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Sample records for 31-33 north central

  1. 22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View looking north on Central Avenue from Washington Street. The Stroud Building (with awnings on the second story) is located on the east (right) side of the street near the center of the block. The original Adams Hotel is seen at the right rear of the photograph Circa 1901-1910. Credit ADLAPR. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 14 CFR 31.33 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials. 31.33 Section 31.33 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.33 Materials. (a) The suitability and durability of all materials must be established on the basis of experience or tests. Materials must conform...

  3. 14 CFR 31.33 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Materials. 31.33 Section 31.33 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.33 Materials. (a) The suitability and durability of all materials must be established on the basis of experience or tests. Materials must conform...

  4. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by

  5. 14 CFR 31.33 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... design data. (b) Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material conforming to... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.33 Materials. (a) The suitability and durability of all materials must be established on the basis of experience or tests. Materials must conform...

  6. 14 CFR 31.33 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... design data. (b) Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material conforming to... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.33 Materials. (a) The suitability and durability of all materials must be established on the basis of experience or tests. Materials must conform...

  7. 14 CFR 31.33 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... design data. (b) Material strength properties must be based on enough tests of material conforming to... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.33 Materials. (a) The suitability and durability of all materials must be established on the basis of experience or tests. Materials must conform...

  8. Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair and "Puller Hall" sign - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. North Dakota to Central Quebec

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video was taken by the crew of Expedition 30 onboard the International Space Station. The sequence of shots was taken January 26, 2012 from 10:04:56 to 10:10:42 GMT, on a pass from North Dakot...

  10. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

  11. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

  12. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  13. Central and North Gulf Coast, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this view of the central and north Gulf Coast of Texas (30.0N, 96.0W), San Antonio Bay, Matagorda Bay and Galveston/Trinity Bay are clearly seen though small sediment plumes at the tidal passes are visible. The large field patterns of irrigated agriculture highlights an ancient deltaic plain formed by the Colorado and Brazos Rivers. Many manmade lakes and reservoirs, as far west as Lake Belton and Lake Waco and as far east as Toledo Bend are visible.

  14. Public water supplies in central and north-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Raymond W.; Broadhurst, W.L.; Dwyer, B.C.

    1949-01-01

    This report gives a summarized description of the public water supplies in 35 counties of central and north-central Texas, extending from the southern boundaries of Travis, Blanco, Gillespie, and Kerr Counties northward to the TexasOklahoma State line. It gives the available data as follows for each of the 145 communities: Population of the community; name of the official from whom the information was obtained; ownership of water works, whether private or municipal source of supply, whether ground water or surface water; the amount of water consumed; the facilities for storage; the number of customers served; the character of the chemical and sanitary treatment, if any; and chemical analyses of the water. Where ground water is used, the following is also given: Records of wells, including drillers' logs; character of the pumping equipment; yields of the wells, and records of water levels, if available.

  15. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  16. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  17. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  18. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  19. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  20. 10. INTERIOR, 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR, 'CENTRAL NORTH WING' PORTION OF SHOP AREA, FROM STAIRCASE ON NORTH SIDE OF 'WING', LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. Soil indigenous knowledge in North Central Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and classifying soils is part of an important learning process to improve soil management practices, soil quality and increase productivity. In order to assess soil quality improvement related to an ongoing land reform in North-Central Namibia, the characteristics that determine soil quality in the local land use context were determined in this study. To do so, we collated the indigenous soil knowledge in North-Central Namibia where the Ovakwanyama cultivate pearl millet for centuries. Local soil groups are defined mostly based on their productivity potential, which varies depending on the rainfall pattern. The morphological criteria used by the farmers to differentiate the soil groups (colour, consistence) were supported by a conventional analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Now, they can be used to develop a soil quality assessment toolbox adapted to the regional use. The characteristics of the tool box do not directly indicate soil quality, but refer to local soils groups. The quality of these groups is relatively homogenous at the local scale. Our results show that understanding of indigenous soil knowledge has great potential to improve soil quality assessment with regards to land use. The integration of this knowledge with the conventional soil analysis improves the local meaning of such a "scientific" assessment and thus facilitates dialog between farmers and agronomists, but also scientists working in different regions of the world, but in similar conditions. Overall, the integration of indigenous knowledge in international classification systems (e.g. WRB) as attempted in this study has thus a major potential to improve soil mapping in the local context.

  2. Ambient noise levels in north central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzorati, S.; Bindi, D.

    2006-09-01

    The characteristics of background seismic noise in north central Italy have been investigated by means of velocity power spectral analysis within the frequency range 0.1-15 Hz. The method proposed by McNamara and Buland (2004) has been applied to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of power spectra computed for ten different stations. Since the target region is the most industrialized area of Italy, a large variability among the power spectra for different sites is observed in the frequency range 1-15 Hz, with the noise levels at two stations exceeding the New High Noise Model (NHNM) of Peterson (1993). The 95th percentile of the PDF varies from -165 to -125 dB (relative to (m/s)2/Hz). This variability could significantly affect the detection capabilities of a network installed for recording the small to moderate size seismicity occurring in north central Italy. We also observed that the dispersion of the powers, estimated at each site as the difference between the 95th and the 5th percentiles, shows a positive trend with frequency that can be ascribed to the diurnal variation of the background noise levels. In the frequency range 0.1-1 Hz, the dominant feature is the double frequency (DF) peak of microseisms generated by oceanic storms. At one of the considered stations, the seasonal variability of the maximum amplitude of the DF peak has been observed in the period from April 2004 to December 2005. Considering the barometric maps provided by the UK Meteorological Office, we observed that the strongest powers in the range 0.10-0.25 Hz occur when intense storms are present over the North Atlantic Ocean, whereas the measurements of the height, frequency, and azimuth of the sea waves at two buoys of the Rete Ondametrica Italiana deployed in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas suggest that the DF microseisms in the frequency range 0.25-0.50 Hz are generated by storms over the Mediterranean Sea. Finally, the analyzed region is characterized by two large

  3. 16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART OF THE INTERIOR, RECENTLY USED FOR A BASKETBALL, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE ROLL-UP DOOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 9. INTERIOR, TOOL ROOM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF 'CENTRAL NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, TOOL ROOM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF 'CENTRAL NORTH WING,' FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 33. Third floor, looking north, elevator and central stair to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Third floor, looking north, elevator and central stair to the right (original ice manufacturing floor) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  6. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING NORTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND CENTRAL PAVILION, WITH SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE AND ENGINE HOUSE BEYOND - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 17. CENTRAL BEDROOM, LOOKING NORTH, SECOND FLOOR. CHANDELIER MANUFACTURED CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CENTRAL BEDROOM, LOOKING NORTH, SECOND FLOOR. CHANDELIER MANUFACTURED CIRCA 1900-1910, ORIGINALLY HAD GAS CANDLES ABOVE THE ELECTRIC GLOBES. TIFFANY LAMP MANUFACTURED CIRCA 1895 - Ronald-Brennan House, 631 South Fifth Street, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at left and plant switch house at right (series 1 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. Cob biomass supply for bioenergy in the north central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a liquid biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central U.S. (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) using...

  11. First oilfields of the Central and Northern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. ); Martin, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Only 25 years ago the areas now termed the Central and Northern North Sea were the true frontier exploration basins. Stratigraphy and structure were essentially unknown, except inferences drawn from the Mesozoic outcrops of Britain and Denmark. At that time the majority of small British onshore oil fields were reservoired in Paleozoic strata. In the Central North Sea, oil was first discovered in Paleocene deep-water sandstone and Upper Cretaceous chalk reservoirs. The first commercial reserves were proven with the discovery of the Ekofisk field (Upper Cretaceous) in 1969 and Forties field (Paleocene) in 1970, both now classed as giants. Subsequently stratigraphically deeper reservoirs were established, including Jurassic sandstones (Piper field) and Permian carbonates and sandstones (Auk and Argyll fields). Diversity of trap type and reservoir age is now a hallmark of the Central North Sea basin. In the Northern North Sea, the first exploration well in 1971 on the Brent field structure, a true wildcat whose nearest UK well control was 320 mi to the south, found oil in Middle Jurassic deltaic sandstones. A spate of discoveries on similar tilted fault blocks with Middle Jurassic and underlying Triassic alluvial-fluvial sandstone targets followed. Later, Upper Jurassic deep-water sandstones became established as a further significant reservoir with the Brae field and Magnus field discoveries. Original seismic data, well prognoses, and structure maps tell the story of these early discoveries. Public response in Norway and the UK to the emergence of the North Sea oil province on their doorstep will be reviewed.

  12. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  13. 18. SOUTH CENTRAL SECTION OF HISTORIC DISTRICT LOOKING NORTH TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SOUTH CENTRAL SECTION OF HISTORIC DISTRICT LOOKING NORTH TO WATER TOWER (Buildings No. 43, 42, 78) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61B-5) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  14. 59. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, CENTRAL MURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, CENTRAL MURAL PAINTING SHOWING WOMAN ON A SWING (See NY-5635-54 for original location) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  15. 28. VIEW OF CENTRAL SECTION OF MILL FROM NORTH. COMPRESSOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF CENTRAL SECTION OF MILL FROM NORTH. COMPRESSOR ROOM BELOW PRECIPITATION FLOOR IS VISIBLE AT LOWER LEFT; THE SECONDARY THICKENER ADDITION IS TO THE RIGHT WITH SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 OFF VIEW TO RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Profile of North Carolina Central University Freshmen Class, Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Vicki S.; And Others

    Demographic and academic information on 1978 North Carolina Central University (NCCU) freshmen were assessed, using the NCCU Freshman Survey and 66 items from the College Student Questionnaire. Attention was directed to student attitudes about family and peer relationships, instructional/learning styles, and political, social, cultural, and moral…

  17. 76 FR 1594 - North Central Idaho Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...The North Central Idaho RAC will meet in Grangeville, Idaho. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the meetings are to discuss and select projects for 2011 and...

  18. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  19. Streamflow Measurements in North-Central Nebraska, November 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Steven M.; Strauch, Kellan R.

    2007-01-01

    Streamflow measurements were made during November of 2006 in the Elkhorn and Loup River basins and selected streams in the Niobrara and Platte River basins in north-central Nebraska. At these 531 sites, flows ranging from no flow to 2,600 ft3/s were measured or observed. The data are presented in a table along with the quality of measurement and the method that was used. Maps show the location of the study area and the sites.

  20. 6. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON SIXTH STREET, ACROSS CENTRAL AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON SIXTH STREET, ACROSS CENTRAL AVENUE. THE BUILDING ON THE RIGHT IS BUILDING 551, BUILT IN 1953 AS A WAREHOUSE AND METAL FABRICATION SHOP. THE BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS BUILDING 334, ALSO BUILT IN 1953, AS THE ELECTRICAL AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE SHOP. IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IN THE BACKGROUND IS BUILDING 374, THE AQUEOUS PROCESS WASTE TREATMENT PLANT. - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  7. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  8. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  9. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  10. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  11. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  12. Reactive trace metals in the stratified central North Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Bruland, K.W. ); Orians, K.J. ); Cowen, J.P. )

    1994-08-01

    Vertical concentration profiles of the dissolved and suspended particulate phases were determined for a suite of reactive trace metals, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cd, during summertime at a station in the center of the North Pacific gyre. During summer the euphotic zone becomes stratified, forming a shallow (0-25 m), oligotrophic, mixed layer overlying a subsurface (25-140 m), strongly-stratified region. The physical, biological, and chemical structure within the euphotic zone during this period enhanced the effect of atmospheric inputs of Al, Fe, and Mn on mixed layer concentrations. For example, the concentration of dissolved Fe in the surface mixed layer was eighteen times that observed at a depth of 100 m. The observed aeolian signature of these metals matched that predicted from estimates of atmospheric input during the period between the onset of stratification and sampling. The distributions of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn all exhibited minima in the euphotic zone and increased with depth into the main thermocline. Particulate Al and Fe were then uniform with depth below 1000 m before increasing in the near bottom nepheloid layer. Average particulate phase concentrations in intermediate and deep waters of the central North Pacific were 1.0, 0.31, and 0.055 nmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1] for Al, Fe, and Mn, respectively. The distribution of particulate Cd exhibited a maximum within the subsurface euphotic zone. Particulate zinc also exhibited a surface maximum, albeit a smaller one. Concentrations of particulate Zn and Cd in intermediate and deep waters were 17 and 0.2 pmol[center dot]kg[sup [minus]1]. Substantial interbasin differences in particulate trace metals occur. Concentrations of suspended particulate Al, Fe, and Mn were three to four times lower in the central North Pacific than recently reported for the central North Atlantic gyre, consistent with differences in atmospheric input to these two regions.

  13. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  14. Geologic Framework, Age, and Lithologic Characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, North-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  15. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  16. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  17. 15. The second story in the north segment of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. The second story in the north segment of the building was originally constructed as a restaurant. The north wall of the dining room retains the original wood wainscot and double-hung windows. At some undetermined time, a building was constructed on the adjacent property; blocking the windows in the dining room. Several chimneys with stove-pipe connections occur in the room. The members seen on the floor are part of a system recently installed to support the failing roof. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Geothermal gradient drilling, north-central Cascades of Oregon, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-01-01

    A geothermal gradient drilling program was conducted on the western flank of the north-central Cascade Mountains in Oregon. Six wells were drilled during this program, although in effect seven were drilled, as two wells were drilled at site 3, the second well, however, actually going to a lesser depth than the first. Three of the wells (3, 4, and 5) were drilled in areas which topographically are subject to strong throughflows of ground water. None of these wells reached the regional water table, and all showed essentially isothermal geothermal gradients. The single well which was started essentially at the water table (well 6) shows a linear temperature rise with depth essentially from the top of the well bore. Well No. 2 shows an isothermal gradient down to the level of the regional water table and then shows a linear gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km from the regional water table to total depth.

  19. Cranial non-metric variation in north and central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A F

    1997-03-01

    Fifty cranial non-metric traits were scored on twenty series of crania from north and central Mexico in the American Museum of Natural History. Additional crania from three of the series were scored in the Musco Nacional de Antropología. Mexico City. Although a total of 471 crania and 316 mandibles were registered, only 11 series containing 387 crania and 270 mandibles, were of sufficient length for statistical analysis. Trait frequencies in these series were compared by multidimensional scaling and principal component analysis. The results suggest a degree of biological continuity in the Basin of Mexico over a twenty-five hundred year period, although the later samples from that area exhibit signs of some gene flow from more northern populations.

  20. Thermal Evolution of the North-Central Gulf Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.; Scardina, Allan D.; Pilger, Rex H., Jr.

    1984-12-01

    The subsidence history of the North Louisiana Salt Basin, determined from well data, indicates that the region underwent extension during rifting and has since passively subsided due to conductive cooling of the lithosphere. Timing of the rifting event is consistent with opening of the Gulf of Mexico during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time. Crustal extension by a factor of 1.5 to 2 was computed from "tectonic" subsidence curves. However, data from the early subsidence history are insufficient to distinguish between uniform and nonuniform extension of the lithosphere. The magnitude of extension is in good agreement with total sediment and crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction data in the adjacent Central Mississippi Salt Basin. The temperature distribution within the sediments is calculated using a simple heat conduction model. Temperature and subsidence effects of thermal insulation by overlying sediments are included. The computed temperature distribution is in good agreement with bottom hole temperatures measured in deep wells. Temperature histories predicted for selected stratigraphic horizons within the North Louisiana Salt Basin suggest that thermal conditions have been favorable for hydrocarbon generation in the older stata. Results from a two-dimensional heat conduction model suggest that a probable cause for the early formation of the adjacent uplifts is lateral heat conduction from the basin. Rapid extension of the lithosphere underneath areas with horizontal dimensions of 50-100 km produces extremely rapid early subsidence due to lateral heat conduction. The moderate subsidence rate observed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous suggests slow extension over a long period of time.

  1. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  2. Post-Ellesmerian depositional sequences of central North Slope subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, W.G.

    1985-04-01

    Detailed electrical-log correlations of bedding in the Mesozoic to recent intervals define nearly time-equivalent stratigraphic units. Basinal depositional minima separate them into depositional cycles of 15 to 40-m.y. duration, and sequences of similar cycles correspond to the major episodes of Arctic tectonism. The close of the Sag River cycle in Pleinsbachian time ended the Ellesmerian sequence of accretionary tectonics and northerly continental provenance. Long,oscillating uplift to the northwest during the Jurassic Kingak cycle, and five or more subcycles of emergence along an ancestral Barrow arch rift shoulder during the Lower Cretaceous Kup River cycle show that the Barrovian sequence accompanied Arctic rifting. The Brookian sequence records a time of Arctic seafloor spreading coincident with underthrusting of the North Slope block toward a convergent Pacific margin. A series of major overthrusts onto the block from this margin were sources for Lower Torok, Nanushuk, Schrader Bluff, Prince Creek, and Franklin Bluffs cycles. The lower Torok source was in a distant westerly direction, and those of the following cycles became progressively closer and more southerly, ending near the present position of the central and western Brooks Range. A collision between Alaska and Siberia in mid-Tertiary time initiated the Eurekan sequence of circum-arctic compressional tectonics. The North Slope block was tilted northeast, and the Nuwok cycle was derived from the resulting regional erosion. Similar tilting and erosion beginning in the Pleistocene started the Gubik cycle that is still being deposited.

  3. New Heat Flow Map of North and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, D.; Lewis, T. J.; Majorowicz, J.; Mareschal, J.

    2004-05-01

    A new heat flow map of North and Central America has been compiled. The map is based on all the available standard heat flow measurements on land and marine heat flow data, as well as on bottom hole temperature data, and constraints from geothermal springs. This new map confirms many established trends and improves the information on small scale heat flow variations. Both on the continent and in the oceans, there is a strong contrast between the eastern and the western parts of North America. For the oceanic part, the heat flow is high in the Pacific and heat flow contours closely follow the age of the sea floor. The heat flow is lower in the Atlantic than in the Pacific, but it also follows the age of the sea floor. There are small scale heat flow variations in the Labrador Sea and on the margin of Nova Scotia that do not fit a clear pattern. On the continent, heat flow variations occur at many different scales with a strong contrast between the low heat flow in the stable eastern provinces (30-60 {mW~m-2}) and high heat flow in the active western provinces (>60 {mW~m-2}) . The very low heat flow (<40 {mW~m-2}) on the east slopes of the Appalachians, Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico are possibly due to the effect of groundwater flow and sediment deposition. There are small scale variations in heat flow within the Appalachians, the Canadian Shield, and the stable platform due to variations in crustal heat generation. In the dominantly high heat flow regions of Mexico, the western US and Canada, and Alaska, a striking contrast is formed by a low heat flow band (<45 {mW~m-2}) parallel to the present and past subduction zones. The map and CD Rom containing all the relevant information are available from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

  4. Geologic characteristics of the central stretch of the Ticona Channel, north-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willems, B.A.; Malone, D.H.; Pugin, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Ticona Channel is located in north-central Illinois and occurs in Grundy, LaSalle, and Putnam counties. It is a buried bedrock valley that served as the principal paleodrainage system in north-central Illinois during the Illinoian and pre-Illinoian. This study focused on the part of the Ticona Channel within the Leonore 7.5??? Quadrangle. The geometry and stratigraphy of sediments that fill the Ticona Channel were investigated using high-resolution, shallow seismic reflection profiling, traditional field geologic mapping techniques, borehole data, and water-well-log data. The valley is about 2 km (1 mi) wide and approximately 60 m (200 ft) deep. The U-shape channel is straight, trends east-west, and has only one mappable tributary. The valley is carved into the Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation in the eastern part of the study area; it has incised into the Ordovician Prairie du Chien Group in the west. At its base, the Ticona Channel is filled with the Pearl Formation, which is coarse-grained sand and gravel that was deposited during the Illinoian glaciation. The Pearl Formation is overlain by Illinoian till of the Glasford Formation and is capped by Wedron Group sediments from the Wisconsinan stage. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  5. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  6. Tectonic significance of Currant Creek formation, north-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Isby, J.S.; Picard, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Currant Creek Formation is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, and fine-grained clastic rocks that crop out along the northwestern margin of the Uinta basin in north-central Utah. Lateral gradations in grain size define proximal, medial, and distal parts of coalescing alluvial-fan deposits that prograded eastward from the active Sevier-Laramide orogenic belt during Maestrichtian through Paleocene (.) time. Paleocurrent directions indicate a dominant southerly transport direction and a minor easterly component. Strong east and southeasterly directions, measured in imbricated clasts and in sand lenses in conglomerate, indicate multiple source areas for the detritus. Source of the coarse-grained detritus in the Currant Creek Formation was the Charleston thrust sheet. Conglomeratic clasts are composed of Precambrian and Cambrian quartzite, chert derived from Cambrian and Mississippian carbonate beds, and Pennsylvanian sandstone. These rocks are exposed in the upper plate of the Charleston thrust near Deer Creek Reservoir, Mount Timpanogos, and Strawberry Reservoir. At Big and Little Cottonwood Canyons, the same rocks are exposed in the lower plate.

  7. View of north central Wyoming and southern Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana as seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River flowing northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, in the center of the picture, is impounded by a dam across the Big Horn River. A sharp contrast is clearly evident between the small rectangular crop areas along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formations appear in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the fr

  8. Mesotidal barrier complex, Sundance Formation, north-central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, D.M.; Vondra, C.F.; Akers, A.; Elliott, T.

    1986-08-01

    The sandstones and coquinas of the upper 20 m of the Sundance Formation are a tidal inlet, back-barrier shoal, and sandy tidal-flat sequence deposited at the close of marine Jurassic sedimentation in north-central Wyoming. The lateral migration of these interbarrier tidal inlets along the regressive shoreline of the late Sundance sea caused the coquinas and sandstones of the uppermost Sundance Formation to be deposited as tabular, laterally extensive units. Earlier models, which attach an offshore environment of deposition to this sequence, fail to explain the tabular gross geometry of the unit and its conformable stratigraphic relationship with the overlying nonmarine sediments of the Morrison Formation. Within the sandstone of the uppermost Sundance Formation, tidal bundles, sigmoidal reactivation surfaces, herringbone cross-lamination, and abundant mud drapes present considerable evidence for tidal influence during the deposition of the unit. The neap-spring cyclicity of the tidal bundles implies they were developed in a diurnal tidal setting. A meso-paleotidal range along the Late Jurassic shoreline is estimated, based on calculations of sediment transport rates during the tidal bundle development.

  9. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  10. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. NDT education improvements through the North Central Collaboration for NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, B. F.; Wormley, S. J.

    2001-04-01

    The North Central Collaboration for Education in NDE/NDT is an effort aimed at enhancing NDE education and improving articulation between community college technician programs and university technical degree programs. NDT instructors at four community colleges are working with the staff at the Center for NDE at Iowa State University. Through this arrangement, advanced teaching methods and new materials that allow students to learn concepts better and in less time are being developed. For example, materials have been developed that will facilitate the use of an X-ray inspection simulation program in teaching basic radiography. Course materials have been developed and posted on the Internet that allow instructors to use interactive Java applets to better illustrate and explain difficult to grasp concepts. Some of the materials introduce subjects that are not currently extensively taught such as real-time radiography and distance-amplitude-correction (DAC) through curved surfaces. This paper will review NDT technician education, discuss the need for improvement in the methods used to educate technicians and highlight some of the efforts of the collaboration.

  12. Ground-water resources of north-central Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushman, Robert Vittum

    1964-01-01

    The term 'north-central Connecticut' in this report refers to an area of about 640 square miles within the central lowland of the Connecticut River basin north of Middletown. The area is mostly a broad valley floor underlain by unconsolidated deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age which mantle an erosional surface formed on consolidated rocks of pre-Triassic and Triassic age. The mean annual precipitation at Hartford, near the center of the area, is 42.83 inches and is uniformly distributed throughout the year. The average annual streamflow from the area is about 22 inches or about half the precipitation. The consolidated water-bearing formations are crystalline rocks of pre-Triassic age and sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Newark group of Triassic age. The crystalline rocks include the Middletown gneiss, the Maromas granite gneiss, the Glastonbury granite-gneiss of Rice and Gregory (1906), and the Bolton schist which form the basement complex and the Eastern Upland of north-central Connecticut. Enough water for domestic, stock, and small commercial use generally can be obtained from the crystalline rocks. Recoverable ground water occurs in the interconnected joints and fracture zones and is yielded in amounts ranging from 29 to 35 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells ranging in depth from 29 to 550 feet. The sedimentary rocks of Triassic age underlie all the Connecticut River Lowland and are predominantly arkosic sandstone and shale. Water supplies sufficient for domestic, stock, and small commercial use can be obtained from shallow wells penetrating these rocks, and larger supplies sufficient for industries and smaller municipalities can probably be obtained from deeper wells. Reported yields range from ? to 578 gpm; the larger yields are generally obtained from wells between 300 and 600 feet in depth. Yields are larger where the overlying material is sand and gravel or where the rocks are well fractured. The igneous rocks of Triassic age are basalt and have

  13. Multiple deformation at the western edge of the Carolina slate belt, north-central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, J.P.; Shell, G.S.; Wilkins, J.K. ); Samson, S.; Wortman, G. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    In north-central North Carolina, volcanic-plutonic rocks of the Carolina slate belt are separated from gneisses of the Milton belt to the west by a wide, ENE-trending, polygenetic structural zone. Within a portion of this zone, the Country Line Creek complex (CLCC) forms the western edge of the slate belt. Rocks of the CLCC span a wide age range and include mafic and granitoid gneisses with subordinate pelitic schist, granitoid pegmatite, and a concordant sheet-like intrusion, the Yanceyville metagranite. The complex is heterogeneously deformed and metamorphosed. Along the SE margin of the structural zone, steeply-dipping, strongly foliated biotite granitoid and mafic gneisses of the complex appear to be intruded by the Roxboro metagranite of the Carolina slate belt. To the NW, in more interior portions of the zone, the CLCC is affected by multiphase foliations and folds that record a dextral oblique normal shear event. Here, the Yanceyville metagranite is affected by a strong foliation that is folded. A preliminary new date on the Roxboro pluton of ca. 545 Ma, indicates a Late Precambrian or older timing of deformation along the SE margin of the zone. In contrast, a preliminary, ca. 340 Ma, age on the Yanceyville metagranite indicates multiple stage Late Paleozoic deformation for interior portions of the zone. Regional structural and isotopic data hint that the Precambrian deformation may record initial interactions between the Milton and Carolina slate belts. Subsequently, this contact was reactivated during Alleghanian orogenesis.

  14. Depositional model for Rival and Midale subintervals (Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Rival and Midale subintervals (Charles Formation, Upper Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota, represent two relative sea level fluctuations. Updip (northeast), the Rival subinterval contains fine to medium-bedded and chicken-wire anhydrite with interbedded algal bindstone that was deposited on supratidal flats. Basinward (southwest), the lithology changes to oncolitic, peloidal, intraclastic grainstone/packstone that was deposited in intertidal and subtidal restricted lagoonal environments. Evaporites precipitated in the sediment of the intertidal to shallow subtidal restricted lagoonal environment. Overlying the Rival subinterval is skeletal wackestone and packstone of the lower Midale subinterval. The presence of normal-marine fauna (crinoids, brachiopods, trilobites, rugose and tabulate coral) indicates a significant relative sea level transgression occurred following deposition of the Rival. The middle and upper Midale subinterval consists of intensely burrowed dolowackestone and dolomudstone that contain a less diversified faunal assemblage. Overlying the Midale carbonates is a transitional zone of calcareous shale and dolomite that grades upward into mottled (burrowed.) and finely laminated microgranular dolomite and anhydrite. The upper Midale section represents a relative sea level regression (shoreline progradation). Updip (northeast) reservoirs produce from the Midale carbonates, which are sealed laterally and vertically by calcarous shale and microgranular dolomitic anhydrite of the Midale Evaporite. Downdip (southwest), the Rival produces from porous grainstone, which is sealed laterally by intertidal/supratidal carbonates and evaporites, resulting in a stratigraphic trap. Vuggy and intergranular porosity are the major porosity types in the Rival grainstone, and moldic and intercrystalline porosity are dominant in the Midale dolowackestone.

  15. A refined age grid for the Central North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, J. M.; Miranda, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a digital model for the age of the Central North Atlantic as a geographical grid with 1 arc minute resolution. Our seafloor isochrons are identified following the 'grid procedure' described in the work of Luis and Miranda (2008). The grid itself, which was initially a locally improved version of the Verhoef et al. (1996) compilation, was improved in 2011 (Luis and Miranda, 2011) and further refined with the inclusion of Russian data north of Charlie Gibbs FZ (personal communication, S. Mercuriev). The location and geometry of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is now very well constrained by both magnetic anomalies and swath bathymetry data down to ~10 degrees N. We identified an extensive set of chrons 0, 2A, 3, 3A, 4, 4A, 5, 6, 6C, 11-12, 13, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33r, M0, M2, M4, M10, M16, M21 and M25. The ages at each grid node are computed by linear interpolation of adjacent isochrons along the direction of the flow-lines. As a pre-processing step each conjugate pair of isochrones was simplified by rotating one of them about the finite pole of that anomaly and use both, original picks plus rotated ones, to calculate an average segment. Fractures zones are used to constrain the chron's shape. These procedures minimize the uncertainties in locations where on one side of the basin one has good identifications but the other is poorly defined as is typical of many of the old isochrones. Care has also taken to account for locations where significant ridge jumps were found. Ages of the ocean floor between the oldest identified magnetic anomalies and continental crust are interpolated using the oldest ages of the Muller at al. (2008), which were themselves estimated from the ages of passive continental margin segments. This is a contribution to MAREKH project (PTDC/MAR/108142/2008) funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation.

  16. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodell, John Michael; Chapman, David S.

    1982-04-01

    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m-2 but fall into the following distinct subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m-2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m-2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) and 88 mW m-2 (4 sites; s.d. 19) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m-2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow `thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m-2 compared to 80-90 mW m-2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of Tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15-20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago.

  17. Magnetotelluric Data, North Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for north central Yucca Flat, Profile 7, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  18. 78 FR 33891 - North Central Railway Association, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Franklin and Hardin Counties, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board North Central Railway Association, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption-- in Franklin and Hardin Counties, Iowa North Central Railway Association, Inc. (NCRA), has filed a verified...

  19. Assessing the potential risks of burial practices on groundwater quality in rural north-central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Zume, Joseph T

    2011-09-01

    Several cultures of north-central Nigeria do not use community cemeteries. Instead, human remains are buried in and around family compounds, often in shallow and sometimes unmarked graves. At several locations, graves and drinking water wells end up too close to be presumed environmentally safe. This paper reports findings of a pilot study that explored the potential for groundwater contamination from gravesites in some rural settlements of north-central Nigeria. Preliminary results suggest that the long-standing burial practices among some cultures of rural north-central Nigeria may potentially compromise groundwater quality, which is, by far, their most important source of drinking water.

  20. Anthropogenic warming has decreased water supply in North Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    North Central Texas, including Dallas-Ft. Worth, the 4th largest metropolitan area in the U.S., has been in a state of drought for most of this 21st Century. Seven million residents there depend almost exclusively on surface water resources, and net water storage declined precipitously until record rainfall in early 2015. Part of the decline in water availability can be attributed to reduced runoff, where despite slightly above normal precipitation, natural basin runoff has declined almost 20% since its peak in the mid-1990's. These changes have coincided with 0.85oC warming above the historical 20th Century mean. Prevalent Vertisol (cracking) soils in the region make runoff especially sensitive to climate variations, and make it difficult to apply traditional hydrologic models to investigate climate-runoff links. Non-parametric (empirical) runoff elasticity methods circumvent these limitations, and are applied here, focusing on the Upper Trinity River basin (UTB). Diagrammatic assessment of UTB temperature-precipitation (T-Pr) runoff elasticity indicates persistent warming greatly increases the risk of reduced runoff, based on historical experience. Evaluation of individual parameter elasticity indicates dry periods since 2000 have primarily been T-driven, in contrast to the Pr-driven 1951-6 drought of record. Observed decline in runoff during 2000-2010 is entirely attributable to increased T. Additional runoff declines from 2011-14 were driven by reduced Pr, augmenting the T-driven reductions. These T effects are most prominent to the west, and decline to minimal extent just east of the UTB. The observed warming can be related to anthropogenic CO2 increase with >95% certainty based on comparison of CMIP5 climate model results for the UTB with and without CO2 forcing. UTB runoff fraction of Pr decreased after 1980 with >97.5% certainty. These results strongly indicate that 21st Century 20% decline in runoff from previous century norms is largely attributable to

  1. Early opening of initially closed Gulf of Mexico and central North Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Van Siclen, D.C.

    1984-09-01

    This paper presents ideas on the early opening and evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the central North Atlantic ocean. It discusses rifting activity, plate tectonics, magnetic anomalies, and the geologic time elements involved.

  2. Pseudotachylite Breccia Veins from Dhala Impact Structure, North Central India: Texture, Mineralogy and Geochemical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Koeberl, C. K.; Pati, P.

    2013-08-01

    This is the first report of pseudotachylitic breccia veins (PTB)in basement granitoids from the Dhala structure, north central India.The host granitoids and PTB show similar REE pattern despite extensive alteration and major element concentration.

  3. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) usin...

  4. Paleoseismologic Studies of the North Anatolian Fault, Cukurcimen and Ulaslar, North-Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartleb, R. D.; Dolan, J. F.; Kozaci, O.; Seitz, G. G.; Akyuz, H. S.; Barka, A. A.

    2001-12-01

    The central North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a model opportunity to study long-term behavior of continental transforms because of its relative mechanical simplicity and long historic record of earthquakes. We excavated three trenches across the NAF at Cukurcimen, near Refahiye in north-central Turkey on the eastern part of the 1939 M7.9 surface rupture. Measurement of a nearby offset dirt road, together with interviews with residents, indicates that ~9 - 14 m of dextral slip occurred at the site during the 1939 event. Trench stratigraphy is superb, with alternating fine-scale alluvial and marsh deposits, including abundant, laterally-continuous peat horizons. These in-situ peat deposits provide excellent chronological control, which we are utilizing by strategic sampling and AMS 14C analysis. We identified evidence for at least two, and perhaps four, surface ruptures at Cukurcimen. Two distinct event horizons were recognized in trench 1 on the basis of upward fault terminations. The most recent event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of a thin peat horizon (1332 - 1481 AD). We do not have an upper age limit for this event, but the event horizon lies ~75 cm below ground surface. We believe that this is the historical 1583 earthquake which razed Erzincan, and that the 1939 event is not recorded in trench 1. An older, clearly-defined event in trench 1 occurred shortly after deposition of another thin peat horizon (795 - 1022 AD), and before the 1583 (?) event. We suspect that this event is the historical 1045 earthquake. There is also equivocal evidence in trench 1 for an older event that occurred after deposition of a peat dated at BC 538 - 260, and before 795 - 1022 AD. Trench 2 revealed evidence for one event (1939?), peat dates are pending. Trench 3 revealed evidence for two events (probably 1939 and 1583). Additional excavations are planned at this site. We excavated two trenches across the NAF near Ulaslar, 12 km east of Gerede, on the 1944 M7

  5. Sedimentation and subsidence patterns in the central and north basins of Lake Baikal from seismic stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Golmshtok, A.J.; Weber, E.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of sedimentation patterns, basement subsidence, and faulting histories in the north and central basins of Lake Baikal aids in developing an interbasinal seismic stratigraphy that reveals the early synrift evolution of the central portion of the Baikal rift, a major continental rift system. Although there is evidence that the central and northern rift basins evolved at approximately the same time, their sedimentation histories are markedly different. Primary sediment sources for the initial rift phase were from the east flank of the rift; two major deltas developed adjacent to the central basin: the Selenga delta at the south end and the Barguzin delta at the north end. The Barguzin River system, located at the accommodation zone between the central and north basins, also fed into the southern part of the north basin and facilitated the stratigraphic linkage of the two basins. A shift in the regional tectonic environment in the mid Pliocene(?) created a second rift phase distinguished by more rapid subsidence and sediment accumulation in the north basin and by increased subsidence and extensive faulting in the central basin. The Barguzin delta ceased formation and parts of the old delta system were isolated within the north basin and on Academic Ridge. These isolated deltaic deposits provide a model for the development of hydrocarbon plays within ancient rift systems. In this second tectonic phase, the dominant sediment fill in the deeper and more rapidly subsiding north basin shifted from the flexural (eastern) margin to axial transport from the Upper Angara River at the north end of the basin.

  6. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  7. Measurements of deep currents in the Central North Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, B.A.; Ramp, S.R.; Dworski, J.G.; Holloway, G.

    1981-03-20

    Two deep arrays of current meters at heights of 1200 and 100 m above the bottom were set under the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre near 30 /sup 0/30'N, 157 /sup 0/45'W; the maximum record length obtained was 19 months. Autospectra show the following characteristics: strong peaks at the M2, S2 tidal frequencies; a broad peak at the diurnal-inertial peak; a spectral gap centered at 0.02 c h/sup -1/; and a regular increase in energy with decreasing frequency below the gap. Rotary components tend to be counterclockwise below 10/sup -2/ c h/sup -1/ and clockwise above the diurnal-inertial frequency. The M2 tidal amplitude ranged between 1.0 and 1.6 cm s/sup -1/; phase relationships suggest that a significant part of the motion is due to internal wave motion at this frequency. Low-pass filtered velocity statistics show the following; evidence of nonstationarity in the variances between the first (9 month) and second (10 month) arrays; significant horizontal variation of mean kinetic energy on scales of 100 km; and time-space averaged eddy kinetic energy is comparable in magnitude to the lowest values measured under the Subtropical Gyre in the western North Atlantic. Currents at 1200 m tended to be greater than at 100 m above the bottom. Spectra of the 100-m records indicate the presence of two peaks at low frequency; a dominant and ubiquitous peak in the 1/105--1/175 c d/sup -1/ frequency band; and a secondary peak, which is shown in three of four moorings, in the 1/58--1/75 c d/sup -1/ freuqncy band. Point estimates of the periods of the peaks give average values of 154 and 67 days. Comparison with subtropic western North Altantic spectra shows that the 'temporal mesoscale' period (approx.150 d) is somewhat higher in the Pacific data and it does not show the dominance of meridional motions observed in the Altantic spectra. Plane wave fits to the 154-day oscillation show the longest wave which closely fits the data has a wave length of 170 km and propagates toward 197

  8. Late Miocene biogeography and paleoclimatology of the central North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, R.Z.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of planktonic foraminiferal assemblages from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Holes 334 and 410 demonstrate that subpolar and subtropical faunal provinces existed in the North Atlantic during the late Miocene. Climatic oscillations are clearly recorded in Hole 410 by variations in abundance of the Neogloboquadrina subpolar assemblage. These climatic oscillations have a period of about 1 m.y. Higher frequency oscillations with a periodicity of one to several hundred thousand years are evident from about 6.5 to 7.5 m.y. and are probably present throughout the entire late Miocene. A revised age of 7.0 m.y. is proposed for the first occurrence of the calcareous nannofossil Amaurolithus primus (the Amaurolithus datum). ?? 1981.

  9. Drivers of summer oxygen depletion in the central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, B. Y.; Fernand, L.; Jickells, T. D.; Heywood, K. J.; Hind, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    In stratified shelf seas, oxygen depletion beneath the thermocline is a result of a greater rate of biological oxygen demand than the rate of supply of oxygenated water. Suitably equipped gliders are uniquely placed to observe both the supply through the thermocline and the consumption of oxygen in the bottom layers. A Seaglider was deployed in the shallow (≈ 100 m) stratified North Sea in a region of known low oxygen during August 2011 to investigate the processes regulating supply and consumption of dissolved oxygen below the pycnocline. The first deployment of such a device in this area, it provided extremely high resolution observations, 316 profiles (every 16 min, vertical resolution of 1 m) of CTD, dissolved oxygen concentrations, backscatter and fluorescence during a three day deployment. The high temporal resolution observations revealed occasional small scale events that supply oxygenated water into the bottom layer at a rate of 2±1 μmol dm-3 day-1. Benthic and pelagic oxygen sinks, quantified through glider observations and past studies, indicate more gradual background consumption rates of 2.5±1 μmol dm-3 day-1. This budget revealed that the balance of oxygen supply and demand is in agreement with previous studies of the North Sea. However, the glider data show a net oxygen consumption rate of 2.8±0.3 μmol dm-3 day-1 indicating a localised or short-lived increase in oxygen consumption rates. This high rate of oxygen consumption is indicative of an unidentified oxygen sink. We propose that this elevated oxygen consumption is linked to localised depocentres and rapid remineralisation of resuspensded organic matter. The glider proved to be an excellent tool for monitoring shelf sea processes despite challenges to glider flight posed by high tidal velocities, shallow bathymetry, and very strong density gradients. The direct observation of these processes allows more up to date rates to be used in the development of ecosystem models.

  10. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Blue Earth River Basin, south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data describing the physical characteristics of stream basins upstream from selected points on streams in the Blue Earth River basin, located in south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the basin, the percentage area of the basin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the basin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the mainchannel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least five square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations.

  11. Drivers of summer oxygen depletion in the central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, Bastien Y.; Fernand, Liam; Jickells, Timothy D.; Heywood, Karen J.; Hind, Andrew J.

    2016-02-01

    In stratified shelf seas, oxygen depletion beneath the thermocline is a result of a greater rate of biological oxygen demand than the rate of supply of oxygenated water. Suitably equipped gliders are uniquely placed to observe both the supply through the thermocline and the consumption of oxygen in the bottom layers. A Seaglider was deployed in the shallow (≍ 100 m) stratified North Sea in a region of known low oxygen during August 2011 to investigate the processes regulating supply and consumption of dissolved oxygen below the pycnocline. The first deployment of such a device in this area, it provided extremely high-resolution observations, 316 profiles (every 16 min, vertical resolution of 1 m) of conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD), dissolved oxygen concentrations, backscatter, and fluorescence during a 3-day deployment.The high temporal resolution observations revealed occasional small-scale events (< 200 m or 6 h) that supply oxygenated water to the bottom layer at a rate of 2 ± 1 µmol dm-3 day-1. Benthic and pelagic oxygen sinks, quantified through glider observations and past studies, indicate more gradual background consumption rates of 2.5 ± 1 µmol dm-3 day-1. This budget revealed that the balance of oxygen supply and demand is in agreement with previous studies of the North Sea. However, the glider data show a net oxygen consumption rate of 2.8 ± 0.3 µmol dm-3 day-1, indicating a localized or short-lived (< 200 m or 6 h) increase in oxygen consumption rates. This high rate of oxygen consumption is indicative of an unidentified oxygen sink. We propose that this elevated oxygen consumption is linked to localized depocentres and rapid remineralization of resuspended organic matter.The glider proved to be an excellent tool for monitoring shelf sea processes despite challenges to glider flight posed by high tidal velocities, shallow bathymetry, and very strong density gradients. The direct observation of these processes allows more up to date

  12. College and Adult Reading XI: The Eleventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    This yearbook contains selected papers presented at the twenty-third and twenty-fourth annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, held in October of 1981 and 1982. Papers in the yearbook include: "History of Adult Reading Programs" (Clarence Anderson); "About Creativity and Study Skills" (Mark E. Thompson); "Recent Changes in…

  13. College and Adult Reading XIII: The Thirteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections of the papers presented at the 1984 and 1985 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "Twenty-Five Years of Professional Progress" (James E. Walker); "A Study of Student Alienation…

  14. North Central Climate Science Center--science agenda 2012-2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The information presented here provides the five-year science agenda for the North Central Climate Science Center. It is meant to be a high-level guide that describes the spatial context of the center, the primary partners and stakeholders, and the strategic framework the center will use in applying climate science to inform management.

  15. SOIL RADON POTENTIAL MAPPLING OF TWELVE COUNTIES IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the approach, methods, and detailed data used to prepare soil radon potential maps of 12 counties in North-Central Florida. he maps were developed under the Florida Radon Research Program to provide a scientific basis for implementing radon-protective buildin...

  16. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  17. Predictors of Successful Nursing Education Outcomes: A Study of the North Carolina Central University's Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpabi, Chinasa Victor

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to specify the variables that would play the greatest role in predicting success of North Carolina Central University (NCCU) nursing graduates in the National Certification Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Participants for this study include a convenience sample of 39 students who…

  18. Emerging issues in Integrated Pest Management implementation and adoption in the North Central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a long tradition of integrated pest management (IPM) in the North Central region of the U.S. IPM is difficult to define, and it means different things to different people. But in general it is a philosophy based on multiple tactics to prevent a population from building up to unacceptable da...

  19. College and Adult Reading XIV: The Fourteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kay E., Ed.; Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections from the 1987 and 1988 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "The Effects of a Secondary Reading Methods Course on Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Reading Skills" (Bruce A.…

  20. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  1. College and Adult Reading VII: The Seventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M., Ed.

    Spanning the annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association from 1971 to 1974, this yearbook presents papers dealing with programs and centers, materials and techniques, a new research field, and in honor of Roger S. Pepper. Papers include: "Attitudinal Factors among Marginal Admission Students" (Roger S. Pepper and John A. Drexler,…

  2. Use and breeding of forage grasses in the North Central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage grasses are used for conservation harvesting, usually hay or balage, and for grazing within the North Central region of the USA. Historically, smooth bromegrass, timothy, reed canarygrass, and orchardgrass have been important species and they still exist in many old hay fields. Tall fescue, m...

  3. 6. 3/4 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF CENTRAL SPANS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 3/4 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF CENTRAL SPANS, LOOKING FROM SLIGHTLY BELOW THE LEVEL OF THE BRIDGE. NOTE THE WATER PIPE ATTACHED TO LOWER LATERAL CHORD. - Jensen Bridge, Spanning Green River at Town of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

  4. An Inventory of Natural, Human, and Social Overhead Capital Resources in North-Central New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey; Eastman, Clyde

    Concerned with the north-central area of New Mexico (Rio Arriba, Taos, Colfax, Mora, Santa Fe, and San Miguel counties), this inventory describes the situation and delineation of the region, the natural resources (physical characteristics, land, land-ownership patterns, land-use patterns, land-title problems, water resources, and minerals); human…

  5. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  6. College and Adult Reading XII: The Twelfth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Consisting of a selection of papers presented at the 1982 and 1983 meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on computers, research, professional issues, and programs. Papers include: "The Computerized Broom Will Sweep Our Future Classrooms: But Not Necessarily Clean" (George E. Mason); "Beyond the…

  7. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  8. Those Left Behind: Recent Social Changes in a Heavy Emigration Area of North Central New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen E.; Hannon, John H.

    1977-01-01

    Examining social and economic change associated with a recent mass exodus of Spanish surnamed populations from rural villages in north-central New Mexico, this article addresses attitudes of those left behind and postulates that while the impact of migration has been felt throughout the area, its intensity has fluctuated among villages. (Author/JC)

  9. College and Adult Reading X: The Tenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Including sections on research, programs, and professional problems and issues, this yearbook contains presentations given at the 1978 and 1979 meetings of the North Central Reading Association. Papers include: "The Effects of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension" (David Wark and others); "Some Effects of Anxiety on University Students" (J. Michael…

  10. A Focused Report Presented to North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Technical Coll., Colorado Springs.

    During January 23-24, 1984, a North Central Association of Colleges and Schools evaluation team visited Colorado Technical College to conduct a comprehensive evaluation for continued accreditation at the bachelor's degree granting level. The accreditation was continued as a result, and it was recommended that a comprehensive evaluation be…

  11. DIGITAL GEOLOGIC MAP OF SHERMAN QUADRANGLE, NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS (CD-ROM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This compact disc contains digital data sets of the surficial geology and geologic faults for the 1:250,000-scale Sherman quadrangle, North Central Texas, and can be used to make geologic maps, and determine approximate areas and locations of various geologic units. The source d...

  12. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  13. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  14. Development of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for oncogenic human papillomavirus types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.

    PubMed

    Brown, Martha J; Seitz, Hanna; Towne, Victoria; Müller, Martin; Finnefrock, Adam C

    2014-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological agent for all cervical cancers, a significant number of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Two licensed vaccines offer protection against the most prevalent oncogenic types, 16 and 18, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide and one of these also offers protection against types 6 and 11, responsible for 90% of genital warts. The vaccines are comprised of recombinantly expressed major capsid proteins that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and prevent infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Adding the other frequently identified oncogenic types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 to a vaccine would increase the coverage against HPV-induced cancers to approximately 90%. We describe the generation and characterization of panels of monoclonal antibodies to these five additional oncogenic HPV types, and the selection of antibody pairs that were high affinity and type specific and recognized conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes. Such characteristics make these antibodies useful tools for monitoring the production and potency of a prototype vaccine as well as monitoring vaccine-induced immune responses in the clinic. PMID:24574536

  15. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  16. Updated precipitation reconstruction (AD 1482-2012) for Huashan, north-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Ruibo; Wang, Huiqin; Qin, Li; Yuan, Yujiang

    2016-02-01

    We developed a tree-ring width chronology from pine trees ( Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus armandii) stand near the peaks of Huashan, Shaanxi, north-central China. Growth-climate response analyses showed that the radial growth of pine trees is mainly influenced by April-June precipitation. A model to reconstruct precipitation based on tree widths was constructed, accounting for 55 % of the instrumental variance during the period 1953-2012. Spatial correlation analyses between the reconstruction and observed gridded precipitation data shows that the seasonal precipitation reconstruction captures regional climatic variations over north China. Compared with the historical archives and other tree-ring records in north China, many large-scale drought events, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), were found. Many of these events have had profound impacts on the people of north China over the past several centuries. Composite maps of sea surface temperatures and 500 hPa geopotential heights for selected extremely dry and wet years in Huashan show characteristics similar to those related to the ENSO patterns, particularly with regard to ocean and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial and north Pacific. Our 531-year precipitation reconstruction for Huashan provides a long-term perspective on current and 20th century wet and dry events in north China, and is useful to guide expectations of future variability, and helps us to address climate change.

  17. The Rural School Building in North Central and Northwestern North Dakota: A Brief Description. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Mary C.

    The time period and the pioneer conditions that existed when north central and northwestern North Dakota were settled determined the type of rural schools that were established there. Those areas were settled between 1885 and 1910. Most of the settlers in that area of the state were of Scandinavian (particularly Norwegian) extraction. The vast…

  18. Brookian sequence well log correlation sections and occurrence of gas hydrates, north-central North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Kristen A.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring crystalline, ice-like substances that consist of natural gas molecules trapped in a solid-water lattice. Because of the compact nature of their structure, hydrates can effectively store large volumes of gas and, consequently, have been identified as a potential unconventional energy source. First recognized to exist geologically in the 1960s, significant accumulations of gas hydrate have been found throughout the world. Gas hydrate occurrence is limited to environments such as permafrost regions and subsea sediments because of the pressure and temperature conditions required for their formation and stability. Permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulations have been discovered in many regions of the Arctic, including Russia, Canada, and the North Slope of Alaska. Gas hydrate research has a long history in northern Alaska. This research includes the drilling, coring, and well log evaluation of two gas hydrate stratigraphic test wells and two resource assessments of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. Building upon these previous investigations, this report provides a summary of the pertinent well log, gas hydrate, and stratigraphic data for key wells related to gas hydrate occurrence in the north-central North Slope. The data are presented in nine well log correlation sections with 122 selected wells to provide a regional context for gas hydrate accumulations and the relation of the accumulations to key stratigraphic horizons and to the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Also included is a well log database that lists the location, available well logs, depths, and other pertinent information for each of the wells on the correlation section.

  19. Foods of Buller's shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri) associated with driftnet fisheries in the central North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, P.; Ostrom, P.; Walker, W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined digestive tract contents and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (??15N) in breast muscles of Buller's shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri) salvaged from squid and largemesh driftnets in the central North Pacific Ocean. The epipelagic Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) was the predominant prey, making up 71% of prey mass in digestive tracts. The remainder of the diet included small numbers of crustaceans, small fishes, and squids. The high degree of specialization in the diet seems to indicate that in the North Pacific, Buller's Shearwaters usually feed at or near the water surface and rarely pursue food under water. Although these birds have been observed feeding on scraps from fishing vessels, our data suggest that offal comprises less than 10% of the diet. Stable nitrogen isotope values provided quantified information on the timing of arrival of migrants into the North Pacific.

  20. Characterization of carbon in sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits, north central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, Joel; Hofstra, Albert; ,

    1990-01-01

    The gray, dark gray and black colors of the sediments and the presence of pyrite in the Carlin, Jerritt Canyon, Horse Canyon, Betze, and Gold Acres sediment-hosted disseminated gold (SHDG) deposits indicate that these rocks are not oxidized with respect to carbon and iron sulfide. The organic matter in the host rocks of SHDG deposits in north-central Nevada is cryptocrystalline graphite with dimensions of 30 to 70 A (0.003 to 0.007 ??) that was formed at temperatures of 250 to 300??C. These results indicate that north-central Nevada was subjected to pumpellyite-actinolite to lowermost greenschist facies conditions prior to mineralization. The hydrothermal fluids that produced the gold deposits had little, if any, effect on the thermal maturity and crystallinity of the cryptocrystalline graphite produced by the earlier thermal event.

  1. Permian deposition in the north central Brooks Range, Alaska Constraints for tectonic reconstructions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, K.E.; Mull, C.G.; Crowder, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two opposing tectonic models have been offered to explain the regional structural relations in the north central Brooks Range fold-thrust belt of northern Alaska. The first suggests that rocks of the northern Endicott Mountains were thrust from south to north over the area of the present Mount Doonerak high and are therefore highly allochthonous. The second implies that the rocks of the northern Endicott Mountains were deposited in a basin that lay north of the Mount Doonerak high and later were thrust a short distance southward onto the northern flank of the high and are thus parautochthonous. To provide stratigraphic constraints for these models, this study examines Permian facies of the north central Brooks Range. Permian rocks in the north central Brooks Range comprise a thin (40 to 160 m thick), fining-upward succession of clastic, storm-influenced shelf deposits. When the rocks of the northern Endicott Mountains are restored south of the Mount Doonerak area, a minimum distance of 80 km, the Permian deposits grade systematically from distal facies (Siksikpuk Formation) in the southwest to proximal facies (Echooka Formation) in the northeast. Facies trends in the reconstructed Permian basin include, from southwest to northeast, (1) an increase in carbonate content and corresponding decrease in silica content, (2) a general darkening and thickening of shaley intervals, (3) an increase in proximal features of storm beds, including coarser, thicker, more abundant, and more closely spaced beds, and (4) an increase in abundance and diversity of the faunal assemblage with a corresponding decrease in age. These stratigraphic relations imply that rocks of the northern Endicott Mountains are allochthonous and structurally overlie a proximal stratigraphic succession similar to that exposed in the Mount Doonerak area and northeastern Brooks Range. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  4. Cretaceous-Tertiary structural evolution of the north central Lhasa terrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, John E.; Kapp, Paul; Guynn, Jerome H.; Lai, Qingzhou

    2007-12-01

    In the north central Lhasa terrane of Tibet, two distinct structural levels of an east-west striking thrust system are exposed along the north trending late Cenozoic Xiagangjiang rift. Upper Paleozoic strata deformed by the south directed Langgadong La thrust, and Cretaceous strata involved in variably north and south directed thrusting characterize these lower and upper structural levels, respectively. These two structural levels are separated by the Tagua Ri passive roof thrust. Balanced cross section restoration suggests that the thrust system accommodated ˜103 km (˜53%) shortening. The 40Ar/39Ar results, together with an interpretation of synthrust deposition of Upper Cretaceous strata, suggest that the majority of shortening occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. Cretaceous strata lie unconformable on Permian rocks; volcanic tuffs directly above the unconformity yield U-Pb zircon ages of ˜131 Ma. Upper Cretaceous strata record a change from shallow marine to nonmarine deposition, indicating uplift above sea level during this time. The overall south directed vergence of the thrust belt is consistent with substantial crustal thickening in central Tibet by large-scale northward underthrusting of Lhasa terrane basement beneath the Qiantang terrane prior to the Indo-Asian collision. The documented decoupling of contractional deformation at shallow crustal levels appears to be a regional characteristic of Tibet from at least the Bangong suture in the north to the Tethyan Himalaya to the south. This style of deformation explains the absence of basement exposures and major denudation in this region despite substantial crustal shortening.

