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Sample records for 30th street landfill

  1. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  2. 8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzman, C.; Hayes, M.; Singer, J.; Highland, J.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess.

  7. Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.

    PubMed Central

    Hertzman, C; Hayes, M; Singer, J; Highland, J

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is

  8. Assessment of soil-gas contamination at the 17th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of contaminants in soil gas were conducted in two study areas at Fort Gordon, Georgia, in July and August of 2011 to supplement environmental contaminant data for previous studies at the 17th Street landfill. The two study areas include northern and eastern parts of the 17th Street landfill and the adjacent wooded areas to the north and east of the landfill. These study areas were chosen because of their close proximity to the surface water in Wilkerson Lake and McCoys Creek. A total of 48 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the July 28 to August 3, 2011, assessment in the eastern study area. The assessment mostly identified detections of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and gasoline- and diesel-range compounds, but also identified the presence of chlorinated solvents in six samplers, chloroform in three samplers, 2-methyl naphthalene in one sampler, and trimethylbenzene in one sampler. The TPH masses exceeded 0.02 microgram (μg) in all 48 samplers and exceeded 0.9 μg in 24 samplers. Undecane, one of the three diesel-range compounds used to calculate the combined mass for diesel-range compounds, was detected in 17 samplers and is the second most commonly detected compound in the eastern study area, exceeded only by the number of TPH detections. Six samplers had detections of toluene, but other gasoline compounds were detected with toluene in three of the samplers, including detections of ethylbenzene, meta- and para-xylene, and octane. All detections of chlorinated organic compounds had soil-gas masses equal to or less than 0.08 μg, including three detections of trichloroethene, three detections of perchloroethene, three chloroform detections, one 1,4-dichlorobenzene detection, and one 1,1,2-trichloroethane detection. Three methylated compounds were detected in the eastern study area, but were detected at or below method detection levels. A total of 32 soil-gas samplers were deployed for the August 11–24, 2011, assessment in the northern study

  9. 30th Arniversary Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Marking the occasion of the Apollo 11 30th Anniversary, members of the Apollo and Saturn astronaut programs attended festivities at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. A press conference was held at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center for the visiting astronauts. Pictured are (L/R): Edgar Mitchell, Walt Cunningham, Charlie Duke, Buzz Aldrin, Dick Gordon and Owen Garriott.

  10. 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Obie H., Jr. (Compiler); Rogers, John F. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. NASA Langley Research Center hosted the proceedings held at the Radisson Hotel in Hampton, Virginia on May 15-17, 1996, and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Company, Inc. co-sponsored the symposium. Technological areas covered include bearings and tribology; pointing, solar array, and deployment mechanisms; orbiter/space station; and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  11. Public health assessment for Agriculture Street Landfill, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, Region 6: CERCLIS number LAD981056997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-02

    Agriculture Street Landfill (ASL) is a former landfill that has been developed in part for residential use. Site contaminants have been detected in soil, dust, air, and garden produce. Residents may be exposed to site contaminants through ingestion, skin contact, or breathing. The primary contaminants are metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. The undeveloped area of the site has been classified as a public health hazard. The highest levels of contaminants have been detected in the undeveloped area. The majority of the residential area and the Press Park Community Center have been classified as no apparent public health hazard since the levels of contaminants in the soil are generally below levels of health concern. Based on the data reviewed, it is recommended that measures be taken to limit residents' exposure to areas where soil is contaminated at levels of health concern.

  12. Public health assessment for South 8th Street Landfill (A/K/A West Memphis Landfill), West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas, Region 6. Cerclis No. ARD980496723. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-22

    The South 8th Street Landfill site is located along South 8th Street on the west bank of the Mississippi River in West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas. Previous studies and environmental sampling indicate that various wastes disposed of at the South 8th Street Landfill have contaminated the site with a number of contaminants including VOCs, PAHs, phenols, PCBs, pesticides, and heavy metals. Exposure to surface soil contaminants would have occurred through skin contact and incidental ingestion. In addition, persons who used the on-site pond for recreational activities (such as wading and swimming) were likely exposed to contaminants in the surface water and sediments through skin contact and incidental ingestion; and persons who consumed fish caught in the pond were likely exposed to contaminants (primarily mercury) in the fish.

  13. Public health assessment for Michigan Disposal Service (Cork Street Landfill), Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID000775957. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-19

    The Michigan Disposal Service (Cork Street Landfill) site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Priorities List (NPL) in February 1990. The site is a 68-acre landfill, which served as an open dump, accepting household and industrial waste from 1925 to 1968. An incinerator also operated on the site for many years during this period. The groundwater at the site has been found to be contaminated with metals, including lead and arsenic, and various volatile organic chemicals, including benzene. The site poses an indeterminate public health hazard. There are several pathways by which people may be exposed to the contaminants, but there is no evidence that significant exposure has occurred.

  14. 30th Apollo Lunar Landing Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The evening skies over the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL burst into life as members of the Huntsville community gathered to celebrate the 30th arniversary of the Lunar Landing. Commerating this historical achievement for NASA and the US Space Program, a replica of the original Saturn V rocket was built on the grounds of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. On the evening of the anniversary thousands of onlookers cheered as fireworks lit up the night sky behind the massive Saturn V rocket.

  15. Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect

  16. Leaky Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background information on landfills and describes an activity where students learn how a modern landfill is constructed and develop an understanding of the reasons for several regulations regarding modern landfill construction. Students design and construct working models of three types of landfills. (PR)

  17. A bill to redesignate the railroad station located at 2955 Market Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, commonly known as "30th Street Station", as the "William H. Gray 30th Street Station".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2014-07-10

    07/10/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4838, which became Public Law 113-158 on 8/8/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. The 30th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek; Mahbub, Selim; Matevosyan, Hrayr; Thomas, Anthony; Williams, Anthony; Young, Ross; Zanotti, James

    Lattice 2012, the 30th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory was held in Cairns, Australia from Sunday the 24th of June to Friday the 29th June 2012. It was held at the Cairns Convention Centre, providing world-class facilities in a beautiful location. Fine weather and easy access to world heritage attractions including the Great Barrier Reef and the Wet Tropics Rainforests made for an extraordinary experience. The conference was organised by the Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM) in the School of Chemistry & Physics at the University of Adelaide. More than 285 participants from around the world attended the symposium. The scientific program contained 22 plenary talks and 248 parallel contributions including posters. Most of these are recorded in this proceedings. For 30 years, the Lattice meeting has provided researchers from around the world with an annual forum at which to disseminate and discuss ideas, developments and opportunities in the study of relativistic quantum fields regulated on a spacetime lattice. It fosters the exchange of ideas, networking, and builds relationships between researchers that are essential in facilitating rapid progress and the creation of new knowledge. The program included plenary talks, parallel talks and poster presentations on Algorithms and machines, Applications beyond QCD, Chiral symmetry, Hadron spectroscopy and interactions, Hadron structure, Nonzero temperature and density, Standard model parameters and renormalization, Theoretical developments, Vacuum structure and confinement and Weak decays and matrix elements. The International Advisory Committee provided excellent guidance in planning the scientific program of the conference and we thank the Committee for their important contributions. Thanks also to our presenters for the time and effort they put into preparing their talks and their proceedings. Many thanks to our Conference Secretariat, Sharon Johnson, Silvana Santucci

  19. Introduction to the 30th volume of Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Alfred K.

    2014-01-01

    challenging research domains in condensed form. The diversity of the different topics is especially impressive. The 25th anniversary of Inverse Problems was celebrated with a service to the community, the publication of an issue of topical reviews selected by board members, which presented the achievements and state-of-the-art of the field. The 30th birthday of the journal is now approaching and we found it appropriate to include in the celebration the scientific community that supports the journal by their submissions. A conference, IPTA 2014: Inverse Problems - From Theory to Application (http://ipta2014.iopconfs.org/home), will be held in the home town of our publisher, IOP Publishing, in Bristol on 26-28 August 2014. The conference brings together top researchers, both from academia and industry, and will look at the scientific future of the field. Presentations by keynote speakers, which summarize what the board considers to be new trends, are complemented by contributions submitted by specialists and younger researchers in several minisymposia. To build a bridge to the future generation of researchers, a scientist at the beginning of their career will be giving a lecture. Let me finish with cordial thanks to all of our authors, referees, the members of the Editorial Board and International Advisory Panel, and the publishing team. I wish all of you a successful and healthy New Year and hope to meet many of you in August in Bristol. References [1] Sabatier P C 2012 Rêves et Combats d'un Enseignant-Chercheur, Retour Inverse (Paris: L'Harmattan)

  20. Landfill Methane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  1. Changing face of the landfill

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Integrated approach at Oregon landfill diverts wood and yard trimmings, while turning methane into power for 1,800 homes. Opened in the 1940`s as an open burn dump, Coffin Butte has evolved over the years into a sophisticated waste management facility incorporating ambitious recovery programs. While some of this change has been driven by regulatory demands, many of Valley Landfill`s innovations have come in response to market opportunities. Valley Landfill`s Processing and Recovery Center (PRC) is located a half mile down the road from the landfill site. Opened in 1990, the facility recycles urban wood waste, yard trimmings and street sweepings. The heart of this operation is a 500 hp horizontal feed, fixed-hammer grinder. Although this machine is typically used only for wood grinding, PRC was able to adapt it to handle both wood and yard trimmings by installing special feed roll assembly to compress green waste passing over the infeed belt. The facility handles approximately 40,000 cubic yards of loose green material and produces 15,000 to 18,000 yards of compost. The finished product is run through a trommel with a 5/8 inch mesh screen. Most of the compost is sold in bulk to area garden centers. A portion is processed through a 3/8 inch shaker screen and sold to a local company for use in bagged soil products. Valley Landfill is a partner in an ambitious project to generate electricity from landfill biogas.

  2. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... several events associated with the Oyster Bay Oyster Festival. The Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay... Festival 30th Anniversary fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  3. Street Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnecker, Jurgen

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that social scientists undertake research on the role of the street as an institution of youth education and socialization. Discusses related literature and presents information on a project undertaken on street socialization in some of the old town quarters of Wiesbaden, Germany from 1975-1978. (DB)

  4. 14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. ATLAS VEHICLE BEING PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3E. NOTE EXTERNAL SHEATHING AND CUPOLA ON MOBILE SERVICE TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. THRUST AUGMENTED THOR PREPARED FOR LAUNCH FROM SLC-3W. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph in possession of 30th Audiovisual Squadron, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California). Photography by United States Air Force, date unknown. LAUNCH OF AN ATLAS FROM SLC-3. MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST) IN PARKED POSITION. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. JANNAF 30th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee Meeting. Volume I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. L. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 30th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee Meeting, held on 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The papers presented herein reflect work performed in the areas of green energetic materials (GEM) development; liquid and gel propellant development; propellant surveillance and aging; and propellant chemistry test methods.

  8. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that are abused How can street drugs harm your pregnancy? Using street drugs can cause problems ... drugs that are abused How can street drugs harm your pregnancy? Using street drugs can cause problems ...

  9. N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    N. River Street, east side of street at Sound End - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  10. The 30th Anniversary of the First Reported Cases of AIDS | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: 30 Years of AIDS Research The 30th Anniversary of the First Reported Cases of AIDS Past Issues / Summer ... Contents Dr. Jack Whitescarver Dr. Anthony S. Fauci In the 30 years since the first reported cases of ...

  11. Cleaner Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Osmotek, Inc. developed the Direct Osmosis treatment system through SBIR funding from Ames Research Center. Using technology originally developed for flight aboard the Space Station, the company brought it to their commercial water purification treatment system, Direct Osmosis. This water purification system uses a direct osmosis process followed by a reverse osmosis treatment. Because the product extracts water from a waste product, Osmotek is marketing the unit for use in landfills. The system can treat leachate (toxic chemicals leached into a water source), by filtering the water and leaving behind the leahcate. The leachate then becomes solidified into substance that can not seep into water.

  12. Proceedings of the X-15 First Flight 30th Anniversary Celebration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technical symposium and pilot's panel discussion were held on June 8, 1989, to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the first free flight of the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, manufacturing, and flight research program activities. The X-15's technical contributions to the X-30 are cited. The panel discussion participants included seven of the eight surviving research pilots who flew the X-15 experimental aircraft to world altitude and speed records which still stand. Pilot's remarks include descriptions of their most memorable X-15 flight experience. The report also includes a historical perspective of the X-15.

  13. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting held 1-3 December 1998 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel at Reston Town Center, Reston, Virginia. Papers are in the following categories: 1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based atomic frequency standards, and in trapped-ion and space clock technology; 2) National and international applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on GPS and GLONASS timing, atomic time scales, and telecommunications; 3) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military navigation and communication systems; geodesy; aviation; and pulsars; and 4) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, geosynchronous communication satellites, computer networks, WAAS, and LORAN.

  14. 626628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626628 North Eutaw Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    626-628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626-628 North Eutaw Street & 400-412 Druid Hill Avenue on a block bounded by North Eutaw Street, George Street, Jaspar Street, & Druid Hill Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Learning from Landfills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which students developed an all-class laboratory activity called "The Decomposition of Organic and Inorganic Substances in a Landfill". Explores what conditions are necessary to facilitate decomposition in a landfill. (SAH)

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education (30th, Lubbock, Texas, July 21-23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepica, M. J.; And Others

    These proceedings contain 20 presentations and reports made during the 30th Annual Research Conference in Agricultural Education in Lubbock, Texas. The keynote address on importance of research to agricultural education is followed by 16 research papers reporting on analysis of student teacher morale before and after student teaching;…

  18. 30th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act," 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This is the 30th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2008. Section 664(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as reauthorized in 2004, requires that the Department of Education report annually on the progress made toward the provision of a free appropriate…

  19. A Report on the 30th Annual Conference of the International Association of Scientific and Technological University Libraries (IATUL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Manorama

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to report on the 30th IATUL Annual Conference held in Leuven, Belgium, 1-4 June, 2009. Design/methodology/approach: The paper summarises the major themes of the conference as well as giving some specific details of developments at the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India, which supplement the author's…

  20. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  1. Landfill disposal systems.

    PubMed

    Slimak, K M

    1978-12-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated.A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  2. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  3. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  4. PREFACE: 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Lebedev, S.

    2003-12-01

    The 30th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics took place in St Petersburg, Russian Federation, on 7th--11th July 2003. It was jointly organized by the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, the St Petersburg State Polytechnical University and Technical University Applied Physics Ltd, on behalf of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society (EPS). The members of the local organizing committee were drawn from these institutions: B Kuteev, Chair, Polytechnical University S Lebedev, Vice-Chair, Ioffe Institute A Lebedev, Scientific Secretary, Ioffe Institute V Bakharev, TUAP Ltd V Grigor'yants, Ioffe Institute V Sergeev, Polytechnical University N Zhubr, Ioffe Institute Over the years, the annual conference of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society has widened its scope. Contributions to the present conference covered widely diversified fields of plasma physics, ranging from magnetic and inertial fusion to low temperature plasmas. Plasma sizes under investigation ranged from tiny to astronomical. The topics covered during the conference were distributed over the following categories: tokamaks, stellarators, high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement, alternative magnetic confinement, plasma edge physics, plasma heating and current drive, diagnostics, basic plasma physics, astrophysical and geophysical plasmas and low temperature plasmas. The scientific programme and paper selection were the responsibility of the Programme Committee appointed by the Board of the EPS Plasma Physics Division. The committee was composed of: R Koch, Chairman, ERM/KMS Brussels, Belgium E Ascasibar, CIEMAT Madrid, Spain S Atzeni, Università di Roma, Italy G Bonhomme, LPMI Nancy, France C Chiuderi, Università di Firenze, Italy B Kuteev, St Petersburg State Polytechnical,University, Russian Federation M Mauel, Contact person APS-DPP, Columbia University New York, USA R A Pitts, EPFL/CRPP Lausanne, Switzerland R Salomaa

  5. 18. Contextual view of Hunnicutt Street from Venable Street facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Contextual view of Hunnicutt Street from Venable Street facing east. Buildings A-2 and C-5 at left, Building J-12 at right. Replicates historic viedw at GA-2309-9. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. All About Sesame Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Phylis

    The behind-the-scenes story of "Sesame Street" is told from its origin as a "good idea," through the development of the Children's Television Workshop, to the casting of the now familiar characters, Susan, Bob, Gordon, Mr. Hooper, and the Muppets. Details of producing the show are described with anecdotes. The effect of "Sesame Street" on its…

  7. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  8. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  9. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  10. Analysis of Street Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stuart H.; Bhatt, Sudhir

    1972-01-01

    A study of the content of street drugs available to a college campus and a community is presented. Emphasis is given to the adulterants and substitutions encountered in the illicit preparations. (Author)

  11. 18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. THIRD STREET FROM ITS INTERSECTION WITH F STREET, LOOKING NORTH, For the purpose of clarity and simplicity, directions relate to the nearly north-south orientation of the Naval Supply Center, and not to true north. The alignment of streets and buildings in the NSC are roughly related to magnetic north, and are thus about 10 degrees clockwise from true north. WITH BUILDINGS 222 AND 221 ON LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic photograph reproduction: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. The tall, narrow building in the middle of the photo is 10 North Warren Street. Signs saying 'Saddlery,' 'Carriage,' and 'Hardware' on the building indicate that the photo was taken during the tenancy of Claffery & Slack (1888-1914). - 10 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), 10 North Warren Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. The Street and Its Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Studied development of identity as street children in Montevideo, Uruguay. Found that children without income-generating activity lack self-definition as street children but recognize the street as a place of apprenticeship, knowing they can return to institutions or to parents. Working children view the street as a workplace and meeting place,…

  14. Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vale Commercial Historic District, A Street between Holland & Longfellow Streets, north side of B Street between Holland & Main Streets, Main Street South from A Street through B Street, & Stone House at 283 Main Street South, Vale, Malheur County, OR

  15. Municipal landfill leachate management

    SciTech Connect

    Kusterer, T.; Willson, R.; Bruce, S.C.; Tissue, E. Lou, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    From 1995 to 1997, the Montgomery County Leachate Pretreatment Facility (MCLPF) has successfully pretreated in excess of 18,000,000 gallons of leachate generated by the county`s municipal solid waste landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill. The collection system directs leachate from the original landfill, the new lined section, and the ash cell to the leachate pump station. The leachate, prior to being pumped to the leachate pretreatment system, is equalized in two storage lagoons with a combined capacity of more than 5,000,000 gallons. The innovative leachate treatment system, incorporating a biological reactor system equipped with a submerged fixed-film reactor using a patented Matrix Biological Film (MBF) media, continues to provide excellent pretreatment results for the leachate generated at the Oaks Landfill in Montgomery County, Maryland. In 1995 and 1996, the system responded to the substantial challenges imposed by the changing characteristics of the material being landfilled and by the significant amounts of incinerator ash, received in 1995 from the county`s resource recovery facility (RRF), which influenced the influent leachate characteristics.

