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Sample records for 30th space wing

  1. The 30th AAS Goddard Memorial Symposium. World space programs and fiscal reality: Synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A full proceedings of the symposium will be issued later in the year. This synopsis consists of summations of three sessions by appointed rapporteurs. International figures in space and in politics spoke at the sessions. Themes of international cooperation and fiscal reality pervaded the conference. International speakers from Canada, the European Space Agency, Russia, Japan and China and other countries addressed the topic of the symposium. American representation included Senator Barbara Mikulski, former NASA administrator James Beggs and other speakers.

  2. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, O.H. Jr.; Rogers, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for some articles from this proceedings.

  3. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  4. Thermal Stresses In Space-Shuttle Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1989-01-01

    Combined thermal deformations of wing-skin panel and TPS would not tear SIP layer. Report presents analysis of thermal stresses induced in skin panel, thermal-protection system (TPS), and strain-isolation pad (SIP) of Space Shuttle orbiter. Purpose of analysis to determine whether any part of above mentioned structures overstressed and overdeformed under reentry heating, assuming one TPS tile lost at end of reentry heating.

  5. 30th Apollo Lunar Landing Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The evening skies over the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL burst into life as members of the Huntsville community gathered to celebrate the 30th arniversary of the Lunar Landing. Commerating this historical achievement for NASA and the US Space Program, a replica of the original Saturn V rocket was built on the grounds of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. On the evening of the anniversary thousands of onlookers cheered as fireworks lit up the night sky behind the massive Saturn V rocket.

  6. Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north from the south end. The doorway at far right connects with the dining area. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  7. The effect of phase angle and wing spacing on tandem flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broering, Timothy M.; Lian, Yong-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    In a tandem wing configuration, the hindwing often operates in the wake of the forewing and, hence, its performance is affected by the vortices shed by the forewing. Changes in the phase angle between the flapping motions of the fore and the hind wings, as well as the spacing between them, can affect the resulting vortex/wing and vortex/vortex interactions. This study uses 2D numerical simulations to investigate how these changes affect the leading dege vortexes (LEV) generated by the hindwing and the resulting effect on the lift and thrust coefficients as well as the efficiencies. The tandem wing configuration was simulated using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver at a chord-based Reynolds number of 5 000. A harmonic single frequency sinusoidal oscillation consisting of a combined pitch and plunge motion was used for the flapping wing kinematics at a Strouhal number of 0.3. Four different spacings ranging from 0.1 chords to 1 chord were tested at three different phase angles, 0°, 90° and 180°. It was found that changes in the spacing and phase angle affected the timing of the interaction between the vortex shed from the forewing and the hindwing. Such an interaction affects the LEV formation on the hindwing and results in changes in aerodynamic force production and efficiencies of the hindwing. It is also observed that changing the phase angle has a similar effect as changing the spacing. The results further show that at different spacings the peak force generation occurs at different phase angles, as do the peak efficiencies.

  8. Thermal response of Space Shuttle wing during reentry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, L.; Ko, W. L.; Quinn, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat transfer analysis of the space shuttle orbiter that was subjected to reentry aerodynamic heatings. One wing segment of the right wing (WS 240) and the whole left wing were selected for the thermal analysis. Results showed that the predicted thermal protection system (TPS) temperatures were in good agreement with the space transportation system, trajectory 5 (STS-5) flight-measured temperatures. In addition, calculated aluminum structural temperatures were in fairly good agreement with the flight data up to the point of touchdown. Results also showed that the internal free convection had a considerable effect on the change of structural temperatures after touchdown.

  9. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  10. Atmospheric reentry flight test of winged space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto

    A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation for the Space Shuttle's Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Prosser, William H.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Cramer, K. Elliot

    2005-01-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia highlighted concerns about the integrity of the Shuttle's thermal protection system, which includes Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) on the leading edge. This led NASA to investigate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for certifying the integrity of the Shuttle's wing leading edge. That investigation was performed simultaneously with a large study conducted to understand the impact damage caused by errant debris. Among the many advanced NDE methods investigated for applicability to the RCC material, advanced digital radiography, high resolution computed tomography, thermography, ultrasound, acoustic emission and eddy current systems have demonstrated the maturity and success for application to the Shuttle RCC panels. For the purposes of evaluating the RCC panels while they are installed on the orbiters, thermographic detection incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and eddy current array scanning systems demonstrated the ability to measure the RCC panels from one side only and to detect several flaw types of concern. These systems were field tested at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and at several locations where impact testing was being conducted. Another advanced method that NASA has been investigating is an automated acoustic based detection system. Such a system would be based in part on methods developed over the years for acoustic emission testing. Impact sensing has been demonstrated through numerous impact tests on both reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. A variety of impact materials and conditions have been evaluated including foam, ice, and ablator materials at ascent velocities as well as simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. These tests have successfully demonstrated the capability to detect and localize impact events on Shuttle's wing structures. A first generation impact sensing

  12. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  13. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  14. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio and number of control surfaces. A doublet lattice approach is taken to compute generalized forces. A rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. Although, all parameters can be easily modified if desired.The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification and validation. This process is carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool. Therefore the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using V-g and V-f analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind tunnel results for the same structure. Finally a case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to V-g and V-f analysis. This also includes the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  15. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. LAUNCH OF AN ATLAS FROM SLC-3. MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST) IN PARKED POSITION. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. ATLAS VEHICLE BEING PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3E. NOTE EXTERNAL SHEATHING AND CUPOLA ON MOBILE SERVICE TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. THRUST AUGMENTED THOR PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3W. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, J.A.; Bruckner, E.J.; Rodriguez, E.

    1992-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine there durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together.

  19. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M.; Buechler, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  20. 78 FR 8111 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test Flight Activities From Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA... mammals, by harassment, incidental to space vehicle and test flight activities at VAFB. Summary of... of authorization (LOA) has been issued to the 30th Space Wing, U.S. Air Force (USAF), to take...

  1. On the Wings of a Dream: The Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This booklet describes the development, training, and flight of the space shuttle. Topics are: (1) "National Aeronautics and Space Administration"; (2) "The Space Transportation System"; (3) "The 'Enterprise'"; (4) "The Shuttle Orbiter"; (5) "Solid Rocket Boosters"; (6) "The External…

  2. On the wings of a dream: The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Described are the organization and some of the interests and missions of NASA, the Space Transportation System, the Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise, astronaut training and clothing, being launched into space, living and working in weightlessness, extravehicular activity, and the return from space to Earth. The various aspects of living in space are treated in considerable detail. This includes how the astronauts prepare food, how they eat and drink, how they sleep, exercise, change clothes and handle personal hygiene when in space.

  3. Analysis of wing-body interaction flutter for a preliminary space shuttle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Shyprykevich, P.

    1974-01-01

    Subsonic flutter analyses for a preliminary space shuttle design were performed to determine the effect of wing-body aerodynamic interaction on the vehicle flutter speed. It was found that the proximity of the large bodies of the shuttle to the wing reduces critical flutter speed by 11%. Aerodynamic reflection off the bodies is the dominant interaction effect while aerodynamic forces caused by body motion are of secondary importance in most cases. The analyses employed a doublet-lattice representation of the space shuttle, where in the wing and body surfaces were modeled by a lattice of nonplanar lifting surface elements. Axial singularities were introduced to account for body incidence, volume, and camber (slender body) effects. A series of studies on the placement and number of these elements was performed to ensure convergence of the results.

  4. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  5. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  6. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  8. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  9. Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, N. Wayne (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This Space Shuttle book project reviews Wings In Orbit-scientific and engineering legacies of the Space Shuttle. The contents include: 1) Magnificent Flying Machine-A Cathedral to Technology; 2) The Historical Legacy; 3) The Shuttle and its Operations; 4) Engineering Innovations; 5) Major Scientific Discoveries; 6) Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies; 7) Commercial Aerospace Industries and Spin-offs; and 8) The Shuttle continuum, Role of Human Spaceflight.

  10. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... enforced by the Commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida and/or such persons or agencies... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  11. [Autopsy room and the July 30th 2004 memorandum].

    PubMed

    Canas, Frédéric; Guillou, Pierre-José; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Patey, Martine; Bureau-Chalot, Florence; Bajolet, Odile; Jeunehomme, Gérard; Bernard, Mary-Hélène; Durigon, Michel; Pluot, Michel

    2005-06-01

    With the July 30th 2004 memorandum, for the first time a text is specifically dedicated to the architecture of the autopsy room. This memorandum reaffirms certain technical specifications stated in the May 7th 2001 decree applicable to hospital mortuaries. It supplements or modifies certain elements, particularly liquid waste processing, which will require new arrangements in death chambers and new expenditures for hospital administrations. It includes the principle of precaution and requires a new approach to handling human corpses in the autopsy room.

  12. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  13. Space-Time Fluid-Structure Interaction Computation of Flapping-Wing Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Nikolay M.

    We present a sequentially-coupled space-time (ST) computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The wing motion and deformation data, whether prescribed fully or partially, is from an actual locust, extracted from high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of the locust in a wind tunnel. The core computational FSI technology is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST (DSD/SST) formulation. This is supplemented with using NURBS basis functions in temporal representation of the wing and mesh motion, and in remeshing. Here we use the version of the DSD/SST formulation derived in conjunction with the variational multiscale (VMS) method, and this version is called "DSD/SST-VMST." The structural mechanics computations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell model. The sequential-coupling technique is applicable to some classes of FSI problems, especially those with temporally-periodic behavior. We show that it performs well in FSI computations of the flapping-wing aerodynamics we consider here. In addition to the straight-flight case, we analyze cases where the MAV body has rolling, pitching, or rolling and pitching motion. We study how all these influence the lift and thrust.

  14. Space Based Ornithology: On the Wings of Migration and Biophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of bird migration on a global scale is one of the compelling and challenging problems of modern biology with major implications for human health and conservation biology. Migration and conservation efforts cross national boundaries and are subject to numerous international agreements and treaties. Space based technology offers new opportunities to shed understanding on the distribution and migration of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. Migration is an incredibly diverse and complex behavior. A broad outline of space based research must address three fundamental questions: (1) where could birds be, i.e. what is their fundamental niche constrained by their biophysical limits? (2) where do we actually find birds, i.e. what is their realizable niche as modified by local or regional abiotic and biotic factors, and (3) how do they get there (and how do we know?), that is what are their migration patterns and associated mechanisms? Our working hypothesis is that individual organism biophysical models of energy and water balance, driven by satellite measurements of spatio-temporal gradients in climate and habitat, will help us to explain the variability in avian species richness and distribution. Dynamic state variable modeling provides one tool for studying bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic models describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. Such models yield an understanding of how a migratory flyway and its component habitats function as a whole and link stop-over ecology with biological conservation and management. Further these models provide an ecological forecasting tool for science and application users to address what are the possible consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration.

  15. PREFACE: 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (WWND2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellwied, Rene; Geurts, Frank; Timmins, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    These are the proceedings of the 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics, which was held in Galveston, Texas, in April 2014. As in previous years, the unique character of this conference series has allowed us to bring together nuclear scientists with very different interests to discuss recent progress and scientific achievements. Out of the 67 contributions at WWND 2014 we have selected these 34 manuscripts. The topics capture the range of theoretical and experimental advances in our field. On the experimental side we saw very exciting results from the RHIC beam energy scan program and the p-p, p-Pb and Pb-Pb runs at the highest collision energies at the LHC. On the theory side the system size dependence of the experimental measurements led to a detailed evaluation of the initial conditions and plasma propagation using a wide variety of phenomenological approaches. These results were complemented by the most recent continuum extrapolated data from lattice in order to model the complete evolution of the relativistic heavy ion system. These proceedings of the 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics again provide a snapshot of the status of the field. The articles, many of which were written by some of the most promising young scientists in the field, are documenting the excitement and achievements that are characteristic for modern day nuclear science. Rene Bellwied (University of Houston) Frank Geurts (Rice University) Anthony Timmins (University of Houston)

  16. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  17. Spanwise Wing Loads on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during Roll Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Glen P.

    2007-01-01

    Spanwise aerodynamic loads for the low-Mach, high-attitude portion of ascent for the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented. In this Mach 0.3 flight regime, also called the roll maneuver, pre-stall and post-stall distributions of aerodynamic wing shear force, bending moment, and torsion moment were obtained from wind tunnel test data and computational fluid dynamics simulations of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle. The spanwise loads were computed by integration of surface pressure data. The existing historical operational database of spanwise wing loads for the Orbiter does not cover this low-Mach, high-attitude condition, however for Mach 0.6 low-attitude conditions the experimental and computational results compare well with the operational data which has been validated by past flight measurements. Spanwise load distributions exhibit typical delta-wing characteristics. The computational results capture well the peak loading condition in the pre-stall case, but show more load relief for the post-stall case than was observed in the wind tunnel test data.

  18. Knowledge Discovery in Multidisciplinary Design Space for Regional-Jet Wings Using Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuhisa; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru

    Data mining is an important facet of solving multi-objective optimization problems. In the present study, two data mining techniques were applied to a large-scale, real-world multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problem to provide knowledge regarding the design space. The use of MDO in the aerodynamics, structure, and aeroelasticity of a regional-jet wing was carried out using high-fidelity evaluation models with an adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm. As a result, nine non-dominated solutions were generated and used for tradeoff analysis of three objectives. All solutions evaluated during the evolution were analyzed for the influence of design variables using a self-organizing map (SOM) and a functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) to extract key features of the design space. As SOM and ANOVA compensate for respective disadvantages, the design knowledge could be obtained more clearly by combinating them. Although the MDO results showed inverted gull-wings as non-dominated solutions, one of the key features found by data mining was a non-gull wing geometry. When this knowledge was applied to one optimum solution, the resulting design was found to have better performance compared with the original geometry designed in the conventional manner.

  19. Test and Analysis Correlation of Form Impact onto Space Shuttle Wing Leading Edge RCC Panel 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Gabrys, Jonathan; Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) began their study of the space shuttle Columbia accident, "physics-based" analyses using LS-DYNA were applied to characterize the expected damage to the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) leading edge from high-speed foam impacts. Forensic evidence quickly led CAIB investigators to concentrate on the left wing leading edge RCC panels. This paper will concentrate on the test of the left-wing RCC panel 8 conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the correlation with an LS-DYNA analysis. The successful correlation of the LS-DYNA model has resulted in the use of LS-DYNA as a predictive tool for characterizing the threshold of damage for impacts of various debris such as foam, ice, and ablators onto the RCC leading edge for shuttle return-to-flight.

  20. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  2. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  3. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... Kennedy Space Center NASA Causeway East Roadway at approximately latitude 28°30.74′ N, longitude 80°36.63... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  4. Wings in Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle, 1971-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Wayne (Editor); Lane, Helen (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is an engineering marvel perhaps only exceeded by the station itself. The shuttle was based on the technology of the 1960s and early 1970s. It had to overcome significant challenges to make it reusable. Perhaps the greatest challenges were the main engines and the Thermal Protection System. The program has seen terrible tragedy in its 3 decades of operation, yet it has also seen marvelous success. One of the most notable successes is the Hubble Space Telescope, a program that would have been a failure without the shuttle's capability to rendezvous, capture, repair, as well as upgrade. Now Hubble is a shining example of success admired by people around the world. As the program comes to a close, it is important to capture the legacy of the shuttle for future generations. That is what "Wings In Orbit" does for space fans, students, engineers, and scientists. This book, written by the men and women who made the program possible, will serve as an excellent reference for building future space vehicles. We are proud to have played a small part in making it happen. Our journey to document the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this magnificent winged vehicle began with an audacious proposal: to capture the passion of those who devoted their energies to its success while answering the question "What are the most significant accomplishments?" of the longestoperating human spaceflight program in our nation s history. This is intended to be an honest, accurate, and easily understandable account of the research and innovation accomplished during the era.

  5. Space shuttle: Static stability and control investigation of NR/GD delta wing booster (B-20) and delta wing orbiter (134-D), volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C., Jr.; Eder, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations have been made on a .0035 scale model North American Rockwell/General Dynamics version of the space shuttle in the NASA/MSFC 14 x 14 Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel. Static stability and control data were obtained on the delta wing booster alone (B-20) and with the delta wing orbiter (134D) mounted in various positions on the booster. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over an angle of attack range from -10 to 24 deg at 0 and 6 deg sideslip angles and from -10 to +10 deg sideslip at 0 deg angle of attack. Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 4.96.

  6. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting held 1-3 December 1998 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel at Reston Town Center, Reston, Virginia. Papers are in the following categories: 1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based atomic frequency standards, and in trapped-ion and space clock technology; 2) National and international applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on GPS and GLONASS timing, atomic time scales, and telecommunications; 3) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military navigation and communication systems; geodesy; aviation; and pulsars; and 4) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, geosynchronous communication satellites, computer networks, WAAS, and LORAN.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Exposure of Polyimide Foam for International Space Station Solar Array Wing Blanket Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Albyn, K. C.; Watts, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Onorbit photos of the International Space Station (ISS) solar array blanket box foam pad assembly indicate degradation of the Kapton film covering the foam, leading to atomic oxygen (AO) exposure of the foam. The purpose of this test was to determine the magnitude of particulate generation caused by low-Earth orbital environment exposure of the foam and also by compression of the foam during solar array wing retraction. The polyimide foam used in the ISS solar array wing blanket box assembly is susceptible to significant AO erosion. The foam sample in this test lost one-third of its mass after exposure to the equivalent of 22 mo onorbit. Some particulate was generated by exposure to simulated orbital conditions and the simulated solar array retraction (compression test). However, onorbit, these particles would also be eroded by AO. The captured particles were generally <1 mm, and the particles shaken free of the sample had a maximum size of 4 mm. The foam sample maintained integrity after a compression load of 2.5 psi.

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2010-01-01

    Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

  9. Flutter of Winged Space Reentry Vehicles Affected by an Elastic Attachment in Launching Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Ueda, Tetsuhiko

    This paper reports a flutter investigation of a re-entry space vehicle having an elastic rotational mode caused by its launching rocket. The elastic rotational mode is taken into consideration as an elastic roll mode or an elastic yaw mode. Flutter experiments were conducted in NAL Transonic Wind Tunnel. The DPM (Doublet-Point Method) is used to calculate flutter boundaries. It is shown that the elastic roll mode may lower critical flutter speed, because its existence alters the natural frequency of an anti-symmetric bending mode with which flutter occurs. A coupling between the elastic yaw mode and an anti-symmetric bending mode of a tip-fin wing is also shown to be critical.

  10. Flutter of Winged Reentry Space Vehicles Affected by an Elastic Attachment in Launching Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Ueda, Tetsuhiko

    This paper reports the flutter investigation of a winged reentry space vehicle having rotational modes in dynamic deflection due to an elastic attachment between a vehicle and a booster rocket. The elastic rotational mode is taken into consideration as an elastic rolling mode or an elastic yawing mode. Flutter experiments have been conducted in a transonic wind tunnel. The doublet-point method (DPM) is used to calculate flutter boundaries for this model. It is shown that an elastic rolling mode may lower the critical speed of anti-symmetric mode flutter because its existence alters the natural vibration mode of anti-symmetric bending which causes flutter. On the other hand, a coupling between an elastic yawing mode and an anti-symmetric bending one becomes critical in the different model.

  11. Analytical and experimental study of the effects of wing-body aerodynamic interaction on space shuttle subsonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects on flutter of the aerodynamic interaction between the space shuttle bodies and wing, 1/80th-scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete shuttle and intermediate component combinations were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch Transonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Using the double lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Using calculated complete vehicle modes, flutter speed trends were computed for the full scale vehicle at an altitude of 15,200 meters and a Mach number of 0.6. Consistent with findings of the model studies, analysis shows the shuttle to have the same flutter speed as an isolated cantilevered wing.

  12. Formation of Leading-Edge Pinholes in the Space Shuttle Wings Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2000-01-01

    The space shuttle wing leading edge and nose cap are composed of a carbon/carbon composite that is protected by silicon carbide. The coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch leads to cracks in the silicon carbide. The outer coating of the silicon carbide is a sodium-silicate-based glass that becomes fluid at the shuttles high reentry temperatures and fills these cracks. Small pinholes roughly 0.1 mm in diameter have been observed on these materials after 12 or more flights. These pinholes have been investigated by researchers at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Rockwell International, the Boeing Company, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to determine the possible sources and the extent of damage. A typical pinhole is illustrated in the photomicrographs. These pinholes are found primarily on the wing leading edges and not on the nose cap, which is covered when the orbiter is on the launch pad. The pinholes are generally associated with a bead of zincrich glass. Examination of the orbiter and launch structure indicates that weathering paint on the launch structure leads to deposits of zinc-containing paint flakes on the wing leading edge. These may become embedded in the crevices of the wing leading edge and form the observed zinc-rich glass. Laboratory experiments indicate that zinc oxide reacts vigorously with the glass coating on the silicon carbide. Thus, it is likely that this is the reaction that leads to pinhole formation (Christensen, S.V.: Reinforced Carbon/Carbon Pin Hole Formation Through Zinc Oxide Attack. Rockwell International Internal Letter, RDW 96 057, May 1996). Cross-sectional examination of pinholes suggests that they are enlarged thermal expansion mismatch cracks. This is illustrated in the photomicrographs. A careful microstructural analysis indicates that the pinhole walls consist of layers of zinc-containing glass. Thus, pinholes are likely formed by zinc oxide particles lodging in crevices and

  13. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    challenging research domains in condensed form. The diversity of the different topics is especially impressive. The 25th anniversary of Inverse Problems was celebrated with a service to the community, the publication of an issue of topical reviews selected by board members, which presented the achievements and state-of-the-art of the field. The 30th birthday of the journal is now approaching and we found it appropriate to include in the celebration the scientific community that supports the journal by their submissions. A conference, IPTA 2014: Inverse Problems - From Theory to Application (http://ipta2014.iopconfs.org/home), will be held in the home town of our publisher, IOP Publishing, in Bristol on 26-28 August 2014. The conference brings together top researchers, both from academia and industry, and will look at the scientific future of the field. Presentations by keynote speakers, which summarize what the board considers to be new trends, are complemented by contributions submitted by specialists and younger researchers in several minisymposia. To build a bridge to the future generation of researchers, a scientist at the beginning of their career will be giving a lecture. Let me finish with cordial thanks to all of our authors, referees, the members of the Editorial Board and International Advisory Panel, and the publishing team. I wish all of you a successful and healthy New Year and hope to meet many of you in August in Bristol. References [1] Sabatier P C 2012 Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse (Paris: L'Harmattan)

  14. 12. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. TODAY: EPA Administrator to Address the Allergy and Asthma Network 30th Anniversary Awards Ceremony

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will give remarks at the Allergy and Asthma Network's 30 th Anniversary Awards Ceremony in Washington, D.C. Administrator McCarthy will speak about how climate change can impact respirato

  20. Sequentially-coupled space-time FSI analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kostov, Nikolay

    2014-08-01

    We present a sequentially-coupled space-time (ST) computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The wing motion and deformation data, whether prescribed fully or partially, is from an actual locust, extracted from high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of the locust in a wind tunnel. The core computational FSI technology is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST (DSD/SST) formulation. This is supplemented with using NURBS basis functions in temporal representation of the wing and mesh motion, and in remeshing. Here we use the version of the DSD/SST formulation derived in conjunction with the variational multiscale (VMS) method, and this version is called "DSD/SST-VMST." The structural mechanics computations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell model. The sequential-coupling technique is applicable to some classes of FSI problems, especially those with temporally-periodic behavior. We show that it performs well in FSI computations of the flapping-wing aerodynamics we consider here. In addition to the straight-flight case, we analyze cases where the MAV body has rolling, pitching, or rolling and pitching motion. We study how all these influence the lift and thrust.

  1. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Test-Analysis Correlation for Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Impacting RCC Wing Leading Edge Component Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommended that NASA develop, validate, and maintain a modeling tool capable of predicting the damage threshold for debris impacts on the Space Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) wing leading edge and nosecap assembly. The results presented in this paper are one part of a multi-level approach that supported the development of the predictive tool used to recertify the shuttle for flight following the Columbia Accident. The assessment of predictive capability was largely based on test analysis comparisons for simpler component structures. This paper provides comparisons of finite element simulations with test data for external tank foam debris impacts onto 6-in. square RCC flat panels. Both quantitative displacement and qualitative damage assessment correlations are provided. The comparisons show good agreement and provided the Space Shuttle Program with confidence in the predictive tool.

  3. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  4. Inflatable wing

    DOEpatents

    Priddy, Tommy G.

    1988-01-01

    An inflatable wing is formed from a pair of tapered, conical inflatable tubes in bonded tangential contact with each other. The tubes are further connected together by means of top and bottom reinforcement boards having corresponding longitudinal edges lying in the same central diametral plane passing through the associated tube. The reinforcement boards are made of a stiff reinforcement material, such as Kevlar, collapsible in a direction parallel to the spanwise wing axis upon deflation of the tubes. The stiff reinforcement material cooperates with the inflated tubes to impart structural I-beam characteristics to the composite structure for transferring inflation pressure-induced tensile stress from the tubes to the reinforcement boards. A plurality of rigid hoops shaped to provide airfoil definition are spaced from each other along the spanwise axis and are connected to the top and bottom reinforcement boards. Tension lines are employed for stabilizing the hoops along the trailing and leading edges thereof.

  5. JANNAF 30th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Meeting. Volume I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. L. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 30th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee Meeting, held on 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The papers presented herein reflect work performed in the areas of green energetic materials (GEM) development; liquid and gel propellant development; propellant surveillance and aging; and propellant chemistry test methods.

  6. Mortain. Defensive, Deliberate Defense, 30th Infantry Division, 9-13 August 1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-03

    MORTAIN 00 Ci Defensive, Deliberate Defense 30th Infantry Division 9-f73 August 1944 . I by L. R. f/Adair. CPT, FA W. 1t. /ýpeer, CPT, .MI ,R.A vany...3io 6niOSL SECTION I 1. Define the Subjeet In the early morning hour of 7 August 1944 , the German Army launched a counteroffensive to seize the town...during the late morning and early afternoon hours. Synoptic studies in 1944 , based on observations of at least eleven years, indicated that the greatest

  7. Off-Nominal Performance of the International Space Station Solar Array Wings Under Orbital Eclipse Lighting Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents testing and analyses to quantify International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Wing (SAW) string electrical performance under highly off-nominal, low-temperature-low-intensity (LILT) operating conditions with nonsolar light sources. This work is relevant for assessing feasibility and risks associated with a Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU) remove and replace (R&R) Extravehicular Activity (EVA). During eclipse, SAW strings can be energized by moonlight, EVA suit helmet lights or video camera lights. To quantify SAW performance under these off-nominal conditions, solar cell performance testing was performed using full moon, solar simulator and Video Camera Luminaire (VCL) light sources. Test conditions included 25 to 110 C temperatures and 1- to 0.0001-Sun illumination intensities. Electrical performance data and calculated eclipse lighting intensities were combined to predict SAW current-voltage output for comparison with electrical hazard thresholds. Worst case predictions show there is no connector pin molten metal hazard but crew shock hazard limits are exceeded due to VCL illumination. Assessment uncertainties and limitations are discussed along with operational solutions to mitigate SAW electrical hazards from VCL illumination. Results from a preliminary assessment of SAW arcing are also discussed. The authors recommend further analyses once SSU, R&R, and EVA procedures are better defined.

  8. Proceedings of the X-15 First Flight 30th Anniversary Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technical symposium and pilot's panel discussion were held on June 8, 1989, to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the first free flight of the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, manufacturing, and flight research program activities. The X-15's technical contributions to the X-30 are cited. The panel discussion participants included seven of the eight surviving research pilots who flew the X-15 experimental aircraft to world altitude and speed records which still stand. Pilot's remarks include descriptions of their most memorable X-15 flight experience. The report also includes a historical perspective of the X-15.

  9. Supersonic aerodynamics of delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Through the empirical correlation of experimental data and theoretical analysis, a set of graphs has been developed which summarize the inviscid aerodynamics of delta wings at supersonic speeds. The various graphs which detail the aerodynamic performance of delta wings at both zero-lift and lifting conditions were then employed to define a preliminary wing design approach in which both the low-lift and high-lift design criteria were combined to define a feasible design space.

  10. When wings touch wakes: understanding locomotor force control by wake wing interference in insect wings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of force control in flying insects requires the exploration of how oscillating wings interact with the surrounding fluid. The production of vorticity and the shedding of vortical structures within the stroke cycle thus depend on two factors: the temporal structure of the flow induced by the wing's own instantaneous motion and the flow components resulting from both the force production in previous wing strokes and the motion of other wings flapping in close proximity. These wake-wing interactions may change on a stroke-by-stroke basis, confronting the neuro-muscular system of the animal with a complex problem for force control. In a single oscillating wing, the flow induced by the preceding half stroke may lower the wing's effective angle of attack but permits the recycling of kinetic energy from the wake via the wake capture mechanism. In two-winged insects, the acceleration fields produced by each wing may strongly interact via the clap-and-fling mechanism during the dorsal stroke reversal. Four-winged insects must cope with the fact that the flow over their hindwings is affected by the presence of the forewings. In these animals, a phase-shift between the stroke cycles of fore- and hindwing modulates aerodynamic performance of the hindwing via leading edge vortex destruction and changes in local flow condition including wake capture. Moreover, robotic wings demonstrate that phase-lag during peak performance and the strength of force modulation depend on the vertical spacing between the two stroke planes and the size ratio between fore- and hindwing. This study broadly summarizes the most prominent mechanisms of wake-wing and wing-wing interactions found in flapping insect wings and evaluates the consequences of these processes for the control of locomotor forces in the behaving animal.

  11. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  12. A Report on the 30th Annual Conference of the International Association of Scientific and Technological University Libraries (IATUL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Manorama

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report on the 30th IATUL Annual Conference held in Leuven, Belgium, 1-4 June, 2009. Design/methodology/approach: The paper summarises the major themes of the conference as well as giving some specific details of developments at the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India, which supplement the author's…

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education (30th, Lubbock, Texas, July 21-23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepica, M. J.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 20 presentations and reports made during the 30th Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education in Lubbock, Texas. The keynote address on importance of research to agricultural education is followed by 16 research papers reporting on analysis of student teacher morale before and after student teaching;…

  14. 30th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act," 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This is the 30th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2008. Section 664(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as reauthorized in 2004, requires that the Department of Education report annually on the progress made toward the provision of a free appropriate…

  15. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  16. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  17. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  18. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  19. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  20. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... with § 23.145(b)(3) necessitates wing flap retraction to positions that are not fully retracted,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  3. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  4. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23... General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configurations. The forward structure of a canard or tandem wing configuration must: (a) Meet all requirements of subpart C and subpart D of this part applicable to a wing;...

  5. Space shuttle: Pressure investigation of a space shuttle launch configuration consisting of a delta-wing orbiter and a swept-wing booster with canard and tip fans (M equals 0.6 to 1.3). Volume 1, part A: Booster data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Gomillion, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests to determine the pressure distribution on a space shuttle launch configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter and a swept wing booster with canard and tip fins were conducted. Pressure data were obtained for the combined orbiter and booster and for the booster alone at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.3, angles of attack from minus 8 degrees to plus 10 degrees, and sideslip angles from minus 6 degrees to plus 6 degrees. Pressure data were also obtained for the booster alone without canard at Mach numbers of 0.9 and 1.1. The pressure taps were distributed primarily over the booster upper surface and the orbiter lower surface.

  6. [A winged scapula].

    PubMed

    Faber, C G; Klaver, M M; Wokke, J H J

    2002-09-14

    Three patients, one woman aged 22 and two men aged 54 and 28, presented with scapular winging. In the first patient amyotrophic plexus neuralgia was diagnosed. The second patient most probably suffered from a stretch injury of the long thoracic nerve. The third patient had scapular winging due to an isolated paresis of the trapezius muscle, which was caused by an idiopathic lesion of the accessory nerve. In the first and second patient an improvement was noticeable after 9 months and 1.5 years respectively. There was no improvement in the third patient after 11 years. Paresis of the M. serratus anterior occurs due to paralysis of the N. thoracicus longus, as a result of direct compression, stump trauma, interventions such as thoracic operations, (repeated) stretch injuries or neuralgic brachial plexus amyotrophy; in these cases the scapular winging increases as the arm is lifted forwards. Paresis of the M. trapezius occurs due to the paralysis of the N. accessorius, due to trauma, interventions such as in the neck area, a space-occupying abnormality or an idiopathic abnormality; in these cases the scapular winging increases upon the arm being lifted sideways. Another possible cause of scapular winging is muscular dystrophy, especially fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Usually the prognosis for recovery from a neuropraxia and an idiopathic lesion of the N. thoracicus longus within a two-year period is good. The prognosis for an isolated lesion of the N. accessorius is much less favourable. An EMG is essential for establishing a diagnosis.

  7. Prediction of in-depth gap heating ratios from wing glove model test data. [space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    In-depth gap heating ratios were predicted down RSI tile sidewalls based on temperature measurements obtained from the JSC arc-jet Wing Glove model tests in order to develop gap heating ratios which resulted in the best possible fit of test data and to produce a set of engineering verification heating ratios similar in shape to one another which could be used at various body points on the Orbiter during reentry. The Rockwell TPS Multidimensional heat conduction program was used to perform 3-D thermal analyses using a 3.0 in. thick section of a curved RSI tile with 283 nodal points. Correlation with test data shows that the predicted heating ratios were significantly higher down in the gap than the zero pressure values for T/C stacks 39 and 38 on the Wing Glove model. For stack 37 (in a low pressure region), the baseline heating ratio overpredicted the temperature data. This analysis, which showed that the heating ratios were a strong function of the product of pressure and pressure gradient, will be used to compare with recent Gap/Step and Ames Double Wedge test/analysis results in the effort to identify the Orbiter gap response to high delta P flight environment.