  5. Genetic and morphological divergence among Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in north-central and western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.

  6. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America.

    PubMed

    Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. PMID:23786499

  7. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America

    PubMed Central

    Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km2 in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C−1, although species-specific responses varied from − 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C−1. Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. PMID:23786499

  8. Polymorphism of the capsid L1 gene of human papillomavirus types 31, 33, and 35.

    PubMed

    Cornut, Gilbert; Gagnon, Simon; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah; Pourreaux, Karina; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François

    2010-07-01

    The L1 gene encodes for the major capsid protein of human papillomaviruses (HPV). There is limited information on the polymorphism of L1 for types related to HPV-16. This report explores the polymorphism of L1 in phylogenetically related types 31, 33, and 35 compared to HPV-16. Genital specimens collected from 732 HIV-seropositive and 323 HIV-seronegative women were screened for HPV DNA with consensus L1 PCR. Cervical samples positive for HPV-16 (n = 74), HPV-31 (n = 78), HPV-33 (n = 37), and HPV-35 (n = 58) were further characterized by PCR-sequencing of the complete L1 gene. The number of nucleotide substitutions within L1 ranged from 19 for HPV-33 to 52 for HPV-31. The ratio of the number of variants/number of isolates tested was higher for HPV-31 (56.4%, P = 0.05) and HPV-35 (60.3%, P = 0.04) compared to HPV-16 (40.5%), while this ratio was lower for HPV-33 (24.3%), although not significantly (P = 0.14). The maximal distance between HPV variants was greater in the five putative surface-exposed loops of L1 than in sequences outside the loops (P < 0.01). Synonymous variations were encountered in 1.7% (95% CI 1.1-2.3) of nucleotides inside the L1 loops and 2.4% (95% CI1.2-3.7) of nucleotides outside the L1 loops. Non-synonymous variations were encountered in 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.5) of nucleotides within the L1 loops and 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.4) of nucleotides outside the loops. dN/dS ratios were below 1.0 in extra-loop and intra-loop regions, but they were lower in extra-loop regions. These results suggest that sequences within and outside the hypervariable loops of L1 were under selective constraint.

  9. Crustal insights from gravity and aeromagnetic analysis: Central North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Potter, C.J.; Phillips, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data are processed and interpreted to reveal deep and shallow information about the crustal structure of the central North Slope, Alaska. Regional aeromagnetic anomalies primarily reflect deep crustal features. Regional gravity anomalies are more complex and require detailed analysis. We constrain our geophysical models with seismic data and interpretations along two transects including the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect. Combined geophysical analysis reveals a remarkable heterogeneity of the pre-Mississippian basement. In the central North Slope, pre-Mississippian basement consists of two distinct geophysical domains. To the southwest, the basement is dense and highly magnetic; this basement is likely mafic and mechanically strong, possibly acting as a buttress to basement involvement in Brooks Range thrusting. To the northeast, the central North Slope basement consists of lower density, moderately magnetic rocks with several discrete regions (intrusions?) of more magnetic rocks. A conjugate set of geophysical trends, northwest-southeast and southwest-northeast, may be a factor in the crustal response to tectonic compression in this domain. High-resolution gravity and aeromagnetic data, where available, reflect details of shallow fault and fold structure. The maps and profile models in this report should provide useful guidelines and complementary information for regional structural studies, particularly in combination with detailed seismic reflection interpretations. Future challenges include collection of high-resolution gravity and aeromagnetic data for the entire North Slope as well as additional deep crustal information from seismic, drilling, and other complementary methods. Copyrights ?? 2006. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental sampling reveals that Pythium insidiosum is ubiquitous and genetically diverse in North Central Florida.

    PubMed

    Presser, Jackson W; Goss, Erica M

    2015-09-01

    Pythiosis is a deadly disease of horses, dogs, and other mammals, including humans, in tropical and subtropical regions. In the United States, the disease has been reported in the Southeast as well as in the temperate North and the dry Southwest. The causal agent of pythiosis is Pythium insidiosum, one of few mammalian pathogens in the fungus-like Oomycetes. P. insidiosum has not been studied in the environment in the United States. Given anecdotal reports of pythiosis in Gainesville, Florida dogs, we hypothesized that warm standing water in lakes and ponds in North Central Florida is suitable habitat for P. insidiosum. We sampled 19 lakes or ponds to examine the environmental distribution of P. insidiosum and to determine which of the three previously described genetic clusters of P. insidiosum are present. We found P. insidiosum in 11 of the sampled lakes and ponds. Sequencing of the ITS region separated isolates into three genetic clusters, including a distinct group previously represented by a single isolate from South Carolina. AFLP genotyping of isolates showed genetic variation in Cluster I, which is the group associated with the majority of characterized clinical isolates from the Americas. Our results indicate that animal exposure to P. insidiosum in North Central Florida is common. This study provides the first evidence that P. insidiosum may be more widely distributed in freshwater lakes and ponds in the Southeastern United States than previously appreciated. PMID:26229152

  11. Accumulation rates from central North Greenland during the past 700 year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Nanna B.; Eisen, Olaf; Nielsen, Lisbeth T.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Paden, John D.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Winter, Anna; Wilhelms, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A key variable when interpreting the evolution and mass loss from polar ice sheets is the input from the surface mass balance. While ice core records contain information on past accumulation rates, they always only provide information for a single location. Here, we present spatially distributed accumulation rates from central northern Greenland, specifically the area between the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Drilling) and NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core drill sites. The accumulation rates have been reconstructed using ice-penetrating radar, firn core measurements and inverse methods, and we are able to retrieve both spatial and temporal changes in the accumulation over an area spanning 300 km by 300 km. We investigate the stability of the accumulation pattern over the past several hundred years, and we address the question of how well the measured accumulation rates at the ice core sites capture the regional variations in accumulation. We find that while the accumulation rates at NEEM have been stable for the past 700 years, the NGRIP site has experienced fluctuations in accumulation rate. We interpret this as an indication of shifts in the dominating weather pattern over the ice divide in central North Greenland.

  12. Faulting patterns in north-central Nevada and strength of the crust

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, M.D.; Zoback, M.L.

    1980-01-10

    North-northeast normal fault trends characterize much of the N. basin and range province. These faults make sharp bends to north-northwest and east-northeast trends in N.-central Nevada in the vicinity of a Mid-Miocene rift characterized by a zone of diabase dike swarms, graben-filling flows, and a coinciding aeromagnetic anomaly. Despite a roughly 45 change in the least principal stress direction since Mid-Miocene time, pre-existing north-northwest- and east-northeast-trending faults in the vicinity of the rift accommodated the extension whereas regionally, major crustal blocks were faulted along a north-northeast trend, approximately perpendicular to the modern least principal stress direction. An assumed uniform regional stress field (derived from geologic and geophysical indicators of the modern principal stress field) and the observed oblique slip on the preexisting faults were combined in an analysis utilizing an empirically derived frictional sliding law and the Coulomb failure criterion. 27 references.

  13. Moho geometry along a north-south passive seismic transect through Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Receiver functions from a temporary deployment of 25 broadband stations along a north-south transect through Central Australia are used to retrieve crustal and uppermost mantle structural constraints from a combination of different methods. Using H-K stacking as well as receiver function inversion, overall thick crust with significant thickness variation along the profile (40 to ≥ 55 km) is found. Bulk crustal vp/vs values are largely in the felsic to intermediate range, with the southernmost stations on the Gawler Craton exhibiting higher values in excess of 1.8. A common conversion point (CCP) stacking profile shows three major discontinuities of the crust-mantle boundary: (1) a two-sided Moho downwarp beneath the Musgrave Province, which has previously been associated with the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian Petermann Orogeny, (2) a Moho offset along the Redbank Shear Zone further north attributed to the Middle to Late Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny, and (3) another Moho offset further north, located at the boundary between the Davenport and Warramunga Provinces, which has not been imaged before. In all cases, the difference in crustal thickness between the two sides of the offset is > 8-10 km. Unlike the two southern Moho offsets, the northernmost one does not coincide with a prominent gravity anomaly. Its location and the absence of known reactivation events in the region make it likely that it belongs to a Proterozoic suture zone that marks a previously unknown block boundary within the North Australian Craton.

  14. What maintains the central North Pacific genetic discontinuity in Pacific herring?

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Lin, Longshan; Gao, Tianxiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Sakurai, Yasunori; Grant, W Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring show an abrupt genetic discontinuity in the central North Pacific that represents secondary contact between refuge populations previously isolated during Pleistocene glaciations. Paradoxically, high levels of gene flow produce genetic homogeneity among ocean-type populations within each group. Here, we surveyed variability in mtDNA control-region sequences (463 bp) and nine microsatellite loci in Pacific herring from sites across the North Pacific to further explore the nature of the genetic discontinuity around the Alaska Peninsula. Consistent with previous studies, little divergence (Φ(ST)  = 0.011) was detected between ocean-type populations of Pacific herring in the North West Pacific, except for a population in the Yellow Sea (Φ(ST)  = 0.065). A moderate reduction in genetic diversity for both mtDNA and microsatellites in the Yellow Sea likely reflects founder effects during the last colonization of this sea. Reciprocal monophyly between divergent mtDNA lineages (Φ(ST)  = 0.391) across the Alaska Peninsula defines the discontinuity across the North Pacific. However, microsatellites did not show a strong break, as eastern Bering Sea (EBS) herring were more closely related to NE Pacific than to NW Pacific herring. This discordance between mtDNA and microsatellites may be due to microsatellite allelic convergence or to sex-biased dispersal across the secondary contact zone. The sharp discontinuity between Pacific herring populations may be maintained by high-density blocking, competitive exclusion or hybrid inferiority.

  15. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  16. Water in the Elizabethtown area; a study of a limestone terrane in North Central Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of the water resources of a 240-square-mile area in north-central Kentucky is reported. It includes water distribution, chemical quality, water use, and principles of water occurrence and availability, and references. Nolin River is the only major stream in the area. Two of its tributaries, Valley Creek and North Fork Nolin River, have water withdrawn for public supply by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville. The quality of the water from the streams is typical of a limestone terrane. Ground water is also used for public supplies by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville and by two industrial plants. Many springs have flows of more than 0.25 cubic foot per second. Except for stock water, only three springs serve as a water source. Water from wells and springs is typical of limestone terrane. (USGS)

  17. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  18. Geohydrologic data from the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainer, Frank W.

    1978-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic region, on the west margin of the Rio Grande rift in north-central New Mexico, is the site of studies for power development from geothermal heat. This report summarizes geohydrologic data to provide background information relative to the geothermal exploration and to investigate the usefulness of hydrology in assessment of the geothermal resource. Eleven tables present chemical, temperature, discharge , and other data for springs, wells, and streams. Accompanying figures show locations of the data points and present temperature profiles and geophysical logs for selected wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Estimates of Internal Tide Energy Fluxes from Topex/Poseidon Altimetry: Central North Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Cartwright, David E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy fluxes for first-mode M(sub 2) internal tides are deduced throughout the central North Pacific Ocean from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. Temporally coherent internal tide signals in the altimetry, combined with climatological hydrographic data, determine the tidal displacements, pressures, and currents at depth, which yield power transmission rates. For a variety of reasons the deduced rates should be considered lower bounds. Internal tides were found to emanate from several large bathymetric structures, especially the Hawaiian Ridge, where the integrated flux amounts to about six gigawatts. Internal tides are generated at the Aleutian Trench near 172 deg west and propagate southwards nearly 2000 km.

  20. A preliminary classification of wetland plant communities in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1973-01-01

    A classification of wetland plant communities was developed for a study area in north-central Minnesota in order to analyze data on waterfowl use of habitat that were gathered by radio telemetry. The classification employs features of several earlier classifications in addition to new classes for bogs and lakeshore communities. Brief descriptions are given for each community, and the important plant species are listed. Discriminant function analysis was used for 40 plant species. Seventy-five percent of the stands studied were classified correctly by this technique. Average probabilities of assignment to communities were calculated and helped to identify distinct and poorly defined communities as well as the relationship among communities.

  1. [Emergency craniotomies at the North Karelia Central Hospital in 2006 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Aro, Ellinoora; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Reinikainen, Matti; Leinonen, Ville; Hakala, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, acute evacuations of traumatic intracranial hematomas are performed by neurosurgeons in university hospitals. However, most patients with traumatic brain injury are initially transported to regional hospitals that lack neurosurgical expertise. Thus, a trauma surgeon in a regional hospital may encounter a patient with an expanding hematoma that must be operated without delays. During 2006 to 2014, 14 craniotomies were performed at the North Karelia Central Hospital. Twelve patients were operated for acute traumatic subdural hematoma (ASDH): three patients made good recovery, two were left with severe disability, and seven died. Two patients operated with acute epidural hematoma (EDH) recovered well. PMID:27319084

  2. Unretrieved shooting loss of mourning doves in north-central South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Unretrieved loss for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in north-central South Carolina was between 27 and 41 percent of the retrieved kill for the 1973 through 1975 hunting seasons based on 1,396 doves shot by 281 hunters. Dove hunters hunted in groups, fired 8.6 shots per retrieved dove, and engaged in a substantial number of illegal activities. Increased dove populations and hunter bag resulted in increased unretrieved loss, numbers of shots per bagged bird, and illegal activities. Retriever dogs increased the efficiency of dove hunters.

  3. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The study area occupies about 14,500 square miles in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada. Thermal ground water occurs under artesian conditions, in discontinuous or compartmented zones, in igneous or sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age. Ground-water movement is generally northward. Temperatures of the ground water range from about 30/sup 0/ to more than 80/sup 0/C. Chemical analyses of water from 12 wells and 9 springs indicate that nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate type; thermal waters are a sodium bicarbonate type. Chemical geothermometers indicate probable maximum reservoir temperatures are near 100/sup 0/C. Concentration of tritium in the thermal water water is near zero.

  4. Morphometric changes in Yellow-headed Blackbirds during summer in central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Linz, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Temporal stability of morphometric measurements is desirable when using avian morphology as a predictor of geographic origin. Therefore, to assess their temporal stability, we examined changes in morphology of Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) from central North Dakota during summer. Measurements differed among age classes and between sexes. As expected, due to growth and maturation, measurements on hatching-year birds increased over summer. Measurements of adult plumage fluctuated with prebasic molt and exhibited age-specific discontinuities. Body mass of adult birds increased over summer, whereas both culmen length and skull length decreased. Only body length and length of internal skeletal elements were temporally stable in adult Yellow-headed Blackbirds.

  5. The interdependence of lake ice and climate in central North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelacic, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. This investigation is to identify any correlations between the freeze/ thaw cycles of lakes and regional weather variations. ERTS-1 imagery of central Canada and north central United States is examined on a seasonal basis. The ice conditions of certain major study lakes are noted and recorded on magnetic tape, from which the movement of a freeze/thaw transition zone may be deduced. Weather maps and tables are used to establish any obvious correlations. The process of selecting major study lakes is discussed, and a complete lake directory is presented. Various routines of the software support library are described, accompanied by output samples. Procedures used for ERTS imagery processing are presented along with the data analysis plan. Application of these procedures to selected ERTS imagery has demonstrated their utility. Preliminary results show that the freeze/thaw transition zone can be monitored from ERTS.

  6. Knowledge-based soil inference modeling for estimating soil productivity and grain yield in north-central Missouri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used ArcSIE (Soil Inference Engine) software to model soils resembling those mapped by NRCS soil survey, for eight 12-digit watersheds in the Central Claypan (MLRA113) in north-central Missouri. Our source data for modeling was the 10m USGS Digital Elevation Model. Environmental Covariates used i...

  7. A geologic history of the north-central Appalachians, part 3. The Alleghany orogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faill, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The north-central Appalachians occupy a critical position within the 3000+ km-long Appalachian orogen, lying southwest of the boundary between the central and northern Appalachians (CNAB). The one-billion-year-long history of tectonic activity in eastern Laurentia includes the creation and evolution of the Appalachian orogen during the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic transformation of the orogen into a passive margin during Pangea's disassembly. A most important ingredient in the evolution of the orogen was the Alleghany orogeny, which was driven by the convergence and collision between Laurentia (Laurussia) and West Gondwana (Africa). The Alleghany orogeny in the central and southern Appalachians was a de??collement tectonism that involved a larger part of eastern Laurentia than had the previous three orogenies. The fundamental element was a very low-angle thrust (de??collement) that originated in mid-crustal levels east of the presently-exposed Appalachians and rose westwardly to progressively higher levels in the upper crust and the supra-crustal Paleozoic section. Alleghany deformation was widely developed in the hanging-wall block (allochthon), primarily in the form of thrust faults and fold-and-thrust structures, both of which splayed upward from the basal de??collement. The youngest manifestations of the Alleghany orogeny were northeast-trending strike-slip faults and dextral shear zones in the Piedmont. In the north-central Appalachians, the exposed allochthon consists of two parts: the sedimentary externides (Appalachian Plateau and Valley and Ridge provinces) and the crystalline externides (Reading Prong, Blue Ridge belt, and Piedmont province). Long, thrust-cored anticlines predominate in the sedimentary externides. A widespread layer-parallel shortening preceded the folding; it is largely coaxial with the folding but extends considerably farther to the northwest toward the craton. It is hypothesized that the folding developed in reverse order, sequentially

  8. Avian use of Sheyenne Lake and associated habitats in central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study of avian use of various habitats was conducted in the Sheyenne Lake region of central North Dakota during April-June 1980. Population counts of birds were made in wetlands of various classes, prairie thickets, upland native prairie, shelterbelts, and cropland. About 22,000 breeding bird pairs including 92 species that nested occupied the area. Population means for most species were equal to or greater than statewide means. Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors) were the most numerous species, and made up 32.9% of the total population . Highest densities of breeding birds occurred in shelterbelts, semipermanent wetlands, and prairie thickets. Lowest densities occurred in upland native prairie and cropland. The study area was used by 49.6% of the total avifauna of the State, and 51% of the breeding avifauna of North Dakota probably nested in the study area. The diversity of birds using the area was unusual in that such a large number of species occupied a relatively small area. The close interspersion of many native habitats, several of which are unique in North Dakota, probably accounted for this diversity. Data on dates of occurrence, nesting records, and habitat use are presented for the 175 species recorded in 1980. Observations of significance by refuge staff are also provided.

  9. Duripan effect on soil water availability: study case in North-Central Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils with duripan and other hardpans are frequently disregarded for agriculture. However, in North-Central Namibia, farmers cultivate a type of sandy soil with a developing duripan at few decimetres of depth. This soil is particularly valuable for Pearl Millet cultivation during years with limited rainfall. Understanding the water dynamic and the role of the duripan in the soil moisture dynamic will improve livelihood and secure food production in North-Central Namibia, in Southern Angola and other areas in the world where similar soils appear. We recorded soil water content during five months at different depth in one of these sandy soil. The comparison of the recorded data with values calculated with models based on e.g. texture indicate that the duripan plays a very important role as water reservoir. Our results demonstrate that soils with duripans should not be disregarded for agricultural development, especially in context with irregular rainfall patterns. Understanding the role of duripans based on this study will thus help to anticipate and alleviate the effect of climate change in northern Namibia and other semi-arid regions, where similar soils occur.

  10. Land use and land cover change in the North Central Appalachians ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Napton, D.E.; Sohl, T.L.; Auch, R.F.; Loveland, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    The North Central Appalachians ecoregion, spanning northern Pennsylvania and southern New York, has a long history of land use and land cover change. Turn-of-the-century logging dramatically altered the natural landscape of the ecoregion, but subsequent regeneration returned the ecoregion to a forest dominated condition. To understand contemporary land use and land cover changes, the U.S. Geological Survey with NASA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used a random sample of satellite remotely sensed data for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 to estimate the rates and assess the primary drivers of change in the North Central Appalachians. The overall change was 6.2%. The 1973-1980 period had the lowest rate of change (1.5%); the highest rate (2.9%) occurred during the 1992-2000 period. The primary conversions were deforestation through harvesting and natural disturbance (i.e., tornados) followed by regeneration, and conversion of forests to mining and urban lands. The primary drivers of the change included changes in access, energy and forest prices, and attitudes toward the environment.

  11. Lithologic subsurface correlation in the "Bend series" of north-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldman, M.I.

    1922-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an attempt to obtain, by a study of well drillings, criteria for correlation, by the character of the beds encountered, of horizons in the "Bend series" of north-central Texas.  The result of the work most directly applicable to the needs of the oil-well operator is that of enabling him to know more exactly the position of the producing beds in his well- a result that is of particular value in north-central Texas because certain beds in that region which give no show of oil to the drill may on being "shot" yield considerable oil.  To know the part of the stratigraphic section reached by the drill at any stage of the boring also enables the driller to be on the alert for indications of oil at horizons where productive sands are encountaered in other wells and to know when the drill has passed all horizons at which the beds are likely to yield oil.

  12. Floods of July 4-8, 1969, in north-central Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Ronald I.; Webber, Earl E.; Ellis, Davis W.

    1971-01-01

    The storm of July 4-5, 1969, in north-central Ohio was an unprecedented event; never before has such intense and widespread precipitation been recorded for a summer storm in Ohio (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1969). More than 14 inches of rainfall in less than 24 hours were observed at several places. In areal extent more than 4 inches of rainfall occurred on about 6,000 square miles. Record-breaking floods were observed at many places in north-central Ohio. Of the 50 sites for which the peak discharge was determined 40 are located on unregulated streams. The peak discharge at five of the 40 sites was four times as large as the discharge of the 50-year flood and the peak discharge for 17 sites was more than twice as large as that of the 50-year flood. Severe losses in terms of lives and property damage were experienced; 41 deaths and more than $66 million in property damage were attributed to the rainstorm, accompanying wind, and resulting floods. This report summarizes peak stages and (or) discharges at 55 sites including five reservoirs, in upper Muskingum River basin, in lower Sandusky River basin, and in the Huron River, Vermilion River, and Black River basins.

  13. A synoptic climatology of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems in the North-Central Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Mote, Thomas L.; Byrd, Stephen F.

    2000-09-01

    Synoptic-scale environments favourable for producing derechos, or widespread convectively induced windstorms, in the North-Central Plains are examined with the goal of providing pattern-recognition/diagnosis techniques. Fifteen derechos were identified across the North-Central Plains region during 1986-1995. The synoptic environment at the initiation, mid-point and decay of each derecho was then evaluated using surface, upper-air and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis datasets.Results suggest that the synoptic environment is critical in maintaining derecho producing mesoscale convective systems (DMCSs). The synoptic environment in place downstream of the MCS initiation region determines the movement and potential strength of the system. Circulation around surface low pressure increased the instability gradient and maximized leading edge convergence in the initiation region of nearly all events regardless of DMCS location or movement. Other commonalities in the environments of these events include the presence of a weak thermal boundary, high convective instability and a layer of dry low-to-mid-tropospheric air. Of the two corridors sampled, northeastward moving derechos tend to initiate east of synoptic-scale troughs, while southeastward moving derechos form on the northeast periphery of a synoptic-scale ridge. Other differences between these two DMCS events are also discussed.

  14. Late Triassic to middle Jurassic history of the north-central high Atlas, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Letsch, D.K.

    1988-02-01

    The Lower and Middle Jurassic (Liassic and Dogger) rocks in the north-central High Atlas and on the adjacent Oran Meseta, Morocco, were deposited on the subsiding margin of the Triassic/Jurassic High Atlas trough. This and the Middle Atlas trough formed as a result of rifting of the Moroccan Meseta and oran Meseta from the Saharan craton during initial stages of the opening of the modern Atlantic. The Tethys seaway flooded these troughs in the early Liassic, resulting in deposition of several thousand meters of liassic and Dogger limestone and marlstone. The deepening-upward Liassic section in the north-central High Atlas reflects the rapid development of the short-lived High Atlas trough, which formed in the Late Triassic-Early Liassic flooding by the Tethys established carbonate tidal flats on the Oran Meseta, a shelf margin at the basin's edge, and slope and basin-floor deposition within the trough. Rapid subsidence of the margin brought slope and basin floor sediments on top of the platform margin as the trough developed. Subsidence slowed toward the end of the Lias, resulting in progradation of the shelf-margin environments. At the end of the Lias, a portion of the margin slid into the basin, followed by debris shed off the slide scar. Continued marlstone and limestone deposition filled the basin during the Dogger, marking the end of rift-related sedimentation in the High Atlas trough.

  15. Proterozoic metamorphism and uplift history of the north-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patel, S.C.; Frost, B.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Snyder, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Laramie Mountains of south-eastern Wyoming contain two metamorphic domains that are separated by the 1.76 Ga. Laramie Peak shear zone (LPSZ). South of the LPSZ lies the Palmer Canyon block, where apatite U-Pb ages are c. 1745 Ma and the rocks have undergone Proterozoic kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphism. In contrast, in the Laramie Peak block, north of the shear zone, the U-Pb apatite ages are 2.4-2.1 Ga, the granitic rocks are unmetamorphosed and supracrustal rocks record only low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism that is Archean in age. Peak mineral assemblages in the Palmer Canyon block include (a) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-garnet-staurolite-kyanite in the pelitic schists; (b) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-low-Ca amphiboles-kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists, and locally (c) hornblende-plagioclase-garnet in amphibolites. All rock types show abundant textural evidence of decompression and retrograde re-equilibration. Notable among the texturally late minerals are cordierite and sapphirine, which occur in coronas around kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists. Thermobarometry from texturally early and late assemblages for samples from different areas within the Palmer Canyon block define decompression from > 7 kbar to < 3 kbar. The high-pressure regional metamorphism is interpreted to be a response to thrusting associated with the Medicine Bow orogeny at c. 1.78-1.76 Ga. At this time, the north-central Laramie Range was tectonically thickened by as much as 12 km. This crustal thickening extended for more than 60 km north of the Cheyenne belt in southern Wyoming. Late in the orogenic cycle, rocks of the Palmer Canyon block were uplifted and unroofed as the result of transpression along the Laramie Peak shear zone to produce the widespread decompression textures. The Proterozoic tectonic history of the central Laramie Range is similar to exhumation that accompanied late-orogenic oblique convergence in many Phanerozoic orogenic belts.

  16. What Maintains the Central North Pacific Genetic Discontinuity in Pacific Herring?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Lin, Longshan; Gao, Tianxiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Sakurai, Yasunori; Grant, W. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring show an abrupt genetic discontinuity in the central North Pacific that represents secondary contact between refuge populations previously isolated during Pleistocene glaciations. Paradoxically, high levels of gene flow produce genetic homogeneity among ocean-type populations within each group. Here, we surveyed variability in mtDNA control-region sequences (463 bp) and nine microsatellite loci in Pacific herring from sites across the North Pacific to further explore the nature of the genetic discontinuity around the Alaska Peninsula. Consistent with previous studies, little divergence (ΦST  = 0.011) was detected between ocean-type populations of Pacific herring in the North West Pacific, except for a population in the Yellow Sea (ΦST  = 0.065). A moderate reduction in genetic diversity for both mtDNA and microsatellites in the Yellow Sea likely reflects founder effects during the last colonization of this sea. Reciprocal monophyly between divergent mtDNA lineages (ΦST  = 0.391) across the Alaska Peninsula defines the discontinuity across the North Pacific. However, microsatellites did not show a strong break, as eastern Bering Sea (EBS) herring were more closely related to NE Pacific than to NW Pacific herring. This discordance between mtDNA and microsatellites may be due to microsatellite allelic convergence or to sex-biased dispersal across the secondary contact zone. The sharp discontinuity between Pacific herring populations may be maintained by high-density blocking, competitive exclusion or hybrid inferiority. PMID:23300525

  17. Latitudinal Variation of Chemical Composition in Marine Aerosol Over the Central North Pacific in the Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, M.; Narita, Y.; Mano, Y.; Iguchi, H.; Yoshida, K.; Iwamoto, Y.; Miura, K.

    2006-12-01

    Aeolian dust and gaseous and particulate pollutants from the Asian continent are transported eastward over the North Pacific. These natural and anthropogenic materials in the atmosphere can influence regional and global climate by altering the Earth's radiative balance. From the view of biogeochemical cycles, the atmospheric deposition of aerosols containing iron and other essential trace elements may contribute in sustaining primary productivity of phytoplankton, food web structure and chemical properties of marine atmosphere in the central North Pacific region. During the South-North cross-section cruise from 8 August to 21 September 2005, we conducted atmospheric sampling of aerosol and gaseous components on board R/V Hakuho Maru. Results from 10S to 53N along 160E revealed high nitrate concentration in the high latitude zone corresponded with back-air trajectories to subarctic North Pacific from the Asian continent during the summer. The atmospheric supply of nitrogen compounds may affect the primary production of stratified surface layer in the region. Non-sea-salt sulfate concentration was also high over the subarctic region, and downwind of the Hawaii islands. Volcanic and anthropogenic sulfur are suspected to be the sources of nss-sulfate. However, as an indicator of marine biogenic sulfate, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is also correlated well with the concentration peaks of nss-sulfate both the vicinity of Hawaii islands and subarctic region. We will attempt to separate nss-sulfate into two fractions, marine biogenic and anthropogenic by using the relation between trace metals and sulfate over the source regions.

  18. New insights into the earliest Quaternary environments in the Central North Sea from 3D seismic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    In the past the transition between an unconformable surface in the south to a conformable horizon towards the north has made identification and mapping the base-Quaternary in the central North Sea difficult (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). However recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) has allowed greater confidence in the correlation to the region 3D seismic datasets and thus has allowed the base-Quaternary to be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT with an elongate basin shape which is significantly deeper than the traditionally mapped surface. Using RMS amplitudes and other seismic attributes the revised base-Quaternary has been investigated along the horizon and in time slice to interpret the environments of the earliest Quaternary prior to the onset of glaciation. Combined with analysis of aligned elongate furrows over 10 km long, 100 m wide and 100 m deep suggest a deep marine environment in an almost enclosed basin with persistent strong NW-SE bottom currents in the deepest parts. Pockmarks were formed by the escape of shallow gas on the sides of a small delta in the eastern part of the basin. The progradation of large deltas from both the north and south into the basin make up the majority of the deposition of sediment into the basin. Key Words: base-Quaternary; seismic interpretation; paleoenvironments References: Gatliff, R.W, Richards, P.C, Smith, K, Graham, C.C, McCormac, M, Smith, N.J.P, Long, D, Cameron, T.D.J, Evans, D, Stevenson, A.G, Bulat, J, Ritchie, J.D, (1994) 'United Kingdom offshore regional

  19. Modal Composition and Age of Intrusions in North-Central and Northeast Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Crafford, A. Elizabeth Jones

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Data presented in this report characterize igneous intrusions of north-central and northeast Nevada and were compiled as part of the Metallogeny of the Great Basin project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between 2001 and 2007. The compilation pertains to the area bounded by lats 38.5 and 42 N., long 118.5 W., and the Nevada-Utah border (fig. 1). The area contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains equally numerous smaller, shallowly emplaced intrusions, including dikes, sills, and endogenous dome complexes. Igneous intrusions (hereafter, intrusions) of multiple ages are major constituents of the geologic framework of north-central and northeast Nevada (Stewart and Carlson, 1978). Mesozoic and Cenozoic intrusions are particularly numerous and considered to be related to subduction along the west edge of the North American plate during this time. Henry and Ressel (2000) and Ressel and others (2000) have highlighted the association between magmatism and ore deposits along the Carlin trend. Similarly, Theodore (2000) has demonstrated the association between intrusions and ore deposits in the Battle Mountain area. Decades of geologic investigations in north-central and northeast Nevada (hereafter, the study area) demonstrate that most hydrothermal ore deposits are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with intrusions. Because of these associations, studies of many individual intrusions have been conducted, including those by a large number of Master's and Doctoral thesis students (particularly University of Nevada at Reno students and associated faculty), economic geologists working on behalf of exploration and mining companies, and USGS earth scientists. Although the volume of study area intrusions is large and many are associated with ore deposits, no synthesis of available data that characterize these rocks has been assembled. Compilations that have been produced for intrusions in Nevada

  20. Bioavailability of Metals in Sediments of the Dogger Bank (Central North Sea): A Mesocosm Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, W. J.; Burt, G. R.; Pope, N. D.

    1999-05-01

    There are conflicting arguments surrounding the nature and origins of metal enrichment in sediments from the Dogger Bank (central North Sea) and much speculation as to its biological significance. To help resolve this controversy, a mesocosm approach was evaluated to test whether metal loadings in sediments from the Dogger Bank region display enhanced bioavailability, relative to reference sites off south-west England. This involved the combination of physicochemical characterization of sediments (including porewaters) with bioaccumulation studies, using sediment cores seeded with benthic organisms (bivalves Spisula solida and Venus striatula, the gastropod Turritella communis and the polychaete Melinna palmata). There was little evidence of As, Cu, Hg or Pb bioaccumulation from Dogger cores. In contrast, all species accumulated Cd; Ag concentrations rose by up to fourfold in most bioindicators; and Ni, Cr and Mn burdens also increased, occasionally by as much as 10-fold. Variable, but generally smaller increases in Fe and Zn were observed. Physiological variations in metal bioaccumulation processes, including the ability to regulate essential elements, were responsible for species differences in response—a feature which may contribute to uncertainty in the interpretation and comparison of biomonitoring data. Mesocosm results nevertheless complement earlier field reports of unexpectedly enriched levels of certain metals (notably Cd) in biota from this part of the central North Sea. Characterization of sediments provided some physicochemical explanations for enhanced metal uptake in biota and helped, partly, to define bioavailable and anthropogenic fractions. Thus, whilst total sediment-metal concentrations were not exceptional in Dogger samples, for some metals there was a significant proportion in non-refractory (readily extractable) form, together with relatively high concentrations in interstitial waters—both presumably available for assimilation

  1. New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Fox and Dolton, 1989, 1996a, b; De Bruin, 1993). In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs (Johnson and Finn, 1998; Johnson and others, 1999). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey's assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Bighorn Basin. These new data supplement previously published data by Nuccio and Finn (1998), and Yin (1997), and lead to a better understanding and characterization of the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Eighty-nine samples of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (fig. 2) were collected and analyzed - 15 samples were from outcrops around the margins of the basin and 74 samples were well cuttings (fig. 1). Forty-one of the samples were shale, two were carbonaceous shale, and the remainder from coal. All samples were analyzed by vitrinite reflectance to determine levels of thermal maturation. Preparation of samples for reflectance analysis required (1) crushing the larger pieces into 0.25-to 1-mm pieces, (2) casting the pieces with epoxy in pre-cut and drilled plugs, and (3) curing the samples overnight. Subsequently, a four-step grinding and polishing process was implemented that included sanding with progressively finer sandpaper (60 and 600 grit) followed with a two-step polishing process (0.3 and 0.05 micron). Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined at 500 X magnification using plane-polarized incident white light and a 546-nm monochromatic filter in immersion oil. For samples containing

  2. Computer and photogrammetric general land use study of central north Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R.; Larsen, P. A.; Campbell, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The object of this report is to acquaint potential users with two computer programs, developed at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center. They were used in producing a land use survey and maps of central north Alabama from Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) digital data. The report describes in detail the thought processes and analysis procedures used from the initiation of the land use study to its completion, as well as a photogrammetric study that was used in conjunction with the computer analysis to produce similar land use maps. The results of the land use demonstration indicate that, with respect to computer time and cost, such a study may be economically and realistically feasible on a statewide basis.

  3. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  4. Geochemical Database for Intrusive Rocks of North-Central and Northeast Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Ressel, Michael W.; Barnes, Calvin G.

    2007-01-01

    North-central and northeast Nevada contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains many small, shallowly emplaced intrusive bodies, including dikes, sills, and intrusive lava dome complexes. Decades of geologic investigations in the study area demonstrate that many ore deposits, representing diverse ore deposit types, are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with these igneous intrusions. However, despite the number and importance of igneous intrusions in the study area, no synthesis of geochemical data available for these rocks has been completed. This report presents a synthesis of geochemical data for these rocks. The product represents the first phases of an effort to evaluate the time-space-compositional evolution of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatism in the study area and identify genetic associations between magmatism and mineralizing processes in this region.

  5. Time of Pinedale deglaciation in north-central Colorado: further considerations.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madole, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The stratigraphy and 14C ages obtained at three sites near Buffalo Pass, in the Park Range, and at two sites on La Poudre Pass, in the Front Range, Colorado, suggest that 1) termination of Pinedale Glaciation in most of the Park Range and Front Range occurred at least 10 000 yr ago; 2) in the southern part of the Park Range Pinedale deglaciation was completed before 11 000 BP; 3) the deposits of the Long Draw Stade (or Wisconsin IV) are at least 10 000 14C yr old; and 4) the recession of Pinedale glacier margins from the terminal moraines into the cirques appears to have occurred in less than 4000 yr in north-central Colorado. -Author

  6. Late Cenozoic crustal deformation of the north-central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Eyal, Y. . Dept. of Geology); Ron, H. )

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic deformation of Basin and Range in north-central Nevada is examined by small fault analysis. Consistency between fault types, fault trends and sense of displacement was found for this area in which normal faults strike N-S, and right-lateral and left-lateral faults strike NNW and NNE respectively. The existence of strike-slip faulting, mainly right-lateral, is consistent with horizontal counter clockwise rotation suggested by paleomagnetic declination data. The results of this analysis indicate that crustal deformation of this area did not occur by only simple E-W uniaxial extension but also by N-S compression and shortening, and that the contribution of strike slip faulting to the extension of this area is substantial almost similar to that of normal faulting.

  7. Characteristics of central North Dakota wetlands determined from sample aerial photographs and ground study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Gilmer, D.S.; Mechlin, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Wetland characteristics were assessed from a systematic sample of 66 plots, 3.22 km2 each, drawn from a 10,041-km2 study area in central North Dakota. Each plot was visited once and 8 sets of aerial photographs were obtained in 3 years. Density of wetland basins was 11.00 ha/km2, and area averaged 9.7 ha/km2. Seasonal and temporary wetlands were most abundant; semipermanent wetlands occupied the greatest area. Basin size was positively correlated with water permanence. Discriminant function analysis based on size and an index to wetness derived from photographs misclassified 33% of the wetland basins. Forty percent of the wetlands were tilled. Photography of sample plots is potentially useful for determining number of basins and wetland area, but precise classification of plant communities in this region would require ground study.

  8. Hydrology of Prairie Dog Creek Valley, Norton Dam to state line, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stullken, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Development of water resources has been a major factor in the economy of Prairie Dog Creek Valley in north-central Kansas. Releases from Norton Reservoir to the Almena Irrigation District averaged 6,900 acre-feet per year during 1967-76. The number of irrigation wells increased from 4 to 147 during 1947-78. Ground water in the valley is derived mostly from the alluvial aquifer. The effects of irrigation on the aquifer are indicated by water-level changes. The water in storage increased from 130,000 to 136,000 acre-feet during 1947-78 due to recharge from surface-water irrigation. A steady-state model of the aquifer prior to irrigation (1947) indicated that most recharge was from precipitation (88 percent) and most discharge was to streams (54 percent) and reparian transpiration (26 percent). Although aquifer storage increased in this area, storage generally decreased in other areas of western Kansas. (USGS)

  9. Digital data from the northeast Tusas Mountains aeromagnetic survey, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, B.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.; ,

    2011-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the northeast Tusas Mountains region of north-central New Mexico. The survey covers a large portion of the Tres Piedras Ranger District of the Carson National Forest and adjacent areas, northwest of the town of Tres Piedras. Several related and derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including radar-altimeter heights, analytically draped aeromagnetic data, the elevation surface used for draping, and reduced-to-pole aeromagnetic data. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map-plotting packages.

  10. Resistivity structures across the Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetotelluric data collected along five profiles show deep resistivity structures beneath the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin gold trends in north-central Nevada, which appear consistent with tectonic breaks in the crust that possibly served as channels for hydrothermal fluids. It seems likely that gold deposits along these linear trends were, therefore, controlled by deep regional crustal fault systems. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of the magnetotelluric data generally show resistive (30 to 1,000 ohm-m) crustal blocks broken by sub-vertical, two-dimensional, conductive (1 to 10 ohmm) zones that are indicative of large-scale crustal fault zones. These inferred fault zones are regional in scale, trend northeast-southwest, north-south, and northwest-southeast, and extend to mid-crustal (20 km) depths. The conductors are about 2- to 15-km wide, extend from about 1 to 4 km below the surface to about 20 km depth, and show two-dimensional electrical structure. By connecting the locations of similar trending conductors together, individual regional crustal fault zones within the upper crust can be inferred that range from about 4- to 10-km wide and about 30- to 150-km long. One of these crustal fault zones coincides with the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trend. The interpreted electrical property sections also show regional changes in the resistive crust from south to north. Most of the subsurface in the upper 20 km beneath Reese River Valley and southern Boulder Valley are underlain by rock that is generally more conductive than the subsurface beneath Kelly Creek Basin and northern Boulder Valley. This suggests that either elevated-temperature or high-salinity fluids, alteration, or carbonaceous rocks are more pervasive in the more conductive area (Battle Mountain Heat-Flow High), which implies that the crust beneath these valleys is either more fractured or has more carbonaceous rocks than in the area surveyed along the 41st parallel.

  11. Building Geosciences Departments for the Future: Geospatial Initiatives at North Carolina Central University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovic, G.; Malhotra, R.; Renslow, M.; Albert, B.; Harris, J.

    2007-12-01

    Two ongoing initiatives funded by the NSF-GEO and NSF-HRD directorates are being used to enhance the geospatial program at the North Carolina Central University (NCCU) to make it a leader, regionally and nationally, in geoscience education. As one of only two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeast offering Geography as a major, NCCU has established a Geospatial Research, Innovative Teaching, and Service (GRITS) Center and has partnered with American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) to offer "Provisional" GIS certification to students graduating with Geography degrees. This presentation will focus on the role that ongoing geospatial initiatives are playing in attracting students to this program, increasing opportunities for academic and industry internships and employment in the field after graduation, and increasing awareness of the NCCU geosciences program among GIS professionals in North Carolina. Some of the program highlights include "Provisional" ASPRS certification recently awarded to three NCCU graduate students - the first three students in the nation to complete the provisional certification process. This summer GRITS Center faculty conducted two GIS workshops for academic users and three more are planned in the near future for North Carolina GIS professionals. In addition, a record number of students were awarded paid internship positions with government agencies, non profit organizations and the industry. This past summer our students worked at NOAA, NC Conservation Fund, UNC Population Center, and Triangle Aerial Surveys. NCCUs high minority enrollment (at the present above 90%) and quality and tradition of geoscience program make it an ideal incubator for accreditation and certification activities and a possible role model for other HBCUs.

  12. Mediterranean climate patterns and wine quality in North and Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalu, John David; Baldi, Marina; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovanni; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large-scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of precipitation in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine, weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall, i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over the Atlantic diverts most of the weather perturbations towards North Europe, still providing a sufficient amount of rainwater to CME; when summer warming induced by southerly winds is balanced by the cooling induced by westerly winds; and when a positive geopotential anomaly over WME shelters CME from fall Atlantic storms. Bad quality wines are produced when the jet stream favors the intrusion of the Atlantic weather perturbations into the Mediterranean. Results suggest that atmospheric pattern persistencies can be used as precursors for wine quality forecast.

  13. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  14. Climatic Forcing of Glacier Surface Mass Balance Changes Along North-Central Peru: A Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Most tropical glaciers are Peru, where they are key water sources for communities in mountain environments and beyond. Thus, their sustained shrinkage portrays these glaciers as archetype of global warming impacts on the local scale. However, there is still no deep understanding on the mechanism connecting temperature and these glaciers. Among others, the effect of temperature on the glacier surface mass balance (GSMB) can be expressed within accumulation regimes and hence in surface albedo, or in ablation dynamics through incoming longwave energy (LE). Here, we report a study combining statistical analyses of reanalysis data (~30km grid-cell), regional climate modeling and glacier mass balance simulations at high resolution (2km) to analyze long-term (30 years) and seasonal GSMB along north-central Peru. Our goal is to mechanistically understand climate change impact on these glaciers. Results suggest temperature as the main factor controlling GSMB changes through the lapse rate (LR). Correlations of GSMB with LR, humidity and zonal wind point to vertical homogenization of temperature, causing LE to increase, despite this flux always remaining negative. This "less negative" LE multiplies the impact of the seasonal fluctuation in albedo, thereby enhancing total ablation. As this mechanism only needs a relative increase in temperature, it may even occur in subfreezing conditions. Model output also indicates that turbulent fluxes are small, largely cancelling out. This suggests that the impact of LE is more likely to occur compared to either turbulent fluxes changes or shifts in the proportion of sublimation versus melt, which we find to be regionally stable. These findings imply that glaciers in north-central Peru are sensitive to subtle changes in temperature. We discuss the implications for process-based understanding and how this non-linear and somewhat hidden effect of temperature reduces the skill of temperature index models to simulate GSMB in the Tropics.

  15. Bedload exports in a forest catchment following wildfire and terracing, north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Machado, Ana I.; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio A.; Faria, Sílvia R.; Varela, María E. T.; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2014-05-01

    In Portugal, the occurrences of wildfires are frequently, on average, affects some 100.000 ha of rural lands each year, but in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005 the burnt areas can go over 300.000 ha. Studies in various parts of the world, including Portugal, have well-documented a strong and sometimes extreme response in overland flow generation and associated soil losses following wildfire. Over the last two decades, the construction of terraces in preparation of a new eucalypt plantation has become increasingly common in the mountain areas of north-central Portugal, including in recently burnt areas. Terraces are traditionally viewed as a soil conservation technique, however, the present authors have measured high splash and inter-rill erosion on recent terraces and have frequently observed gully formation connecting the terraces over the full hill slope length, as well as within the adjacent unsealed roads. The present study was carried out in a forest catchment in the north-central Portugal that was burnt by a wildfire during the summer of 2010 and logged and then terraced with a bulldozer during the winter 2010. The burnt catchment of roughly 25 ha was instrumented with two subsequent flumes with maximum discharge capacities of 120 and 1700 l sec-1. The bed load that deposited in the smallest flume was removed and weighted in the field at regular intervals during the subsequent three years. The records are being now analyzed, nonetheless preliminary results suggested that, besides the wildfire effects, also post-fire land management played an important role on bedload exports.

  16. Geologic controls on the formation of lakes in north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Pitman, Janet K; Carroll, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    Fluid exchange between surficial waters and groundwater, as well as the processes that control this exchange, are of critical concern to water management districts and planners. Digital high-resolution seismic systems were used to collect geophysical data from 30 lakes of north-central Florida. Although using seismic profile data in the past has been less than successful, the use of digital technology has increased the potential for success. Seismic profiles collected from the lakes of north-central Florida have shown the potential application of these techniques in understanding the formation of individual lakes. In each case study, lake structure and geomorphology were controlled by solution and/or mechanical processes. Processes that control lake development are twofold: 1) karstification or dissolution of the underlying limestone, and 2) me collapse, subsidence, or slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Lake size and shape are a factor of the thickness of overburden and size of the collapse or subsidence and/or clustering of depressions allowing for lake development. Lake development is through progressive sequence stages to maturity that can be delineated into geomorphic types. Case studies have shown that lakes can be divided by geomorphic types into progressive developmental phases: (1) active subsidence or collapse phase (young) - the open to partially filled collapse structures typically associated with sink holes; (2) transitional phase (middle age) - the sinkhole is plugged as the voids within the collapse are filled with sediment, periodic reactivation may occur; (3) baselevel phase (mature) - active sinkholes are progressively plugged by the continual erosion of material into the basin, and eventually sediment fills the basins; and (4) polje (drowned prairie) - broad flat-bottom basins located within the epiphreatic zone that are inundated at high

  17. Characterization of smallholder pig breeding practices within a rural commune of North Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Nahoko; Van Bui, Quang; Nguyen, Nga Thi Duong; Lapar, Lucy; Marshall, Karen

    2015-08-01

    This case study focused on a pig production system in a rural area of North Central Vietnam, with a focus on describing household pig breeding practices and estimating herd demographic parameters, particularly on reproduction. One hundred five households undertaking small-scale piglet production were surveyed, with information gathered on 3268 individual pigs. Pig keeping contributed variably to the overall household livelihood portfolio, with female household members as the main decision makers, contributors to labor, and beneficiaries of income from the pig enterprise. All households kept between one and four young or adult sows, with 69% of these sows of a local breed type (predominantly Mong Cai), 28% a cross between a local sow and an exotic sow (predominantly Large White), and the remainder (3%) as exotic sows. Eighty-eight percent of the piglets produced were cross-bred, while 12% were local breed. No adult males were kept by the surveyed households, reflecting the common use of artificial insemination for mating purposes. The most common breeding system practiced-the keeping of Mong Cai females and production of cross-bred piglets-capitalizes on the small body size and high fecundity of the sows and the fast growth rate and leanness of the cross-bred piglets. The survey tool used, which was based on farmer recall of events over the preceding 12-month period, appeared to give reasonable results although some recall bias could be detected. This case study will serve as an entry point to planned broader scale characterization and development of pig breeding systems in North Central Vietnam.

  18. Genetic Variation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from Multiple Crops in the North Central United States

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura; Travers, Steven; Nelson, Berlin D.

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important pathogen of numerous crops in the North Central region of the United States. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of 145 isolates of the pathogen from multiple hosts in the region. Mycelial compatibility groups (MCG) and microsatellite haplotypes were determined and analyzed for standard estimates of population genetic diversity and the importance of host and distance for genetic variation was examined. MCG tests indicated there were 49 different MCGs in the population and 52 unique microsatellite haplotypes were identified. There was an association between MCG and haplotype such that isolates belonging to the same MCG either shared identical haplotypes or differed at no more than 2 of the 12 polymorphic loci. For the majority of isolates, there was a one-to-one correspondence between MCG and haplotype. Eleven MCGs shared haplotypes. A single haplotype was found to be prevalent throughout the region. The majority of genetic variation in the isolate collection was found within rather than among host crops, suggesting little genetic divergence of S. sclerotiorum among hosts. There was only weak evidence of isolation by distance. Pairwise population comparisons among isolates from canola, dry bean, soybean and sunflower suggested that gene flow between host-populations is more common for some crops than others. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium in the isolates from the four major crops indicated primarily clonal reproduction, but also evidence of genetic recombination for isolates from canola and sunflower. Accordingly, genetic diversity was highest for populations from canola and sunflower. Distribution of microsatellite haplotypes across the study region strongly suggest that specific haplotypes of S. sclerotiorum are often found on multiple crops, movement of individual haplotypes among crops is common and host identity is not a barrier to gene flow for S. sclerotiorum in the north central United

  19. Seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local government, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful regional seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings). The highest seismic hazard values in the region generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes.

  20. 110 years of local glacier and ice cap changes in Central- and North East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjork, A. A.; Aagaard, S.; Kjaer, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Box, J.

    2014-12-01

    The local glaciers and ice caps of Greenland are becoming more apparent players in global sea-level rise, and their contribution to future changes is significant. Very little information on their historical fluctuations exists as much of the focus has been on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Now, we can for the first time present historic data that spans 110 years for more than 200 of the local glaciers and ice caps covering this large and important region of the Arctic. The central- and north eastern part of Greenland is of particular interest as these areas are predicted to exhibit a more active behavior with higher mass loss in the future - simultaneously with an increase in precipitation. Our results show that the glaciers and ice caps in the region are responding very rapidly to changes in temperature and precipitation. The present retreat is the fastest observed within the last eight decades, only surpassed by the rapid post LIA retreat. The 1930s was the golden era for scientific exploration in Central- and North East Greenland as several large expeditions visited the area and photographed from land, sea and air. We use historic recordings from Danish and Norwegian aerial missions and terrestrial recordings from the renowned American Explorer Louise Boyd. These unique pictures from the early 1930s form the backbone of the study and are supplemented the more recent aerial photographs the 1940s and onwards and satellite imagery from the mid-1960s and up until present. From high resolution aerial photographs we are able to map the maximum extent of the glaciers during the LIA (Little Ice Age), from which retreat in this area is estimated to commence in 1900. Using a new SMB (Surface Mass Balance) model and its components covering the entire observational period along with high resolution DEMs and historic sea-ice records we are now able to extract valuable information on the past and present triggers of glacial change.

  1. Genetic Variation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from Multiple Crops in the North Central United States.

    PubMed

    Aldrich-Wolfe, Laura; Travers, Steven; Nelson, Berlin D

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important pathogen of numerous crops in the North Central region of the United States. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of 145 isolates of the pathogen from multiple hosts in the region. Mycelial compatibility groups (MCG) and microsatellite haplotypes were determined and analyzed for standard estimates of population genetic diversity and the importance of host and distance for genetic variation was examined. MCG tests indicated there were 49 different MCGs in the population and 52 unique microsatellite haplotypes were identified. There was an association between MCG and haplotype such that isolates belonging to the same MCG either shared identical haplotypes or differed at no more than 2 of the 12 polymorphic loci. For the majority of isolates, there was a one-to-one correspondence between MCG and haplotype. Eleven MCGs shared haplotypes. A single haplotype was found to be prevalent throughout the region. The majority of genetic variation in the isolate collection was found within rather than among host crops, suggesting little genetic divergence of S. sclerotiorum among hosts. There was only weak evidence of isolation by distance. Pairwise population comparisons among isolates from canola, dry bean, soybean and sunflower suggested that gene flow between host-populations is more common for some crops than others. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium in the isolates from the four major crops indicated primarily clonal reproduction, but also evidence of genetic recombination for isolates from canola and sunflower. Accordingly, genetic diversity was highest for populations from canola and sunflower. Distribution of microsatellite haplotypes across the study region strongly suggest that specific haplotypes of S. sclerotiorum are often found on multiple crops, movement of individual haplotypes among crops is common and host identity is not a barrier to gene flow for S. sclerotiorum in the north central United

  2. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  3. Probabilistic forecasts for Decision Support at the North Central River Forecast Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Pedro; Buan, Steven; Connelly, Brian; DeWeese, Michael; Diamond, Laura; Ellis, Larry; Goering, Dustin; Holz, Andrea; Husaby, James; Merrigan, Douglas; Palmer, Justin; Pokorny, Daniel; Reckel, Holly; Sites, William; Stockhaus, Scott; Thornburg, Jonathon; Wavrin, Robert.; Ziemer, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The North Central River Forecast Center (NCRFC) of the US National Weather Service has the responsibility for issuing river forecasts at 426 points over an area of nearly 890,000 km2, covering the Upper Mississippi river basin, the US watersheds flowing to lakes Superior, Huron and Michigan, and rivers flowing from the US to the Hudson Bay in Canada. The NCRFC issues probabilistic outlook forecasts at all its forecast points starting on December. While focused primarily on the risks associated with flooding during the spring snow melt down, the RFC frequently issues probabilistic forecasts to deal with water resources operations during drought times. This presentation will focus on probabilistic forecasts issued to assess flooding risk at Red River of the North , to support navigation operations on the Mississippi river during drought conditions, and on support of reservoir operations for hydropower generation and recreation. The presentation will discuss the improvements over the current practice that will be possible to achieve once the NWS Hydrologic Ensemble Forecasting System is put into operations later this year.

  4. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  5. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  6. Chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences in Norwegian-Danish basin and North Sea Central Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.O.

    1987-05-01

    Geochemical studies of subsurface sections and outcrops in the Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences from the Norwegian-Danish basin and the North Sea Central Trough have resulted in a detailed chemostratigraphy for these strata. The most applicable chemostratigraphic markers are based on the distribution of strontium, magnesium, manganese, the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio, and the variations in the carbonate contents. It is demonstrated that the chemostratigraphic approach is valid at two levels: (1) a superior chemostratigraphy in which deep-sea cores from the Atlantic Ocean and sections from western Europe are correlated on the basis of significant geochemical anomalies and long-term variations most likely induced by oceanic geochemical cycles and sea level fluctuations; (2) a subordinate but detailed intrabasinal chemostratigraphic correlation which primarily reflects the physicochemical conditions in the depositional environment. The Upper Cretaceous chemostratigraphy established in the Danish area allows a detailed correlation between relatively continuous chalk sequences in the Norwegian-Danish basin and the rather condensed and hiati-influenced sections in the oil fields of the North Sea. The results emphasize the applicability of chemostratigraphy in the subsurface exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk.

