hand and more sophisticated methods have to be developed. Right from its first appearance, the field of inverse problems has been characterized by an interdisciplinary nature: the interpretation of measured data, reinforced by mathematical models serving the analyzing questions of observability, stability and resolution, developing efficient, stable and accurate algorithms to gain as much information as possible from the input and to feedback to the questions of optimal measurement configuration. As is typical for a new area of research, facets of it are separated and studied independently. Hence, fields such as the theory of inverse scattering, tomography in general and regularization methods have developed. However, all aspects have to be reassembled to arrive at the best possible solution to the problem at hand. This development is reflected by the first and still leading journal in the field, Inverse Problems. Founded by pioneers Roy Pike from London and Pierre Sabatier from Montpellier, who enjoyably describes the journal's nascence in his book Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse [1], the journal has developed successfully over the last few decades. Neither the Editors-in-Chief, formerly called Honorary Editors, nor the board or authors could have set the path to success alone. Their fruitful interplay, complemented by the efficient and highly competent publishing team at IOP Publishing, has been fundamental. As such it is my honor and pleasure to follow my renowned colleagues Pierre Sabatier, Mario Bertero, Frank Natterer, Alberto Grünbaum and Bill Symes in their big footsteps, and I consider it a privilege to thank all that have contributed to the success of the journal. In its 30 years of existence, the journal has evolved from a trimestral to monthly print publication, now paralleled by an electronic version that has led to publication speeds unheard of when the journal began. This timely publication is especially important for younger researchers, but equally for experienced ones, who in that respect still feel young. In addition, the scope has changed to focus more precisely on the core of inverse problems, characterized, for example, by data errors, incomplete information and so on. In the beginning, fields where questions were considered to lead to inverse problems were listed in the journal's scope to make it clear that the problems being discussed were inverse problems in character. With the development of the solution methods, we now see that inverse problems are fundamental to almost all areas of research. The journal now hosts a number of additional features. With Insights we provide a platform for authors to introduce themselves and their work group, and present their scientific results in a popular and non-specialist form. Insights are made freely available on the journal website to ensure that they are seen by a wider community, beyond the immediate readership of the journal. Special issues are devoted to fields that have matured in such a way that the readers of our journal can profit from their presentation when the time for writing text books has not yet come. In addition, the different approaches taken by different contributors to a special issue disclose the multiple aspects of that field. With Topical reviews we aim to present the new ideas and areas that are stimulating future research. We are thankful that highly acclaimed authors take the time to present the research at the forefront of their respective fields. It is always very enlightening to read these articles as they introduce challenging research domains in condensed form. The diversity of the different topics is especi

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Gravitation: Following the Prague Inspiration A Volume in Celebration of the 60th Birthday of Jiri Bicák

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerák, O.; Podolsky, J.; Zofka, M.

    2003-10-01

    To a relativist, a time period equivalent to that of 60 orbits of the Earth around the Sun, or 5.676438379482·1019 cm of proper time, may not sound particularly significant. Yet, in our human society, it gives us the opportunity of honouring those we love and respect. Such was the occasion for the publication of this volume in honour of Professor Jiri Bicák of the Institute of Theoretical Physics at Charles University in Prague - a city in which Tycho Brahe and Kepler worked together, and where Einstein struggled to construct his general theory of relativity. An appropriate, but unusual, celebratory event which was organized on the relevant January evening involved an intersection of interesting time-shifted worldlines. A record of this is available at http://astro.troja.mff.cuni.cz/bicak/, which may help in comprehending the preface. Our purpose here, however, is to comment on the more permanent item that was produced for the occasion. It must immediately be stated that this is not a typical festschrift in which leading authorities around the world contribute articles dedicated to an academic colleague. It was a surprise present from past research students to their teacher. It maintains the character of a personal tribute but, basically, the contributions are research papers of the highest quality. The result is a very valuable academic reference. As Bicák would have wanted, this is a substantial contribution to objective science, not a piece of post-modern sentimentalism. Reflecting Bicák's own wide interests, the different contributions to this volume cover specific topics in general relativity, astrophysics, theoretical physics and cosmology. They include original articles and thorough up-to-date reviews. In all cases, detailed mathematical or computational analysis is guided by requirements of physical significance. The first paper is by Dolezel on observations from within slowly rotating voids in cosmological models and their compatibility with Mach

  13. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: the case study of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Polák, Miloš; Drápalová, Lenka

    2012-08-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets targets on collection and recycling of WEEE in general, but no specific collection target for EoL mobile phone exists. In the year 2010 only about 3-6% of Czech EoL mobile phones were collected for recovery and recycling. If we make similar estimation using an estimated average EU value, then within the next 10 years about 1.3 billion of EoL mobile phones would be available for recycling in the EU. This amount contains about 31 tonnes of gold and 325 tonnes of silver. Since Europe is dependent on import

  14. [First results of participation of the Czech Republic in the 7th Framework Programme, priority Health, in years 2007-2013].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita

    2013-01-01

    European Commission has announced the first preliminary results of participation in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7), priority Health. The overview presents the basic statistics regarding the participation of the Czech teams, universities, institutions, and small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in FP7 projects. The aim of the article is to present the basic data on the projects with the Czech participation, the EU financial contribution for Czech teams and the main research topics. PMID:24041023

  15. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: The case study of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Milos Drapalova, Lenka

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, we define lifespan of mobile phones and estimate their average total lifespan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimation of lifespan distribution is based on large sample of EoL mobile phones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the years 2010-20, about 26.3 million pieces of EoL mobile phones will be generated in the Czech Republic. - Abstract: The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets

  16. Long-term development of the Czech landscape studied on the basis of old topographic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skokanová, H.; Havlíček, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper deals with long-term land use changes in the Czech Republic with the help of old topographic maps. Departments of Landscape Ecology and GIS Applications from the Silva Tarouca Research Institute for Landscape and Ornamental Gardening, v.v.i. study these changes mainly in the research project MSM 6293359101 Research into sources and indicators of biodiversity in cultural landscape in the context of its fragmentation dynamics, the subpart Quantitative analysis of the dynamics of the Czech landscape development. In this paper, the authors concentrate mainly on map sources, which were acquired for the purpose of the project and also introduce partial results. Maps, which are the sources for the analyses, are following: maps from 2nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the territory of the Czech Republic in the period 1836-1852), maps from 3rd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:25 000 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1876-1880), Czechoslovak military topographic maps in the scale 1:25 000 from 1950s and 1990s, and Czech topographic base maps in the scale 1:10 000 from 2002-2006. It is necessary to complete maps of the 2nd and 3rd Austrian military survey thanks to their incompleteness, mainly along state borders. Also maps from 1nd Austrian military survey in the scale 1:28 800 (created for the Czech Republic in the period 1764-1783) are available; however, their usage for the accurate analyses in the GIS environment is restricted by their poor cartographic accuracy. Apart of the above mentioned maps, there has been progress in collecting maps from the interwar and war period (revised maps of the 3rd Austrian military survey maps, maps of the provisional military survey from 1923-1933, maps of definitive military survey from 1934-1938 and maps from survey of Moravian part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, so called Messtischblätter from 1939-1945). Maps from five periods are manually vectorised in the GIS

  17. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  18. Ethics Committee or Community? Examining the identity of Czech Ethics Committees in the period of transition.

    PubMed

    Simek, Jiri; Zamykalova, Lenka; Mesanyova, Marie

    2010-09-01

    Reflecting on a three year long exploratory research of ethics committees in the Czech Republic authors discuss the current role and identity of research ethics committees. The research of Czech ethics committees focused on both self-presentation and self-understanding of ECs members, and how other stakeholders (representatives of the pharmaceutical industry) view them. The exploratory research was based on formal and informal communication with the members of the ethics committees. Members of the research team took part at six regular voluntary meetings of the ethics committees' members, organised by the Forum of Czech Ethics Committees, and at three summer schools of medical ethics. There were realised twenty-five semi-structured interviews as well as six focus group sessions and a participant observation of several regular meetings of three ethics committees. On the grounds of experience from the interviews a simple questionnaire survey was realised among the members of the ethics committees. The ethics committees comprise a community of members working voluntarily, without claims to remuneration or prestige; the unifying goal is protection of subjects of research. The principal working methods are dialogue and agreement. The members of the ethics committees thus, among other things, create an informal community, which can be to a certain extent seen as a Kantian ethical community in a weak sense. The phenomenon of ethics committees can also be described by terms of an epistemic community and a community of practice. These concepts, which are borrowed from other authors and areas, are used as a way how to think of ECs role and identity a bit differently and are meant as a contribution to the current international debate on the topic. PMID:20675735

  19. Ethics Committee or Community? Examining the identity of Czech Ethics Committees in the period of transition.

    PubMed

    Simek, Jiri; Zamykalova, Lenka; Mesanyova, Marie

    2010-09-01

    Reflecting on a three year long exploratory research of ethics committees in the Czech Republic authors discuss the current role and identity of research ethics committees. The research of Czech ethics committees focused on both self-presentation and self-understanding of ECs members, and how other stakeholders (representatives of the pharmaceutical industry) view them. The exploratory research was based on formal and informal communication with the members of the ethics committees. Members of the research team took part at six regular voluntary meetings of the ethics committees' members, organised by the Forum of Czech Ethics Committees, and at three summer schools of medical ethics. There were realised twenty-five semi-structured interviews as well as six focus group sessions and a participant observation of several regular meetings of three ethics committees. On the grounds of experience from the interviews a simple questionnaire survey was realised among the members of the ethics committees. The ethics committees comprise a community of members working voluntarily, without claims to remuneration or prestige; the unifying goal is protection of subjects of research. The principal working methods are dialogue and agreement. The members of the ethics committees thus, among other things, create an informal community, which can be to a certain extent seen as a Kantian ethical community in a weak sense. The phenomenon of ethics committees can also be described by terms of an epistemic community and a community of practice. These concepts, which are borrowed from other authors and areas, are used as a way how to think of ECs role and identity a bit differently and are meant as a contribution to the current international debate on the topic.

  20. Long-term fluctuations of hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic: synthesis of different data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Hailstorms belong to natural phenomena causing great material damage in present time, similarly as it was in the past. In Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of hailstorms, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology, such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence of economic and administrative character (e.g. taxation records) has particular importance. This study aims to create a long-term series of hailstorms in South Moravia using various types of documentary evidence (such as taxation records, family archives, chronicles and newspapers which are the most important) and systematic meteorological observations in the station network. Although available hailstorm data cover the 1541-2014 period, incomplete documentary evidence allows reasonable analysis of fluctuations in hailstorm frequency only since the 1770s. The series compiled from documentary data and systematic meteorological observations is used to identify periods of lower and higher hailstorm frequency. Existing data may be used also for the study of spatial hailstorm variability. Basic uncertainties of compiled hailstorm series are discussed. Despite some bias in hailstorm data, South-Moravian hailstorm series significantly extends our knowledge about this phenomenon in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia derived from documentary evidence" supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, reg. no. 13-19831S.

  1. Family archives as a source of information about past hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2014-05-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (hydrometeorological extremes - HMEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, as well as it was in the past. For the study of their temporal and spatial variability in periods with only natural forcing factors in comparison with those combining also anthropogenic effects it is essential to have the longest possible series of HMEs. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. There exist different types of documentary evidence used in historical climatology and hydrology, represented by various sources such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence (of economic and administrative character) has particular importance (e.g. taxation records). Documents in family archives represent further promising source of data related to HMEs. The documents kept by the most important lord families in Moravia (e.g. Liechtensteins, Dietrichsteins) are located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno. Besides data about family members, industrial and agricultural business, military questions, travelling and social events, they contain direct or indirect information about HMEs. It concerns descriptions of catastrophic phenomena on the particular demesne (mainly with respect to damage) as well as correspondence related to tax reductions (i.e. they can overlap with taxation records of particular estates). This contribution shows the potential of family archives as a source of information about HMEs, up to now only rarely used, which may extend our knowledge about them. Several examples of such documents are presented. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern

  2. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. PMID:26650830

  3. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  4. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, P.