  8. PREFACE: 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lebedev, S.

    2003-12-01

    The 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics took place in St Petersburg, Russian Federation, on 7th--11th July 2003. It was jointly organized by the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, the St Petersburg State Polytechnical University and Technical University Applied Physics Ltd, on behalf of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society (EPS). The members of the local organizing committee were drawn from these institutions: B Kuteev, Chair, Polytechnical University S Lebedev, Vice-Chair, Ioffe Institute A Lebedev, Scientific Secretary, Ioffe Institute V Bakharev, TUAP Ltd V Grigor'yants, Ioffe Institute V Sergeev, Polytechnical University N Zhubr, Ioffe Institute Over the years, the annual conference of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society has widened its scope. Contributions to the present conference covered widely diversified fields of plasma physics, ranging from magnetic and inertial fusion to low temperature plasmas. Plasma sizes under investigation ranged from tiny to astronomical. The topics covered during the conference were distributed over the following categories: tokamaks, stellarators, high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement, alternative magnetic confinement, plasma edge physics, plasma heating and current drive, diagnostics, basic plasma physics, astrophysical and geophysical plasmas and low temperature plasmas. The scientific programme and paper selection were the responsibility of the Programme Committee appointed by the Board of the EPS Plasma Physics Division. The committee was composed of: R Koch, Chairman, ERM/KMS Brussels, Belgium E Ascasibar, CIEMAT Madrid, Spain S Atzeni, Università di Roma, Italy G Bonhomme, LPMI Nancy, France C Chiuderi, Università di Firenze, Italy B Kuteev, St Petersburg State Polytechnical,University, Russian Federation M Mauel, Contact person APS-DPP, Columbia University New York, USA R A Pitts, EPFL/CRPP Lausanne, Switzerland R Salomaa

  9. Studies Conducted of Sodium Carbonate Contaminant Found on the Wing Leading Edge and the Nose Cap of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Palou, Jaime J.

    2003-01-01

    In early 2001, three of the space shuttle orbiters were found to have a sodium carbonate contaminant on the wing leading edge and nose cap. These parts are made of a reinforced carbon/carbon material protected by silicon carbide (SiC) and a glass coating. The glass coating is known as Type A and is primarily sodium silicate with particles of SiC. NASA Glenn Research Center's Environmental Durability Branch was asked to determine the chemistry of this deposit formation and assess any possible detrimental effects. At low temperatures, the reverse reaction is favorable. Previous studies of the corrosion of glass show that carbon dioxide in the presence of water does form sodium carbonate on sodium silicate glass (ref. 1). It is quite likely that a similar scenario exists for the orbiter wing leading edge. All three orbiters that formed sodium carbonate were exposed to rain. This formation of sodium carbonate was duplicated in the laboratory. The Type A glass, which coats the wing leading edge and nose cap, was made in a freestanding form and exposed to water in two separate experiments. In one set of experiments, the coating was placed in a petri dish filled with water. As the water evaporated, sodium carbonate formed. In another case, water was slowly dripped on the coating and sodium carbonate formed. The sodium carbonate was detected by chemical analysis and, in some cases, xray diffraction showed a hydrated sodium carbonate. The next step was to examine possible detrimental effects of this sodium carbonate. There are three likely scenarios for the sodium carbonate deposit: (1) it may be removed with a simple rinse, (2) it may remain and flow back into the Type A glass after heating during reentry, or (3) it may remain and flow onto unprotected SiC and/or other parts after heating during reentry. The effect of case 1 is to remove the Na2O constituent from the Type A glass, thus decreasing its effectiveness as a sealant. Even so, overall, it is probably the best

  10. Annular wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An annular wing particularly suited for use in supporting in flight an aircraft characterized by the absence of directional stabilizing surfaces is described. The wing comprises a rigid annular body of a substantially uniformly symmetrical configuration characterized by an annular positive lifting surface and cord line coincident with the segment of a line radiating along the surface of an inverted truncated cone. A decalage is established for the leading and trailing semicircular portions of the body, relative to instantaneous line of flight, and a dihedral for the laterally opposed semicircular portions of the body, relative to the line of flight. The direction of flight and climb angle or glide slope angle are established by selectively positioning the center of gravity of the wing ahead of the aerodynamic center along the radius coincident with an axis for a selected line of flight.

  11. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  12. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  13. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  14. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  15. 14 CFR 23.699 - Wing flap position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap position indicator. 23.699 Section 23.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Construction Control Systems § 23.699 Wing flap position indicator. There must be a wing flap...

  16. Scapular Winging

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Benjamin W. T.; Geoghegan, John M.; Wallace, W. Angus; Manning, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    This review explores the causes of scapula winging, with overview of the relevant anatomy, proposed aetiology and treatment. Particular focus is given to lesions of the long thoracic nerve, which is reported to be the most common aetiological factor. PMID:27582902

  17. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shang, J K; Combes, S A; Finio, B M; Wood, R J

    2009-09-01

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  18. Subsonic and transonic hinge moment and wing bending/torsion characteristics of .015 scale space shuttle models 49-0 and 67-TS in the Rockwell International trisonic wind tunnel (IA70), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, M. T.; Mennell, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on an 0.015-scale representation of the integrated space shuttle launch vehicle in the trisonic wind tunnel. The primary test objective was to obtain subsonic and transonic elevon and bodyflap hinge moments and wing bending-torsion moments in the presence of the launch vehicle. Wing pressures were also recorded for the upper and lower right wing surfaces at two spanwise stations. The hinge moment, wing bending/torsion moments and wing pressure data were recorded over an angle-of-attack (alpha) range from -8 deg to +8 deg, and angle-of-sideslip (beta) range from -8 deg to +8 deg and at Mach numbers of 0.90, 1.12, 1.24 and 1.50. Tests were also conducted to determine the effects of the orbiter rear attach cross beam and the forward attach wedge and strut diameter. The orbiter alone was tested at 0.90 and 1.24 Mach number only.

  19. An axisymmetric analog two-layer convective heating procedure with application to the evaluation of Space Shuttle Orbiter wing leading edge and windward surface heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. C.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical procedure for predicting the convective heating rate of hypersonic reentry vehicles is described. The procedure, which is based on the axisymmetric analog, consists of obtaining the three-dimensional inviscid flowfield solution; then the surface streamlines and metrics are calculated using the inviscid velocity components on the surface; finally, an axisymmetric boundary layer code or approximate convective heating equations are used to evaluate heating rates. This approach yields heating predictions to general three-dimensional body shapes. The procedure has been applied to the prediction of the wing leading edge heating to the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The numerical results are compared with the results of heat transfer testing (OH66) of an 0.025 scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter configuration in the Calspan Hypersonic Shock Tunnel (HST) at Mach 10 and angles of attack of 30 and 40 degrees. Comparisons with STS-5 flight data at Mach 9.15 and angle of attack of 37.4 degrees and STS-2 flight data at Mach 12.86 and angle of attack of 39.7 degrees are also given.

  20. Sequencing to Station in 12 Months (Targeting Orbital 5 Launch, March 30th)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David J.; Burton, Aaron Steven

    2015-01-01

    The Biomolecule Sequencer is a Commercial Off-The-Shelf device developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies and implements a method of DNA sequencing unlike any other current sequencers. The device measures changes in electrical current through a nanopore depending on the sequence of the DNA strand that is passing through it. Since the technology is built on nanometer-scale ion pores, the hardware itself is exceptionally small (3 x 1 x 58 inches), lightweight (less than 120 grams with USB cable), and powered only by a USB connection. The sequencing device is permanent, while the flow cells, to which the samples are added, are periodically replaced. The goal of our upcoming technology demonstration on ISS is to provide evidence that DNA sequencing in space is possible, which holds the exciting potential to enable the identification of microorganisms, monitor changes in microbes and humans in response to spaceflight, and possibly aid in the detection of DNA-based life elsewhere in the universe.

  1. A green and sustainable approach: celebrating the 30th anniversary of the asymmetric l-menthol process.

    PubMed

    Emura, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Takasago has been devoted to producing l-menthol since 1954, and our long history of manufacturing this important aroma chemical is reviewed here. The current asymmetric catalytic process had its 30th anniversary in 2013. Our l-menthol process is considered carbon-neutral, and, therefore, 'green' and sustainable. It uses renewable myrcene obtained from gum rosin as a starting material. In addition, the Rh-BINAP (=2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl) catalytic system is highly efficient. This pathway not only leads l-menthol, but a variety of 100% biobased aroma chemical products as well. By measuring the (14) C levels in a material, one can determine the percentage of carbon that is biobased. This biobased assay, described as the ratio plant-derived C/fossil-derived C, can clarify how renewable a product really is. This will be highlighted for several of Takasago's key aroma chemicals.

  2. The Cell Adhesion Molecules Roughest, Hibris, Kin of Irre and Sticks and Stones Are Required for Long Range Spacing of the Drosophila Wing Disc Sensory Sensilla.

    PubMed

    Linneweber, Gerit Arne; Winking, Mathis; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Most animal tissues and organ systems are comprised of highly ordered arrays of varying cell types. The development of external sensory organs requires complex cell-cell communication in order to give each cell a specific identity and to ensure a regular distributed pattern of the sensory bristles. This involves both long and short range signaling mediated by either diffusible or cell anchored factors. In a variety of processes the heterophilic Irre Cell Recognition Module, consisting of the Neph-like proteins: Roughest, Kin of irre and of the Nephrin-like proteins: Sticks and Stones, Hibris, plays key roles in the recognition events of different cell types throughout development. In the present study these proteins are apically expressed in the adhesive belt of epithelial cells participating in sense organ development in a partially exclusive and asymmetric manner. Using mutant analysis the GAL4/UAS system, RNAi and gain of function we found an involvement of all four Irre Cell Recognition Module-proteins in the development of a highly structured array of sensory organs in the wing disc. The proteins secure the regular spacing of sensory organs showing partial redundancy and may function in early lateral inhibition events as well as in cell sorting processes. Comparisons with other systems suggest that the Irre Cell Recognition module is a key organizer of highly repetitive structures.

  3. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  4. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... airplane stalls. (b) The wings level stall characteristics must be demonstrated in flight as...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  6. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... airplane stalls. (b) The wings level stall characteristics must be demonstrated in flight as...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  8. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  9. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  10. 14 CFR 25.1403 - Wing icing detection lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing icing detection lights. 25.1403... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1403 Wing icing... ice on the parts of the wings that are critical from the standpoint of ice accumulation....

  11. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... unreversed use of the directional control, up to the time the airplane stalls. (b) The wings level...

  12. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... airplane stalls. (b) The wings level stall characteristics must be demonstrated in flight as...

  13. 14 CFR 23.201 - Wings level stall.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wings level stall. 23.201 Section 23.201... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stalls § 23.201 Wings level... airplane stalls. (b) The wings level stall characteristics must be demonstrated in flight as...

  14. Aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lua, K. B.; Lu, H.; Zhang, X. H.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a fundamental investigation on the aerodynamics of two-dimensional flapping wings in tandem configuration in forward flight. Of particular interest are the effects of phase angle (φ) and center-to-center distance (L) between the front wing and the rear wing on the aerodynamic force generation at a Reynolds number of 5000. Both experimental and numerical methods were employed. A force sensor was used to measure the time-history aerodynamic forces experienced by the two wings and digital particle image velocimetry was utilized to obtain the corresponding flow structures. Both the front wing and the rear wing executed the same simple harmonic motions with φ ranging from -180° to 180° and four values of L, i.e., 1.5c, 2c, 3c, and 4c (c is the wing chord length). Results show that at fixed L = 2c, tandem wings perform better than the sum of two single wings that flap independently in terms of thrust for phase angle approximately from -90° to 90°. The maximum thrust on the rear wing occurs during in-phase flapping (φ = 0°). Correlation of transient thrust and flow structure indicates that there are generally two types of wing-wake interactions, depending on whether the rear wing crosses the shear layer shed from the front wing. Finally, increasing wing spacing has similar effect as reducing the phase angle, and an approximate mathematical model is derived to describe the relationship between these two parameters.

  15. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-02

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way.

  16. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft... Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. (a) The operator of a fixed-wing aircraft shall display the..., horizontally on both sides of the fuselage between the trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of...

  17. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft... Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. (a) The operator of a fixed-wing aircraft must display the..., horizontally on both sides of the fuselage between the trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of...

  18. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft... Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. (a) The operator of a fixed-wing aircraft shall display the..., horizontally on both sides of the fuselage between the trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of...

  19. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft... Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. (a) The operator of a fixed-wing aircraft must display the..., horizontally on both sides of the fuselage between the trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of...

  20. 14 CFR 45.25 - Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft... Location of marks on fixed-wing aircraft. (a) The operator of a fixed-wing aircraft must display the..., horizontally on both sides of the fuselage between the trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of...

  1. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Kun and…

  2. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Sac and Zaz:…

  3. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of the 30th annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents: plenary panel papers; research forum papers; short oral communication papers; and poster presentation papers from the meeting. Information relating to discussion groups and working sessions is also provided.…

  4. Proceedings of the 30th Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference and the 8th Annual Georgia Conservation Production Systems Training Conference, Tifton, Georgia, July 29-31, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 2008 conference to be held at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus Conference Center in Tifton, GA, on 29-31 July 2008, will be a joint effort of the 30th Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference (SCASC) and the 8th Annual Conservation Production Systems Training Conference (CPS...

  5. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane, Ed.; Beswick, Kim, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is "Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice." The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and…

  6. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Abr…

  7. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Ead and Kou:…

  8. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations of facade and tis flaking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5), west wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5), west wall of the North Wing (Wing 2) and rear elevations of the facade and its flanking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  11. Design of a Free-running, 1/30th Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In- situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization LT Dave Cope 3 May 2012 Advised by Prof Chrys Chryssostomidis Dr...Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization (BRIEFING CHARTS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Design and build a 1/30th Froude scaled, free-running model of the David Taylor Model Basin 5415 hull for hydrodynamic visualization and

  12. Space shuttle: Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect ratio wing configurations in ground effect for a moving and stationary ground surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romere, P. O.; Chambliss, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    A 0.05-scale model of the NASA-MSC Orbiter 040A Configuration was tested. Test duration was approximately 80 hours during which the model was tested in and out of ground effect with a stationary and moving ground belt. Model height from ground plane surface was varied from one and one-half wing span to landing touchdown while angle of attack varied from -4 to 20 degrees. Eleven effectiveness and alternate configuration geometries were tested to insure complete analysis of low aspect ratio wing aircraft in the presence of ground effect. Test Mach number was approximately 0.067 with a corresponding dynamic pressure value of 6.5 psf.

  13. Flapping of Insectile Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.

  14. The winged scapula.

    PubMed

    Fiddian, N J; King, R J

    1984-05-01

    Twenty-five patients with 23 different types of winging of the scapula are described. A simple clinical and etiologic classification of the winged scapula is proposed based on the study of these patients in conjunction with a review of the literature. Winging of the scapula is either static or dynamic. Static winging is due to fixed deformity in the shoulder girdle, spine, or ribs. Dynamic winging is due to a neuromuscular disorder. The great variety of lesions that produce winging of the scapula may be classified anatomically into four types: Type I, nerve; Type II, muscle; Type III, bone; and Type IV, joint. Winging of the scapula is a surprisingly common physical sign, but because it is often asymptomatic it receives little attention. However, symptoms of pain, weakness, or cosmetic deformity may demand attention, and it is hoped that this classification will help in the diagnosis and assessment of these patients.

  15. Natural flow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a natural flow wing and a method for constructing the same. The method comprises contouring a three-dimensional upper surface and a three-dimensional lower surface of the natural flow wing independently of one another into a prescribed shape. Experimental data and theoretical analysis show that flow and pressure-loading over an upper surface of a wing tend to be conical about an apex of the wing, producing favorable and unfavorable regions of performance based on drag. The method reduces these unfavorable regions by shaping the upper surface such that the maximum thickness near a tip of the natural flow wing moves aft, thereby, contouring the wing to coincide more closely with the conical nature of the flow on the upper surface. Nearly constant compressive loading characterizes the flow field over a lower surface of the conventional wing. Magnitude of these compressive pressures on the lower surface depends on angle of attack and on a streamwise curvature of the lower surface of the wing and not on a cross-sectional spanwise curvature. The method, thereby, shapes the lower surface to create an area as large as possible with negative slopes. Any type of swept wing may be used to obtain the final, shaped geometry of the upper and lower surfaces of the natural flow wing.

  16. Space shuttle: Heat transfer investigation of the McDonnell-Douglas delta wing orbiter at a nominal Mach number of 10.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, R. H.; Buchanan, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    Heat transfer tests for the delta wing orbiter were conducted in a hypervelocity wind tunnel. A 1.1 percent scale model was tested at a Mach number of approximately 10.5 over an angle of attack range from 10 to 60 degrees over a length Reynolds number range from 5 times 10 to the 6th power to 24 times 10 to the 6th power. Heat transfer results were obtained from model surface heat gage measurements and thermographic phosphor paint. Limited pressure measurements were obtained.

  17. Flexible flapping wings with self-organized microwrinkles.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroyuki; Shimasue, Yosuke; Liu, Hao

    2015-06-29

    Bio-inspired flapping wings with a wrinkled wing membrane were designed and fabricated. The wings consist of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic frames and a polymer film with microscale wrinkles inspired by bird feathers and the corrugations of insect wings. The flexural and tensile stiffness of the wrinkled film can be controlled by modifying the orientations and waveforms of the wrinkles, thereby expanding the design space of flexible wings for micro flapping-wing aerial robots. A self-organization phenomenon was exploited in the fabrication of the microwrinkles such that microscale wrinkles spanning a broad wing area were spontaneously created. The wavy shape of these self-organized wrinkles was used as a mould, and a Parylene film was deposited onto the mould to form a wrinkled wing film. The effect of the waveforms of the wrinkles on the film stiffness was investigated theoretically, computationally and experimentally. Compared with a flat film, the flexural stiffness was increased by two orders of magnitude, and the tensile stiffness was reduced by two orders of magnitude. To demonstrate the effect of the wrinkles on the actual deformation of the flapping wings and the resulting aerodynamic forces, the fabricated wrinkled wings were tested using a tethered electric flapping mechanism. Chordwise unidirectional wrinkles were found to prevent fluttering near the trailing edge and to produce a greater aerodynamic lift compared with a flat wing or a wing with spanwise wrinkles. Our results suggest that the fine stiffness control of the wing film that can be achieved by tuning the microwrinkles can improve the aerodynamic performance of future flapping-wing aerial robots.

  18. Winging of the scapula.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M A; Gatens, P F; Singh, S

    1981-10-01

    Common neurogenic causes of scapular winging are serratus anterior, trapezius and rhomboid palsy. Deformity is minimal in serratus anterior palsy (long thoracic nerve); winging is accentuated by forward elevation and pushing with outstretched arms. In trapezius palsy (spinal accessory nerve), the shoulder droops and winging is accentuated by arm abduction at the shoulder level. Rhomboid weakness (dorsal scapular nerve or C5 root) is best demonstrated by slowly lowering the arms from the forward elevated position.

  19. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  20. Propeller/wing interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, David P.; Johnston, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.

    1989-01-01

    The present experimental investigation of the steady-state and unsteady-state effects due to the interaction between a tractor propeller's wake and a wing employs, in the steady case, wind tunnel measurements at low subsonic speed; results are obtained which demonstrate wing performance response to variations in configuration geometry. Other steady-state results involve the propeller-hub lift and side-force due to the wing's influence on the propeller. The unsteady effects of interaction were studied through flow visualization of propeller-tip vortex distortion over a wing, again using a tractor-propeller configuration.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Wing Aeroelastic Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issac, Jason Cherian

    1995-01-01

    Design for prevention of aeroelastic instability (that is, the critical speeds leading to aeroelastic instability lie outside the operating range) is an integral part of the wing design process. Availability of the sensitivity derivatives of the various critical speeds with respect to shape parameters of the wing could be very useful to a designer in the initial design phase, when several design changes are made and the shape of the final configuration is not yet frozen. These derivatives are also indispensable for a gradient-based optimization with aeroelastic constraints. In this study, flutter characteristic of a typical section in subsonic compressible flow is examined using a state-space unsteady aerodynamic representation. The sensitivity of the flutter speed of the typical section with respect to its mass and stiffness parameters, namely, mass ratio, static unbalance, radius of gyration, bending frequency, and torsional frequency is calculated analytically. A strip theory formulation is newly developed to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a wing. This is coupled with an equivalent plate structural model and solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the critical speed of the wing. Flutter analysis of the wing is also carried out using a lifting-surface subsonic kernel function aerodynamic theory (FAST) and an equivalent plate structural model. Finite element modeling of the wing is done using NASTRAN so that wing structures made of spars and ribs and top and bottom wing skins could be analyzed. The free vibration modes of the wing obtained from NASTRAN are input into FAST to compute the flutter speed. An equivalent plate model which incorporates first-order shear deformation theory is then examined so it can be used to model thick wings, where shear deformations are important. The sensitivity of natural frequencies to changes in shape parameters is obtained using ADIFOR. A simple optimization effort is made towards obtaining a minimum weight

  2. Bristles reduce the force required to 'fling' wings apart in the smallest insects.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shannon K; Yun, Young J J; Hedrick, Tyson L; Griffith, Boyce E; Miller, Laura A

    2016-12-01

    The smallest flying insects commonly possess wings with long bristles. Little quantitative information is available on the morphology of these bristles, and their functional importance remains a mystery. In this study, we (1) collected morphological data on the bristles of 23 species of Mymaridae by analyzing high-resolution photographs and (2) used the immersed boundary method to determine via numerical simulation whether bristled wings reduced the force required to fling the wings apart while still maintaining lift. The effects of Reynolds number, angle of attack, bristle spacing and wing-wing interactions were investigated. In the morphological study, we found that as the body length of Mymaridae decreases, the diameter and gap between bristles decreases and the percentage of the wing area covered by bristles increases. In the numerical study, we found that a bristled wing experiences less force than a solid wing. The decrease in force with increasing gap to diameter ratio is greater at higher angles of attack than at lower angles of attack, suggesting that bristled wings may act more like solid wings at lower angles of attack than they do at higher angles of attack. In wing-wing interactions, bristled wings significantly decrease the drag required to fling two wings apart compared with solid wings, especially at lower Reynolds numbers. These results support the idea that bristles may offer an aerodynamic benefit during clap and fling in tiny insects.

  3. Bristles reduce force required to fling wings apart in small insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Shannon; Yun, Young; Hedrick, Tyson; Griffith, Boyce; Miller, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The smallest flying insects commonly possess wings with long bristles. Little quantitative information is available on the morphology of these bristles, and the functional importance of these bristles remains a mystery. In this study, we used the immersed boundary method to determine via numerical simulation if bristled wings reduced the force required to fling the wings apart during "clap and fling". The challenge of studying the fluid dynamics of bristles was in resolving the fluid flow between the bristles. The effects of Reynolds number, angle of attack, bristle spacing, and wing-wing interactions were investigated. We found that a bristled wing experiences less force than a solid wing, however bristled wings may act more like solid wings at lower angles of attack than they do at higher angles of attack. In wing-wing interactions, bristled wings significantly decrease the drag required to fling two wings apart compared with solid wings, especially at lower Reynolds numbers. These results support the idea that bristles may offer an aerodynamic benefit during clap and fling by reducing the force required to fling the wings apart in tiny insects.

  4. Numerical calculation of the transonic flow past a swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.; Caughey, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for analyzing the transonic potential flow past a lifting, swept wing. A finite difference approximation to the full potential equation is solved in a coordinate system which is nearly conformally mapped from the physical space in planes parallel to the symmetry plane, and reduces the wing surface to a portion of one boundary of the computational grid. A coordinate invariant, rotated difference scheme is used, and the difference equations are solved by relaxation. The method is capable of treating wings of arbitrary planform and dihedral, although approximations in treating the tips and vortex sheet make its accuracy suspect for wings of small aspect ratio. Comparisons of calculated results with experimental data are shown for examples of both conventional and supercritical transport wings. Agreement is good for both types, but it was found necessary to account for the displacement effect of the boundary layer for the supercritical wing, presumably because of its greater sensitivity to changes in effective geometry.

  5. Winged launcher thermal design aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, K.

    1991-12-01

    The need for significant reduction in launch cost favors the consideration of reusable space transportation systems which are assisted by aerodynamic lift. The thermomechanical and thermochemical environments and the basic design requirements of two airbreathing vehicle classes are put in relation to vehiles like Shuttle and Hermes. Similarities as well as essential differences between the various vehicles are highlighted. State of the art thermal protection concepts and materials are analyzed with respect to winged launcher concepts. Future development trends for design and materials with potential application are identified. The need for improved thermostructural analysis and optimization techniques is outlined.

  6. Servant's quarters, west wing, upper floor interior, looking to south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Servant's quarters, west wing, upper floor interior, looking to south. Doorway at center connects with the Majordomo's sleeping space. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  7. Challenges, Ideas, and Innovations of Joined-Wing Configurations: A Concept from the Past, an Opportunity for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, Rauno; Demasi, Luciano

    2016-11-01

    Diamond Wings, Strut- and Truss-Braced Wings, Box Wings, and PrandtlPlane, the so-called "JoinedWings", represent a dramatic departure from traditional configurations. Joined Wings are characterized by a structurally overconstrained layout which significantly increases the design space with multiple load paths and numerous solutions not available in classical wing systems. A tight link between the different disciplines (aerodynamics, flight mechanics, aeroelasticity, etc.) makes a Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization approach a necessity from the early design stages. Researchers showed potential in terms of aerodynamic efficiency, reduction of emissions and superior performances, strongly supporting the technical advantages of Joined Wings. This review will present these studies, with particular focus on the United States joined-wing SensorCraft, Strut- and Truss- Braced Wings, Box Wings and PrandtlPlane.

  8. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  9. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  10. Lightplane Wing Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Venture, a kit airplane designed and manufactured by Questair, is a high performance lightplane with excellent low speed characteristics and enhanced safety due to NASA technology incorporated in its unusual wing design. In 1987, North Carolina State graduate students and Langley Research Center spent seven months researching and analyzing the Venture. The result was a wing modification, improving control and providing more usable lift. The plane subsequently set 10 world speed records.

  11. Foreign Travel Trip Report for LLNL travel with DOE FES funding,May 19th-30th, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, I

    2012-07-05

    . The first studies of the implications for ITER (A. Kukushkin, ITER) have shown a great reduction in operational parameter space that, at present, can only be lifted by increasing target plate heat flux limits. During my visit to the CRPP at the EPFL, I delivered an invited talk in order to disseminate new results of the recent publication [1] on using non-axisymmetric perturbations of the SOL to control the edge plasma. I was given a tour of both the TCV tokamak and the TORPEX simple magnetized plasma device/divertor simulator. TORPEX is an excellent laboratory for exploring the physics of simple magnetized plasmas that are relevant to the scrape-off layer of a tokamak. Properly designed experiments on TORPEX can potentially be used to test the theory of controlling the edge plasma using non-axisymmetric potentials and currents in the SOL developed by LLNL described in [1].

  12. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  13. Effects of Gravity on Wing Extension of Insects at Adult Eclosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Fumio; Kishimoto, Naoko; Moriya, Hirofumi

    2008-06-01

    We compared the wing extensions of adult moths, Eterusia aedea, that emerged in either a horizontal plane, a vertical plane, or a vertical plane with centrifugal force generated by a rotating turntable. These studies were conducted to examine the relative importance of changes in fluid pressure from the body to the wings and gravitational force on the wings. The wings were generally crumpled when the insect emerged on the horizontal plane and became narrower when centrifugal acceleration was applied. In the future, observations of insect emergence in space at zero gravity are necessary to clarify the effects of gravity on wing extension.

  14. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. 45.27 Section 45.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. (a) Rotorcraft. Each operator of a rotorcraft shall display...

  15. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. 45.27 Section 45.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. (a) Rotorcraft. Each operator of a rotorcraft must display...

  16. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. 45.27 Section 45.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. (a) Rotorcraft. Each operator of a rotorcraft must display...

  17. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. 45.27 Section 45.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. (a) Rotorcraft. Each operator of a rotorcraft shall display...

  18. 14 CFR 45.27 - Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. 45.27 Section 45.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Location of marks; nonfixed-wing aircraft. (a) Rotorcraft. Each operator of a rotorcraft must display...

  19. Winged cargo return vehicle conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is committed to placing a permanent space station in Earth orbit in the 1990's. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be located in a 220 n.m. orbit at 28.5 degrees inclination. The Winged Cargo Return Vehicle's (CRV) primary mission is to support SSF crew by flying regular resupply missions. The winged CRV is designed to be reusable, dry land recoverable, and unmanned. The CRV will be launched inline on three liquid hydrogen/oxygen rocket boosters with a payload capacity of 113,000 lbs. The three boosters will take the CRV to an orbit of 50 by 110 n.m. From this altitude the orbital manuevering engine will place the vehicle in synchronous orbit with the space station. The winged CRV will deliver cargo modules to the space station by direct docking or by remaining outside the SSF command zone and using the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) to transfer cargo. After unloading/loading, the CRV will deorbit and fly back to Kennedy Space Center. The CRV has a wing span of 57.8 feet, a length of 76.0 feet, and a dry weight of 61.5 klb. The cargo capacity of the vehicle is 44.4 klb. The vehicle has a lift-drag ratio of 1.28 (hypersonic) and 6.0 (subsonic), resulting in a 1351 n.m. cross range. The overall mission length ranges between 18.8 and 80.5 hr. The operational period will be the years 2000 to 2020.

  20. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. H.; Lan, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  1. X-38 on B-52 Wing Pylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A unique, close-up view of the X-38 (Crew Return Vehicle) under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership prior to launch of the lifting-body research vehicle. The photo was taken from the observation window of the B-52 bomber as it banked in flight. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle or lifeboat for the International Space Station.

  2. [Dynamic winged scapula].

    PubMed

    Perjés, K

    1990-01-01

    Author describes the paralysis of the serratus muscle in consequence of the paralysis of the long thoracic nerve. The form of appearance is the winged of "flying" scapula. Beside the presentation of the literary and anatomical data the own cases are described. Only conservative therapy was made, an operation was in no case necessary.

  3. ``Schooling'' of wing pairs in flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif; AML, Courant Collaboration; Physics NYU Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The experimental setup implements two independent flapping wings swimming in tandem. Both are driven with the same prescribed vertical heaving motion, but the horizontal motion is free, which means that the swimmers can take up any relative position and forward speed. Experiments show however clearly coordinated motions, where the pair of wings `crystallize' into specific stable arrangements. The follower wing locks into the path of the leader, adopting its speed, and with a separation distance that takes on one of several discrete values. By systematically varying the kinematics and wing size, we show that the set of stable spacings is dictated by the wavelength of the periodic wake structure. The forces maintaining the pair cohesion are characterized by applying an external force to the follower to perturb it away from the `stable wells'. These results show that hydrodynamics alone is sufficient to induce cohesive and coordinated collective locomotion through a fluid, and we discuss the hypothesis that fish schools and bird flocks also represent stable modes of motion.

  4. SMA actuators for morphing wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brailovski, V.; Terriault, P.; Georges, T.; Coutu, D.

    An experimental morphing laminar wing was developed to prove the feasibility of aircraft fuel consumption reduction through enhancement of the laminar flow regime over the wing extrados. The morphing wing prototype designed for subsonic cruise flight conditions (Mach 0.2 … 0.3; angle of attack - 1 … +2∘), combines three principal subsystems: (1) flexible extrados, (2) rigid intrados and (3) an actuator group located inside the wing box. The morphing capability of the wing relies on controlled deformation of the wing extrados under the action of shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators. A coupled fluid-structure model of the morphing wing was used to evaluate its mechanical and aerodynamic performances in different flight conditions. A 0.5 m chord and 1 m span prototype of the morphing wing was tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. In this work, SMA actuators for morphing wings were modeled using a coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model and they were windtunnel validated. If the thermo-mechanical model of SMA actuators presented in this work is coupled with the previously developed structureaerodynamic model of the morphing wing, it could serve for the optimization of the entire morphing wing system.

  5. Our Roots Feed Our Future: 30th Anniversary Conference of the Cornell Migrant Program. Presentations (May 22, 2002) = Nuestras raices nutren nuestro futuro: Conferencia del 30mo aniversario del Programa para Emigrantes de Cornell. Presentaciones (22 mayo 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    Presented in English and Spanish, this publication compiles 13 presentations at a conference celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Cornell Migrant Program. The entries examine experiences of migrant workers and children related to immigrating, finding work, enduring discrimination and police harassment, switching schools frequently, suffering…

  6. Wing shaping and strain sensing using fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Sergio Licon

    Current technologies to measure strain rely on strain gauges that become heavy with increased measurement points. One significant improvement is the Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) which allows light to reflect through a fiber optic line in relation to the strain applied on that fiber. Significant advantages over conventional strain gauges allow for a light weight detailed view of the strain applied to any structure containing these fibers. The SPACE Center in conjunction with the AERO Institute have produced preliminary conclusions on how to implement such fibers on a wing structure and how they could be used to control the shape of a wing. Such a wing structure could be built lighter and flexible than today's wings thus enabling a lighter aircraft. Further studies show that if a feedback mechanism is encompassed, flutter suppression techniques can be accomplished with the use of these fibers thus avoiding catastrophic failure.

  7. On Celestial Wings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    warning at headquarters of Japanese planes approaching Clark Field. Despite all our warning systems and all the reconnaissance missions we had flown, the...late January 1942. 49 ON CELESTIAL WINGS Davao on 3 January 1942. They staged through Samarinda, Bomeo , and flew the 730 nautical miles to find the...knocking out our hydraulic system , our brakes, landing gear and bomb release mechanism. We kicked the bombs out manually over Bali and returned to Java

  8. Wing on a String

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an activity that shows students how flight occurs. The "wing on a string" is a simple teacher-made frame that consists of PVC pipe, fishing line, and rubber bands--all readily available hardware store items. The only other materials/tools involved are a sheet of paper, some pieces of a soda straw, a stapler,…

  9. ACTE Wing Loads Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) project modified a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft with a new flexible flap that creates a seamless transition between the flap and the wing. As with any new modification, it is crucial to ensure that the aircraft will not become overstressed in flight. To test this, Star CCM a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software program was used to calculate aerodynamic data for the aircraft at given flight conditions.