  7. Evidence of avian pneumovirus spread beyond Minnesota among wild and domestic birds in central North America.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R S; Nezworski, J; Velayudhan, B T; Nagaraja, K V; Zeman, D H; Dyer, N; Graham, T; Lauer, D C; Njenga, M K; Halvorson, D A

    2004-12-01

    To detect avian pneumovirus (APV) in central North America, nasal turbinates or choanal deft tissues from domestic turkeys and wild birds were examined for the presence of APV RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), whereas serum samples from domestic turkeys were analyzed for APV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 2002, the seroprevalence of disease in domestic turkeys in Minnesota remained high (42.3% of the flocks). In addition, there is evidence the disease has spread to turkey flocks in North Dakota (8.2%), South Dakota (7%), Iowa (10%), and Wisconsin (8.6%) as detected by RT-PCR and/or ELISA. House sparrows and ring-billed gulls sampled in Minnesota and snow geese from Saskatchewan, Canada, were found to harbor APV RNA. Sequence analysis of wild bird APV strains showed high amino acid sequence identity among wild bird isolates (<97%) and between wild bird and turkey viral isolates (93.2%-99.3%). This study demonstrated that APV infections were present in domestic turkey flocks and wild birds outside the state of Minnesota; however, the role of wild birds in spreading APV to domestic turkeys remains unclear. PMID:15666873

  8. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time.

    PubMed

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, Ameur M; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty F; Pergl, Jan; Stajerová, Katerina; Chytrý, Milan; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, John; Klimesova, Jitka; Lucanova, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, Misako; Sadlo, Jiri; Suda, Jan; Tichy, Lubomir; Kühn, Ingolf

    2015-03-01

    The factors that promote invasive behavior in introduced plant species occur across many scales of biological and ecological organization. Factors that act at relatively small scales, for example, the evolution of biological traits associated with invasiveness, scale up to shape species distributions among different climates and habitats, as well as other characteristics linked to invasion, such as attractiveness for cultivation (and by extension propagule pressure). To identify drivers of invasion it is therefore necessary to disentangle the contribution of multiple factors that are interdependent. To this end, we formulated a conceptual model describing the process of invasion of central European species into North America based on a sequence of "drivers." We then used confirmatory path analysis to test whether the conceptual model is supported by a statistical model inferred from a comprehensive database containing 466 species. The path analysis revealed that naturalization of central European plants in North America, in terms of the number of North American regions invaded, most strongly depends on residence time in the invaded range and the number of habitats occupied by species in their native range. In addition to the confirmatory path analysis, we identified the effects of various biological traits on several important drivers of the conceptualized invasion process. The data supported a model that included indirect effects of biological traits on invasion via their effect on the number of native range habitats occupied and cultivation in the native range. For example, persistent seed banks and longer flowering periods are positively correlated with number of native habitats, while a stress-tolerant life strategy is negatively correlated with native range cultivation. However, the importance of the biological traits is nearly an order of magnitude less than that of the larger scale drivers and highly dependent on the invasion stage (traits were associated

  9. Seasonal abundance of the microplankton population in the North Pacific central gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, John R.; Reid, Freda M. H.; Stewart, Gene L.

    1982-02-01

    Population structure as numerical and biomas abundance was determined for the microplankton (˜ to 200 μm organisms) sampled throughout and just below the euphotic zone at five times of year other than fall in the North Pacific central gyre around 28°N, 155°W. Average total microplankton carbon of all strata varied by twofold or less over the cruises, conforming to the hypothesis of low heterogeneity of biomass in central oceanic gyral populations. For example, mean euphotic zone abundance ranged from 5.9 μg Cl -1 (late winter) to 10.5 μg Cl -1 (spring), averaging 7.9 μg Cl -1. Its variability and that of stations within cruises were similar. Microplankton did not show a maximum correlated with the chlorophyll α maximum seen near the base of the euphotic zone when there was thermal stratification within the euphotic zone. Nanoplankters consistently dominated the population. 'Monads and flagellates' and non-thecate dinoflagellates were the most abundant groups. Diatoms in the upper waters where temperature range was the widest were the most temporally variable. Statistically significant differences in the biomass of taxonomic groups between cruises were found in relatively few of the possible instances tested.

  10. Structural style of the Appalachian Plateau fold belt, north-central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, Van S.

    2014-12-01

    New seismic and well data from hydrocarbon exploration and development activity associated with the Marcellus Formation shale gas play in north-central Pennsylvania provide insight to the structural style of the Appalachian Plateau fold belt in the region north and northwest of the Allegheny structural front in Potter, Tioga, Bradford, Sullivan, Lycoming, Clinton and Centre counties. The Plateau fold belt in this area developed over a detachment in Upper Silurian Salina Group evaporites during the Permian Alleghanian Orogeny in response to north-northwest directed shortening. At the Allegheny structural front, a deep detachment in Cambrian shales that underlies the Valley and Ridge province to the south-southeast, ramps up-section through Cambro-Ordovician carbonates and Lower-Middle Silurian clastics to a shallow detachment in Upper Silurian evaporites. At the northeastern plunge of the Nittany Anticline (south and east of Williamsport, PA), only a small amount of slip is interpreted to have been transmitted into the foreland on the shallow Upper Silurian detachment. Instead most slip was consumed in fault-propagation folds immediately north of the Allegheny structural front. The Plateau fold belt, developed above the Upper Silurian evaporites, can be divided into structural domains based on fold characteristics. Domain 1 folds have short wavelengths and low amplitudes. Domain 2 salt-cored anticlines have long wavelengths and large amplitudes. Domain 3 comprises large synclines, located between Domain 2 anticlines. Halite originally beneath Domain 3 synclines is interpreted to have been mobilized, or evacuated, into the cores of adjacent Domain 2 anticlines during folding. Seismic data indicate that the base of the salt detachment underlying Plateau folds is a non-planar, stepped surface. Possible scenarios for the development of the non-planar detachment include: 1) mobilization of halite from an evaporite sequence that contained an originally non

  11. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons

  12. Thermocline mixing and vertical oxygen fluxes in the stratified central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, L.; Dengler, M.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, S.; Linke, P.; McGinnis, D. F.

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, the central North Sea has been experiencing a general trend of decreasing dissolved oxygen (O2) levels during summer. To understand the potential causes driving lower O2, we investigated summertime turbulence and O2 dynamics in the thermocline and bottom boundary layer (BBL). The study focuses on coupling biogeochemical processes with physical transport processes to identify key drivers of the O2 and organic carbon turnover within the BBL. Combining our flux observations with an analytical process-oriented approach, we resolve the key drivers that ultimately determine the BBL O2 levels. We report substantial tidally-driven turbulent O2 fluxes from the thermocline into the otherwise isolated bottom water. This contribution to the local bottom water O2 and carbon budgets has been largely overlooked and might be a central factor maintaining relatively high O2 levels in the bottom water throughout the stratification period. With the current climate warming projections, we propose that higher water temperature and reduced turbulence could favour migrating algal species that could out-compete other species for light and nutrients, and shift the oxygen production zone higher up within the thermocline while maintaining similar organic carbon export to the bottom water. Due to the substantially lower turbulence levels in the central region of the thermocline as compared to the higher turbulence observed at the thermocline-BBL interface, such a shift in the production layer could lead to further isolation of the bottom water and promote the seasonal occurrence of lower O2 concentrations.

  13. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  14. Simulated influences of Lake Agassiz on the climate of central North America 11,000 years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostetler, S.W.; Bartlein, P.J.; Clark, P.U.; Small, E.E.; Solomon, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Eleven thousand years ago, large lakes existed in central and eastern North America along the margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The large-scale North American climate at this time has been simulated with atmospheric general circulation models, but these relatively coarse global models do not resolve potentially important features of the mesoscale circulation that arise from interactions among the atmosphere, ice sheet, and proglacial lakes. Here we present simulations of the climate of central and eastern North America 11,000 years ago with a high-resolution, regional climate model nested within a general circulation model. The simulated climate is in general agreement with that inferred from palaeoecological evidence. Our experiments indicate that through mesoscale atmospheric feedbacks, the annual delivery of moisture to the Laurentide Ice Sheet was diminished at times of a large, cold Lake Agassiz relative to periods of lower lake stands. The resulting changes in the mass balance of the ice sheet may have contributed to fluctuations of the ice margin, thus affecting the routing of fresh water to the North Atlantic Ocean. A retreating ice margin during periods of high lake level may have opened an outlet for discharge of Lake Agassiz into the North Atlantic. A subsequent advance of the ice margin due to greater moisture delivery associated with a low lake level could have dammed the outlet, thereby reducing discharge to the North Atlantic. These variations may have been decisive in causing the Younger Dryas cold even.

  15. Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

  16. Ovitrap Efficacy Using Plant Infusions to Monitor Vertical Distribution of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Aedes albopictus to ovitraps containing water, oak or oak-pine was evaluated in four suburban and four sylvatic habitats in North-Central Florida to ascertain potential egg-laying heights. A total of 48 ovitraps were suspended at 1 and 6 meters and monitored weekly for five months....

  17. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  18. Impact of Sustainable Agriculture on Secondary School Agricultural Education Teachers and Programs in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaje, Kehinde Aderemi Ajaiyeoba; Martin, Robert A.; Williams, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 298 of 600 secondary agriculture teachers in north central United States revealed limited impact of sustainable agriculture. Most teachers had neutral perceptions; a moderate number taught it, but not from a systems perspective. However, related agronomy topics were taught, providing a possible foundation for future inclusion of…

  19. An Analysis of the North Central United States with Particular Reference to Vocational Training Needs and Opportunities for Rural Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Daryl

    Recent changes in patterns of population location, industrial employment, and technology in the north central United States have produced implications for vocational education in rural areas. Missouri has greater social, cultural, demographic, and economic diversity than other states in the region, but is representative of the area for purposes of…

  20. "El Miedo y El Hambre": Understanding the Familial, Social, and Educational Realities of Undocumented Latino Families in North Central Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viramontez Anguiano, Ruben P.; Lopez, Anayeli

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how different ecological factors, within and outside the family, affected the educational success of the children of undocumented families. The sample consisted of 63 immigrant Latino parents (40 families) who resided in North Central Indiana. This study utilized an ethnographic research design. Findings demonstrated that…

  1. A Comparative Economic Analysis of North-Central New Mexico. New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Garrey E.; Eastman, Clyde

    North-Central New Mexico has many of the problems common to other rural areas. Unemployment and underemployment rates tend to be high and per capita income relatively low. This study evaluated regional economic performance over a 19-year period (1949-1968) as compared to other regions and the nation. Shift analysis (a means of examining regional…

  2. A 13-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p<0.0001) was found for 2...

  3. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

  4. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

  5. Re-Engineering Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofoluwe, Abayomi Olumade

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to re-engineer vocational and technical education for sustainable development in the North Central Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria. The research design adopted was a survey inferential type. Stratified random was used to select 36 schools out of 98 schools while 920 students out of 3680 students were sampled. The data…

  6. Languages of North, Central, and South America. A Survey of Materials for the Study of the Uncommonly Taught Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dora E.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of basic tools of access for the study of the uncommonly taught languages of North, Central, and South America. It is one of eight fascicles which constitute a revision of "A Provisional Survey of Materials for the Study of the Neglected Languages" (CAL 1969). The emphasis is on materials for the adult learner…

  7. Three-dimensional circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall over central North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Yu, Rucong; Li, Jian; Yuan, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Using daily and hourly rain gauge records and Japanese 25 year reanalysis data over 30 years, this work reveals two major circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall events in central North China (CNC), and further analyzes the effects of the circulations on these rainfall events. One circulation structure has an extensive upper tropospheric warm anomaly (UTWA) covering North China (NC). By strengthening the upper anticyclonic anomaly and lower southerly flows around NC, the UTWA plays a positive role in forming upper level divergence and lower level moisture convergence. As a result, the warm anomalous circulation has a solid relationship with large-scale, long-duration rainfall events with a diurnal peak around midnight to early morning. The other circulation structure has an upper tropospheric cold anomaly (UTCA) located in the upper stream of NC. Contributed to by the UTCA, a cold trough appears in the upper stream of NC and an unstable configuration with upper (lower) cold (warm) anomalies forms around CNC. Consequently, CNC is covered by strong instability and high convective energy, and the cold anomalous circulation is closely connected with local, short-duration rainfall events concentrated from late afternoon to early nighttime. The close connections between circulation structures and typical rainfall events are confirmed by two independent converse analysis processes: from circulations to rainfall characteristics, and from typical rainfall events to circulations. The results presented in this work indicate that the upper tropospheric temperature has significant influences on heavy rainfall, and thus more attention should be paid to the upper tropospheric temperature in future analyses.

  8. Proposal for a comprehensive vertical datum for North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Roman, D. R.; Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.; Youngman, M.

    2013-05-01

    As part of its Ten Year Strategic Plan (2013-2023), the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of the USA is planning to replace the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) by the year 2022. The replacement vertical datum will be defined through a gravimetric geoid model and accessed via GNSS technology, in direct contrast to the definition and access of NAVD 88, which is through passive, generally unmonitored benchmarks connected through geodetic leveling. A USA-Canada-Mexico joint effort is underway to compute a single geoid model by 2022 for the entire region, which can be adopted as the vertical datum reference surface by all countries within the area. The proposed area ranges from the North Pole to the Equator and from the Aleutian Islands (in the west) to the islands of Newfoundland (in the east). As such, the entirety of the Caribbean Sea, all of Central America, all of Hawaii, plus parts of Greenland and South America will be covered. This will allow one singular, unified vertical datum to be accessible to every country in the region, alleviating the need for island-by-island vertical datums as is currently the case. A major component of the geoid modeling effort is NGS's GRAV-D project (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum). That project has a two-fold approach: First, to collect a static, accurate "snapshot" of the entire gravity field. This is primarily being done through airborne gravity collection over the USA and its territories, as well as through improvements in and additions to terrestrial data holdings. A second, long-term effort of GRAV D is to monitor the geoid over time. This talk will discuss the prospects of improving the static gravity field holdings outside of the USA and its territories, including a discussion on existing holdings, data gaps and NGS's desire for potential collaborations with interested countries in the region both before and after the 2022 datum change.

  9. Fine-scale distribution modeling of avian malaria vectors in north-central Kansas.

    PubMed

    Ganser, Claudia; Gregory, Andrew J; McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla A; Sandercock, Brett K; Wisely, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases increasingly play a role in the decline of wildlife populations. Vector-borne diseases, in particular, have been implicated in mass mortality events and localized population declines are threatening some species with extinction. Transmission patterns for vector-borne diseases are influenced by the spatial distribution of vectors and are therefore not uniform across the landscape. Avian malaria is a globally distributed vector-borne disease that has been shown to affect endemic bird populations of North America. We evaluated shared habitat use between avian malaria vectors, mosquitoes in the genus Culex and a native grassland bird, the Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), by (1) modeling the distribution of Culex spp. occurrence across the Smoky Hills of north-central Kansas using detection data and habitat variables, (2) assessing the occurrence of these vectors at nests of female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and (3) evaluating if shared habitat use between vectors and hosts is correlated with malarial infection status of the Greater Prairie-Chicken. Our results indicate that Culex occurrence increased at nest locations compared to other available but unoccupied grassland habitats; however the shared habitat use between vectors and hosts did not result in an increased prevalence of malarial parasites in Greater Prairie-Chickens that occupied habitats with high vector occurrence. We developed a predictive map to illustrate the associations between Culex occurrence and infection status with malarial parasites in an obligate grassland bird that may be used to guide management decisions to limit the spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:27232133

  10. Natural groundwater recharge in an upland area of central North Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehm, B.W.; Moran, S.R.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The magnitude of groundwater recharge to coal aquifers in a 150-km2 area in west-central North Dakota was determined using three separate approaches: (1) the net water level rise in water-table wells; (2) calculations of the fluid flux between nested piezometers, using the Darcy equation and measured values of hydraulic conductivity and vertical gradients; and (3) evaluation of the inputs to and outputs from the coal aquifer, using a steady-state control volume approach in which the aquifer was divided into semi-rectangular cells bounded by equipotential lines and flow lines. Measurements of potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity permitted indirect determination of all components of flow into and out of the cell except the recharge input, which was determined by difference. All methods yielded consistent results on the order of 0.04-0.01 m yr.-1 These values, which represent 2-9% of the annual precipitation, are consistent with results of other studies on recharge throughout the prairies of North America. Evaluation of site hydrology and stable-isotope data indicates that recharge is restricted in both time and place. Most recharge occurs in late spring and in the fall following heavy rainfall events. During these seasons the ground is not frozen and vegetation is not transpiring large amounts of water. Some recharge may occur during very heavy localized summer storms, but it is not considered volumetrically significant. Major permanent depressions on the site are a source of significant recharge. In addition, the extensive area of ephemeral standing water bodies that result from snowmelt can produce significant amounts of infiltration over the entire site. ?? 1982.

  11. Benthic fluxes and pore water studies from sediments of the central equatorial north Pacific: Nutrient diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Berelson, W.M.; Hammond, D.E.; Xu, X. ); O'Neill, D. Dames and Moore, Los Angeles, CA ); Chin, C. Moss Landing Marine Lab., CA ); Zukin, J. Dames and Moore, Goleta, CA )

    1990-11-01

    Benthic exchange rates of radon-222, oxygen, nitrate, ammonia, and silica were determined using an in situ benthic flux chamber and by modeling pore water profiles at three sites in the central equatorial north Pacific. A comparison of these results reveals several artifacts of pore water collection and processing. Whole-core squeezer (WCS) silica profiles are influenced by adsorption during squeezing and yield calculated fluxes that are too large. Pore water ammonia profiles show near-surface maxima that appear to be an artifact of core recovery. Near-surface nitrate measurements may also be suspect due to oxidation of the ammonia released, causing anomalously large nitrate gradients that yield over-estimates of benthic exchange rates. Fluxes of radon, oxygen, and nitrate calculated from WCS profiles agree with chamber fluxes to better than 40% at all sites. Fluxes of silica and nitrate calculated from pore water data collected at coarser scales (> 1 cm intervals) agree within 50% with chamber measurements. previous flux estimates from pore water and solid phase models established at two of these sites using data collected 6 years prior to this work differ from these chamber measurements, in some cases by up to a factor of 5 due to modeling uncertainties and temporal variabilities in the delivery of organic matter to a site. The benthic oxygen consumption rates measured at these sites are similar (they average 0.36 {plus minus} 0.03 mmol m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}) and are consistent with a trend of oxygen uptake vs. water depth previously established by others on a transect through the oligotrophic north Pacific gyre.

  12. Perchlorate in pleistocene and holocene groundwater in North-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Böhlke, J.K.; Doughten, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater from remote parts of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in north-central New Mexico has perchlorate (ClO4-) concentrations of 0.12-1.8 ??g/L Because the water samples are mostly preanthropogenic in age (0-28 000 years) and there are no industrial sources in the study area, a natural source of the ClO4- is likely. Most of the samples have Br-, Cl-, and SO42- concentrations that are similar to those of modern bulk atmospheric deposition with evapotranspiration (ET) factors of about 7-40. Most of the ET values for Pleistocene recharge were nearly twice that for Holocene recharge. The NO3-/Cl- and ClO4-/Cl- ratios are more variable than those of Br -/Cl- or SO42-/Cl-. Samples thought to have recharged under the most arid conditions in the Holocene have relatively high NO3-/Cl- ratios and low ??15N values (+1 per mil (???)) similar to those of modern bulk atmospheric N deposition. The ??18O values of the NO 3- (-4 to 0 ???) indicate that atmospheric N0 3- was not transmitted directly to the groundwater but may have been cycled in the soils before infiltrating. Samples with nearly atmospheric NO3-/Cl- ratios have relatively high ClO4- concentrations (1.0-1.8 ??g/L) with a nearly constant ClO4-/Cl- mole ratio of (1.4 ?? 0.1) ?? 10-4, which would be consistent with an average ClO 4- concentration of 0.093 ?? 0.005 ??g/L in bulk atmospheric deposition during the late Holocene in north-central NM. Samples thought to have recharged underwetter conditions have higher ??15N values (+3 to +8 ???), lower N03-/Cl- ratios, and lower ClO4-/Cl- ratios than the ones most likely to preserve an atmospheric signal. Processes in the soils that may have depleted atmospherically derived NO3- also may have depleted ClO4- to varying degrees prior to recharge. If these interpretations are correct, then ClO4- concentrations of atmospheric origin as high as 4 ??g/L are possible in preanthropogenic groundwater in parts of the Southwest where ET approaches a factor of 40. Higher ClO4

  13. Micropaleontologic record of Quaternary paleoenvironments in the Central Albemarle Embayment, North Carolina, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culver, Stephen J.; Farrell, Kathleen M.; Mallinson, David J.; Willard, Debra A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Riggs, Stanley R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Wehmiller, John F.; Parham, Peter; Snyder, Scott W.; Hillier, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    To understand the temporal and spatial variation of eustatic sea-level fluctuations, glacio-hydro-isostacy, tectonics, subsidence, geologic environments and sedimentation patterns for the Quaternary of a passive continental margin, a nearly complete stratigraphic record that is fully integrated with a three dimensional chronostratigraphic framework, and paleoenvironmental information are necessary. The Albemarle Embayment, a Cenozoic regional depositional basin in eastern North Carolina located on the southeast Atlantic coast of the USA, is an ideal setting to unravel these dynamic, interrelated processes.Micropaleontological data, coupled with sedimentologic, chronostratigraphic and seismic data provide the bases for detailed interpretations of paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimates in the 90. m thick Quaternary record of the Albemarle Embayment. The data presented here come from a transect of cores drilled through a barrier island complex in the central Albemarle Embayment. This area sits in a ramp-like setting between late Pleistocene incised valleys.The data document the episodic infilling of the Albemarle Embayment throughout the Quaternary as a series of transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles, characterized by inner shelf, midshelf, and shoreface assemblages, that overlie remnants of fluvial to estuarine valley-fill. Barrier island and marginal marine deposits have a low preservation potential. Inner to mid-shelf deposits of the early Pleistocene are overlain by similar middle Pleistocene shelf sediments in the south of the study area but entirely by inner shelf deposits in the north. Late Pleistocene marine sediments are of inner shelf origin and Holocene deposits are marginal marine in nature. Pleistocene marine sediments are incised, particularly in the northern half of the embayment by lowstand paleovalleys, partly filled by fluvial/floodplain deposits and in some cases, overlain by remnants of transgressive estuarine sediments. The shallowing

  14. Perchlorate in pleistocene and holocene groundwater in north-central New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Plummer, L Niel; Böhlke, John Karl; Doughten, Michael W

    2006-03-15

    Groundwater from remote parts of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in north-central New Mexico has perchlorate (ClO4-) concentrations of 0.12-1.8 micro/L. Because the water samples are mostly preanthropogenic in age (0-28000 years) and there are no industrial sources in the study area, a natural source of the ClO4- is likely. Most of the samples have Br-, Cl-, and SO4(2-) concentrations that are similar to those of modern bulk atmospheric deposition with evapotranspiration (ET) factors of about 7-40. Most of the ET values for Pleistocene recharge were nearly twice that for Holocene recharge. The N03-/Cl- and CIO-/Cl-ratios are more variable than those of Br-/Cl- or S04(2-)/Cl-. Samples thought to have recharged under the most arid conditions in the Holocene have relatively high N03-/Cl- ratios and low delta 15N values (+1 per mil (% per thousand)) similar to those of modern bulk atmospheric N deposition. The delta 18O values of the N03- (-4 to 0% per thousand) indicate that atmospheric N03- was not transmitted directly to the groundwater but may have been cycled in the soils before infiltrating. Samples with nearly atmospheric N03-/CI- ratios have relatively high Cl04- concentrations (1.0-1.8 ug/L) with a nearly constant Cl04-/CI- mole ratio of (1.4 +/- 0.1) x 10(-4), which would be consistent with an average Cl04-concentration of 0.093 0.005 ,ug/L in bulk atmospheric deposition during the late Holocene in north-central NM. Samples thought to have recharged under wetter conditions have higher delta 15N values (+3 to +8 % per thousando), lower NO3-/Cl- ratios, and lower ClO4-/Cl- ratios than the ones most likely to preserve an atmospheric signal. Processes in the soils that may have depleted atmospherically derived NO3-also may have depleted ClO4- to varying degrees prior to recharge. If these interpretations are correct, then ClO4- concentrations of atmospheric origin as high as 4 microg/L are possible in preanthropogenic groundwater in parts of the Southwest where ET

  15. Perchlorate in pleistocene and holocene groundwater in north-central New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Plummer, L Niel; Böhlke, John Karl; Doughten, Michael W

    2006-03-15

    Groundwater from remote parts of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in north-central New Mexico has perchlorate (ClO4-) concentrations of 0.12-1.8 micro/L. Because the water samples are mostly preanthropogenic in age (0-28000 years) and there are no industrial sources in the study area, a natural source of the ClO4- is likely. Most of the samples have Br-, Cl-, and SO4(2-) concentrations that are similar to those of modern bulk atmospheric deposition with evapotranspiration (ET) factors of about 7-40. Most of the ET values for Pleistocene recharge were nearly twice that for Holocene recharge. The N03-/Cl- and CIO-/Cl-ratios are more variable than those of Br-/Cl- or S04(2-)/Cl-. Samples thought to have recharged under the most arid conditions in the Holocene have relatively high N03-/Cl- ratios and low delta 15N values (+1 per mil (% per thousand)) similar to those of modern bulk atmospheric N deposition. The delta 18O values of the N03- (-4 to 0% per thousand) indicate that atmospheric N03- was not transmitted directly to the groundwater but may have been cycled in the soils before infiltrating. Samples with nearly atmospheric N03-/CI- ratios have relatively high Cl04- concentrations (1.0-1.8 ug/L) with a nearly constant Cl04-/CI- mole ratio of (1.4 +/- 0.1) x 10(-4), which would be consistent with an average Cl04-concentration of 0.093 0.005 ,ug/L in bulk atmospheric deposition during the late Holocene in north-central NM. Samples thought to have recharged under wetter conditions have higher delta 15N values (+3 to +8 % per thousando), lower NO3-/Cl- ratios, and lower ClO4-/Cl- ratios than the ones most likely to preserve an atmospheric signal. Processes in the soils that may have depleted atmospherically derived NO3-also may have depleted ClO4- to varying degrees prior to recharge. If these interpretations are correct, then ClO4- concentrations of atmospheric origin as high as 4 microg/L are possible in preanthropogenic groundwater in parts of the Southwest where ET

  16. Vitrinite reflectance data for Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 square miles in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected from Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin to better characterize the thermal maturity and petroleum potential of these rocks. Ninety-eight samples from Lower Cretaceous and lowermost Upper Cretaceous strata were collected from well cuttings from wells stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Core Research Center in Lakewood, Colorado.

  17. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  18. Seismological Investigations of Crustal and Mantle Structure and Dynamics beneath North-central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, A. A.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.; Reed, C. A.; Yu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Here we report results of mantle azimuthal anisotropy from shear-wave splitting (SWS) analysis, crustal structure obtained using H-k stacking, and mantle transition zone discontinuity depths beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions using recently available broadband seismic data obtained from stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from several other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. Receiver function H-k stacking reveals crustal thicknesses ranging from 25 to 36 km, and Vp/Vs measurements ranging from 1.73 to 1.93, suggesting a spatially heterogeneous crustal structure and composition. The apparent depths of the seismic discontinuities (d410 and d660) bordering the mantle transition zone (MTZ) increase beneath Cenozoic volcanoes in central Libya, suggesting lower-than-normal upper mantle velocities. One of the most significant features in the resulting MTZ thickness map is a region in eastern Libya which has a MTZ thickness of about 270 km, indicating a colder than normal MTZ probably associated with subducted slabs.

  19. Priorities for ecological research on energy crops in the north central states

    SciTech Connect

    Ugoretz, S.M.; Rineer, K.C.; Downing, M.

    1995-07-26

    Following the principles set by the National Biofuels Roundtable, a workshop was held in March 1995 which brought together a group of stakeholders and experts in the field of biomass energy and ecology. The mission of the workshop was to identify and set priorities for ecological research to ensure that large-scale biomass energy development in the North Central states occurs in an ecologically sound, sustainable manner. The workshop found that questions about the landscape-scale deployment of biomass plantations were most pressing. The workshop recommended that adaptive resource management principles be applied in a phased development of increasingly larger plantations. Each phase of development would help to answer questions about landscape-scale development; improving the design of subsequent phases. Principles of sustainable agriculture should also be applied to biomass plantations to minimize impact on soils and water quality, maintain productivity and benefit the rural economy. Results of the workshop will be helpful to natural resource and research agencies, as well as utilities and biomass energy developers.

  20. Pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals in selected north-central and northwestern Arkansas streams.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Brian E; Galloway, Joel M; Green, W Reed; Meyer, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    Recently, our attention has focused on the low level detection of many antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals in water resources. The limited studies available suggest that urban or rural streams receiving wastewater effluent are more susceptible to contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals at 18 sites on seven selected streams in Arkansas, USA, during March, April, and August 2004. Water samples were collected upstream and downstream from the influence of effluent discharges in northwestern Arkansas and at one site on a relatively undeveloped stream in north-central Arkansas. At least one antibiotic, pharmaceutical, or other organic chemical was detected at all sites, except at Spavinaw Creek near Mayesville, Arkansas. The greatest number of detections was observed at Mud Creek downstream from an effluent discharge, including 31 pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals. The detection of these chemicals occurred in higher frequency at sites downstream from effluent discharges compared to those sites upstream from effluent discharges; total chemical concentration was also greater downstream. Wastewater effluent discharge increased the concentrations of detergent metabolites, fire retardants, fragrances and flavors, and steroids in these streams. Antibiotics and associated degradation products were only found at two streams downstream from effluent discharges. Overall, 42 of the 108 chemicals targeted in this study were found in water samples from at least one site, and the most frequently detected organic chemicals included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene (AHTN). PMID:16738393

  1. Survival of wood duck and mallard broods in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, I.J.; Gilmer, D.S.; Cowardin, L.M.; Riechmann, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Duckling survival in wood duck (Aix sponsa) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) broods was estimated from data obtained from 71 radio-marked brood hens on a study area in north-central Minnesota. Radio-marked hens produced 30 broods during the study, and 41 hens already leading broods were captured and radio-marked. Production estimates based on brood size counts were inflated by about 38 percent for wood ducks and 30 percent for mallards if total-brood losses were not taken into account. Mortality during the first 2 weeks of life was most severe, accounting for 86 percent of total recorded mortality in wood ducks and 70 percent in mallards. Rearing success was about 41 percent for wood ducks and 44 percent for mallards. Duckling survival was negatively correlated with distance of overland travel by young broods. Wood ducks had a shorter hen-brood bond than mallards and presence of the hen appeared to affect duckling survival less in wood duck broods than in mallards.

  2. Morphology and sexual dimorphism of the many-lined skink in north central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hathcock, Charles D.; Wright, Marjorie Alys; Gonzales, Gilbert J.; Sias, Donald S.

    2015-09-04

    In 2001 and 2002, a study of many-lined skinks (Plestiodon multivirgatus) was conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory biologists in north-central New Mexico to determine means and ranges for several morphological characters and to test for sexual dimorphism. Over both years, there were 539 new captures of many-lined skinks, which included 131 hatchlings. The earliest hatchling capture was on 19 June and the latest capture was on 31 August. Hatchling captures peaked on 1 August in 2001 and 6 August in 2002. The age class, sex, snout–vent length (SVL), tail length (TL), mass, head length (HL), and head width (HW) were recorded and individuals were released at the point of capture. Our results indicate that the SVL, mass, HL, and HW did not exhibit sexual dimorphism. The sex ratio was skewed toward females in this study. It is not known whether the many-lined skink has sexual determination based on environmental factors, but the data here suggest that more research is needed. From these observations, we supplement the limited existing knowledge on the morphology of this species.

  3. Morphology and sexual dimorphism of the many-lined skink in north central New Mexico

    DOE PAGES

    Hathcock, Charles D.; Wright, Marjorie Alys; Gonzales, Gilbert J.; Sias, Donald S.

    2015-09-04

    In 2001 and 2002, a study of many-lined skinks (Plestiodon multivirgatus) was conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory biologists in north-central New Mexico to determine means and ranges for several morphological characters and to test for sexual dimorphism. Over both years, there were 539 new captures of many-lined skinks, which included 131 hatchlings. The earliest hatchling capture was on 19 June and the latest capture was on 31 August. Hatchling captures peaked on 1 August in 2001 and 6 August in 2002. The age class, sex, snout–vent length (SVL), tail length (TL), mass, head length (HL), and head width (HW)more » were recorded and individuals were released at the point of capture. Our results indicate that the SVL, mass, HL, and HW did not exhibit sexual dimorphism. The sex ratio was skewed toward females in this study. It is not known whether the many-lined skink has sexual determination based on environmental factors, but the data here suggest that more research is needed. From these observations, we supplement the limited existing knowledge on the morphology of this species.« less

  4. Geology of the Flat Swamp Mountain caldera and related rocks, Carolina slate belt, central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Flat Swamp Member (FSM) of the Cid Formation (Late Proterozoic) and related volcanogenic deposits in the Carolina slate belt of central North Carolina constitute a submarine caldera complex, mildly deformed and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. The intracaldera facies, including mudflow breccias, ashfall tuffs, pyroclastic flows and lava flows, are 1.2 to 1.8 km thick in the Denton area. The FSM thins abruptly near Badin, passing laterally into extracaldera facies less than 150 m thick of coarse- to fine-grained crystal-rich ashfall tuffs with an upper unit of extremely fine-grained devitrified vitric tuffs. The thickness and average grainsize decrease to the south and east, until the FSM merges with adjacent mudstones. The Morrow Mountain Rhyolite includes bodies of homogeneous rhyolite as much as several km across emplaced within the FSM and stratigraphically lower units, interpreted to be shallow intrusions and some surface-breaking lava domes, emplaced at depths from 0 to 3 km within the caldera and along the ring-fractures. The FSM has been mapped over an area of about 2,400 km[sup 2], and it forms a time-constant layer useful in elucidating slate belt stratigraphy.

  5. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.

    PubMed

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

    2013-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

  6. Decrease in water clarity of the southern and central North Sea during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Elisa; Stephens, David; Silva, Tiago; Barry, Jon; Forster, Rodney M

    2015-06-01

    Light in the marine environment is a key environmental variable coupling physics to marine biogeochemistry and ecology. Weak light penetration reduces light available for photosynthesis, changing energy fluxes through the marine food web. Based on published and unpublished data, this study shows that the central and southern North Sea has become significantly less clear over the second half of the 20th century. In particular, in the different regions and seasons investigated, the average Secchi depth pre-1950 decreased between 25% and 75% compared to the average Secchi depth post-1950. Consequently, in summer pre-1950, most (74%) of the sea floor in the permanently mixed area off East Anglia was within the photic zone. For the last 25+ years, changes in water clarity were more likely driven by an increase in the concentration of suspended sediments, rather than phytoplankton. We suggest that a combination of causes have contributed to this increase in suspended sediments such as changes in sea-bed communities and in weather patterns, decreased sink of sediments in estuaries, and increased coastal erosion. A predicted future increase in storminess (Beniston et al., 2007; Kovats et al., 2014) could enhance the concentration of suspended sediments in the water column and consequently lead to a further decrease in clarity, with potential impacts on phytoplankton production, CO2 fluxes, and fishery production.

  7. Vertical distribution of rocky subtidal assemblages along the exposed coast of north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, Wolfgang B.; Aburto, Jaime; Caillaux, Luis M.; González, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic study of a stretch of coast in north central Chile, the variety and vertical zonation patterns of the rocky subtidal communities are described, thereby revising apparent uniformity and lack of vertical zonation of the rocky subtidal of southeastern Pacific shores previously reported in the literature. Over the 600 km of coast studied, the following pattern of depth-zonation is described: an upper fringe (lower part of the sublittoral fringe) characterized by barren grounds dominated by calcareous encrusting algae and the sea urchin Tetrapygus niger; an intermediate fringe (upper Infralittoral sub-zone) characterized either by deep barren grounds similar to the former, or kelp beds of Lessonia trabeculata, or an assemblage of suspension feeding organisms, as the big barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus and/or the tunicate Pyura chilensis; and a deep fringe (Circalittoral sub-zone) dominated by small encrusting or mobile invertebrates. This basic vertical zonation pattern of the shallow rocky subtidal communities seems to be common to most of the temperate coasts of the world. The analysis, first of the occurrence of the general zonation pattern and second of the species composition within the assemblages corresponding to each sub-zone, offers a useful framework for the assessment of the eventual impacts and changes within the shallow rocky subtidal habitat, for example within environmental monitoring programs.

  8. Air quality in the 21st century: community outreach in North Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, H Troy; Sattler, Melanie L

    2003-06-01

    Public education campaigns, to be successful, must repeat simple, consistent messages over time, using various sources and media. During the 2000, 2001, and 2002 ozone seasons, the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG) employed a four-pronged, multimedia approach to educate the public about air quality in the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) region. The four-pronged approach included several varied information sources:The new Air Pollution Watch/Warning system based on public health and designed using standard meteorological terminology with notices delivered via e-mail, over the radio, during TV weather forecasts, and on electronic road signs.A revamped Web page, including information about current air quality, ozone exceedances, clean air public meetings, and how to "Do Your Share for Cleaner Air".A PowerPoint presentation used to explain the basics of ozone air pollution, the new Air Pollution Watch/Warning system, and the new Dallas/Fort Worth Clean Air Plan to a variety of constituencies, including the media, scientific/technical/academic groups, elected officials, and community/civic organizations. Newsletter updates, published in the Environmental Resources Department's InsidER (with a circulation of around 1500), to educate and keep the public up-to-date about various air quality issues. This paper provides details about the four-pronged approach, and how it incorporates principles of successful public education campaigns. PMID:12676223

  9. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in north-central Box Elder County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.C.; Kolesar, P.T.

    1984-12-01

    The low-temperature geothermal resources of north-central Box Elder County, Utah were assessed. Exploration techniques used included chemical analyses of water from wells and springs, temperature surveys, and temperature-depth measurements in unused wells within the study area. The highest water temperatures (31/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, and 29/sup 0/C) recorded in this research were located in three separate geographic regions, suggesting that no single warm water occurrence dominates the study area. Total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations ranged from 294 to 11,590 mg/l. Areas of warm water occurrences generally had TDS values of greater than 1100 mg/l. Reservoir temperatures were estimated using chemical geothermometers. Calculated temperatures ranged between 50/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C. Temperature-depth measurements were logged in 16 unused wells. Thermal gradients calculated from the profiles ranged from isothermal to 267/sup 0/C/km. The background gradient for the study area appears to be slightly above the average Basin and Range gradient of 35/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradients were calculated for the area approximately eight kilometers west of Snowville, Utah, which is also an area of warm water. 61 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals in selected north-central and northwestern Arkansas streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, B.E.; Galloway, J.M.; Green, W.R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, our attention has focused on the low level detection of many antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals in water resources. The limited studies available suggest that urban or rural streams receiving wastewater effluent are more susceptible to contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, and other organic chemicals at 18 sites on seven selected streams in Arkansas, USA, during March, April, and August 2004. Water samples were collected upstream and downstream from the influence of effluent discharges in northwestern Arkansas and at one site on a relatively undeveloped stream in north-central Arkansas. At least one antibiotic, pharmaceutical, or other organic chemical was detected at all sites, except at Spavinaw Creek near Mayesville, Arkansas. The greatest number of detections was observed at Mud Creek downstream from an effluent discharge, including 31 pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals. The detection of these chemicals occurred in higher frequency at sites downstream from effluent discharges compared to those sites upstream from effluent discharges; total chemical concentration was also greater downstream. Wastewater effluent discharge increased the concentrations of detergent metabolites, fire retardants, fragrances and flavors, and steroids in these streams. Antibiotics and associated degradation products were only found at two streams downstream from effluent discharges. Overall, 42 of the 108 chemicals targeted in this study were found in water samples from at least one site, and the most frequently detected organic chemicals included caffeine, phenol, para-cresol, and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydro naphthalene (AHTN). ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  11. Thermocline mixing and vertical oxygen fluxes in the stratified central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Lorenzo; Dengler, Marcus; Schmidt, Mark; Sommer, Stefan; Linke, Peter; McGinnis, Daniel F.

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, the central North Sea has been experiencing a general trend of decreasing dissolved oxygen (O2) levels during summer. To understand potential causes driving lower O2, we investigated a 3-day period of summertime turbulence and O2 dynamics in the thermocline and bottom boundary layer (BBL). The study focuses on coupling biogeochemical with physical transport processes to identify key drivers of the O2 and organic carbon turnover within the BBL. Combining our flux observations with an analytical process-oriented approach, we resolve drivers that ultimately contribute to determining the BBL O2 levels. We report substantial turbulent O2 fluxes from the thermocline into the otherwise isolated bottom water attributed to the presence of a baroclinic near-inertial wave. This contribution to the local bottom water O2 and carbon budgets has been largely overlooked and is shown to play a role in promoting high carbon turnover in the bottom water while simultaneously maintaining high O2 concentrations. This process may become suppressed with warming climate and stronger stratification, conditions which could promote migrating algal species that potentially shift the O2 production zone higher up within the thermocline.

  12. Association of sea turtles with petroleum platforms in the north-central Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lohoefener, R.; Hoggard, W.; Mullin, K.; Roden, C.; Rogers, C.

    1990-06-01

    There are over 4,500 petroleum platforms in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Explosives are commonly used to remove platforms and have the potential to kill nearby sea turtles. From June 1988-June 1990, the authors used aerial surveys to study turtle density and the spatial relationship between turtles and platforms offshore of Louisiana. They sighted 316 turtles most of which (92%) were loggerheads. Seventy-eight percent were sighted just east of the Mississippi River offshore of the Chandeleur Islands. East of the river, turtle densities ranged from 0.92 (winter) to 4.83 turtles/100 sq km (spring). West of the river, annual densities ranged from 0.11-0.50 turtles/100 sq km. East of the river, three statistical tests indicated that turtles were generally closer to platforms than expected by chance alone. West of the river, turtles were randomly located with respect to platform locations. Before explosives are used, current mitigation measures require that no turtle can be sighted within 1,000 m of the platform. East of the river, the probability of a turtle being within 1,000 m of any platform selected at random was about 60%; west of the river, 2-7%. West of the river to about 92 W, the mitigation measures should protect turtles but offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, special precautions should be taken.

  13. Selenium and mercury in pelagic fish in the central north pacific near Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, J John; Ralston, Nicholas V C

    2007-12-01

    Protective effects of selenium against mercury toxicity have been demonstrated in all animal models evaluated. As interactions between selenium and mercury and their molar ratios in seafood are essential factors in evaluating risks associated with dietary mercury exposure, considering mercury content alone is inadequate. In this study, the absolute and molar concentrations of mercury and selenium were determined in edible portions from 420 individual fish representing 15 species of pelagic fish collected from the central North Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. Selenium was in molar excess of mercury in almost all fish species evaluated. The rank order of mean Se/Hg molar ratios was striped marlin (17.6) > yellowfin tuna (14.1) > mahimahi (13.1) > skipjack tuna (12.8) > spearfish (11.4) > wahoo (10.8) > sickle pomfret (6.7) > albacore tuna (5.3) > bigeye tuna (5.2) > blue marlin (4.1) > escolar (2.4) > opah (2.3) > thresher shark (1.5) > swordfish (1.2) > mako shark (0.5). With a Se/Hg molar ratio of less than 1, mako shark was the only fish containing a net molar excess of mercury. A selenium health benefit value based on the absolute amounts and relative proportions of selenium and mercury in seafood is proposed as a more comprehensive seafood safety criterion. PMID:17916947

  14. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre.

    PubMed

    Gassel, Margy; Harwani, Suhash; Park, June-Soo; Jahn, Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Despite scientific and public concern, research on food web contamination from chemicals in plastic is limited, and distinguishing plastic sources from prey remains a challenge. We analyzed juvenile yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) from the North Pacific Central Gyre for plastic ingestion and tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and nonionic surfactants to investigate potential contamination from plastic exposure. Ingestion of synthetic debris occurred in ~10% of the sample population. PCBs and DDTs were 352±240 (mean±SD) and 1425±1118 ng/g lw, respectively. PBDEs were 9.08±10.6 ng/g lw, with BDEs-47, 99, and 209 representing 90% of PBDEs. Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in one-third of the yellowtail with a mean of 52.8±88.5 ng/g ww overall and 167±72.3 ng/g ww excluding non-detects. Because environmental NP is strongly associated with wastewater treatment effluents, long-range transport is unlikely, and NP was previously measured in gyre plastic, we concluded that plastic-mediated exposure best explained our findings of NP in yellowtail. PMID:23746941

  15. Deleterious Emission Abatement through Structured Energy Use Pattern: A North Central Nigeria Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi-Banji, Ademola; Omotosho, Olayinka; Amori, Anthony; Alao, Damilola; Igbode, Imoisime; Abimbola, Olufemi

    2016-05-01

    Holistic view of household energy consumption based on greenhouse gas emissions in the North Central cities of Nigeria was examined in this study. Scenarios considered were based on income level of energy users (low and high) and energy metering system (i.e. pre-paid and post-paid energy billing systems). Strong direct nexus was observed between energy use and emissions pattern. Energy utilization by post-paid category had higher weekly average value of 35.09 and 41.70 kWh as against 23.18 and 33.38 kWh for low and high income pre-paid consumers respectively. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from both classification followed similar trend. Data obtained and analysed in the study show that global warming and acidification potentials could be reduced by 33.94 and 19.95 % for low and high income category consumers when pre-paid meters are in place. Conclusively, energy system users with pre-paid metering system displayed reasonable level of management decisions that reduce energy wastage and consequently environmental negative impacts.

  16. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  17. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    In southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada, thermal groundwater occurs under artesian conditions in igneous or sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age. Temperatures of the groundwater range from 30 degrees to more than 80 degrees Celsius. Thermal waters are a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type; nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate. Chemical geothermometers indicate maximum reservoir temperatures near 100 degrees Celsius. Stable-isotope data indicate recharge to the system occurred when climate averaged 3 degrees to 5 degrees Celsius colder than at present; such conditions existed during Holocene glacial advances 3,000 and more than 8,000 years ago. Residence time calculated on the basis of reservoir volume and thermal-water discharge is 3,400 to 6,800 years. Considering estimates of heat flux in and heat discharged by conduction and convection, about 25.0 cubic feet per second, or about 18,000 acre-feet per year, of 50 degrees Celsius water is required to transport excess heat from the system advectively in groundwater. The conceptual model is one where water has circulated thousands, even tens of thousands, of years. Within model constraints, reservoir thermal energy for this geothermal system is 130x10 to the 18th power calories. (USGS)

  18. Predicting residential air exchange rates from questionnaires and meteorology: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Breen, Miyuki; Williams, Ronald W; Schultz, Bradley D

    2010-12-15

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure models is the estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) of individual homes, where people spend most of their time. The AER, which is the airflow into and out of a building, is a primary mechanism for entry of outdoor air pollutants and removal of indoor source emissions. The mechanistic Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) AER model was linked to a leakage area model to predict AER from questionnaires and meteorology. The LBL model was also extended to include natural ventilation (LBLX). Using literature-reported parameter values, AER predictions from LBL and LBLX models were compared to data from 642 daily AER measurements across 31 detached homes in central North Carolina, with corresponding questionnaires and meteorological observations. Data was collected on seven consecutive days during each of four consecutive seasons. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 43% (0.17 h(-1)) and 40% (0.17 h(-1)) for the LBL and LBLX models, respectively. Additionally, a literature-reported empirical scale factor (SF) AER model was evaluated, which showed a median absolute difference of 50% (0.25 h(-1)). The capability of the LBL, LBLX, and SF models could help reduce the AER uncertainty in air pollution exposure models used to develop exposure metrics for health studies.

  19. Depositional styles from Miocene through Pleistocene in the North Central Gulf of Mexico: An historical reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.L. Jr.; Burgess, G.

    1995-10-01

    During the past two years, Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, has classified the reservoir sands from the approximately 1,100 fields across the entire Northern Gulf of Mexico into groups of genetically related plays defined by production, chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, and structure. This study was undertaken in part for the 1995 National Gas and Oil Assessment. Each field was assigned a structural code, and each producible sand was classified by depositional environment. Correlation of the composite type logs with biostratigraphic and seismic data established twelve chronozones from lower Miocene to upper Pleistocene. Sands within each chronozone were classified as transgressive, aggradational, progradational, or deep-sea fan facies. Proved reserves plays, hydrocarbon extents, as well as facies sand limits were mapped for each chronozone. Dramatic changes in depositional styles from the Miocene through the Pliocene are observed in the north-central Gulf of Mexico as the ancestral Mississippi River delta moved both basinward and eastward across offshore Louisiana. The depocenter moved back to the west and significantly basinward during the Pleistocene. Depositional patterns were strongly influenced by localized salt structure and major growth faulting. Salt ridges on the paleo-slope had a damming effect on deposition. When the ridges were breached, the focused sediment supply created areas of slope fan deposits. The results of this study are useful hydrocarbon exploration and development tools.

  20. Erosion surfaces and Neogene landscape evolution in the NE Duero Basin (north-central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2007-08-01

    We present a chronological model of erosion surface development in the Iberian and Cantabrian Ranges of north-central Spain. We map four erosion surfaces and interpret these to be related to Duero basin continental sediments and tectonic activity from Upper Oligocene to Plio-Pleistocene. The oldest erosion surface, SE1, formed across Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene synorogenic deposits; while surface SE2 was contemporaneous with the Middle Miocene alluvial systems, ending with an uplift stage in the Astaracian. The two most recent erosion surfaces, SE3 and SE4, developed during extensional tectonic episodes and are associated with the deposition of Upper Páramo sedimentary units at the end of the Miocene (Upper Turolian) and alluvial fan deposits, known as rañas (Plio-Pleistocene). With the exception of SE1, which seems to be associated with a relatively wet climate, the surfaces formed during periods of marked aridity and generally warm temperatures. Through geostatistical reconstruction of the best preserved surface (SE2), applying ordinary kriging method to the topography (DEM) of the erosion surface and its correlating sedimentary plains, we identify the deformation processes which occurred on this surface after its formation.

  1. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  2. Morphological Spectrum of Orbitoocular Diseases in a Tertiary Health Centre in Keffi, North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwubuya, Ifeyinwa Mary; Owoyele, Tunde Mark; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Ezike, Kevin Nwabueze

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective clinicopathological analysis of the ocular lesions requiring biopsy seen in the Department of Histopathology, Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Keffi, in North Central Nigeria. Materials and Method. A retrospective review of the clinicopathologic profile of orbitoocular lesions diagnosed at the FMC, Keffi, was done. Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients' clinical records and original biopsy reports, respectively. Results. Sixty-six cases of orbitoocular lesions were reviewed for this study. Of the 54 cases investigated, 28 were HIV negative while 26 were HIV positive (37.1% of all cases). There were 30 cases of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN) with a male-to-female ratio of 0.9 : 1. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequent OSSN with 17 cases. The mean age of cases of SCC is 37.1 ± 7.6 SD (years). The mean age of carcinoma in situ is 35.8 ± 11.4 years. Conclusion. There was no significant difference in the sex distribution of patients with OSSN. It is probable that a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma may be encountered in about a year after diagnosis of a carcinoma in situ especially if the in situ carcinoma is left untreated or improperly treated. PMID:26576453

  3. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  4. Thrust belt geometry in the central Carolina slate belt North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Huntsman, J.R.; Dockal, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Newly recognized eastward-directed thrust faults and associated folds and cleavage constitute a major structural element in the central Carolina slate belt near Albemarle, North Carolina. At least two northwest-trending imbricate thrusts occur in a 10 km wide zone that trends 30 km along a northeast strike. Reconnaissance mapping suggests the presence of faults with similar style towards the west of this zone. Rocks directly involved in the thrust include the deep water rhythmites of the Tillery Formation that act as surface of detachment, and, also, a mafic rock that previously was mapped as a gabbro sill. Other field evidence documenting the thrusts includes: drag folds with a pronounced axial planar cleavage that parallels the faults; ramp areas with characteristic rootless folds; dragging of an earlier cleavage into fault surfaces; shear zones and kink bands with the same sense of movement as the thrusts. Axial planar cleavage results in part from pressure solution. The intensity of cleavage and the relative overall strain of the rocks increases from west to east across the thrust zone and suggests that thrusting progressed by successive propogation of footwall faults. Systematic and regular changes in the ratio of Bouma sequence intervals ((A+B+C+D)/E) show a marked discontinuity at the faults and suggest relative horizontal displacements of up to 14 km. Reconnaissance work suggests that the thrust may pre-date but are not younger than the regional low grade metamorphism.

  5. Life history of the striped newt at a north-central Florida breeding pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    I studied the life history of Striped Newts (Notophthalmus perstriatus) at a breeding pond in north-central Florida. Newts were captured in pitfall traps at a drift-fence as they migrated into and out of the pond basin. During the 2-year study, I recorded 10,290 captures (8,127 individuals) of newts at the drift-fence. Newts were active during each month of the study, but there were four peak activity periods, each of which included immigration and emigration events. Immigration events were almost exclusively comprised of adults, whereas emigration events were comprised of adults and recently transformed larvae. I documented 5,296 recently transformed, immature larvae (efts) and 435 recently transformed mature larvae (paedomorphs) during four distinct periods of emigration. Efts matured in the uplands before returning to the pond to breed. In the uplands, male efts (n = 16) grew 0.0183 mm/day on average, whereas average female (n = 24) growth was 0.0167 mm/day. Immigrating adults of both sexes were significantly smaller than emigrating adults. Emigrating efts were smallest, followed by emigrating paedomorphs, immigrating adults, then emigrating adults. The overall adult sex ratio was 1:1.25 (m:f). Sex ratio of emigrating paedomorphs was highly skewed towards females, with one male for every 4.43 females. Newts tended to move during wetter periods, and captures were significantly correlated with rainfall, but rainfall was a poor predictor of the magnitude of newt movements.

  6. Evaluation of groundwater quality in a rural community in North Central of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojobi, Adebayo Olatunbosun

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of water quality of nine boreholes and three open hand-dug wells in a rural community in North Central Nigeria revealed relative abundance of cations Na > k > Ca > Mg > Zn > Pb and anions Cl(-) > PO4(2-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) in the boreholes and cations Ca > Na > K > Mg > Pb and anions NO3(-)  > PO4(2-)  > SO4(2-) > Cl(-) in the wells. The major contaminants exceeding SON and WHO permissible limits were NO3(-) , Mg, TH, pH and Mg, Pb, TH, pH and DO in the wells and boreholes, respectively. They are attributable to anthropogenic sources such as domestic waste water and poor waste disposal and natural sources such as mineral dissolution from clayey aquifer which made the acidic groundwater unsuitable for consumption unless they are appropriately treated. Correlation studies revealed existence of three major mineral groups in the aquifer Ca-Fe group, Na-Mg group, Zn-K group, as well as a minor group Pb-group, and they determine the chemical composition of the groundwater and the ionic exchange between the groundwater and mineral-bearing clayey aquifer. In order to curb microbial contamination by Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli, it is recommended that proper latrines and drainages be provided while domesticated animals should be restricted from boreholes and well. Further, treatment with water guard and pur purifier is recommended.

  7. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath north central Africa from shear wave splitting analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, Awad A.; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.; Reed, Cory A.; Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Yu, Youqiang; Elmelade, Abdala A.

    2015-04-01

    This study represents the first multistation investigation of azimuthal anisotropy beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions, using shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis. Data used in the study include recently available broadband seismic data obtained from 15 stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from five other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. This conclusion is enhanced by nonperiodic azimuthal variation of the splitting parameters observed at one of the stations located near the boundary of areas with different anisotropic properties. We interpret the observed anisotropy to be the consequence of northward movement of the African plate relative to the asthenosphere toward the Hellenic and Calabrian subduction zones. Local variance in fast orientations may be attributable to flow deflection by the northern edge of the African continental root. The observations provide critical and previously lacking constraints on mantle dynamic models in the vicinity of the convergent boundary between the African and Eurasian plates.