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  5. Automation of the Czech part of the European fireball network: equipment, methods and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Pavel; Borovička, Jiří; Shrbený, Lukáš

    2007-05-01

    Introduction: The Earth steadily interacts with meteoroids - small interplanetary bodies of miscellaneous dimensions, masses, composition and structure. A part of meteoroids are clearly linked to comets as shower meteors and another part is linked to asteroids and represents the densest part of the interplanetary matter. All meteorites with known pre-atmospheric orbits have the origin in the main belt of asteroids. The penetration of larger meteoroids through the atmosphere gives rise to spectacular luminous events - fireballs. Their photographic recordings provide excellent means to examine physical properties as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of extraterrestrial matter in the near-Earth space. The most efficient tools for registration of these very scarce events are the fireball networks, systems covering large areas of the Earth's surface, with multiple camera stations designed to image a large fraction of the night sky. First such camera network has been established in the Czech Republic and without interruption is in regular operation until now. Methods: In last several years the manually operated fish-eye cameras in the Czech part of the European fireball Network (EN) have been gradually replaced with the new generation cameras, modern and sophisticated completely autonomous fireball observatories (AFO), which were recently developed in the Czech Republic. The AFO's provide us with more complex data on fireballs we get never before. Results: We present complete data on several fireballs as example of capability of our new observing system. We show the high precision of all determined values as well as very detailed information about light curves of all presented cases. We demonstrate also much higher efficiency of this observing system in comparison with manually operated cameras and also its possibilities of operation not only in temperate climate of Central Europe but also in very remote and hostile regions, such as the Nullarbor desert of

  6. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  7. Determinants of health among homeless population in the Czech Republic--an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ludwig O; Hava, Petr

    2009-12-01

    It is generally recognized, that the delivery of healthcare to homeless population presents a number of specific challenges. In this paper, we try to assess the impact of the homeless people experience with the institutional framework including the access to health services on the health status of the homeless population in the Czech Republic. Multivariate regression is used to evaluate the impact of various dimensions of life experience and other social and economic characteristics of homeless people on their health status. Preliminary results indicate that the experience homeless people have with the institutional framework and their access to health care services are important determinants of their health status.

  8. Assembly of a large Y-STR haplotype database for the Czech population and investigation of its substructure.

    PubMed

    Zastera, Jan; Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Sekerka, Patrik; Benesova, Lucie; Minarik, Marek

    2010-04-01

    Twelve Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS437, DYS438, and DYS439) included in the PowerPlex Y Kit (Promega Corporation, Madison, USA) were studied for 1750 unrelated males living in 14 regions of the Czech Republic. A total of 1148 different haplotypes were found. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) was determined as 0.998. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) reveals non-significant distances between regions concerning their haplotype distribution, thus allowing to use the whole sample as a representative reference database of the Czech Republic. Median network analysis shows a remarkable bipartite composition of the Czech haplotypes, falling in distinct clusters with Eastern and Western European roots. PMID:20215022

  9. [Implementation of performance indicators in the Czech Breast Cancer Screening Programme -  results of the regular monitoring].

    PubMed

    Májek, O; Bartoňková, H; Daneš, J; Skovajsová, M; Dušek, L

    2014-01-01

    The Czech organised breast cancer screening programme was initiated in 2002. Collection of data on screening mammography examinations, subsequent diagnostic procedures, and final dia-gnosis is an indispensable part of the programme. Data collection is obligatory for all accredited centres, in accordance with regulations issued by the Czech Ministry of Health. This contribution aims to demonstrate the recent results of quality monitoring of the accredited centres. Quality indicators, whose definition complies with international standards, involve the women's participation, the volume of performed examinations, the accuracy of screening mammography, the use of preoperative diagnostics, and the proportion of early detected tumours. Our evaluation documents a continuous improvement in quality of the Czech mammography screening programme, which is thereby in full agreement with international recommendations on quality assurance. PMID:25494896

  10. Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Edvard; Vaněk, Daniel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Vančata, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate Y-chromosomal diversity of the Moravian Valachs of the Czech Republic and compare them with a Czech population sample and other samples from Central and South-Eastern Europe, and to evaluate the effects of genetic isolation and sampling. Methods The first sample set of the Valachs consisted of 94 unrelated male donors from the Valach region in northeastern Czech Republic border-area. The second sample set of the Valachs consisted of 79 men who originated from 7 paternal lineages defined by surname. No close relatives were sampled. The third sample set consisted of 273 unrelated men from the whole of the Czech Republic and was used for comparison, as well as published data for other 27 populations. The total number of samples was 3244. Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers were typed by standard methods using PowerPlex® Y System (Promega) and Yfiler® Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) kits. Y-chromosomal haplogroups were estimated from the haplotype information. Haplotype diversity and other intra- and inter-population statistics were computed. Results The Moravian Valachs showed a lower genetic variability of Y-STR markers than other Central European populations, resembling more to the isolated Balkan populations (Aromuns, Csango, Bulgarian, and Macedonian Roma) than the surrounding populations (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Saxons). We illustrated the effect of sampling on Valach paternal lineages, which includes reduction of discrimination capacity and variability inside Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Valach modal haplotype belongs to R1a haplogroup and it was not detected in the Czech population. Conclusion The Moravian Valachs display strong substructure and isolation in their Y chromosomal markers. They represent a unique Central European population model for population genetics. PMID:21674832

  11. The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

  12. Opportunities for Child of Pre-School Age and His/Her Family in Czech Republic in 90's: A Comparison with Previous Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabusicova, Milada

    This paper examines changes in social attitudes toward preschool institutional care in the Czech Republic over the last 50 years and discusses whether the present economic situation enables Czech families to decide which type of preschool care to choose for their children. The historic period is divided into two time periods for analysis: (1) the…

  13. Social and Physical Environmental Factors and Child Overweight in a Sample of American and Czech School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humenikova, Lenka; Gates, Gail E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare environmental factors that influence body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) between a sample of American and Czech school-aged children. Design: Pilot study. A parent questionnaire and school visits were used to collect data from parents and children. Setting: Public schools in 1 American and 2 Czech cities. Participants:…

  14. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic.

  15. [Deceased organ donors, legal regulations governing diagnosis of brain death, overview of donors and liver transplants in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pokorná, E

    2013-08-01

    The key restriction of transplantation medicine globally, as well as in the Czech Republic, concerns the lack of organs. The number of deceased donors, and thus the availability of organ transplants, has been stagnating in our country. The paper describes current legal regulations governing the dia-gnosis of brain death and primary legal and medical criteria for the contraindication of the deceased for organ explantation, gives an overview of the number of liver transplants, age structure, and diagnosis resulting in brain death of the deceased liver donors in the Czech Republic. PMID:24007222

  16. [Childbirth analgesia and anesthesia in the Czech Republic in 2012. The 20th anniversary of post-graduate education].

    PubMed

    Pařízek, A; Bláha, J; Nosková, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the current status of analgesia and anesthesia used during childbirth in the Czech Republic. Using data from questionnaires, an overview of individual labor-related anesthetic procedures and methods and frequency of their use was obtained. A positive trend in the increase of neuroaxial methods used in maternity wards over the last twenty years has been the result of a systematic program of interdisciplinary post-gradual education for doctors and birth attendants in the Czech Republic.

  17. Long-term variations in phenological phases and growing season indexes in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Potop, V.; Hajkova, L.; Bares, D.; Stalmacher, M.; Trnka, M.; Bartosova, L.; Zalud, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Phenological phases reflect weather conditions immediately prior to their onset and are therefore very important documentary record of the impact of climate on plants in a particular region. We analyze the results of phenological observations in the Czech Republic in the years 1931-2010. Air temperature increases were associated with an earlier onset of phenological phases; not just the beginning of the growing season but also the interval between successive phenological phases was shorter. Spatial variability of average phenophase onset were executed by GIS methods, the maps use horizontal resolutions of 500 meters. To quantify the rate and timing of changes in canopy development was utilized Growing Season Index (GSI), which was calculated from conventional meteorological measurements. Finally, we used the GSI index for producing global maps that distinguish regional differences in the current phenological development in the Czech Republic. GSI index can be used in modeling of CO2 exchange at the interface of biosphere and atmosphere. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Ministry of education, youth and sports project OC10010, LD11401 and National Agency for Agriculture Research project Q191C054.

  18. A resistance of head lice (Pediculus capitis) to permethrin in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rupes, V; Moravec, J; Chmela, J; Ledvinka, J; Zelenková, J

    1995-02-01

    An outbreak of pediculosis at primary schools was recorded in the Czech Republic in 1992. Almost 20% of children in some schools were infested. This outbreak can be attributed to the resistance of head lice to permethrin, which has not been mentioned in literature yet. The resistance factors established in three towns range between 2 and 385 and between 5 and 557 for LC50 and LC90 values, respectively. This resistance has developed after exclusive use of pyrethroids lotion and shampoo in the Czech Republic since 1978, and it was accompanied by a cross-resistance to d-phenothrin and bioalethrin. But the susceptibility of head lice to malathion and pirimiphos-methyl in 1992 was very similar to that found in 1981. The lotion containing 0.3% of malathion (Diffusil H92 M) has been fully effective against the resistant lice. When introduced into the practice, it quickly reduced the infestation of children in primary schools. The other lotion and shampoo containing 0.3% and 0.7% of pirimiphos-methyl respectively were found to be effective as well.

  19. Routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure: Czech experience and results since 1998.

    PubMed

    Frantisek, Spurný; Ondrej, Ploc; Ivan, Kovár

    2007-01-01

    ICRP Publication 60 recommended that the radiation exposure due to the cosmic component at high altitudes be considered when appropriate as part of occupational exposure to the radiation. The recommendation was incorporated to the Czech regulation in 1997, and the studies on how to perform individual dosimetry of Czech companies aircraft crew started immediately. The individual monitoring values were calculated using the Transport code CARI. The results obtained since the beginning have been recalculated, now with the version 6. The information on the flight schedules and the participation of aircraft crew in the flight were received from the air company. Routine individual dosimetry had started in 1998. Main results for the period 1998-2003 are as follows: both relative frequencies, as well as, average annual effective doses vary with the company and with the year, without any evident general tendency; the average annual values of E were between 1.5 and 2 mSv; and collective effective dose increased regularly, from approximately 1.5 manSv to >2.2 manSv. More detailed analysis is presented, including the verification of the procedure by a series of onboard experimental measurements.

  20. Extremely cold events and sudden air temperature drops during winter season in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crhová, Lenka; Valeriánová, Anna; Holtanová, Eva; Müller, Miloslav; Kašpar, Marek; Stříž, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Today a great attention is turned to analysis of extreme weather events and frequency of their occurrence under changing climate. In most cases, these studies are focused on extremely warm events in summer season. However, extremely low values of air temperature during winter can have serious impacts on many sectors as well (e.g. power engineering, transportation, industry, agriculture, human health). Therefore, in present contribution we focus on extremely and abnormally cold air temperature events in winter season in the Czech Republic. Besides the seasonal extremes of minimum air temperature determined from station data, the standardized data with removed annual cycle are used as well. Distribution of extremely cold events over the season and the temporal evolution of frequency of occurrence during the period 1961-2010 are analyzed. Furthermore, the connection of cold events with extreme sudden temperature drops is studied. The extreme air temperature events and events of extreme sudden temperature drop are assessed using the Weather Extremity Index, which evaluates the extremity (based on return periods) and spatial extent of the meteorological extreme event of interest. The generalized extreme value distribution parameters are used to estimate return periods of daily temperature values. The work has been supported by the grant P209/11/1990 funded by the Czech Science Foundation.

  1. Summer and autumn ozone fluxes to a forest in the Czech Republic Brdy Mountains.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Karl

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to examine ozone (O3) deposition over a forest site in the Czech Republic, a low cost eddy flux experiment using slow response ozone and temperature sensors was implemented in July 1993 within the Brdy Mountains. Half-hour 2-Hz ozone and sensible heat measurements made at the Brdy Mountains for 98 days during the period 7 July 1994-20 October 1994 are analyzed and reported. While the Czech Brdy Mountains AOT40 level for the overall 104 day period was 7.6 ppm h (15.1 ppm h for the full 24-h summation), indicating a slight potential for 03 injury, the 1994 summer to autumn'measured forest O3 uptake was 2.4 (+/- 0.9) g m(-2), not unusually high compared to other studies. Average summer midday 03 fluxes and depositidn velocities were -1.0 (+/- 0.6) microg m(-2) s(-1) and 1.1 (+/- 0.7) cm s(-1). and autumn values were -0.36 (+/- 0.4) microg m(-2) s(-1) and 0.7 (+/- 0.5) cm s(-1) respectively. A unique contribution of this study is the first time demonstrated use of slow responding sensors for eddy covariance flux measurements at heights of 20 m above a forest.

  2. Rpas Accuracy Testing for Using it in the Cadastre of Real Estates of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housarová, E.; Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, interest in the collection of data using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) has sharply risen. RPAS technology has a very wide area of use; one of its main advantages is its accuracy, timeliness of data, frequency of collecting data and low operating costs. RPAS can be used for the mapping of small, dangerous and inaccessible areas in contrast with ordinary aerial photogrammetry. In the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic, it is possible to map out areas by using aerial photogrammetry, so it has been done in the past. However, this is a relatively expensive and complex technology, and therefore we are looking for new alternatives. An alternative would be to use RPAS technology for data acquisition. The testing of the possibility of using RPAS for the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic is the subject of this paper. When evaluating results we compared point coordinates measured by geodetic method, GNSS technology and RPAS technology.