  10. Variable Camber Morphing Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    exploring smart materials , aiming at achieving more efficient morphing capability in terms of control authority and energy consump- tion. Other specific...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT...methodology of variable camber morphing wings based on the use of active materials , namely piezoelectric materials and shape memory alloys. The research work

  11. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  12. 3D reconstruction and analysis of wing deformation in free-flying dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Christopher; Liang, Zongxian; Gaston, Zachary; Wan, Hui; Dong, Haibo

    2012-09-01

    Insect wings demonstrate elaborate three-dimensional deformations and kinematics. These deformations are key to understanding many aspects of insect flight including aerodynamics, structural dynamics and control. In this paper, we propose a template-based subdivision surface reconstruction method that is capable of reconstructing the wing deformations and kinematics of free-flying insects based on the output of a high-speed camera system. The reconstruction method makes no rigid wing assumptions and allows for an arbitrary arrangement of marker points on the interior and edges of each wing. The resulting wing surfaces are projected back into image space and compared with expert segmentations to validate reconstruction accuracy. A least squares plane is then proposed as a universal reference to aid in making repeatable measurements of the reconstructed wing deformations. Using an Eastern pondhawk (Erythimus simplicicollis) dragonfly for demonstration, we quantify and visualize the wing twist and camber in both the chord-wise and span-wise directions, and discuss the implications of the results. In particular, a detailed analysis of the subtle deformation in the dragonfly's right hindwing suggests that the muscles near the wing root could be used to induce chord-wise camber in the portion of the wing nearest the specimen's body. We conclude by proposing a novel technique for modeling wing corrugation in the reconstructed flapping wings. In this method, displacement mapping is used to combine wing surface details measured from static wings with the reconstructed flapping wings, while not requiring any additional information be tracked in the high speed camera output.

  13. Simulation of iced wing aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, M. G.; Bragg, M. B.; Kwon, O. J.; Sankar, L. N.

    1991-01-01

    The sectional and total aerodynamic load characteristics of moderate aspect ratio wings with and without simulated glaze leading edge ice were studied both computationally, using a three dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and experimentally. The wing has an untwisted, untapered planform shape with NACA 0012 airfoil section. The wing has an unswept and swept configuration with aspect ratios of 4.06 and 5.0. Comparisons of computed surface pressures and sectional loads with experimental data for identical configurations are given. The abrupt decrease in stall angle of attack for the wing, as a result of the leading edge ice formation, was demonstrated numerically and experimentally.

  14. Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of tapered wings with partial-span flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Henry A; Anderson, Raymond F

    1939-01-01

    Factors derived from wing theory are presented. By means of these factors, the angle of zero lift, the lift-curve slope, the pitching moment, the aerodynamic-center position, and the induced drag of tapered wings with partial-span flaps may be calculated. The factors are given for wings of aspect ratios 6 and 10 , of taper ratios from 0.25 to 1.00, and with flaps of various length. An example is presented of the method of application of the factors. Fair agreement with experimental results is shown for two wings of different taper ratio having plain flaps of various spacing.

  15. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  16. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Ellwood

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  17. Conceptual design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Whitney, J P; Wood, R J

    2012-09-01

    Traditional micro air vehicles (MAVs) are miniature versions of full-scale aircraft from which their design principles closely follow. The first step in aircraft design is the development of a conceptual design, where basic specifications and vehicle size are established. Conceptual design methods do not rely on specific knowledge of the propulsion system, vehicle layout and subsystems; these details are addressed later in the design process. Non-traditional MAV designs based on birds or insects are less common and without well-established conceptual design methods. This paper presents a conceptual design process for hovering flapping-wing vehicles. An energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics is combined with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include simple analytical expressions for flight endurance and range, predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass, and critical design space restrictions resulting from finite wing inertia. A new figure-of-merit for wing structural-inertial efficiency is proposed and used to quantify the performance of real and artificial insect wings. The impact of these results on future flapping-wing MAV designs is discussed in detail.

  18. The natural flow wing-design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1992-01-01

    A wing-design study was conducted on a 65 degree swept leading-edge delta wing in which the wing geometry was modified to take advantage of the naturally occurring flow that forms over a slender wing in a supersonic flow field. Three-dimensional nonlinear analysis methods were used in the study which was divided into three parts: preliminary design, initial design, and final design. In the preliminary design, the wing planform, the design conditions, and the near-conical wing-design concept were derived, and a baseline standard wing (conventional airfoil distribution) and a baseline near-conical wing were chosen. During the initial analysis, a full-potential flow solver was employed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline standard delta wing and to investigate modifications to the airfoil thickness, leading-edge radius, airfoil maximum-thickness position, and wing upper to lower surface asymmetry on the baseline near-conical wing. The final design employed an Euler solver to analyze the best wing configurations found in the initial design and to extend the study of wing asymmetry to develop a more refined wing. Benefits resulting from each modification are discussed, and a final 'natural flow' wing geometry was designed that provides an improvement in aerodynamic performance compared with that of a baseline conventional uncambered wing, linear-theory cambered wing, and near-conical wing.

  19. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  20. X-31 wing removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. and German personnel of the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator aircraft program removing the right wing of the aircraft, which was ferried from Edwards Air Force Base, California, to Europe on May 22, 1995 aboard an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport. The X-31, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was ferried to Europe and flown in the Paris Air Show in June. The wing of the X-31 was removed on May 18, 1995, to allow the aircraft to fit inside the C-5 fuselage. Officials of the X-31 project used Manching, Germany, as a staging base to prepare the aircraft for the flight demonstration. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The aircraft arrived back at Edwards in a Air Force Reserve C-5 on June 25, 1995 and off loaded at Dryden June 27. The X-31 aircraft was developed jointly by Rockwell International's North American Aircraft Division (now part of Boeing) and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm), under sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Defense and The German Federal Ministry of Defense.

  1. Rotary Wing Deceleration Use on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Steiner, Ted J.

    2011-01-01

    Rotary wing decelerator (RWD) systems were compared against other methods of atmospheric deceleration and were determined to show significant potential for application to a system requiring controlled descent, low-velocity landing, and atmospheric research capability on Titan. Design space exploration and down-selection results in a system with a single rotor utilizing cyclic pitch control. Models were developed for selection of a RWD descent system for use on Titan and to determine the relationships between the key design parameters of such a system and the time of descent. The possibility of extracting power from the system during descent was also investigated.

  2. 4. PARTIAL WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. THE WING IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PARTIAL WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. THE WING IN THE FOREGROUND IS NOT ORIGINAL, BUT WIDENED AND EXTENDED THE ORIGINAL SPACE AT THE LABORATORY'S WEST END. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  3. Assembly modes of dragonfly wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Xiao; Yin, Ya-Jun; Zhong, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The assembly modes of dragonfly wings are observed through FEG-ESEM. Different from airplane wings, dragonfly wings are found to be assembled through smooth transition mode and global package mode. First, at the vein/membrane conjunctive site, the membrane is divided into upper and lower portions from the center layer and transited smoothly to the vein. Then the two portions pack the vein around and form the outer surface of the vein. Second, at the vein/spike conjunctive site, the vein and spike are connected smoothly into a triplet. Last, at the vein/membrane/spike conjunctive site, the membrane (i.e., the outer layer of the vein) transits smoothly to the spike, packs it around, and forms its outer layer. In short, the membrane looks like a closed coat packing the wing as a whole. The smooth transition mode and the global package mode are universal assembly modes in dragonfly wings. They provide us the references for better understanding of the functions of dragonfly wings and the bionic manufactures of the wings of flights with mini sizes.

  4. Finite Span Wings in Compressible Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasilschchikova, E A

    1956-01-01

    Equations are developed using the source distribution method for the velocity potential function and pressure on thin wings in steady and unsteady motion. Closed form solutions are given for harmonically oscillating wings of general plan form including the effect of the wing wake. Some useful examples are presented in an appendix for arrow, semielliptical, and hexagonal plan form wings.

  5. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system.

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2011-09-01

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  6. Aerostructures Test Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, RIck; Voracek, David F.; Doyle, Tim; Truax, Roger; Potter, Starr; Brenner, Marty; Voelker, Len; Freudinger, Larry; Stocjt. C (off)

    2003-01-01

    The Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) was an apparatus used in a flight experiment during a program of research on aeroelastic instabilities. The ATW experiment was performed to study a specific instability known as flutter. Flutter is a destructive phenomenon caused by adverse coupling of structural dynamics and aerodynamics. The process of determining a flight envelope within which an aircraft will not experience flutter, known as flight flutter testing, is very dangerous and expensive because predictions of the instability are often unreliable. The ATW was a small-scale airplane wing that comprised an airfoil and boom (see upper part of Figure 1). For flight tests, the ATW was mounted on the F-15B/FTF-II testbed, which is a second-generation flight-test fixture described in Flight-Test Fixture for Aerodynamic Research (DRC- 95-27), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 9, September 1995, page 84. The ATW was mounted horizontally on this fixture, and the entire assembly was attached to the undercarriage of the F-15B airplane (see lower part of Figure 1). The primary objective of the ATW project was to investigate traditional and advanced methodologies for predicting the onset of flutter. In particular, the ATW generated data that were used to evaluate a flutterometer. This particular flutterometer is an on-line computer program that uses method analysis to estimate worst-case flight conditions associated with flutter. This software was described in A Flutterometer Flight Test Tool NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 1, January 1999, page 52.

  7. Mission Adaptive Wing test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Frank T.; Smith, Rogers E.

    1986-01-01

    With the completion of the F-111 test-bed Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW) test program's manual flight control system, emphasis has been shifted to flight testing of MAW automatic control modes. These encompass (1) cruise camber control, (2) maneuver camber control, (3) maneuver load control, and (4) maneuver enhancement and load alleviation control. The aircraft is currently cleared to a 2.5-g maneuvering limit due to generally higher variable-incidence wing pivot loads than had been anticipated, especially at the higher wing-camber settings. Buffet is noted to be somewhat higher than expected at the higher camber settings.

  8. Wing design for spin resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. P., III; Dicarlo, D. J.; Glover, K. E.; Stewart, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Use of a discontinuous outboard wing leading edge to improve stall/spin characteristics has been evaluated through wind-tunnel and flight tests. Addition of such a discontinuous outboard wing leading-edge droop design to three light airplanes having NACA 6-series airfoil sections produced significant improvements in stall characteristics and spin resistance. The increased spin resistance of the modified airplanes has been related to the difference in angle of attack between the outer wing panel stall and the maximum attainable angle of attack.

  9. Bird predation selects for wing shape and coloration in a damselfly.

    PubMed

    Outomuro, D; Johansson, F

    2015-04-01

    Wing shape is related to flight performance, which is expected to be under selection for improving flight behaviours such as predator avoidance. Moreover, wing conspicuousness, usually involved in sexual selection processes, is also relevant in terms of predation risk. In this study, we examined how predation by a passerine bird, the white wagtail Motacilla alba, selects wing shape and wing colour patch size in males of the banded demoiselle Calopteryx splendens. The wing colour patch is intra- and intersexually selected in the study species. In a field study, we compared wings of live damselflies to wings of predated damselflies which are always discarded after predation. Based on aerodynamic theory and a previous study on wing shape of territorial tactics in damselflies, we predicted an overall short and broad wing, with a concave front margin shape to be selected by predation. This shape would be expected to improve escaping ability. Moreover, we predicted that wing patch size should be negatively selected by predation. We found that selection operated differently on fore- and hindwings. In contrast to our predictions, predation favoured a slender general forewing shape. However, the predicted wing shape was favoured in hindwings. We also found selection favouring a narrower wing colour patch. Our results suggest different roles of fore- and hindwings in flight, as previously suggested for Calopteryx damselflies and shown for butterflies and moths. Forewings would be more involved in sustained flight and hindwings in flight manoeuvrability. Our results differ somehow from a recently published work in the same study system, but using another population, suggesting that selection can fluctuate across space, despite the simplicity of this predator-prey system.

  10. Origin Story: Blended Wing Body

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is partnering with the Boeing Company, among others, to develop and test the blended wing body aircraft. The BWB has the potential to significantly reduce fuel use and noise. In this video, Bo...

  11. Embedded Wing Propulsion Conceptual Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Saunders, John D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of distributed propulsion work under NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts or RAC project, a new propulsion-airframe integrated vehicle concept called Embedded Wing Propulsion (EWP) is developed and examined through system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The idea behind the concept is to fully integrate a propulsion system within a wing structure so that the aircraft takes full benefits of coupling of wing aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of the EWP concept applied to large transport aircraft such as the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft. In this paper, some of early analysis and current status of the study are presented. In addition, other current activities of distributed propulsion under the RAC project are briefly discussed.

  12. Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

  13. Surface grid generation for wing-fuselage bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Pitts, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    In the application of finite-difference methods to obtain numerical solutions of viscous compressible fluid flow about wing-fuselage bodies, it is advantageous to transform the governing equations to an idealized boundary-fitted coordinate system. The advantages are reduced computational complexity and added accuracy in the application of boundary conditions. The solution process requires that a grid be superimposed on the physical solution domain which corresponds to a uniform grid on a rectangular computational domain (uniform rectangular parallel-epiped). Grid generation is the determination of a one to one relationship between grid points in the physical domain and grid points in the computational domain. A technique for computing wing-fuselage surface grids using the Harris geometry and software for smooth-surface representation is described. Grid spacing control concepts which govern the relationship between the wing-fuselage surface and the computational grid are also presented.

  14. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  15. Environment identification in flight using sparse approximation of wing strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Krithika; Brunton, Steven L.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying different flow environments from sparse data collected by wing strain sensors. Insects regularly perform this feat using a sparse ensemble of noisy strain sensors on their wing. First, we obtain strain data from numerical simulation of a Manduca sexta hawkmoth wing undergoing different flow environments. Our data-driven method learns low-dimensional strain features originating from different aerodynamic environments using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes in the frequency domain, and leverages sparse approximation to classify a set of strain frequency signatures using a dictionary of POD modes. This bio-inspired machine learning architecture for dictionary learning and sparse classification permits fewer costly physical strain sensors while being simultaneously robust to sensor noise. A measurement selection algorithm identifies frequencies that best discriminate the different aerodynamic environments in low-rank POD feature space. In this manner, sparse and noisy wing strain data can be exploited to robustly identify different aerodynamic environments encountered in flight, providing insight into the stereotyped placement of neurons that act as strain sensors on a Manduca sexta hawkmoth wing.

  16. Effects of leading-edge tubercles on wing flutter speeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, B F; New, T H; Palacios, R

    2016-04-12

    The dynamic aeroelastic effects on wings modified with bio-inspired leading-edge (LE) tubercles are examined in this study. We adopt a state-space aeroelastic model via the coupling of unsteady vortex-lattice method and a composite beam to evaluate stability margins as a result of LE tubercles on a generic wing. The unsteady aerodynamics and spanwise mass variations due to LE tubercles have counteracting effects on stability margins with the former having dominant influence. When coupled, flutter speed is observed to be 5% higher, and this is accompanied by close to 6% decrease in reduced frequencies as an indication of lower structural stiffness requirements for wings with LE tubercles. Both tubercle amplitude and wavelength have similar influences over the change in flutter speeds, and such modifications to the LE would have minimal effect on stability margins when concentrated inboard of the wing. Lastly, when used in sweptback wings, LE tubercles are observed to have smaller impacts on stability margins as the sweep angle is increased.

  17. Numerical modeling of flexible insect wings using volume penalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Joern

    2012-11-01

    We consider the effects of chordwise flexibility on the aerodynamic performance of insect flapping wings. We developed a numerical method for modeling viscous fluid flows past moving deformable foils. It extends on the previously reported model for flows past moving rigid wings (J Comput Phys 228, 2009). The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with the no-slip boundary conditions imposed by the volume penalization method. The deformable wing section is modeled using a non-linear beam equation. We performed numerical simulations of heaving flexible plates. The results showed that the optimal stroke frequency, which maximizes the mean thrust, is lower than the resonant frequency, in agreement with the experiments by Ramananarivo et al. (PNAS 108(15), 2011). The oscillatory part of the force only increases in amplitude when the frequency increases, and at the optimal frequency it is about 3 times larger than the mean force. We also study aerodynamic interactions between two heaving flexible foils. This flow configuration corresponds to the wings of dragonflies. We explore the effects of the phase difference and spacing between the fore- and hind-wing.

  18. Optimum Wing Shape Determination of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  19. Results of recent experiments with slotted wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachmann, G

    1925-01-01

    This report gives the results of a recent series of experiments performed on a wing designed for a cantilever monoplane. Both wings were trapezial in their ground plan, with their tips rounded elliptically. These wing sections combine all known devices for increasing the lift, namely, the slot, the increased camber and angle of attack by means of an aileron running the whole length of the span. The last advance included in the wing section was an increase in wing area by means of an auxiliary wing adjusted by a sort of rectangular joint.

  20. Stretching Webb's Wings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Behind the Webb shows how the James Webb Space Telescope's protective sunshield will be folded up inside the rocket that carries it into orbit. Engineers explain to "Behind the Webb" how the sunshi...

  1. Cruise Speed Sensitivity Study for Transonic Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's investment and research in aviation has led to new technologies and concepts that make aircraft more efficient and environmentally friendly. One aircraft design operational concept is the reduction of cruise speed to reduce fuel burned during a mission. Although this is not a new idea, it was used by all of the contractors involved in a 2008 NASA sponsored study that solicited concept and technology ideas to reduce environmental impacts for future subsonic passenger transports. NASA is currently improving and building new analysis capabilities to analyze advanced concepts. To test some of these new capabilities, a transonic truss braced wing configuration was used as a test case. This paper examines the effects due to changes in the design cruise speed and other tradeoffs in the design space. The analysis was baselined to the Boeing SUGAR High truss braced wing concept. An optimization was run at five different design cruise Mach numbers. These designs are compared to provide an initial assessment space and the parameters that should be considered when selecting a design cruise speed. A discussion of the design drivers is also included. The results show that the wing weight in the current analysis has more influence on the takeoff gross weight than expected. This effect caused lower than expected wing sweep angle values for higher cruise speed designs.

  2. Nuclear Science Symposium, 30th, and Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems, 15th, San Francisco, CA, October 19-21, 1983, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The range of disciplines covered includes physics instrumentation, data acquisition, FASTBUS, radiation detectors, scintillators, photomultipliers and optical detectors, subnanosecond 2-D imaging, medical and health instrumentation, reactor instrumentation, and space instrumentation. Cerenkov detectors, the prevention and rate capability of breakdown processes in wire chambers, and an interactive parallel processor for data analysis are studied. Attention is also given to bismuth germanate's role in gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the construction of a broadband universal sampling head is described. Gamma-ray imaging with a rotating hexagonal uniform redundant array, and broadband X-ray astronomical spectrometry are considered.

  3. Experimental Optimization of a Free-to-Rotate Wing for Small UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; DeLoach, Richard; Copeland, Tiwana; Vo, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses an experimental investigation conducted to optimize a free-to-rotate wing for use on a small unmanned aircraft system (UAS). Although free-to-rotate wings have been used for decades on various small UAS and small manned aircraft, little is known about how to optimize these unusual wings for a specific application. The paper discusses some of the design rationale of the basic wing. In addition, three main parameters were selected for "optimization", wing camber, wing pivot location, and wing center of gravity (c.g.) location. A small apparatus was constructed to enable some simple experimental analysis of these parameters. A design-of-experiment series of tests were first conducted to discern which of the main optimization parameters were most likely to have the greatest impact on the outputs of interest, namely, some measure of "stability", some measure of the lift being generated at the neutral position, and how quickly the wing "recovers" from an upset. A second set of tests were conducted to develop a response-surface numerical representation of these outputs as functions of the three primary inputs. The response surface numerical representations are then used to develop an "optimum" within the trade space investigated. The results of the optimization are then tested experimentally to validate the predictions.

  4. Effects of air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distribution, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soard, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data presented were obtained during wind tunnel tests of a 0.0405-scale model of the -89B ferry configuration of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter. These tests were conducted in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (NAAL). The primary test objective was to investigate orbiter wing pressure distributions resulting from nacelle plumes above and below the wing. Three six-engine nacelle configurations were tested. One configuration has a twin-podded nacelle mounted above each wing and the others had one mounted below each wing. Both had a centerline twin-podded nacelle mounted below the wing. Wing pressure distribution was determined by locating static pressure bugs on the upper and lower surfaces of the left wing. Pressure bugs were also located on the upper and lower surfaces of the body flap and on the B12 afterbody fairing when it was installed. Base and balance cavity pressures were recorded and a strain gage instrumented beam in the right wing measured elevon hinge moments and normal forces.

  5. Aeroelastic deployable wing simulation considering rotation hinge joint based on flexible multibody dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Keisuke; Makihara, Kanjuro

    2016-05-01

    Morphing wings have been developed by several organizations for a variety of applications including the changing of flight ability while in the air and reducing the amount of space required to store an aircraft. One such example of morphing wings is the deployable wing that is expected to be used for Mars exploration. When designing wings, aeroelastic simulation is important to prevent the occurrence of destructive phenomena while the wing is in use. Flutter and divergence are typical issues to be addressed. However, it has been difficult to simulate the aeroelastic motion of deployable wings because of the significant differences between these deployable wings and conventional designs. The most apparent difference is the kinematic constraints of deployment, typically a hinge joint. These constraints lead not only to deformation but also to rigid body rotation. This research provides a novel method of overcoming the difficulties associated with handling these kinematic constraints. The proposed method utilizes flexible multibody dynamics and absolute nodal coordinate formulation to describe the dynamic motion of a deployable wing. This paper presents the simulation of the rigid body rotation around the kinematic constraints as induced by the aeroelasticity. The practicality of the proposed method is confirmed.

  6. Elements of butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Nijhout, H F

    2001-10-15

    The color patterns on the wings of butterflies are unique among animal color patterns in that the elements that make up the overall pattern are individuated. Unlike the spots and stripes of vertebrate color patterns, the elements of butterfly wing patterns have identities that can be traced from species to species, and typically across genera and families. Because of this identity it is possible to recognize homologies among pattern elements and to study their evolution and diversification. Individuated pattern elements evolved from non-individuated precursors by compartmentalization of the wing into areas that became developmentally autonomous with respect to color pattern formation. Developmental compartmentalization led to the evolution of serially repeated elements and the emergence of serial homology. In these compartments, serial homologues were able to acquire site-specific developmental regulation and this, in turn, allowed them to diverge morphologically. Compartmentalization of the wing also reduced the developmental correlation among pattern elements. The release from this developmental constraint, we believe, enabled the great evolutionary radiation of butterfly wing patterns. During pattern evolution, the same set of individual pattern elements is arranged in novel ways to produce species-specific patterns, including such adaptations as mimicry and camouflage.

  7. Aircraft wing structural detail design (wing, aileron, flaps, and subsystems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Robert; Zable, Mike; Hughes, James; Heiser, Terry; Adrian, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, in detail, the wing, flaps, and ailerons for a primary flight trainer. Integrated in this design are provisions for the fuel system, the electrical system, and the fuselage/cabin carry-through interface structure. This conceptual design displays the general arrangement of all major components in the wing structure, taking into consideration the requirements set forth by the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR23) as well as those established in the statement of work.

  8. Expression of Genes Involved in Drosophila Wing Morphogenesis and Vein Patterning Are Altered by Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Imaginal wing discs of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) defined during embryogenesis ultimately result in mature wings of stereotyped (specific) venation patterning. Major regulators of wing disc development are the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF), Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless (Wg), and Dpp signaling pathways. Highly stereotyped vascular patterning is also characteristic of tissues in other organisms flown in space such as the mouse retina and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and other adaptations of vascular patterning to space environmental factors have not yet been systematically quantified, despite widespread recognition of their critical importance for terrestrial and microgravity applications. Here we report changes in gene expression with space flight related to Drosophila wing morphogenesis and vein patterning. In addition, genetically modified phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the Drosophila wing1 were analyzed by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2. Our goal is to further develop insightful vascular mappings associated with bioinformatic dimensions of genetic or other molecular phenotypes for correlation with genetic and other molecular profiling relevant to NASA's GeneLab and other Space Biology exploration initiatives.

  9. Supersonic Wing Optimization Using SpaRibs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locatelli, David; Mulani, Sameer B.; Liu, Qiang; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the advantages of using curvilinear spars and ribs, termed SpaRibs, to design a supersonic aircraft wing-box in comparison to the use of classic design concepts that employ straight spars and ribs. The objective is to achieve a more efficient load-bearing mechanism and to passively control the deformation of the structure under the flight loads. Moreover, the use of SpaRibs broadens the design space and allows for natural frequencies and natural mode shape tailoring. The SpaRibs concept is implemented in a new optimization MATLAB-based framework referred to as EBF3SSWingOpt. This optimization scheme performs both the sizing and the shaping of the internal structural elements, connecting the optimizer with the analysis software. The shape of the SpaRibs is parametrically defined using the so called Linked Shape method. Each set of SpaRibs is placed in a one by one square domain of the natural space. The set of curves is subsequently transformed in the physical space for creating the wing structure geometry layout. The shape of each curve of each set is unique; however, mathematical relations link the curvature in an effort to reduce the number of design variables. The internal structure of a High Speed Commercial Transport aircraft concept developed by Boeing is optimized subjected to stress, subsonic flutter and supersonic flutter constraints. The results show that the use of the SpaRibs allows for the reduction of the aircraft's primary structure weight without violating the constraints. A weight reduction of about 15 percent is observed.

  10. Cabin-fuselage-wing structural design concept with engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariotti, Scott; Garner, M.; Cepeda, A.; Vieira, J.; Bolton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a fuselage structural assembly and wing structural design that will be able to withstand the given operational parameters and loads provided by Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR 23) and the Statement of Work (SOW). The goal is to provide a durable lightweight structure that will transfer the applied loads through the most efficient load path. Areas of producibility and maintainability of the structure will also be addressed. All of the structural members will also meet or exceed the desired loading criteria, along with providing adequate stiffness, reliability, and fatigue life as stated in the SOW. Considerations need to be made for control system routing and cabin heating/ventilation. The goal of the wing structure and carry through structure is also to provide a simple, lightweight structure that will transfer the aerodynamic forces produced by the wing, tailboom, and landing gear. These forces will be channeled through various internal structures sized for the pre-determined loading criteria. Other considerations were to include space for flaps, ailerons, fuel tanks, and electrical and control system routing. The difficulties encountered in the fuselage design include expanding the fuselage cabin to accept a third occupant in a staggered configuration and providing ample volume for their safety. By adding a third person the CG of aircraft will move forward so the engine needs to be moved aft to compensate for the difference in the moment. This required the provisions of a ring frame structure for the new position of the engine mount. The difficulties encountered in the wing structural design include resizing the wing for the increased capacity and weight, and compensating for a large torsion produced by the tail boom by placing a great number of stiffeners inside the boom, which will result in the relocation of the fuel tank. Finally, an adequate carry through structure for the wing and fuselage interface will be

  11. Schooling of flapping wings: Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Becker, Alexander; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We examine the locomotion of an infinite array of wings that heave vertically with a prescribed sinusoidal motion and are free to translate in the horizontal direction. To do this, we simulate the motion of a freely translating flapping airfoil in a domain with periodic horizontal boundary conditions. These simulations indicate that the wings can ``take advantage'' of their collectively generated wake flows. In agreement with our experiments in a rotational geometry, we find ranges of flapping frequency over which there are multiple stable states of locomotion, with one of these swimming states having both higher speeds and efficiencies than an isolated flapping and locomoting wing. A simple mathematical model, which emphasizes the importance of history dependence in vortical flows, explains this multi-stability. These results may be important to understanding the role of hydrodynamic interactions in fish schooling and bird flocking.

  12. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  13. The Nichols Wing Cutting Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, James B

    1923-01-01

    Described here is wing cutting equipment for the economical production of metal wings for wind tunnel models. The machine will make any size of constant-section wing or strut up to one-sixth inch chord by 36-inch span and up to a thickness of one and one-quarter inches. It cuts a smooth, true model that is accurate to within two-thousandths of an inch on any ordinate. The holding jaws are so designed as to leave the model free of chip marks, and the only hand finishing necessary after the cutting is a rub with amunite to remove burrs. The actual change on ordinate in this finishing rub is less than .0002 inches.

  14. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  15. The function of resilin in beetle wings.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, F; Gorb, S; Blickhan, R

    2000-01-01

    This account shows the distribution of elastic elements in hind wings in the scarabaeid Pachnoda marginata and coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata (both Coleoptera). Occurrence of resilin, a rubber-like protein, in some mobile joints together with data on wing unfolding and flight kinematics suggest that resilin in the beetle wing has multiple functions. First, the distribution pattern of resilin in the wing correlates with the particular folding pattern of the wing. Second, our data show that resilin occurs at the places where extra elasticity is needed, for example in wing folds, to prevent material damage during repeated folding and unfolding. Third, resilin provides the wing with elasticity in order to be deformable by aerodynamic forces. This may result in elastic energy storage in the wing. PMID:10983820

  16. Evolution: taking wing with weak feathers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing

    2012-12-04

    Scientists long thought they knew what the wings of early birds looked like. But new reconstructions of Archaeopteryx and its kin suggest quite different feather arrangements on their wings with profound implications for the evolution of flight.

  17. Insect Evolution: The Origin of Wings.

    PubMed

    Ross, Andrew

    2017-02-06

    The debate on the evolution of wings in insects has reached a new level. The study of primitive fossil insect nymphs has revealed that wings developed from a combination of the dorsal part of the thorax and the body wall.

  18. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  19. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  20. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  1. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  2. 14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and their supporting structures must be designed for critical...

  3. Output model-following control synthesis for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in oblique-wing aircraft has focused on the potential aerodynamic performance advantage of a variable-skew oblique wing over a conventional or symmetric sweep wing. Unfortunately, the resulting asymmetric configuration has significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. Presented here is a decoupling control law synthesis technique that integrates stability augmentation, decoupling, and the direct incorporation of desired handling qualities into an output feedback controller. The proposed design technique uses linear quadratic regulator concepts in the framework of explicit model following. The output feedback strategy used is a suboptimal projection from the state space to the output space. Dynamics are then introduced into the controller to improve steady-state performance and increase system robustness. Closed-loop performance is shown by application of the control laws to the linearized equations of motion and nonlinear simulation of an oblique-wing aircraft.

  4. Flexible-Wing-Based Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter G.; Jenkins, David A.; Ettinger, Scott; Lian, Yong-Sheng; Shyy, Wei; Waszak, Martin R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the development and evaluation of an original flexible-wing-based Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technology that reduces adverse effects of gusty wind conditions and unsteady aerodynamics, exhibits desirable flight stability, and enhances structural durability. The flexible wing concept has been demonstrated on aircraft with wingspans ranging from 18 inches to 5 inches. Salient features of the flexible-wing-based MAV, including the vehicle concept, flexible wing design, novel fabrication methods, aerodynamic assessment, and flight data analysis are presented.

  5. Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Wing Manufacture and Force Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    Thankfully, nature has already optimized micro air vehicles with the evolution of birds and insects, which become the instinctual inspirational candidates...properties to those wings found in nature. More specifically, with size comparable to a hummingbird , elastic modulus comparable to a cicada, and

  6. On the autorotation of animal wings.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Martín-Alcántara, Antonio; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon; Dudley, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Botanical samaras spin about their centre of mass and create vertical aerodynamic forces which slow their rate of descent. Descending autorotation of animal wings, however, has never been documented. We report here that isolated wings from Anna's hummingbirds, and also from 10 species of insects, can stably autorotate and achieve descent speeds and aerodynamic performance comparable to those of samaras. A hummingbird wing loaded at its base with the equivalent of 50% of the bird's body mass descended only twice as fast as an unloaded wing, and rotated at frequencies similar to those of the wings in flapping flight. We found that even entire dead insects could stably autorotate depending on their wing postures. Feather removal trials showed no effect on descent velocity when the secondary feathers were removed from hummingbird wings. By contrast, partial removal of wing primaries substantially improved performance, except when only the outer primary was present. A scaling law for the aerodynamic performance of autorotating wings is well supported if the wing aspect ratio and the relative position of the spinning axis from the wing base are included. Autorotation is a useful and practical method that can be used to explore the aerodynamics of wing design.

  7. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  8. Bat flight with bad wings: is flight metabolism affected by damaged wings?

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C

    2013-04-15

    Infection of North American bats with the keratin-digesting fungus Geomyces destructans often results in holes and ruptures of wing membranes, yet it is unknown whether flight performance and metabolism of bats are altered by such injuries. I conducted flight experiments in a circular flight arena with Myotis albescens and M. nigricans individuals with an intact or ruptured trailing edge of one of the plagiopatagial membranes. In both species, individuals with damaged wings were lighter, had a higher aspect ratio (squared wing span divided by wing area) and an increased wing loading (weight divided by wing area) than conspecifics with intact wings. Bats with an asymmetric reduction of the wing area flew at similar speeds to conspecifics with intact wings but performed fewer flight manoeuvres. Individuals with damaged wings showed lower metabolic rates during flight than conspecifics with intact wings, even when controlling for body mass differences; the difference in mass-specific metabolic rate may be attributable to the lower number of flight manoeuvres (U-turns) by bats with damaged wings compared with conspecifics with intact wings. Possibly, bats compensated for an asymmetric reduction in wing area by lowering their body mass and avoiding flight manoeuvres. In conclusion, it may be that bats suffer from moderate wing damage not directly, by experiencing increased metabolic rate, but indirectly, by a reduced manoeuvrability and foraging success. This could impede a bat's ability to gain sufficient body mass before hibernation.

  9. Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2005-06-21

    The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings.

  10. Wings: Women Entrepreneurs Take Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1997-01-01

    Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…

  11. FLEXIBLE WING INDIVIDUAL DROP GLIDER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The feasibility of the paraglider concept as a means of descent for individual airborne troops is presented. Full-scale 22-foot inflatable wings and...in an effort to achieve system reliability. The feasibility of using the paraglider as a means of controlled delivery of airborne paratroopers was successfully demonstrated.