  8. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath north central Africa from shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, Awad Abdussalam Henish

    This study represents the first multi-station investigation of azimuthal anisotropy beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions, using shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis. Data used in the study include recently available broadband seismic data obtained from 15 stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from five other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. This conclusion is enhanced by non-periodic azimuthal variation of the splitting parameters observed at one of the stations located near the boundary of areas with different anisotropic properties. This research interprets the observed anisotropy to be the consequence of northward movement of the African plate relative to the asthenosphere toward the Hellenic and Calabrian subduction zones. Local variance in fast orientations may be attributable to flow deflection by the northern edge of the African continental root. The observations provide critical and previously lacking constraints on mantle dynamic models in the vicinity of the convergent boundary between the African and Eurasian plates.

  9. Effect of aerial insecticide spraying on West Nile virus disease--north-central Texas, 2012.

    PubMed

    Ruktanonchai, Duke J; Stonecipher, Shelley; Lindsey, Nicole; McAllister, Janet; Pillai, Satish K; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Delorey, Mark; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Sidwa, Tom; Zoretic, James; Nasci, Roger; Fischer, Marc; Hills, Susan L

    2014-08-01

    During 2012, four north-central Texas counties experienced high West Nile virus (WNV) disease incidence. Aerial insecticide spraying was conducted in two counties. To evaluate the effect of spraying on WNV disease, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in treated and untreated areas by comparing incidence before and after spraying; for unsprayed areas, before and after periods were defined by using dates from a corresponding sprayed area. In treated areas, WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence before and after spraying was 7.31/100,000 persons and 0.28/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 26.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.42-56.20). In untreated areas, the before and after incidence was 4.80/100,000 persons and 0.45/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 10.57 (95% CI: 6.11-18.28). The ratio of IRRs was 2.50 (95% CI: 0.98-6.35). Disease incidence decreased in both areas, but the relative change was greater in aerial-sprayed areas.

  10. Geologic landform analysis in the central Piedmont of Virginia and North Carolina, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery in the central Piedmont of Va. and N.C. reveals some geologic structures in the Precambrian and Paleozoic metamorphic terrain as well as structure in the younger Triassic deposits. A major synform five miles wide and more than 20 miles long has been identified in the metamorphic rocks north of Danville, Va. Structures in the metavolcanic Carolina slate belt are also identifiable near the confluence of the Dan and Staunton Rivers. Cleared land and other cultural features tend to coincide with topographic reflection of geologic units, thus enhancing the ERTS-1 resolution of some geologic structures. In other cases pseudostructures may be identified when regular geometric configurations of culture bear little or no relation to underlying geologic units. Interpreting geologic structure in the nearly flat and deeply weather Piedmont is a severe test of ERTS-1 imagery resolution. Doubling the resolution and providing stereoscopic overlap would increase the geologic usefulness of these photographs many fold.

  11. Facies comparison of autochthonous and allochthonous Permian and Triassic units, north-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.E.

    1985-04-01

    Eight stratigraphic sections of Permian and Triassic rocks have been studied over a 30 km by 150 km area in the Endicott and Philip Smith Mountains of the central Brooks Range. Six of the sections are located on the Endicott Mountains allochthon, and the remaining two are parautochthonous columns in the Mount Doonerak area. The sections record a facies transition between the autochthonous Sadlerochit Group and Shublik Formation of the northeastern Brooks Range and the characteristically siliceous rocks of the allochthonous Siksikpuk and Otuk formations of the western Brooks Range. Laterally continuous and bioturbated beds of fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, and shale dominantly compose the Permian sequence, whereas the Triassic rocks consist of black shales, thin rhythmically bedded siliceous mudstones, and fossiliferous limestones. When the allochthonous sections are restored to a position south of the Mount Doonerak area, a general shallowing trend from southwest to northwest becomes evident within the reconstructed marine basin. To the south and west, the Permian sediments show a marked increase in silica content, with the occurrence of barite and a corresponding decrease in the thickness of the basal, coarser grained clastics. The Triassic formations also document an increase in silica and the presence of barite to the south and west, while becoming significantly sooty and phosphatic to the north and east. Ongoing petrographic and micropaleontologic studies of the field data will clarify these general paleogeographic relationships.

  12. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Yuska, D E; Skelly, J M; Ferdinand, J A; Stevenson, R E; Savage, J E; Mulik, J D; Hines, A

    2003-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture. PMID:12804829

  13. Isostatic Gravity Map of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangle, North Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, D.A.; Morin, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Gravity investigations of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 minute quadrangle were begun as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management to help characterize the geology, mineral resources, hydrology, and ecology of the Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada. The Battle Mountain quadrangle is located between 40?30' and 41?N. lat. and 116? and 117?W. long. This isostatic gravity map of the Battle Mountain quadrangle was prepared from data from about 1,180 gravity stations. Most of these data are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997) and in a published report (Jewel and others, 1997). Data from about 780 gravity stations were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1996; data from about 245 of these are unpublished (USGS, unpub. data, 1998). Data collected from the 400 gravity stations prior to 1996 are a subset of a gravity data compilation of the Winnemucca 1:250,000-scale quadrangle described in great detail by Wagini (1985) and Sikora (1991). This detailed information includes gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and a list of principal facts. A digital version of the entire data set for the Battle Mountain quadrangle is available on the World Wide Web at: http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/gump/gump.html

  14. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from 12 wells and 9 springs indicate that nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate type; thermal waters are a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Chemical geothermometers indicate probable maximum reservoir temperatures are near 100/sup 0/ Celsius. Concentration of tritium in the thermal water is near zero. Depletion of stable isotopes in the hot waters relative to present-day meteoric waters indicates recharge to the system probably occurred when the climate averaged 3/sup 0/ to 5/sup 0/ Celsius colder than at present. Temperatures about 3.5/sup 0/ Celsius colder than at present occurred during periods of recorded Holocene glacial advances and indicate a residence time of water in the system of at least several thousand years. Residence time calculated on the basis of reservoir volume and thermal-water discharge is 3400 to 6800 years for an effective reservoir porosity of 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. Preliminary analyses of carbon-14 determinations indicate an age of the hot waters of about 18,000 to 25,000 years. The proposed conceptual model for the area is one of an old system, where water has circulated for thousands, even tens of thousands, of years. Within constraints imposed by the model described, reservoir thermal energy for the geothermal system in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada is about 130 x 10/sup 18/ calories.

  15. Evaluation of groundwater quality in a rural community in North Central of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojobi, Adebayo Olatunbosun

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of water quality of nine boreholes and three open hand-dug wells in a rural community in North Central Nigeria revealed relative abundance of cations Na > k > Ca > Mg > Zn > Pb and anions Cl(-) > PO4(2-) > SO4(2-) > NO3(-) in the boreholes and cations Ca > Na > K > Mg > Pb and anions NO3(-)  > PO4(2-)  > SO4(2-) > Cl(-) in the wells. The major contaminants exceeding SON and WHO permissible limits were NO3(-) , Mg, TH, pH and Mg, Pb, TH, pH and DO in the wells and boreholes, respectively. They are attributable to anthropogenic sources such as domestic waste water and poor waste disposal and natural sources such as mineral dissolution from clayey aquifer which made the acidic groundwater unsuitable for consumption unless they are appropriately treated. Correlation studies revealed existence of three major mineral groups in the aquifer Ca-Fe group, Na-Mg group, Zn-K group, as well as a minor group Pb-group, and they determine the chemical composition of the groundwater and the ionic exchange between the groundwater and mineral-bearing clayey aquifer. In order to curb microbial contamination by Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli, it is recommended that proper latrines and drainages be provided while domesticated animals should be restricted from boreholes and well. Further, treatment with water guard and pur purifier is recommended. PMID:26915740

  16. Floods of August 21-24, 2007, in Northwestern and North-Central Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, David E.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Astifan, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy rains in northwestern and north-central Ohio on August 19-22, 2007, caused severe flooding and widespread damages to residential, public, and commercial structures in the communities of Bluffton, Bucyrus, Carey, Columbus Grove, Crestline, Findlay, Mansfield, Ottawa, and Shelby. On August 27, 2007, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued a notice of a Presidential declaration of a major disaster affecting Allen, Crawford, Hancock, Hardin, Putnam, Richland, Seneca, and Wyandot Counties as a result of the severe flooding. Rainfall totals for most of the flooded area were 3 to 5 in., with some locations reporting as much as 8 to 10 in. Three National Weather Service (NWS) gages in the area indicated a rainfall recurrence interval of greater than 1,000 years, and two indicated a recurrence interval between 500 and 1,000 years. Total damages are estimated at approximately $290 million, with 8,205 residences registering for financial assistance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) computed flood recurrence intervals for peak streamflows at 22 streamgages and 8 ungaged sites in and around the area of major flooding. The peak streamflows at Sandusky River near Bucyrus streamgage and at seven of the eight ungaged sites had estimated recurrence intervals of greater than 500 years. The USGS located and surveyed 421 high-water marks and plotted high-water profiles for approximately 44.5 miles of streams throughout the nine communities.

  17. Enhanced Sidescan-Sonar Imagery, North-Central Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Schattgen, P.T.; Doran, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection have been working cooperatively to map the sea-floor geology within Long Island Sound. Sidescan-sonar imagery collected during three NOAA hydrographic surveys (H11043, H11044, and H11045) was used to interpret the surficial-sediment distribution and sedimentary environments within the Sound. The original sidescan-sonar imagery generated by NOAA was used to evaluate hazards to navigation, which does not require consistent tonal matching throughout the survey. In order to fully utilize these data for geologic interpretation, artifacts within the imagery, primarily due to sidescan-system settings (for example, gain changes), processing techniques (for example, lack of across-track normalization) and environmental noise (for example, sea state), need to be minimized. Sidescan-sonar imagery from surveys H11043, H11044, and H11045 in north-central Long Island Sound was enhanced by matching the grayscale tones between adjacent sidescan-sonar lines to decrease the patchwork effect caused by numerous artifacts and to provide a more coherent sidescan-sonar image for use in geologic interpretation.

  18. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isinkaye, Omoniyi Matthew; Jibiri, Nnamdi N.; Olomide, Adebowale A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions. PMID:26150688

  19. Evidence and effects of wrench faulting, north central Gulf Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.K.

    1995-10-01

    North central Gulf Coast Middle Mesozoic zones of crustal weakness caused by tranform faulting associated with plate separation and rifting, became ideal areas for subsequent tectonic adjustments. Several lines of evidence - manifested in wrench faulting - point toward the existence of such adjustments occurring in the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata of this area. Eight lines of evidence suggest that there are at least four zones of faulting in the region which have been affected by lateral (and vertical) movements and associated extension fracturing. Isopach maps, en echelon fault/fold patterns, location of time-specific igneous activity, offset basement features, anomalous saltwater incursions into freshwater aquifers, offset surface geomorphic features, surface lineaments, and regional hydrocarbon migration patterns all suggest dominant lateral motion along the affected zones in the subsurface and/or surface. Two main results of the region`s wrench faulting are evident in (1) the development of vertical pathways or conduits facilitating hydrocarbon migration from deep, thermally mature source rocks to shallower reservoirs located in non-mature source rock zones; and (2) the development of extension fractures that enhance reservoir porosity. Both results have created the potential for increasing hydrocarbon source volumes available for migration and reservoiring.

  20. Impact of climate variability on runoff in the north-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Lin, Wei; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    Large changes in runoff in the north-central United States have occurred during the past century, with larger floods and increases in runoff tending to occur from the 1970s to the present. The attribution of these changes is a subject of much interest. Long-term precipitation, temperature, and streamflow records were used to compare changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) to changes in runoff within 25 stream basins. The basins studied were organized into four groups, each one representing basins similar in topography, climate, and historic patterns of runoff. Precipitation, PET, and runoff data were adjusted for near-decadal scale variability to examine longer-term changes. A nonlinear water-balance analysis shows that changes in precipitation and PET explain the majority of multidecadal spatial/temporal variability of runoff and flood magnitudes, with precipitation being the dominant driver. Historical changes in climate and runoff in the region appear to be more consistent with complex transient shifts in seasonal climatic conditions than with gradual climate change. A portion of the unexplained variability likely stems from land-use change.

  1. Environmental gradients and identification of wetlands in north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, M.M.; Sprecher, S.W.; Wakeley, J.S.; Best, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation composition, soil morphology, and hydrology were characterized along wetland-to-upland gradients at six forested sites in north-central Florida to compare results of Federal wetland delineation methods with 3–5 yr of hydrologic data. Wetland and non-wetland identifications were supported by hydrology data in eight of nine plant communities. Lack of hydric soil indicators and hydrophytic vegetation in two upland communities (scrub and mixed mesic hardwoods) agreed with a deep water table. Six wetland communities (cypress dome, cypress strand, bayhead, cypress/bayhead, red maple/oak swamp, and cedar swamp) with field indicators of wetland hydrology, hydrophytic vegetation, and hydric soils were inundated or had water tables at or near the ground surface at least 5% of the growing season in most years., Flatwoods communities, however, occurred at intermediate positions on the moisture gradient and could not be consistently identified as wetland or upland communities. Identification of flatwoods as wetlands depended on wetland delineation method and was not usually supported by hydrologic measurements. In the flatwoods community, soil properties and vegetation composition were correlated with the mean and standard deviation of water-table depths, as well as the depth continuously exceeded by the water table at least 5% of the growing season in most years. Various hydrologic parameters need to be considered in addition to the 5% exceedence level currently used in Federal wetland delineation guidance when characterizing wetland conditions in low-gradient areas such as flatwoods.

  2. Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava flow in North-Central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain [Official name of feature (U.S. Geological Survey, 1970)] and SP flow (and vicinity) in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization, then compared with surface and aerial photography, LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is significantly brighter on direct-polarization K-band (0.9-cm wavelength) images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. Conversely, for the longer wavelength (25 cm) L-band radar images, the cross-polarization image returns from SP flow are brighter than the direct-polarized image. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are found to be clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data. The inability of the K- and X- (3-cm wavelength) band radars to portray the differences in roughness between the two SP flow surface units is attributed to the radar frequency dependence of the surface-relief scale, which, described as the Rayleigh criterion, represents the transition between quasispecular and primarily diffuse backscatter. ?? 1980.

  3. Isostatic geoid anomalies over mid-plate swells in the Central North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo

    1999-08-01

    The relation of geoid height data from Geosat/ERM altimeter measurements to seafloor topography from recent shipborne data is investigated for eight igneous provinces located in the Central North Atlantic. The long wavelength undulations of the geoid, reflecting deep-seated density anomalies, were removed by subtracting a low degree and order spherical harmonic representation of the geoid. After converting residual geoid heights and topography to anomalies related to the thermal plate model, both maps were low-pass filtered to isolate the signal associated with local compensation from surface loading. Finally, the ratio of geoid height to topography was determined by fitting a straight line to the data. Cape Verde, Bermuda, Canary and Madeira swells exhibit high geoid/topography ratios, which signify reheating of the lower lithosphere. These features were classified as thermal swells. Geoid/topography ratios occurring over the New England, Corner, Azores and Great Meteor seamount chains can be explained by Airy compensation model of crustal thickening. This requires non-hotspot processes to be active within the Azores and Great Meteor seamounts.

  4. Aerosol optical depth over central north Asia based on MODIS-Aqua data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgousta Foutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). The central Asia region (mainly the Caspian and Aral sea basins), the arid and semi-arid regions of Western China as well as Siberia are of great interest due to the significant natural sources of mineral aerosols originating from local deserts and biomass burning from wildfires in boreal forests. What is of particular interest in the region is the phenomenal shrinking and desertification of the Aral Sea that drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions with important implications in regional air quality. Anthropogenic particles are also observed due to fossil-fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD at 550 nm over central Asia, Siberia and western China, in the region located between 35° N - 65° N and 45° E - 110° E. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest collection (006), available in a 1°×1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002-2014. Our results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AODs are observed over the Aral Sea year-round, with extreme values reaching 2.1 during July. In the rest of our study region a clear seasonal cycle with highest AOD values (up to 1.2 over the Taklamakan Desert) during spring and summer is observed. The arid parts of central north Asia are characterized by larger aerosol loads during spring, lower but still high AOD in summer and much lower values in autumn and spring

  5. Evolution of physical and biological characteristics of mesoscale eddy in north-central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Eddies appear to be important to both the physical and biogeochemical dynamics of the Red Sea. Numerical simulations of physical dynamics and remote sensing studies of chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height in the Red Sea indicate their importance to the upper portions of the sea (Raitsos et al., 2013; Yao et al., 2014; Zhan et al., 2014). Despite their apparent importance, process studies of these eddies have been lacking. In March 2013 we began an extended observational study of the north-central Red Sea (NCRS) where anticyclonic eddies have been observed. The study began with a ship-based characterization of the eddy and was followed by a three-month observational time series using an autonomous glider equipped with a CTD, oxygen sensor, and optical sensors for chlorophyll, CDOM and optical backscatter. The ship-based study captured an initial snapshot of an anticyclonic eddy and it's associated biological and bio-optical distributions. Initially, chlorophyll distributions tended to mirror the density distribution, with deeper isopycnals and chlorophyll maximum depth in the anticyclonic eddy center. The anticyclone eddy in March had an along basin diameter of 150 km, penetrated vertically less than 150 m and elevated near surface chlorophyll concentrations appeared along its outer boundary. The shallowing of the pycnocline of the outer boundaries of the anticyclone eddy on March may elevate nutrients into the lower euphotic zone, contributing to phytoplankton productivity and biomass within the eddy. This eddy contains most of the kinetic energy of the region with the maximum velocities up to 30 - 35 cm/s. The eddy appeared to interact with the coastal reefs where exchange particulate and dissolved matter may occur. The autonomous glider provided the spring-to-summer progression of the system with increasing stratification, shallowing of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, and fluctuations in the position and intensity of the eddy. Our glider effort

  6. A Rare Early Pliocene Record of Paleoclimate from North-central Indiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunk, A. J.; Driese, S. G.; Farlow, J. O.; Fluegeman, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Early Pliocene is a critical period in Earth history, representing warm Earth conditions immediately prior to the development of extensive northern hemisphere glaciation. It thus may provide the best available analog for predicting the climate changes associated with continued global warming. Unfortunately, there are few interior continental records for the early Pliocene from the eastern half of North America and subsequently very little is known about the conditions characterizing climate of this region. The Early Pliocene (4-5 Ma) Pipe Creek Sinkhole (PCS) includes the sediment fill of a complex karst environment that developed in north-central IN (Lat 40° 27' 16", Long 85° 47' 31"). The PCS contains a well-preserved record of sedimentation that includes lacustrine strata with an abundant and diverse fauna and flora that collectively provides a valuable record of paleoclimate from the late Tertiary. Previous research indicates that the floral types are broadly consistent with late Tertiary habitat reconstructions of the US Great Plains. Micromorphologic and stratigraphic analysis of PCS sediments indicate that there are at least three distinct facies present. The underlying red facies is an oxidized silty-clay package that is not fossiliferous. An immature paleosol with root traces represents the pedogenic modification of the red facies and indicates a change in the environment of deposition. The highly fossiliferous lacustrine facies includes abundant quartz sand grains that are not present in the red facies. Geochemical analysis of PCS pond sediment total organic carbon (TOC) derived from vascular land plants sources (based on samples with C/N ratios >20) have δ13 C (PDB) isotope values ranging from -15‰ to - 26.2‰ and a mean value of -22.4‰. The red facies averages 0.1% TOC and has δ13 C values averaging -20.0‰, whereas the paleosol δ13 C values average -24.2‰. These values suggest the presence of a mixture of C3 and C4 plants in the

  7. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  8. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  9. HSPF Modeling of a Forested Headwater in North-Central Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, J.; Nieber, J. L.; Sebestyen, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) model is a conceptual based model, in contrast to the alternative grid-based hydrologic models. In its application, the HSPF model has been applied almost exclusively to watersheds scales larger than HUC 14. We applied the HSPF model to a small forested watershed located at the Marcell experimental forest in north-central Minnesota. The watershed has an area of 9.7 hectares and is one of six experimental watersheds managed by the U.S. Forest Service. These experimental watersheds have been in operation since 1955. While some of the experimental watersheds have experienced environmental disturbance (e.g., clear-cutting), the S2 watershed has been in continuous forested condition for the last century. The S2 watershed is composed of forested upland hillslopes that connect to a raised bog area. The forest is aspen (Populus sp.) and birch (Betula papyrifera) on uplands and spruce (Picea mariana) on a 3.2 ha central bog. The upland soils are composed of a shallow sandy loam overlying clay loam which impedes vertical water movement. Water input to the peatland is either from direct precipitation or from the upland hillslopes. Water flux from the bog is either through ET, groundwater seepage losses, or surface discharge to a stream network. Streamflow is measured at a v-notch weir. Within the watershed two upland hillslopes have been isolated to monitor surface runoff and subsurface flow since the 1980's. The HSPF model was applied to the watershed using precipitation and other meteorological data collected within the watershed or nearby on the Experimental Forest. The model representation of the watershed included one element for the upland hillslope area, and one element for the bog area. Daily flows from water years 1991 to 1995 were used to calibrate the model. An equal period of time was used to validate the model from 1996 to 2000. Nash-Sutcliffe values were very good for both calibration and validation. Calibration

  10. Multiple source components in gas manifestations from north-central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minissale, A.; Evans, William C.; Magro, G.; Vaselli, O.

    1997-01-01

    Gas manifestations in north-central Italy consist of CO2-rich gases with minor N2-rich emissions and discharge either along with thermal springs or into cold and stagnant waters. 'Cold' gases are prevalently CO2-dominated (> 90%) while gases related to the thermal waters have variable composition: from CO2 > 99.5% to N2 > 90%. The variable composition of 'thermal' gases is caused by differences in the thermal regime and lithology of the ascent paths, where there is mixing of gases from multiple sources, such as N2-rich atmospheric and deep CO2-rich metamorphic end-members. Elevated concentrations of CH4 and H2 in these gases are generally related to the presence of active geothermal systems at shallow depth, such as the Larderello-Travale field in Tuscany. The ??13C values between coexisting CH4 and CO2 in all samples analyzed suggest that CH4 originates abiogenically in 200-400??C hydrothermal systems. Far from geothermal areas, where the thermal gradient is lower or the water/gas ratio is high because of large inflow of meteoric waters, H2 and CH4 are usually lower. In some cases, they can be scrubbed or oxidized (especially H2), while the residual rising gas becomes indirectly enriched in N2 and CO2. Carbon dioxide is also enriched in some discharged gases because it is produced at shallow depth in lower temperature conditions (< 150??C). Heavy ??15N values for N2 to near +7.0??? suggest that, for some gas samples that contain excess nitrogen (e.g. where N2/Ar ??? 83), this component probably derives from ammonia-rich feldspars and micas within the Palaeozoic schist basement rocks. However, other samples show evidence of a shallow component of CH4 and N2 from Neogene basin sediments. The areal distribution of the 3He/4He ratio points to a general prevalence of atmospheric and crustal 4He in the gas discharges in central Italy. A significant component of mantle 3He is only found in the geothermal areas of Larderello where the large regional thermal anomaly

  11. Premigrational movements and behavior of young mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.; Cowardin, L.M.; Tester, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Movements and behavior of 89 young mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 48 young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were monitored on a 932-km2 study area in north-central Minnesota in late summer and fall, 1972-74, with telemetry, visual observation, and aerial surveys. Initial flights of both species were confined to the natal (brood) marsh; first flights away from the natal marsh occurred in the third week after fledging in both species. First flights of young mallards and wood ducks away from their natal marshes were not significantly different between the sexes (mallard, mean = 4.95 km for females and 5.83 km for males; wood ducks, mean = 2.31 km for females and 2.64 km for males). However, flights away from the brood marshes by wood ducks were significantly shorter than for mallards.As young mallards and wood ducks grew, their daytime use of the natal marshes decreased in an irregular pattern as both species began daily flights between day- and night-use areas. Locally reared mallards made longer daily flights between use areas than did wood ducks, but wood ducks changed use areas with greater frequency before 1 October. Despite often extensive movements, most locally reared mallards and wood ducks remained in the vicinity of their brood marshes throughout fall until migration.Movement of young birds to new habitat was not the result of random searching and thus fortuitous discovery of nearby areas. Instead, birds seemed to learn of new habitat and develop movement patterns by associating with other birds; locally reared young always moved in the company of flocks of conspecifics that included adults and older immatures.Differences in movement patterns between the sexes of young birds and between young and adult birds cause them to be differentially distributed by age and sex on and near the breeding grounds. These differences are ultimately reflected in the distribution of the hunter harvest. We have interpreted generalizations about such phenomena, developed from

  12. Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Salt tectonics have extensively been studied in most parts of the Central North Sea. However, few studies have been done in the Norwegian side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In this contribution, we report a new regional analysis of the salt patterns across the offshore Norwegian-Danish Basin. We have mapped the regional distribution of salt structures in the Norwegian-Danish Basin using both old and recent 2D seismic reflection profiles tied to wells. The salt-thickness map shows three distinct salt structures patterns: (1) NW-SE trending salt walls in the northern part of the basin; the spacing between the walls vary between 7 to 12 km; (2) a dense and irregular distribution of salt diapirs in the southern part of the studied area; (3) an irregular pattern of sparse but big salt diapirs in the eastern part of the basin. This domain is characterized by numerous turtle structures associated with salt diapirs. Reflection seismic cross-sections show that most salt structures only pierce the Triassic sedimentary strata whereas only few salt structures reach the seabed. Rotated fault blocks indicate a gliding vergence towards the South in the eastern part of the basin and towards the SE in the western side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. No mature or compressive salt structures, except some squeezed salt diapirs, are observed in the topographic lows of the basin. The initiation of salt tectonics started during the early Middle Triassic in the entire basin; salt tectonics reactivations were recorded during the Middle Jurassic, Paleogene, and prior to the Quaternary but are not homogeneous across the basin. Salt movements inferred from our study are in good agreement with previous studies. The trend of salt walls (domain 1) indicates a NE-SW extension which is not compatible with N-S trending pre-salt faults. Instead, the strong Triassic subsidence towards the SW has most likely controlled the formation of the salt walls. The salt was initially thicker in domain 2 that

  13. Soil respiration in four different land use systems in north central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, Carmela B. M.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Chang, Scott X.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Sidders, Derek

    2010-03-01

    This study compares soil respiration and its heterotrophic and autotrophic components in four land use types: agriculture, 2 and 9 year old hybrid poplar plantations, grassland, and a native aspen stand in north central Alberta, Canada, over a period of two growing seasons (2006 and 2007). The differences were examined with respect to substrate quality and quantity, fine root biomass, and nutrient availability, in addition to soil temperature and soil water content. Cumulative soil C loss via soil respiration averaged over the two growing seasons was (in decreasing order) 781, 551, 523, 502, and 428 g C m-2 for native aspen stand, 9 year old hybrid poplar plantation, grassland, agriculture and 2 year old hybrid poplar plantation, respectively. We found that ˜75% of soil respiration in the native aspen stand originated from the top 7.5-10 cm litter-fibric-humus layer. Seasonal heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration among the land uses ranged from 97 to 272 and 333 to 560 g C m-2, respectively, contributing up to 35% and 83% of total soil respiration, respectively. The variability in soil respiration across different land uses was explained mainly by site differences in soil temperature (88-94%). Soil respiration followed a pronounced seasonal trend: increasing during the growing season and converging to a minimum in the fall. Soil respiration under different land uses was influenced by (1) ecosystem C stock, (2) temperature sensitivity (Q10) of organic matter present, and (3) organic matter decomposability as indicated by the natural abundance of δ13C. Heterotrophic respiration was influenced by soil temperature, while autotrophic respiration was influenced by fine root biomass and nutrient (NO3- and P) availability. These results are useful in estimating potential responses of soil respiration and its components to future land management and climate change.

  14. Hydrologic influence on methane and carbon dioxide dynamics at two north-central Minnesota lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Michmerhuizen, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Annual emissions of (CH4 + CO2) to the atmosphere were proportional to net hydrologic inputs of C, mostly by groundwater, at two lakes in the Shingobee River watershed in north-central Minnesota. Williams Lake (WL), a closed basin lake near the top of the watershed, had a hydraulic residence time of 2-4 yr and groundwater exchange of about +2 mol dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and -0.1 mol dissolved organic carbon (DOC) m-2 lake area yr-1. The Shingobee River flows through Shingobee Lake (SL) that had a hydraulic residence of 0.3-0.4 yr and received net groundwater plus surface-water inputs of +5.3 to +7.3 mol DIC and fewer than +1.3 mol (DOC + particulate organic carbon) m-2 yr-1. Approximately 60-80% of net annual C input to SL was from groundwater. Lake storage of CH4 and CO2 was greatest in late winter, with maximum emissions to the atmosphere immediately following ice melt. The lakes emitted CH4 continuously during open water, having annual losses of -1.6 mol CH4 m-2 yr-1 at WL and -1.9 mol CH4 m-2 yr-1 at SL. Although the WL epilimnion was CO2 depleted throughout summer, net annual CO2 exchange with the atmosphere was near zero because springtime emission offset summertime uptake. CO2 supersaturation resulted in emission of -8.0 mol CO2 m-2 yr-1 at SL.

  15. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  16. Comparative evolution of Pennsylvanian platform margins in Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaves, A.W.; Puckette, J.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Pennsylvanian evolution of the Midland basin's eastern shelf and the northern shelves of the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrates a strongly contrasting pattern with regard to the facies composition and stability of the shelf margin. For the Midland basin a carbonate ramp system developed adjacent to the Eastern shelf during the early Desmoinesian but received no coarse-grained clastic sediment until after the central Fort Worth basin was completely filled by Ouachita orogenic debris in the late Desmoinesian. At that time, a distinct north-south hingeline formed between the shelf and incipient Midland basin that allowed for subsequent vertical accretion of a Missourian-age double bank system. Due to the absence of active deltaic depocenters across the southern two-thirds of the shelf, the Missourian shelf margin did not prograde basinward nor did a submarine fan system develop adjacent to this reciprocal bank complex. Later, during the Virgilian, a single shelf-edge bank and submarine fan complex prograded the shelf edge westward. The shelf edges for the Anadarko and Arkoma basins demonstrate a significantly different pattern. Only during the late Desmoinesian (Marmaton Group) did a shelf-edge bank develop in association with shelf-slope reciprocal sedimentation. For the Anadarko basin, widespread submarine fans, fed from a northeasterly cratonic source, are first seen with Red Fork deposition. Post-Tonkawa cyclic sedimentation prograded the shelf edge southward and gave rise to a more carbonate-dominated shelf sequence. In virtually all instances the regressive submarine fan units indicate eustatic lowstands of sea level.

  17. Assessing the toxicity and teratogenicity of pond water in north-central Minnesota to amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, Christine M.; Little, Edward; Gardiner, David; Petty, James; Huckins, James

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundIncidence of amphibian deformities have increased in recent years, especially in the northern region of the United States. While many factors have been proposed as being responsible for generating deformities (e.g., contaminants, ultraviolet radiation [UV], parasites), no single cause has been definitively established.MethodsTo determine whether waterborne chemicals are responsible for amphibian deformities in ponds in north-central Minnesota, we deployed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in an imparted and a reference site to accumulate lipophilic contaminants. We then exposed native tadpoles (northern leopard frogs;Rana pipiens) to the SPMD extracts combined with two agricultural pesticides (atrazine, carbaryl) at two levels of UV radiation.Results and DiscussionUV radiation alone caused a slight increase in hatching success and tadpole growth rate. Deformity rate among hatchlings was high following exposure to SPMD extracts from the reference site in the absence of UV, suggesting that chemicals present at this site are broken down by UV to less harmful forms, or become less bioavailable. Conversely, impacted site SPMD extracts caused hatchling deformities only in the presence of UV, suggesting that UV potentiates the teratogenicity of the compounds present there. Impacted site SPMD extracts significantly increased the number of bony triangles among metamorphs, a common deformity observed at this site. The incidence of skin webbings increased significantly with SPMD extracts from both sites as well as with our pesticide control containing atrazine and carbaryl alone.ConclusionsHigher deformity rates among tadpoles reared in the presence of UV radiation and SPMD extracts from sites where deformities are common indicates a chemical compound (or compounds) in the water at this site may be causing the deformities.Recommendations and OutlookIt is important to examine the effects of chemical stressors in the presence of other natural stressors (e.g., UV

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosols over the central Himalayas along two south-north transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pengfei; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Zhang, Qianggong

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to the Himalayas remains limited. Concentrations of PAHs were therefore measured in total suspended particles (TSP) from six sites along two south-north transects across the central Himalayas. Spatially, the annual average TSP and PAH (especially 5- and 6-ring) concentrations were found to decrease noticeably along both transects. The dry deposition fluxes had similar distribution pattern with the ambient PAH levels. Moreover, annual TSP and PAH concentrations exhibited a logarithmic decreasing pattern with increasing elevation especially in the non-monsoon seasons (TSP: y=-57.3lnx+552, R2=0.952; PAHs: y=-26.8lnx+229, R2=0.948). The TSP and PAH concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with the minimum concentrations around the mid-monsoon season and the maximum concentrations in winter season at Lumbini and Pokhara. While at other remote sites these pollutants were slightly higher during the non-monsoon season than those in the monsoon season. The diagnostic ratio suggested that atmospheric PAHs from the Nepal sites were mainly associated with emission of biomass, coal burning and petroleum combustion. A similar composition pattern was found between the two sides of the Himalayas, suggesting that the northern side of the Himalayas may be affected by anthropogenic emissions from the IGP due to long-range transportation as well as the unique mountain/valley breeze system which bring pollution from the IGP into Tibet across the high Himalayas.

  19. Melampsora rust species on biomass willows in central and north-eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bubner, Ben; Wunder, Sebastian; Zaspel, Irmtraut; Zander, Matthias; Gloger, Jan; Fehrenz, Steffen; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Melampsora willow rusts are the most important fungal pathogens in short rotation coppices of biomass willows. In the past, breeding programmes for rust resistant biomass willows concentrated on the distinction of races within the forma specialis Melampsora larici-epitea f. sp. larici-epitea typica that colonized Salix viminalis and related clones. In a new breeding program that is based on a wider range of willow species it is necessary to identify further Melampsora species and formae specialis that are pathogens of willow species other than S. viminalis. Therefore, three stock collections with Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, and other shrub willow species (including S. viminalis) species were sampled in north-eastern Germany. A fourth stock collection in central Germany contributed rusts of tree willows (Salix fragilis and Salix alba) and the large shrub Salix caprea. Out of 156 rust samples, 149 were successfully sequenced for ITS rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis combining Neighbour-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian analysis revealed six species: Melampsora ribesii-purpureae, Melampsora allii-salicis-albae, Melampsora sp. aff. allii-fragilis, Melampsora larici-pentandrae, Melampsora larici-caprearum, and Melampsora larici-epitea. The first four species were found exclusively on the expected hosts. Melampsora larici-caprearum had a wider host range comprising S. caprea and S. viminalis hybrids. Melampsora larici-epitea can be further differentiated into two formae speciales. The forma specialis larici-epitea typica (59 samples) colonized Salix viminalis clones, Salix purpurea, Salix×dasyclados, and Salix×aquatica. In contrast to this relatively broad host range, f. sp. larici-daphnoides (65 samples) was found exclusively on Salix daphnoides. With the distinction and identification of the rust species/formae speciales it is now possible to test for race-specific resistances in a more targeted manner within the determined pairings of rust and willow

  20. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild birds in north-central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernando S; Nava, Santiago; Batallán, Gonzalo; Tauro, Laura B; Contigiani, Marta S; Diaz, Luis A; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-10-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from wild birds in five ecoregions in north-central Argentina, namely: Selva de las Yungas, Esteros del Iberá, Delta e Islas del Paraná, Selva Paranaense and Chaco Seco. A total of 2199 birds belonging to 139 species, 106 genera, 31 families and 11 orders were captured, but ticks were collected only from 121 birds (prevalence=5.5%) belonging to 39 species (28.1%) and three Orders: Tinamiformes (Tinamidae) and Falconiformes (Falconidae) in Selva de las Yungas and Passeriformes (Conopophagidae, Corvidae, Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Icteridae, Parulidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae) for all ecoregions. The following tick species were found: Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes pararicinus plus Amblyomma sp. and Haemaphysalis sp. in Selva de las Yungas; Amblyomma triste and Ixodes auritulus in Delta e Islas del Paraná; Amblyomma dubitatum, A. triste and Amblyomma sp. in Esteros del Iberá; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sp. in Selva Paranaense, and Amblyomma tigrinum in Chaco Seco. Amblyomma dubitatum was found for the first time on Passeriformes, while the records of A. ovale on avian hosts are the first for Argentina. Birds are also new hosts for I. pararicinus females. Besides 2 larvae and 1 nymph, and 1 larvae found on Tinamidae (Tinamiformes) and Falconidae (Falconiformes), respectively, all other ticks (691 larvae, 74 nymphs and 2 females) were found on Passeriformes with a relevant contribution of the family Turdidae. Birds are important hosts for I. pararicinus as shown by a prevalence of 45% while all others prevalence were below 15%. All the species of Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis found on birds in Argentina have been also detected on humans and are proven or potential vectors for human diseases. Therefore, their avian hosts are probable reservoirs of human pathogens in Argentina.

  1. Late Triassic to middle Jurassic history of the north-central High Atlas, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Letsch, D.K.

    1988-08-01

    The Lower and Middle Jurassic (Liassic and Dogger) rocks in the north-central High Atlas and on the adjacent Oran Meseta, Morocco, were deposited on the subsiding margin of the Triassic/Jurassic High Atlas Trough. This and the Middle Atlas Trough formed as a result of rifting of the Moroccan and Oran Mesetas from the Saharan craton during initial stages of the opening of the modern Atlantic. The Tethys seaway flooded these troughs in the early Liassic, depositing several thousand meters of limestone and marlstone onto the Dogger. Four major Liassic-lower Dogger stratigraphic units were identified, termed Units 1 through 4, oldest to youngest. Unit 1 consists of intertidal and supratidal skeletal pelletal wackestones, algal boundstones, and claystones located on the Oran Meseta and shelf-margin skeletal pelletal oolitic packstones and grainstones along the High Atlas margin. Unit 2 intertongues with and overlies shelf-margin Unit 1 and consists of slope and basin-floor mudstones, wackestones, and turbidite packstones, cyclically interbedded with marlstones. Unit 2 is punctuated by slumps and debris beds near the margin of the basin. At the top of Unit 2 is a condensed zone overlain by basin-floor Unit 3 marlstones, which are cyclically interbedded with mudstones, wackestones, and turbidite packstones. Both Units 2 and 3 thicken basinward, off the ancient shelf margin. Unit 4 lies within Unit 3 and consists of a displaced block (3 /times/ 30 km) of the upper Liassic shelf margin and associated coarse-grained debris, thickest on the marginward side of the block.

  2. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation.

  3. Vegetated dune morphodynamics during recent stabilization of the Mu Us dune field, north-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Mason, Joseph A.; Lu, Huayu

    2015-01-01

    The response of dune fields to changing environmental conditions can be better understood by investigating how changing vegetation cover affects dune morphodynamics. Significant increases in vegetation and widespread dune stabilization over the years 2000-2012 are evident in high-resolution satellite imagery of the Mu Us dune field in north-central China, possibly a lagged response to changing wind strength and temperature since the 1970s. These trends provide an opportunity to study how dune morphology changes with increasing vegetation stabilization. Vegetation expansion occurs mainly by expansion of pre-existing patches in interdunes. As vegetation spreads from interdunes onto surrounding dunes, it modifies their shapes in competition with wind-driven sand movement, primarily in three ways: 1) vegetation anchoring horns of barchans transforms them to parabolic dunes; 2) vegetation colonizes stoss faces of barchan and transverse dunes, resulting in lower dune height and an elongated stoss face, with shortening of barchan horns; and 3) on transverse dunes, the lee face is fixed by plants that survive sand burial. Along each of these pathways of stabilization, dune morphology tends to change from more barchanoid to more parabolic forms, but that transformation is not always completed before full stabilization. Artificial stabilization leads to an extreme case of "frozen" barchans or transverse dunes with original shapes preserved by rapid establishment of vegetation. Observations in the Mu Us dune field emphasize the point that vegetation growth and aeolian sand transport not only respond to external factors such as climate but also interact with each other. For example, some barchans lose sand mass during vegetation fixation, and actually migrate faster as they become smaller, and vegetation growth on a barchan's lower stoss face may alter sand transport over the dune in a way that favors more rapid stabilization. Conceptual models were generalized for the

  4. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Steven A.; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    2016-01-01

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = –0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river

  5. 21st century projections of snowfall and winter severity across central-eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Lorenz, D. J.; Hoving, C.; Schummer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Statistically downscaled climate projections from nine global climate models (GCMs) are used to force a snow accumulation and ablation model (SNOW-17) across the central-eastern North American Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) to develop high-resolution projections of snowfall, snow depth, and winter severity index (WSI) by the mid- and late 21st century. Here, we use projections of a cumulative WSI (CWSI) known to influence autumn-winter waterfowl migration to demonstrate the utility of SNOW-17 results. The application of statistically downscaled climate data and a snow model leads to a better representation of lake processes in the Great Lakes Basin, topographic effects in the Appalachian Mountains, and spatial patterns of climatological snowfall, compared to the original GCMs. Annual mean snowfall is simulated to decline across the region, particularly in early winter (December-January), leading to a delay in the mean onset of the snow season. Due to a warming-induced acceleration of snowmelt, the percentage loss in snow depth exceeds that of snowfall. Across the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC and Upper Midwest and Great Lakes LCC, daily snowfall events are projected to become less common, but more intense. The greatest reductions in the number of days per year with a present snowpack are expected close to the historical position of the -5°C isotherm in DJFM, around 44°N. The CWSI is projected to decline substantially during December-January, leading to increased likelihood of delays in timing and intensity of autumn-winter waterfowl migrations.

  6. Elemental characterization of urban particulates at receptor locations in Abuja, north-central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Olawale Emmanuel; Obioh, Imoh B.; Ezeh, Godwin C.

    2013-12-01

    The rising population and increasing urban infrastructures of Abuja have led to increased pressure on the urban environment. Two decades after putting the city of Abuja to use, there is yet no information on the air quality status of the city. Hence, this study was conducted in order to assess the mass concentration and elemental characterization of airborne particulate matter in Abuja, north-central Nigeria. Sampling of PM2.5: aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm and PM10: aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm were carried out in five urban sites within the city from April, 2009 to May, 2010. "Gent" stacked filter unit sampler equipped with a double stage filters in series was employed for sample collection. Charged helium (4He+) Particle Induced X-ray Emission technique of 2500 keV particle energy and Genie 2000 software were used for spectra acquisition while elemental characterization was achieved using Gupixwin software in order to determine the concentration of eighteen elements (Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Ba, Ta and Pb). Mass concentrations range between 7-86 μg m-3 and 22-343 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Crustal elements (Si, Ca, and Fe) were found to be predominant in PM10 than in PM2.5 fraction with very high values. Positive correlation r > 0.90 and r > 0.53 to 0.90 exist between metals (V, Co, Ni, Cd, Zn and Pb). PM2.5/PM10 mass ratios were well within the range specified by WHO for developing urban scenario.

  7. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  8. Post-breeding activities of mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Kirby, R.E.; Ball, I.J.; Riechmann, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor the post-breeding activities of 129 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 118 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) on a 932-km2 area in north-central Minnesota from 1968 to 1974. Upon completion of breeding activities and before the flightless period, all mallard drakes departed the area; this exodus peaked during early June. Of the non-brood hens 8 of 23 remained on the area, whereas 26 of 51 of the hens raising broods spent the flightless period on their breeding areas. Thirty-nine percent of the mallard hens on the area in the spring were present at the beginning of their flightless period. Fifty percent of the drake wood ducks and 41 percent of the hens left the breeding area before flightlessness. Their timing was similar to that of mallards. The flightless period began in mid-June for wood duck drakes and lasted into early October for some mallard hens. All late molting mallard and wood duck hens reared broods that same year. A minimum of 35 percent of the spring mallard hens remained on the area at the beginning of hunting season (early October). About 17 percent of the wood duck males and 42 percent of the females breeding locally remained on the area until hunting began. Eleven of 51 mallards and 4 of 25 wood ducks that reared broods were killed on the study area compared with 2 of 23 for non-brood mallards and 1 of 20 for non-brood wood duck hens. Principal habitats used by post-breeding mallards were bays of large lakes and river marshes. Wood ducks tended to use similar habitat but also frequented small woodland ponds. During the flightless period both species remained mostly in areas with abundant emergent cover.

  9. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild birds in north-central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Flores, Fernando S; Nava, Santiago; Batallán, Gonzalo; Tauro, Laura B; Contigiani, Marta S; Diaz, Luis A; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-10-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected from wild birds in five ecoregions in north-central Argentina, namely: Selva de las Yungas, Esteros del Iberá, Delta e Islas del Paraná, Selva Paranaense and Chaco Seco. A total of 2199 birds belonging to 139 species, 106 genera, 31 families and 11 orders were captured, but ticks were collected only from 121 birds (prevalence=5.5%) belonging to 39 species (28.1%) and three Orders: Tinamiformes (Tinamidae) and Falconiformes (Falconidae) in Selva de las Yungas and Passeriformes (Conopophagidae, Corvidae, Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Icteridae, Parulidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae) for all ecoregions. The following tick species were found: Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes pararicinus plus Amblyomma sp. and Haemaphysalis sp. in Selva de las Yungas; Amblyomma triste and Ixodes auritulus in Delta e Islas del Paraná; Amblyomma dubitatum, A. triste and Amblyomma sp. in Esteros del Iberá; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sp. in Selva Paranaense, and Amblyomma tigrinum in Chaco Seco. Amblyomma dubitatum was found for the first time on Passeriformes, while the records of A. ovale on avian hosts are the first for Argentina. Birds are also new hosts for I. pararicinus females. Besides 2 larvae and 1 nymph, and 1 larvae found on Tinamidae (Tinamiformes) and Falconidae (Falconiformes), respectively, all other ticks (691 larvae, 74 nymphs and 2 females) were found on Passeriformes with a relevant contribution of the family Turdidae. Birds are important hosts for I. pararicinus as shown by a prevalence of 45% while all others prevalence were below 15%. All the species of Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis found on birds in Argentina have been also detected on humans and are proven or potential vectors for human diseases. Therefore, their avian hosts are probable reservoirs of human pathogens in Argentina. PMID:25108788

  10. Short Communication: Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in Antiretroviral-Naive Pregnant Women in North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sagay, Atiene S.; Chaplin, Beth; Chebu, Philippe; Musa, Jonah; Okpokwu, Jonathan; Hamel, Donald J.; Pam, Ishaya C.; Agbaji, Oche; Samuels, Jay; Meloni, Seema; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Okonkwo, Prosper; Kanki, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends periodic surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in communities in which antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been scaled-up for greater than 3 years. We conducted a survey of TDR mutations among newly detected HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV)-naive pregnant women. From May 2010 to March 2012, 38 ARV-naive pregnant women were recruited in three hospitals in Jos, Plateau state, north central Nigeria. Eligible subjects were recruited using a modified version of the binomial sequential sampling technique recommended by WHO. HIV-1 genotyping was performed and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were characterized according to the WHO 2009 surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list. HIV subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analysis. The women's median age was 25.5 years; the median CD4+ cell count was 317 cells/μl and the median viral load of 16 was 261 copies/ml. Of the 38 samples tested, 34 (89%) were successfully genotyped. The SDRM rate was <5% for all ART drug classes, with 1/34 (2.9%) for NRTIs/NNRTIs and none for protease inhibitors 0/31 (0%). The specific SDRMs detected were M41L for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and G190A for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). HIV-1 subtypes detected were CRF02_AG (38.2%), G′ (41.2%), G (14.7%), CRF06-CPX (2.9%), and a unique AG recombinant form (2.9%). The single ARV-native pregnant woman with SDRMs was infected with HIV-1 subtype G′. Access to ART has been available in the Jos area for over 8 years. The prevalence of TDR lower than 5% suggests proper ART administration, although continued surveillance is warranted. PMID:24164431

  11. Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Dore, John E; Lukas, Roger; Sadler, Daniel W; Church, Matthew J; Karl, David M

    2009-07-28

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is increasing at an accelerating rate, primarily due to fossil fuel combustion and land use change. A substantial fraction of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions is absorbed by the oceans, resulting in a reduction of seawater pH. Continued acidification may over time have profound effects on marine biota and biogeochemical cycles. Although the physical and chemical basis for ocean acidification is well understood, there exist few field data of sufficient duration, resolution, and accuracy to document the acidification rate and to elucidate the factors governing its variability. Here we report the results of nearly 20 years of time-series measurements of seawater pH and associated parameters at Station ALOHA in the central North Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. We document a significant long-term decreasing trend of -0.0019 +/- 0.0002 y(-1) in surface pH, which is indistinguishable from the rate of acidification expected from equilibration with the atmosphere. Superimposed upon this trend is a strong seasonal pH cycle driven by temperature, mixing, and net photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation. We also observe substantial interannual variability in surface pH, influenced by climate-induced fluctuations in upper ocean stability. Below the mixed layer, we find that the change in acidification is enhanced within distinct subsurface strata. These zones are influenced by remote water mass formation and intrusion, biological carbon remineralization, or both. We suggest that physical and biogeochemical processes alter the acidification rate with depth and time and must therefore be given due consideration when designing and interpreting ocean pH monitoring efforts and predictive models. PMID:19666624

  12. Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Dore, John E; Lukas, Roger; Sadler, Daniel W; Church, Matthew J; Karl, David M

    2009-07-28

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is increasing at an accelerating rate, primarily due to fossil fuel combustion and land use change. A substantial fraction of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions is absorbed by the oceans, resulting in a reduction of seawater pH. Continued acidification may over time have profound effects on marine biota and biogeochemical cycles. Although the physical and chemical basis for ocean acidification is well understood, there exist few field data of sufficient duration, resolution, and accuracy to document the acidification rate and to elucidate the factors governing its variability. Here we report the results of nearly 20 years of time-series measurements of seawater pH and associated parameters at Station ALOHA in the central North Pacific Ocean near Hawaii. We document a significant long-term decreasing trend of -0.0019 +/- 0.0002 y(-1) in surface pH, which is indistinguishable from the rate of acidification expected from equilibration with the atmosphere. Superimposed upon this trend is a strong seasonal pH cycle driven by temperature, mixing, and net photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation. We also observe substantial interannual variability in surface pH, influenced by climate-induced fluctuations in upper ocean stability. Below the mixed layer, we find that the change in acidification is enhanced within distinct subsurface strata. These zones are influenced by remote water mass formation and intrusion, biological carbon remineralization, or both. We suggest that physical and biogeochemical processes alter the acidification rate with depth and time and must therefore be given due consideration when designing and interpreting ocean pH monitoring efforts and predictive models.

  13. Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

  14. Miocene latitudinal climatic and topographic variability within the central North American Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gébelin, Aude; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Heizler, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    The long-term climatic evolution and atmospheric circulation patterns of the Earth are influenced by the topography of large mountain chains whose topography is in turn controlled by links and feedbacks of surface processes and those acting within the Earth's interior. Stable isotopes in precipitation change systematically with elevation in many modern mountain ranges and have become an increasingly important tool in reconstructing the long-term topographic and climatic evolution of the world's largest mountain ranges. Here, we present stable isotope data from meteoric fluids trapped in orogen-scale deformation zones and associated fault-bounded basin sediments that record paleoelevation and also link the geodynamics of orogens with the overall long-term landscape and climate histories. To reconstruct the Cenozoic paleoelevation history of the central part of the North American Cordillera, we focus on the metamorphic core complexes of the Snake Range (Nevada) and Buckskin Mountains (Arizona). The Snake Range and Buckskin Mountains represent both classic examples of normal fault-bounded metamorphic core complexes that developed as a consequence of Oligocene Miocene extension of the Basin and Range Province. Synkinematic muscovites collected systematically over the top-300 m of section within the Snake Range detachment reveal a pattern of increasingly younger 40Ar/39Ar ages (26.9 Ma to 21.3 Ma) from the top to the bottom of the detachment. Across the same section dD muscovite values as low as -150 per mil occur at the top of the detachment zone and attain progressively higher values of up to -72 per mil towards the bottom of the section. This hydrogen stable isotope trend suggests that meteoric fluids percolated 10s to 100s of meters into the ductile segment of the detachment over the time scale of mylonitic deformation (ca. 27 to 23 Ma). In contrast, dDmuscovite values of similarly aged mylonitic quartzites from the Buckskin Mountains are much higher and range

  15. Infection by human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 of the cervix in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y.; Yamade, I.; Nakamura, T.; Akiyama, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishiguro, T.; Noda, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Exfoliated cervical cells from 321 Japanese women were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot-blot hybridization methods. HPV DNA was present in 9.3% of patients with normal cervixes, 72.7% of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 77.8% of patients with invasive carcinoma. Younger patients (/=50 years) had a 1.9% incidence, a significant difference (chi2= 6.478, P < 0.01). In the CIN I and II groups, an incidence of 11.1% of types 16 and 18 was found, while in the CIN III or invasive carcinoma group the incidence was 58.1%, again a significant difference (chi2 = 12.075, P < 0.01). Furthermore, persistence or progression of CIN showed a significant correlation with infections by types 16 and 33 (chi2= 4.904, P < 0.01). However, no significantly different incidence of HPV infection was found between the CIN and the invasive carcinoma groups. It is suggested that (a) younger patients with normal cervixes have a higher incidence of HPV infection than do older patients; (b) HPV types 16, 18 and 33 are important etiologic agents of CIN III and invasive carcinoma, as well as in the persistence and progression of CIN; (c) progression of CIN to invasive carcinoma may depend on factors other than HPV infection in the cervix. PMID:11578452

  16. Glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve for Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata based on outcrops in the North American Midcontinent and North-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. . School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Based on lithologic and faunal analysis of uppermost Carboniferous through Lower Permian strata (Wabaunsee through lower Chase groups) exposed from southeastern Nebraska through north-central Oklahoma, a preliminary glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve is presented herein. In addition to the sea-level curve presented for the Midcontinent region, one for coeval outcropping strata (middle and upper Cisco Group) of the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is also presented based on similar criteria. This sea-level curve is derived from new field studies as well as a refinement of earlier curves presented by Harrison (1973), and Boardman and Malinky (1985). The conclusion on the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata cyclothems in the Midcontinent is mirrored by the results of that from North-Central Texas. Each of the primary biostratigraphically-based picks for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary coincide with either intermediate of major cycles in both study areas. Utilization of a glacial-eustatic maximum transgressive event for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary should result in a more correlatable level for intercontinental correlation.

  17. Quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake granodiorite, north-central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Shank, Stephen G.

    1983-01-01

    Quartz-molybdenite veins up to 15 cm in width occur in fine to medium-grained porphyritic biotite-hornblende granodiorite at Priestly Lake north-central Maine. An area of about 150 m x 150 m contains quartz-molybdenite veins; a larger area is characterized by barren quartz veins. Quartz-molybdenite veins are concentrated within the most felsic variants of the intrusion as suggested by lower mafic mineral contents. The pluton has a narrow range in SiO2 (67-70 wt.%), major oxides, and in trace-element compositions. Molybdenite occurs as coarse grained clusters in pockets within the quartz veins, and fills fractures in the quartz veins and host rocks. Disseminated molybdenite in the granodiorite is relatively rare and occurs only in the area characterized by a high density of quartz veins (up to 50 veins per square meter). Alteration envelopes along the quartz veins are very thin or absent, although in some areas the granodiorite appears to be selectively and pervasively altered. Sericite, chlorite, epidote, calcite, pyrite, and quartz are concentrated near the quartz-molybdenite veins. Many of the field and geochemical characteristics of the Priestly Lake pluton are unlike those of major molybdenum-producing areas (Climax, Henderson, Urad). For example, the area of alteration seems to be of limited extent, the host rock is not intensely altered hydrothermally at the surface, the density of fractures is rather low in the mineralized area, and the amount of disseminated molybdenite appears to be small. However, the Priestly Lake pluton may be a small fraction of a concealed batholith as suggested by geophysical data. It is conceivable that the type of mineralization at the surface might be the expression of more extensive molybdenite mineralization at depth. The quartz-molybdenite veins in the Priestly Lake pluton are significant because they indicate that potential molybdenum sources for producing mineralized granites were available at depth. Future studies should be

  18. Petrogenesis of the flood-basalt sequence at Noril'sk, North Central Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedorenko, V.A.; Lightfoot, P.C.; Naldrett, A.J.; Czamanske, G.K.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Wooden, J.L.; Ebel, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    , no clear boundary between lithosphere and asthenosphere is evident in the deep seismic profile. A large-scale event is necessary to account for melting in different parts of the upper mantle and formation of the great volume of the Siberian flood basalts in ???1 m.y. Extension, caused by ascent of a mantle plume, would provide a reasonable explanation, but no plume-related uplift is documented in north-central Siberia prior to, or during, eruption of the volcanic sequence.