  16. Street youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bond, L S; Mazin, R; Jiminez, M V

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize the population of homeless street youth who are living marginally and to describe aspects of this population's dynamics, motivations, values, and aspirations. Street youth, ranging in age from birth to 21, are on the street for one reason or another--dire poverty in the home, which necessitates their working on the street to supplement the family income, because they have been rejected by parents or guardians, because they have left home due to violence in the home, drug or alcohol use by family members, or because of lack of a place where they feel they can be "themselves." These conditions make street youths particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, not to mention malnutrition, stress, and drug use. Their violently accelerated emotional maturation, ignorance, alcohol- and drug-induced confusion, together with the exploitation and sexual abuse of which they are often victims, are additional factors that contribute to sexual practices that may lead to HIV infection. PMID:1389867

  17. Beneficial use of landfill gas at the Burnsville sanitary landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, M.; Morely, J.; Kitts, S.

    1995-08-01

    A beneficial use study was conducted to determine the most economical method of converting landfill gas to energy at the Burnsville Sanitary Landfill. The existing 98.5-acre landfill is permitted for nine million cubic yards of municipal solid waste and estimated to generate significant quantities of landfill gas. The beneficial use study reviewed four options to utilize the landfill gas, as follows; generate electric power and utilize on site; generate electric power and sell to local utility; clean up the landfill gas and sell to natural gas company; and sell landfill gas to nearby asphalt and concrete plants in the summer months, then to 15 commercial businesses for heat in the winter months. The study concluded that it is most economical to generate electricity and sell power to the local utility. Since May 1994, 3.2 megawatts of power have been generated. Upon site closure, the potential for 4.8 megawatts of power generation may exist.

  18. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-02

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way.

  19. The 30th anniversary of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Related Organisms workshops—what have we learned in three decades?

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, Erin C.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    As we commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Related Organisms (CHRO) workshops with this special Frontiers edition, we look back upon three decades of research and provide some highlights from the 16th International CHRO meeting. Although Theodor Escherich himself provided drawings of campylobacters back in the 1880s, Campylobacter jejuni was not identified until the 1950s. Helicobacter pylori was first described to be the causative agent of stomach ulcers at a CHRO meeting by Barry Marshall and Robin Warren—who later received the Nobel Prize for their findings that bacteria could cause diseases previously believed to be caused by human factors. Now, several genome sequences for campylobacters, helicobacters, and related organisms are available and we have moved into an era examining the intersection between host microbial ecology and pathogen infection. Both pioneers and new investigators in the CHRO research field continue to obtain “unexpected results” demonstrating that campylobacters and helicobacters do not follow classic paradigms of other well-characterized gastrointestinal pathogens and we are learning that there is a plethora of interesting related organisms beyond C. jejuni and H. pylori. This review summarizes recent discoveries in CHRO research and the exciting directions ahead. PMID:22919612

  20. 1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West Street & High Street Bridges. Westerly, Washington Co., RI. sec. 4215, mp 141.67/.77. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  1. Quantification of Methane Emissions From Street Level Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lavoie, T. N.; Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of identifying, attributing, and quantifying methane emissions from urban sources such as landfills, waste-water treatment facilities and natural gas distribution systems is an active area of research. This interest is fueled, in part, by recent measurements indicating that urban emissions are a significant source of methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas) and in fact may be substantially higher than current inventory estimates. As a result, developing methods for locating and quantifying emissions from urban methane sources is of great interest to industries such as landfill owners, and governmental agencies. In an attempt to identify major methane source locations and emissions in the city of Indianapolis, systematic measurements of CH4 concentrations and meteorology data were made at street level using multiple vehicles equipped with cavity ring-down spectrometers. A number of discrete sources were detected at methane molar ratios in excess of 15 times background levels. The street level data is analyzed with plume inversion models including Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) software, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and backward Lagrangian Simulations (bLS) to identify source location and emission rates. The methodology for analyzing the street level data and our estimates of CH4 emissions from various sources in the city of Indianapolis will be presented.

  2. Energy potential of modern landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  4. VIEW WEST ON MOTT STREET AT HUDSON STREET LEFTBUILDING 62 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST ON MOTT STREET AT HUDSON STREET LEFT-BUILDING 62 ANNEALING HOUSE (c.1900) CENTER-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO. 1 (c.1905) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  5. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  6. Benjamin Franklin Street Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Seth F.

    In this evaluation report of the sixth year of operation of the Benjamin Franklin-Urban League Street Academy in New York City, it is recommended that the program be continued for the seventh year despite the poorer than expected student gains in all studied components and the sporadic student attendance pattern and high dropout rate. Students…

  7. Saving Mango Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

  8. Street Corner Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holiday, D. Alexander

    The language of Black America is rich and diverse in its utterance, whether through music (Jazz, Blues, Soul, Gospel, and Rap), through street corner "shuckin''n jivin'," or through writing. This language is used as a means of survival, of getting from one day to the next. Blacks have developed a system of taking the fewest words and making them…

  9. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Sac and Zaz: (1)…

  10. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of the 30th annual proceedings of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education conference presents: plenary panel papers; research forum papers; short oral communication papers; and poster presentation papers from the meeting. Information relating to discussion groups and working sessions is also provided.…

  11. Proceedings of the 30th Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference and the 8th Annual Georgia Conservation Production Systems Training Conference, Tifton, Georgia, July 29-31, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 2008 conference to be held at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus Conference Center in Tifton, GA, on 29-31 July 2008, will be a joint effort of the 30th Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference (SCASC) and the 8th Annual Conservation Production Systems Training Conference (CPS...

  12. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the second volume of the proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Abr and Dri:…

  13. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 60 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Ead and Kou: (1)…

  14. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (30th, Prague, Czech Republic, July 16-21, 2006). Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila, Ed.; Moraova, Hana, Ed.; Kratka, Magdalena, Ed.; Stehlikova, Nad'a, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of the proceedings of the 30th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Conference presentations are centered around the theme "Mathematics at the Centre." This volume features 59 research reports by presenters with last names beginning between Kun and Ros: (1)…

  15. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane, Ed.; Beswick, Kim, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is "Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice." The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and ties in with…

  16. School StreetMonroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    School Street-Monroe Street Neighborhood, Bounded on north by Quincy & Monroe Streets, on south by Jefferson Street, on west by Hope Avenue, & on east by Parker Avenue & site of Canal Street, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  17. Street Children in Contemporary Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…

  18. Landfills in karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.H. ); Memon, B.A.; LaMoreaux, P.E. )

    1994-06-01

    State and Federal regulations have established restrictions for location of hazardous waste and municipal, solid waste landfills. Regulations require owners/operators to demonstrate that the hydrogeology has been completely characterized at proposed landfills, and that locations for monitoring wells have been properly selected. Owners/operators are also required to demonstrate that engineering measures have been incorporated in the design of the municipal solid waste landfills, so that the site is not subject to destabilizing events, as a result of location in unstable areas, such as karst terrains. Karst terrains are typically underlain by limestone or dolomite, and may contain a broad continuum of karst features and karst activity. Preliminary investigation of candidate sites will allow ranking of the sites, rejection of some unsuitable sites, and selection of a few sites for additional studies. The complexity of hydrogeologic systems, in karst terrains, mandates thorough hydrogeologic studies to determine whether a specific site is, or can be rendered, suitable for a land disposal facility. Important components of hydrogeologic studies are: field mapping of structural and stratigraphic units; interpretation of sequential aerial photographs; test drilling and geophysical analyses; fracture analyses; seasonal variation in water-levels; spatial variation of hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and aquiclude; velocity and direction of movement of ground water within aquifers; determination of control for recharge, discharge, and local base level; and evaluation of the effects of man's activities, such as pumping, dewatering and construction.

  19. Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jianguo Yang, Guodong; Deng, Zhou; Huang, Yunfeng; Huang, Zhonglin; Feng, Xiangming; Zhou, Shengyong; Zhang, Chaoping

    2007-07-01

    Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m{sup 3} leachate and 0.1 m{sup 3} tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended.

  20. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ≈ 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water

  1. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

  2. MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  3. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  4. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, L.; Lewicki, S.

    2008-11-01

    Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission (NJMC) Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ and operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory brings hands-on scientific experiences to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that come to our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

  5. W. St. John Street. View looking west from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    W. St. John Street. View looking west from intersection of Pleasant and W. St. John Streets - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  6. General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment intersects at left, 9th street segment intersects alley at right. View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  8. Street sweeping and stormwater regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the role of street sweeping in meeting the requirements of the Clean Water Act stormwater regulations. The article identifies those industrial and municipal activities which are covered by the regulations and cites frequent sweeping of site surfaces for industry and street sweeping for municipalities as an integral part of compliance plans.

  9. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.

    1996-05-01

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  10. 1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street (west) facade (long side). North of the D Street facade is the Edward Abner Building (413-415 9th Street) and north of it is the Ferree Building (417 9th Street). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  12. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, L.

    2008-11-01

    Engaging ``K-to-Gray'' audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission Center for Environmental and Scientific Education (CESE) and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ, operated by Ramapo College of New Jersey. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED--certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) to the ˜25,000 students and ˜15,000 visitors that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year.

  13. Where Should the Landfill Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Rosario P.; McFaden, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project where students were involved in finding the most suitable site for a landfill in their community. This two-month project was conducted using team teaching. Two twelfth grade geoscience classes were involved. (PR)

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC[sub 2]) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  15. Landfill gas project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The methane gas recovered from the landfill is used for space heating and water heating for the Florence-Lauderdale Humane Shelter 600 feet from the well head. The project to date and future development are described briefly. (MHR)

  16. LANDFILL CONTAINMENT AND COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its research and field experiences has developed control strategies for hazardous and municipal solid waste landfills and surface impoundments. hese control strategies include liner and cover systems. he liner systems include doubl...

  17. 1. E Street (north) facade and 8th Street (east) side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. E Street (north) facade and 8th Street (east) side. The next property south on 8th Street is the Potomac Electric Power Company station (422 8th Street), south of that is Lansburgh's Warehouse (410 8th Street), and south of that is 408 8th Street and then a parking lot. - Simon Oppenheimer & Brother Building, 800 E Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  19. Cognitive Skills and Street Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Matthew; McGuire, Donald

    1981-01-01

    Discusses trends in the descriptive literature about children and the poor. Presents anecdotal material of children's spontaneous street play and analyzes cognitive skills exhibited in these situations. (Author/GC)

  20. Methane emissions from MBT landfills.

    PubMed

    Heyer, K-U; Hupe, K; Stegmann, R

    2013-09-01

    Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency ("Umweltbundesamt"), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18-24 m(3)CH(4)/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH(4)/(m(2)h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000-135,000 t CO(2-eq.)/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied

  1. The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  2. Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of gas station, 126 North F Street, corner of F and 2nd Streets North, view looking southeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  3. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation, looking southeast. Market Street runs parallel to the tracks; 63rd street is perpendicular to them. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 63rd Street Station, Intersection of Market & Sixty-third Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Southeast Area Survey, Sixth & G Streets (Synagogue), 132144 & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Area Survey, Sixth & G Streets (Synagogue), 132-144 & 900-905 Eleventh Street (Row Houses), 215 Second Street (House), Seventh & G Streets (School), 214 First Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. South El Paso St., street view from 615 South El Paso Street showing west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  8. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. Geometries of Karman Vortex Street

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roushan, Pedram; Wu, X. L.

    2004-03-01

    The Bénard-von Kármán vortex street is studied in a flowing soap film channel. The two-dimensional fluid flow in the film allows stable vortex streets to be generated and investigated over a broad range of Reynolds numbers, 10street is analyzed for different diameter rods, which span more than two orders of magnitude in their diameters. The parameters that characterize the envelop of the vortex street, such as the growth rate and the saturation amplitude, are measured for different Reynolds numbers. It is found that all of the curves representing the envelope can be collapsed onto a single master curve, suggesting that the shape of Karman vortex streets is universal, independent of Re. We construct a simple model that takes into account the energy transfer into vortices by periodic oscillations of transverse velocity fluctuations beneath the rod. This simple model not only explains the near wake shape of the street, but also allows other useful information such as the kinetic energy injected into the fluid and the drag coefficient CD to be extracted.

  10. Landfill to Learning Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  11. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  12. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-05-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street against those with free horizon, which allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in the street, averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, is reduced to less than 20% for narrow streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets, each with about ±5% uncertainty. A parameterization of RJ with the global solar irradiance is given for values that are averaged over the meteorological conditions and the street orientation.

  13. NO2 photolysis frequencies in street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, P.; Garhammer, M.; Hess, M.; Roeth, E.-P.

    2010-08-01

    Photolysis frequencies for NO2 are modeled for the conditions in urban streets, which are taken into account as canyons with variable height and width. The effect of a street canyon is presented with absolute values and as a ratio RJ of the photolysis frequency within the street compared to that with free horizon. This allows further use of the existing photolysis parameterizations. Values are presented for variable solar elevation and azimuth angles, varying atmospheric conditions and different street properties. The NO2 photolysis frequency in a street depends strongly on the relative width of the street and its orientation towards the sun. Averaged over atmospheric conditions and street orientation, the NO2 photolysis frequency is reduced in comparison with the values for free horizon: to less than 20% for narrow skyscraper streets, to about 40% for typical urban streets, and only to about 80% for garden streets. A parameterization with the global solar irradiance is given for the averaged RJ values.

  14. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  15. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. PMID:26445364

  16. Landfill mining for resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reith, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    Landfills are repositories of subeconomic resources. Landfill mining is an important enterprise that will someday return these resources to productive use, closing the loop on finite resources and stimulating economic development in communities near landfills. Secondary development of interred resources (landfill waste) will become economically viable as the environmental externalities of primary resource development -- e.g., the destruction of pristine habitat -- are more fully accounted for in programs of ecological design and design for environment. It is important to take an integrated and holistic approach to this new endeavor, which will be a complex assemblage of disciplines. Component disciplines include: resource economics, characterization, and excavation; contaminant control, and protection of environmental safety and health; material sorting, blending, and pretreatment; resource conversion, recovery, storage, and distribution; and reclamation for long-term land use. These technical elements must be addressed in close combination with compelling social issues such as environmental justice that may be especially critical in economically depressed communities surrounding today`s landfills.

  17. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-07-28

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  18. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  19. Astronomy on a Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  20. Bethlehem landfill groundwater containment monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hasemeier, R.F.; Knight, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The groundwater containment measures at the City of Bethlehem Landfill near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania include a 13-well pumping system; capping of closed landfill areas; a new landfill liner to decrease recharge; containment of a degraded aquifer; and substantial data reporting requirements to demonstrate effectiveness of the pump and treat system. The containment system functions as a barrier to downgradient contaminant migration. Reduction of groundwater recharge creates a very dynamic abatement system requiring monitoring. Performance monitoring of portions of the groundwater containment is continuous and accomplished through a centralized computer interface. Automated system control and data management reduces the human attention required to maintain a constant hydrodynamic barrier. Abatement system operational data is combined with other site monitoring data, including well water levels, water chemistry data, tonnage reports, and operational data, to fulfill permit reporting requirements for performance.

  1. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  2. Design of landfill daily cells.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakopoulos, D; Dokas, I

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the behaviour of the landfill soil-to-refuse (S/R) ratio when size, geometry and operating parameters of the daily cell vary over realistic ranges. A simple procedure is presented (1) for calculating the cell parameters values which minimise the S/R ratio and (2) for studying the sensitivity of this minimum S/R ratio to variations in cell size, final refuse density, working face length, lift height and cover thickness. In countries where daily soil cover is required, savings in landfill space could be realised following this procedure. The sensitivity of minimum S/R to variations in cell dimensions decreases with cell size. Working face length and lift height affect the S/R ratio significantly. This procedure also offers the engineer an additional tool for comparing one large daily cell with two or more smaller ones, at two different working faces within the same landfill. PMID:11720268

  3. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  4. THE USEPA'S LANDFILL RESEARCH AND REGULATORY STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The priorities and initiatives of Environmental Protection Agency's landfill research and regulatory program over the next five years will be described. This will include municipal solid waste landfills as well as abandoned hazardous waste landfills.

    Regarding municipals s...

  5. RECLAMATION EFFORTS AT THE LOCKWOOD LANDFILL STATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reclamation of disturbed arid rangelands is a monumental task under the best of conditions. The Lockwood Landfill located 17 km east of Reno, Nevada is a Regional Landfill of some 8800 ha in area. This landfill services all of northern Nevada as well as much of northern California. Returning la...

  6. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  7. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  8. Mining landfills for space and fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Flosdorf, H.W.; Alexieff, S.

    1993-03-01

    Lancaster County, Pennsylvania`s experiments with landfill reclamation are helping the county remain self-sufficient in managing its solid waste stream. Landfill mining is proving to be a worthwhile approach to extending landfill life and obtaining fuel for the county`s waste-to-energy plant.

  9. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  10. The dynamics of vortex streets in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2015-07-01

    We develop a model to numerically study the dynamics of vortex streets in channel flows. Previous work has studied the vortex wakes of specific vortex generators. Here, we study a wide range of vortex wakes including regular and reverse von Kármán streets with various strengths, geometries, and Reynolds numbers (Re) by applying a smoothed von Kármán street as an inflow condition. We find that the spatial structure of the inflow vortex street is maintained for the reverse von Kármán street and altered for the regular street. For regular streets, we identify a transition to asymmetric dynamics which happens when Re increases, or vortices are stronger, or vortex streets are compressed horizontally or extended vertically. We also determine the effects of these parameters on vortex street inversion.