  3. Survey of human pharmaceuticals in drinking water in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kozisek, Frantisek; Pomykacova, Ivana; Jeligova, Hana; Cadek, Vaclav; Svobodova, Veronika

    2013-03-01

    The first large-scale assessment of pharmaceuticals in drinking water in the Czech Republic (CR) focused on the detection of five substances. Samples were collected from public water systems supplying 5.3 million people, 50.5% of the Czech population. In the initial survey of tap water from 92 major supply zones using mostly surface water, no pharmaceutical exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ = 0.5 ng/L). In a second survey, samples were collected from the outlet of 23 water treatment plants (WTPs) considered of high risk because they use surface waters influenced by wastewater. Ibuprofen was the most frequently found pharmaceutical (19 samples), followed by carbamazepine (12), naproxen (8), and diclofenac (3); concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 20.7 ng/L, with medians below 6 ng/L. Concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol were below the LOQ. A follow-up survey included tap and outlet samples from eight of the 23 WTPs with the highest concentrations. Pharmaceuticals were quantified in only three tap water samples. Regarding risks to consumers, these results suggest that a relatively small population (<10%) in the CR is exposed to quantifiable concentrations of pharmaceuticals in tap water and that an extremely high margin of safety (several thousand-fold to several million-fold) is associated with these exposures.

  4. Cyberbullying: The Discriminant Factors Among Cyberbullies, Cybervictims, and Cyberbully-Victims in a Czech Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Fatih; Machackova, Hana; Dedkova, Lenka; Cerna, Alena; Ševčíková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Although the research on cyberbullying has increased dramatically in recent years, still little is known about how cyberbullying participant groups (i.e., cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims) differ from one another. This study aims to discriminate between these groups at an individual and relational level by controlling for age and gender. Self-control, offline aggression, and self-esteem are analyzed as individual-level variables. Parental attachment and peer rejection are involved as relational-level variables. A total of 2,092 Czech adolescents aged 12 to 18 were enrolled from a random sample of 34 primary and secondary schools located in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. Discriminant function analyses indicated that the participant groups are discriminated by two functions. The first function increases the separation between cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims from cybervictims, indicating that cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims are similar to each other in terms of low self-control, offline aggression, and gender, and have higher scores on measures of low self-esteem and offline aggression. However, cyberbully-victims had the highest scores on these measures. The second function discriminates between all three groups, which indicates that those variables included in the second function (i.e., parental attachment, peer rejection, self-esteem, and age) distinguish all three involved groups.

  5. Infrasound observed in the Czech Republic during convective storms 9 - 10 July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindelarova, Tereza; Skripnikova, Katerina; Chum, Jaroslav; Lastovicka, Jan; Base, Jiri; Mosna, Zbysek

    2013-04-01

    An experimental array has been built at the observatory Panska Ves, Czech Republic (50°31' N 14°34' E). It is equipped with three differential microbarographs (type ISGM03). The sensors are arranged in an equilateral triangle; the distance between sensors is approximately 200 m. Using this array, we studied infrasound phenomena related with intense convective storms on 9-10 July 2011. In the studied frequency range 0.1-4 Hz, we observed phenomena of short duration related to lightning activity and also signals that persisted tens of seconds. The latter type of infrasound signals is the object of the current study. Azimuth of arrival of the signals corresponded well with position of convective storms towards the observatory and changed as convective storms were travelling across the Czech Republic from the south west to the north east. Apparent velocity often exceeded 340 m/s (considered as the local speed of sound); it means the signals arrived under some elevation angle (up to 40°). The azimuth of arrival showed higher variability at the beginning of the event; we repeatedly observed gradual variations in azimuth up to the change of 90°. The azimuth of arrival was more stable after 02 UT on 10 July 2011.

  6. Genetic variations in NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase in a Czech Slavic cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tomková, Mária; Panda, Satya Prakash; Šeda, Ondřej; Baxová, Alice; Hůlková, Martina; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Martásek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene polymorphisms encoding the enzyme NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response. Aim To estimate polymorphic allele frequencies of the POR gene in a Czech Slavic population. Materials & Methods The gene POR was analyzed in 322 Czech Slavic individuals from a control cohort by sequencing and HRM analysis. Results Twenty-five SNP genetic variations were identified. Of these variants, 7 were new, unreported SNPs, including two SNPs in the 5´flanking region (g.4965 C>T and g.4994 G>T), one intronic variant (c.1899 −20C>T), one synonymous SNP (p.20Ala=) and three nonsynonymous SNPs (p.Thr29Ser, p.Pro384Leu and p.Thr529Met). The p.Pro384Leu variant exhibited reduced enzymatic activities compared to wild type. Conclusion New POR variant identification indicates that the number of uncommon variants might be specific for each subpopulation being investigated, particularly germane to the singular role that POR plays in providing reducing equivalents to all CYPs in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25712184

  7. The abolition of user charges and the demand for ambulatory visits: evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Votapkova, Jana; Zilova, Pavlina

    2016-12-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the abolition of user charges for children's outpatient care (30 CZK/1.2 EUR) in 2009 on the demand for ambulatory doctor visits in the Czech Republic. Because the reform applied only to children, we can employ the difference-in-differences approach, where children constitute a treatment group and adults serve as a control group. The dataset covers 1841 observations. Aside from the treatment effect, we control for a number of personal characteristics using micro-level data (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions). Using the zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found no significant effect from the abolition of user charges on doctor visits, suggesting either that user charges are ineffective in the Czech environment or that their value was set too low. On the contrary, personal income, the number of household members and gender have a significant effect. A number of robustness checks using restricted samples confirm the results. PMID:27422120

  8. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    PubMed

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  9. Cyberbullying: The Discriminant Factors Among Cyberbullies, Cybervictims, and Cyberbully-Victims in a Czech Adolescent Sample.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Fatih; Machackova, Hana; Dedkova, Lenka; Cerna, Alena; Ševčíková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Although the research on cyberbullying has increased dramatically in recent years, still little is known about how cyberbullying participant groups (i.e., cyberbullies, cybervictims, and cyberbully-victims) differ from one another. This study aims to discriminate between these groups at an individual and relational level by controlling for age and gender. Self-control, offline aggression, and self-esteem are analyzed as individual-level variables. Parental attachment and peer rejection are involved as relational-level variables. A total of 2,092 Czech adolescents aged 12 to 18 were enrolled from a random sample of 34 primary and secondary schools located in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic. Discriminant function analyses indicated that the participant groups are discriminated by two functions. The first function increases the separation between cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims from cybervictims, indicating that cyberbullies and cyberbully-victims are similar to each other in terms of low self-control, offline aggression, and gender, and have higher scores on measures of low self-esteem and offline aggression. However, cyberbully-victims had the highest scores on these measures. The second function discriminates between all three groups, which indicates that those variables included in the second function (i.e., parental attachment, peer rejection, self-esteem, and age) distinguish all three involved groups. PMID:25411234

  10. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    PubMed

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children.

  11. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  12. Runoff changes in Czech headwater regions after deforestation induced by acid rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchtele, J.; Buchtelova, M.; Hrkal, Z.; Koskova, R.

    2003-04-01

    Tendencies in water regime resulting from land-use change represent an important subject for research and in the region of so called Black Triangle at the borders of Czech Republic, Germany and Poland urgent practical problem. Namely extensive deforestation in Czech hilly basins induced by acid rains, which appeared in seventies and eighties, requires attention. Discussions among professionals and public, sometimes having emotional character, took place after large floods on the rivers Odra and Morava in 1997 and in Vltava and Elbe river basins in August 2002. The influence of deforestation induced by acid rains in the Central Europe has been considered as important contribution to disastrous character of floods. Simulations of rainfall-runoff process in several catchments and experimental basins in two distinct headwater regions along German borders, with different extent of deforestation have been carried out using daily time series up to 40 years long. The outputs of two hydrological models of different structure have been compared in these investigations: - the conceptual model SAC-SMA - Sacramento soil moisture accounting - physically based 1- D model BROOK´90 The differences between observed and simulated discharge, which could show the tendencies in the runoff have been followed. They indicate increase of runoff after deforestation.

  13. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  14. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%.

  15. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-03-04

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994-2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects.

  16. Flash floods in June and July 2009 in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercl, Petr; Danhelka, Jan; Tyl, Radovan

    2010-05-01

    Several flash floods occurred in the territory of the Czech Republic during the last decade of June and beginning of July 2009. These events caused vast economic damage and unfortunately there were also 15 fatalities. The complete evaluation of flash floods from the point of view of its meteorological cause, hydrological development and impacts was done under the responsibility of Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic. Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) coordinated this project. The results of the project contain several concrete proposals to reduce the threat of flash floods in the Czech Republic. The proposals were focused on possible future improvements of CHMI forecasting service activities including all other parts of Flood prevention and protection system in the Czech Republic. The synoptic cause of floods was the extraordinary long (12 days is longest in more than 60 years history) presence of eastern cyclonic situation over the Central Europe bringing warm, moist and unstable air masses from Mediterranean and Black Sea area. Very intensive thunderstorms accompanied by torrential rain occurred almost daily. Storm cells were organized in train effect and crossed repeatedly the same places within several hours. The extremity of the flood events was also influenced by soil saturation due to daily occurrence of rainstorms. The peak flows exceeded significantly 100-year of recurrence time in many sites. The observed and mainly unobserved catchments were affected. The detailed fields of rainfall amounts were gained from the adjusted meteorological radar observation. All of the available rainfall measurements at the climatological and rain gage stations were used for the adjustment. Hydraulic and rainfall-runoff models were used to evaluate the hydrological response. It was proved again, that the outputs from currently used meteorological forecasting models are not sufficient for a reliable local forecast of the strong convective storms and their

  17. Personalised, predictive and preventive medication process in hospitals—still rather missing: professional opinion survey on medication safety in Czech hospitals (based on professional opinions of recognised Czech health care experts)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The survey had the following aims: (1) to rationalise the hypothesis that risks and losses relating to medication process' errors in Czech hospitals are at least comparable with the other developed countries and EU countries especially, (2) to get a valid professional opinion/estimate on the rate of adverse drug events happening in Czech hospitals, (3) to point out that medication errors represent real and serious risks and (4) to induce the hospital management readiness to execute fundamental changes and improvements to medication processes. We read through a lot of studies inquiring into hospitals' medication safety. Then, we selected the studies which brought reliable findings and formulated credible conclusions. Finally, we addressed reputable Czech experts in health care and asked them structured questions whether the studies' findings and conclusions corresponded with our respondents' own experience in the Czech hospital clinical practice and what their own estimates of adverse drug events' consequences were like. Based on the reputable Czech health care expert opinions/estimates, the rate of a false drug administration may exceed 5%, and over 7% of those cause serious health complications to Czech hospital inpatients. Measured by an average length of stay (ALOS), the Czech inpatients, harmed by a false drug administration, stay in hospital for more than 2.6 days longer than necessary. Any positive changes to a currently used, traditional, ways of drug dispensing and administration, along with computerisation, automation, electronic traceability, validation, or verification, must well pay off. Referring to the above results, it seems to be wise to follow the EU priorities in health and health care improvements. Thus, a right usage of the financial means provided by the EC—in terms of its new health programmes for the period 2014–2020 (e.g. Horizon 2020)—has a good chance of a good result in doing the right things right, at the right time and in the

  18. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDIES OF PM-2.5 IN TWO CZECH CITIES: POSSIBLE USES IN HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol and gas phase air pollutant measurements were made in two cities during an ongoing air pollution-health outcome study in the Czech Republic. Teplice, located in northwestern Bohemia, was selected because the local population was exposed to high air pollution levels. Prac...

  19. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  20. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  1. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on September 25, 2013 ((78 FR 59059), as revised on October 21, 2013 (78 FR 64011, October 25, 2013)). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on October 25, 2013... COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland,...

  2. Twenty Years after the Velvet Revolution: Shifts in Czech Adolescents' Perceptions of Family, School, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šerek, Jan; Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Lacinová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Families and schools are traditionally seen as substantial socialization agents forming adolescents' social values and their views of society. Special attention is paid to the question whether the relative importance of these influences remains stable in times of major social changes. In this study, two different generations of Czech middle…

  3. The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

  4. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  5. A Comparison of Reading Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Skills between Bilingual and Monolingual Czech-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holick, Robert Joseph

    This study investigated whether reading achievement differed between bilingual and monolingual students in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades in several Texas schools where the Czech-American culture is significant. Selected bilinguals and monolinguals were compared in the factors of sex, age, grade level, reading vocabulary scores, reading…

  6. The Relationship between ICT Use and Science Knowledge for Czech Students: A Secondary Analysis of PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Vlckova, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment focussed on students' scientific competencies, measured their knowledge and provided questionnaires focussed on different aspects of life. One aspect was students' experience with information and communication technology (ICT). A secondary analysis of variance of the Czech Republic data (N =…

  7. 75 FR 69046 - Notice of Determination of the High Pathogenic Avian Influenza Subtype H5N1 Status of Czech...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 17368-17370, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0088) a notice \\1\\ in... importation of live birds, poultry carcasses, parts or products of poultry carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, and other birds from the Czech Republic and Sweden presents a...

  8. 75 FR 17368 - Notice of Availability of an Evaluation of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Status of Czech...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Board of Agriculture reported their first case of HPAI H5N1 in domestic poultry to the World... the Czech Republic reported the first occurrence of HPAI H5N1 in domestic poultry to the OIE. The... with a country that has experienced an HPAI H5N1 outbreak,\\2\\ ] our evaluations concluded that...