  19. Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentary evolution of Czechowskie Lake (Eastern Pomerania, North Central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordowski, Jarosław; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Brauer, Achim; Ott, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Czechowskie Lake is located in north-central Poland in Tuchola Forest, about 100 kilometers SW away from Gdańsk. In the deepest parts of the lake there are preserved laminated sediments with an excellent Holocene climatic record. The lake has the area of 76,6 ha. Actual water level is at 109,9 m a.s.l. The average depth is 9,59 m, maximal 32 m. It occupies a large subglacial channel, reproduced within the glacifluvial sediments of the last glaciation. The lake has a history reaching back to Pommeranian phase which is proved by analysis of sedimentary succesions in the vicinity of present-day waterbody. Primarily it come to existence as an very variable ice dammed lake but after dead ice and permafrost desintegration it changed into a stable lake. In the terrestrialised part oft the lake and in its litoral zone there were curried out numerous boreholes within limnic and slope sediments. They have been analysed in respect to lithology and structure. Some of them were also investigated palynologically which along with radiocarbon datings allowed to reconstruct major phases of the water level fluctuations. The maximum infilling with the limnic and telmatic sediments reaches over 12 m. In the bottom of the lake there is a marked presence of many overdeepenings with the diameter of dozen or several dozen meters and the depth of up to 10 m with numerous, distinct throughs between them. They favoured the preservation of the lamination in the deepest parts of the lake due to waves hampering and stopping of the density circulation in the lake waterbody. The analysis of limnic sediments revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability mainly in dependance of the area of the water body and water level in time of deposition. In the lake are recorded three distinct phases of lake level decrease. The sedimentary evolution in the isolated minor lake basins showed gradual decrease of mineral and organic deposition in favour for carbonate one although in places separated by

  20. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  1. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure. This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established. Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man?s activities may play a role in faulting as well. Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  2. Analysis of Alternative (Low Impact) Development on a Theoretical Residential Development in North Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, W. R.

    2001-05-01

    Research currently in progress will evaluate land development options on a 161 +/- HA site in North Central Florida lying within a 292+/- HA watershed that contributes to Bullfrog Creek in the Camp Blanding Wildlife Management Area. The research analyzes aspects of an emerging storm-water management philosophy, called low-impact development (LID) by Prince Georges County, Maryland. LID seeks to preserve site hydrology by reducing the area of disturbance on the site, preserving natural drainage features on the site and by utilizing BMPs that promote infiltration and slower transport of runoff. This research investigates the benefits and problems associated with this design philosophy, particularly in Florida. Two scenarios will be investigated: Low density residential and Medium density residential. Within each scenario the hydrologic response of the site under conventional and LID will be explored. Furthermore, the impact of using cluster developments in LIDs will be investigated. Parameters to be measured include: peak flow, runoff volume, pollutant load generated/removed by BMPs, peak-flow timing and base flow. HEC-HMS will be used for hydrologic modeling (soil moisture accounting module). Pollutant loads generated and removed will be based on published data for land use and BMPs. An economic analysis, based on the estimated construction costs of conventional and LID, will also be done. Further sensitivity analyses will be conducted on the effect that various watershed conditions have on the hydrologic response of the site developed as a LID. This research will provide insight to several questions. In the most general sense it will indicate whether this emerging design philosophy, much of which was developed in other regions of the country, is beneficial to Florida watersheds "as it is" and what, if any, alterations should be considered. Secondly, this research will show the impact of development with different site-planning options, for example cluster

  3. Prediction of gas production using well logs, Cretaceous of north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hester, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Cretaceous gas sands underlie much of east-central Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, and parts of South Dakota and Wyoming. Estimates of recoverable biogenic methane from these rocks in the United States are as high as 91 TCF. In northern Montana, current production is localized around a few major structural features, while vast areas in between these structures are not being exploited. Although the potential for production exists, the lack of commercial development is due to three major factors: 1) the lack of pipeline infrastructure; 2) the lack of predictable and reliable rates of production; and 3) the difficulty in recognizing and selecting potentially productive gas-charged intervals. Unconventional (tight), continuous-type reservoirs, such as those in the Cretaceous of the northern Great Plains, are not well suited for conventional methods of formation evaluation. Pay zones frequently consist only of thinly laminated intervals of sandstone, silt, shale stringers, and disseminated clay. Potential producing intervals are commonly unrecognizable on well logs, and thus are overlooked. To aid in the identification and selection of potential producing intervals, a calibration system is developed here that empirically links the 'gas effect' to gas production. The calibration system combines the effects of porosity, water saturation, and clay content into a single 'gas-production index' (GPI) that relates the in-situ rock with production potential. The fundamental method for isolating the gas effect for calibration is a crossplot of neutron porosity minus density porosity vs gamma-ray intensity. Well-log and gas-production data used for this study consist of 242 perforated intervals from 53 gas-producing wells. Interval depths range from about 250 to 2400 ft. Gas volumes in the peak calendar year of production range from about 4 to 136 MMCF. Nine producing formations are represented. Producing-interval data show that porosity

  4. Mapping soil erosion hazard in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, D. C. S.; Malvar, M. C.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    The present work has as overall objective to evaluate the suitability of two easily-applied erosion models for slope-scale erosion risk mapping, using a Geographic Information System, following wildfire. It was carried out in the framework of the EROSFIRE project, which, in a nutshell, wants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of field rainfall simulation experiments for mapping erosion risk, in particular by providing the input data needed for model calibration. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the Morgan-Morgan-Finney model (MMF) were selected in this study mainly for ease of application. In spite both models were specifically developed for agricultural fields, there exist off-the-shelf model parameter values that apparently or supposedly are suitable for recently burnt forest areas. Furthermore, USLE was applied by the Portuguese National Water Institute following the dramatic wildfire season of the summer of 2003 and, as such, was a lead motif behind the EROSFIRE project. The two models were applied to a study area in north-central Portugal that burnt during the summer of 2005. The 270 hectares of burnt forest lands by and large consist of fast-growing eucalypt plantations but involve a notable variety of pre- as well as post-fire forestry management practices, the most conspicuous being the presence or construction of terraces. The model results were evaluated using three different sets of data: i) data from rainfall simulation experiments that were carried out at one or more occasions during the first year following the fire; ii) runoff and sediment loss data from unbounded slope-scale erosion plots at two sites, also during the first year following the fire; iii) data from a soil erosion features-survey carried out during 2008 at more than 20 slopes. As expected, the performance of both models revealed marked weaknesses, especially in relation to the survey results. At least in part this can be attributed to the lack of off

  5. Chronological refinement of an ice core record at Upper Fremont Glacier in south central North America

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Paul F.; White, David E.; Naftz, David L.; Cecil, L. DeWayne

    2000-02-27

    alpine regions of central North America may have occurred on a relatively short (decadal) timescale. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  6. Chronological refinement of an ice core record at Upper Fremont Glacier in south central North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, P.F.; White, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The potential to use ice cores from alpine glaciers in the midlatitudes to reconstruct paleoclimatic records has not been widely recognized. Although excellent paleoclimatic records exist for the polar regions, paleoclimatic ice core records are not common from midlatitude locations. An ice core removed from the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming provides evidence for abrupt climate change during the mid-1800s. Volcanic events (Krakatau and Tambora) identified from electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) and isotopic and chemical data from the Upper Fremont Glacier were reexamined to confirm and refine previous chronological estimates of the ice core. At a depth of 152 m the refined age-depth profile shows good agreement (1736 ?? 10 A.D.) with the 14C age date (1729 ?? 95 A.D.). The ??18O profile of the Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) ice core indicates a change in climate known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the sampling interval for ??18O is sufficiently large (20 cm) such that it is difficult to pinpoint the LIA termination on the basis of ??18O data alone. Other research has shown that changes in the ??18O variance are generally coincident with changes in ECM variance. The ECM data set contains over 125,000 data points at a resolution of 1 data point per millimeter of ice core. A 999-point running average of the ECM data set and results from f tests indicates that the variance of the ECM data decreases significantly at about 108 m. At this depth, the age-depth profile predicts an age of 1845 A.D. Results indicate the termination of the LIA was abrupt with a major climatic shift to warmer temperatures around 1845 A.D. and continuing to present day. Prediction limits (error bars) calculated for the profile ages are ??10 years (90% confidence level). Thus a conservative estimate for the time taken to complete the LIA climatic shift to present-day climate is about 10 years, suggesting the LIA termination in alpine regions of central North America may have

  7. Stratigraphy, geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Mesozoic Nazas Formation, north-central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, Claudio

    Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic volcanic-sedimentary sequences that were part of the Mesozoic continental-margin of western North America are exposed in northern and central Mexico. These sequences have been grouped into the Nazas Formation and crop out in the states of Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosi. The Nazas Formation consists of 2,500 m or more of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks and interbedded clastic sedimentary rocks that were deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial depositional systems that developed in intra-arc basins, mainly fault-bound grabens and topographic depressions within an extending Mesozoic volcanic arc. Major and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks suggests that the volcanic suite is calc-alkaline and includes rhyolite, dacite, rhyodacite, andesite, trachyandesite and rare basalt. Pyroclastic rocks are basically air-fall tuffs and volcanic breccias. The sedimentary strata include conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and siltstone, locally red in color. Geochronology (Ar-Ar, K-Ar and Rb-Sr) and field evidence indicate that the age of the Nazas Formation ranges from Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, but the peak of arc volcanism appears to be Early and Middle Jurassic. The Mesozoic magmatic arc in Mexico has a northwest trend and extends from Sonora to Chiapas. The arc structure is more than 2,000 km long, and possibly up to 150 km wide. The width of the arc is uncertain due to the limited number of surface outcrops, however, it did not extend east into the Gulf of Mexico. Arc-related magmatism began in latest Triassic time, but the peak of arc evolution occurred during the Early and Middle Jurassic. By Oxfordian time, the arc was deeply dissected and eroded, and magmatic activity had ceased. A marine transgression from the Gulf of Mexico covered most of the Nazas arc, depositing the initial sediments of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Limestone in the Mexican Geosyncline. Jurassic crustal extension in the Gulf of Mexico was

  8. Garnet peridotites from Williams kimberlites, north-central Montana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, B.C.; McGee, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two Williams kimberlites, 250x350m and 37x390m, in the eastern part of a swarm of 30 middle Eocene alnoitic diatremes in north-central Montana, USA, contain xenoliths of garnet-bearing lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites, in addition to spinel peridotites and upper and lower crustal amphibolites and granulites. Colluvial purple, red, and pink garnets are dominantly Mg- and Cr-rich, indicating their derivation From peridotites or megacrysts, and have CaO and Cr2O3 contents that fall in the lherzolite trend. Temperatures were calculated by the Lindsley-Dixon 20 kb method for lherzolites and by the O'Neill-Wood method for harzburgites and dunites, and pressures were calculated by the MacGregor method, or were assumed to be 50 kb for dunites. Most peridotites equilibrated at 1220-1350?C and 50-60 kb, well above a 44mW/m2 shield geotherm and on or at higher P than the graphite-diamond boundary. Four lherzolites are low T-P (830-990?C, 23-42 kb) and are close to the shield geotherm. All four low T-P lherzolites have coarse textures whereas the high T-P cluster has both coarse and porphyroclastic textures, indicating a range of conditions of deformation and recrystallization in a restricted high T-P range. The tiny size (0.01-0.2 mm) of granulated and euhedral olivines in several xenoliths shows that deformation was occurring just prior to incorporation in kimberlite and that ascent was rapid enough (40-70 km/hr) to retard Further coarsening of fine-grained olivine. For other high T-P peridotites, cessation of deformation and beginning of recrystallization before or during inclusion in kimberlite is suggested by larger (up to 3mm) euhedral olivines in a matrix of fine granulated olivine or by optical continuity of large and nearby small olivines. Two low T-P lherzolites contain distinctive, phlogopite-rimmed, 5-8mm clots of moderate-Cr garnet + Cr-spinel + Cr-diopside + enstatite that are inferred to have formed by reaction of an initial high-Cr garnet brought into the

  9. Late-Pleistocene evolution of the East Mediterranean shallow continental shelf of north-central Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Dix, Justin; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq; Bookman, Revital; Roskin, Joel; Bialik, Or; Golan, Arik; Sivan, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level fluctuations are a dominant and dynamic mechanism that control coastal environmental through time. This is especially the case for the successive regressions and transgressions over the last interglacial cycle, which have shaped the deposition, preservation and erosion patterns of unconsolidated sediments currently submerged on continental shelves. The current study focuses on an integrated high-resolution marine and terrestrial litho-stratigraphic and geophysical framework of the north-central Mediterranean coastal zone of Israel. The interpretation enabled the reconstruction of the coastal evolution over the last ˜130 ka. A multi-disciplinary approach was applied by compiling existing elevation raster grids, bathymetric charts, detailed lithological borehole data-sets, a dense 110 km long sub-bottom geophysical survey and seven continuous boreholes sediment records. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, observed geometries, and reflective appearances, six bounding surfaces and seven seismic units were identified and characterized. Meanwhile, the chronostratigraphy of the terrestrial side was constructed through integration of magnetic susceptibility, sedimentological and geochemical analysis with 17 new OSL ages. The seismic units were correlated with the available terrestrial borehole data and then associated to the retrieved terrestrial chronostratigraphy to produce a 4D reconstruction model of the paleo-landscape. The entire unconsolidated sequence overlies a calcareous aeolianite (locally named Kurkar unit) dated from ˜131 - ˜104 ka, which represents the top of the last interglacial cycle dune sediments. The lower unconsolidated unit consists of a red silty loam dated to ˜71 ka. This Red-Paleosol unit is overlaid by a dark brown clayey silty loam This Brown-Paleosol unit dates to ˜58 - ˜36 ka and is overlaid by a dark silty clay wetland deposit dated to ˜21 - ˜10 ka. The wetland unit is topped by a quartz sand dated to ˜6.6 - 0.1 ka

  10. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    cm. Grasses and wormword are dominating throughout the sequence, probably reflecting the main constituents of the regional vegetation. Cattail (Typha/Sparganium) and especially milfoil (Myriophyllum) are recorded abundantly and continuously throughout the sequence. In combination with green algae like Pediastrum the first pollen spectra indicate a lake shore and shallow fresh water vegetation. This seems to be in agreement with the preliminary observations of the fossil diatom contents, which show a diatom flora mainly composed of benthic and tychoplanktonic species, indicating a shallow freshwater lake. Both diatomite sequences thus suggest shallow lakes throughout their deposition-whether this is due to their marginal position within the large calderas and/or shallow waters covered the entire calderas is an outstanding question that will be addressed with planned additional investigations. Kröpelin, S. etal (2015): New data on the unresolved paradox of the Tibesti crater paleolakes (Central Sahara, North Chad). Abstract #64322 AGU-Fall-Meeting-2015.

  11. Series of Case Patients with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation, Central North Carolina, 2006-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection/colonization, associated with human morbidity/mortality, is linked to drinking water and drinking water distribution systems. To characterize rates and distribution of NTM isolation among residents living in three North Carolina countie...

  12. Tree-ring records of near-Younger Dryas time in central North America - Preliminary results from the Lincoln quarry site, central Illinois, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wiedenhoeft, A.; Noggle, S.; Curry, B.; Grimm, E.

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt millennial-scale changes associated with the Younger Dryas (YD) event ("chronozone") near the dawn of the Holocene are at least hemispheric, if not global, in extent. Evidence for the YD cold excursion is abundant in Europe but fairly meager in central North America. We are engaged in an investigation of high-resolution environmental changes in mid-North America over several millennia (about 10,000 to 14,000 BP) during the Late Glacial-Early Holocene transition, including the YD interval. Several sites containing logs or stumps have been identified and we are in the process of initial sampling or re-sampling them for this project. Here, we report on a site in central Illinois containing a deposit of logs initially thought to be of YD age preserved in alluvial sands. The assemblage of wood represents hardwood (angiosperm) trees, and the ring-width characteristics are favorable to developing formal tree-ring chronologies. However, 4 new radiocarbon dates indicate deposition of wood may have taken place over at least 8000 14C yr (6000-14,000 BP). This complicates the effort to develop a single floating chronology of several hundred years at this site, but it may provide wood from a restricted region over a long period of time from which to develop a sequence of floating chronologies, the timing of deposition and preservation of which could be related to paleoclimatic events and conditions.

  13. North-south palaeohydrological contrasts in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene: tentative synthesis and working hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magny, M.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; de Beaulieu, J. L.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Colombaroli, D.; Desprat, S.; Francke, A.; Joannin, S.; Ortu, E.; Peyron, O.; Revel, M.; Sadori, L.; Siani, G.; Sicre, M. A.; Samartin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Tinner, W.; Vannière, B.; Wagner, B.; Zanchetta, G.; Anselmetti, F.; Brugiapaglia, E.; Chapron, E.; Debret, M.; Desmet, M.; Didier, J.; Essallami, L.; Galop, D.; Gilli, A.; Haas, J. N.; Kallel, N.; Millet, L.; Stock, A.; Turon, J. L.; Wirth, S.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of a multi-proxy approach and a strategy combining lacustrine and marine records along a north-south transect, data collected in the central Mediterranean within the framework of a collaborative project have led to reconstruction of high-resolution and well-dated palaeohydrological records and to assessment of their spatial and temporal coherency. Contrasting patterns of palaeohydrological changes have been evidenced in the central Mediterranean: south (north) of around 40° N of latitude, the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by lake-level maxima (minima), during an interval dated to ca. 10 300-4500 cal BP to the south and 9000-4500 cal BP to the north. Available data suggest that these contrasting palaeohydrological patterns operated throughout the Holocene, both on millennial and centennial scales. Regarding precipitation seasonality, maximum humidity in the central Mediterranean during the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by humid winters and dry summers north of ca. 40° N, and humid winters and summers south of ca. 40° N. This may explain an apparent conflict between palaeoclimatic records depending on the proxies used for reconstruction as well as the synchronous expansion of tree species taxa with contrasting climatic requirements. In addition, south of ca. 40° N, the first millennium of the Holocene was characterised by very dry climatic conditions not only in the eastern, but also in the central- and the western Mediterranean zones as reflected by low lake levels and delayed reforestation. These results suggest that, in addition to the influence of the Nile discharge reinforced by the African monsoon, the deposition of Sapropel 1 has been favoured (1) by an increase in winter precipitation in the northern Mediterranean borderlands, and (2) by an increase in winter and summer precipitation in the southern Mediterranean area. The climate reversal following the Holocene climate optimum appears to have been punctuated

  14. A 13-week comparison of passive and continuous ozone monitors at forested sites in north-central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Skelly, J M; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Jagodzinski, J M; Mulik, J D

    2001-09-01

    Ogawa passive O3 samplers were used in a 13-week study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p < 0.0001) was found for 24-hr average weekly O3 concentrations between the two methodologies at the four sites with collocated monitors. As expected, there were positive relationships between increasing elevation of the sites and increasing O3 concentrations. No O3 exposure patterns were found on a west-to-east or south-to-north basis; however, the area known for lower O3 exposures within a smaller subsection of the study area showed consistently lower O3 exposures. Preliminary results regarding relationships of symptom responses within O3-sensitive bioindicators are also presented with black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, L.) showing clear evidence of increasing injury with increasing O3 exposures. Due to the extremely dry conditions encountered in north-central Pennsylvania during the 1999 growing season, O3-induced symptoms were sporadic and quite delayed until late-season rains during the latter portion of the observation period. PMID:11575881

  15. Hydrology and model of North Fork Solomon River Valley, Kirwin Dam to Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1981-01-01

    The alluvial valley of the North Fork Solomon River is an important agricultural area. Reservoir releases diverted below Kirwin Dam are the principal source of irrigation water. During the 1970'S, severe water shortages occurred in Kirwin Reservoir and other nearby reservoirs as a result of an extended drought. Some evidence indicates that surface-water shortages may have been the result of a change in the rainfall-runoff relationship. Examination of the rainfall-runoff relationship shows no apparent trend from 1951 to 1968, but annual records from 1969 to 1976 indicate that deficient rainfall occurred during 6 of the 8 years. Ground water from the alluvial aquifer underlying the river valley also is used extensively for irrigation. Utilization of ground water for irrigation greatly increased from about 200 acre-feet in 1955 to about 12,300 acre-feet in 1976. Part of the surface water diverted for irrigation has percolated downward into the aquifer raising the ground-water level. Ground-water storage in the aquifer increased from 230,000 acre-feet in 1946 to 275,000 acre-feet in 1976-77. A digital model was used to simulate the steady-state conditions in the aquifer prior to closure of Kirwin Dam. Model results indicated that precipitation was the major source of recharge to the aquifer. The effective recharge, or gain from precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was about 11,700 acre-feet per year. The major element of discharge from the aquifer was leakage to the river. The simulated net leakage (leakage to the river minus leakage from the river) was about 11,500 acre-feet per year. The simulated value is consistent with the estimated gain in base flow of the river within the area modeled. Measurements of seepage used to determine gain and loss to the stream were made twice during 1976. Based on these measurements and on base-flow periods identified from hydrographs, it was estimated that the ground-water discharge to the stream has increased about 4,000 acre

  16. Mineralization potential along the trend of the Keweenawan- age Central North American Rift System in Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berendsen, P.

    1989-01-01

    The tectonic and sedimentary environment of the Central North American Rift System (CNARS) provides an excellent setting for major mineral deposits. Major north-northeast-trending high-angle normal or reverse faults and northwest-trending transcurrent fault systems may exercise control over ore forming processes. Gabbro and basalt are the dominant igneous rock types. Carbonatite and kimberlite occur in Nebraska and Kansas. Concentrations of Cu, Ni, Co, Ti, Au, Ag and PG minerals are known to occur in this setting. Arkosic sandstone, siltstone, shale, and minor carbonate units occur on top of the rift basalts and in flanking basins where they may reach thicknesses of 10 km (6 miles). The potential for stratiform or unconformity-related metalliferous deposits should be considered. The rift as a whole remains largely unexplored.

  17. Multiple Magmatic Events Over 40 Ma in the Fish Creek Mountains, North-central Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B.; Henry, C. D.; Stevens, C.; Varve, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Fish Creek Mountains, located in north-central Nevada south of Battle Mountain, is a site of multiple igneous events ranging from ca. 35 Ma to 1 Ma, covering most of the igneous history of the Great Basin of the western United States. Such extended volcanic activity allows for documentation of mantle sources and petrogenetic processes over time. Beginning approximately 50 Ma, the Great Basin experienced a magmatic front that began migrating southwestward across southern Idaho, central Oregon and into northern Nevada and Utah. Intermediate, "arc-like" andesite and dacite dominated volcanic activity in northeastern Nevada between about 45 and 36 Ma. By 34 Ma, a northwest-trending belt of rhyolitic ash-flow calderas began to develop through central Nevada, the "ignimbrite flare-up". Volcanism then migrated westwards towards the Sierra Nevada. In north-central Nevada, the oldest lavas are ca. 35 Ma basaltic andesites through rhyolites that are exposed in the western Shoshone Range, the eastern Tobin Range, and the northern and eastern Fish Creek Mountains. Plagioclase-rich andesites, dacite intrusions, and volcanic breccias occur in a belt along the western side of the Fish Creek Mountains. The bulk of the Fish Creek Mountains is composed of the 24.7 Ma Fish Creek Mountains rhyolitic tuff that is largely confined to an undeformed caldera structure. The caldera and tuff are anomalously young compared to nearby felsic centers such as the Caetano caldera (33.8Ma) and Shoshone Range (39-35 Ma) and relative to the southwest to west magmatic migration. The basal tuff is unwelded, with abundant pumice and lithic (primarily volcanic) fragments but only rare crystals. Sanidine and smoky quartz phenocrysts become more abundant upsection and glassy fiamme (hydrated to devitrified) are common, but the abundance of lithic fragments diminishes. 16-15 Ma volcanic rocks of the Northern Nevada Rift are exposed in the Battle Mountain area, ranging in composition from subalkaine

  18. Wildfire effects on soil lipid composition in burnt eucalypt stands, in north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Sílvia; De la Rosa, José Maria; Knicker, Heike; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires can induce profound changes in the quality and quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) pools. Early detection of fire impacts on SOM pools is relevant for taking decision and planning of post-fire restoration actions, since SOM plays a key role in post-fire erosion risk and the recovery of fire-affected ecosystems. This work focuses on wildfire effects on the composition of lipids in the topsoil of eucalypt plantations, one of the prevailing and, at the same time, most fire-prone forest types in north-central Portugal. To this end, two neighbouring eucalypt plantations were sampled at 5 occasions with roughly 6-monthly intervals, starting immediately after a wildfire in August 2010 till August 2012. One of the study sites was located within the 2010-bunrt area and the other just outside it. The air-dry soil samples were treated with a dichloromethane-methanol (3:1) mixture for Soxhlet extraction of the SOM's labile lipid fraction, as this fraction is particularly prone to undergo rapid and significant alterations by fire-induced heating. In turn, these alterations have elevated potential to be used as markers of direct fire effects on soil properties in general and, at the same time, as indicators of the recovery process during the so-called window-of-disturbance. The lipid compositions of the samples were determined by GC-MS. The preliminary results of this study indicated that the soil lipid fraction of the upper soil layer (0-2 cm depth) decreased sharply due to the wildfire, and that this effect lasted for more than 24 months. Its contents in the different sampling periods varied between 2.4 and 5.7 % at the long-unburnt site as compared to 0.9 - 1.1 % at the burnt site. The main differences between the burnt and unburnt samples were found in the distribution patterns of alkyl compounds. Without exception, an accumulation of low molecular weight homologues was observed in the burnt samples, suggesting that fire led to thermal breakdown and cracking of

  19. Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins in North-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Leel

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for the Rainbow and Silver Springs ground-water basins in north-central Florida were determined using a regional water-~budget approach and compared to estimates computed using a modified Priestley-Taylor (PT) model calibrated with eddy-correlation data. Eddy-correlation measurements of latent 0~E) and sensible (H) heat flux were made monthly for a few days at a time, and the PT model was used to estimate 3,E between times of measurement during the 1994 water year. A water-budget analysis for the two-basin area indicated that over a 30-year period (196594) annual rainfall was 51.7 inches. Of the annual rainfall, ET accounted for about 37.9 inches; springflow accounted for 13.1 inches; and the remaining 0.7 inch was accounted for by stream-flow, by ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, and by net change in storage. For the same 30-year period, the annual estimate of ET for the Silver Springs basin was 37.6 inches and was 38.5 inches for the Rainbow Springs basin. Wet- and dry-season estimates of ET for each basin averaged between nearly 19 inches and 20 inches, indicating that like rainfall, ET rates during the 4-month wet season were about twice the ET rates during the 8-month dry season. Wet-season estimates of ET for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins decreased 2.7 inches, and 3.4 inches, respectively, over the 30-year period; whereas, dry-season estimates for the basins decreased about 0.4 inch and1.0 inch, respectively, over the 30-year period. This decrease probably is related to the general decrease in annual rainfall and reduction in net radiation over the basins during the 30-year period. ET rates computed using the modified PT model were compared to rates computed from the water budget for the 1994 water year. Annual ET, computed using the PT model, was 32.0 inches, nearly equal to the ET water-budget estimate of 31.7 inches computed for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins

  20. GIS-analysis of gully erosion susceptibility: a key study in north-central Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Maerker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    Erosion by water is responsible for severe geo-environmental problems in semi-humid to arid Mediterranean areas. Large sectors of Sicily are affected by intense soil erosion phenomena leading to severe damages in agriculture lands that, in some cases, experience high soil loss rates. An important contribution to sediment yield from these areas is given by gully erosion phenomena; the latter, in the last decades, attracted attention of many researches that developed and applied methods to quantify soil loss volumes and to evaluate proneness of territory to this process. The present research aims to assess gully erosion susceptibility in the basin of the San Giorgio torrent, a mountain stream flowing in north-central Sicily and draining an area of about 9.5 km2; the watershed, which is mainly covered by arable lands, has highly erodible slopes characterized by the outcropping of clays and marls. In order to predict gully erosion susceptibility, a multivariate geostatistical approach is adopted here. In particular, the method is based on the definition of spatial relationships between the geographical variability of a set of controlling factors and the occurrence of gullies on slopes; the linear density of gullies computed on homogeneous domains is selected as the probabilistic function expressing how proneness to gully erosion spatially changes in the studied area. Available thematic maps, which were integrated by field and remote surveys, and a high quality DEM, were used to derive eight layers of terrain variables, selected according to geomorphological criteria and expressing both soil erodibility (bedrock lithology, land use) and erosivity of flowing waters (slope angle, Stream Power Index, SL-factor, Topographic Wetness Index, plan and profile curvature). All the parameters were computed for homogeneous spatial domains, created by intersecting a grid of 50m square polygons and a layer of slope units automatically derived from DEM; therefore, the eight layers

  1. Locomotor activity and zonation of upper shore arthropods in a sandy beach of north central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Duarte, C.; Avellanal, M. H.

    2003-10-01

    The tenebrionid beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer, the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet and the oniscid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana are semi-terrestrial burrowing species, which coexist on sandy beaches of north central Chile (28-30°S). During the night, these scavengers emerge to make downshore migrations. Given the similarity in niches of these three species (all are known to include macroalgal detritus in their diet) and their relatively high abundance on that beaches, there is the potential for some degree of interaction, both inter- and intraspecific. Field studies were carried out to examine zonation of these burrowing organisms and eventual time and/or space partitioning of locomotor activity during night hours. Locomotor activity on the beach surface was analyzed over 12 h periods during spring and neap tides of September and December 2000, and March 2001. Scavengers moving over the beach surface were captured using pitfall traps buried with their rims flush with the beach surface along a transect extended from the foot of the dunes to the highest levels reached by the swashes. Every 1 h the captured animals in the traps were collected. Locomotor activity was also studied in the laboratory with chambers equipped with infrared recording systems (actographs). Data downloaded from the actographs were graphed to obtain a display of locomotor activity per 15 min interval during the course of the 7 day experiments. Results show space partitioning of burrowed organisms and time partitioning in the locomotor activity of O. tuberculata, T. spinulosus and P. maculata over the beach surface. Circular statistics showed that usually the activity peaks of O. tuberculata were more different from those of P. maculata and T. spinulosus than those of the last two species when compared with each other. Intraspecific differences were also found in the surface locomotor activity, primarily between juveniles and adults of O. tuberculata. Interseasonal

  2. Distribution and behavior of scavenging amphipods from the central North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Camilla L.; Hessler, Robert R.

    1983-07-01

    Deep-sea scavenging amphipod distributions, abundance, and behavior were studied with five-vehicle baited traps. The species composition and numerical abundances were comparable in the areas sampled. All size classes of the four predominant species ( Paralicella caperesca, P. tenuipes, Orchomene gerulicorbis, and Eurythenes gryllus) were trapped including sexually mature individuals, but no females were ovigerous. The central North Pacific E. gryllus is morphologically distinct from Atlantic E. gryllus and may represent a different species. Pelagic and demersal amphipod guilds exist, as determined by body size and vertical and horizontal distributional patterns. The demersal guild is composed of P. caperesca, P. tenuipes, and O. gerulicorbis, all of which are <2 cm in total body length and occur within 1 m of the sediment. E. gryllus, the only representative of the pelagic guild, ranges between 1.7 and 14 cm in total body length and has its greatest abundance several to tens of meters above the sediment. Members of the demersal guild probably can detect and exploit both large and small food falls or autochthonous organic particles because of their proximity to the sediment. They reside within the area of the benthic boundary layer where currents are slowest, and the diffusion of odor is slower than higher in the water column, thus reducing the area from which they can be attracted to a food item. The vertical distribution of E. gryllus correlates well with several physical features of the benthic boundary layer. Their vertical abundance increases an order of magnitude near the top of the Ekman layer, correlating with the increase in current velocities. It continues to increase up to 20 m, corresponding with the probable vertical extent of more than two-thirds of an odor trace. Their abundance decreases significantly above 20 m. The above correlations imply that the vertical distribution of E. gryllus is an adaptation that provides a wide chemosensory overview of

  3. Discovery of 3 km long seafloor fracture system in the Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R. B.; Blomberg, A.; Landschulze, K.; Baumberger, T.; Økland, I.; Reigstad, L.; Gracias, N.; Mørkved, P. T.; Stensland, A.; Lilley, M. D.; Thorseth, I. H.

    2013-12-01

    We have discovered a 3 km long seafloor fracture system in the Central North Sea (block 16/4). The discovery was made using a synthetic aperture sonar (HISAS) mounted on a Kongsberg Hugin AUV. The surface expression of the structure - named the Hugin Fracture - changes along the strike and it is characterized by: 1) linear; 2) en echelon; and 3) branching segments. Ring-structures, that typically are 5-10 meters across, are common along the feature. Micro-bathymetry acquired using the HISAS system demonstrates that sub-meter scale elevation changes occur across the fracture. Microbial mats occur along different parts of the structure showing that active seepage is taking place. AUV based photo-imaging of parts of the structure shows that the microbial mats predominantly are associated with ring structures and some of the linear fracture segments. Sediment pore waters extracted from push cores show Na, Cl and Mg contents that are 10-15% lower compared to background pore fluid concentrations. This points towards a fresh water input. The fracture pore fluid compositions are also characterized by elevated methane, ammonium and hydrogen sulphide contents compared to the background seawater. The presence of these volatiles is likely caused by subsurface microbial activity, and carbon isotope analyses confirm a biological source of the detected methane. However, the presence of ethane (CH4/C2H6 of 126) indicates a small input of a thermogenic carbon to these fluids. Subsurface imaging using a hull mounted parametric sub bottom profiler reveal Holocene stratified sediments overlying quaternary moraine in the area. The sub bottom profiler data show sub-meter scale vertical movements along the fracture. Associated with the structures are small bright spots that may reflect gas accumulations. No deep-seated fault system is apparent below the fracture in 3D seismic data from the area. However, the 3D seismic data show that the structure is located above the boundary of a

  4. Healdsburgite - a New Tektite and Associated Tektite Strewnfield in North Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, R. C.; Deino, A. L.; Norwick, S. A.; Byrd, C.

    2012-12-01

    Erickson, Rolfe; Norwick, Steven; and Byrd, Caitlin, Sonoma State University; Deino, Alan, Berkeley Geochronology Center. I A Distinctive Glass Clast Population In numerous locations in Sonoma and Solano Counties in north central California, over an area of ~ 200 km2, distinctive ~ 1-5 cm dominantly ovoid glass clasts are found as part of the pebble population in young sediments. They are composed of black massive aphyric nonvesicular glass whose surfaces are totally covered with a texture of adjoining small deep pits and grooves. The pits are hemispherical, 1-10 mm across, and join at sharp edges composed of straight segments. The grooves, where present, are the width and depth of the pits and may be up to several cm long and vermicular. Some clasts have internal layering resembling flow textures. These glass objects were brought to our attention by a local resident, Ms. Diane Moore, about 20 years ago. Four of these glass clasts from widely separated locations in the exposure area have been dated by the laser incremental-heating Ar39/Ar40 method at the Berkeley Geochronology Center, with an age of ~ 2.81 Ma (upper Pliocene). The four samples have mutually overlapping ages at one sigma. Chemical analyses of the 10 major and 50 minor elements, of four widely separated clasts, were obtained at commercial laboratories. The clasts are all rhyolites and cluster tightly on the TAS diagram of Le Maitre et al (2002). All available data show that all these pitted and grooved clasts are part of a single population. II. The Clasts are Tektites We believe these distinctive glass clasts to be tektites for the following reasons: 1. Pits are always present and wholly cover the clast surface. Perhaps half the clasts also have distinctive irregular vermicular grooves superimposed on the pitted surface. This surface pattern is like those on other long-recognized 'classic' tektites, like indochinites. The clasts look like tektites; compare McCall (2001, Figure 2.30) for example. 2

  5. Thrust belt Formation followed by Back-Arc Extension: Mantle Dynamics from central North Island, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, T.; Stratford, W.; Salmon, M.; Pulford, A.

    2008-12-01

    In central North Island a useful geological and geophysical data exists to examine the evolution from retro-arc compression to back-arc extension in the Neogene. We show that the switch from compression to extensional deformation is related in space and time with an event that rapidly removed much of the mantle lithosphere beneath central and western North Island at about 5 Ma. The geophysical smoking gun for this removal process is in two parts: a regional surface uplift at about 5 Ma, and a sharp east-west, lithospheric boundary across which there is a 7 km jump in Moho as determined by a common conversion point stack of receiver functions. Also associated with the boundary is sharp change in mantle properties such as seismic P-wave attenuation, isostatic gravity and Pn wave speeds. A cluster of earthquakes in the depth range 20-35 km tightly correlates with the Moho step. Thickening then removal of mantle lithosphere within central and western North Island is consistent with its geological history. About 20 my of compression and fold and thrust development within western North Island built much of the Taranaki (foreland) basin during the Miocene. This 600 km long and 200 km wide basin is now the principal source of hydrocarbons for New Zealand. Up to 100 km of shortening in both crust and mantle is estimated from deep seismic reflection profiling, subsidence curves and plate reconstructions. At the close of the Miocene thrusting ceased and a rapid (post 5 Ma) and regional (400 km wide) exhumation event began. Based on mudstone porosity data, a maximum 2.5 km of rock uplift (1 km of surface uplift) occurred and this gave shape to much of the North Island land mass as we see today. The edge of the foreland basin was exhumed by up to 1.5 km and oil wells drilled in the margin date this event as starting at 5 Ma. After 5 Ma a switch to extension occurred with present day back-arc extension occurring at rates between 8-20 mm/y. This extension is accompanied by

  6. Paleocene Paleomagnetic Pole for north America from alkalic intrusions, central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; Beck, M.E. Jr.; Diehl, J.F.; Hearn, B.C. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The apparent polar wandering path from Late Cretaceous through early Tertiary time is not well defined. We have collected 33 paleomagnetic sites from the Paleocena Moccasin, Judith, and Little Rocky Mountains and from these a North American Paleocene paleomagnetic pole position has been determined at 174.9 /sup 0/W long., 80.5 /sup 0/N lat., with a circle of 95% confidence of 3.6 /sup 0/. This pole location serves as a Paleocene reference pole and enhances the North America apparent polar wandering path for a critical period of its history.

  7. Food of Flesh-footed shearwaters Puffinus carneipes associated with high-seas driftnets in the central North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, P.; Ostrom, P.; Walker, W.

    1997-01-01

    We examined digestive tract contents and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in breast muscles of Flesh-footed Shearwaters Puffinus carneipes associated with high-seas driftnet fisheries in the central North Pacific Ocean. Small fish, Lanternfish (Myctophidae) and Pacific Saury Cololabis saira, were the principal prey found in the digestive tracts. Pieces of unidentified fish, possibly Pacific Pomfret Brama japonica, and shredded squid tissue, mostly Neon Flying Squid Ommastrephes bartrami, in the digestive tracts indicate scavenging at driftnet fishing operations. Although softbodied animals such as Velella sp. were rare in the digestive tracts, low stable nitrogen isotope values (??15N) suggest Flesh-footed Shearwaters feed heavily on such low trophic level animals.

  8. Predictive simulation of alternatives for managing the water resources of North Fork Solomon River Valley between Kirwin Dam and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1974 water levels in the alluvial aquifer of the North Fork Solomon River Valley in north-central Kansas have decreased due to increases in ground-water pumpage, decreases in availability of surface water for irrigation, and below-average precipitation. A finite-element model was developed in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to simulate changing conditions between 1970-79. Model results indicate that annual recharge to the aquifer due to precipitation, applcation of water for irrigation, and canal leakage averaged about 22,825 acre-feet and that annual ground-wate discharge to the river averaged about 16,590 acre-feet. Predictive simulations for 1980-2000 were made using management alternatives that involved clay-lining of irrigation ditches, reduction of surface-water availability with and without an increase in ground-water pumping, and continuation of 1979 pumping conditions. The simulations indicated that as much as 5.5 feet of additional average water-level drawdown in wells would occur by 2000 if surface-water supply were reduced 100 percent and ground-water pumpage increased. The simulations also indicated that a decrease in average drawdown of 0.55 foot would occur by 2000 and that base flow to the river would decrease to 12,300 acre-feet per year if 1979 conditions remained constant. (USGS)

  9. Cretaceous stratigraphic sequences of north-central California suggest a discontinuity in the Late Cretaceous forearc basin

    SciTech Connect

    Haggart, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    The Cretaceous sedimentary succession preserved east of Redding, at the northern end of California's Great Valley, indicates that marine deposition was widespread in the region for only two periods during the Late Cretaceous. If it is assumed that there was minimal Cenozoic offset between the northern Sierra Nevada and eastern Klamath Mountains terranes, Cretaceous sedimentation in this region was most likely restricted to a narrow trough and was not a continuation of the wide, Cretaceous forearc basin of central California. The dissimilar depositional histories of the Redding basin and the Hornbrook basin of north-central California suggest that the basins were not linked continuously during the Late Cretaceous. A thick section of Cretaceous strata beneath the southwestern Modoc Plateau is considered unlikely.

  10. Carbonaceous aerosol over a Pinus taeda forest in Central North Carolina, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic aerosol is the least understood component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Presented in this study are organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) within ambient PM2.5 over a three-year period at a forested site in the North Carolina Piedmon. EC exhibited signifi...

  11. Impact of population expansion on genetic diversity and structure of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in Central North America.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jessica R; Brandt, Adam L; Ammer, Frank K; Roca, Alfred L; Serfass, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Populations of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) declined throughout large portions of the continent during the early 1900s due to habitat degradation and unregulated trapping. River otters had been extirpated in North Dakota (ND), but the Red River Valley has since been recolonized, with potential source populations including the neighboring states of Minnesota or South Dakota, or the Canadian province of Manitoba (MB). We genotyped 9 microsatellite loci in 121 samples to determine the source population of river otters in the Red River Valley of ND, as well as to assess population structure and diversity of river otters in central North America. Overall, genetic diversity was high, with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.58. Genetic differentiation was low (F ST < 0.05) between river otters in ND and those of Minnesota, suggesting that eastern ND was recolonized by river otters from Minnesota. River otters from MB were genetically distinct from all other sampled populations. Low genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.044) between South Dakota and Louisiana (LA) suggested that reintroductions using LA stock were successful. The genetic distinctiveness of river otters from different geographic regions should be considered when deciding on source populations for future translocations.

  12. Association of winter weather variability in Central and Eastern North America with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montroy, David L.

    Many authors have statistically documented the seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns linked to tropical Pacific (TP) SST anomaly (SSTA) events. Only recently have changes in the daily distributions of observed surface precipitation and temperature begun to be analyzed in this context. But no extensive linkage of TP SSTs with daily North American weather observations has been established. The present research contributes to the need for such a linkage using a comprehensive set of analyses relating monthly composite patterns to daily atmospheric flow. First, the approach used in an earlier analysis of precipitation data is applied to monthly averages of daily maximum/minimum temperatures during warm and cold TP SSTA events, providing a set of regions with notable precipitation or temperature anomalies during warm and cold TP SSTA events. The associated series of daily precipitation and temperature anomalies during warm TP SSTA events are examined to document the change in the frequency of daily observations, the duration of consecutive days of daily anomalies, and the antecedent North Pacific-North American atmospheric conditions. Additionally, for all results, the modulation of the TP SSTA-North American teleconnections by other atmospheric modes is examined. The monthly composite temperature analyses demonstrated that, similar to the earlier precipitation analysis, the patterns of monthly average daily temperature extremes yielded previously unknown regions associated with TP SSTAs. In particular, new regions found to be characterized by strong temperature anomalies included the eastern U.S. (warm, December), the central U.S. Great Plains (warm, February), and the U.S. Great Plains (cool, October-November) during warm TP SSTA events, and south central Canada (March-April) and the southern U.S. Great Plains (warm, December-April) during cold TP SSTA events. Additionally, the observed monthly precipitation/temperature anomalies during SSTA events after 1992

  13. Little Ice Age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.; Schuster, P.F.; Ready, M.M.; Taylor, H.E.; Yanosky, T.M.; McConnaughey, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The ??18O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95??? shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the ??18O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  14. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  15. Recent increases in atmospheric deposition of mercury to North-Central Wisconsin lakes inferred from sediment analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rada, R.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Winfrey, M.R.; Powell, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of total mercury (Hg) concentrations in sediments were examined in 11 lakes in north-central Wisconsin having a broad range of pH (5.1 to 7.8) and alkalinity (-12 to 769 μeq/L). Mercury concentrations were greatest in the top 15 cm of the cores and were much lower in the deeper strata. The Hg content in the most enriched stratum of individual cores ranged from 0.09 to 0.24 μg/g dry weight, whereas concentrations in deep, precolonial strata ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 μg/g. Sediment enrichment factors varied from 0.8 to 2.8 and were not correlated with lake pH. The increase in the Hg content of recent sediments was attributed to increased atmospheric deposition of the metal. Eight of the 11 systems studied were low-alkalinity lakes that presumably received most (≥90%) of their hydrologic input from precipitation falling directly onto the lake surface. Thus, the sedimentary Hg in these lakes seems more likely linked to direct atmospheric deposition onto the lake surfaces than to influxes from the watershed. The data imply that a potentially significant fraction of the high Hg burdens measured in game fish in certain lakes in north-central Wisconsin originated from atmospheric sources.

  16. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  17. Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

  18. Brief communication: the Uto-Aztecan premolar in early hunter-gatherers from South-Central North America.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew S

    2012-10-01

    The Uto-Aztecan premolar is a discrete dental trait found in low frequency (<2%) among world populations. The highest frequencies of the trait have been found among the indigenous populations of North America and, to a lesser extent, South America. Because of the trait's relatively higher frequency in the Western Hemisphere, the antiquity and distribution of the feather is important for reconstructing the biocultural interactions of prehistoric populations. While early research concluded that the Uto-Aztecan premolar originated in the American Southwest around 4,000 years Before Present (BP), more recent studies have discovered the trait across the Americas and in parts of Europe and Asia. For this study, over 300 dentitions representing foragers and farmers in south-central North America were examined. The trait was found in relatively high frequency (over 11%) in Archaic hunter-gatherer populations from Central Texas, with high frequencies also found in the adjacent western Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of this trait in Early Archaic populations suggests that the trait was present by 8,000 BP and persisted at a high frequency into the Late Archaic period.

  19. Phylogeny and Niche Conservatism in North and Central American Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), Vectors of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  20. Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

    2013-10-01

    Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

  1. The ants of North and Central America: the genus Mycocepurus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, William P.; Maes, Jean-Michel; Fernández, Patricia Rojas; Luna, Gladys

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We provide a review of the North American ants (north of Colombia) of the ant genus Mycocepurus, including keys to the workers and females, illustrations and distribution maps. The distribution of M. tardus is extended to Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The female of M. curvispinosus is described. Resumen Se revisan las especies del género Mycocepurus de Norte América (al norte de Colombia). Se incluyen claves para la identificación de las obreras y las hembras, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución. Se amplia hacia el norte la distribución de M. tardus, incluyendo ahora Nicaragua y Costa Rica y se describe la hembra de M. curvispinosus. PMID:15861242

  2. Water use and availability in the Woonasquatucket and Moshassuck River basins, north-central Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2005-01-01

    The Woonasquatucket River Basin includes 51.0 square miles, and the Moshassuck River Basin includes 23.8 square miles in north-central Rhode Island. The study area comprises these two basins. The two basins border each other with the Moshassuck River Basin to the northeast of the Woonasquatucket River Basin. Seven towns are in the Woonasquatucket River Basin, and six towns are in the Moshassuck River Basin. To determine the water use and availability in the study area, water supply and discharge data were collected for these river basins for the 1995–99 period, and compared to estimated long-term water available. The study area is unique in the State of Rhode Island, because no withdrawals from major public suppliers were made during the study period. Withdrawals were, therefore, limited to self-supplied domestic use, two minor suppliers, and one self-supplied industrial user. Because no metered data were available, the summer water withdrawals were assumed to be the same as the estimates for the rest of the year. Seven major water suppliers distribute an average of 17.564 million gallons per day for use in the study area from sources outside of the study area. The withdrawals from minor water suppliers were 0.017 million gallons per day in the study area, all in the town of Smithfield in the Woonasquatucket River Basin. The remaining withdrawals in the study area were estimated to be 0.731 million gallons per day by self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows in the study area included self-disposed water and disposal from permitted dischargers, including the Smithfield Sewage Treatment Plant. Return flows accounted for 4.116 million gallons per day in the study area. Most public-disposed water (15.195 million gallons per day) is collected by the Narragansett Bay Commission and is disposed outside of the basin in Narragansett Bay. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at one index

  3. Multistory duplexes with forward dipping roofs, north central Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.; Plafker, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Endicott Mountains allochthon has been thrust far northward over the North Slope parautochthon in the northern Brooks Range. Progressively younger units are exposed northward within the allochthon. To the south, the incompetent Hunt Fork Shale has thickened internally by asymmetric folds and thrust faults. Northward, the competent Kanayut Conglomerate forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Hunt Fork and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale. To the north, the competent Lisburne Group forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Kayak and a roof thrust in the Siksikpuk Formation. Both duplexes formed from north vergent detachment folds whose steep limbs were later truncated by south dipping thrust faults that only locally breach immediately overlying roof thrusts. Within the parautochthon, the Kayak, Lisburne, and Siksikpuk-equivalent Echooka Formation form a duplex identical to that in the allochthon. This duplex is succeeded abruptly northward by detachment folds in Lisburne. These folds are parasitic to an anticlinorium interpreted to reflect a fault-bend folded horse in North Slope "basement," with a roof thrust in Kayak and a floor thrust at depth. These structures constitute two northward tapered, internally deformed wedges that are juxtaposed at the base of the allochthon. Within each wedge, competent units have been shortened independently between detachments, located mainly in incompetent units. The basal detachment of each wedge cuts upsection forward (northward) to define a wedge geometry within which units dip regionally forward. These dips reflect forward decrease in internal structural thickening by forward vergent folds and hindward dipping thrust faults. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Hydrologic data; North Canadian River from Lake Overholser to Lake Eufaula, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The data contained in this report were gathered during the period 1982 to 1984 for use in constructing a digital model of the North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, in the western part of Oklahoma City, to Lake Eufaula, in eastern Oklahoma. Locations of test holes and sampling sites are show in figure 1. Information on well depths and water levels in table 1 was gathered in the summer of 1982. Some information in the table was reported by well owners. Field water-quality data for water temperatures, specific conductance, and pH were measured at the time the wells were inventoried in 1982 and appear in table 2. Forty-nine test holes were augered to provide more comprehensive lithologic and water-level data along the North Canadian River. Lithologic logs of these test holes appear in table 3. Thirty-eight of the test holes were completed as observations wells by placing perforated plastic casing in the holes. Water levels were measured in these observations wells from the time of completion in mid-1982 through mid-1984. Hydrographs of the observation wells are shown in figures 2 through 15. The data are presented graphically for clarity. Hydrographs of water-level fluctuations in two wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and hydrographs of stage fluctuations on the North Canadian River at nearby gaging stations are shown in figures 16 and 17. Two sets of low-flow measurements for the North Canadian River showing gains and losses in flow between measuring sites in the reach from Lake Overholser to Lake Eufaula are given in table 4. Measurements of flow on tributary streams are also given in this table. Analyses of water-quality samples collected at the time of the low-flow measurements are given in table 5.

  5. Thematic mapping, land use, geological structure and water resources in central Spain. [north of Madrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delascuevas, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A method for a rapid updating of cartography at scale 1:200,000 was established. An annular tectonic structure was detected north of Madrid which was named Structural Halo of Guadalix, since its center is situated in the locality of Guadalix de la Sierra. This circular complex has from 30 to 40 km of radius and its influences at its most extreme edges reach Madrid.

  6. Estimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in eastern and central North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Gay, D.A.; Prestbo, E.M.; Risch, M.R.; Johnson, D.; Narayan, J.; Zsolway, R.; Holsen, T.M.; Miller, E.K.; Castro, M.S.; Graydon, J.A.; St. Louis, V.L.; Dalziel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dry deposition of speciated mercury, i.e., gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), was estimated for the year 2008–2009 at 19 monitoring locations in eastern and central North America. Dry deposition estimates were obtained by combining monitored two- to four-hourly speciated ambient concentrations with modeled hourly dry deposition velocities (Vd) calculated using forecasted meteorology. Annual dry deposition of GOM+PBM was estimated to be in the range of 0.4 to 8.1 μg m−2 at these locations with GOM deposition being mostly five to ten times higher than PBM deposition, due to their different modeled Vd values. Net annual GEM dry deposition was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 26 μg m−2 at 18 sites and 33 μg m−2 at one site. The estimated dry deposition agrees very well with limited surrogate-surface dry deposition measurements of GOM and PBM, and also agrees with litterfall mercury measurements conducted at multiple locations in eastern and central North America. This study suggests that GEM contributes much more than GOM+PBM to the total dry deposition at the majority of the sites considered here; the only exception is at locations close to significant point sources where GEM and GOM+PBM contribute equally to the total dry deposition. The relative magnitude of the speciated dry deposition and their good comparisons with litterfall deposition suggest that mercury in litterfall originates primarily from GEM, which is consistent with the limited number of previous field studies. The study also supports previous analyses suggesting that total dry deposition of mercury is equal to, if not more important than, wet deposition of mercury on a regional scale in eastern North America.

  7. Identifying Pelagic Habitat Hotspots of Neon Flying Squid in the Temperate Waters of the Central North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Alabia, Irene D; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Mugo, Robinson; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Seito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We identified the pelagic habitat hotspots of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the central North Pacific from May to July and characterized the spatial patterns of squid aggregations in relation to oceanographic features such as mesoscale oceanic eddies and the Transition Zone Chlorophyll-a Front (TZCF). The data used for the habitat model construction and analyses were squid fishery information, remotely-sensed and numerical model-derived environmental data from May to July 1999-2010. Squid habitat hotspots were deduced from the monthly Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models and were identified as regions of persistent high suitable habitat across the 12-year period. The distribution of predicted squid habitat hotspots in central North Pacific revealed interesting spatial and temporal patterns likely linked with the presence and dynamics of oceanographic features in squid's putative foraging grounds from late spring to summer. From May to June, the inferred patches of squid habitat hotspots developed within the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone (KOTZ; 37-40°N) and further expanded north towards the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ; 40-44°N) in July. The squid habitat hotspots within the KOTZ and areas west of the dateline (160°W-180°) were likely influenced and associated with the highly dynamic and transient oceanic eddies and could possibly account for lower squid suitable habitat persistence obtained from these regions. However, predicted squid habitat hotspots located in regions east of the dateline (180°-160°W) from June to July, showed predominantly higher squid habitat persistence presumably due to their proximity to the mean position of the seasonally-shifting TZCF and consequent utilization of the highly productive waters of the SAFZ.