  12. Wing Leading Edge Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Sandeep; Jerman, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    This is a slide presentation showing the Left Wing Leading Edge (WLE) heat damage observations: Heavy "slag" deposits on select RCC panels. Eroded and knife-edged RCC rib sections. Excessive overheating and slumping of carrier panel tiles. Missing or molten attachment bolts but intact bushing. Deposit mainly on "inside" RCC panel. Deposit on some fractured RCC surface

  13. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  14. The Wings for Angels Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Liberty; McMillan, Ellen; Ayers, Ann

    2012-01-01

    How can the spirits of critically ill children be raised? Alexis Weisel (co-president of the Monarch High School National Art Honor Society, 2010-2011) had this question in mind when she initiated and developed the Wings for Angels Project after hearing about the Believe in Tomorrow (BIT) organization through her art teacher, Ellen McMillan. The…

  15. Active Flexible Wing (AFW) Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    copy of zeach of the fbllowing records: AD B253477, XV-8A Flexible Win& Aerial Utility Vehicle, by H-. Kredit . January 1964, 144 pages AD 13252433...Counterinsurgency Operations by R.A. Wise, Feb 0965, 74 pages - AD 461202. XV-8A Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle, H. Kredit , Feb. 1965. 100 pages _-AD

  16. [Winged scapula in lyme borreliosis].

    PubMed

    Rausch, V; Königshausen, M; Gessmann, J; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the case of a young patient with one-sided winged scapula and lyme borreliosis. This disease can be very delimitating in daily life. If non-operative treatment fails, dynamic or static stabilization of the scapula can be a therapeutic option.

  17. F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

  18. Generic Wing, Pylon, and Moving Finned Store

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    66.4 cm 2.9 Area of planform 1425.8 cm’ 2.10 Location of reference of profiles and NACA 64A010 airfoil section over entire span definition of profiles...2.11 Lofting procedure between reference Straight line sections 2.12 Form of wing-body, or wing-root NACA 64A010 airfoil section; note references...below junction 2.13 Form of wing tip NACA 64A010 airfoil section 2.14 Wing centerbody Ogive-cylinder: Tangent at wailing edge of wing. Nose 16.51 cm from

  19. Flexible flapping wings can exhibit quasi-periodic motion!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Chandan; Sarkar, Sunetra

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of a flexible flapping wing is investigated by modelling it as a coupled nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) system in the low Reynolds number flow regime in accordance to the flight of flapping wing micro air vehicles (MAVs). A bifurcation analysis, by varying the free-stream wind velocity (U ∞) as the control parameter, revealed the presence of a new dynamics in the form of a quasi-periodic attractor in the flapping wing motion. The structural and aerodynamic nonlinearities present in the system cause a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, where stable limit cycle oscillation emerges from fixed point response beyond a critical value of the free-stream velocity. Further increasing the control parameter, another bifurcation named Neimark-Sacker bifurcation takes place and as a result, the flapping wing exhibits quasi-periodic motion. The presence of Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the flapping flow-field dynamics is an interesting find and the present work focuses on it's associated dynamical behaviour. Various dynamical system tools like frequency spectra, phase space, Poincaré section, first return map have been implemented successfully to confirm the presence of quasi-periodicity.

  20. Rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felker, F. F.; Light, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of rotor/wing aerodynamic interactions in hover is described. The experimental investigation consisted of both a large-scale and small-scale test. A 0.658-scale, V-22 rotor and wing was used in the large-scale test. Wind download, wing surface pressure, rotor performance, and rotor downwash data from the large-scale test are presented. A small-scale experiment was conducted to determine how changes in the rotor/wing geometry affected the aerodynamic interactions. These geometry variations included the distance between the rotor and wing, wing incidence angle, and configurations both with the rotor axis at the tip of the wing (tilt rotor configuration) and with the rotor axis at the center of the wing (compound helicopter configuration). A wing with boundary-layer control was also tested to evaluate the effect of leading and trailing edge upper surface blowing on the wing download. A computationally efficient, semi-empirical theory was developed to predict the download on the wing. Finally, correlations between the theoretical predictions and test data are presented.

  1. AST Composite Wing Program: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Boeing Company demonstrated the application of stitched/resin infused (S/RFI) composite materials on commercial transport aircraft primary wing structures under the Advanced Subsonic technology (AST) Composite Wing contract. This report describes a weight trade study utilizing a wing torque box design applicable to a 220-passenger commercial aircraft and was used to verify the weight savings a S/RFI structure would offer compared to an identical aluminum wing box design. This trade study was performed in the AST Composite Wing program, and the overall weight savings are reported. Previous program work involved the design of a S/RFI-base-line wing box structural test component and its associated testing hardware. This detail structural design effort which is known as the "semi-span" in this report, was completed under a previous NASA contract. The full-scale wing design was based on a configuration for a MD-90-40X airplane, and the objective of this structural test component was to demonstrate the maturity of the S/RFI technology through the evaluation of a full-scale wing box/fuselage section structural test. However, scope reductions of the AST Composite Wing Program pre-vented the fabrication and evaluation of this wing box structure. Results obtained from the weight trade study, the full-scale test component design effort, fabrication, design development testing, and full-scale testing of the semi-span wing box are reported.

  2. Topology of Vortex-Wing Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex from the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to depend on the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine streamline topology in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying both the spanwise and vertical locations of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the number and locations of critical points of the flow topology, and involve bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the tip vortex from the follower wing. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex. AFOSR.

  3. Experimental optimization of wing shape for a hummingbird-like flapping wing micro air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yanghai; Karásek, Matěj; Lalami, Mohamed Esseghir; Preumont, André

    2017-03-06

    Flapping wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) take inspiration from natural fliers, such as insects and hummingbirds. Existing designs manage to mimic the wing motion of natural fliers to a certain extent; nevertheless, differences will always exist due to completely different building blocks of biological and man-made systems. The same holds true for the design of the wings themselves, as biological and engineering materials differ significantly. This paper presents results of experimental optimization of wing shape of a flexible wing for a hummingbird-sized flapping wing MAV. During the experiments we varied the wing 'slackness' (defined by a camber angle), the wing shape (determined by the aspect and taper ratios) and the surface area. Apart from the generated lift, we also evaluated the overall power efficiency of the flapping wing MAV achieved with the various wing design. The results indicate that especially the camber angle and aspect ratio have a critical impact on the force production and efficiency. The best performance was obtained with a wing of trapezoidal shape with a straight leading edge and an aspect ratio of 9.3, both parameters being very similar to a typical hummingbird wing. Finally, the wing performance was demonstrated by a lift-off of a 17.2 g flapping wing robot.

  4. Design and Development of a Flapping Wing System for Unsteady Forces and Power Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudbhari, Durlav

    Flyers and swimmers flap their wings and fins to propel themselves efficiently over long distances, maneuver in tight spaces and navigate silently to avoid detection by prey. A key element to achieve these amazing feats is the flexibility of their propulsors. While numerous studies have shown that homogeneously flexible wings can enhance force production and efficiency, animals actually have wings with varying flexural rigidity along their chord and span. The goal of this study is to design and develop an experimental setup that would help understand and characterize the force production and energetics of functionally-graded, chordwise flexible wings. A flapping wing composed of a rigid and a flexible region, that define a chordwise gradient in flexural rigidity, is used to model functionally-graded materials. By varying the ratio of the lengths of the rigid to flexible regions, the flexural rigidity of the flexible region, and the flapping frequency, the thrust production of a functionally-graded wing is directly measured. An unsteady force and torque measurement system is developed to measure the lift/drag forces and power consumption during flapping wing flight in wind tunnel. A novel vacuum chamber apparatus is developed to be used in conjunction with the wind tunnel measurements to reliably measure the aerodynamic power input and the propulsive efficiency.

  5. Wing Scale Orientation Alters Reflection Directions in the Green Hairstreak Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus (Lycaenidae; Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Imafuku, Michio; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2016-12-01

    There have been only a few reports on the directional reflection of light by butterfly wings. Here, we systematically investigated this phenomenon in a lycaenid butterfly, Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus,in which males have bright green wings based on structural coloration. We used a device that measures intensities of light in hemispherical space by vertical shifting of a sensor and horizontal rotation of the stage carrying the wing, which is illuminated from the top, to determine the direction of light reflected by the fore- and hindwings. The orientation and curvature of wing scales were also examined microscopically. The forewing of this species reflected light shone from the top largely forward, whereas the hindwing reflected it slightly forward. This difference was attributed to the tilt angles of the wing scales. Light reflection by the forewing was relatively weak, and widely scattered, whereas that by the hindwing was rather concentrated, resulting in higher reflectance. This difference was attributed to difference in the curvature of the wing scales on the two wings.

  6. Spinning Characteristics of Wings I : Rectangular Clark Y Monoplane Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamber, M J; Zimmerman, C H

    1936-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests of a rectangular Clark Y wing was made with the NACA spinning balance as part of a general program of research on airplane spinning. All six components of the aerodynamic force and moment were measured throughout the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, and values omega b/2v likely to be attained by a spinning airplane; the results were reduced to coefficient form. It is concluded that a conventional monoplane with a rectangular Clark y wing can be made to attain spinning equilibrium throughout a wide range of angles of attack but that provision of a yawing moment coefficient of -0.02 (against the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interferences will insure against attainment of equilibrium in a steady spin.

  7. Aircraft Dynamic Modes of a Winged Reusable Rocket Plane (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    response times for the dynamic modes of a winged reusable rocket plane. The vehicle used in this effort was XCOR Aerospace’s Lynx , which is being...dynamic aerodynamics of the Lynx . These inputs were then feed into the “A” matrix of the state space version of the equations of motion. 15. SUBJECT...was XCOR Aerospace’s Lynx which is being developed for the sub-orbital space tourism and microgravity payload market. The effort utilized CART3D and

  8. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-06

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  9. Aerodynamic-structural study of canard wing, dual wing, and conventional wing systems for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selberg, B. P.; Cronin, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical aerodynamic-structural airplane configuration study was conducted to assess performance gains achievable through advanced design concepts. The mission specification was for 350 mph, range of 1500 st. mi., at altitudes between 30,000 and 40,000 ft. Two payload classes were studied - 1200 lb (6 passengers) and 2400 lb (12 passengers). The configurations analyzed included canard wings, closely coupled dual wings, swept forward - swept rearward wings, joined wings, and conventional wing tail arrangements. The results illustrate substantial performance gains possible with the dual wing configuration. These gains result from weight savings due to predicted structural efficiencies. The need for further studies of structural efficiencies for the various advanced configurations was highlighted.

  10. Swept wing ice accretion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, M. G.; Bidwell, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    An effort to develop a three-dimensional ice accretion modeling method is initiated. This first step toward creation of a complete aircraft icing simulation code builds on previously developed methods for calculating three-dimensional flowfields and particle trajectories combined with a two-dimensional ice accretion calculation along coordinate locations corresponding to streamlines. This work is intended as a demonstration of the types of calculations necessary to predict a three-dimensional ice accretion. Results of calculations using the 3D method for a MS-317 swept wing geometry are projected onto a 2D plane normal to the wing leading edge and compared to 2D results for the same geometry. These results indicate that the flowfield over the surface and the particle trajectories differed for the two calculations. This led to lower collection efficiencies, convective heat transfer coefficients, freezing fractions, and ultimately ice accumulation for the 3D calculation.

  11. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2009-05-01

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  12. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  13. Flexible Wing Model for Structural Sizing and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Strut-Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.; Naghshineh, Amir H.; Sulaeman, Erwin; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a structural and aeroelastic model for wing sizing and weight calculation of a strut-braced wing. The wing weight is calculated using a newly developed structural weight analysis module considering the special nature of strut-braced wings. A specially developed aeroelastic model enables one to consider wing flexibility and spanload redistribution during in-flight maneuvers. The structural model uses a hexagonal wing-box featuring skin panels, stringers, and spar caps, whereas the aerodynamics part employs a linearized transonic vortex lattice method. Thus, the wing weight may be calculated from the rigid or flexible wing spanload. The calculations reveal the significant influence of the strut on the bending material weight of the wing. The use of a strut enables one to design a wing with thin airfoils without weight penalty. The strut also influences wing spanload and deformations. Weight savings are not only possible by calculation and iterative resizing of the wing structure according to the actual design loads. Moreover, as an advantage over the cantilever wing, employment of the strut twist moment for further load alleviation leads to increased savings in structural weight.

  14. Minutes of the 30th Delegate Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Bert

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the topics covered in the resolutions passed by the House of Delegates including academic freedom, racial and ethnic content of instructional materials, research in social studies, early childhood/elementary social studies, instruction regarding religious freedom, apartheid, and astronaut Christa McAuliffe. (JDH)

  15. Effect of wing flexibility on the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of an oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.; Yee, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    A solid-aluminum oblique wing was designed to deflect considerably under load so as to relieve the asymmetric spanwise stalling that is characteristic of this type of wing by creating washout on the trailing wing panel and washin on the leading wing panel. Experimental forces, and pitching, rolling and yawing moments were measured with the wing mounted on a body of revolution. In order to vary the dynamic pressure, measurements were made at several unit Reynolds numbers, and at Mach numbers. The wing was investigated when unswept (at subsonic Mach numbers only) and when swept 45 deg, 50 deg, and 60 deg. The wing was straight tapered in planform, had an aspect ratio of 7.9 (based on the unswept span), and a profile with a maximum thickness of 4 percent chord. The results substantiate the concept that an oblique wing designed with the proper amount of flexibility self relieves itself of asymmetric spanwise stalling and the associated nonlinear moment curves.

  16. A Discrete-Vortex Method for Studying the Wing Rock of Delta Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gainer, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    A discrete-vortex method is developed to investigate the wing rock problem associated with highly swept wings. The method uses two logarithmic vortices placed above the wing to represent the vortex flow field and uses boundary conditions based on conical flow, vortex rate of change of momentum, and other considerations to position the vortices and determine their strengths. A relationship based on the time analogy and conical-flow assumptions is used to determine the hysteretic positions of the vortices during roll oscillations. Static and dynamic vortex positions and wing rock amplitudes and frequencies calculated by using the method are generally in good agreement with available experimental data. The results verify that wing rock is caused by hysteretic deflections of the vortices and indicate that the stabilizing moments that limit wing rock amplitudes are the result of the one primary vortex moving outboard of the wing where it has little influence on the wing.

  17. Elements of the Wing Section Theory and of the Wing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of the theory of wings and of wing sections which are of immediate practical value. They are proven and demonstrated by the use of the simple conceptions of kinetic energy and momentum only.

  18. Remote pivot decoupler pylon: Wing/store flutter suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, J. M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A device for suspending a store from an aerodynamic support surface, such an an aircraft wing, and more specifically, for improving upon singlet pivot decoupler pylons by reducing both frequency of active store, alignment, and alignment system space and power requirements. Two links suspend a lower pylon/rack section and releasable attached store from an upper pylon section mounted under the wing. The links allow the lower pylon section to rotate in pitch about a remote pivot point. A leaf spring connected between the lower section and electrical alignment system servomechanism provides pitch alignment of the lower section/store combination. The servomechanism utilizes an electric servomotor to drive the gear train and reversibly move the leaf spring, thereby maintaining the pitch attitude of the store within acceptable limits. The damper strokes when the lower section rotates to damp large oscillations of store.

  19. Blue-winged teals in the waters around KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The furious beating wings of a blue-winged teal launch it from the water as another swims calmly beneath it in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Inhabiting marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, the teal winters as far south as South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  20. Probabilistic Structural Health Monitoring of the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yap, Keng C.; Macias, Jesus; Kaouk, Mohamed; Gafka, Tammy L.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2011-01-01

    A structural health monitoring (SHM) system can contribute to the risk management of a structure operating under hazardous conditions. An example is the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) that monitors the debris hazards to the Space Shuttle Orbiter s Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. Since Return-to-Flight (RTF) after the Columbia accident, WLEIDS was developed and subsequently deployed on board the Orbiter to detect ascent and on-orbit debris impacts, so as to support the assessment of wing leading edge structural integrity prior to Orbiter re-entry. As SHM is inherently an inverse problem, the analyses involved, including those performed for WLEIDS, tend to be associated with significant uncertainty. The use of probabilistic approaches to handle the uncertainty has resulted in the successful implementation of many development and application milestones.

  1. Constraints on the wing morphology of pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth

    2012-03-22

    Animals that fly must be able to do so over a huge range of aerodynamic conditions, determined by weather, wind speed and the nature of their environment. No single parameter can be used to determine-let alone measure-optimum flight performance as it relates to wing shape. Reconstructing the wings of the extinct pterosaurs has therefore proved especially problematic: these Mesozoic flying reptiles had a soft-tissue membranous flight surface that is rarely preserved in the fossil record. Here, we review basic mechanical and aerodynamic constraints that influenced the wing shape of pterosaurs, and, building on this, present a series of theoretical modelling results. These results allow us to predict the most likely wing shapes that could have been employed by these ancient reptiles, and further show that a combination of anterior sweep and a reflexed proximal wing section provides an aerodynamically balanced and efficient theoretical pterosaur wing shape, with clear benefits for their flight stability.

  2. Rotor/Wing Interactions in Hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Derby, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Hover predictions of tiltrotor aircraft are hampered by the lack of accurate and computationally efficient models for rotor/wing interactional aerodynamics. This paper summarizes the development of an approximate, potential flow solution for the rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This analysis is based on actuator disk and vortex theory and the method of images. The analysis is applicable for out-of-ground-effect predictions. The analysis is particularly suited for aircraft preliminary design studies. Flow field predictions from this simple analytical model are validated against experimental data from previous studies. The paper concludes with an analytical assessment of the influence of rotor-on-rotor and wing-on-rotor interactions. This assessment examines the effect of rotor-to-wing offset distance, wing sweep, wing span, and flaperon incidence angle on tiltrotor inflow and performance.

  3. Constraints on the wing morphology of pterosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Animals that fly must be able to do so over a huge range of aerodynamic conditions, determined by weather, wind speed and the nature of their environment. No single parameter can be used to determine—let alone measure—optimum flight performance as it relates to wing shape. Reconstructing the wings of the extinct pterosaurs has therefore proved especially problematic: these Mesozoic flying reptiles had a soft-tissue membranous flight surface that is rarely preserved in the fossil record. Here, we review basic mechanical and aerodynamic constraints that influenced the wing shape of pterosaurs, and, building on this, present a series of theoretical modelling results. These results allow us to predict the most likely wing shapes that could have been employed by these ancient reptiles, and further show that a combination of anterior sweep and a reflexed proximal wing section provides an aerodynamically balanced and efficient theoretical pterosaur wing shape, with clear benefits for their flight stability. PMID:21957137

  4. Tests of Round and Flat Spoilers on a Tapered Wing in the NACA 19-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Bowen, John D

    1941-01-01

    Several arrangements of round and flat spanwise spoilers attached to the upper surface of a tapered wing were tested in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the most effective type, location, and size of spoiler necessary to reduce greatly the lift on the wings of large flying boats when moored. The effect of the various spoilers on the lift, the drag, and the pitching-moment characteristics of the tapered wing was measured over a range of angles of attack from zero to maximum lift. The most effective type of spoiler was found to be the flat type with no space between it and the wing surface. The chordwise location of such a spoiler was not critical within the range investigated, from 5 to 20 percent of the wing chord from the leading edge.

  5. Flutter analysis and testing of pairs of aerodynamically interfering delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    To examine the effect on flutter of the aerodynamic interference between pairs of closely spaced delta wings, several structurally uncoupled 1/80th-scale models were studied by experiment and analysis. Flutter test boundaries run in a 26-in transonic blowdown wind tunnel were compared with subsonic analytical results generated using the doublet lattice method. Trends for several combinations of vertical and longitudinal wing separation showed that flutter speeds can be significantly lowered in closely spaced configurations. For some configurations, a new flutter mechanism, characterized by coupling of the flexible modes from both surfaces at a distinctive flutter frequency, was predicted and observed.

  6. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings.

  7. Digest: Imperfect convergence in butterfly wing patterns.

    PubMed

    Earl, Chandra; Guralnick, Robert P; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2017-02-27

    Butterfly wing patterns are among the most diverse morphological characteristics in nature, with many of the 18,000 or so described butterfly species readily distinguished by wing pattern alone. Wing pattern serves as one of the primary means of communication among species and is thus subject to strong natural selection for mimicry and warning color (aposematism). Convergent wing patterns are particularly evident across the butterfly genus Adelpha, suggesting this genus may be a good system to study the underlying mechanisms behind mimicry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal redesign study of the harm wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, S. C., Jr.; Weynand, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the use of optimization techniques to improve the flutter margins of the HARM AGM-88A wing. The missile has four cruciform wings, located near mid-fuselage, that are actuated in pairs symmetrically and antisymmetrically to provide pitch, yaw, and roll control. The wings have a solid stainless steel forward section and a stainless steel crushed-honeycomb aft section. The wing restraint stiffness is dependent upon wing pitch amplitude and varies from a low value near neutral pitch attitude to a much higher value at off-neutral pitch attitudes, where aerodynamic loads lock out any free play in the control system. The most critical condition for flutter is the low-stiffness condition in which the wings are moved symmetrically. Although a tendency toward limit-cycle flutter is controlled in the current design by controller logic, wing redesign to improve this situation is attractive because it can be accomplished as a retrofit. In view of the exploratory nature of the study, it was decided to apply the optimization to a wing-only model, validated by comparison with results obtained by Texas Instruments (TI). Any wing designs that looked promising were to be evaluated at TI with more complicated models, including body modes. The optimization work was performed by McIntosh Structural Dynamics, Inc. (MSD) under a contract from TI.

  9. Waving Wing Aerodynamics at Low Reynolds Numbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    canonical pitch - up , pitch -down wing maneuver, in 39th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA 2009-3687, San Antonio, TX, 22-25 June 2009. [7] C. P. Ellington...unsteady lift generation on three-dimensional flapping wings in the MAV flight regime and, if a leading edge vortex develops at MAV-like Reynolds numbers... wing rotates in a propeller-like motion through a wing stroke angle up to 90 degrees. Unsteady lift and drag force data was acquired throughout the

  10. A magnetic fluid microdevice using insect wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Tsuyuki, K.; Yano, T.; Takagi, K.

    2008-05-01

    A magnetic fluid microdevice using Diptera insect wings is proposed and constructed. The magnetic fluid device is composed of insect wings, a small permanent magnet, coil, and kerosene-based magnetic fluid. First, the structural properties of insect wings are studied through measurements of certain morphological parameters. Secondly, the novel type of microwind energy converter is constructed. Thirdly, the power generation characteristics of the magnetic fluid microdevice using insect wings are examined. It is found that the output power is roughly proportional to the cube of the airflow velocity.

  11. High performance forward swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  12. The function of resilin in honeybee wings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun; Ning, Jian Guo; Ren, Hui Lan; Zhang, Peng Fei; Zhao, Hong Yan

    2015-07-01

    The present work aimed to reveal morphological characteristics of worker honeybee (Apis mellifera) wings and demonstrate the function of resilin on camber changes during flapping flight. Detailed morphological investigation of the wings showed that different surface characteristics appear on the dorsal and ventral side of the honeybee wings and the linking structure connecting the forewing and hindwing plays an indispensable role in honeybee flapping flight. Resilin stripes were found on both the dorsal and ventral side of the wings, and resilin patches mostly existed on the ventral side. On the basis of resilin distribution, five flexion lines and three cambered types around the lines of passive deformation of the coupled-wing profile were obtained, which defined the deformation mechanism of the wing along the chord, i.e. concave, flat plate and convex. From a movie obtained using high-speed photography from three orthogonal views of free flight in honeybees, periodic changes of the coupled-wing profile were acquired and further demonstrated that the deformation mechanism is a fundamental property for variable deformed shapes of the wing profile during flapping flight, and, in particular, the flat wing profile achieves a nice transition between downstrokes and upstrokes.

  13. Aeroelastic tailoring for oblique wing lateral trim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.

    1988-01-01

    Composite material aeroelastic tailoring is presently explored as a means for the correction of the roll trim imbalance of oblique-wing aircraft configurations. The concept is demonstrated through the analysis of a realistic oblique wing by a static aeroelastic computational procedure encompassing the full potential transonic aerodynamic code FLO22 and a Ritz structural plate program that models the stiffness due to symmetrical-but-unbalanced composite wing skins. Results indicate that asymetric composite tailoring reduces the aileron deflection needed for roll equilibrium, and reduces control surface hinge moment and drag. Wing skin stresses are, however, very high.

  14. Euler calculations for wings using Cartesian grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, R. L., Jr.; Hassan, H. A.; Salas, M. D.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of transonic flows past wings using Cartesian grids. The calculations are based on a finite volume formulation of the Euler equations. Results are presented for a rectangular wing with a flat tip and the ONERA M6 wing. In general, the results are in good agreement with other computations and available experiment. However, Cartesian grids require a greater number of points than body fitted grids in order to resolve the flow properties near the leading edge of a swept wing.

  15. Prebiotic chemistry in space; Proceedings of Symposia B1.4 and F3.3 of the COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 30th, Hamburg, Germany, July 11-21, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A two-part symposium was held concerning topics in Solar System chemistry. The first part covered the organic chemistry ofsmall bodies of the interplanetray medium. It produced papers on the evolution, spectral properties and composition of organic matter in comets, interplanetary dust and asteroids. The second part covered cryochemistry and exobiology in planetary atmospheres (gas giant planets and their satellites) and in various astronomical ices.

  16. Projection Moire Interferometry Measurements of Micro Air Vehicle Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2001-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to measure the structural deformation of micro air vehicle (MAV) wings during a series of wind tunnel tests. The MAV wings had a highly flexible wing structure, generically reminiscent of a bat s wing, which resulted in significant changes in wing shape as a function of MAV angle-of-attack and simulated flight speed. This flow-adaptable wing deformation is thought to provide enhanced vehicle stability and wind gust alleviation compared to rigid wing designs. Investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of a flexible MAV wing required measurement of the wing shape under aerodynamic loads. PMI was used to quantify the aerodynamically induced changes in wing shape for three MAV wings having different structural designs and stiffness characteristics. This paper describes the PMI technique, its application to MAV testing, and presents a portion of the PMI data acquired for the three different MAV wings tested.

  17. Effects of air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distribution (OA57B), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soard, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data were obtained during wind tunnel tests of a 0.0405-scale model of the ferry configuration of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter conducted in a low speed wind tunnel during the time period of September 18 to September 23, 1973. The primary test objective was to investigate orbiter wing pressure distributions resulting from nacelle plumes above and below the wing. Three six-engine nacelle configurations were tested. One configuration had a twin-podded nacelle mounted above each wing and the others had one mounted below each wing. Both had a centerline twin-podded nacelle mounted below the wing. Wing pressure distribution was determined by locating static pressure bugs on the upper and lower surfaces of the left wing. Pressure bugs were also located on the upper and lower surfaces of the body flap and on the B12 afterbody fairing when it was installed. Base and balance cavity pressures were recorded and a strain gage instrumented beam in the right wing measured elevon hinge moments and normal forces.

  18. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown wing-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1978-01-01

    An engineering method for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with upper surface blowing (USB) was developed. Potential flow models were incorporated into the prediction method: a wing and flap lifting surface model and a jet wake model. The wing-flap model used a vortex-lattice to represent the wing and flaps. The wing had an arbitrary planform and camber and twist, and the flap system was made up of a Coanda flap and other flap segments of arbitrary size. The jet wake model consisted of a series of closely spaced rectangular vortex rings. The wake was positioned such that it was tangent to the upper surface of the wing and flap between the exhaust nozzle and the flap trailing edge. It was specified such that the mass, momentum, and spreading rates were similar to actual USB jet wakes. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, span load distributions, and total lift and pitching-moment coefficients on swept and unswept USB configurations are included. A wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles were considered at angles of attack up to the onset of stall.

  19. HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS OF RADIO GALAXY MORPHOLOGY: WINGED AND X-SHAPED SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-05-20

    We present three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of radio galaxies interacting with initially relaxed hot atmospheres and explore the significant off-axis radio lobe structures that result under certain conditions. With a focus on the 'winged' and 'X-shaped' radio galaxy population, we confirm the importance of observed trends such as the connection of wing formation with jets co-aligned with the major axis of the surrounding atmosphere. These wings are formed substantially by the deflection of lobe plasma flowing back from the hot spots (backflow) and develop in two stages: supersonic expansion of an overpressured cocoon at early times followed by buoyant expansion at later times. We explore a limited parameter space of jet and atmosphere properties and find that the most prominent wings are produced when a decaying jet is injected into a small, dense, highly elliptical atmosphere. On the basis of this search, we argue that the deflection of backflow by gradients in the hot atmosphere is a strong candidate for forming observed wings but must work in tandem with some other mechanism for forming the initial wing channels. Our models indicate that lobe interaction with the hot atmosphere may play a dominant role in shaping the morphology of radio galaxies.

  20. Flies compensate for unilateral wing damage through modular adjustments of wing and body kinematics.

    PubMed

    Muijres, Florian T; Iwasaki, Nicole A; Elzinga, Michael J; Melis, Johan M; Dickinson, Michael H

    2017-02-06

    Using high-speed videography, we investigated how fruit flies compensate for unilateral wing damage, in which loss of area on one wing compromises both weight support and roll torque equilibrium. Our results show that flies control for unilateral damage by rolling their body towards the damaged wing and by adjusting the kinematics of both the intact and damaged wings. To compensate for the reduction in vertical lift force due to damage, flies elevate wingbeat frequency. Because this rise in frequency increases the flapping velocity of both wings, it has the undesired consequence of further increasing roll torque. To compensate for this effect, flies increase the stroke amplitude and advance the timing of pronation and supination of the damaged wing, while making the opposite adjustments on the intact wing. The resulting increase in force on the damaged wing and decrease in force on the intact wing function to maintain zero net roll torque. However, the bilaterally asymmetrical pattern of wing motion generates a finite lateral force, which flies balance by maintaining a constant body roll angle. Based on these results and additional experiments using a dynamically scaled robotic fly, we propose a simple bioinspired control algorithm for asymmetric wing damage.

  1. Optical properties of chitin: surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on antireflection structures on cicada wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, P. R.; Cadusch, P. J.; Boyce, T. M.; Erasmus, R. M.; Comins, J. D.

    2006-02-01

    The transparent wings of some cicada species present ordered arrays of papillary structures with a spacing of approximately 200 nm. These structures serve an antireflection function, with optical transmission peaking at a value of approximately 98% and rising above 90% over a broad band from 450 to 2500 nm. The dimensions of the papillae are comparable to the roughness scale of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. SERS measurements performed on silver- and gold-coated wings display enhancement factors of approximately 106 with no apparent background contribution from the wing.

  2. Effects of the air breathing engine plumes on SSV orbiter subsonic wing pressure distributions (OA57A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, B. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic pressure investigations were conducted on a 0.0405 scale representation of the -89 space shuttle orbiter ferry configuration in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11.00 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The primary test objective was to investigate the orbiter wing pressure distribution resulting from five under-wing engine nacelle plumes. Two five engine nacelle configurations were tested at 3 ground plane heights with pressure bug measurements being made on the left upper and lower wing panel. In addition, base and balance cavity pressure measurements were made, with elevon normal and hinge moment measurements on the right panel.

  3. Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #2: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings continue deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  4. Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #3: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings fully deployed during flight following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Californiaornia. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  5. Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Wing Deployment Sequence #1: The deployable, inflatable wing technology demonstrator experiment aircraft's wings begin deploying following separation from its carrier aircraft during a flight conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The inflatable wing project represented a basic flight research effort by Dryden personnel. Three successful flights of the I2000 inflatable wing aircraft occurred. During the flights, the team air-launched the radio-controlled (R/C) I2000 from an R/C utility airplane at an altitude of 800-1000 feet. As the I2000 separated from the carrier aircraft, its inflatable wings 'popped-out,' deploying rapidly via an on-board nitrogen bottle. The aircraft remained stable as it transitioned from wingless to winged flight. The unpowered I2000 glided down to a smooth landing under complete control.

  6. An aerodynamic model for one and two degree of freedom wing rock of slender delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, John

    1993-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic effects due to the separated flow around slender delta wings in motion were analyzed. By combining the unsteady flow field solution with the rigid body Euler equations of motion, self-induced wing rock motion is simulated. The aerodynamic model successfully captures the qualitative characteristics of wing rock observed in experiments. For the one degree of freedom in roll case, the model is used to look into the mechanisms of wing rock and to investigate the effects of various parameters, like angle of attack, yaw angle, displacement of the separation point, and wing inertia. To investigate the roll and yaw coupling for the delta wing, an additional degree of freedom is added. However, no limit cycle was observed in the two degree of freedom case. Nonetheless, the model can be used to apply various control laws to actively control wing rock using, for example, the displacement of the leading edge vortex separation point by inboard span wise blowing.

  7. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Undergoes Stress Loads Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove rests after load-tests at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research

  8. Advanced turboprop wing installation effects measured by unsteady blade pressure and noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    A single rotation model propeller (SR-7A) was tested at simulated takeoff/approach conditions (Mach 0.2), in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Ft Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Both unsteady blade surface pressures and noise measurements were made for a tractor configuration with propeller/straight wing and propeller alone configurations. The angle between the wing chord and propeller axis (droop angle) was varied along with the wing angle of attack to determine the effects on noise and unsteady loading. A method was developed that uses unsteady blade pressure measurements to provide a quantitative indication of propeller inflow conditions, at least for a uniform (across the propeller disk) inflow angle. The wing installation caused a nearly uniform upwash at the propeller inlet as evidenced by the domination of the pressure spectra by the first shaft order. This inflow angle increased at a rate of almost 150 percent of that of the wing angle-of-attack for a propeller-wing spacing of 0.54 wing chords at a constant droop angle. The flyover noise, as measured by the maximum blade passing frequency level, correlates closely with the propeller inflow angle (approx. 0.6 dB per degree of inflow angle) for all droop angles and wing angles of attack tested, including the propeller alone data. Large changes in the unsteady pressure responses on the suction surface of the blade were observed as the advance ratio was varied. The presence of a leading edge vortex may explain this behavior since changes in the location of this vortex would change with loading (advance ratio).