  9. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  10. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  11. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  12. An investigation of local and regional sources of fine particulate matter in the Ostrava,the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite efforts to reduce air pollutants, particularly in the coal power plant and industrial sectors, the Ostrava region of the Czech Republic continues to experience episodes of high pollutant concentrations, especially during the fall and winter seasons. A short-term investig...

  13. Innovative Teachers at Today's Czech Schools: Who Are They and Which Part Do They Play in the Execution of Changes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Our research attempts to define the role of innovative teachers in the reform process. Our respondents--innovative teachers--are looked for among the members of spontaneous, bottom-up, nation-wide teacher initiatives which have been independently developing in the Czech education for more than a decade. Our contribution is based on a research…

  14. Fall of the iron curtain: male life expectancy in Slovakia, in the Czech Republic and in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vladimir; Wsolova, Ladislava

    2009-12-01

    Year 1989, the fall of communism, represents a dramatic watershed. Changes and reforms reflected also upon the quality of health care and the health of populations living on eastern side of the divide. Until then, Eastern Europe had free socialized medicine, albeit troubled by lack of up-to-date medications and absence of modern diagnostic equipment. Noting the admirable progress in health in some regions of the former Soviet empire during its transformation provides invaluable sociological lesson. Furthermore, focusing on health trends in two Central European countries, the Czech republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK), brings about another quality to such evaluation. Dramatic improvement in the life expectancy (LE) is represented mainly in the decrease of cardiovascular mortality, more in the Czech Republic than in Slovakia. Favorable trend of male LE in the Czech Republic exceeded several established West European countries, while in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine the life expectancy actually deteriorated. When life expectancy in Slovakia is compared with the Czech Republic, its poorer outcome results from a higher cardiovascular mortality, as well as from liver, digestive and respiratory disorders. Root causes of this difference are possibly in a marked difference in funding of health care between SK and CZ, higher consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as in a sizeable disadvantaged Roma minority in Slovakia.

  15. Analysing Instrument Mixes in Quality Assurance: The Czech and Slovak Accreditation Commissions in the Era of Mass Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Utilising insights from policy instrument theory, the article analyses the design, functioning and effects of the tools used by the Czech Accreditation Commission (CAC) and the Slovak Accreditation Commission (SAC) in the 2000s. Aside from programme accreditation, the other tools analysed are: institutional approval, institutional evaluations,…

  16. From "Cage Beds" to Inclusion: The Long Road for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, Barbara H.; Siska, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, individuals with intellectual disabilities continue to be institutionalized in large, remote, state-run institutions and as a result are isolated from community interaction. Some practices associated with these institutions are coming to be seen as human rights violations. Although non-governmental organizations (NGOs) offer…

  17. RNF213 Rare Variants in Slovakian and Czech Moyamoya Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kyselová, Kateřina; Viszlayová, Daša; Morimoto, Takaaki; Roubec, Martin; Školoudík, David; Petrovičová, Andrea; Juskanič, Dominik; Strauss, Jozef; Halaj, Marián; Kurray, Peter; Hranai, Marián; Harada, Kouji H.; Inoue, Sumiko; Yoshida, Yukako; Habu, Toshiyuki; Herzig, Roman; Youssefian, Shohab; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    RNF213/Mysterin has been identified as a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease, a cerebrovascular disease characterized by occlusive lesions in the circle of Willis. The p.R4810K (rs112735431) variant is a founder polymorphism that is strongly associated with moyamoya disease in East Asia. Many non-p.R4810K rare variants of RNF213 have been identified in white moyamoya disease patients, although the ethnic mutations have not been investigated in this population. In the present study, we screened for RNF213 variants in 19 Slovakian and Czech moyamoya disease patients. A total of 69 RNF213 coding exons were directly sequenced in 18 probands and one relative who suffered from moyamoya disease in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. We previously reported one proband harboring RNF213 p.D4013N. Results from the present study identified four rare variants other than p.D4013N (p.R4019C, p.E4042K, p.V4146A, and p.W4677L) in four of the patients. P.V4146A was determined to be a novel de novo mutation, and p.R4019C and p.E4042K were identified as double mutations inherited on the same allele. P.W4677L, found in two moyamoya disease patients and an unaffected subject in the same pedigree, was a rare single nucleotide polymorphism. Functional analysis showed that RNF213 p.D4013N, p.R4019C and p.V4146A-transfected human umbilical vein endothelial cells displayed significant lowered migration, and RNF213 p.V4146A significantly reduced tube formation, indicating that these are disease-causing mutations. Results from the present study identified RNF213 rare variants in 22.2% (4/18 probands) of Slovakian and Czech moyamoya disease patients, confirming that RNF213 may also be a major causative gene in a relative large population of white patients. PMID:27736983

  18. USE OF MEDICINES AMONG STUDENTS OF HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    PubMed

    Kopecna, Eva; Mica, Martin; Vlcek, Jiri; Svoboda, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and type of medicines used by high school students in the Czech Republic and to analyze association between use of medicines during last 6 months and self medication with different socio-demographic and lifestyle aspects. A cross-sectional study was conducted in high schools from two regions and three towns in the Czech Republic. The study sample was a student population of nine selected high schools. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committees and school board and was conducted in compliance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Questionnaires respecting anonymity were distributed to the students during the regular class period. Students answered closed and open questions divided into six sections focussing on their experience with chronic and irregular use of medicines, medicines use during last six months, conditions treated, type and source of used medicines. A modified log-linear Poisson regression model with a robust variance estimator (sandwich) was used for statistical analysis. In total, 979 students, aged 14-21 years (mean age 17 years) participated in the study: 32% were male and 68% female; 19% of students reported regular use of medicines for chronic disease. The use of medicines during the last 6 months was reported by 83% of students; 42% of them reported the use of both prescription and over the counter (OTC) medicines; 22% the use only of OTC, and 31% only prescription medicines. Allergy, asthma, disorders of the thyroid gland, atopic dermatitis, and hypertensive diseases were among the most frequent long-term diseases. The most frequent groups of medicines used for the treatment of long-term diseases were systemic antihistamines, thyroid preparations, and respiratory drugs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, ibuprofen and paracetamol were the most frequently used medicines during last six months. The study results showed quite extensive use of both

  19. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  20. Projected changes in the evolution of drought assessed with the SPEI over the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potop, V.; Boroneana, C.; Stepanek, P.; Skalak, P.; Mozny, M.

    2012-04-01

    In previous studies the spatial and temporal evolution of drought events in the Czech Republic were extensively analyzed by comparing results from the most advanced drought indices (e.g. the SPI and SPEI), which take into account the role of antecedent conditions in quantifying drought severity. In the present study, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was adopted to assess and project drought characteristics in the Czech Republic based on the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulated data. The simulations were conducted at high resolution (10km) for the current (1961-2000) and two future climates (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). First, the observed data of air temperature and precipitation totals was transferred into a regular grid of ALADIN-Climate/CZ model. The bias correction was applied on the scenario runs. The bias correction method is based on variable correction using individual percentiles whose relationship is derived from observations and control RCM simulation. The SPEI was calculated based on observed monthly data of mean temperature and precipitation totals for the period 1961-1990, as reference period, and for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, as future climates under A1B SRES scenario. The SPEI were calculated with various lags, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months because the drought at these time scales is relevant for agricultural, hydrological and socio-economic impact, respectively. The study refers at the warm season of the year (April to September). As in the case of observational study, we have identified three climatically homogeneous regions, corresponding to the altitudes below 400 m, between 401 and 700 m and, above 700 m. For these three regions the frequency distribution of the SPEI values in 7 classes of drought category (%) were calculated based on grid point data falling in each region, both for the observed data and scenario runs. The paper presents the projected changes in frequency distribution of SPEI at

  1. Mercury accumulation in peatbogs at Czech sites with contrasting pollution histories.

    PubMed

    Zuna, M; Ettler, V; Šebek, O; Mihaljevič, M

    2012-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and accumulation patterns were studied in (210)Pb-dated peat cores from three ombrotrophic sites in the Czech Republic with contrasting emission histories (Novodomské rašeliniště, ND, and Bílá Smědá, BS, in the polluted northern parts of the country, and Jezerní slať, JS, in a relatively pristine southern part of the Czech Republic). The Hg concentration varied significantly between sites. Whereas the sites in the northern part of the Czech Republic yielded a range of higher Hg concentrations (50-750 μg kg(-1) for ND and 30-600 μg kg(-1) for BS), a Hg concentration range of 40-220 μg kg(-1) was reported at JS. At the northern localities, the highest Hg concentrations were detected at depths of 5-10 cm, corresponding to the period between the early 1960s until the late 1980s. In contrast, the highest Hg values at JS were observed at a depth of 10-15 cm, corresponding to the period between the early 1950s and the early 1970s. The maximum Hg accumulation rates were approximately 2× higher at the northern localities (ND: 106 μg m(-2)yr(-1), BS: 90 μg m(-2)yr(-1), JS: 43 μg m(-2)yr(-1)). Although a decrease in the Hg concentration can be observed in the youngest segments of all the peat cores, a slight increase in Hg accumulation rates in the most recent peat segments (living Sphagnum moss) has been reported for all three sites (40-44 μg m(-2)yr(-1)), which is approximately 2× higher than in peat bogs in western and northern Europe. This observation may either be related to a real recent increase in Hg emissions in Central Europe (active coal mining and burning and limited Hg pollution control in thermal power plants) or could indicate a preferential Hg binding mechanism in the living moss at the surface of the peat.

  2. Pericentric Inversion of Human Chromosome 9 Epidemiology Study in Czech Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Šípek, A; Panczak, A; Mihalová, R; Hrčková, L; Suttrová, E; Sobotka, V; Lonský, P; Kaspříková, N; Gregor, V

    2015-01-01

    Pericentric inversion of human chromosome 9 [inv(9)] is a relatively common cytogenetic finding. It is largely considered a clinically insignificant variant of the normal human karyotype. However, numerous studies have suggested its possible association with certain pathologies, e.g., infertility, habitual abortions or schizophrenia. We analysed the incidence of inv(9) and the spectrum of clinical indications for karyotyping among inv(9) carriers in three medical genetics departments in Prague. In their cytogenetic databases, among 26,597 total records we identified 421 (1.6 %) cases of inv(9) without any concurrent cytogenetic pathology. This study represents the world's largest epidemiological study on inv(9) to date. The incidence of inv(9) calculated in this way from diagnostic laboratory data does not differ from the incidence of inv(9) in three specific populationbased samples of healthy individuals (N = 4,166) karyotyped for preventive (amniocentesis for advanced maternal age, gamete donation) or legal reasons (children awaiting adoption). The most frequent clinical indication in inv(9) carriers was "idiopathic reproductive failure" - 37.1 %. The spectra and percentages of indications in individuals with inv(9) were further statistically evaluated for one of the departments (N = 170) by comparing individuals with inv(9) to a control group of 661 individuals with normal karyotypes without this inversion. The proportion of clinical referrals for "idiopathic reproductive failure" among inv(9) cases remains higher than in controls, but the difference is not statistically significant for both genders combined. Analysis in separated genders showed that the incidence of "idiopathic reproductive failure" could differ among inv(9) female and male carriers.

  3. 500-year April-September droughts in the Czech Lands based on documentary data and instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řezníčková, Ladislava; Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav; Dobrovolný, Petr; Kotyza, Oldřich; Štěpánek, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Valášek, Hubert

    2013-04-01

    This paper analyses temporal and spatial variability of April-September (the vegetation period) droughts in the Czech Lands over the last 500 years. The study is based on different types of documentary data (e.g. chronicles, newspapers, economic sources, weather diaries) covering the pre-instrumental period AD 1501-1804 and on the systematic instrumental meteorological measurements afterwards. Historical-climatological database of the Czech Lands is used for the study of the duration and intensity of drought episodes based on the series of precipitation indices created from documentary data in a 7-degree scale from -3 (extremely dry) to +3 (extremely wet). For the instrumental period of 1805-2012 Palmer's Z-index and PDSI series for mean Czech temperature and precipitation series are used (they were calculated from homogeneous series of 10 and 14 stations respectively). Consequently the 500-year chronology of drought episodes derived from documentary and instrumental data is compiled and the temporal (frequency, seasonality and intensity) and spatial variability of droughts in the Czech Lands from AD 1501 is analysed. The most outstanding drought events are selected and analysed in detail also with respect to their human impacts. The results obtained for the Czech Lands are compared with drought episodes known in Central Europe from other studies and are evaluated with respect to climate variability in Central Europe during the last 500 years (this research is supported by projects InterDrought no. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248, and GA CR no. P209/11/0956).