  11. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste. PMID:25453319

  12. VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Southeast corner of W. St. John Street and N. River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast corner of W. St. John Street and N. River Streets, view from W. St. John Street - River Street Historic District, Bounded by West Saint James Street, West Santa Clara Street, Pleasant Street, & Guadalupe River, San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA

  15. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  16. Case studies in alternative landfill design

    SciTech Connect

    Barbagallo, J.C.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, landfills or {open_quotes}dumps{close_quotes} were not highly regulated and typically did not require a detailed engineering design. However, landfills are no longer just holes in the ground, and landfill closures entail more than just spreading some dirt on top of piles of garbage. Today landfill design is a highly regulated, complex design effort that integrates soils and geosynthetics into systems aimed at providing long-term protection for the environment and surrounding communities. Integrating these complex design systems into the available landscape and exising landfill configuration often requires the designer go beyond the {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} landfill and landfill closure design to satisfy regulations and provide cost-effective solutions.

  17. Landfill reclamation attracts attention and questions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    Landfill mining or reclamation has fit neatly into the recycling/reuse mindset. In heralding the first California landfill reclamation project at the Caspar Landfill municipal solid waste (MSW) site in May 1994, a California state official described it as ''win-win. Nobody loses''. Speaking at a session at the annual meeting of the Solid Waste Management Association of North America (SWANA), held August 2--6, 1994, Joanne R. Guerriero, senior project engineer, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (White Plains, NY), said landfill reclamation--the excavation of a landfill using conventional mining technology to recover and reuse resources--can: extend the life of existing landfill sites and reduce the need for siting new landfills; decrease the area requiring closure; remediate an environmental concern by removing a contaminant source; reclaim marketable recyclables; and capture energy through waste combustion.

  18. GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, WEST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. The Great Learning Street Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    Nair discusses the "Learning Street," a now-frequent concept of modern school planning and design in terms of the multiple modalities of learning that today's schools must nurture. The author lists 18, including: (1) Independent study; (2) Peer tutoring; (3) Team collaborative work in small and mid-sized groups; (4) One-on-one learning with the…

  20. Main Street in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on the main streets in Iowa's past. Residential and business patterns are discussed with an analysis of successes and failures. Efforts of young Iowans involved in preservation of a historic town square in their community are described. Activities, fiction selections, and nonfictional accounts of present…

  1. Needs of Rio street children.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, A

    1993-01-01

    Millions of children and adolescents live on the streets of urban Brazil and are being bypassed by existing social services. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, for example, there are only 2 shelters for street children. Many of these children are from single-parent households that could not produce enough income to support them; others are the victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse or violence. Early initiation into sexual activity is nearly universal among these street children, and provides gratification in an atmosphere of deprivation and a source of emotional connectedness. Many are forced into prostitution as a means of survival. The absence of familial support leads these marginalized adolescents vulnerable to pregnancy and illegal abortion; their illiteracy and non-school attendance isolates them from sources of information about sexuality and birth control. Government agencies must assume responsibility for providing these citizens with shelter, food, access to the public school system with a culturally sensitive curriculum, and health services that address the special needs of this population. Nongovernmental organizations, on the other hand, are urged to develop innovative programs for street children, including outreach programs, educational strategies and materials, legal advocacy, hot-lines, and itinerant van units. PMID:12345365

  2. Street Rhymes around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolen, Jane, Ed.

    Based on the idea that although children of every nation speak different languages the language of play is international, this collection of 32 street rhymes from 17 nations and republics offers each rhyme in its native language (Portuguese, Tamil, Hebrew, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, Spanish, Greek, German, Bantu (Mambwe), Danish, Cheyenne,…

  3. Youth and the City Streets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry

    1992-01-01

    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  4. A Ride Down Mango Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

  5. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  6. Who Is on Our Streets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian A.

    1983-01-01

    By conducting a pedestrian survey, secondary or college level students answer the question "What is the best location for a new business requiring maximum pedestrian traffic?" They collect data on the number and types of people on streets in a commercial area of a city. (RM)

  7. The Street Musicians of San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary R.

    1974-01-01

    The author, a street musician herself, tells the story of her experiences making a living from playing music in the streets, an activity that she describes as "somewhere between the practice room and the recital hall". (Author/RK)

  8. LEDs for Street Lighting—Here Today

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-29

    Fact sheet that provides a brief overview of the viability of LED street lighting in municipalities and highlights case studies of two cities—Los Angeles and Seattle—that have invested in LED street lighting.

  9. "Moving On": Learning to Cross Streets Independently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattavina, Sylvia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with severe disabilities was taught street-crossing skills through the use of photographs with verbal rehearsal of appropriate street crossing, followed by community-based instruction. The skills were acquired, maintained at follow up, and generalized to new streets. (JDD)

  10. FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING SOUNT AT JEFFERSON STREET AND 16TH STREET. NORTH AND WEST BACKSIDES OF JOHN BREUNER AND COMPANY BUILDING IN CENTER (BACKGROUND), SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ON CLAY, JEFFERSON AND 15TH STREETS AT LEFT, RIGHT, AND FOREGROUND - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Surface emission of landfill gas from solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Won; Shin, Ho-Chul

    The surface emission of landfill gas (LFG) was studied to estimate the amount of LFG efflux from solid waste landfills using an air flux chamber. LFG efflux increased as atmospheric temperature increased during the day, and the same pattern for the surface emission was observed for the change of seasons. LFG efflux rate decreased from summer through winter. The average LFG efflux rates of winter, spring and summer were 0.1584, 0.3013 and 0.8597 m 3 m -2 h -1 respectively. The total amount of surface emission was calculated based on the seasonal LFG efflux rate and the landfill surface area. From the estimates of LFG generation, it is expected that about 30% of the generated LFG may be released through the surface without extraction process. As forced extraction with a blower proceeded, the extraction well pressure decreased from 1100 to -100 mm H 2O, and the LFG surface efflux decreased markedly above 80%. Thus, the utilization of LFG by forced extraction would be the good solution for global warming and air pollution by LFG.

  12. Interior view; Street Car Waiting House North Philadelphia Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view; Street Car Waiting House - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. North view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) elevation - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Detail; Street Car Waiting House, support for exterior light fixture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House, support for exterior light fixture - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  18. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 29. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, south side of Building H-2, left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. 24. In context, from southwest facing northeast on Hunnicutt Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. In context, from southwest facing northeast on Hunnicutt Street, west side of Building D-4, far left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  1. 21. In context, from south facing north on Luckie Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. In context, from south facing north on Luckie Street, Building E-1, right. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  2. 31. In context, from north facing south on Venable Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. In context, from north facing south on Venable Street, north side of Building E-8, center, park/ballfield left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  3. 23. In context, from south facing north on venable Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. In context, from south facing north on venable Street, east sdie of Building E-1, far left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  4. 27. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. In context, from west facing east on Pine Street, west side of Building E-6, far left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. 28. In context, from northwest facing southeast on Venable Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. In context, from northwest facing southeast on Venable Street, west side of Building A-3, left. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM WEST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM WEST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER, WITH PORTION OF AMERICAN CAN COMPANY COMPLEX - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. 2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER OUTLET AT NORTHWEST BRANCH OF PATAPSCO RIVER (BALTIMORE HARBOR) - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. South (main) and east elevations, looking northwest Market Street is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South (main) and east elevations, looking northwest Market Street is in foreground. - Market Street Elevated Railway, 69th Street Terminal, Market & Sixty-ninth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Southeast Area Survey, 101 & 122124 Carroll Street (House), 1008 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Area Survey, 101 & 122-124 Carroll Street (House), 1008 Potomac Street (House), Canal Street at Independence Avenue (Row House), 1016-1018 Potomac Street (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHWARD FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER FRONT AND ARCH STREETS (2. N. Front Street starts at left) - North Front Street Area Study, 2-66 North Front Street (Commercial Buildings), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF VIADUCT, WITH JEFFERSON STREET IN FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF VIADUCT, WITH JEFFERSON STREET IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG SIXTH STREET - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  19. Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Polar Bear Restaurant, 25 G Street, view looking northeast - Lakeview Downtown Historic District, E, F & G Streets between Second Street North & First Street South, Lakeview, Lake County, OR

  20. 5. South El Paso St., street vew, west side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. South El Paso St., street vew, west side of street, north of Overland St. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  1. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  2. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  3. Plants scrub landfill leachate clean

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Leachate from the sanitary landfill in Barre, Mass., is collected in a series of holding lagoons. There, aquatic plants such as duckweed biodegrade and purify the wastewater. The plants saturate the leachate with oxygen, which speeds up aerobic oxidation by bacteria. The leachate is moved progressively through the series of lagoons, and the contents of the final lagoon are emptied into a trout pond. (3 photos)

  4. Landfill gas to electricity demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, A. J.; Cagliostro, L. A.

    1982-03-01

    Medium Btu methane gas is a naturally occurring by product of anaerobic digestion of landfilled municipal solid waste. The energy potential of landfill gas in New York State is estimated to be 61 trillion Btu's per year or the equivalent of 10 percent of the natural gas used annually in the State. The 18-month Landfill Gas to Electricity Demonstration Project conducted at the Fresh Kills Landfill in Staten Island, New York conclusively demonstrated that landfill gas is an acceptable fuel for producing electricity using an internal combustion engine/generator set. Landfill gas proved to be a reliable and consistent fuel source during a six-month field test program. Engine exhaust emissions were determined to be comparable to that of natural gas and no unusually high corrosion rates on standard pipeline material were found.

  5. Factors that characterize street injectors.

    PubMed

    Klee, H; Morris, J

    1995-06-01

    Injecting drugs in the streets and other public places is increasingly common in many cities and large towns in the United Kingdom. It is a practice rarely open to view, but the evidence is there in the used needles and syringes left in stairwells of flats, shop doorways, public toilets and other areas where exposure can be avoided. Although it is a development with serious implications for public health, it has received little research attention. This paper reports the factors associated with street injecting from 56 polydrug users who regularly injected in public places. It reveals that they were more likely to be severely drug dependent with associated health problems. A high proportion were homeless. Their drug-related and sexual risk behaviour have implications for the acquisition and transmission of disease. PMID:7633302

  6. 1. South El Paso St., Street view, southwest from roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South El Paso St., Street view, southwest from roof of 210 South El Paso Street, West Overland Street is first cross street on right - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  7. Entropy and order in urban street networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2013-11-01

    Many complex networks erase parts of their geometry as they develop, so that their evolution is difficult to quantify and trace. Here we introduce entropy measures for quantifying the complexity of street orientations and length variations within planar networks and apply them to the street networks of 41 British cities, whose geometric evolution over centuries can be explored. The results show that the street networks of the old central parts of the cities have lower orientation/length entropies - the streets are more tightly ordered and form denser networks - than the outer and more recent parts. Entropy and street length increase, because of spreading, with distance from the network centre. Tracing the 400-year evolution of one network indicates growth through densification (streets are added within the existing network) and expansion (streets are added at the margin of the network) and a gradual increase in entropy over time.

  8. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  9. Our Roots Feed Our Future: 30th Anniversary Conference of the Cornell Migrant Program. Presentations (May 22, 2002) = Nuestras raices nutren nuestro futuro: Conferencia del 30mo aniversario del Programa para Emigrantes de Cornell. Presentaciones (22 mayo 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    Presented in English and Spanish, this publication compiles 13 presentations at a conference celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Cornell Migrant Program. The entries examine experiences of migrant workers and children related to immigrating, finding work, enduring discrimination and police harassment, switching schools frequently, suffering…

  10. Engineered Municipal Waste Landfills: Climate Significance, Benefits, and some Landfill "Geophysics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenstein, D.; Yazdani, R.

    2002-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills have unique features: Wastes worldwide emit biogenic methane to the atmosphere of magnitude comparable to the total atmospheric buildup between 1980 and 1990. Carbon sequestered in landfills is large in geologic terms Management of decomposition in landfilled waste is desirable: (a) Control of waste decomposition and methane promises over tenfold cheaper greenhouse gas abatement compared to most other greenhouse gas abatement strategies. This is due in part to carbon sequestration and landfill gas energy offset of fossil fuel consumption (b) Landfill gas energy potential worldwide, is up to 1% of world energy. Use of landfill gas conserves a resource otherwise wasted (c) Monetary benefits of landfill life extension from decomposition and rapid volume reduction can be quite attractive This is a benefit for the US, where landfills are increasingly difficult and expensive to site. (d) Landfills containing mixed waste can be significant sources of atmospheric and groundwater pollutants needing control. Control is possible from advancing landfill management approaches (e) The stabilization of waste lessens pollutant risk and needs for costly long-term landfill aftercare. Greater control of landfill decomposition has been advocated in the form of "controlled" or "bioreactor" landfills. (SWANA, 1999; Reinhart and Townsend, 1996). Field trials are encouraging by several environmental/monetary criteria. Control of moisture and temperature have given fivefold or more acceleration of methane generation (Augenstein et al, 1998, 2000). There has been rapid volume loss of the landfilled waste as well, with conversion of waste organics to gas. Many trials over years have shown potential for abatement of pollutants in landfill leachate. Demonstration work by the solid waste management community attests to the benefits potential. Increasing field demonstrations, have been accompanied by observation and/or solution of several issues. As noted

  11. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, D J; Achterkamp, M C; de Visser, B J

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Consequently, market size for companies operating landfills shrinks. Among the companies facing the problem is the Dutch company Essent. Given the expected market conditions, it looks for alternative business opportunities. Landfill mining, i.e., the recycling of existing landfills, is considered one of them. Proceeds of landfill mining are related to, for example, recycled materials available for re-use, regained land, and possibilities for a more efficient operation of a landfill. The market for landfill mining is of a considerable size--there are about 3800 landfills located in the Netherlands. Given market size the company faces the dilemma of how to explore this market, i.e., select the most profitable landfills in a fast and efficient way. No existing methods or tools could be found to do so. Therefore, to answer to the problem posed, we propose a step-wise research method for market exploration. The basic idea behind the method is to provide an adequate, cost-saving and timely answer by relying on a series of quick scans. Relevant aspects of a mining project concern the proceeds of regained land and recyclables, the costs of the mining operation and the associated business and environmental risks. The method has been tested for its practical use in a pilot study. The pilot study addressed 147 landfills located in the Dutch Province of Noord-Brabant. The study made clear how method application resulted in the selection of a limited number of high potential landfills in a few weeks, involving minimal research costs. PMID:15381231

  12. Heat management strategies for MSW landfills.

    PubMed

    Yeşiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Kopp, Kevin B; Yee, Emma H

    2016-10-01

    Heat is a primary byproduct of landfilling of municipal solid waste. Long-term elevated temperatures have been reported for MSW landfills under different operational conditions and climatic regions around the world. A conceptual framework is presented for management of the heat generated in MSW landfills. Three main strategies are outlined: extraction, regulation, and supplementation. Heat extraction allows for beneficial use of the excess landfill heat as an alternative energy source. Two approaches are provided for the extraction strategy: extracting all of the excess heat above baseline equilibrium conditions in a landfill and extracting only a part of the excess heat above equilibrium conditions to obtain target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation. Heat regulation allows for controlling the waste temperatures to achieve uniform distribution at target levels at a landfill facility. Two approaches are provided for the regulation strategy: redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain uniform target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation and redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain specific target temperatures. Heat supplementation allows for controlling heat generation using external thermal energy sources to achieve target waste temperatures. Two approaches are provided for the supplementation strategy: adding heat to the waste mass using an external energy source to increase waste temperatures and cooling the waste mass using an external energy source to decrease waste temperatures. For all strategies, available landfill heat energy is determined based on the difference between the waste temperatures and the target temperatures. Example analyses using data from landfill facilities with relatively low and high heat generation indicated thermal energy in the range of -48.4 to 72.4MJ/m(3) available for heat management. Further modeling and experimental analyses are needed to verify the effectiveness

  13. Street Orientation and Side of the Street Greatly Influence the Microclimatic Benefits Street Trees Can Provide in Summer.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Ruzana; Johnstone, Denise; May, Peter; Livesley, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining human thermal comfort (HTC) is essential for pedestrians because people outside can be more susceptible to heat stress and heat stroke. Modification of street microclimates using tree canopy cover can provide important benefits to pedestrians, but how beneficial and under what circumstances is not clear. On sunny summer days, microclimatic measures were made in residential streets with low and high percentages of tree canopy cover in Melbourne, Australia. Streets with east-west (E-W) and streets with north-south (N-S) orientation were repeatedly measured for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and mean radiant temperature on both sides of the street between early morning and midafternoon. Physiological equivalent temperature was estimated to indicate HTC throughout the day. In streets with high-percentage canopy cover, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and mean radiant temperature were significantly lower than in streets with low-percentage canopy cover. The reductions in air temperature under high-percentage canopy cover were greater for E-W streets (2.1°C) than for N-S streets (0.9°C). For N-S streets, air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and solar radiation were greater on the east pavement in the early morning and greatest on the west pavement in the midafternoon. The midday thermal benefits are restricted to E-W streets, which are oriented in the same direction as the summer sun's zenith. High-percentage canopy cover reduced wind speeds but not enough to offset the other microclimate benefits. These findings can assist urban planners in designing street tree landscapes for optimal HTC in summer, especially in areas of high pedestrian density. PMID:26828172

  14. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B.

    1998-08-01

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  15. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  16. LANDFILL GAS AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of the current understanding of methane emissions from landfills that contribute to global climate change. The factors affecting landfill emissions are described and the uncertainties are identified. There appears to be a consensus in the international co...

  17. Ground penetrating radar characterization of a landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochim, April Theresa

    Ground penetrating radar was investigated in an active landfill to determine if the in-situ water content could be measured. Water content is an important parameter in predicting the generation of landfill gas (LFG), an important renewable energy source. Unfortunately, predicting the quantity of LFG is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in a landfill and the lack of in-situ input parameters. GPR is a non-invasive, near-surface geophysical technique that provides high resolution images of dielectric properties in the earth's subsurface. A transmitter emits high frequency (10 - 1000 MHz) electromagnetic pulses through the subsurface, with the receiver recording the echo. Specialized software is then used to create images of the subsurface. The challenge with using GPR in landfills is the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the clay cap linear covering landfills, both affecting the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses. The use of GPR in a landfill was evaluated at the Region of Waterloo's Waste Management Centre. Measurements were completed using both the surface and the borehole approach. The results indicated that a borehole GPR can be used, with successful measurement of water content a function of borehole separation distance and frequency of the electromagnetic pulses. The developed approach was confirmed at the City of Hamilton's Glanbrook Landfill. The successful comparison of in-situ water content values to laboratory determined values at both landfills shows that GPR can be used to measure in-situ water content.