  9. Numerical investigation of insect wing fracture behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Darvizeh, A; Shafiei, A; Taylor, D; Dirks, J-H

    2015-01-02

    The wings of insects are extremely light-weight biological composites with exceptional biomechanical properties. In the recent years, numerical simulations have become a very powerful tool to answer experimentally inaccessible questions on the biomechanics of insect flight. However, many of the presented models require a sophisticated balance of biomechanical material parameters, many of which are not yet available. In this article we show the first numerical simulations of crack propagation in insect wings. We have used a combination of the maximum-principal stress theory, the traction separation law and basic biomechanical properties of cuticle to develop simple yet accurate finite element (FE) models of locust wings. The numerical results of simulated tensile tests on wing samples are in very good qualitative, and interestingly, also in excellent quantitative agreement with previously obtained experimental data. Our study further supports the idea that the cross-veins in insect wings act as barriers against crack propagation and consequently play a dominant role in toughening the whole wing structure. The use of numerical simulations also allowed us to combine experimental data with previously inaccessible data, such as the distribution of the first principal stress through the wing membrane and the veins. A closer look at the stress-distribution within the wings might help to better understand fracture-toughening mechanisms and also to design more durable biomimetic micro-air vehicles.

  10. Wing-Design And -Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.; Carlson, Harry W.

    1990-01-01

    WINGDES2 computer program provides wing-design algorithm based on modified linear theory taking into account effects of attainable leading-edge thrust. Features improved numerical accuracy and additional capabilities. Provides analysis as well as design capability and applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow. Replaces earlier wing-design code designated WINGDES (see LAR-13315). Written in FORTRAN V.

  11. The Realization and Study of Optical Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra Brae

    Consider the airfoil: a carefully designed structure capable of stable lift in a uniform air flow. It so happens that air pressure and radiation (light) pressure are similar phenomena because each transfer momentum to flow-disturbing objects. This, then, begs the question: does an optical analogue to the airfoil exist? Though an exceedingly small effect, scientists harness radiation pressure in a wide gamut of applications from micromanipulation of single biological particles to the propulsion of large spacecrafts called solar sails. We introduce a cambered, refractive rod that is subjected to optical forces analogous to those seen in aerodynamics, and I call this analogue the optical wing. Flight characteristics of optical wings are determined by wing shape and material in a uniform radiation field. Theory predicts the lift force and axial torque are functions of the wing's angle of attack with stable and unstable orientations. These structures can operate as intensity-dependent, parametrically driven oscillators. In two-dimensions, the wings exhibit bistability when analyzed in an accelerating frame. In three-dimensions, the motion of axially symmetric spinning hemispherical wings is analogous to a spinning top. Experiments on semi-buoyant wings in water found semicylindrically shaped, refractive microparticles traversed a laser beam and rotated to an illumination-dependent stable orientation. Preliminary tests aid in the development of a calibrated force measurement experiment to directly evaluate the optical forces and torque on these samples. A foundational study of the optical wing, this work contributes to future advancements of flight-by-light.

  12. Effect of aileron displacement on wing characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heald, R H

    1933-01-01

    The effect of aileron displacement on wing characteristics has been investigated for the Clark Y and the U.S.A. 27 wing sections equipped with rectangular ailerons. The airfoils, rectangular in plan, and having a 10 inch chord and 60 inch span, were mounted on a model fuselage.

  13. Materials Analysis of Foreign Produced Flex Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    Vehicle, by H. Kredit , January 1964, 144 pages AD B252433, Pilot’s Handbook for tbe Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle XV-8A, Match 1964, 52 pp AD...Vehicle. H. Kredit , Feb. 1965. 100 pages _AD 460405, XV-8A Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle. Final Report. Feb. 1965, 113 page; -AD 431128

  14. Flex Wing Fabrication and Static Pressure Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    Vehicle, by H. Kredit , January 1964, 144 pages AD. B252433, Pilot’s Handbook for the Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle XV-8A, Match 1964, 52 pp AD...Vehicle, H. Kredit , Feb. 1965. 100 pages .- AD 460405, XV-8A Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle. Final Report. Feb. 1965, 113 page; -- AD 431128

  15. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  16. Advanced wing design survivability testing and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, J.; Tobias, M.

    1992-01-01

    Composite wings on current operational aircraft are conservatively designed to account for stress/strain concentrations, and to assure specified damage tolerance. The technology that can lead to improved composite wing structures and associated structural efficiency is to increase design ultimate strain levels beyond their current limit of 3500 to 4000 micro-in/in to 6000 micro-in/in without sacrificing structural integrity, durability, damage tolerance, or survivability. Grumman, under the sponsorship of the Naval Air Development Center (NADC), has developed a high-strain composite wing design for a subsonic aircraft wing using novel and innovative design concepts and manufacturing methods, while maintaining a state-of-the-art fiber/resin system. The current advanced wing design effort addressed a tactical subsonic aircraft wing using previously developed, high-strain wing design concepts in conjunction with newer/emerging fiber and polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials to achieve the same goals, while reducing complexity. Two categories of advanced PMC materials were evaluated: toughened thermosets; and engineered thermoplastics. Advanced PMC materials offer the technological opportunity to take maximum advantage of improved material properties, physical characteristics, and tailorability to increase performance and survivability over current composite structure. Damage tolerance and survivability to various threats, in addition to structural integrity and durability, were key technical issues addressed during this study, and evaluated through test. This paper focuses on the live-fire testing, and the results performed to experimentally evaluate the survivability of the advanced wing design.

  17. Modeling flexible flapping wings oscillating at resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Alexander; Masoud, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    Using a hybrid approach for fluid-structure interactions that integrates the lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring models, we study the three-dimensional aerodynamics of flexible flapping wings at hovering. The wings are a pair of flat elastic plates tilted from the horizontal and driven to oscillate according to the sinusoidal law. Our simulations reveal that resonance oscillations of flexible wings dramatically increase aerodynamic lift at low Reynolds number. Comparing to otherwise identical rigid wings, flexible wings at resonance generate up to two orders of magnitude greater lift. Within the resonance band, we identify two operation regimes leading to the maximum lift and the maximum efficiency, respectively. The maximum lift occurs when the wing tip and root move with a phase lag of 90 degrees, whereas the maximum efficiency occurs at the frequency where the wing tip and root oscillate in counterphase. Our results suggest that the resonance regimes would be optimal for the design of microscale flying machines using flexible flapping wings driven by simple kinematic strokes.

  18. Integrated Model Reduction and Control of Aircraft with Flexible Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to the modeling and control of aircraft with exible wings. The coupled aircraft rigid body dynamics with a high-order elastic wing model can be represented in a nite dimensional state-space form. Given a set of desired output covariance, a model reduction process is performed by using the weighted Modal Cost Analysis (MCA). A dynamic output feedback controller, which is designed based on the reduced-order model, is developed by utilizing output covariance constraint (OCC) algorithm, and the resulting OCC design weighting matrix is used for the next iteration of the weighted cost analysis. This controller is then validated for full-order evaluation model to ensure that the aircraft's handling qualities are met and the uttering motion of the wings suppressed. An iterative algorithm is developed in CONDUIT environment to realize the integration of model reduction and controller design. The proposed integrated approach is applied to NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) for demonstration.

  19. Winglets on low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, John M.; Liaw, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The drag reduction potentially available from the use of winglets at the tips of low aspect ratio (1.75-2.67) wings with pronounced (45-60 deg) leading edge sweep is assessed numerically for the case of a cruise design point at Mach of 0.8 and a lift coefficient of 0.3. Both wing-winglet and wing-alone design geometries are derived from a linear-theory, minimum induced drag design methodology. Relative performance is evaluated with a nonlinear extended small disturbance potential flow analysis code. Predicted lift coefficient/pressure drag coefficient increases at equal lift for the wing-winglet configurations over the wing-alone planform are of the order of 14.6-15.8, when boundary layer interaction is included.

  20. Collective Flow Enhancement by Tandem Flapping Wings.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Peters, Jacob M; Combes, Stacey A; Wood, Robert J

    2015-10-30

    We examine the fluid-mechanical interactions that occur between arrays of flapping wings when operating in close proximity at a moderate Reynolds number (Re≈100-1000). Pairs of flapping wings are oscillated sinusoidally at frequency f, amplitude θ_{M}, phase offset ϕ, and wing separation distance D^{*}, and outflow speed v^{*} is measured. At a fixed separation distance, v^{*} is sensitive to both f and ϕ, and we observe both constructive and destructive interference in airspeed. v^{*} is maximized at an optimum phase offset, ϕ_{max}, which varies with wing separation distance, D^{*}. We propose a model of collective flow interactions between flapping wings based on vortex advection, which reproduces our experimental data.

  1. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  2. Wing extensions for improving climb performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicks, O. W.

    1983-01-01

    Recent wind tunnel studies have shown that significant improvements in wing efficiency and climb performance can be achieved using wing extensions having sharp edges and unmodified upper airfoil contours. Based on tests of six configurations, a simple tip shape provided the best wing efficiency at high lift conditions without penalty during cruise conditions. The best configuration tested exhibited more than 20 percent improvement in the maximum rate of climb, plus a reduction in stall speed and a slight improvement in cruise performance over a baseline tip with a round edge. In addition to measurements that were used to determine performance, flow visualization studies provided insight into reasons for improved wing efficiency. Tests were conducted using a high performance general aviation aircraft model with a tapered, cantilevered wing.

  3. Design of a transonically profiled wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiekebusch, B.

    1978-01-01

    The application of well known design concepts with the combined use of thick transonic profiles to aircraft wing design was investigated. Optimization in terms of weight and operational costs was emphasized. It is shown that the usual design criteria and concepts are too restricted and do not sufficiently represent the physical processes over the wing. Suggestions are made for improving this situation, and a design example given. Compared with a wing design according to previously used criteria, the new design is found to be superior in the most important functions. It is concluded that an isobar concept adjusted to the planform in conjunction with an 'organically' designed wing will lead to the weight optimum solutions of wing profiles.

  4. Strain monitoring of a composite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strathman, Joseph; Watkins, Steve E.; Kaur, Amardeep; Macke, David C.

    2016-04-01

    An instrumented composite wing is described. The wing is designed to meet the load and ruggedness requirements for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in search-and-rescue applications. The UAV supports educational systems development and has a 2.1-m wingspan. The wing structure consists of a foam core covered by a carbon-fiber, laminate composite shell. To quantify the wing characteristics, a fiber-optic strain sensor was surface mounted to measure distributed strain. This sensor is based on Rayleigh scattering from local index variations and it is capable of high spatial resolution. The use of the Rayleigh-scattering fiber-optic sensors for distributed measurements is discussed.

  5. High speed flow past wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norstrud, H.

    1973-01-01

    The analytical solution to the transonic small perturbation equation which describes steady compressible flow past finite wings at subsonic speeds can be expressed as a nonlinear integral equation with the perturbation velocity potential as the unknown function. This known formulation is substituted by a system of nonlinear algebraic equations to which various methods are applicable for its solution. Due to the presence of mathematical discontinuities in the flow solutions, however, a main computational difficulty was to ensure uniqueness of the solutions when local velocities on the wing exceeded the speed of sound. For continuous solutions this was achieved by embedding the algebraic system in an one-parameter operator homotopy in order to apply the method of parametric differentiation. The solution to the initial system of equations appears then as a solution to a Cauchy problem where the initial condition is related to the accompanying incompressible flow solution. In using this technique, however, a continuous dependence of the solution development on the initial data is lost when the solution reaches the minimum bifurcation point. A steepest descent iteration technique was therefore, added to the computational scheme for the calculation of discontinuous flow solutions. Results for purely subsonic flows and supersonic flows with and without compression shocks are given and compared with other available theoretical solutions.

  6. Surgical treatment of winged scapula.

    PubMed

    Galano, Gregory J; Bigliani, Louis U; Ahmad, Christopher S; Levine, William N

    2008-03-01

    Injuries to the long thoracic and spinal accessory nerves present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Palsies of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles lead to destabilization of the scapula with medial and lateral scapular winging, respectively. Although nonoperative treatment is successful in some patients, failures have led to the evolution of surgical techniques involving various combinations of fascial graft and/or transfer of adjacent muscles. Our preferred method of reconstruction for serratus anterior palsy is a two-incision, split pectoralis major transfer without fascial graft. For trapezius palsy, we prefer a modified version of the Eden-Lange procedure. At a minimum followup of 16 months (mean, 47 months), six patients who underwent the Eden-Lange procedure showed improvement in mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder scores (33.3-64.6), forward elevation (141.7-151.0), and visual analog scale (7.0-2.3). At a minimum followup of 16 months (mean, 44 months), 10 patients (11 shoulders) who underwent split pectoralis transfer also improved American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder scores (53.3-63.8), forward elevation (158.2-164.5), and visual analog scale (5.0-2.9). We encountered two complications, both superficial wound infections. These tendon transfers were effective for treating scapular winging in patients who did not respond to nonoperative treatment.

  7. Followup to Columbia Investigation: Reinforced Carbon/Carbon From the Breach Location in the Wing Leading Edge Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Tallant, David

    2005-01-01

    Initial estimates on the temperature and conditions of the breach in the Space Shuttle Columbia's wing focused on analyses of the slag deposits. These deposits are complex mixtures of the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) constituents, insulation material, and wing structural materials. Identification of melted/solidified Cerachrome insulation (Thermal Ceramics, Inc., Augusta, GA) indicated that the temperatures at the breach had exceeded 1760 C.

  8. Aerostructural Shape and Topology Optimization of Aircraft Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Kai

    A series of novel algorithms for performing aerostructural shape and topology optimization are introduced and applied to the design of aircraft wings. An isoparametric level set method is developed for performing topology optimization of wings and other non-rectangular structures that must be modeled using a non-uniform, body-fitted mesh. The shape sensitivities are mapped to computational space using the transformation defined by the Jacobian of the isoparametric finite elements. The mapped sensitivities are then passed to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which is solved on a uniform Cartesian grid. The method is derived for several objective functions including mass, compliance, and global von Mises stress. The results are compared with SIMP results for several two-dimensional benchmark problems. The method is also demonstrated on a three-dimensional wingbox structure subject to fixed loading. It is shown that the isoparametric level set method is competitive with the SIMP method in terms of the final objective value as well as computation time. In a separate problem, the SIMP formulation is used to optimize the structural topology of a wingbox as part of a larger MDO framework. Here, topology optimization is combined with aerodynamic shape optimization, using a monolithic MDO architecture that includes aerostructural coupling. The aerodynamic loads are modeled using a three-dimensional panel method, and the structural analysis makes use of linear, isoparametric, hexahedral elements. The aerodynamic shape is parameterized via a set of twist variables representing the jig twist angle at equally spaced locations along the span of the wing. The sensitivities are determined analytically using a coupled adjoint method. The wing is optimized for minimum drag subject to a compliance constraint taken from a 2 g maneuver condition. The results from the MDO algorithm are compared with those of a sequential optimization procedure in order to quantify the benefits of the MDO

  9. An airborne intensive care facility (fixed wing).

    PubMed

    Gilligan, J E; Goon, P; Maughan, G; Griggs, W; Haslam, R; Scholten, A

    1996-04-01

    A fixed-wing aircraft (Beechcraft KingAir B200 C) fitted as an airborne intensive care facility is described. It completed 2000 missions from 1987-1992 for distances up to 1300 km. Features include: 1. Space for carriage of two stretchers, medical cabin crew of up to five persons and equipment and two-pilot operation if necessary. A third stretcher may be carried in emergencies. 2. Two CARDIOCAP (TM) fixed monitors for ECG, invasive and noninvasive pressures pulse oximetry and end-tidal C02 plus SIEMENS 630(TM)/PROPAQ(TM) compact monitors for the ground transport phase of missions, or the total duration. 3. A medical oxygen reservoir of 4650 litres sufficient for two patients on IPPV with FiO2 = 1.0 for a four-hour trip. The medical suction system is powered from the engine or a vacuum pump. 4. Other medical equipment and drugs in portable packs, for ground transport and resuscitation needs and for replenishment by nursing staff at the parent hospitals. 5. Stretchers compatible with helicopter and road ambulance vehicles used. 6. A stretcher loading device energized from the aircraft, operating through a wide (cargo) door. 7. Provision of 24Ov AC (alternating current) and 28v DC (direct current) electrical energy. 8. Pressurization and climate control. 9. Satisfactory aviation performance for conditions encountered, with single-pilot operation.

  10. Air Force Combat Wings: Lineage and Honors Histories, 1947-1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Aeronautics and Space Administratiop iii The Author CHARLES A. RAVENSTEIN is a historian with the Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center...34wise, for short periods in 1958, 1960, verified combat record. and in 1961, the wing did not control Decorations. (See Appendix III .) KC-135 aircraft...7- . - - .7-74r*-*..’ .’ * - .. * % 41 Contents Page FGreword ..................................................... iii

  11. MTR WING A, TRA604. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. THIS VIEW TYPIFIES TENDENCY FOR EXPANSIONS TO TAKE THE FORM OF PROJECTIONS AND INFILL USING AVAILABLE YARD SPACES. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD47-44-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Habitat variation and wing coloration affect wing shape evolution in dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Outomuro, D; Dijkstra, K-D B; Johansson, F

    2013-09-01

    Habitats are spatially and temporally variable, and organisms must be able to track these changes. One potential mechanism for this is dispersal by flight. Therefore, we would expect flying animals to show adaptations in wing shape related to habitat variation. In this work, we explored variation in wing shape in relation to preferred water body (flowing water or standing water with tolerance for temporary conditions) and landscape (forested to open) using 32 species of dragonflies of the genus Trithemis (80% of the known species). We included a potential source of variation linked to sexual selection: the extent of wing coloration on hindwings. We used geometric morphometric methods for studying wing shape. We also explored the phenotypic correlation of wing shape between the sexes. We found that wing shape showed a phylogenetic structure and therefore also ran phylogenetic independent contrasts. After correcting for the phylogenetic effects, we found (i) no significant effect of water body on wing shape; (ii) male forewings and female hindwings differed with regard to landscape, being progressively broader from forested to open habitats; (iii) hindwings showed a wider base in wings with more coloration, especially in males; and (iv) evidence for phenotypic correlation of wing shape between the sexes across species. Hence, our results suggest that natural and sexual selection are acting partially independently on fore- and hindwings and with differences between the sexes, despite evidence for phenotypic correlation of wing shape between males and females.

  13. Design, fabrication, and characterization of multifunctional wings to harvest solar energy in flapping wing air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Gehlhar, Rachel D.; Nolen, Savannah; Gupta, Satyandra K.; Bruck, Hugh A.

    2015-06-01

    Currently, flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicles (a.k.a., ornithopters or robotic birds) sustain very short duration flight due to limited on-board energy storage capacity. Therefore, energy harvesting elements, such as flexible solar cells, need to be used as materials in critical components, such as wing structures, to increase operational performance. In this paper, we describe a layered fabrication method that was developed for realizing multifunctional composite wings for a unique robotic bird we developed, known as Robo Raven, by creating compliant wing structure from flexible solar cells. The deformed wing shape and aerodynamic lift/thrust loads were characterized throughout the flapping cycle to understand wing mechanics. A multifunctional performance analysis was developed to understand how integration of solar cells into the wings influences flight performance under two different operating conditions: (1) directly powering wings to increase operation time, and (2) recharging batteries to eliminate need for external charging sources. The experimental data is then used in the analysis to identify a performance index for assessing benefits of multifunctional compliant wing structures. The resulting platform, Robo Raven III, was the first demonstration of a robotic bird that flew using energy harvested from solar cells. We developed three different versions of the wing design to validate the multifunctional performance analysis. It was also determined that residual thrust correlated to shear deformation of the wing induced by torsional twist, while biaxial strain related to change in aerodynamic shape correlated to lift. It was also found that shear deformation of the solar cells induced changes in power output directly correlating to thrust generation associated with torsional deformation. Thus, it was determined that multifunctional solar cell wings may be capable of three functions: (1) lightweight and flexible structure to generate aerodynamic forces, (2

  14. Experimental effects of wing location on wing-body pressures at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jerry M.; Watson, Carolyn B.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study was performed at supersonic speeds to measure wing and body spanwise pressure distributions on an axisymmetric-body delta wing model on which the wing vertical location on the body was systematically varied from low- to high-mounted positions. In addition, for two of these positions both horizontal and radial wing angular orientations relative to the body were tested, and roll angle effects were investigated for one of the positions. Seven different wing-body configurations and a body-alone configuration were studied. The test was conducted at Mach numbers from 1.70 to 2.86 at angles of attack from about -4 deg to 24 deg. Pressure orifices were located at three longitudinal stations on each wing-body model, and at each station the orifices were located completely around the body, along the lower surface of the right wing (looking upstream), and along the upper surface of the left wing. All pressure coefficient data are tabulated and selected samples are shown graphically to illustrate the effects of the test variables. The effects of angle of attack, roll angle, Mach number, longitudinal station, wing vertical location, wing angular orientation, and wing-body juncture are analyzed. The vertical location of the wing on the body had a very strong effect on the body pressures. For a given angle of attack at a roll angle of 0 deg, the pressures were virtually constant in the spanwise direction across the windward surfaces of the wing-body combination. Pressure-relieving, channeling, and vortex effects were noted in the data.

  15. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  16. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-04-15

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.

  17. Experiments on a Slotted Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruden, P

    1939-01-01

    The results of pressure distribution measurements that were made on a model wing section of a Fieseler F 5 R type airplane are presented. Comparison of those model tests with the corresponding flight tests indicates the limitations and also the advantages of wind tunnel investigations, the advantages being particularly that through the variety of measuring methods employed the more complicated flow conditions may also be clarified. A fact brought out in these tests is that even in the case of "well rounded" slots it is possible for a vortex to be set up at the slot entrance and this vortex is responsible for certain irregularities in the pressure distribution and in the efficiency of the slot.

  18. Integrated technology wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, A. P.; Beck, W. E.; Morita, W. H.; Penrose, B. J.; Skarshaug, R. E.; Wainfan, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development costs and associated benefits in applying advanced technology associated with the design of a new wing for a new or derivative trijet with a capacity for 350 passengers and maximum range of 8519 km, entering service in 1990 were studied. The areas of technology are: (1) airfoil technology; (2) planform parameters; (3) high lift; (4) pitch active control system; (5) all electric systems; (6) E to 3rd power propulsion; (7) airframe/propulsion integration; (8) graphite/epoxy composites; (9) advanced aluminum alloys; (10) titanium alloys; and (11) silicon carbide/aluminum composites. These technologies were applied to the reference aircraft configuration. Payoffs were determined for block fuel reductions and net value of technology. These technologies are ranked for the ratio of net value of technology (NVT) to technology development costs.

  19. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  20. Design for approaching Cicada-wing reflectance in low- and high-index biomimetic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Jen, Yi-Jun; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chattopadhyay, Surojit

    2015-01-27

    Natural nanostructures in low refractive index Cicada wings demonstrate ≤ 1% reflectance over the visible spectrum. We provide design parameters for Cicada-wing-inspired nanotip arrays as efficient light harvesters over a 300-1000 nm spectrum and up to 60° angle of incidence in both low-index, such as silica and indium tin oxide, and high-index, such as silicon and germanium, photovoltaic materials. Biomimicry of the Cicada wing design, demonstrating gradient index, onto these material surfaces, either by real electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma processing or by modeling, was carried out to achieve a target reflectance of ∼ 1%. Design parameters of spacing/wavelength and length/spacing fitted into a finite difference time domain model could simulate the experimental reflectance values observed in real silicon and germanium or in model silica and indium tin oxide nanotip arrays. A theoretical mapping of the length/spacing and spacing/wavelength space over varied refractive index materials predicts that lengths of ∼ 1.5 μm and spacings of ∼ 200 nm in high-index and lengths of ∼ 200-600 nm and spacings of ∼ 100-400 nm in low-index materials would exhibit ≤ 1% target reflectance and ∼ 99% optical absorption over the entire UV-vis region and angle of incidence up to 60°.

  1. Surface photometry of WINGS galaxies with GASPHOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, M.; Bindoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Bettoni, D.; Cava, A.; Fritz, J.; Gullieuszik, M.; Kjærgaard, P.; Moretti, A.; Moles, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Varela, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We present the B, V, and K band surface photometry catalogs obtained by running the automatic software GASPHOT on galaxies from the WINGS cluster survey with isophotal areas larger than 200 pixels. The catalogs can be downloaded at the Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg. Methods: The luminosity growth curves of stars and galaxies in a given catalog relative to a given cluster image were obtained simultaneously by slicing the image with a fixed surface brightness step in several SExtractor runs. Then, using a single Sersic law convolved with a space-varying point spread function (PSF), GASPHOT performed a simultaneous χ2 best-fit of the major- and minor-axis luminosity growth curves of galaxies. We outline the GASPHOT performances and compare our surface photometry with that obtained by SExtractor, GALFIT, and GIM2D. This analysis is aimed at providing statistical information about the accuracy that is generally achieved by the softwares for automatic surface photometry of galaxies. Results: The GASPHOT catalogs provide the parameters of the Sersic law that fit the luminosity profiles for each galaxy and for each photometric band. They are the sky coordinates of the galaxy center (RA, Dec), the total magnitude (m), the semi-major axis of the effective isophote (Re), the Sersic index (n), the axis ratio (b/a), and a flag parameter (QFLAG) that generally indicates the fit quality. The WINGS-GASPHOT database includes 41 463 galaxies in the B band, 42 275 in the V band, and 71 687 in the K band. The bright early-type galaxies have higher Sersic indices and larger effective radii, as well as redder colors in their center. In general, the effective radii increase systematically from the K to the V and B band. Conclusions: The GASPHOT photometry agrees well with the surface photometry obtained by GALFIT and GIM2D, and with the aperture photometry provided by SExtractor. In particular, the direct comparison of structural parameters derived by different

  2. Surgical Treatment of Winged Scapula

    PubMed Central

    Galano, Gregory J.; Bigliani, Louis U.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Injuries to the long thoracic and spinal accessory nerves present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Palsies of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles lead to destabilization of the scapula with medial and lateral scapular winging, respectively. Although nonoperative treatment is successful in some patients, failures have led to the evolution of surgical techniques involving various combinations of fascial graft and/or transfer of adjacent muscles. Our preferred method of reconstruction for serratus anterior palsy is a two-incision, split pectoralis major transfer without fascial graft. For trapezius palsy, we prefer a modified version of the Eden-Lange procedure. At a minimum followup of 16 months (mean, 47 months), six patients who underwent the Eden-Lange procedure showed improvement in mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder scores (33.3–64.6), forward elevation (141.7–151.0), and visual analog scale (7.0–2.3). At a minimum followup of 16 months (mean, 44 months), 10 patients (11 shoulders) who underwent split pectoralis transfer also improved American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder scores (53.3–63.8), forward elevation (158.2–164.5), and visual analog scale (5.0–2.9). We encountered two complications, both superficial wound infections. These tendon transfers were effective for treating scapular winging in patients who did not respond to nonoperative treatment. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196359

  3. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  4. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  5. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  6. Wing design with attainable thrust considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Shrout, B. L.; Darden, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A CAD process that includes leading-edge thrust considerations for wings with high aerodynamic efficiencies is outlined. Rectangular grids are used for evaluation of both subsonic and supersonic pressure loadings. Account is taken of the Mach number, Re, the wing planform, the presence of camber, the airfoil geometry and the locations and forces induced by shed vortices. Optimization techniques are applied to the candidate surfaces in order to consider the attainable thrust. Inclusion of the optimization techniques permits analyses of mission-adaptive wings and various flap systems and the elimination of singularities in the flight envelope.

  7. The plane problem of the flapping wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, Walter

    1954-01-01

    In connection with an earlier report on the lifting vortex sheet which forms the basis of the following investigations this will show how the methods developed there are also suitable for dealing with the air forces for a wing with a circulation variable with time. The theory of a propulsive wing flapping up and down periodically in the manner of a bird's wing is developed. This study shows how the lift and its moment result as a function of the flapping motion, what thrust is attainable, and how high is the degree of efficiency of this flapping propulsion unit if the air friction is disregarded.

  8. Transonic flow theory of airfoils and wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    There are plans to use the supercritical wing on the next generation of commercial aircraft so as to economize on fuel consumption by reducing drag. Computer codes have served well in meeting the consequent demand for new wing sections. The possibility of replacing wind tunnel tests by computational fluid dynamics is discussed. Another approach to the supercritical wing is through shockless airfoils. A novel boundary value problem in the hodograph plane is studied that enables one to design a shockless airfoil so that its pressure distribution very nearly takes on data that are prescribed.

  9. Active Dihedral Control System for a Torisionally Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor); Griecci, John A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  10. Aerodynamic shape optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for wing and wing-body design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for airfoils and wings in which the shape and the surrounding body-fitted mesh are both generated analytically, and the control is the mapping function. Recently, the method has been implemented for both potential flows and flows governed by the Euler equations using an alternative formulation which employs numerically generated grids, so that it can more easily be extended to treat general configurations. Here results are presented both for the optimization of a swept wing using an analytic mapping, and for the optimization of wing and wing-body configurations using a general mesh.

  11. The effect of asymmetric vortex wake characteristics on a slender delta wing undergoing wing rock motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arena, A. S., Jr.; Nelson, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the fluid mechanisms responsible for wing rock on a slender delta wing with 80 deg leading edge sweep has been conducted. Time history and flow visualization data are presented for a wide angle-of-attack range. The use of an air bearing spindle has allowed the motion of the wing to be free from bearing friction or mechanical hysteresis. A bistable static condition has been found in vortex breakdown at an angle of attack of 40 deg which causes an overshoot of the steady state rocking amplitude. Flow visualization experiments also reveal a difference in static and dynamic breakdown locations on the wing. A hysteresis loop in dynamic breakdown location similar to that seen on pitching delta wings was observed as the wing was undergoing the limit cycle oscillation.

  12. The effect of over-the-wing nacelles on wing-body aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to further study benefits in climb and cruise performance due to blowing the jet over the wing for a transport-type wing-body configuration. In this investigation a wing-body model/powered-nacelle test rig combination was tested at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.8 at angles of attack from -2 to 4 deg and jet total-pressure ratios from jet off to 3 or 4 (depending on Mach number) for a variety of nacelle locations relative to the wing. Results from this investigation show that positioning of the nacelles can have very large effects on the wing-body drag (nacelles were nonmetric). Some positions yielded much higher drag than the baseline wing-body while others yielded drag which was somewhat lower than the baseline.

  13. Two-stage reusable launch system utilizing a winged core vehicle and glideback boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Martin, James A.; Wood, James S.; Duquette, Miles O.

    1989-01-01

    A near-term technology launch system is described in which Space Shuttle main engines are used on a manned orbiter and also on twin strap-on unmanned boosters. The orbiter has a circular body and clipped delta wings. The twin strap-on boosters have a circular body and deployable oblique wings for a glideback recovery. The dry and gross weights of the system, capable of delivering 70klb of cargo to orbit, are compared with a similar system with hydrocarbon-fueled boosters and with the current Shuttle.

  14. The phenotypic and genetic covariance structure of drosphilid wings.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Katrina; Blows, Mark W

    2007-04-01

    Evolutionary constraint results from the interaction between the distribution of available genetic variation and the position of selective optima. The availability of genetic variance in multitrait systems, as described by the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix (G), has been the subject of recent attempts to assess the prevalence of genetic constraints. However, evolutionary constraints have not yet been considered from the perspective of the phenotypes available to multivariate selection, and whether genetic variance is present in all phenotypes potentially under selection. Determining the rank of the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) to characterize the phenotypes available to selection, and contrasting it with the rank of G, may provide a general approach to determining the prevalence of genetic constraints. In a study of a laboratory population of Drosophila bunnanda from northern Australia we applied factor-analytic modeling to repeated measures of individual wing phenotypes to determine the dimensionality of the phenotypic space described by P. The phenotypic space spanned by the 10 wing traits had 10 statistically supported dimensions. In contrast, factor-analytic modeling of G estimated for the same 10 traits from a paternal half-sibling breeding design suggested G had fewer dimensions than traits. Statistical support was found for only five and two genetic dimensions, describing a total of 99% and 72% of genetic variance in wing morphology in females and males, respectively. The observed mismatch in dimensionality between P and G suggests that although selection might act to shift the intragenerational population mean toward any trait combination, evolution may be restricted to fewer dimensions.

  15. Parametric weight evaluation of joined wings by structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Shyu, Albert T.; Wolkovitch, Julian

    1988-01-01

    Joined-wing aircraft employ tandem wings having positive and negative sweep and dihedral, arranged to form diamond shapes in both plan and front views. An optimization method was applied to study the effects of joined-wing geometry parameters on structural weight. The lightest wings were obtained by increasing dihedral and taper ratio, decreasing sweep and span, increasing fraction of airfoil chord occupied by structural box, and locating the joint inboard of the front wing tip.

  16. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Lentink, David

    2016-10-01

    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots.

  17. Spinning Characteristics of Wings III : a Rectangular and Tapered Clark Y Monoplane Wing with Rounded Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamber, M J; House, R O

    1937-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the spinning characteristics of Clark Y monoplane wings with different plan forms. A rectangular wing and a wing tapered 5:2, both with rounded tips, were tested on the N.A.C.A. spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The aerodynamic characteristics of the models and a prediction of the angles of sideslip for steady spins are given. Also included is an estimate of the yawning moment that must be furnished by the parts of the airplane to balance the inertia couples and wing yawing moment for spinning equilibrium. The effects on the spin of changes in plan form and of variations of some of the important parameters are discussed and the results are compared with those for a rectangular wing with square tips. It is concluded that for a conventional monoplane using Clark Y wing the sideslip will be algebraically larger for the wing with the rounded tip than for the wing with the square tip and will be largest for the tapered wing. The effect of plan form on the spin will vary with the type of airplane; and the provision of a yawing-moment coefficient of -0.025 (i.e., opposing the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interference effects will insure against the attainment of equilibrium on a steady spin for any of the plan forms tested and for any of the parameters used in the analysis.