  8. Identifying Pelagic Habitat Hotspots of Neon Flying Squid in the Temperate Waters of the Central North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Alabia, Irene D.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Mugo, Robinson; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Seito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We identified the pelagic habitat hotspots of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the central North Pacific from May to July and characterized the spatial patterns of squid aggregations in relation to oceanographic features such as mesoscale oceanic eddies and the Transition Zone Chlorophyll-a Front (TZCF). The data used for the habitat model construction and analyses were squid fishery information, remotely-sensed and numerical model-derived environmental data from May to July 1999–2010. Squid habitat hotspots were deduced from the monthly Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models and were identified as regions of persistent high suitable habitat across the 12-year period. The distribution of predicted squid habitat hotspots in central North Pacific revealed interesting spatial and temporal patterns likely linked with the presence and dynamics of oceanographic features in squid’s putative foraging grounds from late spring to summer. From May to June, the inferred patches of squid habitat hotspots developed within the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone (KOTZ; 37–40°N) and further expanded north towards the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ; 40–44°N) in July. The squid habitat hotspots within the KOTZ and areas west of the dateline (160°W-180°) were likely influenced and associated with the highly dynamic and transient oceanic eddies and could possibly account for lower squid suitable habitat persistence obtained from these regions. However, predicted squid habitat hotspots located in regions east of the dateline (180°-160°W) from June to July, showed predominantly higher squid habitat persistence presumably due to their proximity to the mean position of the seasonally-shifting TZCF and consequent utilization of the highly productive waters of the SAFZ. PMID:26571118

  9. Identifying Pelagic Habitat Hotspots of Neon Flying Squid in the Temperate Waters of the Central North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Alabia, Irene D; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Mugo, Robinson; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Seito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We identified the pelagic habitat hotspots of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the central North Pacific from May to July and characterized the spatial patterns of squid aggregations in relation to oceanographic features such as mesoscale oceanic eddies and the Transition Zone Chlorophyll-a Front (TZCF). The data used for the habitat model construction and analyses were squid fishery information, remotely-sensed and numerical model-derived environmental data from May to July 1999-2010. Squid habitat hotspots were deduced from the monthly Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models and were identified as regions of persistent high suitable habitat across the 12-year period. The distribution of predicted squid habitat hotspots in central North Pacific revealed interesting spatial and temporal patterns likely linked with the presence and dynamics of oceanographic features in squid's putative foraging grounds from late spring to summer. From May to June, the inferred patches of squid habitat hotspots developed within the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone (KOTZ; 37-40°N) and further expanded north towards the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ; 40-44°N) in July. The squid habitat hotspots within the KOTZ and areas west of the dateline (160°W-180°) were likely influenced and associated with the highly dynamic and transient oceanic eddies and could possibly account for lower squid suitable habitat persistence obtained from these regions. However, predicted squid habitat hotspots located in regions east of the dateline (180°-160°W) from June to July, showed predominantly higher squid habitat persistence presumably due to their proximity to the mean position of the seasonally-shifting TZCF and consequent utilization of the highly productive waters of the SAFZ. PMID:26571118

  10. Depositional sequence evolution, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic of the central Saharan platform, North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, A.R.G. )

    1991-08-01

    Over 30 depositional sequences have been identified in the Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic of the Ghadames basin of eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and western Libya. Well logs and lithologic information from more than 500 wells were used to correlate the 30 sequences throughout the basin (total area more than 1 million km{sup 2}). Based on systematic change in the log response of strata in successively younger sequences, five groups of sequences with distinctive characteristics have been identified: Cambro-Ordivician, Upper Silurian-Middle Devonian, Upper Devonian, Carboniferous, and Middle Triassic-Middle Jurassic. Each sequence group is terminated by a major, tectonically enhanced sequence boundary that is immediately overlain (except for the Carboniferous) by a shale-prone interval deposited in response to basin-wide flooding. The four Paleozoic sequence groups were deposited on the Saharan platform, a north facing, clastic-dominated shelf that covered most of North Africa during the Paleozoic. The sequence boundary at the top of the Carboniferous sequence group is one of several Permian-Carboniferous angular unconformities in North Africa related to the Hercynian orogeny. The youngest sequence group (Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic) is a clastic-evaporite package that onlaps southward onto the top of Paleozoic sequence boundary. The progressive changes from the Cambrian to the Jurassic, in the nature of the Ghadames basin sequences is a reflection of the interplay between basin morphology and tectonics, vegetation, eustasy, climate, and sediment supply.

  11. Soil-geomorphology and “wet” cycles in the Holocene record of North-Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzer, Karl W.; Abbott, James T.; Frederick, Charles D.; Lehman, Paul H.; Cordova, Carlos E.; Oswald, John F.

    2008-10-01

    The distinction between the impact of climatic periodicities or land-use practices on soil erosion is an important issue for Pre-Hispanic and Colonial Mexico. That question can best be addressed by first documenting the dynamics of changing "wet" cycles during the Holocene in the central Mexican region between the northern limits of Pre-Hispanic agriculture and its southern margins in northwestern Chihuahua. Consequently the Laguna Project targeted a 125,000 km 2 sector of North-Central Mexico, 250 km from north to south and 500 km from east to west, from Saltillo to Durango. Some 40 sedimentary profiles with multiple cumulic soils were studied in the field and laboratory, supported by 163 conventional 14C and AMS dates on charcoal and soil humates. We distinguish: (1) wet floodplains (with humic paleosols, redox phenomena reflecting high water tables, channel-ponding sequences, and interbedded tufas) that imply aquifer recharge, sustained base flow, and mainly low-energy conditions; and (2) high-energy pulses of discharge that mobilized cobble gravels or forced channel entrenchment ("gullying") and were tied to episodic, excessive rains that promoted valley and slope instability. In between such "wet" cycles and recurrent disequilibrium events, climate was similar to today, probably less humid, with limited geomorphologic change or slow soil formation. "Wet" cycles were rare at the end of the Pleistocene, but prominent during the Holocene. Disequilibrium proxies became common and dramatic after 2500 BP. The drainages from the Eastern and Western Sierra Madres responded in phase, but varied in detail. Around AD 1050-1200 "natural" erosion led to loss of soil organic carbon, as alternating severe droughts and heavy rains destroyed the ground cover and led to ecological aridification, well before arrival of Spanish miners and settlers. The evidence that human activity triggered Pre-Hispanic or Colonial erosion in Central Mexico should therefore be re

  12. Evidence for an Upper Palaeozoic North-Palaeotethyan succession in Central Iran: The Siah Godar Complex of Jandaq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, Fabrizio; Zanchi, Andrea; Malaspina, Nadia; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Koohpeyma, Meysam; Angiolini, Lucia; Vachard, Daniel; Zanchetta, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Palaeozoic successions exposed SW of Jandaq, Central Iran, have been studied in the frame of the DARIUS PROGRAMME. These successions, different from the typical passive margin succession of Gondwanan affinity of the Central Iran block, represent keystones for the reconstruction of the convergence (latest Palaeozoic) and docking (Triassic) of Iran to the margin of Eurasia, despite their original relationships have been modified by Mesozoic to Quaternary tectonics, hampering Palaeozoic palaeogeographic reconstructions. In the Jandaq area, three isolated Upper Palaeozoic outcrops, different for tectonic deformation and lithological composition, are preserved close to amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Jandaq Complex. The southernmost of these outcrops (Chah Rizab) consists of a succession of volcanics interbedded with severely deformed carbonate layers, Fammenian-Tournaisian in age (Bagheri and Stampfli, 2008) according to conodonts, unconformably covered by conglomerates with volcanic and granitoid blocks. The intermediate outcrop is characterized by deformed massive limestones (Early to Late Carboniferous, Sharkovski et al.; 1984) yielding crinoid ossicles, brachiopods (Choristites aff. C. mosquensis, Orulgania sp.)and bryozoans. They are associated with cherty limestones, fine-grained siliciclastics and bedded limestones rich in isolated corals. Shallow marine sedimentation with local episodes of deeper water facies can be inferred. A lithologically different, poorly deformed succession occurs slightly to the north: it consists of alluvial plain sandstones and conglomerates containing marble, volcanic and sedimentary pebbles, as well as granitoids and granophyres. U-Pb radiometric dating on zircons from these rocks are in progress. In the upper part of the unit, marine ingressions are documented by coastal well-selected quartzarenites and a thin limestone intercalation containing brachiopods (Choristites aff. C. mosquensis, Choristites sp

  13. Long-Billed Curlew Breeding Success on Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges, South-Central Washington and North-Central Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stocking, Jessica; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Holcomb, Neil; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus) reproductive success was evaluated on the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuges of south-central Washington and north-central Oregon during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. Additionally, we assisted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in collecting information on distribution, abundance, and brood habitat for this shorebird species of conservation concern. A total of 32 breeding pairs were located on the refuges in 2007 and 35 pairs were located in 2008. We monitored 17 nests in 2007 and 23 nests in 2008. Curlew pairs were most abundant on Hanford Reach National Monument in 2007 but more nests were located on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge in both years, with Columbia National Wildlife Refuge supporting few pairs. Nest success was 23.6 percent in 2007 and 32.9 percent in 2008 after taking into account exposure time and combining data for all the refuges. We were unable to detect any relationship between nest success and habitat type or habitat variables measured. However, our study was the first to document use of agricultural fields on the refuge as curlew nest habitat. We collected 39 and 28 brood locations in 2007 and 2008, respectively, and many observations were likely resightings of the same brood. Broods used a similar variety of habitats as nesting curlew and no clear habitat use pattern was detected.

  14. Black carbon and other light-absorbing particles in snow of central North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Sarah J.; Dang, Cheng; Hegg, Dean A.; Zhang, Rudong; Warren, Stephen G.

    2014-11-01

    Vertical profiles of light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow were sampled from 67 North American sites. Over 500 snow samples and 55 soil samples from these sites were optically analyzed for spectrally resolved visible light absorption. The optical measurements were used to estimate black carbon (BC) mixing ratios in snow (CBCest), contributions to absorption by BC and non-BC particles, and the absorption Ångström exponent of particles in snow and local soil. Sites in Canada tended to have the lowest BC mixing ratios (typically ~5-35 ng g-1), with somewhat higher CBCest in the Pacific Northwest (typically ~5-40 ng g-1) and Intramountain Northwest (typically 10-50 ng g-1). The Northern U.S. Plains sites were the dirtiest, with CBCest typically ~15-70 ng g-1 and multiple sample layers with >100 ng g-1 BC in snow. Snow water samples were also chemically analyzed for standard anions, selected carbohydrates, and various elements. The chemical and optical data were input to a Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of the sources of particulate light absorption. These were soil, biomass/biofuel burning, and fossil fuel pollution. Comparable analyses have been conducted for the Arctic and North China, providing a broad, internally consistent data set. As in North China, soil is a significant contributor to snow particulate light absorption in the Great Plains. We also examine the concentrations and sources of snow particulate light absorption across a latitudinal transect from the northern U.S. Great Plains to Arctic Canada by combining the current data with our earlier Arctic survey.

  15. Jahnula species from North and Central America, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Raja, H A; Shearer, C A

    2006-01-01

    Three new species of loculoascomycetes collected from freshwater habitats in North America are described as new species of Jahnula (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes). All three share these morphological features: hyaline to blackish translucent, membranous ascomata with subtending, wide, septate brown, spreading hyphae; peridia composed of large angular cells; hamathecium of septate pseudoparaphyses; 8-spored, clavate to cylindrical asci; and 1-septate, broadly fusiform, brown, multiguttulate ascospores. Four additional species, J. aquatica, J. bipolaris, J. potamophila, and J. seychellensis, are reported for the first time from the western hemisphere. PMID:16894977

  16. Productivity, ventilation and oxygenation in the north-central Bering Sea during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. S.; Ravelo, A. C.; Caissie, B.; Addison, J. A.; Kusler, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    During the last deglaciation, the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the North Pacific intensified, resulting in laminated and dysoxic continental margin sediments at intermediate depths from the Gulf of California to Japan. The ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Water can cause basin-wide changes in OMZ intensity, but increased export productivity near intermediate-water formation areas can also affect the North Pacific OMZ by decreasing oxygen concentrations of recently-formed water, decoupling ventilation from oxygenation. There is evidence that both productivity and ventilation of the subarctic Pacific changed at millennial time scales during the deglaciation. Both processes could have impacted the oxygenation of subsurface water originating in the North Pacific and the basin-wide OMZ. We studied IODP Site U1345, from 1000 meters water depth on the continental slope of the Bering Sea, and a nearby piston core, HLY02-02-3JPC. High terrigenous sediment fluxes result in an expanded deglacial sequence, with millimeter-scale annual laminations during the Bolling-Allerod (BA) and early Holocene. We measured benthic and planktonic foraminiferal radiocarbon, paleoproductivity proxies, and bulk sediment δ15N to reconstruct the local production and ventilation history in this marginal sea. During the early deglaciation, there is a convergence of benthic and planktonic radiocarbon ages, accompanied by a minimum of d15N and increasing productivity. This suggests there were episodes of convection to at least 1000 m, accompanied by greater major nutrient supply to the surface ocean and lower utilization. During the BA, the water column at 1000 m was enriched in radiocarbon compared to today, but with no evidence of local convection. From the BA through the early Holocene, laminated, high productivity, high δ15N sediments alternate with massive, lower productivity, low δ15N sediments, but the benthic-planktonic radiocarbon age differences are stationary. If we assume that

  17. Reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to the deep central South Pacific during the last two glacial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Kescher, Mario; Frank, Martin; Tapia, Raúl; Ronge, Thomas A.; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    The South Pacific is a sensitive location for the variability of the global oceanic thermohaline circulation given that deep waters from the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Pacific Basin are exchanged. Here we reconstruct the deep water circulation of the central South Pacific for the last two glacial cycles (from 240,000 years ago to the Holocene) based on radiogenic neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotope records complemented by benthic stable carbon data obtained from two sediment cores located on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise. The records show small but consistent glacial/interglacial changes in all three isotopic systems with interglacial average values of -5.8 and 18.757 for ɛNd and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, whereas glacial averages are -5.3 and 18.744. Comparison of this variability of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) to previously published records along the pathway of the global thermohaline circulation is consistent with reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to CDW during cold stages. The absolute values and amplitudes of the benthic δ13C variations are essentially indistinguishable from other records of the Southern Hemisphere and confirm that the low central South Pacific sedimentation rates did not result in a significant reduction of the amplitude of any of the measured proxies. In addition, the combined detrital Nd and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope signatures imply that Australian and New Zealand dust has remained the principal contributor of lithogenic material to the central South Pacific.

  18. Late Cretaceous-Paleogene deepwater basin of North Afghanistan and the Central Pamirs: Issue of Hindu Kush earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaz'min, V. G.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Tikhonova, N. F.

    2010-03-01

    The within-Iranian backarc basins, including the largest Sebzawar Basin, opened in the Mid-Cretaceous. Spreading in this basin was completed by the end of the Cretaceous. The basin closed in the Eocene with the formation of subduction zones and volcanic-plutonic belts. Data on North Afghanistan and the Central Pamirs have allowed us to reconstruct the eastern continuation of the Sebzawar Basin up to the west of the Central Pamirs. No fragments of oceanic crust are retained in Afghanistan and the Pamirs, but by analogy with the Sebzawar Basin, thick Paleogene flysch sequences and volcanic-plutonic complexes indicate setting of the active margin and subduction. It is suggested that the belt of mantle seismicity that extends for 550 km to the south of the Central Pamirs is related to the plunging and deformation of the lithosphere once underlying the Cretaceous-Paleogene basin. The extremely vigorous seismicity of the Hindu Kush megasource at the western termination of the seismic belt is caused by a number of specific tectonic features that predetermined the early onset of plunging of the subducted sheet (slab). In the megasource, the slab sank to a depth of 300 km and became vertical; its active deformation has proceeded up to the present. In the eastern part of the seismic belt, the slab started to plunge much later and therefore has retained a gentle slope, so that the depth of the hypocenters is shallower (down to 200 km), and earthquakes are less strong.

  19. Winter raptor use of the Platte and North Platte River Valleys in south central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lingle, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Winter distribution and abundance of raptors were monitored within the Platte and North Platte river valleys. Data were collected along 265 km of census routes along the Platte and North Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1979 and 1979-1980. Observations recorded during the second winter involved less observation time and were at somewhat different periods. There were 1574 sightings of 15 species representing 3 raptor families. Number of raptors observed on 54 days from 15 November to 13 February 1978-1979 was 48.3 per 100 km. In 20 days of observation from 5 December to 6 March 1979-1980, 39.7 raptors were observed per 100 km. Small mammal indices were 21 and 12 captures per 1000 trap nights during November 1978 and 1979, respectively. Raptors were sighted most frequently in riverine habitat and least in pasture and tilled fields. American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (11.1 individuals/100 km), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (9.9), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (9.6) were the most frequently sighted raptors. Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), rough-legged hawk (B. lagopus), and prairie falcon (P. mexicanus) sightings were 3.4, 3.4, and 1.7, respectively. Nine species were seen at a frequency of less than 1.0 individuals/100 km. Improved foraging conditions throughout the region resulted in fewer raptors sighted in 1979-1980.

  20. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  1. Lower Palaeozoic of North-Western and West-Central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The first compilation in English of the stratigraphy, palaeontology, sedimentology, palaeogeography, and palaeoclimatology of the Lower Palaeozoic found in this area. The fourth volume in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the World Series discusses geological formations such as the lower Cambrian tribolite-bearing sequences of Morocco, those showing evidence of late Ordovician glaciation in West-Central Africa, and the Silurian-Devonian sequences of Morocco and Algeria.

  2. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv>Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  3. Legacy source of mercury in an urban stream-wetland ecosystem in central North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Deonarine, Amrika; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Zhang, Tong; Cai, Yong; Richardson, Curtis J

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, aquatic mercury contamination originates from point and non-point sources to watersheds. Here, we studied the contribution of mercury in urban runoff derived from historically contaminated soils and the subsequent production of methylmercury in a stream-wetland complex (Durham, North Carolina), the receiving water of this runoff. Our results demonstrated that the mercury originated from the leachate of grass-covered athletic fields. A fraction of mercury in this soil existed as phenylmercury, suggesting that mercurial anti-fungal compounds were historically applied to this soil. Further downstream in the anaerobic sediments of the stream-wetland complex, a fraction (up to 9%) of mercury was converted to methylmercury, the bioaccumulative form of the metal. Importantly, the concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury were reduced to background levels within the stream-wetland complex. Overall, this work provides an example of a legacy source of mercury that should be considered in urban watershed models and watershed management.

  4. Database compilation for the geologic map of the San Francisco volcanic field, north-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bard, Joseph A.; Ramsey, David W.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Ulrich, George E.; Newhall, Christopher G.; Moore, Richard B.; Bailey, Norman G.; Holm, Richard F.

    2016-01-08

    The orignial geologic maps were prepared under the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey as a basis for interpreting the history of magmatic activity in the volcanic field. The San Francisco field, which is largely Pleistocene in age, is in northern Arizona, just north of the broad transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range province. It is one of several dominantly basaltic volcanic fields of the late Cenozoic age situated near the margin of the Colorado Plateau. The volcanic field contains rocks ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite—the products of eruption through Precambrian basement rocks and approximately a kilometer of overlying, nearly horizontal, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. About 500 km3 of erupted rocks cover about 5,000 km2 of predominantly Permian and locally preserved Triassic sedimentary rocks that form the erosionally stripped surface of the Colorado Plateau in Northern Arizona.

  5. Database compilation for the geologic map of the San Francisco volcanic field, north-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bard, Joseph A.; Ramsey, David W.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Ulrich, George E.; Newhall, Christopher G.; Moore, Richard B.; Bailey, Norman G.; Holm, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    The orignial geologic maps were prepared under the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey as a basis for interpreting the history of magmatic activity in the volcanic field. The San Francisco field, which is largely Pleistocene in age, is in northern Arizona, just north of the broad transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range province. It is one of several dominantly basaltic volcanic fields of the late Cenozoic age situated near the margin of the Colorado Plateau. The volcanic field contains rocks ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite—the products of eruption through Precambrian basement rocks and approximately a kilometer of overlying, nearly horizontal, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. About 500 km3 of erupted rocks cover about 5,000 km2 of predominantly Permian and locally preserved Triassic sedimentary rocks that form the erosionally stripped surface of the Colorado Plateau in Northern Arizona.

  6. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Cindy Combs,; Peters, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) changes the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLC on ecosystem dynamics during hot, dry Mediterranean climate summers. FLCC indices were generated from 26,000 hourly night and day FLCC maps derived from Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite (GOES) data for June, July, August, and September, 1999- 2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N, south of Monterey Bay, to latitude 41.95°N, north of Crescent City. Monthly FLCC average hours per day (h/d) range from < 2 to 18. Average FLCC over the ocean increases from north (9 h/d) to south (14 h/d) whereas FLCC over land is reversed. Over land, FLCC is highest where land juts into the prevailing NW winds and is lowest in the lee of major capes. FLCC advects furthest inland through low-lying NW ocean-facing valleys. At night hours of FLCC is higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. Interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long term geographic stability strongly associated with landform position. Contours delineating homogeneous zones of FLCC, derived from average decadal h/d FLCC, provide data to refine the commonly used term ‘fog belt.’ FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website. FLCC indices can be used to improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models, meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns, ecohydrological investigations of evapotranspiration, solar energy feasibility studies, agricultural irrigation demand and viticultural ripening models.

  7. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Combs, Cindy; Peters, Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) strongly influences the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLCC on ecosystem dynamics especially during hot and dry Mediterranean climate summers. Monthly, annual, and decadal FLCC digital maps (indices) were derived for June-September 1999-2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N (south of Monterey Bay) to latitude 41.95°N (north of Crescent City) from 26,000 hourly night and day Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) images. Monthly average FLCC ranges from <2 to 18 hours per day (h/d). Average FLCC over the ocean increases from north (9 h/d) to south (14 h/d), whereas on land, FLCC is highest where land juts into the prevailing NW winds and is lowest in the lee of major capes. FLCC advects farthest inland through low-lying NW ocean-facing valleys. At night, average total hours of FLCC are higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. The interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long-term geographic stability that is strongly associated with landform position. FLCC hours per day mapped contours, derived from decadal average FLCC, delineate the commonly used term "fog belt" into FLCC zones with increased locational precision. FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website (http://climate.calcommons.org/datasets/summertime-fog). FLCC indices can improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models; understanding meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns; solar energy feasibility studies; investigations of ecohydrology, evapotranspiration, and agricultural irrigation demand; and viticulture ripening models.

  8. Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A.

    1996-10-02

    A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  10. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  11. Principal facts for gravity profiles collected near the Osgood Mountains and the Slumbering Hills, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.; Kucks, Robert P.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents principal facts for gravity stations collected along profiles near the Osgood Mountains and Slumbering Hills, north- central Nevada. These include (1) data collected near the Osgood Mountains by U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel in the years 1989, 1990, and 1993; and (2) data released to the USGS by Battle Mountain Gold (now Battle Mountain Exploration) that were collected in 1989 near the Osgood Mountains and the Slumbering Hills. The digital data, text of this report (figures in separate files) can be downloaded via 'anonymous ftp' from a USGS system named greenwood.cr.usgs.gov (136.177.21.122). The files are located in a directory named /pub/open-file-reports/ofr-97-0085 and are described in an ASCII file named readme.txt. This information is also contained below in Table 1.

  12. Late Acheulean hominins at the Marine Isotope Stage 6/5e transition in north-central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, Michael; Roberts, Richard G.; Shipton, Ceri; Pal, J. N.; Fenwick, Jacqueline L.; Ditchfield, Peter; Boivin, Nicole; Dubey, A. K.; Gupta, M. C.; Petraglia, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating was applied to Late Quaternary sediments at two sites in the Middle Son Valley, Madhya Pradesh, India. Designated Bamburi 1 and Patpara, these sites contain Late Acheulean stone tool assemblages, which we associate with non-modern hominins. Age determinations of 140-120 ka place the formation of these sites at around the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6-5 transition, placing them among the youngest Acheulean sites in the world. We present here the geochronology and sedimentological setting of these sites, and consider potential implications of Late Pleistocene archaic habitation in north-central India for the initial dispersal of modern humans across South Asia.

  13. Deep regional resistivity structure across the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin trends, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetotelluric data collected along four, regional scale, southwest-to-northeast profiles show deep resistivity structures beneath the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin gold trends in north-central Nevada, which appear consistent with tectonic breaks in the crust that possibly served as channels for hydrothermal fluids. It seems likely that gold deposits along these linear trends were, therefore, controlled by deep regional crustal fault systems. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of the magnetotelluric data generally show resistive (30 to 1,000 ohm-m) crustal blocks broken by narrow, sub-vertical, two-dimensional, conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) zones that are indicative of large-scale crustal fault zones. These inferred fault zones are regional in scale, trend southeast-to-northwest, and extend to mid-crustal (20 km) depths. The conductors are about 3 to 15 km wide, extend from 1 to 8 km below the surface to about 20 km depth, and show two-dimensional electrical structure with general north to northwesterly strikes. From connecting the locations of the conductors together, a single regional crustal fault zone can be inferred that is about 10 km wide within the upper crust and about 150-km long. It coincides with the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trend. The images also show regional changes in the resistive crust from north to south. Most of Reese River Valley and Boulder Valley are underlain by a thick (20 km) southwest-to-northeast section of conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) rock, suggesting that hightemperature fluids are more pervasive in this area (Battle Mountain Heat-Flow High), which implies that the crust beneath these valleys is more fractured than in the areas surveyed to the south

  14. Significance of tourmaline-rich rocks in the north range group of the cuyuna iron range, East-Central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleland, J.M.; Morey, G.B.; McSwiggen, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of tourmaline in Early Proterozoic metasedirnentary rocks of the Cuyuna iron range, east-central Minnesota, provide a basis for redefinition of the evolutionary history of the area. Manganiferous iron ore forms beds within the Early Proterozoic Trommald Formation, between thick-bedded granular iron-formation having shallow-water depositional attributes and thin-bedded, nongranular iron-formation having deeper water attributes. These manganese-rich units were previously assumed to be sedimentary in origin. However, a revaluation of drill core and mine samples from the Cuyuna North range has identified strata-bound tourmaline and tourmalinite, which has led to a rethinking of genetic models for the geology of the North range. We interpret the tourmaline-rich rocks of the area to be a product of submarine-hydrothermal solutions flowing along and beneath the sedirnent-seawater interface. This model for the depositional environment of the tourmaline is supported by previously reported mineral assemblages within the Trommald Formation that comprise aegirine; barium feldspar; manganese silicates, carbonates, and oxides; and Sr-rich barite veins. In many places, tourmaline-rich metasedimentary rocks and tourmalinites are associated locally with strata-bound sulfide deposits. At those localities, the tourmaline-rich strata are thought to be lateral equivalents of exhalative sulfide zones or genetically related subsea-floor replacements. On the basis of the occurrence of the tourmaline-rich rocks and tourmalinites, and on the associated minerals, we suggest that there is a previously unrecognized potential for sediment-hosted sulfide deposits in the Cuyuna North range.

  15. Potentiometric surface, 2012, and water-level differences, 2005-12, of the Sparta Aquifer in north-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Benton D.; Brantly, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The Sparta aquifer is used in 15 parishes in north-central Louisiana, primarily for public supply and industrial purposes. Of those parishes, eight (Bienville, Claiborne, Jackson, Lincoln, Ouachita, Union, Webster, and Winn) rely on the Sparta aquifer as their principal source of groundwater. In 2010, withdrawals from the Sparta aquifer in Louisiana totaled 63.11 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), a reduction of more than 11 percent from 1995, when the highest rate of withdrawals (71.32 Mgal/d) from the Sparta aquifer were documented. The Sparta aquifer provides water for a variety of purposes which include public supply (34.61 Mgal/d), industrial (25.60 Mgal/d), rural domestic (1.50 Mgal/d), and various agricultural (1.40 Mgal/d). Of the 13 major aquifers or aquifer systems in Louisiana, the Sparta aquifer is currently (2012) the sixth most heavily pumped. The Sparta aquifer is the second most heavily pumped aquifer in Arkansas, which borders Louisiana to the north. In 2005, 170 Mgal/d were withdrawn from the Sparta aquifer in eastern and southern Arkansas; of that total, about 15.55 Mgal/d were withdrawn from the aquifer in Union County, which borders Claiborne and Union Parishes to the north. By 1997, a large cone of depression (a cone-shaped depression in the potentiometric surface caused by and centered on a pumping well or wells) in the Sparta aquifer centered over Union County had merged with the cone of depression at West Monroe. In 2004, the rate of withdrawal from the Sparta aquifer in Union County began to decline and water levels in the aquifer began to rise in nearby areas of Arkansas and Louisiana.

  16. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  17. Slip rate and earthquake recurrence along the central Septentrional fault, North American-Caribbean plate boundary, Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Septentrional fault zone (SFZ) is the major North American-Caribbean, strike-slip, plate boundary fault at the longitude of eastern Hispaniola. The SFZ traverses the densely populated Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, forming a prominent scarp in alluvium. Our studies at four sites along the central SFZ are aimed at quantifying the late Quaternary behavior of this structure to better understand the seismic hazard it represents for the northeastern Caribbean. Our investigations of excavations at sites near Rio Cenovi show that the most recent ground-rupturing earthquake along this fault in the north central Dominican Republic occurred between A.D. 1040 and A.D. 1230, and involved a minimum of ???4 m of left-lateral slip and 2.3 m of normal dip slip at that site. Our studies of offset stream terraces at two locations, Rio Juan Lopez and Rio Licey, provide late Holocene slip rate estimates of 6-9 mm/yr and a maximum of 11-12 mm/yr, respectively, across the Septentrional fault. Combining these results gives a best estimate of 6-12 mm/yr for the slip rate across the SFZ. Three excavations, two near Tenares and one at the Rio Licey site, yielded evidence for the occurrence of earlier prehistoric earthquakes. Dates of strata associated with the penultimate event suggest that it occurred post-A.D. 30, giving a recurrence interval of 800-1200 years. These studies indicate that the SFZ has likely accumulated elastic strain sufficient to generate a major earthquake during the more than 800 years since it last slipped and should be considered likely to produce a destructive future earthquake.

  18. Paleoecology of an early Holocene faunal and floral assemblage from the Dows Local Biota of north-central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Curtis M.

    1984-05-01

    The faunas and floras from the Dows Local Biota provide an opportunity to compare Holocene taxa without a cultural bias. The Dows Local Biota is located in a large depression on the back side (north) of the Altamont I Moraine complex within the Des Moines Lobe. The Dows Silt Fauna/Flora ( = DSF; ca. 9380 ± 130 yr B.P.), one horizon of the Dows Local Biota, was collected for plant macrofossils, mollusks, and micromammals. DSF terrestrial gastropods are upland mesic forest dwellers although one species, Strobilops affinis, is characteristic of more xeric forests and may represent open woods. The aquatic gastropods reflect both permanent and periodic waters. DSF micromammals prefer an open, mesic, deciduous forest. The micromammal sympatry is restricted to a small area within the tension zone and deciduous forest belt of west-central Wisconsin. DSF plants are characteristic of upland forests, moist meadowlands or disturbed areas, and aquatic habitats. The DSF plant sympatry is large but restricted to the conifer-hardwood and deciduous forests along the Great Lakes-New England regions. Quantitative climatic data for the combined DSF sympatries suggest that Dows (ca. 9380 yr B.P.) was cooler than at present, and is nearly identical to that achieved by pollen analyses at the Cherokee Sewer-Lake West Okoboji sites (ca. 9000 yr B.P.) in northwest Iowa. Based on common habitat interpretations and sympatries, about 9380 yr B.P. north-central Iowa was cooler and moister than at present and was occupied by an open deciduous forest.

  19. Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

  20. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Nanushuk, Seabee, and Tuluvak formations exposed on Umiat Mountain, north-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous strata of the upper part of the Nanushuk Formation, the Seabee Formation, and the lower part of the Tuluvak Formation are exposed along the Colville River on the east flank of Umiat Mountain in north-central Alaska. The Ninuluk sandstone, which is the uppermost unit of the Nanushuk Formation, displays a vertical succession of facies indicative of deposition in an upward-deepening estuarine through shoreface setting. A marine-flooding surface lies between the Ninuluk sandstone and organic-rich shale of the basal part of the Seabee Formation. The Ninuluk sandstone and the lower part of the Seabee Formation are interpreted as components of a transgressive-systems tract. The lowest, well-exposed strata in the Seabee Formation are a succession of shoreface sandstone beds in the middle of the formation. Integration of outcrop information and the Umiat No. 11 well log suggests that this sandstone succession rests on a sequence boundary and is capped by a marine-flooding surface. The sandstone succession is interpreted as a lowstand-systems tract. The upper part of the Seabee Formation includes a thick interval of organic-rich shale deposited in a dysaerobic offshore environment, and the gradational Seabee-Tuluvak contact is a coarsening-upward shale-to-sandstone succession deposited in a prodelta/delta-front environment. The observation that the upper part of the Seabee Formation correlates with seismic clinoforms suggests that dysaerobic conditions extended well up onto the prodelta slope during intervals of transgression and highstand. Correlation of the Umiat Mountain outcrop section with well logs and seismic data suggests that sequence boundaries and lowstand shoreface deposits may be common in the Seabee Formation and that wave action may have been important in transporting sand to the paleoshelf margin. These conclusions may contribute to an enhanced understanding of sand distribution in prospective lowstand turbidite deposits in the subsurface of

  1. Current and future niche of North and Central American sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases.

  2. Little ice age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The {gamma}{sup 18}O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95{per_thousand} shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the {gamma}{sup 18}O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  3. Thermal maturity and organic composition of Pennsylvanian coals and carbonaceous shales, north-central Texas: Implications for coalbed gas potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Guevara, E.H.; Hentz, T.F.; Hook, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal maturity was determined for about 120 core, cuttings, and outcrop samples to investigate the potential for coalbed gas resources in Pennsylvanian strata of north-central Texas. Shallow (< 600??m; 2000??ft) coal and carbonaceous shale cuttings samples from the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian Strawn, Canyon, and Cisco Groups in Archer and Young Counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland basin (northwest and downdip from the outcrop) yielded mean random vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values between about 0.4 and 0.8%. This range of Ro values indicates rank from subbituminous C to high volatile A bituminous in the shallow subsurface, which may be sufficient for early thermogenic gas generation. Near-surface (< 100??m; 300??ft) core and outcrop samples of coal from areas of historical underground coal mining in the region yielded similar Ro values of 0.5 to 0.8%. Carbonaceous shale core samples of Lower Pennsylvanian strata (lower Atoka Group) from two deeper wells (samples from ~ 1650??m; 5400??ft) in Jack and western Wise Counties in the western part of the Fort Worth basin yielded higher Ro values of about 1.0%. Pyrolysis and petrographic data for the lower Atoka samples indicate mixed Type II/Type III organic matter, suggesting generated hydrocarbons may be both gas- and oil-prone. In all other samples, organic material is dominated by Type III organic matter (vitrinite), indicating that generated hydrocarbons should be gas-prone. Individual coal beds are thin at outcrop (< 1??m; 3.3??ft), laterally discontinuous, and moderately high in ash yield and sulfur content. A possible analog for coalbed gas potential in the Pennsylvanian section of north-central Texas occurs on the northeast Oklahoma shelf and in the Cherokee basin of southeastern Kansas, where contemporaneous gas-producing coal beds are similar in thickness, quality, and rank.

  4. Current and future niche of North and Central American sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

  5. Structure of the Cordillera de la Costa Belt, North-Central Venezuela: Implications for plate tectronic models

    SciTech Connect

    Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Sisson, V.B.; Wright, J.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary results of an on-going study of the Cordillera de la Costa belt between Puerto Cabello and Choroni, north-central Venezuela, indicate that the deformational history is far more complicated than expected from simple plate-tectonic models. The Cordillera de la Costa belt consists of oceanic rocks (e.g., serpentinites, amphibilites, with lenses of eclogite and blueschist) intimately intermixed with metamorphosed continental margin deposits (e.g., mica and graphite schist, quartzite, marble). Locally, large granitic (basement ) complexes of Lower Paleozoic age are included as well. In late Cretaceous time, the entire belt was involved in four synmetamorphic deformations phases (D[sub 1a] to D[sub 1d]); the first (D[sub 1a]) occurred at depths of at 35-40 km and the later ones at successively shallower depths. This deformation occurred in a subduction zone, related to right-oblique convergence of the Farallon and Atlantic plates. The most penetrative structures resulted from (all in present coordinates) north-south contraction and east-west dextral simple shear (D[sub 1b]). During an Early Tertiary ( ) event (D[sub 2]), the belt was emplaced southward onto the South American continental margin. Subsequent deformational structures (D[sub 3]) resulted in cross folds and faults (with small pull-apart basins) which are consistent with the eastward passage of the Caribbean past the South American plate.

  6. Evaluating Religious Influences on the Utilization of Maternal Health Services among Muslim and Christian Women in North-Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujtaba, Maryam; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Galadanci, Hadiza; Erekaha, Salome; Okundaye, Joshua N.; Adeyemi, Olusegun A.; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Uptake of antenatal services is low in Nigeria; however, indicators in the Christian-dominated South have been better than in the Muslim-dominated North. This study evaluated religious influences on utilization of general and HIV-related maternal health services among women in rural and periurban North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Targeted participants were HIV-positive, pregnant, or of reproductive age in the Federal Capital Territory and Nasarawa. Themes explored were utilization of facility-based services, provider gender preferences, and Mentor Mother acceptability. Thematic and content approaches were applied to manual data analysis. Results. Sixty-eight (68) women were recruited, 72% Christian and 28% Muslim. There were no significant religious influences identified among barriers to maternal service uptake. All participants stated preference for facility-based services. Uptake limitations were mainly distance from clinic and socioeconomic dependence on male partners rather than religious restrictions. Neither Muslim nor Christian women had provider gender preferences; competence and positive attitude were more important. All women found Mentor Mothers highly acceptable. Conclusion. Barriers to uptake of maternal health services appear to be minimally influenced by religion. ANC/PMTCT uptake interventions should target male partner buy-in and support, healthcare provider training to improve attitudes, and Mentor Mother program strengthening and impact assessment. PMID:27006944

  7. Chemical composition of bulk precipitation in the North-Central and Northeastern United States, December 1980 through February 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Norman E.; Bonelli, Joseph E.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of bulk precipitation were collected at 179 sites in the North-Central and Northeastern United States for 3 months during winter 1980-81 to provide data on the distribution of chemical constituents. Concentrations and average daily loads of 29 dissolved constituents were determined. Sodium and chloride deposition was relatively high in coastal areas and adjacent to some urban centers. Regional patterns of to daily loads of hydrogen ion, nitrate, lead, and iron correlate well with one another and form a concentric pattern around the center of high deposition in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania, suggesting an urban-industrial source. Samples from this area had low pH (5.7). The latter samples had high concentrations of calcium and total inorganic carbon, suggesting pH control by soil-derived carbonate minerals. Deposition patterns of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate display regional highs in Illinois, Indiana, and southwestern Michigan, suggesting agricultural sources such as fertilizer. Median loads of zinc, iron, and lead were lower than reported in previous studies for North America. The apparent decrease in lead since 1950 throughout the area is attributed to reduced consumption of leaded fuels and lower deposition in winter.

  8. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control. PMID:26918306

  9. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  10. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kumar, Sumit; Wright, Kendra; Kramer, Louisa; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Owen, Robert; Helmig, Detlev

    2014-12-09

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron

  11. New insights into the origin of late Neogene sediments in the Umatilla Basin, north-central Oregon and south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A. ); Tolan, T.L. . Dept. of Geology); Reidel, S.P. )

    1993-04-01

    The study of late Miocene-aged terrigenous clastic sediments in the Umatilla Basin of north-central Oregon and adjacent Klickitat Valley of southern Washington reveal important, previously unrecognized stratigraphic and lithologic trends. These sediments, comprising the upper Ellensburg and the Alkali Canyon Formations (14 to 8.5 Ma) previously have been characterized as basaltic gravels deposited in localized alluvial fans and minor air fall tuffs produced by Cascade volcanism. A minor extrabasinal (exotic) component to these sediments has been noted in some previous studies. The authors' data challenges these interpretations. Pebble counts reveal a variety of exotic clast types, including metavolcanics, laminated metasediments, quartzites, and intermediate to silicic volcanics. This assemblage of lithologies is different than those that characterize the ancestral Columbia and Salmon-Clearwater Rivers. Sedimentologic trends suggest fluvial rather than alluvial fan deposition dominated. They interpret that a major fluvial system flowed from SE to NW across the western third of the Umatilla Basin. This river exited the Umatilla Basin via the Rock Creek water gap in the Columbia Hills, flowed across the Klickitat Valley and the Horse Heaven Hills, and then intersected the ancestral Columbia River. The abundance and stratigraphic distribution of exotic clast types suggests that this river drained terranes south and east of the Blue Mountains and persisted for a significant period of time, from approximately 14.5 to 8.5 Ma.

  12. Validation of attenuation models for ground motion applications in central and eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently developed attenuation models are incorporated into standard one-dimensional (1-D) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), effectively making them two-dimensional (2-D) and eliminating the need to create different GMPEs for an increasing number of sub-regions. The model is tested against a data set of over 10,000 recordings from 81 earthquakes in North America. The use of attenuation models in GMPEs improves our ability to fit observed ground motions and should be incorporated into future national hazard maps. The improvement is most significant at higher frequencies and longer distances which have a greater number of wave cycles. This has implications for the rare high-magnitude earthquakes, which produce potentially damaging ground motions over wide areas, and drive the seismic hazards. Furthermore, the attenuation models can be created using weak ground motions, they could be developed for regions of low seismicity where empirical recordings of ground motions are uncommon and do not span the full range of magnitudes and distances.

  13. Validation of attenuation models for ground motion applications in central and eastern North America

    DOE PAGES

    Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently developed attenuation models are incorporated into standard one-dimensional (1-D) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), effectively making them two-dimensional (2-D) and eliminating the need to create different GMPEs for an increasing number of sub-regions. The model is tested against a data set of over 10,000 recordings from 81 earthquakes in North America. The use of attenuation models in GMPEs improves our ability to fit observed ground motions and should be incorporated into future national hazard maps. The improvement is most significant at higher frequencies and longer distances which have a greater number of wave cycles. This has implications for themore » rare high-magnitude earthquakes, which produce potentially damaging ground motions over wide areas, and drive the seismic hazards. Furthermore, the attenuation models can be created using weak ground motions, they could be developed for regions of low seismicity where empirical recordings of ground motions are uncommon and do not span the full range of magnitudes and distances.« less

  14. A landscape level analysis of potential excess nitrogen in east-central North Carolina, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Ashwood, Tom L

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this research was to arrive at an assessment of potential excess nitrogen (N) under different land cover categories in the Neuse River Basin (North Carolina, USA) on a seasonal basis. Data on five processes (atmospheric N deposition, fertilization, net soil N mineralization, plant uptake, and denitrification) that contribute to potential excess N under different land cover categories were obtained from a literature review. Factors were also estimated to apportion annual N fluxes among different seasons of the year. Potential excess N was calculated as the difference between inputs to and outputs from an inorganic N pool. If inputs exceeded outputs, then the difference was assumed to represent N at risk of loss from the landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwaters. Land covers that were classified as potential N sources were influenced by soil N inventories and rates of net soil N mineralization (which is a natural process). The results indicated that there are large land areas in the Neuse River Basin that could be classified as either a N source or a N sink. Such areas are potentially sensitive because future changes in land use, or small alterations in N fluxes, could convert areas that are essentially in balance with respect to N biogeochemistry into the N source or N sink category. In this respect, model predictions indicate that the timing of N inputs and outputs on the landscape can be a critical determinant of potential excess N.

  15. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis; Knowlton, Kim; Rogers, Christine; Dalan, Dan; Tierney, Nicole; Elder, Mary Ann; Filley, Warren; Shropshire, Jeanne; Ford, Linda B; Hedberg, Curtis; Fleetwood, Pamela; Hovanky, Kim T; Kavanaugh, Tony; Fulford, George; Vrtis, Rose F; Patz, Jonathan A; Portnoy, Jay; Coates, Frances; Bielory, Leonard; Frenz, David

    2011-03-01

    A fundamental aspect of climate change is the potential shifts in flowering phenology and pollen initiation associated with milder winters and warmer seasonal air temperature. Earlier floral anthesis has been suggested, in turn, to have a role in human disease by increasing time of exposure to pollen that causes allergic rhinitis and related asthma. However, earlier floral initiation does not necessarily alter the temporal duration of the pollen season, and, to date, no consistent continental trend in pollen season length has been demonstrated. Here we report that duration of the ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) pollen season has been increasing in recent decades as a function of latitude in North America. Latitudinal effects on increasing season length were associated primarily with a delay in first frost of the fall season and lengthening of the frost free period. Overall, these data indicate a significant increase in the length of the ragweed pollen season by as much as 13-27 d at latitudes above ~44°N since 1995. This is consistent with recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections regarding enhanced warming as a function of latitude. If similar warming trends accompany long-term climate change, greater exposure times to seasonal allergens may occur with subsequent effects on public health.

  16. Early Holocene Change in Atmospheric Circulation in the North-Central USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, W. E.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous proxies in cores from Elk Lake, northwestern Minnesota, have provided a record of climatic and environmental change with annual resolution for the last 10,000 years. The proxies that allow reconstruction of the lake's physical and chemical paleolimnology (diatoms, redox-sensitive trace metals, and 18O values) show that that prior to about 8.2 cal ka the lake was a stable, dimictic lake that was strongly stratified. The same proxies show that after 8.2 cal. ka the lake was turbulent, well-mixed and shallower. The proxies that are related to climate factors external to the lake (dust as % Al and % Si, varve thickness, and pollen) show that prior to 8.2 cal. ka the lake was receiving relatively little dust, implying little wind activity. After 8.2 cal ka, there was a marked increase in the influx of dust indicating an increase in westerly winds. Lastly, the ostracode faunal assemblages, which provide information about the limnology and watershed characteristics, indicate that, for 1000 years prior to 8.2 cal. ka, the lake was stable and dilute with characteristics typical of lakes in boreal forests. At 8.2 cal. ka, the ostracode assemblage abruptly shifted to an assemblage typical of Canadian prairie lakes that exhibit large seasonal variability in physical characteristics. This marks the northward displacement of the polar front and beginning of westerlies. The Elk Lake record further shows that the so-called 8.2 cal. yr cold event, recognized in ice-core and other records from the circum-North Atlantic, and thought by some to be caused by catastrophic drainage of freshwater from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway, was but a brief manifestation of a more fundamental and lasting change in the climate of North America. This fundamental climate change was the result of changes in atmospheric circulation in response to marked changes in the relative proportions of land, water, and, especially, glacial ice in North America during the early Holocene, the

  17. Idiosyncrasies of Cherokee genetic sequence of strata, north-central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    O'brien, J.E.

    1987-08-01

    In plan view, the individual genetic increments of strata that comprise the Cherokee genetic sequence of strata are, for the most part, a complex maze of anastomosing fluvial channels generally trending north-south. This picture is further complicated by many isolated pods, splays, and partially preserved minor channels between and outside of the main channels. When viewed in cross section, a few of the individual thick sandstone deposits (50-100 ft) are the result of a single depositional event. Most of these deposits are the result of the stacking of two or three individual channels. An additional complication occurs when downcutting into an underlying interval results in younger sandstones being stacked on older sandstones or occupying an interval that would appear to correlate with the older unit. The rigid use of stereotype principles, such as type electric log signatures (e.g., bell shaped indicating a channel, inverted bell a bar, etc), unimaginative isopach contouring, computer generated data and/or maps, and scout card or other published information will yield erroneous interpretations. Electric logs need to be intelligently examined and interpreted. Numerous cross sections need to be constructed to show proper stratigraphic relationships. Well cuttings need to be examined microscopically. Isopach maps must be constructed with interpretive imagination, not by rote, in order to yield valid oil-finding interpretations.

  18. Benthic habitat and geologic mapping of the outer continental shelf of north-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anima, Roberto J.; Chin, John L.; Conrad, James E.; Golden, Nadine E.

    2006-01-01

    The Fanny Shoal area is located between North Farallon Island and Cordell Bank approximately 40 miles west of San Francisco, California. The area lies within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) which is located just a few miles from San Francisco. The waters within the GFNMS are part of a nationally significant marine ecosystem encompassing a diversity of highly productive marine habitats. Protection of the living and cultural resources at the sites are administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) and NOAA, including the GFNMS, and Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS), collected side-scanning sonar, and underwater video data over three cruises in July of 2003, and April of 2004. The data are consolidated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce benthic habitat and geologic maps that provide researchers and those involved in decision making with crucial, georeferenced geologic information that will aid in preserving the area's environment.

  19. Fluid expulsion features associated with sand waves on Australia's central North West Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. T.; Kennard, J. M.; Logan, G. A.; Grosjean, E.; Marshall, J.

    2009-08-01

    Multibeam swath bathymetric data collected in 95-120 m water depth on Australia's North West Shelf revealed two distinct populations of sand waves: a laterally extensive, low-amplitude composite form comprising superimposed dunes and ripples, and a laterally restricted form which has unusually high bedform heights and slopes. These large subaqueous sand waves comprise bioclastic ooid/peloid sand. Significantly, evidence of seabed fluid flow was detected in association with the high-amplitude sand waves. This evidence includes seabed pockmarks approximately 2-15 m in diameter imaged with side-scan sonar, tubular and massive carbonate concretions dredged from the seabed, and potential active venting of a fluid plume from the seabed observed during an underwater camera tow. Molecular and isotopic analyses of carbonate concretions collected from within pockmarks associated with the high-amplitude sand waves indicate that the fluids from which they precipitated comprise modern seawater and are not related to thermogenic fluids or microbial gases. The fluid flow is interpreted to be driven by macrotidal currents flowing over the relatively steep slopes of the high-amplitude sand waves. Pockmarks and carbonate concretions then develop where the interstitial flows are confined and focused by subsurface `mounds' in a shallow seismic reflector.

  20. Interpretation of gravity data by the continuous wavelet transform: The case of the Chad lineament (North-Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Braitenberg, Carla; Yang, Yushan

    2013-03-01

    A slightly bended gravity high along the Chad lineament in Central North Africa is analyzed and interpreted by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) method. We use scale normalization on the continuous wavelet transform, allowing analysis of the gravity field in order to determine the sources at different depths. By focusing on homogenous standard sources, such as sphere or cube, horizontal cylinder or prism, sheet and infinite step, we derive the relationships between the source depth and pseudo-wavenumber. Then the source depth can be recovered from tracing the maximal values of the modulus of the complex wavelet coefficients in the CWT-based scalograms that are function of the pseudo-wavenumber. The studied area includes a central gravity high up to 75 km wide, and a secondary high that occurs at the southern part of the anomaly. The interpretation of the depth slices and vertical sections of the modulus maxima of the complex wavelet coefficients allows recognition of a relatively dense terrane located at middle crustal levels (10-25 km depth). A reasonable geological model derived from the 2.5D gravity forward modelling indicates the presence of high density bodies, probably linked to a buried suture, which were thrusted up into the mid-crust during the Neo-Proterozoic terrane collisions between the Saharan metacraton and the Arabian-Nubian shield. We conclude that the Chad line delineates a first order geological boundary, missing on the geologic maps.

  1. Environmental change in the mid-Boteti area of north-central Botswana: Biophysical processes and human perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringrose, Susan; Chanda, Raban; Nkambwe, Musisi; Sefe, Francis

    1996-05-01

    Increased interest in environmental change issues has led researchers to consider more integrated approaches to change dynamics. This paper examines change in terms of land degradation in north-central Botswana from both biophysical and human perspectives. Although seasonal and periodic droughts were prevalent, analysis of rainfall data over the past 70 years revealed no downward trend. However, indicators of declining productivity such as soil erosion, loss of vegetation cover, and a declining groundwater table were amply evident. The GIS analysis of remotely sensed data has shown that complete vegetation recovery after drought is not taking place, particularly in the south-central part of the study area. These areas contained the highest human and livestock population densities. The local people acknowledged facing increasing resource depletion and indicated drought as the main cause. Pressures on available resources, particularly during drought periods, appeared to have impeded the regenerative capacity of the natural vegetation cover, thereby inducing land degradation. This situation may not easily be rectified because of widespread poverty and inappropriate local perceptions of the solutions. Both of these hinder the adoption of sustainable land management.

  2. Current distribution of North American river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma, with seven new county records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation reintroduced North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) from coastal Louisiana into eastern Oklahoma. Those reintroductions and immigration from Arkansas and possibly northeastern Texas allowed river otters to become reestablished in eastern Oklahoma. Our goals were to determine the contemporary distribution of river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma with voucher specimens, sign surveys, and mail surveys and to compare proportion of positive detections among watersheds. We report new distributional records with voucher specimens from seven counties (Adair, Bryan, Coal, Johnston, McIntosh, Okfuskee, Tulsa) in Oklahoma. We also provide locality information for specimens collected from four counties (Haskell, McCurtain, Muskogee, Wagoner) where river otters were described in published literature but no voucher specimens existed. During winter and spring 2006 and 2007, we visited 340 bridge sites in 28 watersheds in eastern and central Oklahoma and identified river otter signs in 16 counties where river otters were not previously documented in published literature or by voucher specimens. Proportion of positive sites within each watershed ranged 0–100%. Mail surveys suggested that river otters occurred in eight additional counties where they were not previously documented by published literature, voucher specimens, or sign-survey efforts.

  3. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  4. Subsurface flows in the seasonally stratified central North Sea : analysis of drifter tracks through observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, C.; McCloghrie, P.; Fernand, L.; Brown, J.; Young, E. F.

    2003-04-01

    Holey-sock drifters have been tracked by ARGOS satellite in the Central North Sea during summer-stratified conditions of 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001 and 2002. Drogued at depths of 20-30m, they aim to capture the baroclinic jets set up by isolated cold pool bottom fronts. These cold pools of relict winter water remain through the summer in areas of low tidal energy and are effectively sealed off from overlying waters by a strong thermocline. Observational and modelling studies have identified such dynamics in the basins both north of the Dogger Bank - Fladen Grounds - and south - Oyster Grounds. The drifter tracks used in this study were interpolated and tidally filtered to produce regular time interval drifter positions. By correlation with wind data from the UK Meteorological Office Unified Model output, the locally wind-driven and baroclinic components of the drifters' flow were determined. Following assessments of (1) individual drifter tracks and (2) spatial/temporal segmentation of the collective drifter tracks, a regional and interannual understanding of the area has been built up. Additional observational data (including that gathered with high resolution towed undulating CTD's on a Scanfish) have been used to support and quantify the flows, as has a 3-D density-resolving model based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The drifters have been simulated using a particle-tracking model run on POM's flow field output, simulating the paths of drifters at depth. Through running the two together in various modes, it has been possible to account for certain parts of the drifters' tracks. These results contribute to a previously coarser understanding of North Sea circulation and show the importance of seasonal structure there. They demonstrate that fast baroclinic jets have the potential to transport biological and contaminant matter (e.g., fish larvae/eggs; and nutrients/heavy metals) in different and more organised flow fields than those previously recognised. This

  5. Intercontinental transport of pollution from North America to Europe: Airborne trace gas measurements over Central and Northern Europe during CONTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Schlager, H.; Heland, J.; Forster, C.; Stohl, A.; Lawrence, M.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Cooper, O.

    2003-04-01

    The CONTRACE project investigates the uplift of pollution in frontal systems (warm conveyor belts) over North America and the transport of these air masses to Europe. The first airborne field experiment was carried out from Southern Germany in fall 2001. The DLR research aircraft Falcon was equipped with a complex instrumentation to measure NO, NOy, CO, CO2, O3, J(NO2), acetone, SO2, ions, H2O2, formaldehyde, NMHC, J(O1D) and particles. An extensive set of chemical and meteorological forecast products, including trajectory calculations, was developed and used in combination with satellite images to plan the flights. A passive tracer for surface emissions (CO) was included in the forecast models to separate the regional and intercontinental transport of polluted air masses. For the first time it succeeded to guide the Falcon aircraft into pollution plumes transported all the way from North America (NA). On 22nd November a complex chemical weather situation was predicted for Central Europe with lifting of European emissions into the lower troposphere ahead of an approaching cold front and simultaneously, the advection of a pollution plume from Eastern NA in mid tropospheric layers. Similar CO mixing ratios were observed in both plumes making it difficult to distinguish the two plumes without additional trace gas information. The European pollution plume was characterized by large enhancements in the CO (150 ppbv) and NOy (6 ppbv) mixing ratios. The NOy/CO ratio was 0.135 (typical value for fresh emissions). In comparison the estimated NOy/CO ratio for the NA pollution plume was 0.010 which indicate a tracer age of 4 days. The observed CO and NOy mixing ratios in this plume were 160 ppbv and 1 ppbv. The two plumes were also characterized by very different O3/CO relationships. In the plume from NA a positive O3/CO slope was observed indicating photochemical ozone production (O3 mixing ratios up to 50 ppbv were observed). Most likely O3 was produced photochemically in

  6. Growth dynamics and biodiversity of larch forest after wildfire at the north of central Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, I.