  18. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: LANDFILL BIOREACTOR DESIGN AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    These proceedings are from a conference on the subject of municipal waste landfill (MSWLF) bioreactors that was held in Wilmington, Delaware on March 23-24, 199-5. iologically active landfill operation represents a fundamentally different operational technique foro MSWLFs because...

  19. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SPECIAL TYPES OF LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality was monitored for one year at a hillfill, a balefill, a millfill, a strip mine landfill, and a permitted sanitary landfill to determine the impact of each on water quality. The leachate generated by the hillfill was the strongest during initial decomposition. Howeve...

  1. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  2. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  3. 2. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, showing street profiles of two San Francisco cable railroads. Figure 10 illustrates the mainline of the Sutter Street Railroad on Sutter Street, while Figure 11 shows the route of the Presidio & Ferries Railroad along Union Street. Note the lack of significant grades along the Sutter Street route. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 1. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, showing street profiles of three San Francisco cable lines. Figure 7, at bottom of engraving, is the profile of Hallidie's Clay Street Hill Railroad. Figures 8 and 9 show the grades for the California Street Cable Railroad and the Geary Street Park & Ocean Railroad respectively. Note the lack of significant grades along Geary Street. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, T. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the value of existing aerial photographs for waste management, including landfill monitoring. The value of historic aerial photographs for documenting landfill boundaries is shown in a graph in which the expansion of an active landfill is traced over a 40-year period. Historic aerial photographs can also be analyzed to obtain general or detailed land-use and land-cover information. In addition, the photographs provide information regarding other elements of the physical environment, including geology, soils, and surface and subsurface drainage. The value of historic photos is discussed, taking into account applications for inventory, assessing contamination/health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, developing inactive landfills, and research concerning improved land-filling operations.

  6. Degradability of Chlorinated Solvents in Landfill Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Litman, M.

    2002-12-01

    The use of landfills as an in situ remediation system represents a cost-effective alternative for groundwater remediation in the source area. This research was conducted to investigate the intrinsic bioattenuation capacity of the landfill ecosystem for chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). This research, using excavated refuse samples, studied how the reductive dechlorination of CAHs is linked to the decomposition of solid waste in landfills. Most research effort in groundwater remediation has focused on the contaminant plumes beneath and downgradient from landfills, while the source area remediation has received increasing attention. Bioreactor landfill and leachate recirculation projects have been planned and implemented by the USEPA and some states. However, the use of bioreactor landfill has primarily been considered only to expedite refuse decomposition. This research provides an understanding of the biological fate of CAHs in landfills, an understanding that can lead to the bioreactor landfill system designed to promote the degradation of pollutants right at the source. The research was conducted in two complementary systems: simulated landfill bioreactors and batch degradation experiment in serum bottles. Refuse samples were excavated from a municipal solid waste landfill located in Wayland, Massachusetts, USA. Bioreactors were designed and operated to facilitate refuse decomposition under landfilling conditions. For each reactor, leachate was collected and recirculated back to the reactor and gas was collected into a gas bag and the methane production rate was monitored. Target CAHs, tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), were added to selected reactors and maintained at about 20 uM each in leachate. The design is to study the effect of long-term exposure of refuse microorganisms to CAHs on the degradation potential of these chemicals in landfills. Changes of biochemical conditions in bioreactors, including leachate pH, leachate COD, and

  7. Urban street patterns detectable from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A. (Principal Investigator); Williams, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The major street patterns in Lincoln, Nebraska, are detectable on the January 24, 1973 ERTS MSS-4 image. To further study and identify the street patterns, a 3x Polaroid enlargement was made of the city from the image. An overlay of the enlargement was used to map the street patterns, with reference to the original image for clarity. The technique seems to be adaptable for updating standard road maps.

  8. Groundwater contamination at a landfill sited on fractured carbonate and shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, J. F.; Barbash, J. E.; Labonte, M.

    1988-09-01

    Leachate from the Upper Ottawa Street landfill site has contaminated groundwater in the underlying fractured dolomite and shale bedrock. The landfill received domestic and industrial waste from about 1954 to 1978. An extensive network of multilevel groundwater monitoring devices provided a detailed, three-dimensional view of the contaminant distributions. The leachate was lacking in reliable indicator parameters such as chlorinated solvents. Background groundwater quality was variable and often very poor. Many of the inorganic and organic species present in the leachate at high concentration were also present in some background groundwaters and often at equally high concentrations. In order to identify those groundwaters which were leachate-impacted, a number of tests were applied to the chemical data. These included a test utilizing 14 chemical characteristics of leachate, and statistical tests using descriptive principal components analysis, descriptive correspondence analysis and a fuzzy cluster analysis. The statistical tests attempted to identify a pattern in the chemical data consistent with contamination superimposed upon a mixture between a recently recharged, dilute groundwater endmember and a much older, concentrated groundwater endmember. Only sporadic leachate impact was recognized beyond 100 m from the landfill. Impact to the east indicates leachate migration towards the escarpment in the direction of the regional hydraulic gradient. Occasional impact to the southeast may indicate leachate migration across the regional gradient, perhaps in a major fracture network oriented northwest-southeast under the site. The rather minor impact of this landfill upon groundwater quality probably reflects both a low concentration of easily recognized contaminants emanating from the landfill and a very poor groundwater quality in the sedimentary bedrock.

  9. Performance evaluation of an improved street sweeper

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.W.; Jain, R.C.; Yung, S.C.; Patterson, R.G.

    1985-10-01

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the performance of an improved street sweeper (ISS) and conventional sweepers. Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban airborne particles. These emissions can be controlled by street cleaning, but commonly used sweepers were not designed for fine particle collection. A sweeper was modified to improve its ability to remove fine particles from streets and to contain its dust dispersions. Performance was measured by sampling street solids with a vacuum system before and after sweeping. Sieve analyses were made on these samples. During sampling, cascade impactor subsamples were collected to measure the finer particles. Also, dust dispersions were measured.

  10. A typology of street patterns

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a quantitative method to classify cities according to their street pattern. We use the conditional probability distribution of shape factor of blocks with a given area and define what could constitute the ‘fingerprint’ of a city. Using a simple hierarchical clustering method, these fingerprints can then serve as a basis for a typology of cities. We apply this method to a set of 131 cities in the world, and at an intermediate level of the dendrogram, we observe four large families of cities characterized by different abundances of blocks of a certain area and shape. At a lower level of the classification, we find that most European cities and American cities in our sample fall in their own sub-category, highlighting quantitatively the differences between the typical layouts of cities in both regions. We also show with the example of New York and its different boroughs, that the fingerprint of a city can be seen as the sum of the ones characterizing the different neighbourhoods inside a city. This method provides a quantitative comparison of urban street patterns, which could be helpful for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind their distinct shapes. PMID:25297318

  11. A typology of street patterns.

    PubMed

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-12-01

    We propose a quantitative method to classify cities according to their street pattern. We use the conditional probability distribution of shape factor of blocks with a given area and define what could constitute the 'fingerprint' of a city. Using a simple hierarchical clustering method, these fingerprints can then serve as a basis for a typology of cities. We apply this method to a set of 131 cities in the world, and at an intermediate level of the dendrogram, we observe four large families of cities characterized by different abundances of blocks of a certain area and shape. At a lower level of the classification, we find that most European cities and American cities in our sample fall in their own sub-category, highlighting quantitatively the differences between the typical layouts of cities in both regions. We also show with the example of New York and its different boroughs, that the fingerprint of a city can be seen as the sum of the ones characterizing the different neighbourhoods inside a city. This method provides a quantitative comparison of urban street patterns, which could be helpful for a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms behind their distinct shapes. PMID:25297318

  12. The dependence of the methylation of mercury on the landfill stabilization process and implications for the landfill management.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Li, Zhonggen; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Mercury species and other chemical characteristics of the leachate from anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills were analyzed to investigate the factors that control mercury methylation during the landfill stabilization process. At the early landfill stage, the total mercury (THg) and the monomethyl mercury (MMHg) released rapidly and significantly, the THg concentration of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate was obviously higher than that of the anaerobic landfill leachate, while compared with the semi-aerobic landfill, the MMHg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was higher. As the landfill time increased, both of THg and MMHg concentration decreased quickly, the THg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was much higher than that in semi-aerobic landfill, while the MMHg concentration in the anaerobic landfill was lower than that in the semi-aerobic landfill. Generally, the concentrations of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in the anaerobic landfill leachate were slightly higher than in the semi-aerobic landfill leachate during the stabilization process. A significant positive correlation was found between the DMHg concentrations and the pH value in anaerobic landfill leachate, but this correlation was opposite in the semi-aerobic landfill. The oxidative-reductive potential (ORP) condition was found to be the controlling factor of the methylation process during the early stage. However, the chemical characteristics, especially the TOC concentration, appeared to be the dominant factor affecting the methylation process as the landfill time increased. PMID:25218981

  13. 54. View looking west along Monroe Street across First Street/Dayton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View looking west along Monroe Street across First Street/Dayton Avenue and covered Dundee Canal prism - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  14. Relationships between the Sociodemographic and Family Characteristics, Street Life Experiences and the Hopelessness of Street Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyan, Veli

    2005-01-01

    Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…

  15. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  16. Personal and Familial Properties of Street Children--"Street Children: The Forgotten or Not Remembered Ones"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özbas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    With this research it is aimed to determine the personal traits of Street Children depending on them and also the socio-economic variables of Street Children resulting from their families. For this main aim in the research process, it is provided to have communication directly with the parents of Street Children using one-to-one and face-to-face…

  17. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. 5. NORTH SIDE OF SUPERSTRUCTURE, FACING SOUTH ON MARKET STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE OF SUPERSTRUCTURE, FACING SOUTH ON MARKET STREET BETWEEN 44TH AND 45TH STREETS. DETAIL OF BARREL VAULTS ON UNDERSIDE OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759

  20. Hazardous pollutants in class II landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.A.; Porter, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    Class II landfills accept nontoxic municipal trash. Their gaseous emissions were originally assumed to be relatively free of hazardous substances. However, one Class II site in Southern California was found to be emitting enough vinyl chloride to exceed the California Air Quality Standard of 10 ppb for a 24-hour average in surrounding neighborhood. This paper presents a summary of the results of the analysis of landfill gas from over 20 additional Class II landfills. Ambient air surveys were conducted around five of the landfills. About 90% of the landfills contained measurable amounts of vinyl chloride and/or benzene. The concentrations exceeded 1 ppm in about half of the sites studied. Vinyl chloride is produced in situ by the action of bacteria on chlorinated solvents, and can be found in landfills that have been closed for over 30 years. The relative amounts of methane and vinyl chloride vary so much within a single landfill that methane measurements cannot be used as a surrogate for vinyl chloride.

  1. FIELD TEST MEASUREMENTS AT FIVE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS WITH LANDFILL GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate landfill gas emissions at five municipal solid waste landfills which have modern control technology for landfill gas emissions. Comprehensive testing was conducted on the raw landfill gas and the combustion outlet exhaust. The project had two ...

  2. Covariates of Sesame Street Viewing by Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaner, Steven D.

    A study was made of nine covariates as to their discriminating power between preschoolers who watch Sesame Street regularly and preschoolers who do not watch Sesame Street, Surveyed were 372 3-4 year old children on 9 variables. The nine variables were: race, socioeconomic status, number of siblings, child's birth order, maternal age, maternal…

  3. Sesame Street PEP Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This handbook for early childhood educators describes the Sesame Street PEP, an educational enrichment program for 3- to 5-year-olds that makes learning a fun and challenging adventure by using the educational goals of the Sesame Street show, children's books, and developmentally appropriate activities. This program seeks to: (1) stimulate…

  4. Career Counseling with Street Youth. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redekopp, Dave E.; And Others

    A variety of programs have unsuccessfully attempted to address the career development needs of street youth (defined here as 16-24 year olds with no fixed address, low social support, and who support themselves through street activities such as prostitution, theft, and drug-dealing). This digest describes "Skills Plus," a pre-employability program…

  5. STREET SURFACE STORAGE FOR CSO CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a discussion of the use of on-street storage as an effective means to control stormwater runoff. It focuses on the success achieved by using street storage in two communities in Illinois and includes a description and evaluation of how this technology elimina...

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

  7. Researching Street Children: Methodological and Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz, Claudio S.; And Others

    This paper describes the ethical and methodological problems associated with studying prosocial moral reasoning of street children and children of low and high SES living with their families, and problems associated with studying sexual attitudes and behavior of street children and their knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS.…

  8. Numerical assessment of a landfill compliance limit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensel, Bruce R.; Keefer, Donald A.; Griffin, Robert A.; Berg, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    The PLASM and Random Walk ground-water flow and contaminant transport models were used to assess the potential impact of various proposed regulatory compliance distances on landfill siting. Contaminant transport modeling was performed for 16 generalized geological sequences representative of hydrogeological conditions over an estimated 90 to 95 percent of Illinois. Results of this modeling indicate that about 50 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable for landfilling of nonhazardous wastes if the compliance distance was 100 feet. With a compliance distance of 500 feet, about 55 percent of the state would be hydrogeologically suitable. This work demonstrates the utility of computer modeling in the development of regulations governing landfill siting.

  9. Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yang Englehardt, James D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of electrochemical oxidation processes used for treatment of landfill leachate. The typical characteristics of landfill leachate are briefly reviewed, and the reactor designs used for electro-oxidation of leachate are summarized. Electrochemical oxidation can significantly reduce concentrations of organic contaminants, ammonia, and color in leachate. Pretreatment methods, anode materials, pH, current density, chloride concentration, and other additional electrolytes can considerably influence performance. Although high energy consumption and potential chlorinated organics formation may limit its application, electrochemical oxidation is a promising and powerful technology for treatment of landfill leachate.

  10. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-07-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  11. Mechanism underlying Kármán vortex street breakdown preceding secondary vortex street formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynnikova, G. Ya.; Dynnikov, Ya. A.; Guvernyuk, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    The Kármán street that develops behind a bluff body transforms in the far wake into a secondary vortex street of lower frequency and stronger vortices. Before this transformation, the primary street decays. This interesting phenomenon was investigated in a number of experimental and theoretical studies. Much of that work is devoted to studying the reasons for the formation of the secondary street and its frequency characteristics. Reasons for the decay of the primary street are not well understood. In this work, the mechanism underlying the breaking of the primary vortex street is studied. A qualitative explanation of this process is presented wherein a region of heightened density of the dipole moment forms. This region moves relative to the Kármán vortices so that its distance from the body remains constant. In this region, the Kármán vortex street collapses.

  12. Evaluation of Y-12 landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.A. ); Daugherty, D.L. ); Hutzler, C.W.; Smith, C.M. ); Wylie, A.N. )

    1990-12-12

    The purpose of this project was to provide team members with practical experience in application of Civil Engineering 555, Solid Waste Management principles. Team members chose to evaluate the functional elements of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's (Y-12's) solid waste management system. The following factors contributed to selection of Y-12'system for evaluation: team members' familiarity with the Y-12 system; knowledge that the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was nearing capacity; and presence of the unique issues posed by special national security and potential radioactive contamination considerations. This report was limited to evaluation of the solid waste management system for conventional solid waste; hazardous radioactive, and radioactive mixed waste were not addressed. The report: (1) describes each functional element including waste generation, storage, collection, transport, processing, recovery, and disposal; (2) identifies and evaluates alternatives for each element and (3) identifies system strengths and recommends opportunities for improvement. 34 figs.

  13. Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Building 250 along C Street, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 1. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 746 FROM EAST K STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 746 FROM EAST K STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Gymnasium-Cafeteria-Theater, East K Street between Eleventh & Twelfth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 42. VIEW OF THE DUDLEY STREET ENTRANCE, SPRUCE POLE FENCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF THE DUDLEY STREET ENTRANCE, SPRUCE POLE FENCE, AND HISTORIC PARKING AREA WITH STORAGE SHED IN CENTER BACKGROUND. (NOTE: NEW CONCRETE SIDEWALK ALONG DUDLEY STREET IN RIGHT FOREGROUND). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  16. 2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of parking garage. Farther east is 408 8th Street (National Art And Frame Company). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. VIEW OF NEIGHBORHOOD, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN LOW STREET FROM CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NEIGHBORHOOD, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN LOW STREET FROM CORNER OF HIGH STREET, NO. 155, SECOND STRUCTURE FROM RIGHT - Town of Standard, High Street & State Route 819, Standard, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 98. Street view, East San Antonio Ave., looking west northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Street view, East San Antonio Ave., looking west northwest, Guarantee Shoe Co. is 211 East San Antonio Ave. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. DETAIL VIEW, NO. 2141 ON EAST SIDE OF UBER STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, NO. 2141 ON EAST SIDE OF UBER STREET, LOOKING EAST. - 2100 Block North Uber Street (Houses), East & west sides between Diamond Street & Susquehanna Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 34. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha Street Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha Street Bridge, Cantilever Span 1888); web details of cantilever arm connecting first span to first pier - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  1. 1. General view looking north on Dexter Street to St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view looking north on Dexter Street to St. Charles Church and the east corner of the Armory (Note: Similarity between church & Armory Towers) - Cranston Street Armory, Cranston Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  2. 78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  3. 79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  4. Detail of upper part of statuary niche, Federal Street lobby. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper part of statuary niche, Federal Street lobby. Wood storage platform in foreground divides Federal Street lobby into upper and lower sections - Stamford Post Office, 421 Atlantic Street, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  6. 5. SOUTHEAST CORNER AND COURTYARD OPENING, FROM F STREET SIDEWALK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHEAST CORNER AND COURTYARD OPENING, FROM F STREET SIDEWALK SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 4. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BOSTON STREET BRIDGE, FROM SOUTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTH ELEVATION OF BOSTON STREET BRIDGE, FROM SOUTH, WITH PORTION OF AMERICAN CAN COMPANY COMPLEX - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. 5. PARTIAL SOUTH ELEVATION OF BOSTON STREET BRIDGE, FROM SOUTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PARTIAL SOUTH ELEVATION OF BOSTON STREET BRIDGE, FROM SOUTHEAST, WITH PORTION OF AMERICAN CAN COMPANY COMPLEX - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 839 & 903 E. WALNUT STREET VIEW FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    839 & 903 E. WALNUT STREET - VIEW FROM NORTH WITH EAST FRONT OF 838 E. WALNUT STREET IN FOREGROUND - Walnut-Dollison Historic District, South Dollison, East Elm, East Cherry & East Walnut Streets, Springfield, Greene County, MO

  10. 8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH FRONT MAIN ENTRY OF 1770 CANALPORT & SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 530 W. 18TH STREET. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Peter Schoenhofen Brewery, West Eighteenth Street & Canalport Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. 7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING AND STAIRS AT MISSION STREET OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fourth Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING LAUREL STREET FACADE (to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING LAUREL STREET FACADE (to right) AND COMMERCE STREET FACADE (to left) - Cumberland National Bank, 59-61 East Commerce Street, Bridgeton, Cumberland County, NJ

  13. 8. The entire south face of the Broad Street bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. The entire south face of the Broad Street bridge as seen from the flood levy in front of Central High School. - Broad Street Bridge, Spanning Scioto River at U.S. Route 40 (Broad Street), Columbus, Franklin County, OH

  14. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  15. NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. LAKE UNION VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. TUNNEL PROCEEDS IN CUT AND COVER FASHION DIRECTLY BENEATH BATTERY STREET. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  16. 6. MAIN ENTRANCE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SYCAMORE STREET; CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN ENTRANCE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SYCAMORE STREET; CORNER OF BUILDING 88 IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT, BUILDING 93 IS AT CENTER, BUILDING 145 AT LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  17. 7. View northwest of smoke stack on Armory Street Pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View northwest of smoke stack on Armory Street Pump House. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. 3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southeast, showing rear (west) facade and north side, Fairbanks Company appears at left and 215 Division Street is visible at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  19. 2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 217 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  20. 3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 215 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 213 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  1. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    PubMed

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation. PMID:20924666

  2. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  3. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  4. Modelling flow to leachate wells in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Beaven, R.P.; White, J.K

    2004-07-01

    Vertical wells are frequently used as a means of controlling leachate levels in landfills. They are often the only available dewatering option for both old landfills without any basal leachate collection layer and for newer sites where the installed drainage infrastructure has failed. When the well is pumped, a seepage face develops at the entry into the well so that the drawdown in the surrounding waste will not be as great as might be expected. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW-SURFACT, which contains the functionality to model seepage surfaces, has been used to investigate the transient dewatering of a landfill. The study concludes that the position of the seepage face and information about the characteristics of the induced seepage flow field are important and should not be neglected when designing wells in landfills.