  18. Resilin in dragonfly and damselfly wings and its implications for wing flexibility.

    PubMed

    Donoughe, Seth; Crall, James D; Merz, Rachel A; Combes, Stacey A

    2011-12-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that passive mechanical dynamics of insect wings play an integral role in insect flight, our understanding of the structural details underlying insect wing flexibility remains incomplete. Here, we use comparative morphological and mechanical techniques to illuminate the function and diversity of two mechanisms within Odonata wings presumed to affect dynamic wing deformations: flexible resilin vein-joints and cuticular spikes. Mechanical tests show that joints with more resilin have lower rotational stiffness and deform more in response to a load applied to an intact wing. Morphological studies of 12 species of Odonata reveal that resilin joints and cuticular spikes are widespread taxonomically, yet both traits display a striking degree of morphological and functional diversity that follows taxonomically distinct patterns. Interestingly, damselfly wings (suborder Zygoptera) are mainly characterized by vein-joints that are double-sided (containing resilin both dorsally and ventrally), whereas dragonfly wings (suborder Epiprocta) are largely characterized by single-sided vein-joints (containing resilin either ventrally or dorsally, but not both). The functional significance and diversity of resilin joints and cuticular spikes could yield insight into the evolutionary relationship between form and function of wings, as well as revealing basic principles of insect wing mechanical design.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of the wing rock characteristics of a 'wing-body-tail' configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Free-to-roll wind tunnel tests were conducted and a computer simulation exercise was performed in an effort to investigate in detail the mechanism of wing rock on a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the wind tunnel test confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly showed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Pressure measurements on the wing revealed the hysteresis of the wing rock process. First, second and nth order models for the aerodynamic damping were developed and examined with a one degree of freedom computer simulation. Very good agreement with the observed behavior from the wind tunnel was obtained.

  20. Evolution of wing shape in hornets: why is the wing venation efficient for species identification?

    PubMed

    Perrard, A; Baylac, M; Carpenter, J M; Villemant, C

    2014-12-01

    Wing venation has long been used for insect identification. Lately, the characterization of venation shape using geometric morphometrics has further improved the potential of using the wing for insect identification. However, external factors inducing variation in wing shape could obscure specific differences, preventing accurate discrimination of species in heterogeneous samples. Here, we show that interspecific difference is the main source of wing shape variation within social wasps. We found that a naive clustering of wing shape data from taxonomically and geographically heterogeneous samples of workers returned groups congruent with species. We also confirmed that individuals can be reliably attributed to their genus, species and populations on the basis of their wing shape. Our results suggested that the shape variation reflects the evolutionary history with a potential influence of other factors such as body shape, climate and mimicry selective pressures. However, the high dimensionality of wing shape variation may have prevented absolute convergences between the different species. Wing venation shape is thus a taxonomically relevant marker combining the accuracy of quantitative characters with the specificity required for identification criteria. This marker may also highlight adaptive processes that could help understand the wing's influence on insect flight.

  1. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  2. A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping wing aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimisation is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into the quasi-steady forces and parameterised based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power with the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterised on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. It demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned air systems. PMID:27346891

  3. Numerical investigation of the aerodynamic and structural characteristics of a corrugated wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hord, Kyle

    Previous experimental studies on static, bio-inspired corrugated wings have shown that they produce favorable aerodynamic properties such as delayed stall compared to streamlined wings and flat plates at high Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 4x104). The majority of studies have been carried out with scaled models of dragonfly forewings from the Aeshna Cyanea in either wind tunnels or water channels. In this thesis, the aerodynamics of a corrugated airfoil was studied using computational fluid dynamics methods at a low Reynolds number of 1000. Structural analysis was also performed using the commercial software SolidWorks 2009. The flow field is described by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on an overlapping grid using the pressure-Poisson method. The equations are discretized in space with second-order accurate central differences. Time integration is achieved through the second-order Crank-Nicolson implicit method. The complex vortex structures that form in the corrugated airfoil valleys and around the corrugated airfoil are studied in detail. Comparisons are made with experimental measurements from corrugated wings and also with simulations of a flat plate. Contrary to the studies at high Reynolds numbers, our study shows that at low Reynolds numbers the wing corrugation does not provide any aerodynamic benefit compared to a smoothed flat plate. Instead, the corrugated profile generates more pressure drag which is only partially offset by the reduction of friction drag, leading to more total drag than the flat plate. Structural analysis shows that the wing corrugation can increase the resistance to bending moments on the wing structure. A smoothed structure has to be three times thicker to provide the same stiffness. It was concluded the corrugated wing has the structural benefit to provide the same resistance to bending moments with a much reduced weight.

  4. A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping wing aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimisation is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into the quasi-steady forces and parameterised based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power with the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterised on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. It demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned air systems.

  5. On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the minimum induced drag of wings. The topics include: 1) The History of Spanload Development of the optimum spanload Winglets and their implications; 2) Horten Sailplanes; and 3) Flight Mechanics & Adverse yaw.

  6. The Design of Airplane Wing Ribs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newlin, J A; Trayer, George W

    1931-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information for use in the design of truss and plywood forms, particularly with reference to wing ribs. Tests were made on many designs of wing ribs, comparing different types in various sizes. Many tests were also made on parallel-chord specimens of truss and plywood forms in place of the actual ribs and on parts of wing ribs, such as truss diagonals and sections of cap strips. It was found that for ribs of any size or proportions, when they were designed to obtain a well-balanced construction and were carefully manufactured, distinct types are of various efficiencies; the efficiency is based on the strength per unit of weight. In all types of ribs the heavier are the stronger per unit of weight. Reductions in the weight of wing ribs are accompanied even in efficient designs by a much greater proportional reduction in strength.

  7. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  8. Oblique Wing Research Aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This 1976 photograph of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft was taken in front of the NASA Flight Research Center hangar, located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. In the photograph the noseboom, pitot-static probe, and angles-of-attack and sideslip flow vanes(covered-up) are attached to the front of the vehicle. The clear nose dome for the television camera, and the shrouded propellor for the 90 horsepower engine are clearly seen. The Oblique Wing Research Aircraft was a small, remotely piloted, research craft designed and flight tested to look at the aerodynamic characteristics of an oblique wing and the control laws necessary to achieve acceptable handling qualities. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and the NASA Ames Research Center conducted research with this aircraft in the mid-1970s to investigate the feasibility of flying an oblique wing aircraft.

  9. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  10. Evaluation and treatment of the winged scapula.

    PubMed

    Duralde, X A

    1995-01-01

    Winging of the scapula is often associated with palsy of the serratus anterior muscle, but can be due to numerous pathologic processes. Often representing more than just a cosmetic deformity of the shoulder, it can lead to significant pain and functional impairment. Winging can be due to disease in the nerves, muscles, bones, and joints in the periscapular area and may be either a static or dynamic deformity. Treatment of the winged scapula depends on the severity of the patient's complaints, and the exact treatment required is determined by the underlying pathologic process. A systematic approach to the winged scapula is essential to ascertain the underlying cause and successfully manage this deformity of the shoulder girdle.

  11. Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James

    1994-01-01

    An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.

  12. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  13. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  14. Strake-wing analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The technology is still evolving for improving the transonic maneuver capability of strake-wing configurations. Much of the work to date has been of an experimental nature; whereas, the theories that are available to handle vortex-flow aerodynamics have mostly treated wings of constant sweep. Hence, two efforts were undertaken. They are: (1) to extend the suction analogy to more general configurations and evaluate the method by using selected critical planforms; and (2) to develop a procedure for strake planform shaping and test the resulting shape in conjunction with a wing-body. The conclusions from this study are that (1) some improvement has been made in estimating high-angle-of-attack longitudinal aerodynamics, and (2) the gothic strake designed with the developed procedure does produce a stable vortex system in the presence of a wing body and flat post-maximum-lift characteristics.

  15. Optimization on a Network-based Parallel Computer System for Supersonic Laminar Wing Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Cheung, Samson; Holst, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A set of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) routines and flow transition prediction tools are integrated into a network based parallel numerical optimization routine. Through this optimization routine, the design of a 2-D airfoil and an infinitely swept wing will be studied in order to advance the design cycle capability of supersonic laminar flow wings. The goal of advancing supersonic laminar flow wing design is achieved by wisely choosing the design variables used in the optimization routine. The design variables are represented by the theory of Fourier series and potential theory. These theories, combined with the parallel CFD flow routines and flow transition prediction tools, provide a design space for a global optimal point to be searched. Finally, the parallel optimization routine enables gradient evaluations to be performed in a fast and parallel fashion.

  16. Survey - Applications of structural optimization methods to fixed wing aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Hirokazu; Neill, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a technical survey of the practical applications of structural optimization methods in the U.S. aerospace industry through 1980s are summarized. One of the most important developments in the 80s is the more widespread acceptance of structural optimization as one of the design tools that support practical structural design. Another significant advance is the development of large software tools for production applications. Attention is also given to the tailoring of the computerized design process to the specific environment of each company. The two most important aspects of this tailoring are seamless and easy-to-use incorporation of structural optimization in the overall aerospace design/production process and multidisciplinary integration aimed at ultimate performance optimization of the final product. Some specific applications discussed include the X-29 forward swept wing demonstrator aircraft, composite wing and vertical tail program, fighter wing redesign evaluations, high speed aircraft design, and space structures.

  17. Aircraft noise propagation. [sound diffraction by wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J.; Pierce, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Sound diffraction experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to study the acoustical implications of the engine over wing configuration (noise-shielding by wing) and to provide a data base for assessing various theoretical approaches to the problem of aircraft noise reduction are described. Topics explored include the theory of sound diffraction around screens and wedges; the scattering of spherical waves by rectangular patches; plane wave diffraction by a wedge with finite impedence; and the effects of ambient flow and distribution sources.

  18. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  19. Numerical simulation of swept-wing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.

    1991-01-01

    The transition process characteristics of flows over swept wings were computationally modelled. The crossflow instability and crossflow/T-S wave interaction are analyzed through the numerical solution of the full three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations including unsteadiness, curvature, and sweep. The leading-edge region of a swept wing is considered in a three-dimensional spatial simulation with random disturbances as the initial conditions.

  20. Omnidirectional and Controllable Wing Using Fluid Ejection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-22

    8217 Q edge along a continuous perimeter from which fluid outflow tangential to the Coanda edge is -1 o selectively effected by omnidirectional...the air flow over the wing ’ ^ surfaces is directed internally within the fuselage. The tangential ejection of fluid outflow over Coanda edge...tangential ejection 2 outflow from a Coanda edge of a lift wing independently of its translation direction through an d ambient fluid so as

  1. Integrated technology wing study (oral presentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design of a plan for a commercial transport manufacturer to integrate advanced technology into a new wing for a derivative and/or new aircraft that could enter service in the late 1980s to early 1990s time period is proposed. The development of a new wing for a derivative or a new long range commercial aircraft and the incorporation of cost effective technologies are studied. The decision provides guidelines for the best allocation of research funds.

  2. Kinematics and dynamics of sphenisciform wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Crisinel, Fabien; Munier, Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional scans of three different species of taxidermied penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus, Pygoscelis papua, and Spheniscus magellanicus) have been performed. A three-dimensional reproduction of an African penguin (Sphenicus demersus) wing was manufactured and tested in a hydrodynamic channel. A six-degree-of-freedom robot was programmed to perform the three dimensional kinematics, obtained from actual footage. A six-component force balance was used to retrieve the dynamics of the wing motion. Results will be presented and discussed.

  3. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  4. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  5. Topology of vortex-wing interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, C.; Rockwell, D.

    2016-10-01

    A trailing vortex incident upon a wing can generate different modes of vortex-wing interaction. These modes, which may involve either enhancement or suppression of the vortex generated at the tip of the wing, are classified on the basis of the present experiments together with computations at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Occurrence of a given mode of interaction is predominantly determined by the dimensionless location of the incident vortex relative to the tip of the wing and is relatively insensitive to the Reynolds number and dimensionless circulation of the incident vortex. The genesis of the basic interaction modes is clarified using streamline topology with associated critical points that show compatibility between complex streamline patterns in the vicinity of the tip of the wing. Whereas formation of an enhanced tip vortex involves a region of large upwash in conjunction with localized flow separation, complete suppression of the tip vortex is associated with a small-scale separation-reattachment bubble bounded by downwash at the wing tip.

  6. A Comparison of Metallic, Composite and Nanocomposite Optimal Transonic Transport Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Graeme J.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Martins, Joaquim R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future composite material technologies have the potential to greatly improve the performance of large transport aircraft. However, the coupling between aerodynamics and structures makes it challenging to design optimal flexible wings, and the transonic flight regime requires high fidelity computational models. We address these challenges by solving a series of high-fidelity aerostructural optimization problems that explore the design space for the wing of a large transport aircraft. We consider three different materials: aluminum, carbon-fiber reinforced composites and an hypothetical composite based on carbon nanotubes. The design variables consist of both aerodynamic shape (including span), structural sizing, and ply angle fractions in the case of composites. Pareto fronts with respect to structural weight and fuel burn are generated. The wing performance in each case is optimized subject to stress and buckling constraints. We found that composite wings consistently resulted in lower fuel burn and lower structural weight, and that the carbon nanotube composite did not yield the increase in performance one would expect from a material with such outstanding properties. This indicates that there might be diminishing returns when it comes to the application of advanced materials to wing design, requiring further investigation.

  7. Using adjoint-based optimization to study wing flexibility in flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingjun; Xu, Min; Dong, Haibo

    2014-11-01

    In the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects, it is important to understand the impact of wing flexibility/deformation on aerodynamic performance. However, the large control space from the complexity of wing deformation and kinematics makes usual parametric study very difficult or sometimes impossible. Since the adjoint-based approach for sensitivity study and optimization strategy is a process with its cost independent of the number of input parameters, it becomes an attractive approach in our study. Traditionally, adjoint equation and sensitivity are derived in a fluid domain with fixed solid boundaries. Moving boundary is only allowed when its motion is not part of control effort. Otherwise, the derivation becomes either problematic or too complex to be feasible. Using non-cylindrical calculus to deal with boundary deformation solves this problem in a very simple and still mathematically rigorous manner. Thus, it allows to apply adjoint-based optimization in the study of flapping wing flexibility. We applied the ``improved'' adjoint-based method to study the flexibility of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flapping wings, where the flapping trajectory and deformation are described by either model functions or real data from the flight of dragonflies. Supported by AFOSR.

  8. Investigation of a robust tendon-sheath mechanism for flexible membrane wing application in mini-UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shian; Tjahjowidodo, Tegoeh; Lee, Hsuchew; Lai, Benedict

    2017-02-01

    Two inherent issues manifest themselves in flying mini-unmanned aerial vehicles (mini-UAV) in the dense area at tropical climate regions, namely disturbances from gusty winds and limited space for deployment tasks. Flexible membrane wing (FMW) UAVs are seen to be potentials to mitigate these problems. FMWs are adaptable to gusty airflow as the wings are able to flex according to the gust load to reduce the effective angle-of-attack, thus, reducing the aerodynamic loads on the wing. On the other hand, the flexible structure is allowing the UAV to fold in a compact package, and later on, the mini-UAV can be deployed instantly from the storage tube, e.g. through a catapult mechanism. This paper discusses the development of an FMW UAV actuated by a tendon-sheath mechanism (TSM). This approach allows the wing to morph to generate a rolling moment, while still allowing the wing to fold. Dynamic characteristics of the mechanism that exhibits the strong nonlinear phenomenon of friction on TSM are modeled and compensated for. A feed-forward controller was implemented based on the identified nonlinear behavior to control the warping position of the wing. The proposed strategy is validated experimentally in a wind tunnel facility by creating a gusty environment that is imitating a realistic gusty condition based upon the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results demonstrate a stable and robust wing-warping actuation, even in gusty conditions. Accurate wing-warping can be achieved via the TSM, while also allowing the wings to fold.

  9. Numerical study of the trailing vortex of a wing with wing-tip blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hock-Bin

    1994-01-01

    Trailing vortices generated by lifting surfaces such as helicopter rotor blades, ship propellers, fixed wings, and canard control surfaces are known to be the source of noise, vibration, cavitation, degradation of performance, and other hazardous problems. Controlling these vortices is, therefore, of practical interest. The formation and behavior of the trailing vortices are studied in the present research. In addition, wing-tip blowing concepts employing axial blowing and spanwise blowing are studied to determine their effectiveness in controlling these vortices and their effects on the performance of the wing. The 3D, unsteady, thin-layer compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a time-accurate, implicit, finite difference scheme that employs LU-ADI factorization. The wing-tip blowing is simulated using the actuator plane concept, thereby, not requiring resolution of the jet slot geometry. Furthermore, the solution blanking feature of the chimera scheme is used to simplify the parametric study procedure for the wing-tip blowing. Computed results are shown to compare favorably with experimental measurements. It is found that axial wing-tip blowing, although delaying the rolling-up of the trailing vortices and the near-field behavior of the flowfield, does not dissipate the circulation strength of the trailing vortex farther downstream. Spanwise wing-tip blowing has the effect of displacing the trailing vortices outboard and upward. The increased 'wing-span' due to the spanwise wing-tip blowing has the effect of lift augmentation on the wing and the strengthening of the trailing vortices. Secondary trailing vortices are created at high spanwise wing-tip blowing intensities.

  10. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAleer, Neil

    1989-01-01

    NASA celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1988, two days after the Space Shuttle soared into space once more. When Congress approved the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958, the United States had successfully launched only four small satellites and no American astronaut had yet flown in space. In the three decades since, four generations of manned spacecraft have been built and flown, twelve men have walked on the Moon, more than 100 Americans have flown and worked in space, and communications satellites and other Space-Age technologies have transformed life on planet Earth. When NASA's Golden Anniversary is celebrated in 2008, it is likely that men and women will be permanently living and working in space. There may be a base on the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars may only be years away. If a brief history of the first half-century of the Space Age is written for that event, it will show clearly how the exploration of space has altered the course of human history and allowed us to take a better hold of our destiny on and off planet Earth.

  11. Theoretical damping in roll and rolling moment due to differential wing incidence for slender cruciform wings and wing-body combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gaynor J; DUGAN DUANE W

    1952-01-01

    A method of analysis based on slender-wing theory is developed to investigate the characteristics in roll of slender cruciform wings and wing-body combinations. The method makes use of the conformal mapping processes of classical hydrodynamics which transform the region outside a circle and the region outside an arbitrary arrangement of line segments intersecting at the origin. The method of analysis may be utilized to solve other slender cruciform wing-body problems involving arbitrarily assigned boundary conditions. (author)

  12. Imaging and Laser Spectroscopy Investigation of Insect Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiver, Tegan; Lawhead, Carlos; Anderson, Josiah; Cooper, Nathan; Ujj, Laszlo; Pall Life Sciences Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Measuring the surface morphology and chemical composition of insect wings is important to understand the extreme mechanical properties and the biophysical functionalities of the wings. We have measured the image of the membrane of the cicada (genus Tibicen) wing with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results confirm the existing periodic structure of the wing measured previously. The SEM imaging can be used to measure the surface morphology of any insect species wings. The physical surface structure of the cicada wing is an example of a new class of biomaterials that can kill bacteria on contact. In order to identify the chemical composition of the wing, we have measured the vibrational spectra of the wing's membrane (Raman and CARS). The measured spectra are consistent with the original assumption that the wing membrane is composed of protein, wax, and chitin. The results of these studies can be used to make artificial materials in the future.

  13. Nonlinear Aerodynamics and the Design of Wing Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan

    1991-01-01

    The analysis and design of wing tips for fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft still remains part art, part science. Although the design of airfoil sections and basic planform geometry is well developed, the tip regions require more detailed consideration. This is important because of the strong impact of wing tip flow on wing drag; although the tip region constitutes a small portion of the wing, its effect on the drag can be significant. The induced drag of a wing is, for a given lift and speed, inversely proportional to the square of the wing span. Concepts are proposed as a means of reducing drag. Modern computational methods provide a tool for studying these issues in greater detail. The purpose of the current research program is to improve the understanding of the fundamental issues involved in the design of wing tips and to develop the range of computational and experimental tools needed for further study of these ideas.

  14. Functional Gustatory Role of Chemoreceptors in Drosophila Wings.

    PubMed

    Raad, Hussein; Ferveur, Jean-François; Ledger, Neil; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2016-05-17

    Neuroanatomical evidence argues for the presence of taste sensilla in Drosophila wings; however, the taste physiology of insect wings remains hypothetical, and a comprehensive link to mechanical functions, such as flight, wing flapping, and grooming, is lacking. Our data show that the sensilla of the Drosophila anterior wing margin respond to both sweet and bitter molecules through an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Conversely, genetically modified flies presenting a wing-specific reduction in chemosensory cells show severe defects in both wing taste signaling and the exploratory guidance associated with chemodetection. In Drosophila, the chemodetection machinery includes mechanical grooming, which facilitates the contact between tastants and wing chemoreceptors, and the vibrations of flapping wings that nebulize volatile molecules as carboxylic acids. Together, these data demonstrate that the Drosophila wing chemosensory sensilla are a functional taste organ and that they may have a role in the exploration of ecological niches.

  15. Structural Design of Wing Twist for Pitch Control of Joined Wing Sensor Craft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    obtained deflections either. Although the strain induced into the structure by the aft wing twist was on the order of the aerodynamic forces alone...4-14 4.14 Slit Vertical Restraint Forces for Configuration #4 with Twist and Aerodynamic ...4-4 4.3 Aft Wing Strains Due to Twist and Aerodynamic Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4

  16. 3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing showing E and N elevations; N elevation of Building 69, Plating and Tinning Shop; looking SW. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 66, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. Effect of wing-wake interaction on aerodynamic force generation on a 2D flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lua, K. B.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.

    2011-07-01

    This paper is motivated by the works of Dickinson et al. (Science 284:1954-1960, 1999) and Sun and Tang (J Exp Biol 205:55-70, 2002) which provided two different perspectives on the influence of wing-wake interaction (or wake capture) on lift generation during flapping motion. Dickinson et al. (Science 284:1954-1960, 1999) hypothesize that wake capture is responsible for the additional lift generated at the early phase of each stroke, while Sun and Tang (J Exp Biol 205:55-70, 2002) believe otherwise. Here, we take a more fundamental approach to study the effect of wing-wake interaction on the aerodynamic force generation by carrying out simultaneous force and flow field measurements on a two-dimensional wing subjected to two different types of motion. In one of the motions, the wing at a fixed angle of attack was made to follow a motion profile described by "acceleration-constant velocity-deceleration". Here, the wing was first linearly accelerated from rest to a predetermined maximum velocity and remains at that speed for set duration before linearly decelerating to a stop. The acceleration and deceleration phase each accounted for only 10% of the stroke, and the stroke covered a total distance of three chord lengths. In another motion, the wing was subjected to the same above-mentioned movement, but in a back and forth manner over twenty strokes. Results show that there are two possible outcomes of wing-wake interaction. The first outcome occurs when the wing encounters a pair of counter-rotating wake vortices on the reverse stroke, and the induced velocity of these vortices impinges directly on the windward side of the wing, resulting in a higher oncoming flow to the wing, which translates into a higher lift. Another outcome is when the wing encounters one vortex on the reverse stroke, and the close proximity of this vortex to the windward surface of the wing, coupled with the vortex suction effect (caused by low pressure region at the center of the vortex

  18. Wing Torsional Stiffness Tests of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2002-01-01

    The left wing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) F/A-18 airplane has been ground-load-tested to quantify its torsional stiffness. The test has been performed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in November 1996, and again in April 2001 after a wing skin modification was performed. The primary objectives of these tests were to characterize the wing behavior before the first flight, and provide a before-and-after measurement of the torsional stiffness. Two streamwise load couples have been applied. The wing skin modification is shown to have more torsional flexibility than the original configuration has. Additionally, structural hysteresis is shown to be reduced by the skin modification. Data comparisons show good repeatability between the tests.

  19. A Fundamental Study for Aerodynamic Characteristics of Supersonic Biplane Wing and Wing-Body Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Yusuke; Kusunose, Kazuhiro

    In order to develop a quiet supersonic transport, it is necessary to reduce shock waves around the transport. Shock waves, in general, are the cause of the airplane's sonic boom. Authors have been studying an aerodynamic feasibility of supersonic biplanes based on the concept of the Busemann biplane. In this paper, the three dimensional effect of wing geometries on their wave drags, including wing tip effects and the interference effects between the wing and a body (Wing-Body configurations) are investigated, using CFD code in Euler (inviscid) mode. As a result, we can conclude that the supersonic biplane wings at their design Mach number (M∞=1.7) are still capable of reducing wave drag significantly similar to that of the 2-D supersonic biplane.

  20. Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Tropea, Cameron

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this research study was to investigate the aerodynamic forces of an avian flapping wing model system. The model size and the flow conditions were chosen to approximate the flight of a goose. Direct force measurements, using a three-component balance, and PIV flow field measurements parallel and perpendicular to the oncoming flow, were performed in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 28,000 and 141,000 (3-15 m/s), throughout a range of reduced frequencies between 0.04 and 0.20. The appropriateness of quasi-steady assumptions used to compare 2D, time-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the wake with direct force measurements was evaluated. The vertical force coefficient for flapping wings was typically significantly higher than the maximum coefficient of the fixed wing, implying the influence of unsteady effects, such as delayed stall, even at low reduced frequencies. This puts the validity of the quasi-steady assumption into question. The (local) change in circulation over the wing beat cycle and the circulation distribution along the wingspan were obtained from the measurements in the tip and transverse vortex planes. Flow separation could be observed in the distribution of the circulation, and while the circulation derived from the wake measurements failed to agree exactly with the absolute value of the circulation, the change in circulation over the wing beat cycle was in excellent agreement for low and moderate reduced frequencies. The comparison between the PIV measurements in the two perpendicular planes and the direct force balance measurements, show that within certain limitations the wake visualization is a powerful tool to gain insight into force generation and the flow behavior on flapping wings over the wing beat cycle.

  1. Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Tropea, Cameron

    The main objective of this research study was to investigate the aerodynamic forces of an avian flapping wing model system. The model size and the flow conditions were chosen to approximate the flight of a goose. Direct force measurements, using a three-component balance, and PIV flow field measurements parallel and perpendicular to the oncoming flow, were performed in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers between 28,000 and 141,000 (3-15 m/s), throughout a range of reduced frequencies between 0.04 and 0.20. The appropriateness of quasi-steady assumptions used to compare 2D, time-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the wake with direct force measurements was evaluated. The vertical force coefficient for flapping wings was typically significantly higher than the maximum coefficient of the fixed wing, implying the influence of unsteady effects, such as delayed stall, even at low reduced frequencies. This puts the validity of the quasi-steady assumption into question. The (local) change in circulation over the wing beat cycle and the circulation distribution along the wingspan were obtained from the measurements in the tip and transverse vortex planes. Flow separation could be observed in the distribution of the circulation, and while the circulation derived from the wake measurements failed to agree exactly with the absolute value of the circulation, the change in circulation over the wing beat cycle was in excellent agreement for low and moderate reduced frequencies. The comparison between the PIV measurements in the two perpendicular planes and the direct force balance measurements, show that within certain limitations the wake visualization is a powerful tool to gain insight into force generation and the flow behavior on flapping wings over the wing beat cycle.

  2. Insect-like flapping wing mechanism based on a double spherical Scotch yoke

    PubMed Central

    Galiński, Cezary; Żbikowski, Rafał

    2005-01-01

    We describe the rationale, concept, design and implementation of a fixed-motion (non-adjustable) mechanism for insect-like flapping wing micro air vehicles in hover, inspired by two-winged flies (Diptera). This spatial (as opposed to planar) mechanism is based on the novel idea of a double spherical Scotch yoke. The mechanism was constructed for two main purposes: (i) as a test bed for aeromechanical research on hover in flapping flight, and (ii) as a precursor design for a future flapping wing micro air vehicle. Insects fly by oscillating (plunging) and rotating (pitching) their wings through large angles, while sweeping them forwards and backwards. During this motion the wing tip approximately traces a ‘figure-of-eight’ or a ‘banana’ and the wing changes the angle of attack (pitching) significantly. The kinematic and aerodynamic data from free-flying insects are sparse and uncertain, and it is not clear what aerodynamic consequences different wing motions have. Since acquiring the necessary kinematic and dynamic data from biological experiments remains a challenge, a synthetic, controlled study of insect-like flapping is not only of engineering value, but also of biological relevance. Micro air vehicles are defined as flying vehicles approximately 150 mm in size (hand-held), weighing 50–100 g, and are developed to reconnoitre in confined spaces (inside buildings, tunnels, etc.). For this application, insect-like flapping wings are an attractive solution and hence the need to realize the functionality of insect flight by engineering means. Since the semi-span of the insect wing is constant, the kinematics are spatial; in fact, an approximate figure-of-eight/banana is traced on a sphere. Hence a natural mechanism implementing such kinematics should be (i) spherical and (ii) generate mathematically convenient curves expressing the figure-of-eight/banana shape. The double spherical Scotch yoke design has property (i) by definition and achieves (ii) by

  3. Mission adaptive wing soars at NASA Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahn, D.; Reinertson, L.

    1986-01-01

    Research pilots have flown the Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW) aircraft, a highly modified F-111 jet fighter, from subsonic speeds up to Mach 1.4 in initial flight tests. The inital test flights are clearing the envelope with the wings flexed at various curvatures. This process allows further research data to be safely gathered so that designers of future variable camber wing aircraft have the best information possible. The altitude envelope was cleared from 27,500 down to 7,500 feet where denser air can cause more stress on the aircraft. Testing with the aircraft was conducted with wing sweep angles of 26 and 58 degrees. At the conclusion of the performance tests in the manual configuration, the system will be reconfigured for automatic mode tests. The limited automatic modes include maneuver camber control where the wings are deflected automatically to the best lift versus drag combination for a particular speed; cruise camber control which can help protect the aircraft from high G stresses; and maneuver enhancement/gust alleviation which is designed to improve the aircraft's up and down movement response to pilot commands and reduce the aircraft response to turbulence.

  4. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight.

  5. Antifatigue properties of dragonfly Pantala flavescens wings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liang, Yun-Hong; Ren, Lu-Quan; Jie, Meng; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-05-01

    The wing of a dragonfly is thin and light, but can bear high frequent alternating stress and present excellent antifatigue properties. The surface morphology and microstructure of the wings of dragonfly Pantala flavescens were observed using SEM in this study. Based on the biological analysis method, the configuration, morphology, and structure of the vein were studied, and the antifatigue properties of the wings were investigated. The analytical results indicated that the longitudinal veins, cross veins, and membrane of dragonfly wing form a optimized network morphology and spacially truss-like structure which can restrain the formation and propagation of the fatigue cracks. The veins with multilayer structure present high strength, flexibility, and toughness, which are beneficial to bear alternating load during the flight of dragonfly. Through tensile-tensile fatigue failure tests, the results were verified and indicate that the wings of dragonfly P. flavescens have excellent antifatigue properties which are the results of the biological coupling and synergistic effect of morphological and structural factors.

  6. Elastic deformation and energy loss of flapping fly wings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Gorb, Stanislav; Nasir, Nazri; Schützner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    During flight, the wings of many insects undergo considerable shape changes in spanwise and chordwise directions. We determined the origin of spanwise wing deformation by combining measurements on segmental wing stiffness of the blowfly Calliphora vicina in the ventral and dorsal directions with numerical modelling of instantaneous aerodynamic and inertial forces within the stroke cycle using a two-dimensional unsteady blade elementary approach. We completed this approach by an experimental study on the wing's rotational axis during stroke reversal. The wing's local flexural stiffness ranges from 30 to 40 nN m(2) near the root, whereas the distal wing parts are highly compliant (0.6 to 2.2 nN m(2)). Local bending moments during wing flapping peak near the wing root at the beginning of each half stroke due to both aerodynamic and inertial forces, producing a maximum wing tip deflection of up to 46 deg. Blowfly wings store up to 2.30 μJ elastic potential energy that converts into a mean wing deformation power of 27.3 μW. This value equates to approximately 5.9 and 2.3% of the inertial and aerodynamic power requirements for flight in this animal, respectively. Wing elasticity measurements suggest that approximately 20% or 0.46 μJ of elastic potential energy cannot be recovered within each half stroke. Local strain energy increases from tip to root, matching the distribution of the wing's elastic protein resilin, whereas local strain energy density varies little in the spanwise direction. This study demonstrates a source of mechanical energy loss in fly flight owing to spanwise wing bending at the stroke reversals, even in cases in which aerodynamic power exceeds inertial power. Despite lower stiffness estimates, our findings are widely consistent with previous stiffness measurements on insect wings but highlight the relationship between local flexural stiffness, wing deformation power and energy expenditure in flapping insect wings.

  7. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  8. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    PubMed

    Lentink, David; de Kat, Roeland

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  9. 1980 Aeronautics and Space Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This video includes Voyager 1 to Saturn, Solar Maximum Mission, sounding rockets/balloons, Space Shuttle, GOES 4 weather satellite, Mount St. Helen's Research, wind energy, rotor systems research aircraft, quiet shorthaul aircraft, AD-1 Scissor Wing, and automated pilot advisory system.

  10. Review of delta wing space shuttle vehicle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reding, J. P.; Ericsson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamics of the proposed delta planform, high cross range, shuttle orbiters, are investigated. It is found that these vehicles are subject to five unsteady-flow phenomena that could compromise the flight dynamics. The phenomena are as follows: (1) leeside shock-induced separation, (2) sudden leading-edge stall, (3) vortex burst, (4)bow shock-flap shock interaction, and (5) forebody vorticity. Trajectory shaping is seen as the most powerful means of avoiding deterimental effects of the stall phenomena; however, stall must be fixed or controlled when traversing the stall region. Other phenomana may be controlled by carefully programmed control deflections and some configuration modifications. Ways to alter the occurrence of the various flow conditions are explored.

  11. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel test database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data were acquired by competing contractors and NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. This wind tunnel test data has been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retro-glide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings.

  12. Methods for In-Flight Wing Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Formulation of Ko Displacement Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2010-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory is formulated for a cantilever tubular wing spar under bending, torsion, and combined bending and torsion loading. The Ko displacement equations are expressed in terms of strains measured at multiple sensing stations equally spaced on the surface of the wing spar. The bending and distortion strain data can then be input to the displacement equations to calculate slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles of the wing spar at the strain-sensing stations for generating the deformed shapes of flexible aircraft wing spars. The displacement equations have been successfully validated for accuracy by finite-element analysis. The Ko displacement theory that has been formulated could also be applied to calculate the deformed shape of simple and tapered beams, plates, and tapered cantilever wing boxes. The Ko displacement theory and associated strain-sensing system (such as fiber optic sensors) form a powerful tool for in-flight deformation monitoring of flexible wings and tails, such as those often employed on unmanned aerial vehicles. Ultimately, the calculated displacement data can be visually displayed in real time to the ground-based pilot for monitoring the deformed shape of unmanned aerial vehicles during flight.