    1996-12-31

    Investigations of qualitative and quantitative changes occurring in disturbed forest communities in Siberia are now recognized as important issues, since anthropogenic stress is increasingly affecting forests from year to year and often results in irreversible decomposition of forest ecosystems over large areas. In forests of central Siberia, fire accounts for the greatest disturbance. The level of fire-caused forest destruction is noticeably high. Space imagery analysis has revealed that, from 1980 throughout 1995, the average annual forest area covered by fires was more than 500,000 ha. In as much as this is a country with permafrost soils, fires promote swamping and treeless areas. However, forests regenerate naturally on some burned areas. Forest regeneration can occur either with stand replacement (through secondary birch) or without replacement when new forests are formed by the pre-fire edificators. The second way of succession is ecologically more preferable, because the larch population is more resistant to external influences and keeps its native biodiversity.

  7. Intestinal and blood parasites in the North Lore District, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Carney, W P; Masri, S; Stafford, E E; Putrali, J

    1977-06-01

    Over 1,000 stool specimens from residents of the Napu and Besoa Valleys, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia were examined. Schistosoma japonicum was detected in 31% of Napu Valley residents while in only 2% of the Besoa Valley residents. Hookworm infections were the most frequently encountered helminth parasitisms in both valleys. Other helminth parasites encountered were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Physaloptera sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., echinostome and heterophyid trematodes. Intestinal protozoa endemic to the area were: Entamoeba histolytica, E. coli, E. hartmanni, Iodamoebe bütschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix mesnili and Trichomonas hominis. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for malaria parasitaemias in 5% of 1353 specimens examined and Brugia malayi microfilaraemias were detected in 10% of 972 specimens examined. PMID:335530

  8. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  9. Reprint of “Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alheit, Jürgen; Licandro, Priscilla; Coombs, Steve; Garcia, Alberto; Giráldez, Ana; Santamaría, Maria Teresa Garcia; Slotte, Aril; Tsikliras, Athanassios C.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamics of abundance and migrations of populations of small pelagic clupeoid fish such as anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sardinella (Sardinella aurita), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the eastern North and Central Atlantic between Senegal and Norway vary in synchrony with the warm and cool phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). This is shown by compiling retrospective data on fish catches and anecdotal observations, which in some cases date back to the mid-19th century. The AMO is defined as the de-trended mean of North Atlantic (0-60°N) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, it is not primarily the temperature which drives the dynamics of the small pelagic fish populations. Instead, the AMO seems to be a proxy for complex processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system of the North Atlantic. This is manifested in large-scale changes in strength and direction of the current system that move water masses around the North Atlantic and likely involves the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) and the subpolar gyre (SPG). The contractions and expansions of the SPG apparently play a key role. This was particularly obvious in the mid-1990s, when the SPG abruptly contracted with the result that warm subtropical water masses moved to the north and east. Small pelagic fish populations in the eastern North and Central Atlantic, including those in the Mediterranean responded quickly by changing abundances and migrating northwards. It seems that the complex ocean-atmosphere changes in the mid-1990s, which are described in the text in detail, caused a regime shift in the ecosystems of the eastern North and Central Atlantic and the small pelagic clupeoid fish populations are the sentinels of this shift.

  10. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alheit, Jürgen; Licandro, Priscilla; Coombs, Steve; Garcia, Alberto; Giráldez, Ana; Santamaría, Maria Teresa Garcia; Slotte, Aril; Tsikliras, Athanassios C.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of abundance and migrations of populations of small pelagic clupeoid fish such as anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sardinella (Sardinella aurita), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the eastern North and Central Atlantic between Senegal and Norway vary in synchrony with the warm and cool phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). This is shown by compiling retrospective data on fish catches and anecdotal observations, which in some cases date back to the mid-19th century. The AMO is defined as the de-trended mean of North Atlantic (0-60°N) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, it is not primarily the temperature which drives the dynamics of the small pelagic fish populations. Instead, the AMO seems to be a proxy for complex processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system of the North Atlantic. This is manifested in large-scale changes in strength and direction of the current system that move water masses around the North Atlantic and likely involves the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) and the subpolar gyre (SPG). The contractions and expansions of the SPG apparently play a key role. This was particularly obvious in the mid-1990s, when the SPG abruptly contracted with the result that warm subtropical water masses moved to the north and east. Small pelagic fish populations in the eastern North and Central Atlantic, including those in the Mediterranean responded quickly by changing abundances and migrating northwards. It seems that the complex ocean-atmosphere changes in the mid-1990s, which are described in the text in detail, caused a regime shift in the ecosystems of the eastern North and Central Atlantic and the small pelagic clupeoid fish populations are the sentinels of this shift.

  11. High-resolution single-channel seismic reflection surveys of Orange Lake and other selected sites of north central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The potential fluid exchange between lakes of north central Florida and the Floridan aquifer and the process by which exchange occurs is of critical concern to the St. Johns Water Management District. High-resolution seismic tools with relatively new digital technology were utilized in collecting geophysical data from Orange, Kingsley, Lowry and Magnolia Lakes, and the Drayton Island area of St. Johns River. The data collected shows the application of these techniques in understanding the formation of individual lakes, thus aiding in the management of these natural resources by identifying breaches or areas where the confining units are thin or absent between the water bodies and the Floridan aquifer. Orange Lake, the primary focus of the study, is a shallow flooded plain that was formed essentially as an erosional depression in the clayey Hawthorn formation. The primary karstic features identified in the lake were cover subsidence, cover collapse and buried sinkholes structures in various sizes and stages of development. Orange Lake was divided into three areas southeast, southwest, and north-central. Karst features within the southeast area of Orange Lake are mostly cover subsidence sinkholes and associated features. Many of the subsidence features found are grouped together to form larger composite sinkholes, some greater than 400 m in diameter. The size of these composite sinkholes and the number of buried subsidence sinkholes distinguish the southeast area from the others. The potential of lake waters leaking to the aquifer in the southeast area is probably controlled by the permeability of the cover sediments or by fractures that penetrate the lake floor. The lake bottom and subsurface of the north-central areas are relatively subsidence sinkholes that have no cover sediments overlying them, implying that the sinks have been actively subsiding with some seepage into the aquifer from the lake in this area due to the possible presence of the active subsidence

  12. Sources of salinity near a coal mine spoil pile, North-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Johnson, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    A small (1 km2) salt-affected stream drainage on the High Plains north of Denver, Colorado was sampled to determine the near-surface dispersion of soluble salts and metals from low-sulfur coal mining waste (spoil). Surface waters collected along the 0.8-km stream reach, and aqueous leachates of spoil and naturally saline local soil, were analyzed for chemical constituents and sulfur isotopes. In this semiarid setting with abundant carbonate-bearing surficial sediments, the limited, mildly acidic drainage from the spoil pile is quickly neutralized, restricting the mobility of many elements. However, some spoilderived constituents were clearly traceable within the upper 0.4 km of the stream reach. Spoil leachates and surface water near the spoil pile have distinctive compositions of major anions and cations, and elevated levels of dissolved nitrate compared with downstream waters. Spoil-derived sulfate was traceable because it has generally positive values of ??34S that contrasted with generally negative values of ??34S in soil leachates and evaporite salts from the surrounding area. Spatial-chemical sampling of surface water showed an abrupt increase in dissolved U, Se, B, Li, and Mn in the lower 0.4 km of the stream reach where shallow ground water from surrounding irrigated fields contributed to surface flow. The downstream evolution of surface water chemistry and sulfur isotopic composition is consistent with mixing between spoil-affected upstream water and irrigation-return water. The methods described should be applicable at other sites in similar settings where the environmental effect of low-sulfur coal mining waste must be assessed and where access to samples of shallow ground water is limited.

  13. Deformation of the Roberts Mountains Allochthon in north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James George; Theodore, Ted G.

    1978-01-01

    During the Antler orogeny in Late Devonian and Early Mississippian time, early and middle Paleozoic siliceous rocks, largely chert and sha1e, were thrust eastward for 90 to 160 km over coexisting carbonate rocks. Minor and major structures of two small areas of the allochthon at Battle Mountain and in the southern Tuscarora Mountains were studied in order to characterize the deformation and test the consistency of the movement plan with respect to the large eastward displacement. In the Battle Mountain area, the lower Paleozoic Scott Canyon and Valmy Formations were deformed in the Antler orogeny but were unaffected by later tectonism during late Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. In the southern Tuscarora Mountains area, the Ordovician and Silurian siliceous rocks deformed in the Antler Orogeny were deformed by later, possibly Mesozoic, folding and thrusting. Most of the minor folding visible in the allochthon is in the cheret, but proportionally more of the strain was taken up in the shale and argillite, both poorly exposed but predominant rock types. Most minor folds, concentric in form, plunge at small angles to the north-northeast and south-southwest with steeply dipping or vertical axial planes. The b-fabric axis, parallel to these folds, is identical apparently to the B-kinematic axis. The horizontal component of tectonic shortening of the allochthon, N. 70?-75? W. both in the Battle Mountain area and in the southern Tuscarora Mountains area, is therefore consistent with an eastward direction of movement of the allochthon. Folds with west- northwest trends locally present in the allochthon, may have formed in the direction of tectonic transport. In the southern Tuscarora Mountains, local strain in and below the allochthon was different from the prevailing strain in the allochthon, and tectonic shortening was locally at large angles to the accepted direction of movement of the allochthon.

  14. Mid-Cretaceous unconformity in the Methow basin, north-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Haugerud, R.A.; Hurlow, H.A. ); Tabor, R.W. ); Snee, L.W. )

    1993-04-01

    New mapping in the Methow basin demonstrates a significant unconformity beneath mid-Cretaceous strata of the Pasayten Group and may explain stratigraphic contrasts puzzling to earlier workers. The Pasayten Group, defined along regional strike to the north in Manning Park, includes Virginia Ridge Fm. (shallow-marine argillite and chert-clast-rich sandstone and conglomerate), Winthrop Sandstone (fluvial arkose), and Midnight Peak Fm. (redbeds and andesitic volcanic rocks) in ascending stratigraphic order. Local unconformities and lateral gradations amongst Pasayten Group units result in no one unit lying above the unconformity. Hornblende from Midnight Peak andesite on Isabella Ridge yields an [sup 40]Ar-[sup 39]Ar age of 87.0 [+-] 0.4 (1[sigma]) Ma, though Pasayten Group strata elsewhere are intruded by 88--90 Ma plutons and thus much of the unit is older. From west to east the Pasayten Group lies on progressively older strata. In upper Three Fools Creek, west of the Cascade crest, it lies on unnamed marine strata, more than 1 km thick, which conformably overlie 3 km of sand-rich turbidites of the Albian Harts Pass Fm. In the Osceola Peak-Harts Pass area it lies on upper Harts Pass turbidites. Southwest of Monument 85 and west of Hidden Lakes it lies on probable Early Cretaceous (pre-Harts Pass-age) lithic marine sandstone and siltstone. On Isabella Ridge it lies on [approximately]150 Ma tonalite and older volcanic rocks. This unconformity predates most of the conspicuous thrusts and related folds that characterize the Methow basin. Adjacent to the Pasayten fault, pre- and intra-Pasayten Group unconformities have reduced the stratigraphic section to scraps of Winthrop Sandstone and probable lower Cretaceous conglomerate locally preserved between Midnight Peak andesite and older volcanic rocks, suggesting continued early and mid-Cretaceous movement along the Pasayten fault.

  15. Geometry, evolution, and tectonic framework of the Skeena Fold Belt, north central British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenchick, Carol A.

    1991-06-01

    The Intermontane Belt of the Canadian Cordillera has long been viewed as a passive, relatively rigid block between two metamorphic-plutonic belts, the Coast Plutonic Complex and the Omineca Belt. However, the Skeena Fold Belt, which spans most of the width of the northern Intermontane Belt, exhibits shortening comparable with that in the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt. The Skeena Fold Belt has many features of thin-skinned fold and thrust belts, such as thrust faults which sole into a detachment, a wide variety of structural styles which depend on rock type, a foreland basin which was cannibalized by continued deformation, a frontal triangle zone, and a hinterland of metamorphic and plutonic rocks (Coast Plutonic Complex). The Skeena Fold Belt thus is comparable with the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt, but rather than deforming a continental terrace wedge, it developed in a terrane (Stikinia) which had accreted to North America in the early Mesozoic, and in Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic successions (Bowser Lake and Sustut groups) which overlie Stikinia. Structural and stratigraphic relationships show that the earliest deformation occurred between Oxfordian and Albian time and that the last folds developed in latest Cretaceous or early Tertiary time. As much as 160 km of northeastward shortening in the Skeena Fold Belt was broadly contemporaneous with crustal thickening in the Coast Plutonic Complex and Omineca Belt, with dextral strike-slip faulting east of the Skeena Fold Belt, and with shortening in the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt. Therefore, between latest Jurassic and early Tertiary times, horizontal shortening occured across most of the width of the northern Canadian Cordillera. Concurrent shortening across the Cordillera suggests that a common detachment (or detachments) fed all of these zones as far east as the Rocky Mountain Fold and Thrust Belt.

  16. Habitat of oil in the Lindsborg field, Salina basin, north-central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lindsborg field was discovered in 1938, and is now 14 mi in length and 1-2 mi in width. It has a projected ultimate recovery of 16 MMBO. Three pay zones (5-20 ft thick) produce in the field. The Simpson pay zone (Middle Ordovician) is a well-rounded, quartzitic sandstone that is interpreted to be a paralic, high-energy shelf deposit. The Viola pay (Middle Ordovician) appears to be a dolomitic, lime grainstone but no cores are available to confirm this. The uppermost pay zone, the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa, is a finely laminated, vuggy, cherry dolomite interpreted to have been deposited as a subtidal lime mudstone in a restricted lagoon. The Simpson and Viola pays are structurally trapped in culminations along the crest of the Lindsborg anticline. Although the Maquoketa pay is structurally trapped with the other pay zones in the southern half of the field, its locus of production in the north half of the fields extends 100 ft vertically down the western flank of the anticline. The trapping mechanism is unclear due to lack of core control and modern logging suites, but it may be subtle updip diagenetic change from vuggy to nonvuggy dolomite. The Simpson and Maquoketa oils are geochemically distinct. Both may reflect efficient local source-to-reservoir migration from originally rich but marginally mature Ordovician and Devonian shales that contact each pay zone. If oil in the Lindsborg field is locally generated, the prospectivity of the relatively unproductive and underexplored Salina basin may be enhanced.

  17. Numerical simulation of hydrothermal circulation in the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Paulson, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alternate conceptual models to explain near-surface heat-flow observations in the central Oregon Cascade Range involve (1) an extensive mid-crustal magmatic heat source underlying both the Quaternary arc and adjacent older rocks or (2) a narrower deep heat source which is flanked by a relatively shallow conductive heat-flow anomaly caused by regional ground-water flow (the lateral-flow model). Relative to the mid-crustal heat source model, the lateral-flow model suggests a more limited geothermal resource base, but a better-defined exploration target. We simulated ground-water flow and heat transport through two cross sections trending west from the Cascade range crest in order to explore the implications of the two models. The thermal input for the alternate conceptual models was simulated by varying the width and intensity of a basal heat-flow anomaly and, in some cases, by introducing shallower heat sources beneath the Quaternary arc. Near-surface observations in the Breitenbush Hot Springs area are most readily explained in terms of lateral heat transport by regional ground-water flow; however, the deep thermal structure still cannot be uniquely inferred. The sparser thermal data set from the McKenzie River area can be explained either in terms of deep regional ground-water flow or in terms of a conduction-dominated system, with ground-water flow essentially confined to Quaternary rocks and fault zones.

  18. New data on the unresolved paradox of the Tibesti crater paleolakes (Central Sahara, North Chad)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroepelin, S.; Darius, F.; Deschamps, P.; Dinies, M.; Hoelzmann, P.; Kuper, J.; Oppenheimer, C.; Soulié-Märsche, I.; Sylvestre, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent field work in the volcanic Tibesti Mountains opens a new chapter in the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles in the central Sahara and their lacustrine environments. For the first time, complete lacustrine sections were sampled in the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.), and in 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi, the Sahara's 3,445 m high peak (photo). The probed diatomites are located 360 and 125 m above the present-day bottom of the calderas. Studies in the 1960s suggested that lake levels in the Trou au Natron were 300-500 m high at 12,400-14,970 uncal. yrs BP. Such lake depths and resulting water volumes, however, are hardly conceivable in view of the limited intake area and precipitation-evaporation ratios which would have required local rainfall by far surpassing estimates for latitudes 19-21°N from the full-Holocene record of Lake Yoa situated 460 or 220 km southeast, and 1,550 or 2,450 m lower. The presentation will examine whether differences in altitude may explain unparalleled lake depths and postglacial humid conditions 4,000-7,000 years earlier than in the surrounding lowlands, and present alternative hypotheses of lake formation in this Saharan key region.

  19. Geologic map of the Bailey 30' x 60' quadrangle, North-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, Chester A.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Bryant, Bruce; Shroba, Ralph R.; Premo, Wayne R.

    2011-01-01

    The Bailey, Colo. 1:100,000-scale quadrangle lies within two physiographic and geologic provinces in central Colorado: 1) the Front Range and 2) South Park. Most of the Front Range is composed of Proterozoic rocks ranging in age from 1,790 Ma to 1,074 Ma. Along the eastern flanks and within the Denver Basin, sedimentary rocks ranging from Pennsylvanian to Cretaceous are deformed and steeply tilted to the east. Upper Cretaceous through Paleocene rocks were deposited in the foreland (that is, the Front Range eastern flank) and hinterland (that is, South Park) of this thrust and reverse fault system developed during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Laramide orogeny. Within South Park, rocks range in age from Pennsylvanian to Miocene with Quaternary deposits indicating tectonic subsidence of the basin. These rocks record five major geologic episodes: 1) the Paleozoic Anasazi uplift that formed the Ancestral Rockies, 2) the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Laramide orogeny, 3) widespread Eocene to Oligocene volcanism, 4) Oligocene-Quaternary tectonics, and 5) Quaternary glacial episodes.

  20. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  1. Aquifers in Cretaceous rocks of the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Aquifers in rocks of Cretaceous age are the major source of groundwater for public supplies in the central Coastal Plain. These aquifers consist of sand, gravel, and limestone beds of the Peedee, Black Creek, and the upper and lower Cape Fear aquifers, each separated by a confining unit composed of clay and silt beds. The aquifers and confining units (1) rest upon crystalline basement rocks; (2) dip and thicken to the east-southeast; and (3) are overlain by younger aquifers and confining units in deposits of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The top of the uppermost aquifer, the Peedee, ranges from 122 ft above to 595 ft below sea level. The maximum thickness of all aquifers and confining units in Cretaceous rocks is more than 1,600 ft. Aquifers and confining units were defined and correlated for this report using 125 geophysical logs and accompanying drillers ' logs, water level data, and water quality information regarding chloride concentrations in water. This analysis allowed the construction of seven hydrogeologic cross sections that depict the continuity of all the aquifers and confining units. These cross sections also show water levels and chloride concentrations in water from various test intervals and describe where chloride concentration in water exceeds 250 mg/L within each aquifer. Detailed maps of each Cretaceous aquifer show altitude of its top, thickness, areas of selected sand percentages, transition zones from fresh to saltwater, and the thickness of the confining unit.

  2. Air pollution related respiratory morbidity in central and north-eastern Bombay.

    PubMed

    Kamat, S R; Patil, J D; Gregart, J; Dalal, N; Deshpande, J M; Hardikar, P

    1992-09-01

    A study of 4 comparable communities in central & northeastern Bombay (2 each) among randomly matched 349 subjects in 1988-9, along with ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) & suspended particulate matter (SPM) air monitoring was carried out. The levels in winter were higher particularly for SO2 in Parel (upto 584 micrograms) in Maravali; Deonar showed lower pollution. There were inter-area differences for housing, income, residential history but age-sex differences were small; these were reduced by matching. Clinical respiratory symptoms were higher in Parel & Maravali (cough 12% and 11.2%, dyspnoea 17% & 13.3% respectively). Cardiac problems are commoner in Parel (11.0%). Smoker had cough more often but not dyspnoea. Maravali had a high prevalence for headache and eye irritation (9.5%). Those using kerosene suffered more than those using gas (22.2% as compared to 9.2%) Lung functions (FVC, FEVI) were lowest in Parel for males and in Maravali for females. Expiratory flow rates were lower at Dadar and then at Maravali. Despite lower SO2 pollution, Maravali residents suffered equally as in Parel. This may be due to added effect of diesel exhausts (NO2, SPM) or other unmeasured chemicals.

  3. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  4. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Geochronology and Implications: the Mesozoic southern Ordos Basin, North Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Heller, P. L.; Chamberlain, K. R.

    2007-12-01

    Two deformation belts -- the Qinling orogenic belt (QOB) to the south and the Western Liupanshan thrust belt (WLTB) to the west, including the Qilian-Qaidam terrane (QQT) -- control the evolution of the southern Ordos Basin during early Mesozoic time. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology is used to identify provenance, reconstruct paleogeography, and document the relative timing of basin margin deformation. Two correlated strata same age samples of the Middle to Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. were collected from the southern and southwestern basin margin respectively. In total 258 zircon grains were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Three major age populations -- 240-490 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga, and 2.2-2.8 Ga -- characterize the detrital zircon grains of the Yanchang Fm. Regional geochronology studies show that the two oldest age groups match ages of basement rocks found in the underlying North China block. The younger age group can be subdivided into three distinctive groups: 240-300 Ma, 300-400, and 400-490 Ma. The youngest age group matches ages exposed to the west in the QQT, whereas the other two match grains from southern QOB source. In all samples detrital zircon from the WLTB source area overwhelms the QOB source, regardless of its proximity to either basin margin. This result suggests that either the source rock with the youngest zircon grains (e.g. 240- 490 Ma) from the QOB to the south have been eroded away and no longer existed, or simply the QOB, even during deformation, was never the dominant source of detrital zircon to the southern Ordos Basin. Probably some drainage systems far from the west combine with some local tributary systems from the south control the sedimentation in the south Ordos Basin during the middle to Late Triassic time. This is surprising in that most studies suggest that the QOB was a longer lived and more dominant tectonic feature in this part of China during early Mesozoic time. Furthermore, it also indicates that: 1) deformation in the QOB and WLTB

  5. Late Early Permian continental ichnofauna from Lake Kemp, north-central Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, S.G.; Voigt, S.; Lerner, A.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Continental trace fossils of Early Permian age are well known in the western United States from Wolfcampian (~. Asselian to Artinskian) strata, but few examples are known from Leonardian (~. Kungurian) deposits. A substantial ichnofauna from strata of the lower part of the Clear Fork Formation at Lake Kemp, Baylor County, Texas, augments the meager North American record of Leonardian continental trace fossil assemblages. Ichnofossils at Lake Kemp occur in the informally-named Craddock dolomite member of the Clear Fork Formation, which is 12-15. m above the local base of the Clear Fork. The trace-bearing stratum is an up-to-0.3. m thick, laminated to flaser-bedded, dolomitic siltstone that also contains mud cracks, raindrop impressions, microbially induced mat structures, and some land-plant impressions. We interpret the Craddock dolomite member as the feather-edge of a marine transgressive carbonate deposit of an irregular coastline marked by shallow bays or estuaries on the eastern shelf of the Midland basin, and the trace-fossil-bearing stratum at Lake Kemp is an unchannelized flow deposit on a muddy coastal plain. The fossil site at Lake Kemp yields a low to moderately diverse fauna of invertebrate and vertebrate traces. A sparse invertebrate ichnofauna consists of arthropod feeding and locomotion traces assigned to Walpia cf. W. hermitensis White, 1929 and Diplichnites gouldi Gevers in Gevers et al., 1971. Tetrapod footprints are most common and assigned to Batrachichnus salamandroides (Geinitz, 1861), cf. Amphisauropus kablikae (Geinitz and Deichm??ller, 1882), and Dromopus lacertoides (Geinitz, 1861), which represent small temnospondyl, seymouriamorph, and basal sauropsid trackmakers. Both the traces and sedimentary features of the fossil horizon indicate a freshwater setting at the time of track formation, and the trace assemblage represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies and the Batrachichnus ichnofacies in an overbank environment with sheet flooding and shallow

  6. Regional Tectonic Framework and Human Activities on the North Central Part of The Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.

    2001-12-01

    Faults and fractures northeasterly oriented dipping NW and SE, with slips mainly normal with a slight left lateral component, affect a suite of rocks of Mesozoic to Pleistocene age, in the area of El Bajio, in the states of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Aguascalientes. The faults and fractures have affected the infrastructure of the cities and surroundings of Queretaro, Celaya, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon and Aguascalientes. In the city of Queretaro, the Tlacote-Balvanera active fault has developed a scarp and its motion may potentially affect life lines of great importance. In Celaya City a N-S trending fault traverses the city and has produced a step wise scarp more than 1.80 m high, damaging houses, streets and life lines. In Salamanca, a fault trending N 60oE, dipping to the SE extends from Cerro Gordo to the SW traversing the city and affecting with a varying degree its infrastructure. Displacements observed within the urban area reach as much as 50 cm. Close to Irapuato City, in a quarry near La Valencianita village, a N 45oE trending fault dipping to the NW affects a lacustrine sequence bearing calcareous horizons. The fault exhibits a throw of 10 m and passes north of the urban area. A similarly oriented fault traverses the city of Irapuato, and near the Traffic Circle of Puente de Guadalupe, changes its strike to the SE and continues to the city limits. In the city of Silao, a fault oriented N 60oE, traverses the city and continues to the SW up to the localities of Venta de Ramales and La Aldea. Important displacements in urban and rural areas reach more than 60 cm. Outside the city of Leon in the junction of the highways to Aguascalientes and Guadalajara a normal fault plane NE oriented and dipping SE shows striations compatible with a normal left lateral motion. Faulting is associated with old buried scarps controlled by pre existing faults, and over exploited aquifers. Some of these faults however are considered potentially active based on

  7. Mennonite Country: The Role of Latina Leaders in the Familial, Social, and Educational Outreach of Immigrant Latino Families in North Central Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Anayeli; Anguiano, Rubén P. Viramontez

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the role of Latina leaders in serving Latino families in North Central Indiana and how they produced social capital through service and leadership. The larger sample of the ethnographic study consisted of 40 Latino families (63 parents) and 14 school personnel. This study focused specifically on 13 Latina women who were…

  8. Triton College 1999 NCA Self-Study Report. Prepared for the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    The primary purpose of this report is to demonstrate that Triton College meets the North Central Association's (NCA's) twenty-four General Institutional Requirements and satisfies NCA's five criteria of Educational Excellence. To achieve this goal, the report presents a comprehensive picture of Triton College's mission, organization, programs, and…

  9. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  10. Self-Study Report for Candidacy. Prepared by Mennonite College of Nursing for the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennonite Coll. of Nursing, Bloomington, IN.

    A self-evaluation report by the Mennonite College of Nursing, which is applying for candidacy status with the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, is presented. Information is provided on the evolution of the program and the program evaluation process, as well as strengths and concerns of the college and plans for further…

  11. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in north-central Oklahoma: 1992–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph; Denn, Frederick; Flynn, Connor; Hodges, Gary; Kiedron, Piotr; Koontz, Annette; Schlemmer, James; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2010-04-13

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloudscreening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun’s elevation is greater than 9.25°. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  12. Climatology of aerosol optical depth in North-Central Oklahoma: 1992-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Schwartz, S.; Denn, F.; Flynn, C.; Hodges, G.; Kiedron, P.; Koontz, A.; Schlemmer, J., and Schwartz, S. E

    2010-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, since the fall of 1992. Most of the data presented are from the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, a narrow-band, interference-filter Sun radiometer with five aerosol bands in the visible and near infrared; however, AOD measurements have been made simultaneously and routinely at the site by as many as three different types of instruments, including two pointing Sun radiometers. Scatterplots indicate high correlations and small biases consistent with earlier comparisons. The early part of this 16 year record had a disturbed stratosphere with residual Mt. Pinatubo aerosols, followed by the cleanest stratosphere in decades. As such, the last 13 years of the record reflect changes that have occurred predominantly in the troposphere. The field calibration technique is briefly described and compared to Langley calibrations from Mauna Loa Observatory. A modified cloud-screening technique is introduced that increases the number of daily averaged AODs retrieved annually to about 250 days compared with 175 days when a more conservative method was employed in earlier studies. AODs are calculated when the air mass is less than six; that is, when the Sun's elevation is greater than 9.25{sup o}. The more inclusive cloud screen and the use of most of the daylight hours yield a data set that can be used to more faithfully represent the true aerosol climate for this site. The diurnal aerosol cycle is examined month-by-month to assess the effects of an aerosol climatology on the basis of infrequent sampling such as that from satellites.

  13. Wide-angle seismic imaging beneath an andesitic arc: Central North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Tim; Benson, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    Structures within the deep crust and upper mantle of a continental back-arc region are imaged with seismic wide-angle reflection and refraction profiling. The data are from a new seismic experiment (MORC) in the Central Volcanic Region (CVR) of New Zealand, which is the active continental back-arc system behind the Hikurangi Subduction Zone. Nine 0.4-1.3 ton dynamite shots were recorded on ˜700 seismographs spaced along a 120 km-long array. There are two important discoveries from this study; a lower-crust (15-25 km depth) "rift-pillow" of rocks where P wave velocities (Vp) are ˜6.8-7.1 km/s, and strong reflections on reversed shots from a limited length (˜18 km-long) reflector (R3) at a depth of ˜32 ± 1 km. Ray-tracing shows the R3 reflector is in the upper mantle, beneath the eastern margin of the CVR, and is spatially linked to the active volcanic (andesite) arc and active geothermal fields. The relative amplitude of the R3 reflections indicates they are best explained by an interface across which there is a ˜80% drop in the S-wave seismic velocity (Vs) and a modest (10%) drop in Vp. Such a change in wave speeds is consistent with R3 representing the upper surface of a body where the partial melt content may be as high as 12%. On the basis of these new data we propose a model of heat and strain transfer to explain the relative distribution of heat output, and andesitic and rhyolitic volcanism within a continental back-arc basin.

  14. A risk of breast cancer in women - carriers of constitutional CHEK2 gene mutations, originating from the North - Central Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germline mutations of the CHEK2 gene have been reported to be associated with breast cancer. In this study, we analyzed the association of CHEK2 mutations with the risk of development of breast cancer in women of North-Central Poland. Methods 420 women with breast cancer and 435 controls were tested for three protein truncating (IVS2 + 1G > A, 1100delC, del5395) and one missense (I157T) CHEK2 mutation. IVS2 + 1G > A and I157T mutations were identified by RFLP-PCR, 1100delC variant was analyzed using an ASO-PCR and del5395 mutation by multiplex-PCR. The statistical tests: the odds ratio (OR) and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results In 33 out of 420 (7.9%) women consecutively diagnosed with breast cancer, we detected one of four analyzed CHEK2 mutations: I157T, 1100delC, IVS2 + 1G > A or del5395. Together they were not associated with the increased risk of breast cancer (North-Central control group: OR = 1.6, p = 0.124; the general Polish population: OR = 1.4, p = 0.109). This association was only seen for IVS2 + 1G > A mutation (OR = 3.0; p = 0.039). One of the three truncating CHEK2 mutations (IVS2 + 1G > A, 1100delC, del5395) was present in 9 of 420 women diagnosed with breast cancer (2.1%) and in 4 of 121 women (3.3%) with a history of breast cancer in a first- and/or second- degree relatives. Together they were associated with the increased risk of disease in these groups, compared to the general Polish population (OR = 2.1, p = 0.053 and OR = 3.2; p = 0.044, respectively). I157T mutation was detected in 25 of 420 women diagnosed with breast cancer (6.0%) and in 8 of 121 women (6.6%) with a history of breast cancer in first- and/or second- degree relatives. The prevalance of I157T mutation was 4.1% (18/435) in North-Central control group and 4.8% (265/5.496) in the general Polish population. However it was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer

  15. A Crustal Cross Section over the Central North Iberian Margin: New Insights into the Bay of Biscay Inverted Hyperextended Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadenas Martínez, P.; Fernandez Viejo, G.; Pulgar, J. A.; Minshull, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay of Biscay is a V-shape failed arm of the Atlantic rift which was opened during the Mesozoic and partially closed during the Alpine orogeny in the Cenozoic, when the convergence of the Iberian and European Plates drove to the formation of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian realm in the North Iberian peninsula. A complete crustal cross section through the central part of the North Iberian Margin, representing the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay, is presented here from the interpretation of a high quality deep seismic reflection profile together with boreholes and well logs, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes. The studied segment of this margin includes a basement high so called Le Danois Bank, and the Asturian basin, one of the sedimentary basins developed during the Mesozoic extensional processes, which was subsequently inverted during the Alpine orogeny. Most of the compression seems to have taken place through uplift of the continental platform and slope and the formation of an accretionary wedge at the bottom of the slope, so it is still possible to elucidate both extensional and compressional features. The basin appears as an asymmetric bowl bounded by synsedimentary normal faults with a maximum thickness of about 6 s TWT, which has been estimated to be equivalent to about 7 km. Depth migration of the seismic profile has revealed the presence of a deeper trough, with a maximum thickness of 13. 5 km at its main depocenter, which closely resembles the sedimentary thickness proposed for other contemporaneous proximal basins. These results support the high degree of extension and the exhumation processes proposed for this margin, deduced from refraction velocities and from the upper crustal and mantle rocks dredged at the slopes of Le Danois High. They will bring new insights to, and further constraints on, geodynamical models for this margin, where the amount of shortening linked with Cenozoic compression and the role of the rift structure during the

  16. Select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from North-central Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Conner, Mary M; Bedwell, Cathy L; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    Trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of several North American cervid species. To begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and CWD in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging populations in north-central Colorado, United States, where CWD occurs naturally; we also measured copper concentrations in brain-stem (medulla oblongata at the obex) tissue from 181 of these deer. Analyses revealed a wide range of concentrations of all three minerals among sampled deer (copper: 5.6-331 ppm in liver, 1.5-31.9 ppm in obex; manganese: 0.1-21.4 ppm in liver; molybdenum: 0.5-4.0 ppm in liver). Bayesian multiple regression analysis revealed a negative association between obex copper (-0.097; 95% credible interval -0.192 to -0.006) and the probability of sampled deer also being infected with CWD, as well as a positive association between liver manganese (0.158; 95% credible interval 0.066 to 0.253) and probability of infection. We could not discern whether the tendencies toward lower brain-stem copper concentrations or higher systemic manganese concentrations in infected deer preceded prion infection or rather were the result of infection and its subsequent effects, although the distribution of trace mineral concentrations in infected deer seemed more suggestive of the latter.

  17. Waterfowl production on the Woodworth Station in south-central North Dakota, 1965-1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kirsch, L.M.; Klett, A.T.; Miller, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    During 17 years of study at the Woodworth, North Dakota study area, the percent of 548 wetland basin with water during 1-15 May ranged from 8 to 87 and averaged 56; waterfowl pair densities varied from 19 to 56/km2 and averaged 40/km2. Pond occupancy by duck pairs averaged 37% during mid-May counts and 48% for late May and early June counts. A positive linear relation occurred between the estimated number of duck pairs and the percent of basins with water during 1-15 May.There were 3,339 duck nests found in grassland habitats from 1966 through 1981. Approximately 66% (85% Mayfield) of these were depredated or abandoned. Mammals caused 88% of nest failures. Half or more of the eventually successful clutches were unhatched by 10 July in 9 of 16 years. Haying would have disturbed or destroyed an average of 43%, 33%, 22%, 15%, and 9% of the duck nests if initiated on 10 July, 15 July, 20 July, 25 July, and 1 August, respectively.The total average size of completed clutch for all species was 29% smaller at the end of the nesting season than at the beginning, underscoring the importance of protecting early clutches.Production averaged 30 broods per 100 pairs of ducks and ranged from 15 to 61 broods per 100 pairs. Brood densities ranged from 10 to 63/km2 and averaged 12/km2. Mean brood size averaged 6.4 for all species. July broods averaged 7.2 ducklings and August broods 5.7 ducklings. Duckling loss averaged 2.6 per brood and 85% (2.2 ducklings) of this loss was estimated to occur during the first 14 days after hatch.Wetlands of all sizes and classes were important at some time to one species of duck or another. With the exception of some diving ducks, all species used a complex of sizes and classes of wetlands for space, food, and shelter necessary for nesting and brooding. Pair counts during 20 May-7 June were most indicative of the breeding population. A combination of two brood counts resulted in the best estimate of annual production. An average of only 50% of the

  18. Glacitectonic rafting and associated deformation of mid-Pleistocene glacigenic sediments, near Central Graben, central North Sea; results of a 2D High-Resolution Geophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan-Hirsch, David

    2013-04-01

    Glacitectonic rafts are defined as dislocated slabs of bedrock or unconsolidated sediments, transported from their original position by glacial action. These relatively thin, slab-like bodies feature transport distances ranging from tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers. They occur as either single rafts, or multiple stacked bodies associated with a variety of ice-pushed landforms. Internally, rafts frequently appear undeformed although at a larger scale, they may be folded or cut by shear zones and brittle faults. However, the processes leading to the detachment, transport and subsequent emplacement of the rafts remain uncertain. This work describes the results of a geophysical 2D seismic survey of thrust-bound glacitectonic rafts and associated deformation structures, occurring within mid-Pleistocene glacigenic sediments of the Central Graben, central North Sea. The total shortened length of the rafted section is 2.4km, comprising a series of nine discrete rafts which individually range from 235m to 1018m in length. The principle basal detachment occurs at the erosive contact between Aberdeen Ground Formation and overlying Ling Bank Formation. The ice-proximal (northern) limit of rafting is defined by the presence of a large-scale palaeo-channel oriented perpendicular to the direction of rafting, composed of sediments of the Ling Bank Formation and the Forth Formation. The observed deformation structures infer a mean tectonic direction of 178°, indicating that they are associated with an active glacial advance from the north. The resulting deformation creates a minimum lateral shortening throughout the observed sequence of 35%, typifying a strongly compressional regieme associated with rafting. Throughout the surveyed area, structurally younger rafts are found to be emplaced towards the south, compared to the structurally older rafts which are emplaced towards the south-east. This distinction is suggested to be caused by early rafts creating an obstacle to

  19. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Pattern and Eco-climatological Drivers of Striped Skunk Rabies in the North Central Plains.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ram K; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Goodin, Douglas G; Davis, Rolan; Moore, Michael; Moore, Susan; Anderson, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    Striped skunks are one of the most important terrestrial reservoirs of rabies virus in North America, and yet the prevalence of rabies among this host is only passively monitored and the disease among this host remains largely unmanaged. Oral vaccination campaigns have not efficiently targeted striped skunks, while periodic spillovers of striped skunk variant viruses to other animals, including some domestic animals, are routinely recorded. In this study we evaluated the spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of infection status among striped skunk cases submitted for rabies testing in the North Central Plains of US in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, and also evaluated potential eco-climatological drivers of such patterns. Two Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted to point-referenced striped skunk rabies cases [n = 656 (negative), and n = 310 (positive)] received at a leading rabies diagnostic facility between the years 2007-2013. The first model included only spatial and temporal terms and a second covariate model included additional covariates representing eco-climatic conditions within a 4 km(2) home-range area for striped skunks. The better performing covariate model indicated the presence of significant spatial and temporal trends in the dataset and identified higher amounts of land covered by low-intensity developed areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.41; 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals (CrI) = 2.08, 3.85], higher level of patch fragmentation (OR = 1.70; 95% CrI = 1.25, 2.89), and diurnal temperature range (OR = 0.54; 95% CrI = 0.27, 0.91) to be important drivers of striped skunk rabies incidence in the study area. Model validation statistics indicated satisfactory performance for both models; however, the covariate model fared better. The findings of this study are important in the context of rabies management among striped skunks in North America, and the relevance of physical and climatological factors as risk factors for skunk to human rabies transmission and

  20. Three dimensional inversion of EarthScope long-period magnetotelluric data in north-central USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional (3D) inversion of EarthScope long-period MT data from the north-central USA, to map resistivity from the crust to mantle asthenosphere in the area surrounding the midcontinent rift (MCR). We employed the Modular system for Electromagnetic Inversion (ModEM) for 3D modeling and inversion to invert the full impedance tensors and vertical field transfer functions from 222 stations with 26 periods (11 - 7281 seconds). We used a strategy that reduced the smoothing parameters for layers shallower than 2 km, to improve data fit, and better allow for near surface static shift effects. This inversion strategy pushed resistivity variations to the shallower layers with less smoothing, resulting in cleaner images of deeper structures. The MCR, the most pronounced feature in gravity and magnetic map of the North American continent, is clearly imaged at shallow depths, with conductive flanking sedimentary basins prominent. However, the most striking conductive anomalies are two elongate E-W conductive features in the crust, which are readily identified with two distinct Proterozoic suture zones, one aligned with the Niagara Fault zone (NFz), and the second with the Spirit Lake tectonic zone (SLtz). Vertical sections show that NFz anomaly dips to the south, extending from the surface through the Moho, and at least weakly into the mantle lithosphere. The imaged dip is consistent with the sense of subduction inferred for the Penokean orogeny (~1.85 Ga). Meanwhile, the SLtz anomaly dips to the north, consistent with the sense of subduction associated with Yavapai accretion (~1.75 Ga). This anomaly has little expression in the upper crust, but also extends into the mantle. The 1.1 Ga MCR cuts both anomalies vertically. The uppermost mantle layers are mostly resistive, with reduced (~20 ohm-m) resistivities at depths of about 200 km, consistent with seismic estimates of aesthenospheric depths. Our results provide further support for the

  1. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Pattern and Eco-climatological Drivers of Striped Skunk Rabies in the North Central Plains

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Ram K.; Hanlon, Cathleen A.; Goodin, Douglas G.; Anderson, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Striped skunks are one of the most important terrestrial reservoirs of rabies virus in North America, and yet the prevalence of rabies among this host is only passively monitored and the disease among this host remains largely unmanaged. Oral vaccination campaigns have not efficiently targeted striped skunks, while periodic spillovers of striped skunk variant viruses to other animals, including some domestic animals, are routinely recorded. In this study we evaluated the spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of infection status among striped skunk cases submitted for rabies testing in the North Central Plains of US in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, and also evaluated potential eco-climatological drivers of such patterns. Two Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted to point-referenced striped skunk rabies cases [n = 656 (negative), and n = 310 (positive)] received at a leading rabies diagnostic facility between the years 2007–2013. The first model included only spatial and temporal terms and a second covariate model included additional covariates representing eco-climatic conditions within a 4km2 home-range area for striped skunks. The better performing covariate model indicated the presence of significant spatial and temporal trends in the dataset and identified higher amounts of land covered by low-intensity developed areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.41; 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals (CrI) = 2.08, 3.85], higher level of patch fragmentation (OR = 1.70; 95% CrI = 1.25, 2.89), and diurnal temperature range (OR = 0.54; 95% CrI = 0.27, 0.91) to be important drivers of striped skunk rabies incidence in the study area. Model validation statistics indicated satisfactory performance for both models; however, the covariate model fared better. The findings of this study are important in the context of rabies management among striped skunks in North America, and the relevance of physical and climatological factors as risk factors for skunk to human rabies transmission and

  2. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Pattern and Eco-climatological Drivers of Striped Skunk Rabies in the North Central Plains.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ram K; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Goodin, Douglas G; Davis, Rolan; Moore, Michael; Moore, Susan; Anderson, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    Striped skunks are one of the most important terrestrial reservoirs of rabies virus in North America, and yet the prevalence of rabies among this host is only passively monitored and the disease among this host remains largely unmanaged. Oral vaccination campaigns have not efficiently targeted striped skunks, while periodic spillovers of striped skunk variant viruses to other animals, including some domestic animals, are routinely recorded. In this study we evaluated the spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of infection status among striped skunk cases submitted for rabies testing in the North Central Plains of US in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, and also evaluated potential eco-climatological drivers of such patterns. Two Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted to point-referenced striped skunk rabies cases [n = 656 (negative), and n = 310 (positive)] received at a leading rabies diagnostic facility between the years 2007-2013. The first model included only spatial and temporal terms and a second covariate model included additional covariates representing eco-climatic conditions within a 4 km(2) home-range area for striped skunks. The better performing covariate model indicated the presence of significant spatial and temporal trends in the dataset and identified higher amounts of land covered by low-intensity developed areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.41; 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals (CrI) = 2.08, 3.85], higher level of patch fragmentation (OR = 1.70; 95% CrI = 1.25, 2.89), and diurnal temperature range (OR = 0.54; 95% CrI = 0.27, 0.91) to be important drivers of striped skunk rabies incidence in the study area. Model validation statistics indicated satisfactory performance for both models; however, the covariate model fared better. The findings of this study are important in the context of rabies management among striped skunks in North America, and the relevance of physical and climatological factors as risk factors for skunk to human rabies transmission and

  3. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snow Camp-Saxapahaw Area, Central North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Robert G.; Gumiel, Pablo; Payas, Alba

    2006-01-01

    The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw study area, in the Carolina slate belt in the Southeastern United States, is notable for large zones of high-sulfidation alteration in arc-related metavolcanic rocks. The area has potential for additional significant pyrophyllite and related aluminosilicate refractory mineral deposits and may have potential for small- to medium-size gold deposits also associated with the high-sulfidation hydrothermal systems. The Carolina slate belt is an elongate zone of mostly low-grade metamorphic rocks of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic age that extends from northeastern Georgia to southern Virginia. It is dominated by volcanic rocks but locally consists of fine-grained epiclastic sedimentary rocks. Plutons and subvolcanic bodies have intruded the rocks of the Carolina slate belt in many places and have been important in controlling the metamorphism and in localizing hydrothermal alteration. The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw area is mostly underlain by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and lesser amounts of intrusive shallow plutons. The volcanic rocks range in composition from basalt to rhyolite; however andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites are the most abundant. The intrusive bodies are largely granite and quartz monzonite; gabbroic bodies also are common. It was possible to establish the relative ages of only part of these rocks. Two northeast-trending fault zones and fractures divide the map area into three structural blocks; the central block was tilted down to the southwest to form a grabenlike structure. Most of the hydrothermally altered rocks and all of the intensely altered zones are confined to the downdropped block, which we think may have been calderalike in origin. A major volcanic unit, the Reedy Branch Tuff, is limited to the southwestern part of the graben and may be the youngest volcanic rock in the area. Layered rocks record one or more strong folding events, but the diversity of rock types, lack of recognizable stratigraphic markers, and

  4. Geologic Map of the Albuquerque 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Cole, James C.

    2007-01-01

    local folding and uplift within the complex rift seems to have occurred in the late Miocene, accompanied by erosion and recycling of earlier rift-fill sediments. This deformation may reflect clockwise reorientation of the primary extension direction to its Pliocene and current east-west alignment. Late Miocene and early Pliocene uplift and erosion were widespread in the region, as indicated by channeled and local angular unconformities at the bases of all Pliocene units, especially prominent along basin margins. These Pliocene fluvial and alluvial deposits (Ceja and Ancha Formations and Tuerto Gravel) and the upper part of the Cochiti Formation are all conspicuously coarser grained than the Miocene beds they cover, particularly near source areas along the margins of the rift. These observations together indicate that the regional streams flowed at much greater discharge than the Miocene streams and that the Pliocene onset of cooler, wetter climate worldwide was the most likely cause. Despite these higher discharge conditions, it appears there was no Pliocene trunk stream through the rift valley because the youngest Pliocene beds in the basin center are largely fine grained sand, pebbly sand, and sandy silt. No Pliocene cobble-gravel deposits, or thick crossbed sets indicative of major stream discharge, have been documented in the basin center. Considerable evidence indicates significant erosion began in late Pliocene time, coincident with and following eruption of abundant basalt from several local centers at about 2.7-2.6 Ma. The onset of central valley erosion marks the initiation of the first through-flowing, high-energy trunk stream (the 'ancestral' Rio Grande), which most likely was caused by integration of drainage southward through the Socorro region. No upper Pliocene fluvial deposits have been identified in the valley center; rather, a significant unconformity separates beds with medial (or earliest late) Blancan fauna (older than about 2.2 Ma) from

  5. Deep Structure and Evolution of The Central Graben, North Sea: Constraints From Seismic Observations and Numerical Dynamic Modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balling, N.; Frederiksen, S.; Nielsen, L.; Nørmark, E.; Nielsen, S. B.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    The Central Graben forms the southern arm of a three-arm rift system in the North Sea, with the Viking Graben as the northern arm and the Moray Firth Basin as the western arm. It is a 70-130 km wide graben with a length of about 550 km. High qual- ity normal-incidence and wide-angle seismic data from the MONA LISA deep seismic experiment across the Central Graben show crustal thinning by a factor of 2 in areas of thickest sedimentary sequences and localized seismic reflectivity in the upper mantle dipping away from the deepest parts of the graben. A numerical dynamic lithospheric model with significant Triassic and Late Jurassic extensional phases as well as Mid- dle Jurassic thermal doming accounts for the observed up to 8 km of Late Permian to Cenozoic sediments in the deepest parts of the Graben, for most of the observed lateral thickness variation of sedimentary formations and is consistent with both the deep-seismic data, present-day heat-flow and gravity data. The detailed crustal model produced by joint inverse modelling of seimic refraction data and gravity data shows a distinct thinning of the crust and local elevation of Moho by up to 5 km in a 40 km narrow zone below areas of thick upper Jurassic sediments. This Moho structure suggests that a relatively shallow and otherwise strong uppermost mantle has been interrupted, perhaps by mantle shear zones induced by strain softening as in our nu- merical model. The integrated seismic observational and numerical modelling results indicate that an initially pure-shear donimated extensional regime changed into an ex- tensional regime where simple shear played an important part with mantle shear zones developed during the Late Jurassic extension.

  6. Nitrate and chloride loading to groundwater from an irrigated north-central U.S. sand-plain vegatable field.

    PubMed

    Stites, W; Kraft, G J

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater pollution and associated effects on drinking water have increased with the expansion of irrigated agriculture in north-central U.S. sand plains. Controlling this pollution requires an ability to measure and predict pollutant loading by specific agricultural systems. We measured NO3 and Cl loading to groundwater beneath a Wisconsin central sand plain irrigated vegetable field using both a budget method and a new monitoring-based method. By relying on frequent monitoring of shallow groundwater, the new method overcomes some limitations of other methods. Monitoring-based and budget methods agreed well, and indicated that loading to groundwater was 165 kg ha(-1) NO3-N and 111 kg ha(-1) Cl for sweet corn (Zea mays L.) in 1992, and 228 kg ha(-1) NO3-N and 366 kg ha(-1) Cl for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in 1993. Nitrate N loading was 56 to 60% of available N, or 66 to 70% of fertilizer N. Sweet corn NO3 loading was about typical for this region, but potato NO3 loading was probably 50% greater than typical because heavy rains provoked extra fertilizer application. Our results imply that typical NO3-N loading would be 119 kg ha(-1) for sweet corn and 203 kg ha(-1) for potato, even with strict adherence to University Extension fertilizer recommendations. To keep average groundwater NO3-N within the 10 mg L(-1) U.S. drinking water standard, each irrigated vegetable field would need to be offset by five to eight times as much land supplying NO3-free groundwater recharge.

  7. The Shoal Arm Formation, north-central Newfoundland: Fe- and Mn-enriched sediments underlying black shales and flysch

    SciTech Connect

    Bruechert, V.; Delano, J.W.; Kidd, J.W.; William, S.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Middle Ordovician Shoal Arm Formation is located in the central volcanic belt of north-central Newfoundland and consists of a sequence of hematitic argillites overlain by grey cherts and then black shales directly underneath a late Ordovician/early Silurian flysch sequence. The hematitic argillites are enriched in Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Co. Geochemically definable components within related lithologic groups were discriminated using principal component analysis and factor analysis. These procedures indicate the presence of (1) biogenic, (2) mixed detrital, (3) hydrothermal, and (4) Mn-carbonate components. The base of the hematitic part is marked by a sharp increase in the hydrothermal component, which then decreases stratigraphically upward. The Mn-carbonate component also decreases upwards, but persists up to the grey cherts. The clastic component changes from mixed mafic/pelagic clay-like detritus to Zr-, Nb- and Y-rich detritus in the top hematitic part. The grey cherts mark a transitional stage between the hematitic sediments (oxic) and the black shales (anoxic). The change to increasingly O[sub 2]-deficient conditions is explained by (a) an increase of biological productivity and related O[sub 2]-drain by C[sub org]-oxidation and/or (b) diachronous subsidence of the basin floor into a deep-water anoxic layer as a result of the loading of the basin floor by an approaching thrust stack. The similar stratigraphic sequence and geochemistry of the Middle Ordovician sediments in the Taconic Allochthon of New York State suggest that these processes also acted at other locations along the continental margin of the Iapetus Ocean. This uniformity may reflect the strong influence of the warm Middle Ordovician climate on the sediment facies or, alternatively, the control by the specific tectonic environment.

  8. The P-wave velocity of the uppermost mantle of the Rio Grande rift region of north central New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, J.N.; Jaksha, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A network of seismograph stations has operated in north-central New Mexico since 1975. The network is approximately 200 by 300 km in size and encompasses the Rio Grande rift there. Several seismic refraction experiments have been reported in the literature for the region of the network and adjacent areas. Because all of the seismic refraction lines are unreversed, Pn velocities reported were mainly of the inverse travel time slope for the direction of the corresponding line. The values of the inverse slope for those studies range from 7.6 to 8.2 km/s. The purpose of our study is to estimate the P-wave velocity of the uppermost mantle by using the time term method. First, we timed the Pn waves of strong signals from five explosions and eight shallow earthquakes recorded by the network. The main data set, which contains 87 time-distance pairs, was processed by using the time term method. The Pn velocity estimated by this method is 8.0 + or - 0.1 km/s. To corroborate this estimate, we then processed 10 subsets of the main data set in the same way. Almost all of the solutions show velocities of 7.9-8.1 km/s, in agreement with the velocity determined for the main data set. -Authors

  9. Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north-central Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Miller, Kate C.; Erslev, Eric A.; Anderson, Megan L.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yeck, William L.; Harder, Steven H.; Siddoway, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    The crustal structure of north-central Wyoming records a history of complex lithospheric evolution from Precambrian accretion to Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide shortening. We present two active source P wave velocity model profiles collected as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment in 2010. Analyses of these velocity models and single-fold reflection data, together with potential field modeling of regional gravity and magnetic signals, constrain crustal structure and thickness of the Bighorn region. We image a west dipping reflection boundary and model a sharp magnetic contact east of the Bighorn Arch that together may delineate a previously undetected Precambrian suture zone. Localized patches of a high-velocity, high-density lower crustal layer (the "7.× layer") occur across the study area but are largely absent beneath the Bighorn Arch culmination. Moho topography is relatively smooth with no large-scale offsets, with depths ranging from ~50 to 37 km, and is largely decoupled from Laramide basement topography. These observations suggest that (1) the edge of the Archean Wyoming craton lies just east of the Bighorn Mountains, approximately 300 km west of previous interpretations, and (2) Laramide deformation localized in an area with thin or absent 7.× layer, due to its relatively weak lower crust, leading to detachment faulting. Our findings show that Precambrian tectonics in northern Wyoming may be more complicated than previously determined and subsequent Laramide deformation may have been critically dependent on laterally heterogeneous crustal structure that can be linked to Precambrian origins.

  10. Metagenomic assessment of the microbial diversity in ground pork products from markets in the North Central Region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok-Kyung; Baker, Christopher A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community in ground pork using molecular approaches. Forty six ground pork products were purchased from local stores in the north central area of South Korea. Aerobic plate counts varied 4.23 ± 5.14 × 10(5) CFU/g with the range between 5.00 × 10(3) and 1.85 × 10(6) CFU/g for ground pork samples. Four ground meat samples were further processed for metagenomic analysis. Pseudomonas species was the most relative abundant with a wide range occurring (1.72 to 77.7%) as part of the microbial genera in ground pork. Bacteria such as Carnobacterium, Yersinia, Photobacterium were also identified in ground pork. Despite the prominence of certain genera across all samples there was still extensive microbial diversity among ground pork products that originated from different slaughter houses and were processed in different markets. Such diversity indicates that designing interventions to extend shelf life may be hampered by the extensive variability in the microbial consortia associated with pork products. However, this diversity may be useful for developing microbial traceability signatures unique to a slaughter house or a particular market.