  5. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 8. STATION 'L' FROM SOUTHEAST DIVISION STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, LINCOLN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STATION 'L' FROM SOUTHEAST DIVISION STREET LOOKING NORTHWEST, LINCOLN SUBSTATION IN FOREGROUND - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  7. Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, main entry lobby on Fourteenth Street - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  9. [Opinions of Honduran adults about street children].

    PubMed

    Ferguson, C; McIntyre, L; Kaminsky, D C

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the beliefs parents of working children and business people have about two types of street children, those who work on the street and those who are abandoned and live on the street. In 1991 forty-nine parents of working children and 49 business people from Tegucigalpa were administered a questionnaire listing 36 beliefs about the lifestyles of abandoned and working children and causes of children adopting these ways of life. Among parents of working children, education was significantly lower and mothers were more likely to be single women than in the business people sample. There were many beliefs about the lifestyles of street children on which both groups agreed, but parents of working children held the youngsters more accountable for choosing to work or live in the street. Parents also seemed to be more aware of the health risks to both types of street children than business people who felt working children were at less risk than abandoned children. Business people perceived abandoned children to be victims of single parenthood and solvent abuse. A deeper exploration of the views held by families of street children may assist those seeking to help them. PMID:8466651

  10. Transpiration as landfill leachate phytotoxicity indicator.

    PubMed

    Białowiec, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    An important aspect of constructed wetlands design for landfill leachate treatment is the assessment of landfill leachate phytotoxicity. Intravital methods of plants response observation are required both for lab scale toxicity testing and field examination of plants state. The study examined the toxic influence of two types of landfill leachate from landfill in Zakurzewo (L1) and landfill in Wola Pawłowska (L2) on five plant species: reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud, manna grass Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla, sweet flag Acorus calamus L., and miscanthus Miscanthus floridulus (Labill) Warb. Transpiration measurement was used as indicator of plants response. The lowest effective concentration causing the toxic effect (LOEC) for each leachate type and plant species was estimated. Plants with the highest resistance to toxic factors found in landfill leachate were: sweet flag, bulrush, and reed. The LOEC values for these plants were, respectively, 17%, 16%, 9% in case of leachate L1 and 21%, 18%, 14% in case of L2. Leachate L1 was more toxic than L2 due to a higher pH value under similar ammonia nitrogen content, i.e. pH 8.74 vs. pH 8.00. PMID:25708408

  11. A statistical model for landfill surface emissions.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Martin; Guy, Christophe; Millette, Denis

    2010-02-01

    Landfill operators require a rapid, simple, low-cost, and accurate method for estimation of landfill methane surface emissions over time. Several methods have been developed to obtain instantaneous field measurements of landfill methane surface emissions. This paper provides a methodology for interpolating instantaneous measurements over time, taking variations in meteorological conditions into account. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of three factors on landfill methane surface emissions: air temperature, pressure gradient between waste and atmosphere, and soil moisture content of the cover material. On the basis of a statistical three-factor and two-level full factorial design, field measurements of methane emissions were conducted at the City of Montreal landfill site during the summer of 2004. Three areas were measured: test area 1 (4800 m2), test area 2 (1400 m2), and test area 3 (1000 m2). Analyses of variance were performed on the data. They showed a significant statistical effect of the three factors and the interaction between temperature and soil moisture content on methane emissions. Analysis also led to the development of a multifactor correlation, which can be explained by the underlying processes of diffusive and advective flow and biological oxidation. This correlation was used to estimate total emissions of the three test areas for July and August 2004. The approach was validated using a second dataset for another area adjacent to the landfill. PMID:20222535

  12. Environmental diagnosis methodology for municipal waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Calvo, F; Moreno, B; Zamorano, M; Szanto, M

    2005-01-01

    A large number of countries are involved in a process of transformation with regard to the management of municipal solid waste. This process is a consequence of environmental requirements that occasionally materialise in legislation, such as the European Council Directive 31/99/EC on waste release in the European Union. In some cases, the remediation of old landfills can be carried out in compliance with environmental requirements; in other cases, it is necessary to proceed with the closure of the landfill and to assimilate it into its own environment. In both cases, it is necessary to undertake a diagnosis and characterisation of the impacted areas in order to develop an adequate action plan. This study presents a new methodology by which environmental diagnosis of landfill sites may be carried out. The methodology involves the formulation of a series of environmental indeces which provide information concerning the potential environmental problems of the landfills and the particular impact on different environmental elements, as well as information related to location, design and operation. On the basis of these results, it would be possible to draw up action plans for the remediation or closure of the landfill site. By applying the methodology to several landfills in a specific area, it would be possible to prioritize the order of actions required. PMID:15905084

  13. How landfill gas causes RCRA compliance problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerfoot, H.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires landfill operators to monitor groundwater at their facilities. This regulatory requirement is designed to prevent contamination that can result as rainfall drains through refuse, causing pollutants to leach into the groundwater. Several parameters commonly associated with leachate are monitored under RCRA as indicator parameters, or parameters that represent readily detected indicators of contamination. These parameters include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and alkalinity. Because of its potentially high concentration of VOCs and non-volatile contaminants, landfill leachate represents the greatest threat to groundwater from solid waste facilities. However, other sources can elevate indicator parameters as well. Increasingly lower detection limits can be achieved for VOCs in groundwater, enabling detection of VOCs and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas. In addition, CO{sub 2} from landfill gas can increase groundwater alkalinity. Releases of VOCs in landfill gas can be eliminated by minimizing the gas pressure within the landfill, either by installing a gas-collection system or upgrading an existing gas-collection system by adding wells or altering gas flow in portions of the system.

  14. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  15. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  16. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  17. Metal content and particle size distribution of street sediments and street sweeping waste.

    PubMed

    German, J; Svensson, G

    2002-01-01

    During recent years the interest in street sweeping as a pollutant control measure has increased. For planning of street sweeping programs and disposal of street sweeping waste there is a need to investigate the composition of street sweeping waste and the effect of street sweeping on the remaining sediments on the street. Particle size distribution and heavy metal concentration has been measured for street sweeping waste, street sediments before sweeping and remaining sediments after sweeping. The results show that the concentrations of heavy metals are a function of particle diameter and proportional to the inverse of the particle diameter, i.e. the highest concentrations are found in finest fractions. Regression equations for metal concentrations as a function of particle diameter are presented. According to Swedish guidelines for environmental quality of contaminated sites, heavy metal concentration in the sweeping waste can not be considered as a serious problem. The largest amount of metals and sediment is found in the sandy fractions (0.125-0.5 mm). The street sweeper is more effective in removing coarse sediments than fine. This means that the street sediments after sweeping are finer than the sediments before. PMID:12380991

  18. Occurrence and treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals in landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mu-Chen; Chen, Yao Yin; Chiou, Mei-Rung; Chen, Men Yu; Fan, Huan-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Landfill leachates might contain pharmaceuticals due to the expired or unwanted drugs were disposed of at landfills. These pharmaceuticals might pose a threat to soil and groundwater. Therefore, this study investigated the distributions of pharmaceutical residues and toxicities among four typical municipal landfill leachates. Twenty six pharmaceuticals were investigated in this study and fifteen of them were found in all samples from four leachates. In addition, ampicillin and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) were detected in urban landfills (A1 and A2) but were not in rural and suburb landfills (B and C). On the other hand, some compounds were much more abundant in suburb/rural landfill leachates than those in urban landfills including diclofenac, gemfibrozil and amphetamine. Landfill leachate treatment plants could not remove most of the pharmaceuticals effectively. Landfill leachates without proper treatments would have significant adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life. PMID:27026494

  19. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, S.A. . E-mail: stuart_dever@ghd.com.au; Swarbrick, G.E. . E-mail: g.swarbrick@unsw.edu.au; Stuetz, R.M. . E-mail: r.stuetz@unsw.edu.au

    2007-07-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions.

  20. Children's street connections in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Basso, Robert V; Graham, John; Pelech, William; De Young, Ted; Cardey, Ray

    2004-04-01

    Preteen children's street activities in a small southern Ontario city were examined for understandings about how children on the street affiliate with one another and with adults after school. The everyday connections between children, shopkeepers, and municipal workers demonstrate that the municipal workers and merchants can offer caring, support, and sanctions to children when parents or teachers are not accompanying them. This provides children on the street with a form of guidance from extrafamilial mentors. The findings point to community-based potentials for naturally occurring crime prevention strategies, a significant aspect of Canada's new law: Youth Criminal Justice Act. 2003. PMID:15070466

  1. MICROBIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESHLY LANDFILLED WASTE: COMPARISONS TO LANDFILLED WASTES OF DIFFERENT AGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cooperative research and development agreement was initiated between U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. for a multi-year study of landfill bioreactors at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY. As part of the agreement a research project is underway to study the microbiolog...

  2. Street Level Prostitution: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Love, Rene

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize research on female street level prostitutes for application in mental health practice and identification of future research needs. The data were from reports conducted in Westernized countries on female street level prostitutes between the years 2000 and 2014. Street level prostitutes are at high risk for HIV/STIs, chronic and acute physical/mental health problems, and violence, but there is a paucity of research on resilience and coping skills. We conclude that street level prostitutes suffer severe health disparities, yet they do not seek health care on a consistent basis. It is important for mental healthcare providers to offer women a safe, non-judgmental environment while providing assessment and referral. Future research on mental health consequences as well as resilience and coping skills would support effective interventions that address the women holistically. PMID:26379130

  3. Nomograms for calculating pollution within street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckland, A. T.; Middleton, D. R.

    The Environment Act 1995 has introduced the notion of local air quality management which requires that air quality in towns be reviewed and assessed. There is a need to identify those streets that are worst affected by vehicular pollutants. Such worst cases are likely to be narrow congested streets with tall buildings on each side. A nomogram presented here allows rapid screening of pollution in congested street canyons. The strong dependence on wind direction is reduced to the two extremes, namely wind along and wind across the canyon. Then canyon concentrations are estimated according to street geometry and traffic flow. The nomogram is designed for use by local authorities, is quick and easy to use, and paper or computer versions are available. It is suggested that detailed monitoring or modelling may only be required when simple screening methods predict high air pollution.

  4. Street dust: implications for stormwater and air quality, and environmental through street sweeping.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, Steven J; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-01-01

    Street dust represents a source of dual potential risk to stormwater and air quality. It has been well documented that street dust washes into local watersheds and can degrade water quality. Research has also demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM10) , which is associated with adverse health outcomes, can arise from resuspension of accumulated street dust. Furthermore, many contaminants, including metals, are present at higher concentrations in the smallest available particles, which are more likely to be resuspended in air and stormwater runoff. Although street cleaning is listed as a best management practice for storm water quality by the EPA, data are limited on the critical parameters (technology, environment, usage), which determine the effectiveness of any street cleaning program, particularly in the peer-reviewed literature. The purpose of the present study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the efficacy of various street cleaning technologies and practices to protect both water quality and public health. Few studies have compared the effectiveness of street sweeping technologies to remove street dust. Unfortunately, the dearth of comprehensive data on exposure, contaminant concentrations, and efficacy of various sweeping technologies and strategies precludes developing quantitative estimates for potential risk to humans and the environment. Based on the few studies available, regenerative air street sweepers appear to provide the most benefit with regard to collection of small particles and prevention of re-entrainment. It is also clear from the available data that local conditions, climate, and specific needs are critical determinants of the ideal street sweeping strategy (technology, frequency, speed, targeted areas, etc.). Given the critical need for protection of water and air quality in rapidly expanding urban regions (e.g., megacities), further research is necessary to develop best practices for street dust management. Herein

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Blake W; Lyles, Christopher N; Suflita, Joseph M; Masoner, Jason R; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Kolpin, Dana W; Stevenson, Bradley S

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its "built environments." Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of "landfill microbiomes" and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  7. Compression approach of street networks considering the structural and functional features of streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; He, Jing; Zhang, Xiping

    2015-10-01

    The compression of networks is an important aspect of complex networks and spatial generalization. Previous studies show that the dual graph for street-street relationships more accurately reflects the morphological features of street networks than the traditional methods. In this study, a dual graph for street-street relationship is constructed based on complex networks theory. We introduce the concept of m-order neighbors and take into account the factors of the node’s degree, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and distance within the dual graph. We also consider the importance contributions of the node itself and its 1- to m-order neighbors and define the evaluation model of node importance. We then propose a street compression process based on the evaluation of node importance for dual graph by considering the structural and functional features of streets. The degree distribution and topological similarity index are introduced to evaluate the level of maintaining the global structure and topological characteristics of the road network and to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. A real urban road network is used for the experiments. Results show that the proposed approach can be used in selecting important streets that can retain the global structural properties and topological connectivity of the street network.

  8. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  9. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. 7. MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH FROM INTERSECTION OF WEST THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH FROM INTERSECTION OF WEST THIRD STREET. THE 1932 POST OFFICE IS ON THE LEFT. SANDSTONE FROM INDIANA AND BRICK WERE USED FOR THE EXTERIOR WALLS, WHILE WASTE BRICK FROM THE SMELTER WAS USED FOR THE INTERIOR FOUNDATION AND BASEMENT WALLS - Anaconda Historic District, Park & Commercial Streets, Main Street vicinity, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  11. SECOND STREET, LOOKING EAST AT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT FROM WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND STREET, LOOKING EAST AT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT FROM WEST OF INTERSECTION OF DEDRICK DRIVE AND SECOND STREET - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  12. SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST AT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT FROM THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND STREET, LOOKING WEST AT INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT FROM THE EAST END OF SECOND STREET NEAR WATER - Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  13. 5. View of former Castle Street Wye looking East ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of former Castle Street Wye - looking East along Herald Street (formerly Castle Street). To the right is the Massachusetts Turnpike and the tracks of the former B&A R.R. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 32. In context, from south facing north on Venable Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. In context, from south facing north on Venable Street, east side of Building J-7, left, west side of Building B-7, right. - Clark Howell Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Lovejoy Street, Mills Street & Luckie Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  15. 3. SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM F STREET SIDEWALK, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM F STREET SIDEWALK, LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH BUILDING 222 ACROSS 3RD STREET AT LEFT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 2. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of the Trenton Free Public Library. 12 North Warren Street is in the middle of the block, with its louvered shutters closed on both the second and third floors. - 12 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  17. 18. View of north side of East Ward Street at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of north side of East Ward Street at the intersection with North Dart Street, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  18. 3. HYDE STREET HILL: View to north looking down the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HYDE STREET HILL: View to north looking down the Hyde Street hill from Lombard Street. The steepest hill on the present cable railway system, this grade exceeds 20%. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. BILLBOARD EXPRESSING LOCAL HUMOR CONCERNING FLOOD DAMAGE TO WALNUT STREET BRIDGE, I-83 SOUTHBOUND, LOOKING WEST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  20. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 15. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING NORTH TWENTYFIRST STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING NORTH TWENTY-FIRST STREET BRIDGE AT FIFE STREET. NOTE LAMP POSTS WHICH WERE LATER REMOVED. - North Twenty-First Street Bridge, North Twenty-first Street spanning Buckley Gulch, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  2. Hydrogeology of a landfill, Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a high water table is subject to tidal flooding. Altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shells; a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay; and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. The rate of lateral movement of ground water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; however, the rate of movement along the boundary of the landfill cells is about 20 feet per year. Vertical movement through the confining layer is about 0.005 foot per year. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Leachate migration downward into the Floridan aquifer is not indicated, but data do indicate leachate is migrating from the oldest section of the landfill site through the surficial aquifer. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of slug-flow leachate. (USGS)

  3. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  4. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  5. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. PMID:22245736

  6. Ecotoxicological diagnosis of a sealed municipal landfill.

    PubMed

    Hernández, A J; Bartolomé, C; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Rodríguez, J; Alvarez, J; Pastor, J

    2012-03-01

    Assessing the environmental impact of a soil-topped landfill requires an accurate ecotoxicological diagnosis. This paper describes various diagnostic protocols for this purpose and their application to a real case: the urban solid waste (USW) municipal landfill of Getafe (Madrid, Spain). After their initial sealing with soil from the surroundings about 20 years ago, most USW landfills in the autonomous community of Madrid have continued to receive waste. This has hindered precise assessment of their impact on their environment and affected ecosystems. The procedure proposed here overcomes this problem by assessing the situation in edaphic, aquatic and ecological terms. The present study focused on the most influential soil variables (viz. salinity due largely to the presence of anions, and heavy metals and organic compounds). These variables were also determined in surface waters of the wetland most strongly affected by leachates running down landfill slopes. Determinations included the characterization of plant communities and microbial biodiversity. The study was supplemented with a bioassay under controlled conditions in pots containing soil contaminated with variable concentrations of Zn (as ZnCl(2)) intended to assess ecochemical actions in a population of Bromus rubens, which grows profusely in the landfill. PMID:21075508

  7. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  8. Martial recycling from renewable landfill and associated risks: A review.