  13. Physical Mechanisms of Glaze Ice Scallop Formations on Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Reshotko, Eli

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to understand the physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of scallops on swept wings. Icing runs were performed on a NACA 0012 swept wing tip at 45 deg, 30 deg, and 15 deg sweep angles. A baseline case was chosen and direct measurements of scallop height and spacing, castings, video data and close-up photographic data were obtained. The results showed the scallops are made of glaze ice feathers that grow from roughness elements that have reached a minimum height and are located beyond a given distance from the attachment line. This distance depends on tunnel conditions and sweep angle, and is the critical parameter in the formation of scallops. It determines if complete scallops, incomplete scallops or no scallops are going to be formed. The mechanisms of growth for complete and incomplete scallops were identified. The effect of velocity, temperature and LWC on scallop formation was studied. The possibility that cross flow instability may be the physical mechanism that triggers the growth of roughness elements into glaze ice feathers is examined.

  14. The role of wing kinematics of freely flying birds downstream the wake of flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Gurka, Roi

    2016-11-01

    Avian aerodynamics has been a topic of research for centuries. Avian flight features such as flapping, morphing and maneuvering make bird aerodynamics a complex system to study, analyze and understand. Aerodynamic performance of the flapping wings can be quantified by measuring the vortex structures present in the downstream wake. Still, the direct correlation between the flapping wing kinematics and the evolution of wake features need to be established. In this present study, near wake of three bird species (western sandpiper, European starling and American robin) have been measured experimentally. Long duration, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry technique has been used to capture the wake properties. Simultaneously, the bird kinematics have been captured using high speed camera. Wake structures are reconstructed from the collected PIV images for long chord distances downstream. Wake vorticities and circulation are expressed in the wake composites. Comparison of the wake features of the three birds shows similarities and some key differences are also found. Wing tip motions of the birds are extracted for four continuous wing beat cycle to analyze the wing kinematics. Kinematic parameters of all the three birds are compared to each other and similar trends exhibited by all the birds have been observed. A correlation between the wake evolutions with the wing motion is presented. It was found that the wings' motion generates unique flow patterns at the near wake, especially at the transition phases. At these locations, a drastic change in the circulation was observed.

  15. Forewing-hindwing phase-lag effect in the propulsive performance of a four-winged flapping flyer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Mariana; Pradal, Daniel; Thiria, Benjamin; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2012-11-01

    We study experimentally a four-winged flapping flyer with chord-wise flexible wings in a self-propelled configuration. For a given physical configuration of the flyer (i.e. fixed distance between the forewing and hindwing pairs and fixed wing flexibility), we explore the kinematic parameter space constituted by the flapping frequency and the forewing-hindwing phase lag. Net thrust force, cruising speed and consumed electric power measurements were performed for each point in the (f , ϕ) parameter space. These results are analyzed in parallel with two-dimensional velocity field measurements obtained by time-resolved particle image velocimetry around a forewing-hindwing pair. We acknowledge support from the French National Research Agency through project No. ANR-08-BLAN-0099 and of EADS Foundation through project ''Fluids and elasticity in biomimetic propulsion''.

  16. Downwash measurements behind wings with detached float

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersohn, E

    1931-01-01

    This investigation, which was made in the small wind tunnel having a diameter of 1.2 m (3.94 feet), embraced three wing models, behind which, at various angles of attack between 0 and 60 degrees, the static pressure and the total pressure along vertical lines (perpendicular to the direction of the undisturbed wind and to the wing span) were measured. The location of these vertical lines are indicated in Figure 1. Moreover, the wing polars were determined by the customary three-component measurements. For testing the pressure field, a Pitot tube and a static probe, both of 2 mm (0.08 in.) in diameter, were mounted 40 mm (1.57 in.) apart on the end of a shaft 1 m (39.37 in.) long.

  17. General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, T.; Garrick, I. E.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of determining the two dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any shape is examined. The problem is condensed into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process. An attempt is made to analyze and coordinate the results of earlier studies relating to properties of wing sections. The existing approximate theory of thin wing sections and the Joukowski theory with its numerous generalizations are reduced to special cases of the general theory of arbitrary sections, permitting a clearer perspective of the entire field. The method which permits the determination of the velocity at any point of an arbitrary section and the associated lift and moments is described. The method is also discussed in terms for developing new shapes of preassigned aerodynamical properties.

  18. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  19. AD-1 multiple exposure showing wing sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This photograph is a multiple exposure showing the AD-1 aircraft with its wing swept at different angles between zero and 60 degrees. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last

  20. Wing-Body Aeroelasticity on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Byun, Chansup

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for computing the aeroelasticity of wing-body configurations on multiple-instruction, multiple-data parallel computers. In this procedure, fluids are modeled using Euler equations discretized by a finite difference method, and structures are modeled using finite element equations. The procedure is designed in such a way that each discipline can be developed and maintained independently by using a domain decomposition approach. A parallel integration scheme is used to compute aeroelastic responses by solving the coupled fluid and structural equations concurrently while keeping modularity of each discipline. The present procedure is validated by computing the aeroelastic response of a wing and comparing with experiment. Aeroelastic computations are illustrated for a high speed civil transport type wing-body configuration.

  1. Active Aeroelastic Tailoring of High-Aspect-Ratio Composite Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    34 - 26000 , ......... . . . ...... . . .... .. .......................... ... - - ----------- 21000 ... ........... ~0 50 LOAD... ISO 5: B s mission....f Figure 5: Basic mission profile 7 Figure 6: Baseline single-wing and joined-wing vehicles 3.1 Baseline vehicles Three sets

  2. FRONT DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. MECHANICS CHECK METAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. MECHANICS CHECK METAL CHIP DETECTOR ON RIGHT ENGINE. THE LEADING EDGE FLAPS ON THE RIGHT WING ARE DOWN PRIOR TO LUBRICATION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Structure analysis of the wing of a dragonfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Kenji; Shimanuki, J.

    2005-04-01

    It is considered that wing corrugation increases not only the warping rigidity but also the flexibility. The wing of a dragonfly has some characteristic structures, such as "Nodus", "Stigma". Nodus is located in the center of the leading edge, and stigma like a mark is located near the end of the wing. It is considered that these structures not only increase the flexibility of the wing, but also prevent fatigue fracture of wings. Therefore, to investigate the mechanism of dragonfly's wing, the configuration of wing used for analyses was measured using an optical coordinate profile measuring machine and a laser microscope. Moreover, several 3-D models of the dragonfly's wing were made, and calculated by the 3-D finite element method.

  4. View of intersection with west wall of north wing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection with west wall of north wing and north wall of west wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Lock 5 View west of wing walls and chamber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 5 - View west of wing walls and chamber with gate pockets visible. Note two small notches in brick at lower portion of wing walls - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. 11. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH WING OF TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH WING OF TECHWOOD DORMITORY. WEST FRONT OF SOUTH WING OBSCURED BY DEEP SHADE. - Techwood Homes, McDaniel Dormitory, 581-587 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2013-05-22

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications.

  8. Advanced composites wing study program. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, S. T.; Michaelson, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The effort necessary to achieve a state of production readiness for the design and manufacturing of advanced composite wing structure is outlined. Technical assessment and program options are also reviewed for the wing study results.

  9. 6. DETAIL OF MASONRY ON SOUTHWEST WING WALL. MASONRY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF MASONRY ON SOUTHWEST WING WALL. MASONRY ON WING WALLS IS LAID IN A RANDOM RUBBLE PATTERN. - Core Creek County Bridge, Spanning Core Creek, approximately 1 mile South of State Route 332 (Newtown Bypass), Newtown, Bucks County, PA

  10. Detail of northeast wing wall and guiderail. The section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast wing wall and guiderail. The section of the wing wall in the foreground is a historic extension of this element. - Chester County Bridge No. 225, Spanning Tweed Creek at Hopewell Road, Oxford, Chester County, PA

  11. Smithornis broadbills produce loud wing song by aeroelastic flutter of medial primary wing feathers.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Kirschel, Alexander N G; Hadjioannou, Louis; Prum, Richard O

    2016-04-01

    Broadbills in the genus Smithornis produce a loud brreeeeet during a distinctive flight display. It has been posited that this klaxon-like sound is generated non-vocally with the outer wing feathers (P9, P10), but no scientific studies have previously addressed this hypothesis. Although most birds that make non-vocal communication sounds have feathers with a shape distinctively modified for sound production, Smithornis broadbills do not. We investigated whether this song is produced vocally or with the wings in rufous-sided broadbill (S. rufolateralis) and African broad bill (S. capensis). In support of the wing song hypothesis, synchronized high-speed video and sound recordings of displays demonstrated that sound pulses were produced during the downstroke, subtle gaps sometimes appeared between the outer primary feathers P6-P10, and wing tip speed reached 16 m s(-1) Tests of a spread wing in a wind tunnel demonstrated that at a specific orientation, P6 and P7 flutter and produce sound. Wind tunnel tests on individual feathers P5-P10 from a male of each species revealed that while all of these feathers can produce sound via aeroelastic flutter, P6 and P7 produce the loudest sounds, which are similar in frequency to the wing song, at airspeeds achievable by the wing tip during display flight. Consistent with the wind tunnel experiments, field manipulations of P6, P7 and P8 changed the timbre of the wing song, and reduced its tonality, demonstrating that P6 and P7 are together the sound source, and not P9 or P10. The resultant wing song appears to have functionally replaced vocal song.

  12. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; McCullers, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a hybrid wing body (HWB) sizing and analysis capability, apply that capability to estimate the fuel burn potential for an HWB concept, and identify associated technology requirements. An advanced tube with wings concept was also developed for comparison purposes. NASA s Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) conceptual aircraft sizing and synthesis software was modified to enable the sizing and analysis of HWB concepts. The noncircular pressurized centerbody of the HWB concept was modeled, and several options were created for defining the outboard wing sections. Weight and drag estimation routines were modified to accommodate the unique aspects of an HWB configuration. The resulting capability was then utilized to model a proprietary Boeing blended wing body (BWB) concept for comparison purposes. FLOPS predicted approximately a 15 percent greater drag, mainly caused by differences in compressibility drag estimation, and approximately a 5 percent greater takeoff gross weight, mainly caused by the additional fuel required, as compared with the Boeing data. Next, a 777-like reference vehicle was modeled in FLOPS and calibrated to published Boeing performance data; the same mission definition was used to size an HWB in FLOPS. Advanced airframe and propulsion technology assumptions were applied to the HWB to develop an estimate for potential fuel burn savings from such a concept. The same technology assumptions, where applicable, were then applied to an advanced tube-with-wings concept. The HWB concept had a 39 percent lower block fuel burn than the reference vehicle and a 12 percent lower block fuel burn than the advanced tube-with-wings configuration. However, this fuel burn advantage is partially derived from assuming the high-risk technology of embedded engines with boundary-layer-ingesting inlets. The HWB concept does have the potential for significantly reduced noise as a result of the shielding advantages that are inherent

  13. 7. Interior view of open secretarial space looking toward offices ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of open secretarial space looking toward offices and exterior door; showing opened doorway to office; northwest corner of west wing; view to west. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Administration Office, 2704 George Drive, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  14. Interior view of first floor office space located in southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of first floor office space located in southeast corner of east wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Conical Euler simulation of wing rock for a delta wing planform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Unsteady, vortex-dominated flowfields are presently studied by using the conical Euler equations as an efficient first step toward investigation of the full three-dimensional problem, under the assumption that the supersonic flow about a delta wing is conical and therefore allows the three-dimensional problem to be reduced to a two-dimensional one. Attention is given to the case of a delta wing undergoing wing-rock motion. The code developed has also been modified to allow treatment of the 'free-to-roll' case.

  16. Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.

  17. Unsteady Flow Structure on Low Aspect Ratio Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-06

    4 EFFECT OF PITCH RATE ON NEAR-SURFACE TOPOLOGY ON A DELTA WING The near-surface flow structure and topology on a delta wing of...34Investigation of Flow Structure on a Pitching Delta Wing of Moderate Sweep Angle using Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry", October, 2008. * All...for inducement of flow reattachment, were in the range fC/U = 1 to 2. The present configuration is a substantial departure from a flat delta wing

  18. Design and Control of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    preferred solution for MAVs as the scale is reduced. 2.1 Flapping Wing Aerodynamics A hypothetical flapping wing can have up to four substantial DOF if...unsteady mechanisms depends on the forward velocity of the FWF. As the FWF speeds up , the flow over the Figure 2.1. Flapping wing kinematics...reversal and wing rotation [35, 58, 71, 72]. Therefore, similar to rapid pitch - up , wake capture is a mechanism through which the precise control of the

  19. Design and aerodynamic characteristics of a span morphing wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuemin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-03-01

    Flight vehicles are often designed to function around a primary operating point such as an efficient cruise or a high maneuverability mode. Performance and efficiency deteriorate rapidly as the airplane moves towards other portions of the flight envelope. One solution to this quandary is to radically change the shape of the aircraft. This yields both improved efficiency and a larger flight envelope. This global shape change is an example of morphing aircraft . One concept of morphing is the span morphing wing in which the wingspan is varied to accommodate multiple flight regimes. This type of design allows for at least two discreet modes of the aircraft. The original configuration, in which the extensible portion of the wing is fully retracted, yields a high speed dash mode. Fully extending the wing provides the aircraft with a low speed mode tailored for fine tracking and loiter tasks. This paper discusses the design of a span morphing wing that permits a change in the aspect ratio while simultaneously supporting structural wing loads. The wing cross section is maintained by NACA 4412 rib sections . The span morphing wing was investigated in different configurations. The wing area and the aspect ratio of the span morphing wing increase as the wings pan increases. Computational aerodynamics are used to estimate the performance and dynamic characteristics of each wing shape of this span morphing wing as its wingspan is changed. Results show that in order to obtain the same lift, the conventional wing requires a larger angle of attach(AOA) than that of the span morphing wing.The lift of the span morphing wing increases as the wing span ,Mach number and AOA increases.

  20. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  1. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  2. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  3. Enhanced flight characteristics by heterogeneous autorotating wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lionel; Zheng, Min; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the effect of mass distribution and flexibility on the descent motion of thin rectangular auto-rotating wings. We vary the wing thickness and material density under carefully controlled initial conditions. We focus in particular on the flight characteristics and how it affects the dispersion properties, namely, the flight duration, descent angle, and flight range. We found that altering the mass distribution along the auto-rotation axis generally leads to a diminution of aerodynamic characteristics, in agreement with previous studies. On the other hand, changing the mass distribution width-wise can lead to enhanced flight characteristics, from beneficial aerodynamic effects.

  4. Dynamic response of a piezoelectric flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Alok; Khandwekar, Gaurang; Venkatesh, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.; Dutta, S.

    2015-03-01

    Piezo-composite membranes have advantages over motorized flapping where frequencies are high and certain coupling between bending and twisting is useful to generate lift and forward flight. We draw examples of fruit fly and bumble bee. Wings with Piezo ceramic PZT coating are realized. The passive mechanical response of the wing is characterized experimentally and validated using finite element simulation. Piezoelectric actuation with uniform electrode coating is characterized and optimal frequencies for flapping are identified. The experimental data are used in an empirical model and advanced ratio for a flapping insect like condition for various angular orientations is estimated.

  5. Decoupler pylon: wing/store flutter suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for suspending a store from a support such as an aircraft wing and more specifically for increasing the flutter speed of an aircraft flying with attached store and reducing the sensitivity of flutter to changes in the pitch inertia and center of gravity location of the store is described. It comprises softspring where the store pitch mode is decoupled from support modes and a low frequency active control mechanism which maintains store alignment. A pneumatic suspension system both isolates the store in pitch and, under conditions of changing mean load, aligns the store with the wing to which it is attached.

  6. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  7. Wing resistance near the ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieselsberger, C

    1922-01-01

    In the present treatise, a convenient method will be indicated, which makes it possible to determine the polar curve of an airplane at short distances from the ground by a simple short calculation, when the polar curve is known for flight in unlimited space.

  8. Influence of Structural Flexibility on Flapping Wing Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    sexta planform computed using rigid wing motions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 Evolution of the leading edge vortex, starting vortex...curvature of the leading edge of the Hawkmoth wing when using multiple points of view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7 Evolution the...Upstroke Downstroke Supination PronationWing Stroke Cycle Figure 3: Evolution of the leading edge vortex, starting vortex, and stopping vortex during the

  9. Titanium honeycomb structure. [for supersonic aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. A.; Elrod, S. D.; Lovell, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A brazed titanium honeycomb sandwich system for supersonic transport wing cover panels provides the most efficient structure spanwise, chordwise, and loadwise. Flutter testing shows that high wing stiffness is most efficient in a sandwich structure. This structure also provides good thermal insulation if liquid fuel is carried in direct contact with the wing structure in integral fuel tanks.

  10. New investigation of short wings with lateral jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carafoli, E.; Camarasescu, N.

    1983-01-01

    The lift of short wings by means of lateral fluid jets fired in the plane of the wing in the direction of the span is described. After some theoretical considerations, the experimental results obtained in a wind tunnel on a series of wings of various lengths are presented.

  11. Aeroelastic Tailoring with Composites Applied to Forward Swept Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    wings a viable configo.-tion option for high perfotmance aircraft. Forward swept wings have an inherent -.endency to encounter a static aeroelastic...configuration option for high performance aircraft. Forward swept wings have an inherent tendency to encounter a static aeroelastic instability ialled divergence...conventional and super- critical airfoils. ....... ..................... 19 12 Static methods for subcritical divergence dynamic pressure projection. (a

  12. The costae presenting in high-temperature-induced vestigial wings of Drosophila: implications for anterior wing margin formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daxiang

    2007-04-01

    It has long been noted that high temperature produces great variation in wing forms of the vestigial mutant of Drosophila. Most of the wings have defects in the wing blade and partially formed wing margin, which are the result of autonomous cell death in the presumptive wing blade or costal region of the wing disc. The vestigial gene (vg) and the interaction of Vg protein with other gene products are well understood. With this biochemical knowledge, reinvestigations of the high-temperature-induced vestigial wings and the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying the large-scale variation of the wing forms may provide insight into further understanding of development of the wing of Drosophila. As a first step of such explorations, I examined high-temperature-induced (29 degrees C) vestigial wings. In the first part of this paper, I provide evidences to show that the proximal and distal costae in these wings exhibit regular and continuous variation, which suggests different developmental processes for the proximal and distal costal sections. Judging by the costae presenting in the anterior wing margin, I propose that the proximal and distal costal sections are independent growth units. The genes that regulate formation of the distal costal section also strongly affect proliferation of cells nearby; however, the same phenomenon has not been found in the proximal costal section. The distal costal section seems to be an extension of the radius vein. vestigial, one of the most intensely researched temperature-sensitive mutations, is a good candidate for the study of marginal vein formation. In the second part of the paper, I regroup the wing forms of these wings, chiefly by comparison of venation among these wings, and try to elucidate the variation of the wing forms according to the results of previous work and the conclusions reached in the first part of this paper, and provide clues for further researches.

  13. Computational wing optimization and comparisons with experiment for a semi-span wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Haney, H. P.; Ballhaus, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A computational wing optimization procedure was developed and verified by an experimental investigation of a semi-span variable camber wing model in the NASA Ames Research Center 14 foot transonic wind tunnel. The Bailey-Ballhaus transonic potential flow analysis and Woodward-Carmichael linear theory codes were linked to Vanderplaats constrained minimization routine to optimize model configurations at several subsonic and transonic design points. The 35 deg swept wing is characterized by multi-segmented leading and trailing edge flaps whose hinge lines are swept relative to the leading and trailing edges of the wing. By varying deflection angles of the flap segments, camber and twist distribution can be optimized for different design conditions. Results indicate that numerical optimization can be both an effective and efficient design tool. The optimized configurations had as good or better lift to drag ratios at the design points as the best designs previously tested during an extensive parametric study.

  14. Structural efficiency study of composite wing rib structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Gary D.; Gurdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A series of short stiffened panel designs which may be applied to a preliminary design assessment of an aircraft wing rib is presented. The computer program PASCO is used as the primary design and analysis tool to assess the structural efficiency and geometry of a tailored corrugated panel, a corrugated panel with a continuous laminate, a hat stiffened panel, a blade stiffened panel, and an unstiffened flat plate. To correct some of the shortcomings in the PASCO analysis when shear is present, a two step iterative process using the computer program VICON is used. The loadings considered include combinations of axial compression, shear, and lateral pressure. The loading ranges considered are broad enough such that the designs presented may be applied to other stiffened panel applications. An assessment is made of laminate variations, increased spacing, and nonoptimum geometric variations, including a beaded panel, on the design of the panels.

  15. Blue-winged teals swim in shallow water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A pair of blue-winged teals glide through the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Inhabiting marshes, shallow ponds and lakes from British Columbia, Quebec and Newfoundland to North Carolina, the Gulf Coast and southern California, the teal winters as far south as South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  16. Development of aerodynamic prediction methods for irregular planform wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B., Sr.

    1983-01-01

    A set of empirical methods was developed to predict low-speed lift, drag and pitching-moment variations with angle of attack for a class of low aspect ratio irregular planform wings suitable for application to advanced aerospace vehicles. The data base, an extensive series of wind-tunnel tests accomplished by the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is summarized. The approaches used to analyze the wind tunnel data, the evaluation of previously existing methods, data correlation efforts, and the development of the selected methods are presented and discussed. A summary of the methods is also presented to document the equations, computational charts and design guides which have been programmed for digital computer solution. Comparisons of predictions and test data are presented which show that the new methods provide a significant improvement in capability for evaluating the landing characteristics of advanced aerospace vehicles during the preliminary design phase of the configuration development cycle.

  17. Flexible Plug Repair for Shuttle Wing Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Sikora, Joseph; Smith, Russel; Rivers, H.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Fuller, Alan M.; Klacka, Robert; Reinders, Martin; Schwind, Francis; Sullivan, Brian; Lester, Dean

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, a plug repair kit has been developed to enable astronauts to repair the space shuttle's wing leading edge (WLE) during orbit. The plug repair kit consists of several 17.78- cm-diameter carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) cover plates of various curvatures that can be attached to the refractory carbon-carbon WLE panels using a TZM refractory metal attach mechanism. The attach mechanism is inserted through the damage in the WLE panel and, as it is tightened, the cover plate flexes to conform to the curvature of the WLE panel within 0.050 mm. An astronaut installs the repair during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After installing the plug repair, edge gaps are checked and the perimeter of the repair is sealed using a proprietary material, developed to fill cracks and small holes in the WLE.

  18. Heat pipes for wing leading edges of hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boman, B. L.; Citrin, K. M.; Garner, E. C.; Stone, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Wing leading edge heat pipes were conceptually designed for three types of vehicle: an entry research vehicle, aero-space plane, and advanced shuttle. A full scale, internally instrumented sodium/Hastelloy X heat pipe was successfully designed and fabricated for the advanced shuttle application. The 69.4 inch long heat pipe reduces peak leading edge temperatures from 3500 F to 1800 F. It is internally instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers to measure sodium vapor qualities. Large thermal gradients and consequently large thermal stresses, which have the potential of limiting heat pipe life, were predicted to occur during startup. A test stand and test plan were developed for subsequent testing of this heat pipe. Heat pipe manufacturing technology was advanced during this program, including the development of an innovative technique for wick installation.

  19. Transonic aerodynamic characteristics of a proposed wing-body reusable launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    A proposed wing-body reusable launch vehicle was tested in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14 x 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel during the winter of 1994. This test resulted in the vehicle's subsonic and transonic, Mach 0.3 to 1.96, longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics. The effects of control surface deflections on the basic vehicle's aerodynamics, including a body flap, elevons, ailerons, and tip fins, are presented.

  20. Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Proposed Wing Body Reusable Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A proposed wing body reusable launch vehicle was tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) 14 x 14 inch trisonic wind tunnel during the winter of 1994. this test resulted in the vehicle's subsonic and transonic (Mach 03 to 1.96) longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics. The effects of control surface deflections on the basic vehicle aerodynamics including a body flap, elevons, ailerons, and tip fins are presented.

  1. Fracture Mechanics Analyses of the Slip-Side Joggle Regions of Wing-Leading-Edge Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Phillips, Dawn R.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle wing-leading edge consists of panels that are made of reinforced carbon-carbon. Coating spallation was observed near the slip-side region of the panels that experience extreme heating. To understand this phenomenon, a root-cause investigation was conducted. As part of that investigation, fracture mechanics analyses of the slip-side joggle regions of the hot panels were conducted. This paper presents an overview of the fracture mechanics analyses.

  2. Aeroelastic modeling of the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Heeg, Jennifer; Bennett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary issues involved in the generation of linear, state-space equations of motion of a flexible wind tunnel model, the Active Flexible Wing (AFW), are discussed. The codes that were used and their inherent assumptions and limitations are also briefly discussed. The application of the CAP-TSD code to the AFW for determination of the model's transonic flutter boundary is included as well.

  3. Photonic Crystals on the Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    0.35 µm, causing a bluish reflection. The inner space of the barbules is filled with melanin pigment concentrated in rodlets that are neatly arranged...Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis. (A) Back feather barbs with mainly similar bluish color cells. Occasionally an aberrant cell with a different color (here...Wakakuwa M, Stavenga DG, Arikawa K (2007) Spectral organization of ommatidia in flower -visiting insects. Photochem Photobiol 83:27-34 5. Takemura

  4. An ingenious replica templated from the light trapping structure in butterfly wing scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwu; Niu, Shichao; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Junqiu; Yin, Wei; Ren, Luquan

    2013-08-01

    Although the physical mechanism of light trapping property of butterfly wings is well understood, it remains a challenge to create artificial replicas of these natural functional structures. Here, we synthesized a SiO2 inverse replica of a light trapping structure in butterfly wing scales using a method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. First, the reflectance spectrum was taken to measure the reflectivity. Then, FESEM and TEM were used to observe the coupling structure of scales and the replicas. Afterwards, assisted by SEM and TEM data, 3D optimized models of the structures and fabrication process were generated by software. Finally, the parametric comparisons of the morphologies and structures between the original template and the inverse SiO2 replica were carefully conducted, and it was found that the original structures of bio-templates were well inherited by the structures of the inverse replica. This work would open up possibilities for an extensive study of mimicking novel bio-inspired functional materials, and the reported biomimetic technique confirms the feasibility of extending the functional structures in butterfly wings to particular optical devices in the field of space exploration, space equipment, photoelectrical devices and photo-induced sensors.Although the physical mechanism of light trapping property of butterfly wings is well understood, it remains a challenge to create artificial replicas of these natural functional structures. Here, we synthesized a SiO2 inverse replica of a light trapping structure in butterfly wing scales using a method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. First, the reflectance spectrum was taken to measure the reflectivity. Then, FESEM and TEM were used to observe the coupling structure of scales and the replicas. Afterwards, assisted by SEM and TEM data, 3D optimized models of the structures and fabrication process were generated by software. Finally, the parametric

  5. Elements of the Wing Section Theory and of the Wing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1925-01-01

    This report contains those results of the theory of wings and of wing sections which are of immediate practical value. They are proved and demonstrated by the use of the simple conceptions of "kinetic energy" and "momentum" only, familiar to every engineer; and not by introducing "isogonal transformations" and "vortices," which latter mathematical methods are not essential to the theory and better are used only in papers intended for mathematicians and special experts.

  6. Simulation of transonic viscous wing and wing-fuselage flows using zonal methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Jolen

    1987-01-01

    The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are coupled with a zonal scheme (or domain-decomposition method) to develop the Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) wing-alone code. The TNS has a total of 4 zones and is extended to a total of 16 zones for the wing-fuselage version of the code. Results are compared on the Cray X-MP-48 and compared with experimental data.

  7. Adaptive wing and flow control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanewsky, E.

    2001-10-01

    The development of the boundary layer and the interaction of the boundary layer with the outer “inviscid” flow field, exacerbated at high speed by the occurrence of shock waves, essentially determine the performance boundaries of high-speed flight. Furthermore, flight and freestream conditions may change considerably during an aircraft mission while the aircraft itself is only designed for multiple but fixed design points thus impairing overall performance. Consequently, flow and boundary layer control and adaptive wing technology may have revolutionary new benefits for take-off, landing and cruise operating conditions for many aircraft by enabling real-time effective geometry optimization relative to the flight conditions. In this paper we will consider various conventional and novel means of boundary layer and flow control applied to moderate-to-large aspect ratio wings, delta wings and bodies with the specific objectives of drag reduction, lift enhancement, separation suppression and the improvement of air-vehicle control effectiveness. In addition, adaptive wing concepts of varying complexity and corresponding aerodynamic performance gains will be discussed, also giving some examples of possible structural realizations. Furthermore, penalties associated with the implementation of control and adaptation mechanisms into actual aircraft will be addressed. Note that the present contribution is rather application oriented.

  8. Can Wing Tip Vortices Be Accurately Simulated?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    additional tail buffeting.2 In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize vortex formation and reduce lift...air. In military applications, wing tip In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize increases with downstream distances.

  9. Permian insect wing from antarctic sentinel mountains.

    PubMed

    Tasch, P; Riek, E F

    1969-06-27

    A homopterous insect wing was found in micaceous graywacke from the Polarstar Formation, Sentinel Mountains. The unusual venation is reminiscent of family Stenoviciidae known from the Permian and Triassic of Eastern Australia and elsewhere. This first documented account of Paleozoic insects in Antarctica bears on drift questions.

  10. General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, T; Garrick, I E

    1934-01-01

    This report gives the exact treatment of the problem of determining the 2-dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any type. The treatment is based directly on the solution of this problem as advanced by Theodorsen in NACA-TR-411. The problem condenses into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process.

  11. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  12. Bat wing sensors support flight control

    PubMed Central

    Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne; Chadha, Mohit; Chiu, Chen; Falk, Ben; Xian, Wei; Barcelo, Janna; Zook, John M.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of powered flight, and they perform impressive aerial maneuvers like tight turns, hovering, and perching upside down. The bat wing contains five digits, and its specialized membrane is covered with stiff, microscopically small, domed hairs. We provide here unique empirical evidence that the tactile receptors associated with these hairs are involved in sensorimotor flight control by providing aerodynamic feedback. We found that neurons in bat primary somatosensory cortex respond with directional sensitivity to stimulation of the wing hairs with low-speed airflow. Wing hairs mostly preferred reversed airflow, which occurs under flight conditions when the airflow separates and vortices form. This finding suggests that the hairs act as an array of sensors to monitor flight speed and/or airflow conditions that indicate stall. Depilation of different functional regions of the bats’ wing membrane altered the flight behavior in obstacle avoidance tasks by reducing aerial maneuverability, as indicated by decreased turning angles and increased flight speed. PMID:21690408

  13. Applications of a transonic wing design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for designing wings and airfoils at transonic speeds using a predictor/corrector approach was developed. The procedure iterates between an aerodynamic code, which predicts the flow about a given geometry, and the design module, which compares the calculated and target pressure distributions and modifies the geometry using an algorithm that relates differences in pressure to a change in surface curvature. The modular nature of the design method makes it relatively simple to couple it to any analysis method. The iterative approach allows the design process and aerodynamic analysis to converge in parallel, significantly reducing the time required to reach a final design. Viscous and static aeroelastic effects can also be accounted for during the design or as a post-design correction. Results from several pilot design codes indicated that the method accurately reproduced pressure distributions as well as the coordinates of a given airfoil or wing by modifying an initial contour. The codes were applied to supercritical as well as conventional airfoils, forward- and aft-swept transport wings, and moderate-to-highly swept fighter wings. The design method was found to be robust and efficient, even for cases having fairly strong shocks.

  14. The Right-Wing Attack on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Walda Katz

    A personal evaluation is expressed on the changing role of women in the United States as a result of current social attitudes and of recent legislation regarding medical, economic, and educational matters. It is hypothesized that the United States is currently experiencing an extreme and growing right-wing political movement whose targets include…

  15. Hybrid Wing Body Configuration Scaling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration is a subsonic transport aircraft concept with the potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions compared to conventional concepts. Initial studies focused on very large applications with capacities for up to 800 passengers. More recent studies have focused on the large, twin-aisle class with passenger capacities in the 300-450 range. Efficiently scaling this concept down to the single aisle or smaller size is challenging due to geometric constraints, potentially reducing the desirability of this concept for applications in the 100-200 passenger capacity range or less. In order to quantify this scaling challenge, five advanced conventional (tube-and-wing layout) concepts were developed, along with equivalent (payload/range/technology) HWB concepts, and their fuel burn performance compared. The comparison showed that the HWB concepts have fuel burn advantages over advanced tube-and-wing concepts in the larger payload/range classes (roughly 767-sized and larger). Although noise performance was not quantified in this study, the HWB concept has distinct noise advantages over the conventional tube-and-wing configuration due to the inherent noise shielding features of the HWB. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project will continue to investigate advanced configurations, such as the HWB, due to their potential to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise and emissions.

  16. Winged scapula after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Christoph; Sodian, Ralf; Witt, Thomas N; Juchem, Gerd; Lang, Nora; Bruegger, Christian; Kowalski, Christian; Reichart, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    Iatrogenic nerve lesions affecting the long thoracic nerve are very rare after a median sternotomy. Here we report on a patient who developed clinical signs of a so-called "winged scapula" after an uneventful aortic valve replacement for infective endocarditis.

  17. Aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhdestvensky, Kirill V.; Ryzhov, Vladimir A.

    2003-11-01

    It is the objective of this survey to review research and development results of flapping-wing propulsors and of vehicles equipped with them. Given the complex and multi-disciplinary character of the problem, a wide range of questions is considered in order to provide a general idea of the state-of-the-art. The main attention is directed at the aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors. The major relevant mathematical models and the corresponding numerical results are presented together with the experimental data obtained up to the present time. Also, the physical and the design factors are discussed, which affect the aerohydrodynamic characteristics of flapping wings and that therefore have to be accounted for in the modern mathematical models. Experimental data and numerical modeling results are compared to determine domains of validity of the latter for the aerohydrodynamic design of full-scale air and marine vehicles. Also, existing engineering solutions for vehicles with flapping-wing propulsors are presented and prospective directions for future investigations are outlined.