  4. March-June temperature reconstruction in the Czech Lands based on cereal harvest dates in the 1501-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Dobrovolný, Petr; Trnka, Mirek

    2010-05-01

    Cereal crop harvests reflect the weather patterns of the period immediately preceding them, and thus the dates at which they begin may be used as a source of proxy data on regional climate. Using systematic phenological observations in the Czech Lands (now known as the Czech Republic) after 1848, together with exploration of further surviving documentary evidence (chronicles, diaries, financial accounts etc.), it has proved possible to create series of winter wheat harvest dates for the period 1501-2008. Employing linear regression, the harvesting dates of the main cereal species (wheat, rye, barley, oats) were first converted to winter wheat harvest days and then normalised to the same altitude above sea level. The next step consisted of using series of winter wheat harvest dates to reconstruct mean March-June temperatures in the Czech Lands, applying standard palaeoclimatological methods. Series reconstructed by linear regression explain 70% of temperature variability. A profound cold period corresponding with late winter wheat harvests was noted between 1659 and 1705. In contrast, warm periods (i.e. early winter wheat harvests) were found for the periods of 1517-1542, 1788-1834 and 1946-2008. The period after 1951 is the warmest of all throughout the entire 1501-2008 period. Comparisons with other European temperature reconstructions derived from documentary sources (including grape harvest dates), tree-ring and instrumental data reveal generally close agreement, with significant correlations. Lower correlations around A.D. 1650 and 1750 may be partly related to deterioration of socio-economic conditions in the Czech Lands resulting from prolonged wars. The results obtained demonstrate that it is possible to use widely-available cereal harvest data for climate analysis and also that such data constitute an independent proxy data series for the region of Central Europe crucial to further studies of the potential impact of climatic variability and climate change

  5. The Czech government scholarship programme for students from developing countries--evaluation findings and policy reflections.

    PubMed

    Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína

    2014-04-01

    In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too.

  6. [Changes in fertility in the Czech lands during the demographic transition].

    PubMed

    Fialova, L

    1991-01-01

    "The beginning of the decrease of fertility in the Czech Lands can be placed in the first decades of the 19th century...as a result of the declining marriage rate. From the 1880's [on] there was added the restriction of marital fertility which gradually extended to all parts of society and to the whole of the country. There were important regional differences as regards the beginning, duration and end of the decline of fertility. These differences led to the relatively high variation coefficient in the level of fertility according to districts in the period when the level of fertility throughout the country dropped (1900-1930), whereas in the preceding and subsequent periods deviations from the average values were considerably lower." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  7. Molecular identification of the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria in fresh water sediments (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Rulík, Martin; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of considerable interest because of their importance in the manufacture of various bioinspired materials. In order to find out the status of magnetotactic bacteria at three different sediment in Czech Republic, samples collected from both standing and running freshwaters were subjected to molecular diversity analysis by using 16S rRNA gene approach. Total community DNA from sediment sample was isolated and used for PCR, cloning and sequence analysis. Of the 24 analyzed sequences, six clones are closely related to Magnetobacterium sp. affiliated with the Nitrospira phylum which showed the dominance of Magnetobacterium phylotypes in the sample. This study will provide useful insight about the community structure of MTB in this particular geographical region. However more detailed and specific studies are warranted in order to properly assess the community structure of MTB’s in fresh water sediments. PMID:25763029

  8. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  9. Spatial modelling of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic using auxiliary geographical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliba Bankanza, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the spatial model of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic using auxiliary geographical variables in order to produce gridded data needed for various applications. Daily precipitation data from 203 stations for the period 1971 - 2003 are used. Model is performed at different time steps (year, ten-years, and entire period). Considering that models performed at different time steps can vary significantly, it was necessary to verify two assumptions before the development of spatial prediction: (1) whether geographical variables control significantly the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic; (2) and whether the effects of significant geographical variables (model parameters) do not vary significantly in time. Various candidate geographical predictors are evaluated in the stepwise regression models for summer precipitation: (1) a set of omnidirectional parameters of the elevation characterizing an area of 3 km x 3 km around meteorological stations, (2) various cross products calculated between geographical coordinates and elevation or topographic parameters, (3) slope and four facets of slope aspect which characterize the orographic regimes over the Czech Republic, (4) land cover parameters describing areas of about 10 km by 10 km around meteorological stations and (5) geographical coordinates. The orographic parameters are derived from the 1 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM), while the land cover parameters are derived from the 1 km resolution CORINE (Coordination of information on the environment) land cover data. To assure stability of the regression equations and comparability of regression models in time, both orthogonally rotated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and frequency of significant predictors - selected using stepwise regression at each time step - are used to select identical significant independent variables for various time steps. Multivariate regression

  10. Mathematical aspects of the kriging applied on landslide in Halenkovice (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zůvala, Robert; Fišerová, Eva; Marek, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    Kriging is one of the geostatistical techniques for spatial data analysis that is usually used for a modelling of natural phenomena or a creation of digital elevation models. In this paper, we introduce kriging methods in the context of a landslide modelling in time. The proposed procedure, as well as most of the statistical methods, is designed for complete data sets, i.e. the observations at the beginning and the end of the study are available. In order to use all the information from the data and to avoid the loss of information after omitting observations with missing values, the algorithm for imputation of missing data values based on kriging techniques is proposed. The methodology was verified by the landslide modelling in Halenkovice, Czech Republic, during the period from June 2008 to March 2010. The obtained results showed a potential of kriging methods for the landslide modelling.

  11. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances in fish and water from the Svitava and Svratka rivers, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kovarova, Jana; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Jurcikova, Jana; Kasikova, Barbora; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFHxS, FHUEA, PFOA, PFOS, FOSA, N-methyl FOSA and PFNA) from seven sites on the Svitava and Svratka rivers in the Brno conurbation (Czech Republic) were determined in fish blood plasma and water. Concentrations of PFHxS, FHUEA, FOSA, and N-methyl FOSA were below detection limits. Major compound in fish blood was PFOS (38.9-57.8 ng mL(-1)), followed by PFNA and PFOA. In water, the major compound detected was PFOA (1.7-178.0 ng mL(-1)), followed by PFOS and PFNA. A significant (p < 0.05) correlation for PFOA concentration in blood plasma and water was found (r = 0.74).

  12. Survived spondyloptosis of the thoracic spine in the Early Middle Ages (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Kalová, K; Drozdová, E; Smrčka, V

    2013-12-01

    At a Slavic site Pohansko near Břeclav (Czech Republic), at the burial ground around the church (9th-10th century) 757 skeletons (208 males, 159 females, 354 sub-adults and 36 undetermined individuals), were excavated. More or less complete vertebral column was preserved in 109 adults. Among those, in the grave number 403, the skeletal remains of an adult male were found with the deformity of the spine probably caused by severe trauma (spondyloptosis). Due to the poor preservation of the caudal part of the spine, we cannot exclude diagnoses including spondylitis tuberculosa and developmental defects of the spine such as the persistence of neurocentral synchondroses, or the retrosomatic cleft. Considering the first possible diagnosis to be the most probable, it would be the first survived case of spondyloptosis identified in the palaeopathological literature. PMID:24083937

  13. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Toscana virus in Czech travelers returning from the Mediterranean].

    PubMed

    Zelená, H; Kumštarová, R; Skárek, J; Bojar, M; Mifek, I

    2014-03-01

    Presented are case studies of 3 patients with aseptic meninogencephalitis occurring after returning from the Mediterranean tourist regions. None of the infectious agents common in aseptic neuroinfections in the Czech Republic was detected in the patients. Serological tests showed that in each case, the illness was caused by Toscana virus, a phlebovirus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. The virus is transmitted by tiny biting insects of the genus Phlebotomus commonly present in the Mediterranean area. The course of the disease was mild to moderate and all the patients recovered without sequelae. These case reports document the fact that this arbovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with aseptic neuroinfections returning from endemic areas of this virus.

  14. Withdrawal and withholding of medical treatment: Czech medical law at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Peterková, Helena

    2011-06-01

    The making of an end of life decision represents worldwide one of the most difficult issues that physicians can be confronted with --not only should it be regarded as consisting of medical and legal aspects, but ethics and moral values are present as well. Furthermore, it shall not be supposed that the economic parameter is negligible, unfortunately even to the contrary. The fact that the decision is often made by physicians under pressure caused by a system of limited resources (and therefore it can not avoid being distorted) must be kept in mind. At any rate , according to Czech law under which neither assisted suicide nor euthanasia is allowed, the legality and legitimacy of withdrawal and withholding of medical treatment is based on the argument of informed consent of the patient, advanced directives and the standard of lege artis treatment. These also shall be pleaded as defences in eventual criminal proceedings.

  15. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors.

    PubMed

    Marek, Michal V; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, Irena

    2011-05-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands.

  16. Short communication: Polymorphism of casein cluster genes in Czech local goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Sztankóová, Z; Mátlová, V; Kysel'ová, J; Jandurová, O M; Ríha, J; Senese, C

    2009-12-01

    The 4 casein loci were evaluated as haplotypes in 2 dairy goat breeds kept in the Czech Republic. Analysis of 41 White Shorthaired (WSH) trio families and 44 Brown Shorthaired (BSH) trio families revealed 14 and 20 haplotypes, respectively. Various genomic techniques were used to type the casein loci. Twenty-two different combinations of these alleles (casein haplotypes, in the order CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) were found. Only 5 haplotypes in the WSH breed and 6 haplotypes in the BSH breed occurred at frequencies >0.05. For the WSH breed, the most common haplotype was FCFB (0.260), whereas for the BSH breed, the most common haplotype was FCFA (0.217). The information on the haplotype variability in both breeds could be used in breeding programs aimed at preserving biodiversity or selecting animals for specific protein production and cheesemaking.

  17. Bacillary tuberculosis in the Czech Republic: developmental trends in the 1981-1993 period.

    PubMed

    Svandová, E; Hyncica, V; Havelková, M; Kubín, M

    1996-09-01

    Results of an automated information system on bacillary tuberculosis and mycobacterioses (ISBT) operating in the Czech Republic since 1981 nation-wide have been employed in this study. This system collects and processes data reported by all mycobacteriology laboratories in the country (34 in 1993) on each person disseminating pathogenic and/or opportunistic mycobacteria, on pathological materials examined in these patients and on methods applied for detection and identification of isolated mycobacteria Results of the 1981-1993 period were analyzed in this study. The annual incidence of bacillary tuberculosis cases identified by culture fell down from 2655 (25.8 per 100,000 popul.) in 1981 to 1139 (11.0 per 100,000 popul.) in 1993, i.e. by 57.4% in total, and by 4.8% in average annually. The decrease of annual mean values differed between two periods, from 1981 to 1985 and from 1986 to 1993, being 8.7% in the first and 3.7% in the successive period. The incidence of cases detected by direct microscopy of sputum showed a decline from 615 to 410 cases (5.97 to 3.97 per 100,000 popul.) in the 1981 to 1993 period, i.e. 2.8% annually. The analysis of the development and of the present state of the bacillary tuberculosis is instrumental in estimating the today's burden of the tuberculosis problem in the Czech Republic. Although distinct sings of worsened epidemiological parameters were not shown in this study, some disturbing findings can be considered as alerting: (a) a slowdown of the declining trend of bacillary tuberculosis cases detected by culture techniques seen in a few recent years, and (b) conserving potential tuberculosis pools in patients suffering from serious forms of the disease detectable by direct microscopy.

  18. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  19. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  20. Spinocerebellar ataxias type 8, 12, and 17 and dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy in Czech ataxic patients.