    PubMed

    Ziyang, Lou; Luochun, Wang; Nanwen, Zhu; Youcai, Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Landfill is the dominant disposal choice for the non-classified waste, which results in the stockpile of materials after a long term stabilization process. A novel landfill, namely renewable landfill (RL), is developed and applied as a strategy to recycle the residual materials and reuse the land occupation, aim to reduce the inherent problems of large land occupied, materials wasted and long-term pollutants released in the conventional landfill. The principle means of RL is to accelerate the waste biodegradation process in the initial period, recover the various material resources disposal and extend the landfill volume for waste re-landfilling after waste stabilized. The residual material available and risk assessment, the methodology of landfill excavation, the potential utilization routes for different materials, and the reclamation options for the unsanitary landfill are proposed, and the integrated beneficial impacts are identified finally from the economic, social and environmental perspectives. RL could be draw as the future reservoirs for resource extraction. PMID:25800380

  9. Using landfill gas for energy: Projects that pay

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Pending Environmental Protection Agency regulations will require 500 to 700 landfills to control gas emissions resulting from decomposing garbage. Conversion of landfill gas to energy not only meets regulations, but also creates energy and revenue for local governments.

  10. Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton & Loguidice, P.C.

    2010-01-07

    The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transport it to a central location for end use. A landfill gas to energy facility was also previously constructed at the site, which utilized generator engines, designed to be powered with landfill methane gas, to produce electricity, to be utilized on site and to be sold to the utility grid. The landfill gas generation rate at the site had exceeded the capacity of the existing generators, and the excess landfill gas was therefore being burned at a candlestick flare for destruction. The funded project consisted of the procurement and installation of two (2) additional 800 KW Caterpillar 3516 generator engines, generator sets, switchgear and ancillary equipment.

  11. EVALUATION OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  12. MOLECULAR AND CULTURAL METHODOLOGIES FOR ENUMERATING BACTERIA IN LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill bioreactor technology has been under investigation in the field for its potential economic and waste treatment benefits over conventional landfill systems. A better understanding of biological influences on the stabilization process is needed for incorporation into the e...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  14. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  15. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF 500 HINES STREET LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF 500 HINES STREET LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THIS DWELLING WAS WORKER HOUSING FOR THE LaGRANGE COTTON MILL (1888-89), LATER KNOWN AS CALUMET MILL. THE SIZE OF THIS HOUSE INDICATES THAT IT WAS PROBABLY USED BY A MILL MANAGER OR OVERSEER. NOTE 502 HINES STREET TO THE LEFT, A MIRROR-IMAGE OF 500 HINES STREET. - 500 Hines Street (House), 500 Hines Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  16. GENERAL VIEW FROM CENTER OF DIAMOND STREET LOOKING WEST TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW FROM CENTER OF DIAMOND STREET LOOKING WEST TOWARDS THIRTY-SECOND STREET. AN AUGUST 30, 1886 ISSUE OF THE PHILADELPHIA REAL ESTATE RECORD AND BUILDERS’ GUIDE RECORDED THAT REAL ESTATE AGENT F. A. FLOOD KEPT HIS OFFICES AT 3118 DIAMOND STREET, INDICATING THAT THE ROW OF ATTACHED DWELLINGS ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE BLOCK HAD BEEN CONSTRUCTED BY THAT TIME. - 3100 Block Diamond Street (Houses), North & south sides between Thirty-first & Thirty-second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 10. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. 2-6 East State Street is to the right of the image, with the sign for a dentist prominent on the corner. The mass of wires entering the fourth floor window suggests the location of the Western Union Telegraph Office in the building. - 2-6 East State Street (Commercial Building), 2-6 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  18. Appendix E: Research papers. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Erb, T. L.; Teng, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of landfill-related information that can be derived from existing, or historic, aerial photographs, is reviewed. This information can be used for conducting temporal assessments of landfill existence, land use and land cover, and the physical environment. As such, analysis of low cost, readily available aerial photographs can provide important, objective input to landfill inventories, assessing contamination or health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, and developing on inactive landfills.

  19. Diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils with and without landfill gas recovery systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Yao; Zhang, Xuan; Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Qi; Kong, Jiao-Yan; Wang, Jing; He, Ruo

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic CH4 oxidation plays an important role in mitigating CH4 release from landfills to the atmosphere. Therefore, in this study, oxidation activity and community of methanotrophs were investigated in a subtropical landfill. Among the three sites investigated, the highest CH4 concentration was detected in the landfill cover soil of the site (A) without a landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, although the refuse in the site had been deposited for a longer time (∼14-15 years) compared to the other two sites (∼6-11 years) where a LFG recovery system was applied. In April and September, the higher CH4 flux was detected in site A with 72.4 and 51.7gm(-2)d(-1), respectively, compared to the other sites. The abundance of methanotrophs assessed by quantification of pmoA varied with location and season. A linear relationship was observed between the abundance of methanotrophs and CH4 concentrations in the landfill cover soils (R=0.827, P<0.001). The key factors influencing the methanotrophic diversity in the landfill cover soils were pH, the water content and the CH4 concentration in the soil, of which pH was the most important factor. Type I methanotrophs, including Methylococcus, Methylosarcina, Methylomicrobium and Methylobacter, and type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis) were all detected in the landfill cover soils, with Methylocystis and Methylosarcina being the dominant genera. Methylocystis was abundant in the slightly acidic landfill cover soil, especially in September, and represented more than 89% of the total terminal-restriction fragment abundance. These findings indicated that the LFG recovery system, as well as physical and chemical parameters, affected the diversity and activity of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils. PMID:24332193

  20. Atmospheric methane transport near landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P; Pilinis, Christodoulos; Halvadakis, Constantinos P

    2003-02-01

    Methane production rates that have been estimated by a biogas production model (MICROGEN) are combined with an air dispersion model in order to determine the spatial distribution of methane around landfill sites. By utilising dispersion models under extreme atmospheric conditions, a maximum methane concentration around the landfills can be determined. The factors that enhance the maximum methane concentrations, using the meteorological model CALMET in conjunction with the dispersion model CALPUFF, are found to be the wind speed and the percentage of cloud cover. The rates of temperature and pressure variation, as well as the land use category seem to have no effect on the maximum methane concentrations. A rapid reduction of methane concentration is observed a few metres away from the landfill centre while a slower reduction is observed at distances greater than 300 m from it. The performance of this methodology is evaluated by comparing measured concentrations with model predictions. PMID:12667020

  1. A comparative analysis of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C; Barreda, P; Mendoza, V; Guzman, L; Gilbert, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims and Methods: A comparative study of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children was conducted in La Paz, Bolivia, representing the first such comparative assessment. Between August and December 1997, all abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia, who were willing to participate (n = 124) were interviewed repeatedly at night using standardised questionnaires to collect information on family history, demographics, socioeconomics, drug use, and physical/sexual abuse. The same questionnaires were administered to all former abandoned street children who chose to enter a local orphanage (n = 35). Results: The persistent street children differed greatly from those who entered the orphanage, most markedly in their higher risk of police abuse (95% versus 38%), absence from school (84% versus 19%), engagement in robbery (26% versus 4%), paint thinner use (88% versus 41%), alcohol use (58% versus 12%), and a serious medical problem (53% versus 20%). The risks for street children increased rapidly with age. Conclusions: A cascade of adverse outcomes afflicts the vast majority of abandoned street children in La Paz, which cumulate with age and diminish the likelihood of successful rehabilitation through lasting placement in an orphanage or residential home. Informed by these findings, the investigators operate a home for abandoned street children in La Paz. PMID:15321856

  2. LEACHATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND BACTERIAL NUMBERS FROM TWO BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to study landfills operated as bioreactors. Two different landfill bioreactor configurations are currently being tested at the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY...

  3. FIRST ORDER KINETIC GAS GENERATION MODEL PARAMETERS FOR WET LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas is produced as a result of a sequence of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring within an anaerobic landfill. Landfill operators, energy recovery project owners, regulators, and energy users need to be able to project the volume of gas produced and re...

  4. ESTIMATE OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a statistical regression model used for estimating methane (CH4) emissions, which relates landfill gas (LFG) flow rates to waste-in-place data from 105 landfills with LFG recovery projects. (NOTE: CH4 flow rates from landfills with LFG reco...

  5. PBTS, MERCURY AND OTHER POLLUTANTS FROM MSW LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 60% of municipal solid waste (MSW) is currently sent to a landfill for disposal. In addition, there are over 35,000 closed landfills as well as industrial and Superfund landfills. Concerns have been raised for more than 2 decades about the potential for dioxin/fur...

  6. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  7. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  8. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  9. Landfill gas boosted to pipeline quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The world's largest landfill recovery facility, located on Staten Island, went on stream in 1982 and is expected to produce 1.3 billion CF/yr of pipeline gas. Containing 45% carbon dioxide, the gas is compressed and cooled in stages to meet the requirements of the Selexol purification plant. Two 1120-kW (1500-hp) Copper Bessemer GMVS-8C integral gas engine-compressors, fueled by the landfill gas, provide the compression needed from the wells to the final solvent-contact stage.

  10. [Street children and AIDS in Haiti].

    PubMed

    Bernier, M; Ascensio, P

    1995-01-01

    This study is a qualitative inquiry KAP about sexuality, and adoption and preservation of safe sexual behaviors, among the children of the street in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Three groups of participating children of the street were observed in Port-au-Prince for three months, during June through August 1991. The information was collected with the use of pre-tested charts for each theme chosen. Then, individual interviews were conducted with leaders identified among the educators and children of the street. One of the main goals of Aids educational programs of street children should be to make them believe in the existence of the disease, and the real risk it poses for death. The strategies that we will use to convince them should deal with the different social, psychological, economical, and environmental factors that characterized the children as follows: 1) their adherence to a peer group and the relationship of power between the older and younger children; 2) the fundamental importance of money in their life, and that all relationships that they have are based on the capacity of people to give them something, such as money; 3) the role of their social appearance and their need to behave like other children for even one day; 4) their low self-esteem; 5) their feeling of powerlessness and resignation related to their living conditions; 6) the influence of the street culture; and 7) their understanding of sexuality as an immediate pleasure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7780668

  11. [Air pollution in the vicinity of streets].

    PubMed

    Wanner, H U; Deuber, A; Satish, J; Meier, M; Sommer, H

    1976-01-01

    Air samples were collected in plastic bags simultaneously at various measuring points in the close range of streets. When examining the various bag materials, Teflon bags showed the smallest deviations in direct analyses and in analyses of up to two hours after the drawing of samples. The following methods were used for the analysis of the air samples collected in the bags: coulometry for CO and SO2, chemiluminescence for NO/NO2, chromotrophic acid for CH2O and flame ionization for hydrocarbons. The various components were measured close to a highway and near streets in residential and business areas. The simultaneously drawn samples showed a marked dependence on traffic frequency, type of built-up area along the streets as well as meteorological conditions. An opinion survey among adjacent residents on annoyance caused by air pollution and noise resulted in distinct differences between the sections with different traffic intensity. PMID:997954

  12. LANDFILLS AS BIOREACTORS: RESEARH AT THE OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY; FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interim report resulting from a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between US EP A's Officeof Research and Development - National Risk Management Research Laboratory and a n ongoing field demonstration
    of municipal waste landfills being operated as bioreact...

  13. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  14. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ren; Hou, Yujing; Zhan, Liangtong; Yao, Yangping

    2016-01-01

    In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability. PMID:26771627

  15. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  16. VIEW OF THE ARENA STAGE/KREEGER THEATER AT 1101 SIXTH STREET; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE ARENA STAGE/KREEGER THEATER AT 1101 SIXTH STREET; HARRY WEESE & ASSOCIATES DESIGNED THE ARENA STAGE IN 1961 AND THE KREEGER THEATER IN 1970 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  18. Analysis of street sweepings, Portland, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Timothy L.; Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Parmenter, Jerry

    1977-01-01

    A brief study involving collection and analysis of street sweepings was undertaken to provide the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers with data on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of dust and dirt accumulating on Portland streets. Most of the analyses selected were based on the pollutant loads predicted by the Storage, Treatment, Overflow, and Runoff Model (STORM). Five different basins were selected for sampling, and samples were collected three times in each basin. Because the literature reports no methodology for analysis of dust and dirt, the analytical methodology is described in detail. Results of the analyses are summarized in table 1.

  19. Precautionary street crossing by elderly pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Harrell, W A

    1991-01-01

    Street crossing behavior of pedestrians was observed under varying roadway conditions and traffic volumes. The extent to which pedestrians checked for oncoming traffic before crossing signal controlled intersections on a dangerous downtown street was observed. Contrary to the stereotypical portrayal of older pedestrians as being less cognizant of the traffic environment, pedestrians in this study over the age of fifty years were the most cautious. Older pedestrians were also more cautious under the most potentially hazardous crossing conditions: when roadways were snow- or ice-covered and when traffic volumes were low or moderate, allowing vehicles to move rapidly through intersections. PMID:2022437

  20. PHENOXYALKANOIC ACID HERBICIDES IN MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of leachates from six U.S. municipal landfills revealed the presence of chlorinated 2-phenoxypropionic acid herbicides; however, none of the more widely used acetic acid analogues was present at quantifiable levels. ll of the leachates contained MCPP. ,4-DP and silvex we...

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN MSW LANDFILL PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfills have long been used for the permanent land disposal of municipal, industrial, and hazardous solid wastes. .S. federal and state regulations require that these facilities be designed to function for an active life, plus a post-closure period, typically 30 years. n most c...

  2. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  3. Temperature effects: methane generation from landfill samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, K.E.; Ham, R.K.; Klink, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the impact of temperature variations on the rate of methane generation from solid waste. The temperatures investigated ranged from 21/sup 0/C to 48/sup 0/C. Two approaches were applied. These were short term residence at seven different temperatures and intermediate term residence at two different temperatures. For the short term studies, samples were obtained from the Freshkills landfill (N.Y.) and the Operating Industries landfill (Calif.). Three samples were used in the intermediate term studies, and were from Palos Verdes landfill and Menlo Park landfill, both in California. From the short term results, energy of activation values of 22.4 kilo calories per mole to 23.7 kilo calories per mole were calculated. The intermediate term results produced values ranging from 18.7 to 21.8 kilo calories per mole. From the results it was concluded that some minor population shifts occurred with minor temperature changes but all of the energy of activation values were higher than any previous reportings. In addition, the temperature of 41/sup 0/C was found to be the optimum for methane generation on a short term basis.

  4. GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS (GCLS) IN LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low permeability, compacted clay linters are commonly required as a barrier to water infiltration in landfill covers. elatively new material, known as geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), has been proposed as an alternative to a compacted clay liner. CL has the practical advantages of ...

  5. EVALUATION OF LANDFILL-LINER DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of landfill-liner designs is evaluated in terms of the slope, drainage length, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the lateral drainage layer, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil liner, and the fraction of the area under a synthetic liner where ...

  6. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  7. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  8. Analysis of Ammonia Toxicity in Landfill Leachates

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Takuya; Nemoto, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo; Naruoka, Tomohiro; Yamada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxicity (LC50,NH3(aq)) was calculated as 3.3 ppm, and the toxicity of ammonium ions (LC50,NH4+) was calculated as 222 ppm. Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7 vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. Other specific toxicants masked by ammonia's toxicity were detected. Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3 vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate. PMID:23724289

  9. Soil contamination in landfills: a case study of a landfill in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamcová, D.; Vaverková, M. D.; Bartoň, S.; Havlíček, Z.; Břoušková, E.

    2016-02-01

    A phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used as a bioindicator of heavy metals. Soil samples 1-8, which were taken from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body, and its vicinity meet the limits for heavy metals Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the applicable legislation. Hg and Mn threshold values are not established in legislation, but values have been determined for the needs of the landfill operator. For heavy metals Cr, Cu, and Ni sample 2 exceeded the threshold values, which attained the highest values of all the samples tested for Cr, Cu, and Ni. For Cr and Ni the values were several times higher than values of the other samples. The second highest values for Cr, Cu, and Ni showed sample 6 and 7. Both samples exceeded the set limits. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on plates with soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth, or necrotic lesions appeared. Ecotoxicity tests show that tested soils (concentration of 50 %) collected from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body, and its vicinity reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds of Sinapis alba L. (101-137 %). At a concentration of 25 %, tested soil samples exhibit lower values of germination capacity - in particular samples 3 to 8 - yet the seed germination capacity in all eight samples of tested soils ranges between 86 and 137 %.

  10. Soil contaminations in landfill: a case study of the landfill in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamcová, D.; Vaverková, M. D.; Bartoň, S.; Havlíček, Z.; Břoušková, E.

    2015-10-01

    Phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used as heavy metals bioindicator. Soil samples 1-8, which were taken from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body and its vicinity meet the limits for heavy metals Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the applicable legislation. Hg and Mn threshold values are not established in legislation, but values have been determined for the needs of the landfill operator. For heavy metals Cr, Cu, and Ni sample 2 exceeded the threshold values, which attained the highest values of all the samples tested for Cr, Cu and Ni. For Cr and Ni the values were several times higher than values of the other samples. The second highest values for Cr, Cu, and Ni showed sample 6 and 7. Both samples exceeded the set limits. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on plates with soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth or necrotic lesions appeared. Ecotoxicity tests show that tested soils (concentration of 50 %) collected from the landfill body, edge of the landfill body and its vicinity reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds of Sinapis alba L. (101-137 %). At a concentration of 25 %, tested soil samples exhibit lower values of germination capacity; in particular samples 3 to 8, yet the seed germination capacity in all 8 samples of tested soils range between 86 and 137 %.