  18. Reconfiguration control system for an aircraft wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakayama, Sean R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Independently deflectable control surfaces are located on the trailing edge of the wing of a blended wing-body aircraft. The reconfiguration control system of the present invention controls the deflection of each control surface to optimize the spanwise lift distribution across the wing for each of several flight conditions, e.g., cruise, pitch maneuver, and high lift at low speed. The control surfaces are deflected and reconfigured to their predetermined optimal positions when the aircraft is in each of the aforementioned flight conditions. With respect to cruise, the reconfiguration control system will maximize the lift to drag ratio and keep the aircraft trimmed at a stable angle of attack. In a pitch maneuver, the control surfaces are deflected to pitch the aircraft and increase lift. Moreover, this increased lift has its spanwise center of pressure shifted inboard relative to its location for cruise. This inboard shifting reduces the increased bending moment about the aircraft's x-axis occasioned by the increased pitch force acting normal to the wing. To optimize high lift at low speed, during take-off and landing for example, the control surfaces are reconfigured to increase the local maximum coefficient of lift at stall-critical spanwise locations while providing pitch trim with control surfaces that are not stall critical.

  19. Experimental results of a propeller/wing interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Robert T.; Sullivan, John P.; Witkowski, David P.

    1991-01-01

    Steady state measurements have been performed on a propellar and a wing in a tractor configuration, to investigate the consequences of mutual interference on overall performance. For certain geometries wing lift is found to be enhanced, and wing drag to be decreased. The unsteady nature of the propeller-wing aerodynamic interaction has been studied using flow visualization. Results obtained indicate that the tip vortex is severed at the wing leading edge, the severed tip vortex filaments shear in a spanwise direction relative to one another, and these displaced filaments deform to reconnect at the trailing edge.

  20. Aerodynamics on a transport aircraft type wing-body model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, V.

    1982-01-01

    The DFLR-F4 wing-body combination is studied. The 1/38 model is formed by a 9.5 aspect ratio transonic wing and an Airbus A 310 fuselage. The F4 wing geometrical characteristics are described and the main experimental results obtained in the S2MA wind tunnel are discussed. Both wing-fuselage interferences and viscous effects, which are important on the wing due to a high rear loading, are investigated by performing 3D calculations. An attempt is made to find their limitations.

  1. Steady-State Solution of a Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkehabadi, Reza; Chandra, Suresh; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh

    1997-01-01

    A fluid-structure interaction code, ENSAERO, has been used to compute the aerodynamic loads on a swept-tapered wing. The code has the capability of using Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. Both options have been used and compared in the present paper. In the calculation of the steady-state solution, we are interested in knowing how the flexibility of the wing influences the lift coefficients. If the results of a flexible wing are not affected by the flexibility of the wing significantly, one could consider the wing to be rigid and reduce the problem from fluid-structure interaction to a fluid problem.

  2. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  3. The evolution of wing color: male mate choice opposes adaptive wing color divergence in Colias butterflies.

    PubMed

    Ellers, Jacintha; Boggs, Carol L

    2003-05-01

    Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent selection on wing color across an elevational gradient in response to the thermal environment has led to increasing wing melanization at higher elevations. Wing color is also a long-range signal used by males in mate searching. We conducted experiments to test whether sexual selection on wing melanization via male mate choice acts in the same direction as natural selection on mate signals due to the thermal environment. We performed controlled mate choice experiments in the field over an elevational range of 1500 meters using decoy butterflies with different melanization levels. Also, we obtained a more direct estimate of the relation between wing color and sexual selection by measuring mating success in wild-caught females. Both our experiments showed that wing melanization is an important determinant of female mating success in C. p. eriphyle. However, a lack of elevational variation in male mate preference prevents coevolution of mate signals and mate preference, as males at all elevations prefer less-melanized females. We suggest that this apparently maladaptive mate choice may be maintained by differences in detectability between the morphs or by preservation of species recognition.

  4. Flutter analysis of swept-wing subsonic aircraft with parameter studies of composite wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Stein, M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is presented for the flutter analysis, including the effects of rigid-body roll, pitch, and plunge of swept-wing subsonic aircraft with a flexible fuselage and engines mounted on flexible pylons. The program utilizes a direct flutter solution in which the flutter determinant is derived by using finite differences, and the root locus branches of the determinant are searched for the lowest flutter speed. In addition, a preprocessing subroutine is included which evaluates the variable bending and twisting stiffness properties of the wing by using a laminated, balanced ply, filamentary composite plate theory. The program has been substantiated by comparisons with existing flutter solutions. The program has been applied to parameter studies which examine the effect of filament orientation upon the flutter behavior of wings belonging to the following three classes: wings having different angles of sweep, wings having different mass ratios, and wings having variable skin thicknesses. These studies demonstrated that the program can perform a complete parameter study in one computer run. The program is designed to detect abrupt changes in the lowest flutter speed and mode shape as the parameters are varied.

  5. Aerodynamic performance of a wing with a deflected tip-mounted reverse half-delta wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

    2012-11-01

    The impact of a tip-mounted 65°-sweep reverse half-delta wing (RHDW), set at different deflections, on the aerodynamic performance of a rectangular NACA 0012 wing was investigated experimentally at Re = 2.45 × 105. This study is a continuation of the work of Lee and Su (Exp Fluids 52(6):1593-1609, 2012) on the passive control of wing tip vortex by the use of a reverse half-delta wing. The present results show that for RHDW deflection with -5° ≤ δ ≤ +15°, the lift was found to increase nonlinearly with increasing δ compared to the baseline wing. The lift increment was accompanied by an increased total drag. For negative RHDW deflection with δ < -5°, the RHDW-induced lift decrement was, however, accompanied by an improved drag. The deflected RHDW also significantly modified and weakened the tip vortex, leading to a persistently lowered lift-induced drag, regardless of its deflection, compared to the baseline wing. Physical mechanisms responsible for the observed RHDW-induced phenomenon were also discussed.

  6. Forebody vortex control for suppressing wing rock on a highly-swept wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ayers, Bert; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1992-01-01

    Free-to-roll tests were conducted in a wind tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 and 30 deg. In general, the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. Various blowing techniques were evaluated as means of wing rock suppression. Blowing tangentially aft from leeward side nozzles near the forebody tip can damp the roll motion at low blowing rates and stop it completely at higher blowing rates. At the high rates, significant vortex asymmetries are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. Forward blowing and alternating right/left pulsed blowing appear to be more efficient techniques for suppressing wing rock. The oscillations can be damped almost completely at lower blowing coefficients, and, apparently, no major vortex asymmetries are induced. Good agreement is observed between this study and previous water tunnel tests on the same configuration.

  7. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Bush, Harold; Sutter, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis.

  8. 3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.

  9. Volumetric visualization of the near- and far-field wake in flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Cheng, Bo; Barbera, Giovanni; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan

    2013-09-01

    The flapping wings of flying animals create complex vortex wake structure; understanding its spatial and temporal distribution is fundamental to animal flight theory. In this study, we applied the volumetric 3-component velocimetry to capture both the near- and far-field flow generated by a pair of mechanical flapping wings. For the first time, the complete three-dimensional wake structure and its evolution throughout a wing stroke were quantified and presented experimentally. The general vortex wake structure maintains a quite consistent form: vortex rings in the near field and two shear layers in the far field. Vortex rings shed periodically from the wings and are linked to each other in successive strokes. In the far field, the shed vortex rings evolve into two parallel shear layers with dominant vorticity convected from tip and root vortices. The shear layers are nearly stationary in space compared to the periodic vortex rings shed in the near field. In addition, downwash passes through the centers of the vortex rings and extends downward between the two shear layers.

  10. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.W.; Bush, H.; Sutter, T.

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Fracture Mechanics Analyses of the Slip-Side Joggle Regions of Wing-Leading Edge Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Phillips, Dawn R.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wing comprises of 22 leading edge panels on each side of the wing. These panels are part of the thermal protection system that protects the Orbiter wings from extreme heating that take place on the reentry in to the earth atmosphere. On some panels that experience extreme heating, liberation of silicon carbon (SiC) coating was observed on the slip side regions of the panels. Global structural and local fracture mechanics analyses were performed on these panels as a part of the root cause investigation of this coating liberation anomaly. The wing-leading-edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels, Panel 9, T-seal 10, and Panel 10, are shown in Figure 1 and the progression of the stress analysis models is presented in Figure 2. The global structural analyses showed minimal interaction between adjacent panels and the T-seal that bridges the gap between the panels. A bounding uniform temperature is applied to a representative panel and the resulting stress distribution is examined. For this loading condition, the interlaminar normal stresses showed negligible variation in the chord direction and increased values in the vicinity of the slip-side joggle shoulder. As such, a representative span wise slice on the panel can be taken and the cross section can be analyzed using plane strain analysis.

  12. Polymer based flapping-wing robotic insect: Progress in design, fabrication, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, A.; Vanneste, T.; Soyer, C.; Paquet, J. B.; Grondel, S.; Cattan, E.

    2014-03-01

    In the last decade, many researchers pursued the development of tiny flying robots inspired by natural flyers destined for the exploration of confined spaces, for example. Within this context, our main objective is to devise a flying robot bioinspired from insect in terms of size and wing kinematics using MEMS technologies. For this purpose, an original design has been developed around resonant thorax and wings by the way of an indirect actuation and a concise transmission whereas the all-polymer prototypes are obtained using a micromachining SU-8 photoresist process. This paper reports our recent progress on the design of a flapping-wing robotic insect as well as on the characterization of its performance. Prototypes with a wingspan of 3 cm and a mass of 22 mg are achieved. Due to the introduction of an innovative compliant link, large and symmetrical bending angles of 70° are obtained at a flapping frequency of 30 Hz along with passive wing torsion while minimizing its energy expenditure. Furthermore, it leads to a mean lift force representing up to 75 % of the prototype weight as measured by an in-house force sensor. Different improvements are currently underway to increase the power-to-weight ratio of the prototype and to obtain an airborne prototype.

  13. Effects of wing leading-edge flap deflections on subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration with a 44 deg swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of wing leading-edge flap deflections on the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration with a 44 deg swept wing. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.85, corresponding to Reynolds numbers (based on wing mean geometric chord) of 2.37 x 1,000,000 to 4.59 x 1,000,000 and at angles of attack from -3 deg to 22 deg. The configurations under study included a wing-fuselage configuration and a wing-fuselage-strake configuration. Each configuration had multisegmented, constant-chord leading-edge flaps which could be deflected independently or in various combinations.

  14. Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.

  15. A comparison of trim drag for conventional and supercritical wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of the trim drag incurred by advanced supercritical wings and conventional wide-body wings at cruise conditions are investigated. Experiments were performed in a transonic pressure tunnel at a Mach number of 0.82 with a conventional wide-body wing and supercritical wing with high aspect ratio (9.80) using one of three low-tail configurations or two T-tail configurations in order to determine the effects of horizontal tail size, location, camber and static margin. Drag measurements indicate trim drag for the supercritical wing not to be significantly higher than for the conventional wing, although the minimum drag values for the supercritical wing occurred at lower static margins than for conventional wings. Both wings exhibited a reduction in trim drag with reduced cambered tail size, and greater minimum drag increments for cambered tails than for symmetrical tails. Lower trim-drag increments were also observed for the T-tail configuration than the low tails. The increase in lift-drag ratio for the supercritical wing over the conventional wing amounted to 11% for the best tail configurations.

  16. Multiple Cues for Winged Morph Production in an Aphid Metacommunity

    PubMed Central

    Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Zytynska, Sharon E.; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors can lead individuals down different developmental pathways giving rise to distinct phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity). The production of winged or unwinged morphs in aphids is an example of two alternative developmental pathways. Dispersal is paramount in aphids that often have a metapopulation structure, where local subpopulations frequently go extinct, such as the specialized aphids on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare). We conducted various experiments to further understand the cues involved in the production of winged dispersal morphs by the two dominant species of the tansy aphid metacommunity, Metopeurum fuscoviride and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria. We found that the ant-tended M. fuscoviride produced winged individuals predominantly at the beginning of the season while the untended M. tanacetaria produced winged individuals throughout the season. Winged mothers of both species produced winged offspring, although in both species winged offspring were mainly produced by unwinged females. Crowding and the presence of predators, effects already known to influence wing production in other aphid species, increased the percentage of winged offspring in M. tanacetaria, but not in M. fuscoviride. We find there are also other factors (i.e. temporal effects) inducing the production of winged offspring for natural aphid populations. Our results show that the responses of each aphid species are due to multiple wing induction cues. PMID:23472179

  17. Wing Flexion and Aerodynamics Performance of Insect Free Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Ren, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Wing flexion in flapping flight is a hallmark of insect flight. It is widely thought that wing flexibility and wing deformation would potentially provide new aerodynamic mechanisms of aerodynamic force productions over completely rigid wings. However, there are lack of literatures on studying fluid dynamics of freely flying insects due to the presence of complex shaped moving boundaries in the flow domain. In this work, a computational study of freely flying insects is being conducted. High resolution, high speed videos of freely flying dragonflies and damselflies is obtained and used as a basis for developing high fidelity geometrical models of the dragonfly body and wings. 3D surface reconstruction technologies are used to obtain wing topologies and kinematics. The wing motions are highly complex and a number of different strategies including singular vector decomposition of the wing kinematics are used to examine the various kinematical features and their impact on the wing performance. Simulations are carried out to examine the aerodynamic performance of all four wings and understand the wake structures of such wings.

  18. Preliminary study of effects of winglets on wing flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Farmer, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Some experimental flutter results are presented over a Mach number range from about 0.70 to 0.95 for a simple, swept, tapered, flat-plate wing model having a planform representative of subsonic transport airplanes and for the same wing model equipped with two different upper surface winglets. Both winglets had the same planform and area (about 2 percent of the basic-wing area); however, one weighed about 0.3 percent of the basic-wing weight, and the other weighed about 1.8 percent of the wing weight. The addition of the lighter winglet reduced the wing-flutter dynamic pressure by about 3 percent; the heavier winglet reduced the wing-flutter dynamic pressure by about 12 percent. The experimental flutter results are compared at a Mach number of 0.80 with analytical flutter results obtained by using doublet-lattice and lifting-surface (kernel-function) unsteady aerodynamic theories.

  19. Evolutionary genetics of dorsal wing colour in Colias butterflies.

    PubMed

    Ellers, J; Boggs, C L

    2004-07-01

    The evolution of butterfly wing colouration is strongly affected by its multiple functions and by the correlated evolution of wing colour elements. Both factors may prevent local adaptation to ecological conditions. We investigated one aspect of wing colouration, the degree of dorsal wing melanization, in the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle across an elevational gradient and its correlation with another aspect of wing colouration, ventral wing melanization. Dorsal wing melanization increased with elevation and these differences persisted in a common environment. Full-sibling analysis revealed high heritability for males but only intermediate heritability for females. The correlation between ventral and dorsal melanization showed significant elevational and sex-specific differences. In males the two traits were highly correlated, whereas in females the strength of the correlation decreased with increasing elevation. We conclude that uncoupling of ventral and dorsal melanization has evolved in females but not in males and discuss possible mechanisms underlying uncoupling.

  20. Survival of the fastest: Evolving wings for flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Mitchel, Thomas; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    To optimize flapping flight with regard to wing shape, we use an evolutionary or genetic algorithm to improve the forward speed of 3d-printed wings or hydrofoils that heave up-and-down and self-propel within water. In this scheme, ``genes'' are mathematical parameters specifying wing shape, and ``breeding'' involves the merging and mutation of genes from two parent wings to form a child. A wing's swimming speed is its ``fitness'', which dictates the likelihood of breeding and thus passing on its genes to the next generation. We find that this iterative process leads to marked improvements in relatively few generations, and several distinct shape features are shared among the fastest wings. We also investigate the favorable flow structures produced by these elite swimmers and compare their shape and performance to biologically evolved wings, fins, tails, and flippers.

  1. Multidisciplinary Design Investigation of Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Schetz, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    This final report summarizes the research done under NAG-1-1852, augmented by the additional concommitant research projects mentioned above. The transonic truss-braced wing is a highly integrated technology concept that has large potential payoffs including aircraft weight reduction and increased cruise performance. The operational benefits are a higher aspect ratio, lower thickness ratio, and lower wing weight compared to the conventional cantilever wing. The reduction in thickness allows the wing sweep to be reduced without incurring a transonic wave drag penalty and results in a further reduction of the wing weight. The reduced wing sweep also allows a larger percentage of the wing area to achieve natural laminar flow resulting in lower drag.

  2. Microstructures and Optical Properties of Scales of Butterfly Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Kinya; Funakawa, Masami; Takimoto, Jun-Ichi; Akimoto, Makio

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the mechanism generating the beautiful wing colors of various male butterflies and the relationship between the wing material and the color appearance. The microstructure of the scales covering the upper surface of the wings was analyzed with the aid of a scanning electron microscope. The basic mechanism of color generation of structurally colored scales is determined for the first time in accordance with the theory of optical interference in thin film layers using a model of wing scales. Optical properties were found in relation to the three-dimensional spectral reflectance of the samples, and differences were observed between the brightness perceived in subjective evaluations and calculated values based on the reflective spectra of the structurally colored wings. The results of this study suggest that the microroughness of the upper wing surface may influence the perceived gloss of structurally colored wings.

  3. Biomechanical Properties of Insect Wings: The Stress Stiffening Effects on the Asymmetric Bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma Beetle's Hind Wing

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings. PMID:24339878

  4. Biomechanical properties of insect wings: the stress stiffening effects on the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although the asymmetry in the upward and downward bending of insect wings is well known, the structural origin of this asymmetry is not yet clearly understood. Some researchers have suggested that based on experimental results, the bending asymmetry of insect wings appears to be a consequence of the camber inherent in the wings. Although an experimental approach can reveal this phenomenon, another method is required to reveal the underlying theory behind the experimental results. The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful tool for evaluating experimental measurements and is useful for studying the bending asymmetry of insect wings. Therefore, in this study, the asymmetric bending of the Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing was investigated through FEM analyses rather than through an experimental approach. The results demonstrated that both the stressed stiffening of the membrane and the camber of the wing affect the bending asymmetry of insect wings. In particular, the chordwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the ventral side, while the spanwise camber increased the rigidity of the wing when a load was applied to the dorsal side. These results provide an appropriate explanation of the mechanical behavior of cambered insect wings, including the bending asymmetry behavior, and suggest an appropriate approach for analyzing the structural behavior of insect wings.

  5. Effect of wing mass in free flight by a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing-body model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Okada, Iori; Yoshino, Masato

    2016-11-01

    The effect of wing mass in free flight of a flapping wing is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. We consider a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing-model consisting of two square wings with uniform mass density connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate free flights of the wing-body model with various mass ratios of the wing to the whole of the model. As a result, it is found that the lift and thrust forces decrease as the mass ratio increases, since the body with a large mass ratio experiences large vertical and horizontal oscillations in one period and consequently the wing tip speed relatively decreases. In addition, we find the critical mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight for various Reynolds numbers. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K18012.

  6. Fractal dimension in butterflies' wings: a novel approach to understanding wing patterns?

    PubMed

    Castrejón-Pita, A A; Sarmiento-Galán, A; Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-García, R

    2005-05-01

    The geometrical complexity in the wings of several, taxonomically different butterflies, is analyzed in terms of their fractal dimension. Preliminary results provide some evidence on important questions about the (dis)similarity of the wing patterns in terms of their fractal dimension. The analysis is restricted to two groups which are widely used in the literature as typical examples of mimicry, and a small number of unrelated species, thus implying the consideration of only a fraction of the wing pattern diversity. The members of the first mimicry ring, composed by the species Danaus plexippus (better known as the monarch butterfly), and the two subspecies Basilarchia archippus obsoleta (or northern viceroy) and Basilarchia archippus hoffmanni (or tropical viceroy), are found to have a very similar value for the fractal dimension of their wing patterns, even though they do not look very similar at first sight. It is also found that the female of another species (Neophasia terlootii), which looks similar to the members of the previous group, does not share the same feature, while the Lycorea ilione albescens does share it. For the members of the second group of mimicry related butterflies, the Greta nero nero and the Hypoleria cassotis, it is shown that they also have very close values for the fractal dimension of their wing patterns. Finally, it is shown that other species, which apparently have very similar wing patterns, do not have the same fractal dimension. A possible, not completely tested hypothesis is then conjectured: the formation of groups by individuals whose wing patterns have an almost equal fractal dimension may be due to the fact that they do share the same developmental raw material, and that this common feature is posteriorly modified by natural selection, possibly through predation.

  7. WINGDES2 - WING DESIGN AND ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    This program provides a wing design algorithm based on modified linear theory which takes into account the effects of attainable leading-edge thrust. A primary objective of the WINGDES2 approach is the generation of a camber surface as mild as possible to produce drag levels comparable to those attainable with full theoretical leading-edge thrust. WINGDES2 provides both an analysis and a design capability and is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The optimization can be carried out for designated wing portions such as leading and trailing edge areas for the design of mission-adaptive surfaces, or for an entire planform such as a supersonic transport wing. This program replaces an earlier wing design code, LAR-13315, designated WINGDES. WINGDES2 incorporates modifications to improve numerical accuracy and provides additional capabilities. A means of accounting for the presence of interference pressure fields from airplane components other than the wing and a direct process for selection of flap surfaces to approach the performance levels of the optimized wing surfaces are included. An increased storage capacity allows better numerical representation of those configurations that have small chord leading-edge or trailing-edge design areas. WINGDES2 determines an optimum combination of a series of candidate surfaces rather than the more commonly used candidate loadings. The objective of the design is the recovery of unrealized theoretical leading-edge thrust of the input flat surface by shaping of the design surface to create a distributed thrust and thus minimize drag. The input consists of airfoil section thickness data, leading and trailing edge planform geometry, and operational parameters such as Mach number, Reynolds number, and design lift coefficient. Output includes optimized camber surface ordinates, pressure coefficient distributions, and theoretical aerodynamic characteristics. WINGDES2 is written in FORTRAN V for batch execution and has been

  8. Space Station Freedom solar array design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Cindy; Bilger, Kevin; Baraona, Cosmo

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom solar array program is required to provide a 75-kW power module that uses eight solar array (SA) wings over a four-year period in low earth orbit (LEO). Each wing will be capable of providing 23.4 kW at the 4-yr design point. The design of flexible-substrate SAs that must survive exposure to the space environment, including atomic oxygen, for an operating life of fifteen years is discussed. The tradeoff study and development areas being investigated include solar cell module size, solar cell weld pads, panel stiffener frames, materials inherently resistant to atomic oxygen, and weight reduction design alternatives.

  9. Quantum Space-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    In general relativity space-time ends at singularities. The big bang is considered as the Beginning and the big crunch, the End. However these conclusions are arrived at by using general relativity in regimes which lie well beyond its physical domain of validity. Examples where detailed analysis is possible show that these singularities are naturally resolved by quantum geometry effects. Quantum space-times can be vastly larger than what Einstein had us believe. These non-trivial space-time extensions enable us to answer of some long standing questions and resolve of some puzzles in fundamental physics. Thus, a century after Minkowski's revolutionary ideas on the nature of space and time, yet another paradigm shift appears to await us in the wings.

  10. Study of cross-correlation signals in a data-driven approach for damage classification in aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Navarro, Jhonatan; Ruiz, Magda; Villamizar, Rodolfo; Mujica, Luis; Güemes, Alfredo; González-Requema, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses, experimental results of classifying several mass adding in a wing aircraft structure, using cross-correlated piezoelectric signals, represented by principal components. Piezoelectric signals are applied and recorded at specific points of the structure under analysis. Then, statistical features are obtained by means of principal component analysis to the correlation between excitation and response signals. Unsupervised learning is implemented to the reduced feature space, in order to identify clusters of damaged cases. The main result of this paper is the advantage resulting from using cross-correlated signals, evaluated through the performance of clustering indexes. Experimental data are collected from two test structures: i.) A turbine blade of a commercial aircraft and ii.) The skin panel of the torsion box of a wing. Damages are induced adding masses at different locations of the wing section surface. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the methodology to distinguish between different damage cases.

  11. Pressure distributions induced by elevon deflections on swept wings and adjacent end-plate surfaces at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Surface pressure distributions are presented for regions where three-dimensional separated flow effects are prominent on swept-wing-elevon-end-plate models of 0 degree, 50 degree, and 70 degree sweepback, and with 0 degree, 10 degree, 20 degree, and 30 degree elevon deflections. Surface-oil-flow photographs and pressure distributions on the flat-plate wing, elevon, and end-plate surfaces are presented for numerous geometric variations, including various spacings between the elevon and the end plate, with and without a tip fin. The data, for a free-stream Mach number of 6 and a wing-root-chord Reynolds number of 20 x 10 to the sixth power, reveal considerably larger regions of elevon induced loads on the adjacent end-plate surface than would be anticipated by using inviscid flow analyses.

  12. SpaRibs Geometry Parameterization for Wings with Multiple Sections using Single Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De, Shuvodeep; Jrad, Mohamed; Locatelli, Davide; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Baker, Myles; Pak, Chan-Gi

    2017-01-01

    The SpaRibs topology of an aircraft wing has a significant effect on its structural behavior and stability as well as the flutter performance. The development of additive manufacturing techniques like Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF3) has made it feasible to manufacture aircraft wings with curvilinear spars, ribs (SpaRibs) and stiffeners. In this article a new global-local optimization framework for wing with multiple sections using curvilinear SpaRibs is described. A single design space is used to parameterize the SpaRibs geometry. This method has been implemented using MSC-PATRAN to create a broad range of SpaRibs topologies using limited number of parameters. It ensures C0 and C1 continuities in SpaRibs geometry at the junction of two wing sections with airfoil thickness gradient discontinuity as well as mesh continuity between all structural components. This method is advantageous in complex multi-disciplinary optimization due to its potential to reduce the number of design variables. For the global-local optimization the local panels are generated by an algorithm which is totally based on a set algebra on the connectivity matrix data. The great advantage of this method is that it is completely independent of the coordinates of the nodes of the finite element model. It is also independent of the order in which the elements are distributed in the FEM. The code is verified by optimizing of the CRM Baseline model at trim condition at Mach number equal to 0.85 for five different angle of attack (-2deg, 0deg,2deg,4deg and 6deg). The final weight of the wing is 19,090.61 lb. This value is comparable to that obtained by Qiang et al. 6 (19,269 lb).

  13. Aerodynamic role of dynamic wing morphing in hummingbird maneuvering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Shallcross, Gregory; Dong, Haibo; Deng, Xinyan; Tobalske, Bret; Flow Simulation Research Group Team; Bio-robotics lab Collaboration; University of Montana Flight Laboratory Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The flexibility and deformation of hummingbird wing gives hummingbird a great degree of control over fluid forces in flapping flight. Unlike insect wing's passive deformation, hummingbird wing employs a more complicated wing morphing mechanism through both active muscle control and passive feather-air interaction, which results in highly complex 3D wing topology variations during the unsteady flight. Three camera high speed (1000 fps) high resolution digital video was taken and digitized to measure 3D wing conformation in all its complexity during steady flying and maneuvering. Results have shown that the dynamic wing morphing is more prominent in maneuvering flight. Complicated cambering and twisting patterns are observed along the wing pitching axis. A newly developed immersed boundary method which realistically models wing-joint-body of the hummingbird is then employed to simulate the flow associated with dynamic morphing. The simulations provide a first of its kind glimpse of the fluid and vortex dynamics associated with dynamic wing morphing and aerodynamic force computations allow us to gain a better understanding of force producing mechanisms in hummingbird maneuvering flight. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-12-1-007 and NSF CEBT-1313217.

  14. A pigeon-inspired design for a biomimetic flapping wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Nguyen, Quoc Viet; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2010-04-01

    As an effort to explore the potential implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing, a biomimetic flapper with separable outer wings has been designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented to the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging and feather separation of the flapper are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the biomimetic flapper with separable outer wings is compared with that of a flapper with inseparable outer wings in terms of lift and thrust production. For low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 Hz to 3.90 Hz, the biomimetic flapper shows higher thrust and lift generation capability, which is demonstrated from a series of experiments. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separable wing are able to deform largely resulting smaller amount of drag production during upstroke, while still producing relatively larger lift and thrust during downstroke.

  15. Upstroke wing flexion and the inertial cost of bat flight.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Bergou, Attila; Breuer, Kenneth S; Swartz, Sharon M

    2012-08-07

    Flying vertebrates change the shapes of their wings during the upstroke, thereby decreasing wing surface area and bringing the wings closer to the body than during downstroke. These, and other wing deformations, might reduce the inertial cost of the upstroke compared with what it would be if the wings remained fully extended. However, wing deformations themselves entail energetic costs that could exceed any inertial energy savings. Using a model that incorporates detailed three-dimensional wing kinematics, we estimated the inertial cost of flapping flight for six bat species spanning a 40-fold range of body masses. We estimate that folding and unfolding comprises roughly 44 per cent of the inertial cost, but that the total inertial cost is only approximately 65 per cent of what it would be if the wing remained extended and rigid throughout the wingbeat cycle. Folding and unfolding occurred mostly during the upstroke; hence, our model suggests inertial cost of the upstroke is not less than that of downstroke. The cost of accelerating the metacarpals and phalanges accounted for around 44 per cent of inertial costs, although those elements constitute only 12 per cent of wing weight. This highlights the energetic benefit afforded to bats by the decreased mineralization of the distal wing bones.

  16. An aerodynamic tradeoff study of the scissor wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selberg, Bruce P.; Rokhsaz, Kamran; Housh, Clinton S.

    1990-01-01

    A scissor wing configuration, consisting of two independently sweeping wings was numerically studied. This configuration was also compared with an equivalent fixed wing baseline. Aerodynamic and stability and control characteristics of these geometries were investigated over a wide range of flight Mach numbers. It is demonstrated that in the purely subsonic flight regime, the scissor wing can achieve higher aerodynamic efficiency as the result of slightly higher aspect ratio. In the transonic regime, the lift to drag ratio of the scissor wing is shown to be higher than that of the baseline, for higer values of the lift coefficient. This tends to make the scissor wing more efficient during transonic cruise at high altitudes as well as during air combat at all altitudes. In supersonic flight, where the wings are maintained at maximum sweep angle, the scissor wing is shown to have a decided advantage in terms of reduced wave drag. From the view point of stability and control, the scissor wing is shown to have distinct advantages. It is shown that this geometry can maintain a constant static margin in supersonic as well as subsonic flight, by proper sweep scheduling. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that addition of wing mounted elevons can greatly enhance control authority in pitch and roll.

  17. Origin and diversification of wings: Insights from a neopteran insect.

    PubMed

    Medved, Victor; Marden, James H; Fescemyer, Howard W; Der, Joshua P; Liu, Jin; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2015-12-29

    Winged insects underwent an unparalleled evolutionary radiation, but mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of wings in basal insects are sparsely known compared with more derived holometabolous insects. In the neopteran species Oncopeltus fasciatus, we manipulated wing specification genes and used RNA-seq to obtain both functional and genomic perspectives. Combined with previous studies, our results suggest the following key steps in wing origin and diversification. First, a set of dorsally derived outgrowths evolved along a number of body segments including the first thoracic segment (T1). Homeotic genes were subsequently co-opted to suppress growth of some dorsal flaps in the thorax and abdomen. In T1 this suppression was accomplished by Sex combs reduced, that when experimentally removed, results in an ectopic T1 flap similar to prothoracic winglets present in fossil hemipteroids and other early insects. Global gene-expression differences in ectopic T1 vs. T2/T3 wings suggest that the transition from flaps to wings required ventrally originating cells, homologous with those in ancestral arthropod gill flaps/epipods, to migrate dorsally and fuse with the dorsal flap tissue thereby bringing new functional gene networks; these presumably enabled the T2/T3 wing's increased size and functionality. Third, "fused" wings became both the wing blade and surrounding regions of the dorsal thorax cuticle, providing tissue for subsequent modifications including wing folding and the fit of folded wings. Finally, Ultrabithorax was co-opted to uncouple the morphology of T2 and T3 wings and to act as a general modifier of hindwings, which in turn governed the subsequent diversification of lineage-specific wing forms.

  18. Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of subsonic wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Frink, N. T.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical strake design procedure is investigated. A numerical solution to the governing strake design equation is used to generate a series of strakes which are tested in a water tunnel to study their vortex breakdown characteristics. The strakes are scaled for use on a half-scale model of the NASA-LaRC general research fuselage with a 44 degrees trapezoidal wing. An analytical solution to the governing design equation is obtained. The strake design procedure relates the potential-flow leading-edge suction and pressure distributions to vortex stability. Several suction distributions are studied and those which are more triangular and peak near the tip generate strakes that reach higher angles of attack before vortex breakdown occurs at the wing trailing edge. For the same suction distribution, a conical rather than three dimensional pressure specification results in a better strake shape as judged from its vortex breakdown characteristics.

  19. Wing Leading Edge Joint Laminar Flow Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Westphal, Russell V.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.

    1996-01-01

    An F-104G aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been equipped with a specially designed and instrumented test fixture to simulate surface imperfections of the type likely to be present near the leading edge on the wings of some laminar flow aircraft. The simulated imperfections consisted of five combinations of spanwise steps and gaps of various sizes. The unswept fixture yielded a pressure distribution similar to that of some laminar flow airfoils. The experiment was conducted at cruise conditions typical for business-jets and light transports: Mach numbers were in the range 0.5-0.8, and unit Reynolds numbers were 1.5-2.5 million per foot. Skin friction measurements indicated that laminar flow was often maintained for some distance downstream of the surface imperfections. Further work is needed to more precisely define transition location and to extend the experiments to swept-wing conditions and a broader range of imperfection geometries.

  20. Wing Shape Sensing from Measured Strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2015-01-01

    A new two step theory is investigated for predicting the deflection and slope of an entire structure using strain measurements at discrete locations. In the first step, a measured strain is fitted using a piecewise least squares curve fitting method together with the cubic spline technique. These fitted strains are integrated twice to obtain deflection data along the fibers. In the second step, computed deflection along the fibers are combined with a finite element model of the structure in order to extrapolate the deflection and slope of the entire structure through the use of System Equivalent Reduction and Expansion Process. The theory is first validated on a computational model, a cantilevered rectangular wing. It is then applied to test data from a cantilevered swept wing model.