    PubMed

    Musova, Zuzana; Sedlacek, Zdenek; Mazanec, Radim; Klempir, Jiri; Roth, Jan; Plevova, Pavlina; Vyhnalek, Martin; Kopeckova, Marta; Apltova, Ludmila; Krepelova, Anna; Zumrova, Alena

    2013-04-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders currently associated with 27 genes. The most frequent types are caused by expansions in coding CAG repeats. The frequency of SCA subtypes varies among populations. We examined the occurrence of rare SCAs, SCA8, SCA12, SCA17 and dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), in the Czech population from where the data were missing. We analyzed causal gene expansions in 515 familial and sporadic ataxic patients negatively tested for SCA1-3 and SCA6-7. Pathogenic SCA8 and SCA17 expansions were identified in eight and five patients, respectively. Tay-Sachs disease was later diagnosed in one patient with an SCA8 expansion and the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was suspected in two other patients with SCA8 expansions. These findings are probably coincidental, although the participation of SCA8 expansions in the susceptibility to MS and disease progression cannot be fully excluded. None of the patients had pathogenic SCA12 or DRPLA expansions. However, three patients had intermediate SCA12 alleles out of the normal range with 36 and 43 CAGs. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was probable in the patient with 43 CAGs. This coincidence is remarkable, especially in the context with the recently identified predisposing role of longer SCA2 alleles in ALS. Five families with SCA17 represent a significant portion of ataxic patients and this should be reflected in the diagnostics of SCAs in the Czech population. SCA8 expansions must be considered after careful clinical evaluation. PMID:22872568

  1. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic 1970-2008.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Maly, Marek; Benes, Cestmir; Daniel, Milan

    2012-11-01

    This article presents major epidemiologic features of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Czech Republic, using data of laboratory-confirmed cases since 1970. A total of 17,053 cases of TBE were reported in the Czech Republic (population 10 million) in 1970-2008. The data show several important features. First, the pattern of TBE incidence changed over time. Until the end of the 1970s, TBE was characterized by periods of alternately higher and lower incidence (between 180 and 595 cases per year); the 1980s were a period of low incidence with minimum variability; since the beginning of the 1990 s, there has been a steep rise in incidence, with marked year-to-year variation (e.g., 745 cases were registered in 1995, and a maximum of 1029 cases were registered in 2006). Second, the age distribution of TBE incidence has changed. Until the end of 1990 s, incidence peaked among those 15-19 years of age, with a gradual decline with age. In the 2000s, however, TBE incidence has been rising in those aged 60-64 years, with a sharp decline in those older than 65 years. Third, the seasonal pattern of TBE has changed markedly over time. In the earlier period, incidence had a clear peak in July/August; since the 1990 s, more cases have occurred in earlier and later months of the year. The proportion of cases occurring in April, May, October, and November increased from 9% in the 1970s to 23% in 2000-2008. Fourth, the geographical distribution of TBE also changed over time, with TBE increasingly occurring in the mountainous districts at higher altitudes. These changes in incidence patterns appear to be linked with changes in climatic and meteorological conditions. The link between climate change and TBE incidence is plausible, since TBE is a recreation-related infection associated with outdoor activities, and since climatic changes affect the life cycle of the vector. PMID:23025693

  2. A Possible Contribution of an Integrated Geodetic Infrastructure to EPOS: Case Study the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simek, Jaroslav; Filler, Vratislav; Kostelecky, Jan; Kostelecky, Jakub; Novak, Pavel; Palinkas, Vojtech; Plicka, Vladimir; Valko, Milos

    2010-05-01

    The Earth is subject to a multitude of dynamic processes that cover a broad variety of spatial and temporal scales and are driven by large interior and exterior forces. The need for a global monitoring of the Earth has been recognized by the UN which resulted in initiating several global observing systems. None of these systems explicitly includes a geodetic component nor it is directly connected to the Global Geodetic Observing System. Nevertheless, only geodetic techniques can provide both the reference frame for Earth system observations as well as observations of crucial parameters related to changes in the Earth's geometry, rotation and gravity field. To ensure a long-term stability of the terrestrial reference system on the accuracy level of 1E-9 in the global and continental scale, the interactions between different time-dependent influences of the system Earth to the terrestrial reference system have to be considered. Therefore, necessary observations of different observation techniques must be available. To achieve reliable results, observations must be completed with meteorological parameters and environmental data of different kinds (ground water level, soil moisture etc.). A possible contribution of a regional geodetic infrastructure is illustrated by an example of the Geodetic Observatory Pecný, the Czech Republic, which continuously provides time series of GNSS, gravity (based on the absolute and superconducting gravimeters), seismic, environmental, climatological and meteorological (including radiometric atmosphere profiling) observations. Parallel to it, several data and analysis centers of the IAG international scientific services and of international geodynamical and meteorological projects are running at the observatory. The observatory is also a reference station for the scientific and experimental GNSS network operated in the Czech Republic and a part of the regional seismic network. Some time series of observations are presented and

  3. Current state of Czech astronomy popularization and its potential for enhancing science career interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříček, Radek

    2015-08-01

    The Czech Republic has a dense net of observatories, astronomical clubs and other activities for both adults and children. Can we use it to improve skills of our pupils and their motivation to choose their career in science? Does the situation in the Czech Republic differ from abroad? What can we improve in the future? These questions were not answered satisfactorily so far. We decided to contribute to solve this issue.We present our survey of current state based mainly on electronic sources and personal dealings. Besides of 56 observatories working with public and many interest clubs, there are other possibilities to meet astronomy. For example, Astronomical Olympiad attracts thousands of pupils across the country each year to solve both theoretical and practical tasks in astronomy. In other projects, children can visit Dark-Sky Parks, design experiments for a stratospheric balloon, observe with CCD or radio devices or build their own rockets.We outline our ongoing project to examine the link between popularization activities and pupils’ or high school students’ attitude toward science and science career. We plan to create a typology of both popularization activities and life stories of people dealing with astronomy. From the methodological point of view, the mixed method design, combining both the qualitative and quantitative approach, will be used to solve the research problems. The basic research plan will be a case study. So far the project is based on interviews with various subjects. We choose people with different life stories, all connected with astronomy or astronomy popularization in some period. We focus on important moments in their career, similarities between subjects, and various types of possible motivation to participate in astronomy-related activities or to study science at university.Future results can be used to help interested organizations such as universities, observatories or astronomical societies. They will be able to work more

  4. The use of taxation records in assessing historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-10-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data are often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in the periods 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. A number of uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and restriction to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data have considerable potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  5. The influence of different types of grassland on soil quality in upland areas of Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sarapatka, B; Cizkova, S

    2014-05-01

    The diversity of grassland in upland areas of Czech Republic was studied on selected soil characteristics of these biotopes. In the first phase, 44 soil characteristics were studied and mutual correlations were found between many of them. In the following phase characteristics were chosen which correlated most with other soil characteristics and, at the same time, were easy to evaluate in practise. A great number of correlations were also evidenced between many soil characteristics and the content of humus and nitrogen, which are closely linked to organic matter in soil. In studying these characteristics on selected areas with different types of grassland and consequential cluster analysis and further evaluation, the grassland plots were divided into three groups, from newly established vegetation to species-rich communities. Non-parametric analysis was carried out on the results and a statistically significant difference was proved between the species rich and poorvegetation and carbon and nitrogen content of the soil. Slightly different humus quality (higher amount of HA) was also found under richer vegetation. These results show that at 0-20 cm layer, 58.9 tonnes of carbon ha⁻¹ was measured under species-poor pastureland and 106.1 tonnes of carbon ha under species-rich vegetation. The results showed that besides supporting species diversity, the described quality change can also be important for carbon sequestration. The difference of about 40-50 tonnes of carbon ha and converting 10% of grassland in the Czech Republic to species-rich vegetation would mean sequestration of about 3.9 Mt carbon. If only agroenvironmentally subsidized areas are converted, carbon sequestration in such vegetation could amountto 1.7 Mt.

  6. Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov.--two new middle Cambrian hyolithids (?Mollusca) from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Valent, Martin; Fatka, Oldřich; Szabad, Michal; Micka, Václav; Marek, Ladislav

    2015-08-28

    Two new endemic genera and species of extinct group of Hyolitha, Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Buchava Formation of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic).

  7. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Krám, Pavel; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Czech Republic was heavily industrialized in the second half of the 20th century but the associated emissions of Hg and S from coal burning were significantly reduced since the 1990s. We studied dissolved (filtered) stream water mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at five catchments with contrasting Hg and S deposition histories in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. The median filtered Hg concentrations of stream water samples collected in hydrological years 2012 and 2013 from the five sites varied by an order of magnitude from 1.3 to 18.0 ng L− 1. The Hg concentrations at individual catchments were strongly correlated with DOC concentrations r from 0.64 to 0.93 and with discharge r from 0.48 to 0.75. Annual export fluxes of filtered Hg from individual catchments ranged from 0.11 to 13.3 μg m− 2 yr− 1 and were highest at sites with the highest DOC export fluxes. However, the amount of Hg exported per unit DOC varied widely; the mean Hg/DOC ratio in stream water at the individual sites ranged from 0.28 to 0.90 ng mg− 1. The highest stream Hg/DOC ratios occurred at sites Pluhův Bor and Jezeří which both are in the heavily polluted Black Triangle area. Stream Hg/DOC was inversely related to mineral and total soil pool Hg/C across the five sites. We explain this pattern by greater soil Hg retention due to inhibition of soil organic matter decomposition at the sites with low stream Hg/DOC and/or by precipitation of a metacinnabar (HgS) phase. Thus mobilization of Hg into streams from forest soils likely depends on combined effects of organic matter decomposition dynamics and HgS-like phase precipitation, which were both affected by Hg and S deposition histories.

  8. Soil moisture trends in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Wardlow, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Central Europe is generally not considered a drought-prone region, and the drought research and support is traditionally focused on the Mediterranean and southeastern part of the continent and drying trends there. However, Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, recently experienced a series of drought events with substantial impacts, especially on crop production. Because agriculture systems, and vegetation in general, have adapted to evenly distributed precipitation, the region is susceptible to even short-term droughts. The recent drought events may be the result of multi-decadal climate variability or a more general trend, with some studies showing a link to a more frequent occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to drought. This study introduces an innovation to the standard methodological approaches in evaluating drought climatology by analyzing soil moisture conditions over more than fifty years. This approach relies on state-of-the art observed weather data and tested soil moisture model, and focuses on the dynamic simulation of soil moisture content with high temporal (daily) and spatial (500 m) resolution in a diverse landscape. Statistically significant trends of decreasing soil moisture content were found, notably during May and June between 1961 and 2012. In contrast, trends toward higher soil moisture content were noted during the October-March time period. When the periods of 2001-2012 and 1961-1980 were compared, the probability of drought between April and June was found to increase by 50%. This indicates a loading of the "climate dice" toward drier conditions. The probability of extreme drought events has been also found to increase. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe under projected climate change and has been submitted to International Journal of Climatology. The study was funded by project "Establishment of International Scientific Team

  9. Association between CSN3 and BCO2 gene polymorphisms and milk performance traits in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bartonova, P; Vrtkova, I; Kaplanova, K; Urban, T

    2012-04-27

    Daily milk, fat and protein yield and amount of somatic cells in cow milk are very important factors that influence milk performance traits. An association between polymorphisms in the kappa casein (CSN3) gene and milk production, composition and technical properties has been previously reported; however, this type of information is not available for the bovine β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene--the BCO2 gene has relationship with milk color and meat fat color, which is dependent on content of β-carotene. We analyzed these two genes and their relationship with milk performance traits (daily milk, fat and protein yield, somatic cell count, SCC) in one cattle population, Czech Fleckvieh (N = 152). All animals were milked twice a day and kept in the same environmental conditions. The Fleckvieh is a typical Czech cattle breed farming for milk and meat production. It is the most common breed in the Czech Republic. DNA was isolated from milk or from hairs. Genes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP, frequencies of alleles and genotypes were calculated and association analysis was performed using a GLM Procedure in SAS. Statistical analysis established that the CSN3 gene has no statistically significant influence on daily milk, fat and protein yield and SCC. Compared to other references this result can be explained by, e.g., small group of animals and different cattle breed. The BCO2 gene (genotypes AA and AG) shows a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.05) with daily milk, protein yield and SCC.

  10. Passive sampling methods for monitoring endocrine disruptors in the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Grabic, Roman; Jurcikova, Jana; Tomsejova, Sarka; Ocelka, Tomas; Halirova, Jarmila; Hypr, Dusan; Kodes, Vit

    2010-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are manmade or natural chemicals that have the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of animals. They have not been monitored systematically in the Czech Republic. The goal of the present study was the characterization of aquatic environmental pollution from the Brno (Czech Republic) city agglomeration focusing on EDC. Passive sampling devices, as well as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were used for the pilot assessment of EDC. They were deployed for 21- to 28-d periods at nine locations in the Svratka and Svitava Rivers, Brno, Czech Republic, including at the inlet and outlet of Brno's wastewater treatment plant. The SPMDs were used to monitor nonpolar compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). The POCIS were used to monitor polar compounds such as pesticides and their metabolites, perfluoro-organic compounds (PFOC), and pharmaceuticals. The passive samplers allowed very low detection limits for soluble (bioavailable) fractions of pollutants. The contribution of PAH, PCB, and HCB in sewage water to pollution of the Svratka River was low. The Brno wastewater treatment plant was identified as the main source of pharmaceuticals, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and some polar pesticides.

  11. Determination of nickel in hydrogenated fats and selected chocolate bars in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dohnalova, Lucie; Bucek, Pavel; Vobornik, Petr; Dohnal, Vlastimil

    2017-02-15

    Nickel is a metal that can be present in products containing hardened edible oils, possibly as leftover catalyst from the vegetable oil hardening process. Nickel may cause toxic effects including the promotion of cancer and contact allergy. In this work, nickel content was determined in hydrogenated vegetable fats and confectionery products, made with these fats, available on the Czech market using newly developed method combining microwave digestion and graphite furnace AAS. While concentrations of 0.086±0.014mg.kg(-1) or less were found in hydrogenated vegetable fats, the Ni content in confectionery products was significantly higher, varying between 0.742±0.066 and 3.141±0.217mg.kg(-1). Based on an average consumer basket, daily intake of nickel from vegetable fats is at least twice as low as intake from confectionery products. Based on results, the levels of nickel in neither vegetable fats nor confectionery products, do not represent a significant health risk.