  11. Space monitoring of municipal solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakova, Olga; Shagarova, Lyudmila

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are special facilities designed for waste isolation and disposal ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety of population. A solid waste landfill is a complex object with its own specific features. Modern remote-sensing methods are an indispensable source of information for the analysis of space images of solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan. Space monitoring of solid waste landfills includes the following tasks: 1. Identification and mapping of landfill areas according to the data of remote earth sensing. 2. Studying of energy and structural characteristics of landfills based on remote sensing data. 3. Analysis of the state of landfills based on a comparison of current and archive remote sensing data. Space monitoring of territories of municipal solid waste landfills uses modern computer technologies. They include satellite imagery combined with sub-satellite research, as well as other sources of information used for identification and mapping of landfill territories. Investigation of municipal solid waste landfills requires targeted survey of landfill areas, remote sensing using operational and archival data including theoretical foundations of physical optics and statistical data. Processing of digital satellite information uses methods of pattern recognition, automated image processing and correlation analysis. Based on spectral energy and textural characteristics of municipal solid waste landfills obtained by remote sensing methods, the technology of space monitoring of landfill areas, including landfill recognition and characterization of solid waste landfills from remote observations was developed. Monitoring of MSW landfills uses satellite images of ultrahigh and medium spatial resolution. Medium-resolution images are used to determine temperature, vegetation cover and soil degradation. High-resolution images are used to detect landfills, to determine forms of soil degradation, to calculate geometrical parameters, and

  12. Physical experiments to investigate the effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Jin; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2005-03-01

    The effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow are experimentally investigated using a circulating water channel. Three experiments are carried out for a street canyon with a street aspect ratio of 1. Results from each experiment with bottom heating or inflow turbulence are compared with those without bottom heating and appreciable inflow turbulence. It is demonstrated that street bottom heating or inflow turbulence increases the intensity of the canyon vortex. A possible explanation on how street bottom heating or inflow turbulence intensifies the canyon vortex is given from a fluid dynamical viewpoint.

  13. Recovering the Street: Relocalising Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Angharad

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how audio walks can help learners re-experience and rethink the nature of urban geography. Urban thinking has increasingly begun to explore the city not from above, but from below; from the street rather than from the elite and in everyday rather than extraordinary ways. The intention has been to reveal the many stories,…

  14. The Street Gang Identification Manual. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrone, Frank M.

    This manual is a comprehensive guide to identifiers of gang activities and memberships. The "People" and "Folks" concepts it uses represent the two main divisions of street gang affiliation. Gangs that belong to the "People" nation use the left side as an identifier, use a five-pointed star as an emblem, and claim affiliation with the "Latin King"…

  15. Tinker's Toys: Lessons from Bank Street: Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Bank Street Laboratory (a set of hardware/software tools for measuring temperature, light, and sound) consists of a board that plugs into Apple microcomputers, cabling, software, and six probes. Discusses the laboratory's hardware, including the analog-to-digital converter, multiplier chip, and modular connectors. Circuit diagrams of components…

  16. Sesame Street: Developed by Children's Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Daniel W.

    A children's television program "Sesame Street," is discussed. The objectives of this program is to promote the intellectual and social and cultural growth of preschool and kindergarten children. Specific goals include: symbolic representation, problem solving and reasoning, and familiarity with the physical and social environment. The target…

  17. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  18. The Invisible Citizens Roaming the City Streets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awad, Salwa Saad

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with street children in Sudan revealed the subcultures they develop as a means of survival. The social organization and democratic practices in these subcultures show the children to be effective social actors whose perspectives should be considered by government. (SK)

  19. Street Children Draw the Ideal Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Margaret A.; And Others

    Forty-three adolescents (11-16 years of age) attending a health care program, Project Alternatives, for "street children" in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, drew randomly assigned pictures of either the ideal man or woman, engaged in some activity. These drawings were compared to samples from adolescents in various parts of the world to assess the global…

  20. Mythogeography Works: Performing Multiplicity on Queen Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the exploration of, and performance on, a single street in Exeter, UK, as guided by an idea of "mythogeography" and a determination to address a place as a multiplicity of meanings, objects, accretions, rhythms and exceptions. It explores the virtues of and obstacles facing a performance made "on the hoof" in both…

  1. Programme Note: Street Children in Bucharest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrescu, Gabriela

    1996-01-01

    Interviewed Bucharest street children, most between 11 and 15 years of age. Found that most left families, not institutions. Half were from intact families characterized by many children, an incarcerated parent, physical violence, sexual abuse, or alcoholism. Most worked either begging or in casual labor, and engaged in substance abuse.…

  2. Characteristics of the Street Children of Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aptekar, Lewis

    1989-01-01

    Psychological characteristics of 56 male Colombian street children, aged 7 to 16, were examined using participant observations and results of psychological testing. Results showed the children to be relatively healthy, intelligent, and emotionally intact. An attempt is made to understand these relatively good scores in a cultural context.…

  3. "Street Schools" Face Hard Road to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how a growing network of Christian alternative schools--some nearly as vulnerable as the children they serve--is bent on getting troubled students back on track. Denver Street School expects a lot of its teachers, but does not pay them much, as it tries to turn around the lives of troubled students seeking a second, or even…

  4. On the way to Wall Street

    SciTech Connect

    Gadomski, C.

    1983-05-01

    Though an increasing number of individual inventors and some brokerage firms are taking interest, solar stocks remain largely outside the investment mainstream. This is especially true among institutional investors, such as banks, insurance companies, and pension funds. Some of the reasons why the solar industry has not gained acceptance by Wall Street are discussed.

  5. Children of the Street: A Psychological Portrait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iudashina, N.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the two types of street children: (1) those children whose vagrancy was forced upon them by families and circumstances; and (2) those children who have an urge to go wandering, not because they are unhappy and have been abused but because they have an urge for it. Even though these children do run away from…

  6. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't…

  7. Education Ltd: Wall Street Eyes School Privatization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushweller, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    Describes Wall Street's growing interest in private education companies. Discusses the parallels between the emerging education industry of today and the fledgling health care industry of the 1970s. The acronym EMO (education management organization) is used to categorize companies that manage entire schools. Describes the niches created by the…

  8. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  9. ArtStreet: Joining Community Through Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm-Bottos, Janis

    1995-01-01

    ArtStreet is a group of artists, art therapists, and interested community members who collaborate to create an atmosphere in which homeless artists can create and sell their works. Artists from the community share their expertise in various media, and the project is funded by various local and national foundations. (JPS)

  10. Air pollution in a city street. 1965.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R E; Commins, B T; Lawther, P J

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1.7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere as the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m. PMID:7691150

  11. AIR POLLUTION IN A CITY STREET

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1965-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of smoke, lead, and five polycyclic hydrocarbons in the air have been made in the City of London in the middle of a busy street and at two control sites. Samples were taken only throughout the daytime hours on weekdays to enable us to assess the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the street. The results showed that during these periods the air in the middle of the street contained three times as much smoke, four times as much lead, and 1·7 times as much 3:4-benzpyrene as were present in the general atmosphere of the City of London as estimated from samples taken at the control sites. One of these sites was chosen because it was only 150 feet away from the street; analyses yielded no evidence that the traffic contributed to the pollution sampled there. Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in the early part of the study and the results showed that traffic appeared to add little to the background level. The concentrations of lead found were below those held to be safe by many authorities. Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in greater detail elsewhere, sometimes reached the accepted industrial maximum allowable concentration of 100 p.p.m. PMID:14278800

  12. Cross the Street to a New World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naiditch, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The author recalls his long ago work with an immigrant student that the school system declared to have a learning disability. Instead, it was the system that was unable to learn how to connect with the child and his family, a task that simply required listening and a walk across the street.

  13. Street Survival Skills Questionnaire for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence T.; Stall, Colleen H.

    Guidelines are given assessing the community living skills of deaf students through an adaptation of the Street Survival Skills Questionnaire (SSSQ), which was originally designed for developmentally disabled or handicapped adolescents and adults. Adaptations include consideration of situational factors (such as visual distractions) and the…

  14. Wall Street sours on nuke plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Wall Street has been threatening to join the antinuclear campaign for years as construction lead times and costs grew and the financial condition of utilities building reactors deteriorated. With nuclear plant cancellations, licensing problems, quality-assurance breakdowns, and elevated costs, stock prices have dropped causing unrest among utility investors.

  15. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  16. Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north elevations, perspective view from the northeast - Grace Cathedral, George William Gibbs Memorial Hall, 1051 Taylor Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 10. A westward view across Charles Street of the eastern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. A westward view across Charles Street of the eastern exterior wall of buildings #6-A, #6, and #6-B.(left to right). - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  18. INTERIOR VIEW ON MEZZANINE ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW ON MEZZANINE ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT FACING OAKLAND CITY HALL. TYPICAL INTERIOR CONDITIONS OF PARTIAL DEMOLITION; WINDOWS, WINDOW FRAMES, SUSPENDED CEILING, AND MOVABLE PARTITION WALLS REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 9. LOOKING NORTH ON SPRUCE STREET, SHOWING MILLWRIGHT SHOP, FITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTH ON SPRUCE STREET, SHOWING MILLWRIGHT SHOP, FITTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND ERECTING SHOP - UNION WORKS IN BACKGROUND. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  20. 6. 30123 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 6 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 301-23 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 6 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. 3. 30127 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 301-27 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. 2. 3046 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 6 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 304-6 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 6 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST (FRONT), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. 5. 30026 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 300-26 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 7 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND SOUTH, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. 4. 22228 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 2 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 222-28 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, 2 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WEST (FRONT) FACADE, LOOKING EAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. 1. 21820 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 3 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 218-20 SOUTH FIFTH STREET, 3 DOUBLE HOUSE UNITS, WITH COMMERCIAL ADDITIONS IN FRONT, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF WEST (FRONT) AND SOUTH, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. 7. 31719 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, DOUBLE HOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 317-19 SOUTH SIXTH STREET, DOUBLE HOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST (REAR), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Western Land & Improvement Company Double Houses, South Fifth & Sixth Streets, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. 6. DRAWING OF ORIGINAL K STREET BRIDGE, LEONARD HARBAUGH ARCHITECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DRAWING OF ORIGINAL K STREET BRIDGE, LEONARD HARBAUGH ARCHITECT, 28TH MARCH, 1792. USED IN OCTAGON BRIDGE EXHIBIT, NOVEMBER 1975; SOURCE, COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS. - K Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM, WINDOWS FACING ON WALNUT STREET (SOUTH), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM, WINDOWS FACING ON WALNUT STREET (SOUTH), ORIGINAL PANELED FOLDING SHUTTERS AND HARDWARE. For a view of closed shutters see PA-1436 A-16 - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. View of Mission Street facing south west. Williams Building is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Mission Street facing south west. Williams Building is at left background, Aron (Mercantile) Building is at right background. Parking lot is in left foreground - Williams Building, 693 Mission Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade, straight on view. To the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade, straight on view. To the north is the Ferree Building and to the south is the PMI Parking Garage. - Edward Abner Building, 413-415 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 2. View of Mainline elevated structure, parallel to Washington Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Mainline elevated structure, parallel to Washington Street, crossing over the Massachusetts Turnpike and the B&A R.R. tracks - looking North. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    253. 441 SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE, AND 1829, SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, TOWARD NORTHEAST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 1. In context, from south facing north along Lovejoy Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. In context, from south facing north along Lovejoy Street, community center, left, Techwood Homes Building 19, Right, elementary school, middle. - Clark Howell Homes, Community Center, 528 Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  15. 43. View looking southwest down river towards Ohio Street Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. View looking southwest down river towards Ohio Street Bridge, American elevator in foreground left, standard elevator in foreground right, Huron cement in center background. - Standard Elevator, 1 Saint Clair Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. 1. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON CONVENT AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON CONVENT AVE. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  17. 2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY ST. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  18. 3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING WEST ON KENNEDY FROM JUST SOUTH OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  19. 2. CEDAR STREET (east) FACADE OF THE BUILDING, WHICH HAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CEDAR STREET (east) FACADE OF THE BUILDING, WHICH HAD THREE ADDITIONAL STOREFRONTS, AND THE MAIN ENTRANCE TO THE ORDER'S HALL - Anaconda Historic District, Ancient Order of Hibernians Hall, 321-323 East Commercial Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  20. FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 859, DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST SIDE (WILSON STREET SIDE), SHOWING CHEVRON DESIGN OVER FORMER PASSAGEWAY, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Quadrangle K Barracks Type, Between Wilson Street & Capron Avenue near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN STREET (HIGHWAY 82), LOOKING NORTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN STREET (HIGHWAY 82), LOOKING NORTH, WITH THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH IN THE FOREGROUND, RIGHT OF CENTER. - Joseph Main Street, Between Joseph & Second Avenues, Joseph, Wallowa County, OR

  2. TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW OF MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH THE FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOPOGRAPHIC VIEW OF MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH THE FIRST BANK OF JOSEPH IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE SCHLUER BUILDING NEAR THE CENTER OF FRAME. - Joseph Main Street, Between Joseph & Second Avenues, Joseph, Wallowa County, OR

  3. 1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow County Courthouse (1910-1912) is on the left. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. 1. General view of silver street, looking southwest downhill toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of silver street, looking southwest downhill toward the Mississippi River, showing group of historic buildings - Natchez Bluffs & Under-the-Hill Historic District, Silver Street & adjacent area, Natchez, Adams County, MS

  5. 19. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM LOOKING NORTHWEST (Note chimney breast closet and fragment of paneling.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 24. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIREPLACE WALL IN SECOND FLOOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIREPLACE WALL IN SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM (Closet at left is a later addition covering a chimney breast closet.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Photocopy of original blackandwhite silver gelatin print, C STREET AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original black-and-white silver gelatin print, C STREET AT TWELFTH STREET, May 1, 1930, photographer Commercial Photo Company - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING NORTH, August 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING SOUTH, summer 1985 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Broad Street elevation of the competition design for the New ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Broad Street elevation of the competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, by architects Collins and Authenrieth, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 2. VIEW OF WALL ALONG WEST MIFFLIN STREET FROM END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WALL ALONG WEST MIFFLIN STREET FROM END OF BUILDING. The white house in the background is the William Montgomery House, HABS No. PA-1061. - Judge Charles Smith House, 22 South Queen Street, Lancaster, Lancaster County, PA

  12. VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 51 MOTT STREET GENERATING STATION (1897) RIGHTBUILDING 57 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 51 MOTT STREET GENERATING STATION (1897) RIGHT-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO.1 (1905) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. Harbor storage building and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  14. 8. NORTH (MAIN) ENTRANCE TO ORIGINAL (1903) FISK STREET POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTH (MAIN) ENTRANCE TO ORIGINAL (1903) FISK STREET POWERHOUSE, THE GENERATING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. VIEW NORTHWESTBUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST-BUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  16. 14. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING WORKSHOP LOOKING SOUTH TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING WORKSHOP LOOKING SOUTH TOWARDS RIVER WITH DORY SKIFF IN FOREGROUND ON BUILDING BED AND WORKBENCH AT WINDOWS. POWER LATHE CAN BE SEEN AT RIGHT. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  17. 7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left to right: elevator C, feed mill, pellet plant, elevator A. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. 3. View from northeast corner, Canisteo and Spruce Streets. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from northeast corner, Canisteo and Spruce Streets. Photo shows the garage area (Building #5) with sawtooth roofline and front elevation of Buildings #6 and #1. - Merrill Silk Mill, 233 Canisteo Street, Hornell, Steuben County, NY

  19. 7. ELEVATION OF STREET (NORTH) FACADE FROM DRIVEWAY OF LOWELL'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ELEVATION OF STREET (NORTH) FACADE FROM DRIVEWAY OF LOWELL'S FORMER RESIDENCE. NOTE BUILDERS VERTICALLY ALIGNED STEM OF BOATS WITH CORNER OF HOUSE BEHIND CAMERA POSITION. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  20. 3. NORTHEAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING ON SOUTH MAIN STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING ON SOUTH MAIN STREET, FACING WEST. SOUTHEAST END OF FACTORY IS VISIBLE LEFT OF CENTER. - Savage Tire Factory, Office Building, 2301 Main Street, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  1. VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. VIEW NORTHHUDSON STREET BUILDING 67INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67-INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  3. 5. West side of Fourth Street; concrete abutment pier and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. West side of Fourth Street; concrete abutment pier and crib work, June 29, 1931. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Approach, Between Fifth & Lake Streets, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  4. 13. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING LOOKING EAST ACROSS WORKSHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. STREET LEVEL OF EAST BUILDING LOOKING EAST ACROSS WORKSHOP TOWARDS DORY SKIFF UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING BED AND WORK BENCH IN BACKGROUND WITH BUILDER. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  5. 6. West side of Fourth Street; concrete foundation of crib ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side of Fourth Street; concrete foundation of crib work, June 29, 1931. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Approach, Between Fifth & Lake Streets, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  6. 14. DETAIL, IRON STAIR RAILING, STREET LEVEL TO GROUND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL, IRON STAIR RAILING, STREET LEVEL TO GROUND FLOOR LEVEL, SHOWING NEWEL POST (2 x 2 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 13. DETAIL, IRON STAIR RAILING, STREET LEVEL TO GROUND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, IRON STAIR RAILING, STREET LEVEL TO GROUND FLOOR LEVEL (2 x 2 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 3. Ninth Street view of brewery showing rear of 1890 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Ninth Street view of brewery showing rear of 1890 tower building and HI-EN Brau stone building, one of the oldest structures remaining. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF HANGAR DOORS ON ENTERPRISE STREET SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF HANGAR DOORS ON ENTERPRISE STREET SIDE, VIEW FACING WEST-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  10. SHOPS AND HANGAR SECTIONS OF BUILDING, VIEW FROM ENTERPRISE STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHOPS AND HANGAR SECTIONS OF BUILDING, VIEW FROM ENTERPRISE STREET, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Assembly & Repair Shop, Between Enterprise Avenue & Wright, Midway, & Langley Streets, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING AND BROAD STREETS (FOUR CORNERS--ST. MICHAEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, FIREPROOF BUILDING, COURTHOUSE, U.S. POST OFFICE). - City Plan of Charleston, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  12. 11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SITE B FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. (BUILDINGS 131, 130, 129, AND 128 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  13. View looking from the Tenth Street vehicular entrance to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking from the Tenth Street vehicular entrance to the Justice Department Building to show the great court and fountain - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION SCAR MARKED BY CONTRASTING WALLPAPER TREATMENTS - Phillips-Thompson Building, 200-206 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  15. 26. Photocopy of drawing, Draw for L Street Bridge, Sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of drawing, Draw for L Street Bridge, Sheet 4: Girder D, Girder F, July 1892. City of Boston Public Works Department Bridge files. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST OF MILL STREET GATE AND WEST FACADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST OF MILL STREET GATE AND WEST FACADE OF BUILDINGS 1 (c. 1896), CENTER, AND 2 (c. 1876); EXECUTIVE AND FINANCE OFFICES WERE LOCATED HERE. - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  17. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF ALDEN STREET FACADE OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF ALDEN STREET FACADE OF ORIGINAL BUILDING (RIGHT) AND c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION (LEFT) - United States Radium Corporation, Paint Application Building, 422 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  18. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FORTYTHIRD STREET STREETSCAPE WITH BUNGALOWS, SIDEWALKS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF FORTY-THIRD STREET STREETSCAPE WITH BUNGALOWS, SIDEWALKS AND STREET TREES ORIGINAL TO THE JEMISON AND COMPANY DEVELOPMENT OF THE 'MODEL' INDUSTRIAL TOWN. - City of Fairfield, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 7. CLOSE UP VIEW SOUTH OF BRIDGE OVER ORGAN STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSE UP VIEW SOUTH OF BRIDGE OVER ORGAN STREET BETWEEN BUILDING 24 AT LEFT AND BUILDING 7 AT RIGHT OF PHOTOGRAPH - Bryant Electric Company, Building No. 24, 80 Organ Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 3. WEST SIDE, FROM CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST SIDE, FROM CORNER OF FIRST STREET AND GOLD AVENUE (Original arcade on this side was blocked ca. 1934 to create bar and offices. High wall on left enclosed outdoor bar.) - Alvarado Hotel, First Street, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  1. 32. 108 SANSOM STREET, NORTH END OF ATTIC LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 108 SANSOM STREET, NORTH END OF ATTIC LOOKING EAST (Note diagonal crack indicating original gambrel roof slope.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Glory, Vortex Street off Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 19, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured both a vortex street and a glory visible amid the lattice of clouds over the Pacific Ocean off Baja California. In this image, the swirling clouds known as vortex streets appear along the left edge of the image, stretching southward from Isla Guadalupe. Another NASA satellite captured an earlier example of vortex streets in June 2000. These atmospheric vortices, known as Von Karman vortex streets, often occur in the wake of an obstacle to air flow, such as an island. Stratocumulus clouds--low-lying, sheets of puffy clouds-- over the ocean show the impact of the island on air flow visible though their alternating pattern of clockwise and counter-clockwise swirls. Southeast of the vortex street, a glory, which resembles a rainbow, hovers above the cloud cover. The glory is faint but large, 200 to 300 kilometers long, along a north-south orientation. This phenomenon can occur when the satellite passes directly between the Sun and a bank of clouds below. (People also observe them while looking down on clouds from airplanes.) Not just any kind of cloud can produce a glory; only clouds composed entirely of water droplets (as opposed to ice crystals) can make them. The droplets that form glories generally have diameters of less than 50 micrometers (a micrometers is a millionth of a meter). The water droplets bend the light, showing its different wavelengths, or colors. In this glory, reds and oranges are most visible. NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. Applicability of leachates originating from solid-waste landfills for irrigation in landfill restoration projects.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Reyhan; Zaimoglu, Zeynep; Sucu, M Yavuz; Budak, Fuat; Kekec, Secil

    2008-09-01

    Since, landfill areas are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method across the world, leachate generated from landfills should be given importance. Leachate of landfills exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater with its high pollutant content, which may cause unbearable water quality. This leads to the obligation for decontamination and remediation program to be taken into progress for the landfill area. Among a number of alternatives to cope with leachate, one is to employ the technology of phytoremediation. The main objective of this study was to determine the N accumulation ratios and the effects of landfill leachate in diluted proportions of chosen ratios (as 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 0), on the growth and development of Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Paspalum notatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nerium oleander, Pelargonium peltatum and Kochia scoparia species. In order to simulate the actual conditions of the landfill, soil covering the landfill is taken and used as medium for the trials. The study showed that S. secundatum, K. scoparia and N. oleander species had an impressive survival rate of 100%, being irrigated with pure leachate, while the others' survival rates were between 0 to 35% under the same conditions. As expected, application of leachate to the plants caused an increase in the accumulation of N, in the upper parts of all plants except P. peltatum. The highest N content increase was observed at S. Secundatum set, accumulating 3.70 times higher than its control set, whereas P. clandestinum value was 3.41 times of its control set. PMID:19295082

  4. 10. POWELL STREET RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of October 1971 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. POWELL STREET RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of October 1971 photograph showing a Powell-type yoke in place in the street. Photo taken on Powell Street near Ellis during repair work on the conduit. Note brick work of original 1887 conduit walls, and position of the slot rails, track rails, and cable in relationship to the yokes. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 9. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street about 1850', ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street about 1850', published in Podmore, Trenton Old and New (location of original lithograph unknown). 2-6 East State Street is to the right with the sign for the State Gazette office (which left the premises in 1857) on the wall. - 2-6 East State Street (Commercial Building), 2-6 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. Assessment of internal condition of waste in a roofed landfill.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Recently, roofed landfills have been gaining popularity in Japan. Roofed landfills have several advantages over non-roofed landfills such as eliminating the visibility of waste and reducing the spread of offensive odours. This study examined the moisture balance and aeration conditions, which promote waste stabilisation, in a roofed landfill that included organic waste such as food waste. Moisture balance was estimated using waste characterization and the total amount of landfilled waste. Internal conditions were estimated based on the composition, flux, and temperature of the landfill gas. Finally, in situ aeration was performed to determine the integrity of the semi-aerobic structure of the landfill. With the effects of rainfall excluded, only 15% of the moisture held by the waste was discharged as leachate. The majority of the moisture remained in the waste layer, but was less than the optimal moisture level for biodegradation, indicating that an appropriate water spray should be administered. To assess waste degradation in this semi-aerobic landfill, the concentration and flow rate of landfill gas were measured and an in situ aeration test was performed. The results revealed that aerobic biodegradation had not occurred because of the unsatisfactory design and operation of the landfill. PMID:22989405

  7. Landfill mining: Development of a cost simulation model.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pinkel, Michael; Polansek, Stephanie; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill. PMID:26858240

  8. FACING NORTH ALONG CLAY STREET, SHOWING BUILDINGS ON THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CLAY STREET, SHOWING BUILDINGS ON THE WEST SIDE OF CLAY STREET, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: JOHN BREUNER AND COMPANY BUILDING (FOREGROUND), HOTEL TOURAINE (MIDDLE), AND THE PACIFIC GAS AND ELECTRIC CO. BUILDING - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  10. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  11. 9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View east at rear of Armory Street Pump House showing remains of original coal bunker. Area later was the location of an oil tank. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  13. View of substructure of Sixth Street Bridge overcrossing of Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of substructure of Sixth Street Bridge overcrossing of Los Angeles River. Looking west. Note dark hole at lower with is access ramp to river channel seen in HAER CA-176-56 - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. GENERAL VIEW, DIAMOND STREET LOOKING EAST FROM A POINT JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, DIAMOND STREET LOOKING EAST FROM A POINT JUST WEST OF ITS INTERSECTION WITH NATRONA STREET. THE HOUSES AND STOREFRONT DOCUMENTED IN THIS RECORD ARE ON THE LEFT OF THIS VIEW. - 3200 Block Diamond Street (Houses & Storefront), North side, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 38. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha Street Bridge, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of original construction plan (Wabasha Street Bridge, Detail of South Cantilever Arm, 1888); web details of cantilever arm connecting second pier to third span - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  16. Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin connection that serves to anchor eye-bar suspension cable after descending below roadway level inside of the compressed lower girder. The bridge is not anchored in the traditional sense. - Three Sisters Bridges, Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  18. 9. VIEW NORTH, EXCAVATED LOCK FROM WATER STREET (Numbers painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH, EXCAVATED LOCK FROM WATER STREET (Numbers painted on stones for reconstruction purposes) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  19. 51. VIEW SOUTH, WIDE VIEW INTO SOUTH STREET RAMP NECKDOWN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW SOUTH, WIDE VIEW INTO SOUTH STREET RAMP NECKDOWN, SHOWING UNDERSIDE FRAMING OF CENTER RAMP SECTION AND BOTH EAST AND WEST SPLITS, AND STEEL BENTS - Route 1 Extension, Southbound Viaduct, Spanning Conrail Yards, Wilson Avenue, Delancy Street, & South Street on Routes 1 & 9 Southbound, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  20. Street Fight: Welcome to the World of Urban Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattee, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Street lit is controversial stuff. Even though street lit is a huge hit with today's teens, one will not find the semiautobiographical novels of Vickie Stringer and Nikki Turner, the grandes dames of urban fiction, on many (if any) high school reading lists or, for that matter, on some public libraries' shelves. That's because street lit (aka…

  1. View of Plum Street regulator in foreground, containing 18" vitrified ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Plum Street regulator in foreground, containing 18" vitrified clay pipe, in background are the Riverfront Park and the Route 51 Bridge. WPA retaining wall (Haer no. Pa-398) is right. - Plum Street Regulator, Plum Street at Monongahela River, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 20. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South McDonald Avenue, facing southeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  3. 19. View of southeast corner of East Ward Street and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of southeast corner of East Ward Street and South McDonald Avenue, facing southeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  4. 14. View of southwest corner of East Ward Street and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of southwest corner of East Ward Street and South McDonald Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  5. 2. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North Coweta Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  6. 17. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North McDonald Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  7. 6. Views of southeast corner of East Ward Street and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Views of southeast corner of East Ward Street and South Coweta Avenue, facing southeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  8. 21. View of south side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of south side of East Ward Street midblock between South McDonald Avenue and Fales Avenue, facing southeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  9. 16. View of northeast corner of East Ward Street and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of northeast corner of East Ward Street and North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  10. 13. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of south side of East Ward Street east of Sibett Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  11. 11. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock between Dewey AVenue and North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  12. 3. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock between North Coweta Avenue and Dewey Avenue. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  13. 12. View of south side of East Ward Street west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of south side of East Ward Street west of Sibett Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  14. 10. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock between Dewey Avenue and North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  15. 15. View of north side of East Ward Street at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of north side of East Ward Street at the intersection with North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  16. 8. View of south side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of south side of East Ward Street midblock between South Coweta Avenue and Sibett Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  17. 1. View of north side of East Ward Street west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of north side of East Ward Street west of North Coweta Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  18. 7. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South Coweta Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  19. 4. View of north side of East Ward Street west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of north side of East Ward Street west of Dewey Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  20. 5. View of northwest corner of East Ward Street and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of northwest corner of East Ward Street and Dewey Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  1. Street Youth: Adaptation and Survival in the AIDS Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Street youth remain at the fringes of society reflecting larger inherent social problems. Whether due to the death of parents, as a result of war, poverty, famine, disease, abandonment or abuse the health and social problems of the world's 100 million street youth are profound. By 1987 it was accepted that street youth were a high risk population…

  2. 16. Interior of west end of Armory Street Pumping House. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior of west end of Armory Street Pumping House. The original steam engine which provided pumping power was located here. The present house heating system is located here at the extreme right of the picture. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  4. Interior view, east to west corridor from the Fourteenth Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, east to west corridor from the Fourteenth Street lobby to the Fifteenth Street side of the building (168' in length) - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  6. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  7. 16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Paper Machine Building (on left) and Wilder Mill (on right), from Canal Street; view to north. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  8. SouthWest view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South-West view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. NorthEast view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 4. General view of streetscape along 7th Street looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of streetscape along 7th Street looking east from Columbia Street. Brewery property on north side of street - George Wiedemann Brewery Complex, Sixth & Columbia Streets, Newport, Campbell County, KY

  11. 3. BUILDING 522, EAST SIDE, FROM ACROSS 6TH STREET AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 522, EAST SIDE, FROM ACROSS 6TH STREET AT ITS INTERSECTION WITH G STREET, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. The utilization of sepiolite in landfill liners.

    PubMed

    Güney, Y; Ozdemir, H V

    2005-05-01

    In this study, sepiolite and natural soil-added sepiolite mixtures were studied to find out whether they can be used as compacted landfill liner, as they are an economic alternative to the other compacted day liners or not. Geotechnical and physico-chemical properties of sepiolite and sepiolite mixtures, containing 25% and 50% natural soil by weight, and compacted at water contents ranging from 35% to 60%, were determined by hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression strength, consolidation, volumetric shrinkage and swelling tests. The test results showed that the compacted natural soil-added sepiolite mixtures exhibit lower permeability and swelling properties, and higher compressive strength than pure sepiolite. The overall evaluation of the results has revealed that the natural soil-added sepiolite showed good promise and it can be used as a landfill barrier due to its high capacity of contaminant adsorption. PMID:15974274

  13. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  14. An energy perspective on landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Globally, one billion metric tons of organic waste in the form of municipal solid waste are placed into solid-waste containment facilities every year. Complete biodegradation of this waste can generate approximately 2.8x10[sup 11] m[sup 3] (9.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) or 1.98x10[sup 8] metric tons) of biogas. Biogas consists of approximately equal proportions of methane and carbon dioxide; thus a year's worth of waste can potentially generate 1.4x10[sup 11] m[sup 3] (5 Tcf or 9.9x10[sup 7] metric tons) of methane. If we assume that landfill-biogas generation began only 20 years ago and has proceeded at a steady rate, then we can estimate that it can contribute 5x10[sup 10] m[sup 3] (1.8 Tcf or 36x10[sup 6] metric tons) of methane to the global atmospheric budget every year. Landfill gas is difficult to recover and use. Exploitation of biogas includes use as a raw product for heat energy, dehydration to produce electric generator fuel, refinement for commercial transportation, and use as a chemical feedstock. Controlled-reactor landfills, called [open quotes]biofills,[close quotes] are designed for optimum methane generation to ensure a steady and consistent rate of gas generation. Biofill mechanisms used to improve gas production include physical and chemical modifications to the modern landfill design. These methods can reduce the gas-generation time from 80 years to 5 years, can reduce the waste mass, and can reduce negative effects on the environment. 134 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  16. Air pollution directional risk assessment for siting a landfill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yea; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2008-12-01

    Air pollution directional risk (APDR) is an essential factor to be assessed when selecting an appropriate landfill site. Because air pollutants generated from a landfill are diffused and transported by wind in different directions and speeds, areas surrounding the landfill will be subject to different associated risks, depending on their relative position from the landfill. This study assesses potential APDRs imposed from a candidate landfill site on its adjacent areas on the basis of the pollutant distribution simulated by a dispersion model, wind directions and speeds from meteorological monitoring data, and population density. A pollutant distribution map layer was created using a geographic information system and layered onto a population density map to obtain an APDR map layer. The risk map layer was then used in this study to evaluate the suitability of a candidate site for placing a landfill. The efficacy of the proposed procedure was demonstrated for a siting problem in central Taiwan, Republic of China. PMID:19189752

  17. Approaches to assess biocover performance on landfills.

    PubMed

    Huber-Humer, M; Röder, S; Lechner, P

    2009-07-01

    Methane emissions from active or closed landfills can be reduced by means of methane oxidation enhanced in properly designed landfill covers, known as "biocovers". Biocovers usually consist of a coarse gas distribution layer to balance gas fluxes placed beneath an appropriate substrate layer. The application of such covers implies use of measurement methods and evaluation approaches, both during the planning stage and throughout the operation of biocovers in order to demonstrate their efficiency. Principally, various techniques, commonly used to monitor landfill surface emissions, can be applied to control biocovers. However, particularly when using engineered materials such as compost substrates, biocovers often feature several altered, specific properties when compared to conventional covers, e.g., respect to gas permeability, physical parameters including water retention capacity and texture, and methane oxidation activity. Therefore, existing measuring methods should be carefully evaluated or even modified prior to application on biocovers. This paper discusses possible strategies to be applied in monitoring biocover functionality. On the basis of experiences derived from investigations and large-scale field trials with compost biocovers in Austria, an assessment approach has been developed. A conceptual draft for monitoring biocover performance and recommendations for practical application are presented. PMID:19282167

  18. Landfill gas pretreatment for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandelli, G. J.; Trocciola, J. C.; Spiegel, R. J.

    1994-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations (1) to control air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. If these regulations are adopted, they would require waste methane mitigation in order to prevent emission into the atmosphere and reduce the effect on global warming. One potential use of the waste methane is in a device which produces energy, the fuel cell. This device would reduce air emissions affecting global warming, acid rain, and other health and environmental issues. By producing useable energy, it would also reduce our dependency on foreign oil. This paper discusses the US EPA program underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation to demonstrate landfill methane control, and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues needed to be addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would remove contaminants from the gas sufficient for fuel cell operation; and (2) successful operation of a commercial fuel cell power plant on that lower-heating value waste methane gas.

  19. Evaluation of landfill gas as an energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    The benefits and problems associated with landfill gas recovery were considered by the City of Baltimore, resulting in the structuring and testing of a realistic gas recovery evaluation procedure for use by local governments. The Baltimore methodology is summarized and results of its application to a large landfill in the Baltimore area are presented. The landfill gas generation process potential uses for the recovered gas, and treatment requirements are covered.

  20. Feasibility study: utilization of landfill gas for a vehicle fuel system, Rossman's landfill, Clackamas County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    In 1978, a landfill operator in Oregon became interested in the technical and economic feasibility of recovering the methane generated in the landfill for the refueling of vehicles. DOE awarded a grant for a site-specific feasibility study of this concept. This study investigated the expected methane yield and the development of a conceptual gas-gathering system; gas processing, compressing, and storage systems; and methane-fueled vehicle systems. Cost estimates were made for each area of study. The results of the study are presented. Reasoning that gasoline prices will continue to rise and that approximately 18,000 vehicles in the US have been converted to operate on methane, a project is proposed to use this landfill as a demonstration site to produce and process methane and to fuel a fleet (50 to 400) vehicles with the gas produced in order to obtain performance and economic data on the systems used from gas collection through vehicle operation. (LCL)