  11. North-striking fault zones and evolution of the central graben, Ore-Ida graben, Malheur County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.L.; Ebeling, C.; Johnson, A.G. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The N-striking Wall Rock Ridge (WRR) and Dry Creek Buttes (DCB) fault zones play key roles in the evolution of the middle Miocene central graben within the Ore-Ida graben. Each zone contains closely spaced N-striking faults. Drag folds and overturned beds occur where Ne- and NW-striking faults converge with N-striking faults. During volcaniclastic sedimentation, vents for basalt hydrovolcanic centers were controlled by these structures. Control is exerted during repeated development of small-scale basins in which the Deer Butte Formation accumulated. The zones also control the distribution of dacite plugs, basalt and andesite sills. The vents for the 12.6 Ma Kern Basin Tuff at the base of the Grassy Mountain Formation occur within the DCBFZ. Northward projection passes through the Double Mountain. The fault zones are also important in formation of precious metal deposits. The Grassy Mountain prospect occurs within the Grassy Mountain Formation where it is cut by the DCBFZ. The Page prospect (Quartz Mountain) occurs within the Deer Butte Formation where it is cut by the WRRFZ. Red Butte, also within the Deer Butte Formation, occurs near the western edge of the DCBFZ. A 30-km gravity line on 200 m spacings was measured during 1992. The line crosses the WRRFZ south of Page Prospect and passes north of Red Butte before crossing the DCBFZ.

  12. Assessment of trophic dynamics of cephalopods and large pelagic fishes in the central North Atlantic Ocean using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2013-10-01

    Pelagic ecosystems in the central North Atlantic Ocean support numerous commercially-exploited tuna, shark, and billfish species, which rely largely on cephalopod as well as fish and crustacean prey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on tuna and billfish predators as well as cephalopod prey species sampled during two research longline cruises (2001-02) to study their trophic structure. Nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) analyses revealed similarity in trophic position (TP) among sampled fish predator species, with large swordfish occupying the highest TP. Species with wider vertical distributions (swordfish and bigeye tuna) had higher δ15N values than species more constrained to the epipelagic zone (yellowfin tuna and dolphinfish). Analysis of tissue nitrogen isotope values showed an ontogenetic increase for swordfish and white marlin but no effects for other sampled fish species. For cephalopods as a group, δ15N increased with size. Smaller cephalopods sampled in this study had δ15N values that were about one TP below co-occurring tunas and billfishes, confirming their importance as a prey resource. Larger cephalopods had similar δ15N values to tunas and billfishes, indicating that these large cephalopods occupy a comparable TP to their fish predators. Both carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of large pelagic fishes showed spatial gradients relative to conspecifics analyzed in coastal regions, which can be used to trace large scale movements.

  13. Thrust segment from the Antler orogeny identified north of the Snake River Plain, south-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Skipp, B. )

    1993-04-01

    A small segment of folded thrust fault places silicified, cleaved, folded, graptolite-bearing black mudstone, sandstone, and minor granule conglomerate of the Ordovician Phi Kappa Formation over unnamed cleaved, yellow, calcareous siltstone and silty limestone of Devonian to Silurian age in the Long Canyon area near Fish Creek Reservoir, within a kilometer of the north-central margin of the Snake River Plain. The thrust fault and rocks of both hanging wall and footwall are overlain by sandy limestone and pebble conglomerate of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hailey Member of the Wood River Formation along a locally faulted unconformable contact. Thus, the age of the thrust is bracketed as post-Devonian and pre-Middle Pennsylvanian, a period that encompasses the Antler orogeny. The Long Canyon thrust fault is the first direct evidence of contraction within rocks of the postulated Mississippian Antler highland in western Idaho. Indirect evidence such as penetrative axial plane cleavage in Devonian argillites of the Milligen Formation, not present in younger argillites, has been recognized for several years. The entire sequence of Ordovician through Pennsylvanian rocks constitutes the southernmost exposure of the hanging wall of the Mesozoic Pioneer thrust fault system. In this area, the footwall of the Pioneer thrust comprises Silurian through Devonian platform carbonate rocks overlain unconformably by Mississippian orogenic detritus derived from the western Antler highland.

  14. Metagenomic assessment of the microbial diversity in ground pork products from markets in the North Central Region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok-Kyung; Baker, Christopher A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community in ground pork using molecular approaches. Forty six ground pork products were purchased from local stores in the north central area of South Korea. Aerobic plate counts varied 4.23 ± 5.14 × 10(5) CFU/g with the range between 5.00 × 10(3) and 1.85 × 10(6) CFU/g for ground pork samples. Four ground meat samples were further processed for metagenomic analysis. Pseudomonas species was the most relative abundant with a wide range occurring (1.72 to 77.7%) as part of the microbial genera in ground pork. Bacteria such as Carnobacterium, Yersinia, Photobacterium were also identified in ground pork. Despite the prominence of certain genera across all samples there was still extensive microbial diversity among ground pork products that originated from different slaughter houses and were processed in different markets. Such diversity indicates that designing interventions to extend shelf life may be hampered by the extensive variability in the microbial consortia associated with pork products. However, this diversity may be useful for developing microbial traceability signatures unique to a slaughter house or a particular market. PMID:27192496

  15. Utilization of LANDSAT-8 Data for Lithological Mapping of Basement Rocks of Plateau State North Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusuk, D. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Musa, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper utilized the Landsat-8 image data to map the lithology's of Plateau state north central Nigeria. This is includes the rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification. We are living in geologic times and sciences that provide adequate knowledge of the natures of what we live on so as to preserve and have means of sustaining human life. Plateau State is covered by four scenes of Landsat Data, and to describe the lithology's, each scene was processed to produce images. Two different false colour composite images of Landsat-8 (FCC 7, 5 and 3 and BR composites) in RGB were generated and used for the production of 1:100,000 geological map of the study area. The identification of predominant biotitic granitic rocks was revealed and that are distributed along the Jos-Bukuru complex and underlying almost half of the entire state. Moreover, the other rock complexes such as basalts and rhyolites volcanic rocks were also discriminated. This study indicates that Landsat-8 image data has great capability to discriminate lithological units and the production of up-to-date geological maps at regional scale and could be applicable in other regions of the African continent.

  16. Seventh-grade cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use: distribution in a north central U.S. metropolitan population.

    PubMed

    Murray, D M; Perry, C L; O'Connell, C; Schmid, L

    1987-04-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were examined in a seventh-grade population from a north central U.S. metropolitan community. Participation exceeded 94% and biological testing was used to increase the disclosure of drug use during the survey. Drug use was related to age, gender, race, family structure, and parental occupation in a series of logit analyses to identify high-risk groups. While univariate analyses uniformly supported earlier studies, the logit analyses revealed patterns not previously reported and at times contrary to previous reports. Significant associations were observed between drug use and each of the demographic factors; the likelihood of drug use increased by as much as 80-fold in subgroups defined by interactions among these variables. Native Americans, Hispanics, Black females, and adolescents whose mothers held white-collar jobs were substantially more likely to report drug use compared to other groups; females were generally similar to males in their level of use after adjustment for other factors. These results suggest that multivariate analyses which consider higher-order interactions may more adequately model the distribution of drug use in adolescent populations, compared to those based on univariate or first-order multivariate techniques.

  17. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    PubMed

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed. PMID:25209635

  18. Long aftershock sequences in North China and Central US: implications for hazard assessment in mid-continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mian; Luo, Gang; Wang, Hui; Stein, Seth

    2014-02-01

    Because seismic activity within mid-continents is usually much lower than that along plate boundary zones, even small earthquakes can cause widespread concerns, especially when these events occur in the source regions of previous large earthquakes. However, these small earthquakes may be just aftershocks that continue for decades or even longer. The recent seismicity in the Tangshan region in North China is likely aftershocks of the 1976 Great Tangshan earthquake. The current earthquake sequence in the New Madrid seismic zone in central United States, which includes a cluster of M ~ 7.0 events in 1811-1812 and a number of similar events in the past millennium, is believed to result from recent fault reactivation that releases pre-stored strain energy in the crust. If so, this earthquake sequence is similar to aftershocks in that the rates of energy release should decay with time and the sequence of earthquakes will eventually end. We use simple physical analysis and numerical simulations to show that the current sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid fault zone is likely ending or has ended. Recognizing that mid-continental earthquakes have long aftershock sequences and complex spatiotemporal occurrences are critical to improve hazard assessments.

  19. Comparison of clast and matrix dispersal in till: Charlo-Atholville area, north-central New Brunswick

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickson, M.L.; Broster, B.E.; Parkhill, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Striations and dispersal patterns for till clasts and matrix geochemistry are used to define flow directions of glacial transport across an area of about 800km2 in the Charlo-Atholville area of north-central New Brunswick. A total of 170 clast samples and 328 till matrix samples collected for geochemical analysis across the region, were analyzed for a total of 39 elements. Major lithologic contacts used here to delineate till clast provenance were based on recent bedrock mapping. Eleven known mineral occurrences and a gossan are used to define point source targets for matrix geochemical dispersal trains and to estimate probable distance and direction of transport from unknown sources. Clast trains are traceable for distances of approximately 10 km, whereas till geochemical dispersal patterns are commonly lost within 5 km of transport. Most dispersal patterns reflect more than a single direction of glacial transport. These data indicate that a single till sheet, 1-4 m thick, was deposited as the dominant ice-flow direction fluctuated between southeastward, eastward, and northward over the study area. Directions of early flow represent changes in ice sheet dominance, first from the northwest and then from the west. Locally, eastward and northward flow represent the maximum erosive phases. The last directions of flow are likely due to late glacial ice sheet drawdown towards the valley outlet at Baie des Chaleurs.

  20. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  1. Interactions between surface water and ground water and effects on mercury transport in the north-central Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.; Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill; King, Susan A.; Giddings, Jefferson B.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrology of the north-central Everglades was altered substantially in the past century by canal dredging, land subsidence, ground-water pumping, and levee construction. Vast areas of seasonal and perennial wetlands were converted to uses for agriculture, light industry, and suburban development. As the catchment area for the Everglades decreased, so did the sources of water from local precipitation and runoff from surrounding uplands. Partly in response to those alterations, water-resources managers compartmentalized the remaining wetlands in the north-central Everglades into large retention basins, called Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). In spite of efforts to improve how water resources are managed, the result has been frequent periods of excessive drying out or flooding of the WCAs because the managed system does not have the same water-storage capacity as the pre-drainage Everglades. Linked to the hydrological modifications are ecological changes including large-scale invasions of cattail, loss of tree islands, and diminishing bird populations in the Everglades. Complex interactions among numerous physical, chemical, and biological factors are responsible for the long-term degradation of the ecological character of the Everglades.Over the past 15 years, a new set of smaller wetland basins, called Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been designed and constructed by water-resources engineers on the former wetlands adjacent to WCAs. The purpose of STAs is to remove excess nutrients from agricultural drainage water prior to its input to WCAs. STAs tend to be about one-tenth the size of a WCA, and they are located on former wetlands on the northwestern side of WCAs on sites that were managed as farmland for much of the twentieth century in an area referred to as the Everglades Agricultural Area, or EAA. The objective of the present investigation was to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project

  2. [Spatial-temporal dynamics of red tide precursor organisms at the Pacific coast of North and Central America].

    PubMed

    Sierra-Beltrán, A P; Lluch-Cota, D B; Lluch-Cota, S E; Cortés-Altamirano, R; Cortés-Lara, M C; Castillo-Chávez, M; Carrillo, L; Pacas, L; Víquez, R; García-Hansen, I

    2004-09-01

    The Pacific coast of Central and North America has long been and still is impacted by the flourishing of microalgal populations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). The organisms that have caused recent HABs episodes in the region are among others, Gymnodinium catenatum, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, and recently Cochlodinium cf. catenatum. In spite of the accumulated effects on the human health, the economic activities and the environment, scarce information is available on the subject. The augmented use of coastal zones for human activities is also paralleled by increased awareness of global climate changes. Thus, it is not an easy task to discriminate anthropogenic or natural phenomena, or both, as the major driving forces. The long-term data sets available for limited regions, as well as some sporadic observations during notorious blooms, allowed us to discriminate major changes in the biodiversity and biogeography of HAB organisms. Main changes refer to number of events, covered area, duration and frequency, number of blooming species and appearance of not previously reported harmful taxa. The variables more clearly related to these dynamic phenomena, seems to be sea surface temperature and wind force, but it is not yet possible to weight their contributions. The participation of rain is not fully evaluated to date. The collaborative communication among small-budget monitoring operations in the region allowed to "pass the voice" about peaking concentrations of HAB organisms, diminishing the risk of poisoning. PMID:17465122

  3. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985–2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229–54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  4. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    PubMed

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed.

  5. Analyzing surface water budgets for water-food security in seasonal wetlands of north-central Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyama, T.; Mizuochi, H.; Kanamori, H.; Fujioka, Y.; Kambatuku, J. R.; Kotani, A.; Ohta, T.; Iijima, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the water budgets in case of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems (flood- and drought-adaptive cropping systems) to the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs) in north-central Namibia. To achieve this goal, we at first investigated seasonal changes in surface water coverage by using satellite remote sensing data. For this investigation, we used MODIS and AMSR-E satellite remote sensing data. These data showed that at the beginning of the wet season, surface water appears from the southern (lower) part and then expands to the northern (higher) part of the CSSWs. We also assessed the effect of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems on evapotranspiration in the CSSWs region. For this investigation, we used data obtained by the Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) method at an experimental field site established in September 2012 on the Ogongo campus, University of Namibia. This analysis showed the importance of water and vegetation conditions when introducing mixed-cropping to the region. Finally, in order to understand water sources of small wetlands in the CSSWs, stable isotopic ratio of water (precipitation, surface-, and subsurface-water) were analyzed. This analysis showed that shallow groundwater of small wetlands is very likely to be recharged from surface-water, source of which was local precipitation and was pooled in lowest part of small wetlands.

  6. Geologic Model for Oil and Gas Assessment of the Kemik-Thomson Play, Central North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2008-01-01

    A geologic model was developed to assess undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Kemik-Thomson Play of the Central North Slope, Alaska. In this model, regional erosion during the Early Cretaceous produced an incised valley system on the flanks and crest of the Mikkelsen High and formed the Lower Cretaceous unconformity. Locally derived, coarse-grained siliciclastic and carbonate detritus from eroded Franklinian-age basement rocks, Carboniferous Kekiktuk Conglomerate (of the Endicott Group), Lisburne Group, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group may have accumulated in the incised valleys during lowstand and transgression, forming potential reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone (informal term). Continued transgression resulted in the deposition of the mudstones of the over-lying Cretaceous pebble shale unit and Hue Shale, which form top seals to the potential reservoirs. Petroleum from thermally mature facies of the Triassic Shublik Formation, Jurassic Kingak Shale, Hue Shale (and pebble shale unit), and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Canning Formation might have charged Thomson and Kemik sandstone reservoirs in this play during the Tertiary. The success of this play depends largely upon the presence of reservoir-quality units in the Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone.

  7. Feature Analysis of Ocean Waves in North Central Pacific Ocean Based ASAR Wave Spectral Data and Wave Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jichao; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Meng, Junmin

    2013-01-01

    Directional Spectrum of the ocean waves could be obtained form Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) wave spectral data. The wave model WAVEWATCH III (WW3) is applied to simulate the ocean wave field. Study area is 185°E-215°E and 15°N-30°N, time range is from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008. Based on ASAR and buoy data, the wave numerical simulation and assimilation of the north central Pacific Ocean is carried out. The validation and assessment of ASAR ocean wave spectra products is performed. The optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm is used in model WW3 for assimilating ASAR wave spectra data. Based on the result of the simulation and assimilation, mean waves direction (MWD), significant wave height (SWH) and mean wave period (MWP) are analysed. SWH and MWP are larger in winter and SWH reach to more than 2.5 meters. Seasonal change of SWH and MWP are significant.

  8. Foods of American badgers in west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during the duck nesting season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roaldson, J.M.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    Although the American badger (Taxidea taxus) is common in grasslands and preys on a wide diversity of foods including birds, little is known about badger diet in areas where nesting ducks are common. Small mammals, primarily Muridae and Geomyidae, were the most common food items in the diet of badgers collected from west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota during April-July 1987 through 1990, based on analysis of gastrointestinal tracts of 47 adult ( 1/4 -y-old) and 5 juvenile (<6-mo-old) badgers. Remains of mammals occurred in 98% of samples from adult badgers. Small quantities of insects were found in 40% of adult samples. Bird remains were in 32% of adult samples, most birds identified as Anatidae; ducks or ducklings occurred in 27% and duck eggs in 60% of those samples. Remains of reptiles, amphibians and mollusks were present, but were less common than other foods. Insects and bird eggs were more common during spring (April-May) than summer (June-July). Birds were more frequent in diets of adults than juvenile badgers.

  9. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria.

    PubMed

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M'sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E-W reverse and N-S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3D seismic P- and S-wave velocities (and the Vp/Vs ratio), and source parameters. The patterns of P-wave low-velocity anomalies correspond to the alignments of faults determined from geological evidence, and the P-wave high-velocity anomalies may represent rigid blocks of the upper crust that are not deformed by regional stresses. The S-wave low-velocity anomalies coincide with the aftershock area, where relatively high values of Vp/Vs ratio (1.78) are observed compared with values in the surrounding areas (1.62-1.66). These high values may indicate high fluid contents in the aftershock area. These fluids could have been released from deeper levels by fault movements during earthquakes and migrated rapidly upwards. This hypothesis is supported by vertical sections across the study area show that the major Vp/Vs anomalies are located above the seismicity clusters.

  10. Three-dimensional Effects and Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Associated with Shallow Cumuli Over Central North America

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills, Jr., David

    2009-09-30

    Shallow cumuli are ubiquitous over large areas of the globe, including both the interior of continents and the trade wind regions over the oceans. Measurements made at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, located in central North America, provide a unique long-term data set that can be used to investigate the influence that these clouds have on the shortwave surface energy budget at a continental location. Using data collected for the summers of 2000 through 2007, inclusive, over 900 hours with fair-weather cumuli were identified using data from a Total Sky Imager, cloud-radar and lidar. Data from a suite of surface radiometers was used to determine the shortwave forcing. This analysis estimates the three-dimensional effects of shallow cumuli by examining the occurrences of both positive and negative shortwave forcing. We show that the average surface shortwave forcing is approximately -45.5 W m-2. When the data are adjusted to account for periods without shallow clouds, the shortwave forcing over the entire summer (defined as May through August) are reduced in magnitude, with forcings of -2.1 W m-2.

  11. Present condition of the coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of North-Chuya ridge (Central Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Propastilova, Olga; Timoshok, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Investigations of high-mountain regions which are characterized by extreme climate conditions are of current importance since the response of environmental ecosystems to climate changes is clearly expressed there. The work presented was performed on the territory of two mountain glacial basins located on the northern macroslope of North-Chuya ridge (Russia, Central Altai). High-mountain vegetation of the area being considered didn't undergo an anthropogenic impact. It should be noted that investigations of coniferous undergrowth of forest-tundra ecotone of Aktru and Korumdu mountain glacial basins (2200-2500 m ab. s.l.) haven't been conducted before. A climatic representativeness of Aktru basin was proved by numerous data (Tronov et all, 1965, Sevastianov, 1998). The goal of the work was studying of condition and adaptations of young Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Larix sibirica Ledeb. to forest-tundra ecotone conditions. These species form the treeline on many ridges of Central Altai (Kuminova, 1960), including North-Chuya (Timoshok, 2004). It is shown that the number of young Siberian stone pines and larches in the forest-tundra ecotone is not big, Siberian stone pine being found more often than larch. A considerable quantity of young Siberian stone pines grows in sheltered sites (near big stones, boulders, stumps, etc.). During the research period dead young trees have been found in single cases. The maximum percentage of Siberian stone pine trees (42.4%) growing in sheltered sites was registered in Aktru basin on the east-southeast slope whereas on the west-northwest slope the maximum percentage of Siberian stone pines growing in clusters has been revealed (34.4%). Also on the west-northwest slope the maximum quantity of Siberian stone pines that changed their terminal shoots have been found (62.5%). During the investigation young trees with signs of diseases were registered. Chermes (Pineus cembrae Chol.) has been found on shoots and needles. On the west

  12. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of skunk-associated rabies viruses in North America with special emphasis on the central plains.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rolan; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Moore, Michael; Hanlon, Cathleen

    2013-06-01

    Across North America the skunk acts as a reservoir for several rabies virus variants. Some of these variants are geographically restricted in range as is the case for the California skunk variant and two distinct variants present in Mexico. In contrast the North Central and South Central skunk rabies viruses are dispersed in overlapping ranges over large areas of the Midwestern region of the United States with the former extending into southern parts of the Canadian prairies. Despite this extensive range, there has been only very limited molecular characterization of these two viral variants. This study has examined the genetic diversity of the rabies viruses associated with North American skunks, with particular emphasis on the South Central skunk variant which was found to comprise three distinct geographically restricted groups of viruses that could in some cases be further sub-divided. The phylogenetic relationships of these groups and sub-groups allowed us to infer the likely direction of spread of these variants in some instances. Patterns of amino acid replacement of North American skunk-associated rabies viruses for both the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein products are also examined. These patterns reflect the virus phylogeny but no amino acid residues associated specifically with the skunk host were identified. PMID:23524137

  13. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of skunk-associated rabies viruses in North America with special emphasis on the central plains.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rolan; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Moore, Michael; Hanlon, Cathleen

    2013-06-01

    Across North America the skunk acts as a reservoir for several rabies virus variants. Some of these variants are geographically restricted in range as is the case for the California skunk variant and two distinct variants present in Mexico. In contrast the North Central and South Central skunk rabies viruses are dispersed in overlapping ranges over large areas of the Midwestern region of the United States with the former extending into southern parts of the Canadian prairies. Despite this extensive range, there has been only very limited molecular characterization of these two viral variants. This study has examined the genetic diversity of the rabies viruses associated with North American skunks, with particular emphasis on the South Central skunk variant which was found to comprise three distinct geographically restricted groups of viruses that could in some cases be further sub-divided. The phylogenetic relationships of these groups and sub-groups allowed us to infer the likely direction of spread of these variants in some instances. Patterns of amino acid replacement of North American skunk-associated rabies viruses for both the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein products are also examined. These patterns reflect the virus phylogeny but no amino acid residues associated specifically with the skunk host were identified.

  14. Growth, sexual maturation and spawning in central North Sea plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.), and the generation of maturity ogives from commercial catch data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, P. J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper investigates sexual maturation in North Sea plaice using data from the commercial catch of plaice landed on Lowestoft fish market from 1983-1996, along with data from the English summer groundfish surveys from 1977-1993. Two offshore spawning areas were identified in the central North Sea - central-northern and central-southern. A general linear model (GLM) showed plaice sexual maturation was influenced by body weight, age and geographical location and was subject to annual and seasonal variation. Few three year old female place appeared to spawn in the central North Sea, similar to the situation early in the 20th century. The condition factor of plaice peaked at the start of spawning and declined sharply during spawning, with older females investing the most heavily in reproduction, both in absolute and relative terms. The loss of older females through fishing is, therefore, likely to compromise the overall reproductive fitness of the remaining population, comprising of young females. The reproductive fitness of the males was also compromised, since young males tended to be in running condition for about a month less than older males. Reproductive investment in females was about twice the level found in males. There was evidence that plaice in the northern North Sea matured at a slower rate than fish in the south. From the mid-1980s until the mid-1990s there was an increase in the proportion of young plaice reaching sexual maturity, following an earlier decline from the late 1970s. Problems with using maturity ogives derived from market sampling data in order to assess the proportion of spawning plaice in the North Sea are discussed.

  15. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity of the north-central USA from EarthScope long period magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Egbert, Gary D.; Kelbert, Anna; Meqbel, Naser M.

    2015-07-01

    We present initial results from three-dimensional inversion of long period EarthScope magnetotelluric (MT) transportable array data from 232 sites covering the north-central US. The study area covers the 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) system, which cuts across a series of Archean and Paleoproterozoic lithospheric blocks. The western arm of the MCR is clearly evident in shallow depth sections, with a narrow resistive core, flanked by elongate conductive basins. Other prominent upper-crustal features mapped include the moderately conductive Michigan and Illinois Basins, and extremely high conductivities in foreland basin rocks at the southern margin of the Superior craton. The most prominent conductive anomalies, in an otherwise relatively resistive mid-lower crust, are two elongate east-west oriented structures, which are closely aligned with previously inferred continental sutures. The first underlies the southern margin of the Superior craton just north of the Niagara Fault (NF), and can be associated with the ∼1.85 Ga Penokean Orogeny. A second, further south beneath Iowa and western Wisconsin, lies just south of the Spirit Lake tectonic zone (SLtz), and can be identified with Yavapai accretion at ∼1.75 Ga. Both of these conductive sutures are cleanly cut by the MCR, which is otherwise not clearly evident in the deeper parts of the resistivity model. The break in the anomalies is narrow, comparable to the surface expression of the MCR, indicating that rifting impacts on the entire crustal section were highly localized. Both suture-related anomalies are imaged as extending into, and perhaps through, the lithosphere as dipping diffuse zones of reduced mantle resistivity. Sense of dip of these structures (southward for the NF anomaly, northward for SLtz) agrees with previously inferred models for subduction and accretion, suggesting that a conductive phase (most likely carbon) has been thrust deep into the lower crust and uppermost mantle, providing a marker of

  16. Geochemistry of glacial sediments in the area of the Bend massive sulfide deposit, north-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, L.G.; Attig, J.W.; Cannon, W.F.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical exploration in northern Wisconsin has been problematic because of thick glacial overburden and complex stratigraphic record of glacial history. To assess till geochemical exploration in an area of thick glacial cover and complex stratigraphy samples of glacial materials were collected from cores from five rotasonic boreholes near a known massive sulfide deposit, the Bend deposit in north-central Wisconsin. Diamond drilling in the Bend area has defined a long, thin zone of mineralization at least partly intersected at the bedrock surface beneath 30-40 m of unconsolidated glacial sediments. The bedrock surface has remnant regolith and saprolite resulting from pre-Pleistocene weathering. Massive sulfide and mineralized rock collected from diamond drill core from the deposit contain high (10s to 10,000s ppm) concentrations of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cu, Hg, Se, Te, and Tl. Geochemical properties of the glacial stratigraphic units helped clarify the sequence and source areas of several glacial ice advances preserved in the section. At least two till sheets are recognized. Over the zone of mineralization, saprolite and preglacial alluvial and lacustrine samples are preserved on the bedrock surface in a paleoriver valley. The overlying till sheet is a gray, silty carbonate till with a source hundreds of kilometers to the northwest of the study area. This gray till is overlain by red, sandy till with a source to the north in Proterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior area. The complex glacial stratigraphy confounds down-ice geochemical till exploration. The presence of remnant saprolite, preglacial sediment, and far-traveled carbonate till minimized glacial erosion of mineralized material. As a result, little evidence of down-ice glacial dispersion of lithologic or mineralogic indicators of Bend massive sulfide mineralization was found in the samples from the rotasonic cores. This study points out the importance of determining glacial stratigraphy and history, and

  17. Changes in ground-water levels in the Carlin Trend area, north-central Nevada, 1989-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    2005-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage in support of gold mining activities, including mine dewatering, has resulted in water-level declines and rises in different parts of the Carlin Trend area in north-central Nevada. Total annual pumpage at the Gold Quarry, Carlin, Genesis, and Betze Mines has ranged from about 5,000 acre-feet in 1989 to almost 130,000 acre-feet in 1994 and 1998. Excess water from the mines is stored in the TS Ranch and Maggie Creek Reservoirs. Aquifers in the Carlin Trend area are comprised of carbonate rocks of Cambrian to Permian age and basin-fill deposits and interbedded volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Since 1992, water levels in carbonate-rock aquifers near the Gold Quarry Mine have declined as much as 680 feet below an elongate area 12 miles long and 6 miles wide northwest and southeast from the mine. Since 1990, water levels have declined by more than 1,600 feet in the deepest part of the cone of depression at the Betze Mine. The area encompassed by the main part of the cone, which is 7 miles long by 4 miles wide, did not change much during 1993-2003, although its depth had doubled. Near both mines, the cones of depression are bounded by faults acting as barriers to ground-water flow. Water levels in the volcanic rocks of northern Boulder Flat began to rise soon after the TS Ranch Reservoir began filling in 1990 because of infiltration. Since 1990, the net water-level rise around the reservoir has been 50 feet or more over an area of about 2 square miles, and 20 feet or more over an area of about 60 square miles. Since 1992, water levels in basin-fill deposits in Boulder Flat have risen 5 feet or more over an estimated area of 20 square miles as a result of (1) use of water from the Betze Mine as a substitute for irrigation pumpage, (2) water from the TS Ranch Reservoir infiltrating volcanic rocks and then flowing southward into adjacent basin-fill deposits, (3) secondary recharge of water from the mine for irrigating about 10,000 acres

  18. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  19. On the Development of Multi-Hazard Early Warning Networks: Practical experiences from North and Central America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Braun, John; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen; Phillips, David; Blume, Fredrick; Berglund, Henry; Fox, Otina; Feaux, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The GAGE facility, managed by UNAVCO, maintains and operates about 1300 GNSS stations distributed across North and Central America as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network (COCONet). UNAVCO has upgraded about 450 stations in these networks to real-time and high-rate (RT-GNSS) and included surface meteorological instruments. The majority of these streaming stations are part of the PBO but also include approximately 50 RT-GNSS stations in the Caribbean and Central American region as part of the COCONet and TLALOCNet projects. Based on community input UNAVCO has been exploring ways to increase the capability and utility of these resources to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and storms, and space weather. The RT-GNSS networks also have the potential to profoundly transform our ability to rapidly characterize geophysical events, provide early warning, as well as improve hazard mitigation and response. Specific applications currently under development with university, commercial, non-profit and government collaboration on national and international scales include earthquake and tsunami early warning systems and near real-time tropospheric modeling of hurricanes and precipitable water vapor estimate assimilation. Using tsunami early warning as an example, an RT-GNSS network can provide multiple inputs in an operational system starting with rapid assessment of earthquake sources and associated deformation which informs the initial modeled tsunami. The networks can then can also provide direct measurements of the tsunami wave heights and propagation by tracking the associated ionospheric disturbance from several 100's of km away as the waves approaches the shoreline. These GNSS based constraints can refine the tsunami and inundation models and potentially

  20. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected between 1997 and 2008 at 48 stream sites were used to characterize relations between watershed settings and stream nutrient yields throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The focus of the investigation was to identify environmental variables in watersheds that influence nutrient export for supporting the development and prioritization of management strategies for restoring nutrient-impaired streams. Nutrient concentration data and streamflow data compiled for the 1997 to 2008 study period were used to compute stream yields of nitrate, total nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (P) for each study site. Compiled environmental data (including variables for land cover, hydrologic soil groups, base-flow index, streams, wastewater treatment facilities, and concentrated animal feeding operations) were used to characterize the watershed settings for the study sites. Data for the environmental variables were analyzed in combination with the stream nutrient yields to explore relations based on watershed characteristics and to evaluate whether particular variables were useful indicators of watersheds having relatively higher or lower potential for exporting nutrients. Data evaluations included an examination of median annual nutrient yields based on a watershed land-use classification scheme developed as part of the study. An initial examination of the data indicated that the highest median annual nutrient yields occurred at both agricultural and urban sites, especially for urban sites having large percentages of point-source flow contributions to the streams. The results of statistical testing identified significant differences in annual nutrient yields when sites were analyzed on the basis of watershed land-use category. When statistical differences in median annual yields were noted, the results for nitrate, total N, and total P were similar in that highly urbanized watersheds (greater than 30 percent developed land use) and (or) watersheds with greater

  1. Deposition of selenium and other constituents in reservoir bottom sediment of the Solomon River Basin, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.

    1999-01-01

    The Solomon River drains approximately 6,840 square miles of mainly agricultural land in north-central Kansas. The Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, has begun a Resource Management Assessment (RMA) of the Solomon River Basin to provide the necessary data for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance before renewal of long-term water-service contracts with irrigation districts in the basin. In May 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected bottom-sediment cores from Kirwin and Webster Reservoirs, which are not affected by Bureau irrigation, and Waconda Lake, which receives water from both Bureau and non-Bureau irrigated lands. The cores were analyzed for selected physical properties, total recoverable metals, nutrients, cesium-137, and total organic carbon. Spearman's rho correlations and Kendall's tau trend tests were done for sediment concentrations in cores from each reservoir. Selenium, arsenic, and strontium were the only constituents that showed an increasing trend in concentrations for core samples from more than one reservoir. Concentrations and trends for these three constituents were compared to information on historical irrigation to determine any causal effect. Increases in selenium, arsenic, and strontium concentrations can not be completely explained by Bureau irrigation. However, mean selenium, arsenic, and strontium concentrations in sediment from all three reservoirs may be related to total irrigated acres (Bureau and non-Bureau irrigation) in the basin. Selenium, arsenic, and strontium loads were calculated for Webster Reservoir to determine if annual loads deposited in the reservoir were increasing along with constituent concentrations. Background selenium, arsenic, and strontium loads in Webster Reservoir are significantly larger than post-background loads.

  2. Radial Growth of Two Dominant Montane Conifer Tree Species in Response to Climate Change in North-Central China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Mingchang; Kang, Muyi; Dong, Manyu

    2014-01-01

    North-Central China is a region in which the air temperature has clearly increased for several decades. Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii are the most dominant co-occurring tree species within the cold coniferous forest belt ranging vertically from 1800 m to 2800 m a.s.l. in this region. Based on a tree-ring analysis of 292 increment cores sampled from 146 trees at different elevations, this study aimed to examine if the radial growth of the two species in response to climate is similar, whether the responses are consistent along altitudinal gradients and which species might be favored in the future driven by the changing climate. The results indicated the following: (1) The two species grew in different rhythms at low and high elevation respectively; (2) Both species displayed inconsistent relationships between radial growth and climate data along altitudinal gradients. The correlation between radial growth and the monthly mean temperature in the spring or summer changed from negative at low elevation into positive at high elevation, whereas those between the radial growth and the total monthly precipitation displayed a change from positive into negative along the elevation gradient. These indicate the different influences of the horizontal climate and vertical mountainous climate on the radial growth of the two species; (3) The species-dependent different response to climate in radial growth appeared mainly in autumn of the previous year. The radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii displayed negative responses both to temperature and to precipitation in the previous September, October or November, which was not observed in the radial growth of P. meyeri. (4) The radial growth of both species will tend to be increased at high elevation and limited at low elevation, and L. principis-rupprechtii might be more favored in the future, if the temperature keeps rising. PMID:25393738

  3. Radial growth of two dominant montane conifer tree species in response to climate change in North-Central China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Mingchang; Kang, Muyi; Dong, Manyu

    2014-01-01

    North-Central China is a region in which the air temperature has clearly increased for several decades. Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii are the most dominant co-occurring tree species within the cold coniferous forest belt ranging vertically from 1800 m to 2800 m a.s.l. in this region. Based on a tree-ring analysis of 292 increment cores sampled from 146 trees at different elevations, this study aimed to examine if the radial growth of the two species in response to climate is similar, whether the responses are consistent along altitudinal gradients and which species might be favored in the future driven by the changing climate. The results indicated the following: (1) The two species grew in different rhythms at low and high elevation respectively; (2) Both species displayed inconsistent relationships between radial growth and climate data along altitudinal gradients. The correlation between radial growth and the monthly mean temperature in the spring or summer changed from negative at low elevation into positive at high elevation, whereas those between the radial growth and the total monthly precipitation displayed a change from positive into negative along the elevation gradient. These indicate the different influences of the horizontal climate and vertical mountainous climate on the radial growth of the two species; (3) The species-dependent different response to climate in radial growth appeared mainly in autumn of the previous year. The radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii displayed negative responses both to temperature and to precipitation in the previous September, October or November, which was not observed in the radial growth of P. meyeri. (4) The radial growth of both species will tend to be increased at high elevation and limited at low elevation, and L. principis-rupprechtii might be more favored in the future, if the temperature keeps rising.

  4. Geology, coal quality, and resources of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, B.S.; Martirosyan, A.; Malkhasian, G.; Harutunian, S.; Harutunian, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Antaramut-Kurta-Dzoragukh (AKD) coal deposit is a previously unrecognized coal field in north-central Armenia. Coal has been known to exist in the general vicinity since the turn of the century, but coal was thought to be restricted to a small (1 km2) area only near the village of Antaramut. However, through detailed field work and exploratory drilling, this coal deposit has been expanded to at least 20 km2, and thus renamed the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, for the three villages that the coal field encompasses. The entire coal-bearing horizon, a series of tuffaceous sandstones, siltstones, and claystones, is approximately 50 m thick. The AKD coal field contains two coal beds, each greater than 1 m thick, and numerous small rider beds, with a total resource of approximately 31,000,000 metric tonnes. The coals are late Eocene in age, high volatile bituminous in rank, relatively high in ash yield (approximately 40%, as-determined basis) and moderate in sulfur content (approximately 3%, as-determined basis). The two coal beds (No. 1 and No. 2), on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis, have high calorific values of 32.6 MJ/kg (7796 cal/g) and 36.0 MJ/kg (8599 cal/g), respectively. Coal is one of the few indigenous fossil fuel resources occurring in Armenia and thus, the AKD coal field could potentially provide fuel for heating and possibly energy generation in the Armenian energy budget. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Neonatal line width in deciduous incisors from Neolithic, mediaeval and modern skeletal samples from north-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Marta; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Sitek, Aneta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Rosset, Iwona; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal line is usually the first accentuated incremental line visible on the enamel. The prenatal environment significantly contributes to the width of the neonatal line, influencing the pace of reaching post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. Studies of the enamel of the earliest developing deciduous teeth can provide an insight into the prenatal development and the perinatal conditions of children of past human populations, thus being an additional source contributing to consideration of the influence of prenatal and perinatal factors modifying growth processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether the neonatal line, reflecting the conditions of the prenatal and perinatal environment, differed between the Neolithic, the mediaeval and the modern populations from the Kujawy region in north-central Poland. The material consisted of longitudinally ground sections of 57 human deciduous incisors obtained from children aged 1.0-7.5 years representing three archaeological series from Brześć Kujawski site. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-linqual plane using a diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed with the microscope Delta Optical Evolution 300 at 10× and 40× magnifications. For each tooth, linear measurements of the neonatal line width were performed on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. No significant difference was found in the mean neonatal line width depending on the tooth type and archaeological site, although the thickest neonatal line characterised children from the Neolithic series. In all analysed series, the neonatal line width was diversified depending on the child's age at death. The value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the child's age at death and the neonatal line width was statistically significant. A clear increase in the width of the neonatal line was thus observed along with a decrease in the child

  6. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  7. Water budget estimates for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River Basin of north-central Nevada. The water budgets include estimates of average annual precipitation, runoff, water yield, ground-water recharge and subsurface flow, and evapotranspiration (ET) determined from recently developed or revised methods. Ground-water pumping is not included in the budget estimates. The estimated budgets represent average annual volumes over a 30-year reference period ( 1961-90) and are compared to water budgets developed more than 30 years ago. Annual inflow to the middle Humboldt River basin is about 5 million acre-feet. An estimated 4.6 million is from precipitation in the 14 hydrographic areas and about 350,000 acre-feet is inflow from the Humboldt River. Annual outflow is about 5.1 million acre-feet, of which ET accounts for 4.8 million acre-feet, and outflow of the Humboldt River is about 300,000 acre-feet. Average annual precipitation in the hydrographic areas for 1961-90 ranged from 105 to 128 percent of that for the 1912-63 period. The annual volume ofET in the 14 areas was 102 to almost 134 percent of that previously estimated, although the percentage of annual precipitation lost to ET is similar. About 15 percent of the annual precipitation in mountain-block areas becomes water yield (either ground water or runoff) as compared to previous estimates of 11 percent. On the basis of mass-balance calculations, ground-water recharge on average is about 145 percent of previous estimates.

  8. Mineral associations produced by sodic-calcic hydrothermal alteration in the Buffalo Mountain pluton, north-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, D. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-03-01

    Sodic-calcic (Na-Ca) hydrothermal alteration is prevalent throughout Mesozoic-age arc igneous rocks in the western US. The middle Jurassic Buffalo Mountain pluton, located in north-central Nevada, contains particularly well developed Na-Ca metasomatism. The Buffalo Mountain pluton is composed of porphyritic syenite, quartz monzonite, small bordering stocks (which account for less than 1% of the pluton), and an extensive felsic dike swarm. Quartz monzonite intruded syenite and constitutes the majority of the surface area. Unaltered porphyritic syenite is composed of perthite, plagioclase, quartz, augite, hornblende, biotite, olivine, magnetite, and other minerals accounting for less than 1% of the rock. Unaltered quartz monzonite is an aggregate of K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, hornblende, and accessory minerals accounting for less than 1% of the rock. The dikes cut both phases of the total intrusive rock body and are closely related in space to zones of Na-Ca alteration. Alteration variably affects all igneous rock types and exists as both fracture-controlled and pervasive Na-Ca alteration. Sodic-calcic alteration resulted in the following mineral reactions: K-feldspar is replaced by chalky-colored plagioclase, and primary mafic minerals react to form pale green diopside or, less commonly, actinolite. Garnet, scapolite, and epidote are often spatially associated with Na-Ca altered rocks. The fact that Na-Ca alteration occurs most commonly in and around dikes suggests that they might have been the source of channel for fluid entry into the surrounding igneous rocks. Further study will seek to constrain the origins and pathways of Na-Ca fluids.

  9. Use of Groundwater Tracers to Assess Climate Change in North-Central New Mexico during the Holocene Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanicak, S. M.; Dale, M.; Granzow, K.; Longmire, P.; Perkins, G.

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater system at Los Alamos, New Mexico encompasses a complex shallow mountain-block and mountain-front zone; intermediate-depth perched zones located east of the mountain front; and an extensive regional aquifer occupying the Rio Grande rift. In the study area, groundwater-flow paths in the regional aquifer are generally from the northwest to southeast that laterally extend 17 km before discharging to the Rio Grande. This system is unconfined and variable mixing occurs at greater distances east of the primary recharge zones. Since 1943, the regional aquifer has been mined for industrial processes and residential use and consumption at Los Alamos. A large data set for groundwater-age and inorganic solutes has been assembled for the intermediate-depth perched zones and regional aquifer, which provides a potential archive record of paleoclimate-change occurring during the past 10,000 years. Groundwater ages range from modern groundwater to approximately 9,700 years before present. Unadjusted radiocarbon-age results for groundwater samples collected from 58 background-monitoring wells and 10 springs correlate well with natural chloride and perchlorate concentrations and δ18O values. Background concentrations of dissolved perchlorate and chloride increase with increasing groundwater age and residence time. Values of δ18O are slightly heavier in groundwater samples having increasing age, suggesting that warmer climatic conditions occurred 10,000 years before present. Perchlorate and δ18O datasets correlate the strongest with average groundwater age, showing Pearson correlations of 0.81 and 0.71, respectively. The Pearson correlations for chloride to age and perchlorate to chloride are 0.62 and 0.81, respectively. Overall, this dataset suggests that climatic cooling has gradually occurred in north-central New Mexico during the Holocene, and does corroborate previous Holocene climate-change studies conducted in the southwestern United States.

  10. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  11. Hydrologic and Water Quality Assessment of Bioenergy Scenarios for the Boone River Watershed in North Central Iowa, U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassman, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    he Boone River Watershed (BRW) is an intensively cropped region dominated by corn and soybean production that covers over 237,000 ha in north central Iowa. The BRW is reflective of both current Iowa cropping trends and elevated levels of nutrient pollution in streams. Nitrate losses are of particular concern, much of which escapes the cropland via subsurface tiles that drain the predominantly flat landscapes that characterize the watershed. Phosphorus export to stream systems in the BRW is also a problem of considerable concern. Questions have emerged as to the possible impacts of adopting cellulosic biofuel production systems in Iowa watersheds such as the BRW, which would be developed as function of corn stover removed after harvest or via the introduction of perennial biofuel crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus. In response, a modeling system been constructed for the watershed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to address biofuel-related water quality and related issues. The specific version of SWAT (SWAT version 2012; Release 615) that is being used in the study features recent modifications made to the source code that corrected inaccuracies in previous codes in regards to simulating removal of corn stover and also the growth of switchgrass and miscanthus. In addition, updated crop growth parameters that more accurately represent the biomass production potential of switchgrass and miscanthus varieties being grown in the U.S. Corn Belt region are being used in this SWAT modeling system. The results of several scenarios are reported here that reflect future cellulosic biofuel scenarios based on 20%, 30% or 50% removal levels of corn stover or widespread adoption of switchgrass and/or miscanthus across much or all of the BRW. Both hydrologic and pollutant loss (sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus) losses are reported for all of the simulated scenarios.

  12. Distribution patterns of larval and juvenile fishes at offshore petroleum platforms in the north-central Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, David C.; Shaw, Richard F.; Hernandez, Frank J.

    2005-03-01

    Vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of larval and juvenile fishes were described from five offshore petroleum platforms in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Light traps and passively-fished plankton nets were used nocturnally between 1995-2000 to collect fishes in surface and deep (15-23 m depth) waters within the platform structure, and light traps were also used in surface waters directly down-current of the platforms. Light traps fished at the surface, as opposed to at-depth, collected greater CPUEs and greater diversity of larval and juvenile fishes. Of the dominant taxa collected by light traps, clupeids, engraulids, synodontids, and presettlement blenniids were most common in surface waters within the platform, while postflexion scombrids and settlement-size blenniids and pomacentrids were most common in surface waters down-current of the platforms. Deep plankton nets collected greater densities of non-clupeiform larval fishes, although surface plankton nets collected greater numbers of taxa. The vertical distribution patterns described for dominant larval fish collected by plankton nets were generally consistent with those from other studies, i.e. clupeid, carangid, sciaenid and scombrid larvae more abundant in surface waters at platforms, and synodontid, bregmacerotid, gobiid and bothid larvae more abundant in deeper waters. Oil and gas platforms likely impact larval and juvenile fish populations, particularly considering their proliferation in the Gulf (i.e., over 4000 platforms). The results from this study provide valuable baseline information for future research investigating how platforms impact the life history stages of fish populations.

  13. Pattern of dental caries in the historical human population of Kujawy in the Polish lowland (north-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata; Mazurkiewicz, Julia; Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Joanna; Zadzińska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dental caries rates in the skeletal human population who lived in north-central Poland in modern times (16th-18th century). The material consisted of 297 skeletons (4,783 permanent teeth) from the archeological site of K. Compared material was coming from two different sites located in the same region: early mediaeval Kolonia--39 skeletons and Swiety Duch (dating to the same historical period as K population)--417 skeletons. All three series are part of the osteological collection of the Department of Anthropology. For each skeletal sample, caries rates were calculated by individual (frequency index) and by tooth count (intensity index). Dental caries was scored also according to a procedure in which the initiation sites are recorded. The highest frequency of dental caries was observed in Swiety Duch (70%) and the lowest in the early mediaeval sample (almost 59%). The intensity of caries fluctuated from above 8% observed in Kolonia to 22% observed in the sample from Swiety Duch. However, in all three samples the caries initiation site was most often noticed on fissure and pits (type 1) the K population was characterised by a different caries pattern (chi2=17.88, p<0.05 when compared with that of Kolonia; chi2=218.73, p<0.01 when compared with that of Swiety Duch), which could be the effect of diet (high frequency of CEJ caries probably means starch-rich plant food diet), oral hygiene, fluoride level, economic status or genetic factors (resistance/sensitivity to cariogenic bacteria).

  14. Forest responses to late Holocene climate change in north-central Wisconsin: a high- resolution study from Hell's Kitchen Lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M. A.; Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Minckley, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Forest dynamics at centennial to millennial timescales can be identified using paleoecological records with high spatial, temporal, and taxonomic resolution. These dynamics are linked to climate changes by comparing the paleoecological records with independent paleoclimate records of complementary sensitivity and temporal resolution. We analyzed plant macrofossils at contiguous 1cm intervals (representing 5 to 35 yr/cm) from late Holocene sediments of Hell's Kitchen Lake (3 ha) in north-central Wisconsin. Most of the plant macrofossils derive from trees growing on the slopes directly adjacent to the lake, and were identified to the species. We also analyzed pollen at an approximately100 year resolution to provide a regionally integrated record of forest composition. We then compared the macrofossil and pollen records with independent records of climate change in the region, particularly paleohydrological records from kettle bogs. The most notable feature of the late Holocene record occurs between 2300-2000 cal yr BP. During this period yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) macrofossils first appear in the record, along with a corresponding increase in pollen percentages. Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) macrofossils and pollen also show a marked increase at this time. These changes coincide with a major transition towards wetter conditions recorded in the testate amoebae record of Hornet Bog (~200km northwest) and in a number of other kettle bog records from the region. Directly following this transition, tamarack (Larix laricina) and Sphagnum macrofossils at Hell's Kitchen Lake increase dramatically, likely representing the initiation of bog-mat growth along the southwest margin of the lake during the wet period. . We are continuing our high-resolution sampling downcore at Hell's Kitchen Lake. This will permit us to examine additional ecologic and climatic events in the early and mid-Holocene.

  15. Reinterpretation of Paleoproterozoic accretionary boundaries of the north-central United States based on a new aeromagnetic-geologic compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, D.K.; Anderson, R.; Boerboom, Terrence; Cannon, W.F.; Chandler, V.; Jirsa, M.; Miller, J.; Schneider, D.A.; Schulz, K.J.; Van Schmus, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic crust in the north-central U.S. represents intact juvenile terranes accreted to the rifted Archean Superior craton. A new tectonic province map, based on the interpretation of a new aeromagnetic compilation, published geologic maps, and recent geochronologic data, shows progressive accretion of juvenile arc terranes from ca. 1900-1600 Ma. Contrary to earlier models, geon 18 Penokean-interval crust is primarily confined to a ???2100 Ma tectonic embayment of the rifted Superior craton. The newly defined Spirit Lake tectonic zone, characterized by a sharp magnetic discontinuity that marks the southern limit of Archean and Penokean-interval rocks, is here interpreted to represent an eastern analog of the Cheyenne belt suture zone in southern Wyoming. South of this boundary, geon 17 Yavapai-interval rocks form the basement upon which 1750 Ma rhyolite and succeeding quartzite sequences were deposited. Substantial portions of the Penokean and Yavapai terranes were subsequently deformed during the 1650-1630 Ma Mazatzal orogeny. The northern boundary of the Mazatzal terrane is obscured by abundant 1470-1430 Ma "anorogenic" plutons that stitched the suture with the older Yavapai terrane rocks. These data reveal a progressive tectonic younging to the south as the Laurentian craton grew southward and stabilized during the Proterozoic. Late Mesoproterozoic rift magmatism produced pronounced geophysical anomalies, indicating strong, but localized crustal modification. In comparison to the western U.S., little tectonism has occurred here in the last 1 billion years, providing a uniquely preserved record of the Precambrian evolution of the continental U.S. lithosphere. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural study of Wamba and Environs, north-central Nigeria using aeromagnetic data and NigeriaSat-X image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Olobaniyi, S. B.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2015-11-01

    Wamba 1:100,000 sheet 210 covers Wamba and Nassarawa Eggon area of North-Central Nigeria and consists of basement rocks, biotite granites and Older Granites in most parts of the northern part and by sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Middle Benue Trough in the southern part. High resolution aeromagnetic data was interpreted and the results integrated in a GIS environment with data from NigeriaSat-X image to map out the major structural trends within the area. Reduction-to-the-equator (RTE) operation was carried out on the aeromagnetic data after which several data transforms/derivatives such as horizontal derivative, analytical signal, and tilt derivative were calculated to highlight subsurface boundaries and the major structures within the area. Several digital image enhancement techniques such as general contrast stretching and edge enhancement were applied to the NigeraSat-X image in ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 after which structures from the interpreted magnetic data and the image were mapped out on-screen using ArcMap 10. The results show that the RTE produced a reasonable geological picture of the area. Also the basement configuration consists of several NE-SW and NW-SE structures that range from 1 km to about 17 km in length with the NE-SW structures being the major trend within the area. The lineaments are mainly within the basement and the Older granites and may be related to the Pan-African Orogeny. This study was also able to map out more accurately the contact between the basement and the sediments hence a modified geological map of the area was produced.

  17. Major Crustal Fault Zone Trends and Their Relation to Mineral Belts in the North-Central Great Basin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2007-01-01

    The Great Basin physiographic province covers a large part of the western United States and contains one of the world's leading gold-producing areas, the Carlin Trend. In the Great Basin, many sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits occur along such linear mineral-occurrence trends. The distribution and genesis of these deposits is not fully understood, but most models indicate that regional tectonic structures play an important role in their spatial distribution. Over 100 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were acquired between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate crustal structures that may underlie the linear trends in north-central Nevada. MT sounding data were used to map changes in electrical resistivity as a function of depth that are related to subsurface lithologic and structural variations. Two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity modeling of the MT data reveals primarily northerly and northeasterly trending narrow 2-D conductors (1 to 30 ohm-m) extending to mid-crustal depths (5-20 km) that are interpreted to be major crustal fault zones. There are also a few westerly and northwesterly trending 2-D conductors. However, the great majority of the inferred crustal fault zones mapped using MT are perpendicular or oblique to the generally accepted trends. The correlation of strike of three crustal fault zones with the strike of the Carlin and Getchell trends and the Alligator Ridge district suggests they may have been the root fluid flow pathways that fed faults and fracture networks at shallower levels where gold precipitated in favorable host rocks. The abundant northeasterly crustal structures that do not correlate with the major trends may be structures that are open to fluid flow at the present time.

  18. Modeling a habitat suitability index for the eastern fall cohort of Ommastrephes bartramii in the central North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Tian, Siquan; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Yong

    2011-05-01

    The eastern fall cohort of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, has been commercially exploited by the Chinese squid jigging fleet in the central North Pacific Ocean since the late 1990s. To understand and identify their optimal habitat, we have developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model using two potential important environmental variables — sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) — and fishery data from the main fishing ground (165°-180°E) during June and July of 1999-2003. A geometric mean model (GMM), minimum model (MM) and arithmetic weighted model (AWM) with different weights were compared and the best HSI model was selected using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The performance of the developed HSI model was evaluated using fishery data for 2004. This study suggests that the highest catch per unit effort (CPUE) and fishing effort are closely related to SST and SSHA. The best SST- and SSHA-based suitability index (SI) regression models were SISST-based = 0.7SIeffort-SST + 0.3 SICPUE-SST, and SISSHA-based = 0.5SIeffort-SSHA + 0.5SICPUE-SSHA, respectively, showing that fishing effort is more important than CPUE in the estimation of SI. The best HSI model was the AWM, defined as HSI=0.3SISST-based+ 0.7SISSHA-based, indicating that SSHA is more important than SST in estimating the HSI of squid. In 2004, monthly HSI values greater than 0.6 coincided with the distribution of productive fishing ground and high CPUE in June and July, suggesting that the models perform well. The proposed model provides an important tool in our efforts to develop forecasting capacity of squid spatial dynamics.

  19. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  20. A potential risk assessment of a dengue outbreak in north central Texas, USA. (Part 1 of 2): Abundance and temporal variation of dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Hak; Stahl, Matt; Sawlis, Scott; Suzuki, Sumi; Lee, Jib Ho

    2009-06-01

    In response to three imported dengue cases in north central Texas as well as increased case numbers in Texas and adjoining Mexican states in 2005, the authors assessed the potential risk of a dengue outbreak in north central Texas by investigating abundance and temporal variation of dengue vectors in 2006. Dengue vector abundance was monitored from 54 sites in Dallas County, Texas, from June to November 2006, using oviposition traps. Both dengue vectors--the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus--were present. Of the two, Ae. albopictus was more abundant and its abundance appeared to be positively affected by temperature and precipitation. Potential risk of a dengue outbreak was predicted based on the abundance and temporal variation of dengue vectors and a long-term trend of breeding season precipitation and warmer winter temperatures.