  12. Precursors of Reading Difficulties in Czech and Slovak Children At-Risk of Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Thompson, Paul A; Mikulajova, Marina; Jagercikova, Zuzana; Kucharska, Anna; Franke, Helena; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-05-01

    Children with preschool language difficulties are at high risk of literacy problems; however, the nature of the relationship between delayed language development and dyslexia is not understood. Three hundred eight Slovak and Czech children were recruited into three groups: family risk of dyslexia, speech/language difficulties and controls, and were assessed three times from kindergarten until Grade 1. There was a twofold increase in probability of reading problems in each risk group. Precursors of 'dyslexia' included difficulties in oral language and code-related skills (phoneme awareness, letter-knowledge and rapid automatized naming); poor performance in phonological memory and vocabulary was observed in both affected and unaffected high-risk peers. A two-group latent variable path model shows that early language skills predict code-related skills, which in turn predict literacy skills. Findings suggest that dyslexia in Slavic languages has its origins in early language deficits, and children who succumb to reading problems show impaired code-related skills before the onset of formal reading instruction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Case Reports: Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease in Czech Archaeological Material

    PubMed Central

    Smrcka, Vaclav; Svenssonova, Marketa; Likovsky, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (osteochondrosis of the femoral head) has been recognized in archaeological material for nearly a century but is extremely rare. We describe two Czech cases from archaeological findings. The first case was diagnosed in the skeleton of a man older than 50 years with the left hip affected. The skeleton was in grave Number 2 of the Langobard cemetery at Lužice (Moravia) and dated to the end of the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth century AD. The second case was described by J. Chochol in 1957 on the left femur and half of the pelvis of a skeleton from an archaeological investigation in Brandýsek (Bohemia), ninth to tenth centuries AD. Using the diagnostic criteria of Ortner and Putschar, we excluded slipped capital femoral epiphysis in both cases. We discuss the differential diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease versus unilateral and bilateral osteochondroses of the femoral head in archaeological and current clinical material. PMID:18841434

  14. Meteorological extremes and their impacts on forests in the czech republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf

    Meteorological extremes in the Czech Republic (CR) cause considerable damage to forest stands. The effects of such extremes has increased conspicuously in the latter half of the present century, with salvage felling due to meteorological factors accounting in some years for more than half of the total timber cut in the CR. The most important reason for this salvage felling is damage due to wind (61 %), followed by damage due to snow (16 %), drought, air pollution and ice deposits. Using data from four professionally-maintained weather stations and one special station, time series for maximum wind gusts are analysed as well as the frequencies of days with ice deposits, maximum mass of ice, heights of new snow 10 cm and, for areal precipitation series from Bohemia and Moravia, precipitation sums for the year, the summer half-year and the frequencies of occurrence of dry months. The problems of measuring these characteristics and their homogeneities are discussed. Their annual distribution and their long-term changes (fluctuations, trends) are studied. The main forest disasters of the 20th century attributable to the identified meteorological extremes are described. The analysis does not, however, permit reliable conclusions about the future behaviour of those extremes and their impact on forests under conditions of global warming.

  15. Fluctuation analysis of high frequency electric power load in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracík, Jiří; Lavička, Hynek

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the electric power load in the Czech Republic (CR) which exhibits a seasonality as well as other oscillations typical for European countries. Moreover, we detect the 1/f noise property of electrical power load with extra additional peaks that allows to separate it into a deterministic and stochastic part. We then focus on the analysis of the stochastic part using improved Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method (MFDFA) to investigate power load datasets with a minute resolution. Extracting the noise part of the signal by using Fourier transform allows us to apply this method to obtain the fluctuation function and to estimate the generalized Hurst exponent together with the correlated Hurst exponent, its improvement for the non-Gaussian datasets. The results exhibit a strong presence of persistent behavior or strong anti-persistent behavior for the differences and the dataset is characterized by a non-Gaussian skewed distribution. There are also indications for the presence of the probability distribution that has heavier tail than the Gaussian distribution.

  16. Routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure; Czech experience and results 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Malušek, A; Ploc, O; Kovář, I; Brabcová, K; Spurný, F

    2011-03-01

    Individual monitoring of aircrew of airline operators registered in the Czech Republic has been performed since 1998. In this work, annual effective doses and annual collective effective doses of aircrew from occupational exposure in the period from 1998 to 2008 are presented, methods used for their evaluation and verification are described, and general trends observed in the data are discussed. Annual effective doses were calculated using the computer code CARI from flight schedules provided by airline operators and typical flight profiles. The method was verified via a comparison with (i) measurements using different types of detectors and (ii) calculations using the CARI and EPCARD codes with actual flight data. It was found that average annual effective doses in the period from 1998 to 2008 were in the range from 1.2 to 2.0 mSv and followed the trend of the solar cycle. Annual collective effective doses increased from 1.4 manSv in 1998 to 4.1 manSv in 2008 as the number of aircrew increased from 857 to 2158 during this period. Combined relative uncertainties (coverage factor ) of reported individual and collective effective doses were ∼ 25 %, which is well within the range given by the factor of 1.5. More work is needed to achieve a higher accuracy of this estimate.

  17. Precursors of Reading Difficulties in Czech and Slovak Children At-Risk of Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Thompson, Paul A; Mikulajova, Marina; Jagercikova, Zuzana; Kucharska, Anna; Franke, Helena; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-05-01

    Children with preschool language difficulties are at high risk of literacy problems; however, the nature of the relationship between delayed language development and dyslexia is not understood. Three hundred eight Slovak and Czech children were recruited into three groups: family risk of dyslexia, speech/language difficulties and controls, and were assessed three times from kindergarten until Grade 1. There was a twofold increase in probability of reading problems in each risk group. Precursors of 'dyslexia' included difficulties in oral language and code-related skills (phoneme awareness, letter-knowledge and rapid automatized naming); poor performance in phonological memory and vocabulary was observed in both affected and unaffected high-risk peers. A two-group latent variable path model shows that early language skills predict code-related skills, which in turn predict literacy skills. Findings suggest that dyslexia in Slavic languages has its origins in early language deficits, and children who succumb to reading problems show impaired code-related skills before the onset of formal reading instruction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27061124

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals in crayfish and fish from selected Czech reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Kuklina, Iryna; Kouba, Antonín; Buřič, Miloš; Horká, Ivona; Duriš, Zdeněk; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše) and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře) in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr), while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb). The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys.

  19. Decreased impacts of the 2003 heat waves on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír

    2008-11-01

    The paper examines impacts on mortality of heat waves in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat waves over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat waves in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat wave which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality impacts of the heat waves that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat waves compared to previous heat waves in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.

  20. Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, Jan; Plavcova, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Extreme temperature events have pronounced negative impacts on ecosystems and society, including human health effects. The study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (central Europe) during 1986-2006. Declining trends in the mortality impacts are found in summer as well as in transition seasons, in spite of rising temperature trends (warming by 1.4 deg. C in summer over the 21-year period). The finding remains unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability. The results suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that influence vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality.

  1. Identification of a Buried Late Cenozoic Maar-Diatreme Structure (North Moravia, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šešulka, Vojtěch; Sedláková, Iva; Bábek, OndŘej; PŘichystal, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    The maar-diatreme volcanic structure in the vicinity of the village of Lomnice near the town of Bruntál (North Moravia, Czech Republic) has been investigated using a set of geophysical methods including ground magnetometry, gravimetry and electrical resistivity tomography. The structure was detected by an aerial magnetic survey in the second half of the 20th century. Since its discovery only limited information about this buried structure has been available. The coherence of the magnetic anomaly of 190 nT and Bouguer anomaly of -4.7 mGal indicates a volcanic origin of the structure. The funnel-shaped maar-diatreme structure is filled with lacustrine clay and colluvium of Car-boniferous greywacke, which forms the country rock. The surface diameter of the structure is about 600 m, the depth is more than 400 m. The spatial association with other volcanic centers in the surroundings of the town of Bruntál infers the relative dating of the Lomnice maar. The phreatic eruption and maar-diatreme formation could be an indirect conse-quence of effusive activity of the nearby Velký Roudný volcano. The Lomnice structure is the first Plio-Pleistocene maar-diatreme ever described in North Moravia and Silesia.

  2. Mercury speciation in fish muscles from major Czech rivers and assessment of health risks.

    PubMed

    Sedláčková, Lenka; Kružíková, Kamila; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the mercury and methylmercury content in muscle tissue of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.), to assess the health risks of eating the fish and to determine the number of fish meat servings that are suitable for weekly consumption. Total mercury concentrations were determined using a single-purpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer AMA 254. Methylmercury concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The location where the highest total mercury concentrations in fish muscle tissues were found was the Vltava - Vraňany (0.236±0.1001mg/kg(-1)), and the highest methylmercury concentration was found at the Labe - Obříství (0.231±0.1056mg/kg(-1)). The conclusion based on the data ascertained is that the locations from which the lowest number of fish meat servings can be eaten are the Vltava - Vraňany and the Labe - Obříství. The results of this study helped evaluate contamination levels of rivers that flow out of the Czech Republic.

  3. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soils in the Region of Valasske Mezirici, the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of urban, agricultural and forest soil samples was investigated from samples obtained in the surroundings of Valasske Mezirici. Valasske Mezirici is a town located in the north-east mountainous part of the Czech Republic, where a coal tar refinery is situated. 16 PAHs listed in the US EPA were investigated. Organic oxidizable carbon was also observed in the forest soils. The PAH concentrations ranged from 0.86-10.84 (with one anomalous value of 35.14) and 7.66-79.39 mg/kg dm in the urban/agricultural and forest soils, respectively. While the PAH levels in the urban/agricultural soils are within the range typically found in industrialized areas, the forest soils showed elevated PAH concentrations compared to other forest soils in Western and Northern Europe. The PAH concentrations and their molecular distribution ratios were studied as functions of the sample location and the meteorological history. The soils from localities at higher altitudes above sea level have the highest PAH concentrations, and the PAH concentrations decrease with increasing distance from the town. PMID:20003407

  4. Analysis of genetic variability in the Czech Dachshund population using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Pribánová, M; Horák, P; Schröffelová, D; Urban, T; Bechynová, R; Musilová, L

    2009-08-01

    The primary goal of this study was to analyse genetic variation within and among six Dachshund varieties in the Czech Republic using 10 microsatellites from StockMarks Paternity Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Typing kit. A total of 632 Dachshunds were sampled - 99 Standard Smooth-haired, 72 Standard Long-haired, 272 Standard Wire-haired, 42 Miniature Smooth-haired, 73 Miniature Long-haired and 74 Miniature Wire-haired. Average observed heterozygosity and polymorphic information content ranged in particular Dachshund varieties between 0.58-0.70 and 0.57-0.64, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the population structure (F-statistics; Nei's genetic identity) showed that Standard Dachshunds shared allele frequencies most closely with their miniature equivalents, and smooth coat type is closer to Wire-haired coat type than to the Long-haired one. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 11.81% of the total variance occurred among varieties. The value of combined exclusion probability (0.9955) validated usefulness of this panel of microsatellites for parentage verification in all analysed populations. We carried out 234 parentage verifications with 1.28% cases where parentage did not match.

  5. Characteristics of Escherichia coli from raw vegetables at a retail market in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Skočková, Alena; Karpíšková, Renáta; Koláčková, Ivana; Cupáková, Šárka

    2013-10-15

    A large epidemic caused by shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in spring 2011 in Germany resulted in reduction of trust in the health safety of raw vegetables and sprouted seeds. This study focused on the detection and characterization of E. coli in raw vegetables and sprouted seeds sold in the Czech Republic. Out of 91 samples, 24 (26.4%) were positive for the presence of E. coli. Resistance to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of selected genes encoding virulence--eaeA, hly, stx1, and stx2 and genes encoding resistance to tetracycline--tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), and tet(G) and to β-lactams--blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX. The blaTEM gene was detected in two isolates, the tet(B) gene in three and tet(A) in one isolate. No hly, stx1, or stx2 genes were present, but the eaeA gene was found in three (11.1%) isolates from imported vegetables. These isolates can be considered as potentially enteropathogenic. Results of this study show that raw vegetables and sprouted seeds sold in the retail market can represent a potential risk for consumers. PMID:24135675

  6. Trends in atmospheric deposition fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen in Czech forests.

    PubMed

    Hůnová, Iva; Maznová, Jana; Kurfürst, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We present the temporal trends and spatial changes of deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Czech forests based on records from long-term monitoring. A statistically significant trend for sulphur was detected at most of the sites measuring for wet, dry, and total deposition fluxes and at many of these the trend was also present for the period after 2000. The spatial pattern of the changes in sulphur deposition flux between 1995 and 2011 shows the decrease over the entire forested area in a wide range of 18.1-0.2 g m(-2) year(-1) with the most pronounced improvement in formerly most impacted regions. Nitrogen still represents a considerable stress in many areas. The value of nitrogen deposition flux of 1 g m(-2) year(-1) is exceeded over a significant portion of the country. On an equivalent basis, the ion ratios of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) and NH4(+)/SO4(2-) in precipitation show significantly increasing trends in time similarly to those of pH.

  7. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František

    2016-05-01

    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  8. Determination of nickel in hydrogenated fats and selected chocolate bars in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dohnalova, Lucie; Bucek, Pavel; Vobornik, Petr; Dohnal, Vlastimil

    2017-02-15

    Nickel is a metal that can be present in products containing hardened edible oils, possibly as leftover catalyst from the vegetable oil hardening process. Nickel may cause toxic effects including the promotion of cancer and contact allergy. In this work, nickel content was determined in hydrogenated vegetable fats and confectionery products, made with these fats, available on the Czech market using newly developed method combining microwave digestion and graphite furnace AAS. While concentrations of 0.086±0.014mg.kg(-1) or less were found in hydrogenated vegetable fats, the Ni content in confectionery products was significantly higher, varying between 0.742±0.066 and 3.141±0.217mg.kg(-1). Based on an average consumer basket, daily intake of nickel from vegetable fats is at least twice as low as intake from confectionery products. Based on results, the levels of nickel in neither vegetable fats nor confectionery products, do not represent a significant health risk. PMID:27664658

  9. Steinernema poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) a new entomopathogenic nematode from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mráček, Zdeněk; Nermuť, Jiří

    2014-02-03

    A new steinernematid nematode, herein described as Steinernema poinari sp. n., was recovered by baiting soil samples with the last instar wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella in three localities of southwest Bohemia, Czech Republic. Morphological and molecular data confirmed this nematode as a new species which belongs to the affine/intermedium group. S. poinari sp. n. was characterized by male, female and infective juvenile morphological observations. Male spicules are robust with a pointed tip, SW% = 109 (98-123) and GS% = 70 (58-87). The tail terminus of the first generation have a papillated mucron, whereas in the second generation a short filamentous mucron sometimes develops. Females of the first generation have a moderately protruding vulva, postanal swelling absent or slightly developed. Second generation females have a long filamentous mucron on the tail tip. Infective juvenile have a body length of 768 µm, lateral field formula 2, 5, 6, 5, 2, 1, ratio D% of 46 (40-55), E% of 84 (76-95) and H% of 50 (43-56). The new species was characterized by sequences of ITS and D2D3 regions of ribosomal DNA. S. poinari sp. n. can also be separated from S. affine and S. intermedium by cross-breeding tests.

  10. Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' in Ixodes arboricola from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Marketa; Bulkova, Alexandra; Costa, Francisco B; Kristin, Anton; Krist, Milos; Krause, Frantisek; Liznarova, Eva; Labruna, Marcelo B; Literak, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of rickettsiae in the tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. During May to September of 2009 and 2013, bird boxes belonging to three different areas were screened for ticks. In total, 454 nestlings and 109 nests of 10 hole-breeding bird species were examined. Ticks were found on Ficedula albicollis, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus and Sitta europaea and/or in their nests. In total, 166 ticks (17 nymphs, 10 males and 139 females) were found at 3 areas (arithmetic mean±standard error: 55.3±45.9). All ticks were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA and amplicon sequencing. All individuals except 3 nymphs were infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini'. Multilocus sequence typing showed closest proximity to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cluster. The presence of 'Ca. R. vini' is reported for the first time in Slovakia.

  11. The trends in antibiotic use by general dental practitioners in the Czech Republic (2006-2012).

    PubMed

    Pipalova, Rachel; Vlcek, Jiri; Slezak, Radovan

    2014-06-01

    We assessed antibiotic prescribing in practical dentistry in the Czech Republic, as antibiotics are widely prescribed by dental practitioners and warning signals of their overuse can be observed. The individual antibiotic prescriptions were extracted from the database of the General Health Insurance Company and further analysed. The proportion of dentists' prescription within the whole primary health-care sector and the rate of prescriptions of particular antibiotics were both in defined daily doses per 1,000 insurees and day (DID) and in number of prescriptions calculated. The proportion of antibiotic use in dentistry increased from 0.63 DID in 2006 to 0.75 DID. We found a decline in use of narrow-spectrum penicillins by 4.8%, tetracyclines by 3.5% and macrolides by 3.6%, accompanied by increasing rate of prescription of aminopenicillins combined with beta-lactamase inhibitor by 8.9% and lincosamides by 8.5%. The consumption of clindamycin and amoxicillin combined with clavulanate in DID has increased by approximately 60% since 2006 thanks to the exclusive prescribing of two commercial oral products only. Factors contributing to this unfavourable trend are commercial influence or defensive medicine practice.

  12. Molecular genetic analysis in 14 Czech Kabuki syndrome patients is confirming the utility of phenotypic scoring.

    PubMed

    Paděrová, J; Holubová, A; Simandlová, M; Puchmajerová, A; Vlčková, M; Malíková, M; Pourová, R; Vejvalková, S; Havlovicová, M; Šenkeříková, M; Ptáková, N; Drábová, J; Geryk, J; Maver, A; Křepelová, A; Macek, M

    2016-09-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a dominantly inherited disorder mainly due to de novo pathogenic variation in KMT2D or KDM6A genes. Initially, a representative cohort of 14 Czech cases with clinical features suggestive of KS was analyzed by experienced clinical geneticists in collaboration with other specialties, and observed disease features were evaluated according to the 'MLL2-Kabuki score' defined by Makrythanasis et al. Subsequently, the aforementioned genes were Sanger sequenced and copy number variation analysis was performed by MLPA, followed by genome-wide array CGH testing. Pathogenic variants in KMT2D resulting in protein truncation in 43% (6/14; of which 3 are novel) of all cases were detected, while analysis of KDM6A was negative. MLPA analysis was negative in all instances. One female patient bears a 6.6 Mb duplication of the Xp21.2-Xp21.3 region that is probably disease causing. Subjective KS phenotyping identified predictive clinical features associated with the presence of a pathogenic variant in KMT2D. We provide additional evidence that this scoring approach fosters prioritization of patients prior to KMT2D sequencing. We conclude that KMT2D sequencing followed by array CGH is a diagnostic strategy with the highest diagnostic yield. PMID:26841933

  13. Breed Characteristics of Abandoned and Lost Dogs in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, Eva; Zak, Jiri; Vecerek, Vladimir; Bedanova, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Records on sheltered dogs were collected from 3 municipal dog shelters situated in different regions of the Czech Republic from 2010 to 2013. A total of 3,875 dogs were analyzed in this study. Among these, 1,614 dogs were subsequently reclaimed (lost dogs) and 2,261 dogs were abandoned and offered for adoption. The ratio of purebred dogs and crossbred dogs differed significantly when comparing lost (66.4% vs. 33.6%) and abandoned dogs (35.0% vs. 65.0%). The median time until lost dogs were reclaimed was 1 day, and it was not affected by purebred status. The median time until abandoned dogs were adopted was 23 days. In abandoned dogs, purebred status had a significant effect on the time the dog spent at the shelter before adoption. The median time until adoption for crossbred dogs was 27 days, whereas the median time until adoption for purebred dogs was 19 days. The breed group influenced the length of stay (LOS) in abandoned dogs. Small companion dogs had the shortest LOS (median = 15 days) and guard dogs had the longest LOS (median = 25 days).

  14. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Crayfish and Fish from Selected Czech Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Kuklina, Iryna; Kouba, Antonín; Buřič, Miloš; Horká, Ivona; Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Kozák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc in crayfish and fish organ tissues, specimens from three drinking water reservoirs (Boskovice, Landštejn, and Nová Říše) and one contaminated site (Darkovské moře) in the Czech Republic were examined. Crayfish hepatopancreas was confirmed to be the primary accumulating site for the majority of metals (Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd > Cr), while Hg and Cr were concentrated in abdominal muscle, and Al and Pb were concentrated in gill. Metals found in Nová Říše specimens included Cu > Zn > Ni and those found in Boskovice included Zn > Hg > Cr. Cd concentrations were observed only in Landštejn specimens, while contaminated Darkovské moře specimens showed the highest levels of accumulation (Cu > Al > Zn > Pb). The majority of evaluated metals were found in higher concentrations in crayfish: Cu > Al > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb, with Hg being the only metal accumulating higher in fish. Due to accumulation similarities of Al in crayfish and fish gill, differences of Hg in muscle, and features noted for the remaining metals in examined tissues, biomonitoring should incorporate both crayfish and fish to produce more relevant water quality surveys. PMID:24738051

  15. New technologies of waste disposal in Czech Republic, evoked by new laws

    SciTech Connect

    Peleska, L.

    1995-12-01

    Of the utmost importance for the conception of waste disposal in any country is the fact how rich the respective country is and how realistic its legislators are. The apparently ideal approach to solving this problem is that chosen by more affluent European countries where wastes are recycled, are charged with taxes and duties, and where wastes that necessitate to be disposed are handled similarly as the nuclear wastes. The benefits are evident. The amounts of wastes to be deposited are minimalized. The waste repositories can be sealed by using layers of clay, foil and clay, and during a period of 50 to 100 years, any communication of the repository with the ambient environments can be eliminated. The disadvantage of such waste repositories, if applied to most of wastes, are the high costs associated with their depositioning. The prices of products, which the costs of waste disposal are being reflected in, are thus increasing, and, for this reason, many of products are becoming unmarketable, even on the domestic market. These financial means are often spent for nothing because the service life of some protective elements being at present used for construction of waste repositories is limited in time (for example, the service life of isolating foil is 50 to 1 00 years). Waste disposal in the Czech Republic, particulary from power plants, is discussed.

  16. Challenges of interoperability using HL7 v3 in Czech healthcare.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Miroslav; Preckova, Petra; Seidl, Libor; Zvarova, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes several classification systems that could improve patient safety through semantic interoperability among contemporary electronic health record systems (EHR-Ss) with support of the HL7 v3 standard. We describe a proposal and a pilot implementation of a semantic interoperability platform (SIP) interconnecting current EHR-Ss by using HL7 v3 messages and concepts mappings on most widely used classification systems. The increasing number of classification systems and nomenclatures requires designing of various conversion tools for transfer between main classification systems. We present the so-called LIM filler module and the HL7 broker, which are parts of the SIP, playing the role of such conversion tools. The analysis of suitability and usability of individual terminological thesauri has been started by mapping of clinical contents of the Minimal Data Model for Cardiology (MDMC) to various terminological classification systems. A national-wide implementation of the SIP would include adopting and translating international coding systems and nomenclatures, and developing implementation guidelines facilitating the migration from national standards to international ones. Our research showed that creation of such a platform is feasible; however, it will require a huge effort to adapt fully the Czech healthcare system to the European environment. PMID:20543319

  17. Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards affected people among teachers in training in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, p<0.001), attitudes towards epilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class.

  18. Mercury speciation in fish muscles from major Czech rivers and assessment of health risks.

    PubMed

    Sedláčková, Lenka; Kružíková, Kamila; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the mercury and methylmercury content in muscle tissue of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.), to assess the health risks of eating the fish and to determine the number of fish meat servings that are suitable for weekly consumption. Total mercury concentrations were determined using a single-purpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer AMA 254. Methylmercury concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The location where the highest total mercury concentrations in fish muscle tissues were found was the Vltava - Vraňany (0.236±0.1001mg/kg(-1)), and the highest methylmercury concentration was found at the Labe - Obříství (0.231±0.1056mg/kg(-1)). The conclusion based on the data ascertained is that the locations from which the lowest number of fish meat servings can be eaten are the Vltava - Vraňany and the Labe - Obříství. The results of this study helped evaluate contamination levels of rivers that flow out of the Czech Republic. PMID:24360463

  19. Mutation analysis of the PALB2 gene in unselected pancreatic cancer patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Borecka, M; Zemankova, P; Vocka, M; Soucek, P; Soukupova, J; Kleiblova, P; Sevcik, J; Kleibl, Z; Janatova, M

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis among common solid cancer diagnoses. It has been shown that up to 10% of PDAC cases have a familial component. Characterization of PDAC-susceptibility genes could reveal high-risk individuals and patients that may benefit from tailored therapy. Hereditary mutations in PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) gene has been shown to predispose, namely to PDAC and breast cancers; however, frequencies of mutations vary among distinct geographical populations. Using the combination of sequencing, high-resolution melting and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses, we screened the entire PALB2 gene in 152 unselected Czech PDAC patients. Truncating mutations were identified in three (2.0%) patients. Genotyping of found PALB2 variants in 1226 control samples revealed one carrier of PALB2 truncating variant (0.08%; P = 0.005). The mean age at PDAC diagnosis was significantly lower among PALB2 mutation carriers (51 years) than in non-carriers (63 years; P = 0.016). Only one patient carrying germline PALB2 mutation had a positive family breast cancer history. Our results indicate that hereditary PALB2 mutation represents clinically considerable genetic factor increasing PDAC susceptibility in our population and that analysis of PALB2 should be considered not only in PDAC patients with familial history of breast or pancreatic cancers but also in younger PDAC patients without family cancer history. PMID:27106063

  20. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dragano, Nico; Bobak, Martin; Wege, Natalia; Peasey, Anne; Verde, Pablo E; Kubinova, Ruzena; Weyers, Simone; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Stang, Andreas; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siegrist, Johannes; Pikhart, Hynek

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study'), and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) Study'). Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES). The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education) and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany