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Sample records for 31p nmr chemical

  1. Accurate calculation of (31)P NMR chemical shifts in polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Borràs, Magda; López, Xavier; Poblet, Josep M

    2015-04-14

    We search for the best density functional theory strategy for the determination of (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts, δ((31)P), in polyoxometalates. Among the variables governing the quality of the quantum modelling, we tackle herein the influence of the functional and the basis set. The spin-orbit and solvent effects were routinely included. To do so we analysed the family of structures α-[P2W18-xMxO62](n-) with M = Mo(VI), V(V) or Nb(V); [P2W17O62(M'R)](n-) with M' = Sn(IV), Ge(IV) and Ru(II) and [PW12-xMxO40](n-) with M = Pd(IV), Nb(V) and Ti(IV). The main results suggest that, to date, the best procedure for the accurate calculation of δ((31)P) in polyoxometalates is the combination of TZP/PBE//TZ2P/OPBE (for NMR//optimization step). The hybrid functionals (PBE0, B3LYP) tested herein were applied to the NMR step, besides being more CPU-consuming, do not outperform pure GGA functionals. Although previous studies on (183)W NMR suggested that the use of very large basis sets like QZ4P were needed for geometry optimization, the present results indicate that TZ2P suffices if the functional is optimal. Moreover, scaling corrections were applied to the results providing low mean absolute errors below 1 ppm for δ((31)P), which is a step forward in order to confirm or predict chemical shifts in polyoxometalates. Finally, via a simplified molecular model, we establish how the small variations in δ((31)P) arise from energy changes in the occupied and virtual orbitals of the PO4 group. PMID:25738630

  2. Pyrolysis temperature affects phosphorus transformation in biochar: Chemical fractionation and (31)P NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Zhang, You; Shao, Hongbo; Sun, Junna

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling or reuse by pyrolyzing crop residue has recently elicited increased research interest. However, the effects of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions on P species have not been fully understood. Such knowledge is important in identifying the agronomic and environmental uses of biochar. Residues of three main Chinese agricultural crops and the biochars (produced at 300°C-600°C) derived from these crops were used to determine P transformations during pyrolysis. Hedley sequential fractionation and (31)P NMR analyses were used in the investigation. Our results showed that P transformation in biochar was significantly affected by pyrolysis temperature regardless of feedstock (Wheat straw, maize straw and peanut husk). Pyrolysis treatment transformed water soluble P into a labile (NaHCO3-Pi) or semi-labile pool (NaOH-Pi) and into a stable pool (Dil. HCl P and residual-P). At the same time, organic P was transformed into inorganic P fractions which was identified by the rapid decomposition of organic P detected with solution (31)P NMR. The P transformation during pyrolysis process suggested more stable P was formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. This result was also evidenced by the presence of less soluble or stable P species, such as such as poly-P, crandallite (CaAl3(OH)5(PO4)2) and Wavellite (Al3(OH)3(PO4)2·5H2O), as detected by solid-state (31)P NMR in biochars formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, a significant proportion of less soluble pyrophosphate was identified by solution (2%-35%) and solid-state (8%-53%) (31)P NMR, which was also responsible for the stable P forms at higher pyrolysis temperature although their solubility or stability requires further investigation. Results suggested that a relatively lower pyrolysis temperature retains P availability regardless of feedstock during pyrolysis process. PMID:27343937

  3. Ab initio and DFT study of 31P-NMR chemical shifts of sphingomyelin and dihydrosphingomyelin lipid molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimori, K.; Kawabe, H.; Nagao, H.; Nishikawa, K.

    One of the phospholipids, sphingomyelin (SM, N-acyl-sphingosine-1-phosphorylcholine) is the most abundant component of mammalian membranes in brain, nervous tissues, and human ocular lens. It plays an important role for apoptosis, aging, and signal transduction. Recently, Yappert and coworkers have shown that human lens sphingomyelin and its hydrogenated derivative, dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM) are interacted with Ca2+ ions to develop human cataracts. Previously, we have investigated conformational differences between an isolated SM/DHSM molecule and Ca2+-coordinated form by using density functional theory (DFT) for geometry optimization and normal mode analysis. As a result, one of stable conformers of SMs has a hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group and phosphate group, whereas another conformer has a hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl and phosphate amide group. In this study, 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) shielding constants of the obtained conformers are investigated by using ab initio and DFT with NMR-gauge invariant atomic orbitals (NMR-GIAO) calculations. The experimental 31P-NMR chemical shifts of SMs and DHSMs have significant small value around 0.1 ppm. We consider the relative conformational changes between SMs and DHSMs affect the slight deviations of 31P-NMR chemical shifts, and discuss intramolecular hydrogen bondings and the solvent effect in relation to NMR experimental reference.

  4. (31)P Solid-State NMR study of the chemical setting process of a dual-paste injectable brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Legrand, A P; Sfihi, H; Lequeux, N; Lemaître, J

    2009-10-01

    The composition and evolution of a brushite-type calcium phosphate cement was investigated by Solid-State NMR and X-ray during the setting process. The cement is obtained by mixing beta-tricalcium phosphate [Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), beta-TCP] and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H(2)PO(4))(2).H(2)O, MCPM] in presence of water, with formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate or brushite [CaHPO(2).2H(2)O, DCPD]. Analysis of the initial beta-TCP paste has shown the presence of beta-calcium pyrophosphate [Ca(2)P(2)O(7), beta-CPy] and that of the initial MCPM a mixture of MCPM and dicalcium phosphate [CaHPO(4), DCP]. Follow-up of the chemical composition by (31)P Solid-State NMR enables to show that the chemical setting process appeared to reach an end after 20 min. The constant composition observed at the end of the process was similarly determined. PMID:19365821

  5. Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

    2012-03-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

  6. Structural characterization of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with proton band-selective (1)H-(31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Hakala, Ullastiina; Vanninen, Paula

    2010-06-15

    Decontamination solutions, which are usually composed of strong alkaline chemicals, are used for efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The analysis of CWA degradation products directly in decontamination solutions is challenging due to the nature of the matrix. Furthermore, occasionally an unforeseen degradation pathway can result in degradation products which could be eluded to in standard analyses. Here, we present the results of the application of proton band-selective (1)H-(31)P NMR spectroscopy, i.e., band-selective 1D (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) and band-selective 2D (1)H-(31)P HSQC-total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), for ester side chain characterization of organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products in decontamination solutions. The viability of the approach is demonstrated with a test mixture of typical degradation products of nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX. The proton band-selective (1)H-(31)P NMR spectroscopy is also applied in characterization of unusual degradation products of VX in GDS 2000 solution. PMID:20507069

  7. The contribution of magnetic susceptibility effects to transmembrane chemical shift differences in the 31P NMR spectra of oxygenated erythrocyte suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K; Kuchel, P W

    1988-01-01

    Triethyl phosphate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, and the hypophosphite ion all contain the phosphoryl functional group. When added to an oxygenated erythrocyte suspension, the former compound gives rise to a single 31P NMR resonance, whereas the latter compounds give rise to separate intra- and extracellular 31P NMR resonances. On the basis of experiments with intact oxygenated cell suspensions (in which the hematocrit was varied) and with oxygenated cell lysates (in which the lysate concentration was varied), it was concluded that the chemical shifts of the intra- and extracellular populations of triethyl phosphate differ as a consequence of the diamagnetic susceptibility of intracellular oxyhemoglobin but that this difference is averaged by the rapid exchange of the compound across the cell membrane. The difference in the magnetic susceptibility of the intra- and extracellular compartments contributes to the observed separation of the intra- and extracellular resonances of dimethyl methylphosphonate and hypophosphite. The magnitude of this contribution is, however, substantially less than that calculated using a simple two-compartment model and varies with the hematocrit of the suspension. Furthermore, it is insufficient to fully account for the transmembrane chemical shift differences observed for dimethyl methylphosphonate and hypophosphite. An additional effect is operating to move the intracellular resonances of these compounds to a lower chemical shift. The effect is mediated by an intracellular component, and the magnitude of the resultant chemical shift variations depends upon the chemical structure of the phosphoryl compound involved. PMID:3275636

  8. Contribution of magnetic susceptibility effects to transmembrane chemical shift differences in the /sup 31/P NMR spectra of oxygenated erythrocyte suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, K.; Kuchel, P.W.

    1988-01-05

    Triethyl phosphate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, and the hypophosphite ion all contain the phosphoryl functional group. When added to an oxygenated erythrocyte suspension, the former compound gives rise to a single /sup 31/P NMR resonance, whereas the latter compounds give rise to separate intra- and extracellular /sup 31/P NMR resonances. On the basis of experiments with intact oxygenated cell suspensions (in which the hematocrit was varied) and with oxygenated cell lysates (in which the lysate concentration was varied) it was concluded that the chemical shifts of the intra- and extracellular populations of triethyl phosphate differ as a consequence of the diamagnetic susceptibility of intracellular oxyhemoglobin but that this difference is averaged by the rapid exchange of the compound across the cell membrane. The difference is the magnetic susceptibility of the intra- and extracellular compartments contributes to the observed separation of the intra- and extracellular resonances of dimethyl methylphosphonate and hypophosphite. The magnitude of this contribution is, however, substantially less than that calculated using a simple two-compartment model and varies with the hematocrit of the suspension. Furthermore, it is insufficient to fully account for the transmembrane chemical shift differences observed for dimethyl methylphosphonate and hypophosphite. An additional effect is operating to move the intracellular resonances of these compounds to a lower chemical shift. The effect is mediated by an intracellular component, and the magnitude of the resultant chemical shift variations depends upon the chemical structure of the phosphoryl compound involved.

  9. Characterization of soil phosphorus in a fire-affected forest Cambisol by chemical extractions and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Turrion, María-Belén; Lafuente, Francisco; Aroca, María-José; López, Olga; Mulas, Rafael; Ruipérez, Cesar

    2010-07-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of fire on soil phosphorus (P) and to determine the efficiency of different procedures in extracting soil P forms. Different P forms were determined: labile forms (Olsen-P, Bray-P, and P extracted by anion exchange membranes: AEM-P); moderately labile inorganic and organic P, obtained by NaOH-EDTA extraction after removing the AEM-P fraction; and total organic and inorganic soil P. (31)P-NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the structure of alkali-soluble P forms (orthophosphate, monoester, pyrophosphate, and DNA). The studied area was a Pinus pinaster forest located at Arenas de San Pedro (southern Avila, Spain). The soils were Dystric Cambisols over granites. Soil samples were collected at 0-2 cm, 2-5 cm, and 10-15 cm depths, two years after a fire in the burned area and in an adjacent unburned forest area. Fire increased the total N, organic C, total P, and organic and inorganic P content in the surface soil layer. In burned soil, the P extracted by the sequential procedure (AEM and NaOH+EDTA) was about 95% of the total P. Bray extraction revealed a fire-induced increase in the sorption surfaces. Analysis by chemical methods overestimated the organic P fraction in the EDTA-NaOH extract in comparison with the determination by ignition procedure. This overestimation was more important in the burned than unburned soil samples, probably due to humification promoted by burning, which increased P sorption by soil particles. The fire-induced changes on the structure of alkali-soluble P were an increase in orthophosphate-P and a decrease in monoester-P and DNA-P. PMID:20452650

  10. Characterizing phosphorus speciation of Chesapeake Bay sediments using chemical extraction, 31P NMR, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Joshi, Sunendra R; Hou, Guangjin; Burdige, David J; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient contamination has been one of the lingering issues in the Chesapeake Bay because the bay restoration is complicated by temporally and seasonally variable nutrient sources and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. Differential reactivity of sedimentary phosphorus (P) pools in response to imposed biogeochemical conditions can record past sediment history and therefore a detailed sediment P speciation may provide information on P cycling particularly the stability of a P pool and the formation of one pool at the expense of another. This study examined sediment P speciation from three sites in the Chesapeake Bay: (i) a North site in the upstream bay, (ii) a middle site in the central bay dominated by seasonally hypoxic bottom water, and (iii) a South site at the bay-ocean boundary using a combination of sequential P extraction (SEDEX) and spectroscopic techniques, including (31)P NMR, P X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and Fe extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Results from sequential P extraction reveal that sediment P is composed predominantly of ferric Fe-bound P and authigenic P, which was further confirmed by solid-state (31)P NMR, XANES, and EXAFS analyses. Additionally, solution (31)P NMR results show that the sediments from the middle site contain high amounts of organic P such as monoesters and diesters, compared to the other two sites, but that these compounds rapidly decrease with sediment depth indicating remineralized P could have precipitated as authigenic P. Fe EXAFS enabled to identify the changes in Fe mineral composition and P sinks in response to imposed redox condition in the middle site sediments. The presence of lepidocrocite, vermiculite, and Fe smectite in the middle site sediments indicates that some ferric Fe minerals can still be present along with pyrite and vivianite, and that ferric Fe-bound P pool can be a major P sink in anoxic sediments. These results provide

  11. Phosphide oxides RE2AuP2O (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd): synthesis, structure, chemical bonding, magnetism, and 31P and 139La solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Timo; Wiegand, Thomas; Ren, Jinjun; Eckert, Hellmut; Johrendt, Dirk; Niehaus, Oliver; Eul, Matthias; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2013-02-18

    Polycrystalline samples of the phosphide oxides RE(2)AuP(2)O (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) were obtained from mixtures of the rare earth elements, binary rare earth oxides, gold powder, and red phosphorus in sealed silica tubes. Small single crystals were grown in NaCl/KCl fluxes. The samples were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, and the structures were refined from single crystal diffractometer data: La(2)AuP(2)O type, space group C2/m, a = 1515.2(4), b = 424.63(8), c = 999.2(2) pm, β = 130.90(2)°, wR2 = 0.0410, 1050 F(2) values for Ce(2)AuP(2)O, and a = 1503.6(4), b = 422.77(8), c = 993.0(2) pm, β = 130.88(2)°, wR2 = 0.0401, 1037 F(2) values for Pr(2)AuP(2)O, and a = 1501.87(5), b = 420.85(5), c = 990.3(3) pm, β = 131.12(1)°, wR2 = 0.0944, 1143 F(2) values for Nd(2)AuP(2)O with 38 variables per refinement. The structures are composed of [RE(2)O](4+) polycationic chains of cis-edge-sharing ORE(4/2) tetrahedra and polyanionic strands [AuP(2)](4-), which contain gold in almost trigonal-planar phosphorus coordination by P(3-) and P(2)(4-) entities. The isolated phosphorus atoms and the P(2) pairs in La(2)AuP(2)O could clearly be distinguished by (31)P solid state NMR spectroscopy and assigned on the basis of a double quantum NMR technique. Also, the two crystallographically inequivalent La sites could be distinguished by static (139)La NMR in conjunction with theoretical electric field gradient calculations. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements show diamagnetic behavior for La(2)AuP(2)O. Ce(2)AuP(2)O and Pr(2)AuP(2)O are Curie-Weiss paramagnets with experimental magnetic moments of 2.35 and 3.48 μ(B) per rare earth atom, respectively. Their solid state (31)P MAS NMR spectra are strongly influenced by paramagnetic interactions. Ce(2)AuP(2)O orders antiferromagnetically at 13.1(5) K and shows a metamagnetic transition at 11.5 kOe. Pr(2)AuP(2)O orders ferromagnetically at 7.0 K. PMID:23374070

  12. sup 31 P NMR analysis of coal moieties bearing -OH, -NH, and -SH functions

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1991-08-31

    NMR reagents for the speciation and quantitation of labile-hydrogen functional groups and sulfur groups in coal ligands have been synthesized and evaluated. These reagents, which contain the NMR-active nuclei {sup 31}p, {sup 119}Sn or {sup 195}pt, were designed to possess improved chemical shift resolution over reagents reported in the literature. Our efforts were successful in the case of the new {sup 31}p and {sup 119}Sn reagents we developed, but the {sup 195}pt work on sulfur groups was only partially successful in as much as the grant came to a close and was not renewed. Our success with {sup 31}P and {sup 119}Sn NMR reagents came to the attention of Amoco and they have recently expressed interest in further supporting that work. A further measure of the success of our efforts can be seen in the nine publications supported by this grant which are cited in the reference list.

  13. Neutral zinc(II) O,O-di-alkyldithiopho- sphates-variable temperature 31P NMR and quantum chemical study of the ZDDP monomer-dimer equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J J; Chan, C Y; Onopchenko, A; Pradhan, A R; Petersen, M

    2008-02-01

    A full line-shape analysis of the VT 31P NMR spectra was carried out for the monomer-dimer equilibrium of neutral ZDDP. The energy surface and the energetics of the monomer-dimer equilibrium (DeltaH degrees , DeltaG degrees , Ea, DeltaH(not equal), and DeltaG(not equal)) are reported for three variants wherein the alkyl groups in the ZDDP are 2-ethylhexyl, isopropyl, and isobutyl. We explored a reaction pathway between the monomer and dimer form by means of density functional theory (DFT). The linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) code DMol3 was used together with a synchronous transient method to effectively locate transition states. Vibrational eigenmodes of all intermediates were computed to capture finite temperature effects. Methyl and ethyl were considered as alkyl groups. Two novel intermediates were located-a four-membered ring and a six-membered ring intermediate along the reaction coordinate. Comparison of the experimentally derived and computed energy surfaces was carried out. PMID:18098153

  14. Determination of coordination modes and estimation of the 31P-31P distances in heterogeneous catalyst by solid state double quantum filtered 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Yong; Wang, Mei-Tao; Liu, Qing-Hua; Hu, Bing-Wen; Chen, Qun; Li, He-Xing; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2011-04-01

    To overcome the separation difficulty of the palladium-based homogeneous catalyst, the palladium complex can be anchored on various supports such as silica. However, it is difficult to determine the amounts of the two coordination modes of the Pd nucleus, that is, Pd coordinates with one phosphorus atom and Pd coordinates with two phosphorus atoms. Here a (31)P double-quantum filtered (DQ-filtered) method in solid-state NMR is introduced for the palladium-based heterogenous catalyst system. With the DQ-filtered method, we can not only determine the amounts of the two different kinds of palladium coordination modes, we can also estimate the interatomic distance of two (31)P nuclei bonded to a palladium nucleus. With the help of this method, we can quickly estimate interatomic distances in our designed system and accurately re-design the palladium system to accommodate either one (31)P or two (31)P. PMID:21301702

  15. Structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins. A sup 31 P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, D.B.; Chana, R.S.; Parmar, Y.I.; Treleaven, W.D.; Cushley, R.J. )

    1990-04-24

    The structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins have been studied by using {sup 31}P NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients, D{sub T}, obtained from the viscosity dependence of the {sup 31}P NMR line widths, were obtained for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL{sub 2}, HDL{sub 3}), and egg PC/TO microemulsions at 25{degree}C, for VLDL at 40{degree}C, and for LDL at 45{degree}C. In order to prove the orientation and/or order of the phospholipid head-group, estimates of the residual chemical shift anistropy, {Delta}{sigma}, have been obtained for all the lipoproteins and the microemulsions from the viscosity and field dependence for the {sup 31}P NMR line widths. These results suggest differences in the orientation and/or ordering of the head-group in the HDLs. The dynamic behavior of the phosphate moiety in LDL and HDL{sub 3} has been obtained from the temperature dependence of the {sup 31}P spin-lattice relaxation rates. Values of the correlation time for phosphate group reorientation and the activation energy for the motion are nearly identical in LDL and HDL{sub 3} and are similar to values obtained for phospholipid bilayers. This argues against long-lived protein-lipid interactions being the source of either the slow diffusion in LDL or the altered head-group orientation in the HDLs.

  16. Metabolic engineering applications of in vivo sup 31 P and sup 13 C NMR studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    With intent to quantify NMR measurements as much as possible, analysis techniques of the in vivo {sup 31}P NMR spectrum are developed. A systematic procedure is formulated for estimating the relative intracellular concentrations of the sugar phosphates in S. cerevisiae from the {sup 31}P NMR spectrum. In addition, in vivo correlation of inorganic phosphate chemical shift with the chemical shifts of 3-phosphoglycerate, {beta}-fructose 1,6-diphosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, and glucose 6-phosphate are determined. Also, a method was developed for elucidation of the cytoplasmic and vacuolar components of inorganic phosphate in the {sup 31}P NMR spectrum of S. cerevisiae. An in vivo correlation relating the inorganic phosphate chemical shift of the vacuole with the chemical shift of the resonance for pyrophosphate and the terminal phosphate of polyphosphate (PP{sub 1}) is established. Transient measurements provided by {sup 31}P NMR are applied to reg1 mutant and standard strains. {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C NMR measurements are used to analyze the performance of recombinant strains in which the glucose phosphorylation step had been altered.

  17. {sup 31}P NMR analysis of coal moieties bearing -OH, -NH, and -SH functions. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1991-08-31

    NMR reagents for the speciation and quantitation of labile-hydrogen functional groups and sulfur groups in coal ligands have been synthesized and evaluated. These reagents, which contain the NMR-active nuclei {sup 31}p, {sup 119}Sn or {sup 195}pt, were designed to possess improved chemical shift resolution over reagents reported in the literature. Our efforts were successful in the case of the new {sup 31}p and {sup 119}Sn reagents we developed, but the {sup 195}pt work on sulfur groups was only partially successful in as much as the grant came to a close and was not renewed. Our success with {sup 31}P and {sup 119}Sn NMR reagents came to the attention of Amoco and they have recently expressed interest in further supporting that work. A further measure of the success of our efforts can be seen in the nine publications supported by this grant which are cited in the reference list.

  18. Exploring new Routes for Identifying Phosphorus Species in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems with 31P NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergren, Johan; Persson, Per; Sundman, Annelie; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Giesler, Reiner; Schleucher, Jürgen; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the primary growth-limiting nutrient in some of the world's biomes. Rock phosphate is a non-renewable resource and the major source of agricultural fertilizers. Predictions of P consumption indicate that rock phosphate mining may peak within 35 years, with severe impacts on worldwide food production1. Organic P compounds constitute a major fraction of soil P, but little is known about the dynamics and bioavailability of organic P species. Our aim is to develop new liquid and solid state 31P-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques to identify P-species in water and soils; information required for correlating P speciation with plant and soil processes2, and eventually to improve P use. Soil organic P is frequently extracted using NaOH/EDTA, followed by characterization of the extract by solution 31P-NMR. However, the obtained NMR spectra usually have poor resolution due to line broadening caused by the presence of paramagnetic ions. Therefore, we successfully developed an approach to avoid paramagnetic line broadening by precipitation of metal sulfides. Sulfide precipitation dramatically reduces NMR line widths for soil extracts, without affecting P-composition. The resulting highly improved resolution allowed us to apply for the first time 2D 1H,31P-NMR methods to identify different P monoesters in spectral regions which are extremely crowded in 1D NMR spectra.3 By exploiting 2D 1H-31P NMR spectra of soil extracts we were able to unambiguously identify individual organic P species by combining 31P and 1H chemical shifts and coupling constants. This approach is even suitable for a structural characterization of unknown P-components and for tracing degradation pathways between diesters and monoesters3,4.Currently we apply our approach on boreal4 and tropical soils with focus on Burkina Faso. In addition we also monitor P-species in aqueos ecosystems. For this purpose stream water from the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden5 has been used to

  19. Functional group analysis in coal by sup 31 P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the labile-hydrogen functional group composition of coal and coal-derived materials by the nmr spectroscopy of their derivatives made with reagents containing the nmr-active nuclei {sup 31}P, {sup 119}Sn, or {sup 205}Tl. 7 refs.

  20. Incorporation of phosphorus guest ions in the calcium silicate phases of Portland cement from 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Søren L; Jakobsen, Hans J; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2010-06-21

    Portland cements may contain small quantities of phosphorus (typically below 0.5 wt % P(2)O(5)), originating from either the raw materials or alternative sources of fuel used to heat the cement kilns. This work reports the first (31)P MAS NMR study of anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements that focuses on the phase and site preferences of the (PO(4))(3-) guest ions in the main clinker phases and hydration products. The observed (31)P chemical shifts (10 to -2 ppm), the (31)P chemical shift anisotropy, and the resemblance of the lineshapes in the (31)P and (29)Si MAS NMR spectra strongly suggest that (PO(4))(3-) units are incorporated in the calcium silicate phases, alite (Ca(3)SiO(5)) and belite (Ca(2)SiO(4)), by substitution for (SiO(4))(4-) tetrahedra. This assignment is further supported by a determination of the spin-lattice relaxation times for (31)P in alite and belite, which exhibit the same ratio as observed for the corresponding (29)Si relaxation times. From simulations of the intensities, observed in inversion-recovery spectra for a white Portland cement, it is deduced that 1.3% and 2.1% of the Si sites in alite and belite, respectively, are replaced by phosphorus. Charge balance may potentially be achieved to some extent by a coupled substitution mechanism where Ca(2+) is replaced by Fe(3+) ions, which may account for the interaction of the (31)P spins with paramagnetic Fe(3+) ions as observed for the ordinary Portland cements. A minor fraction of phosphorus may also be present in the separate phase Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), as indicated by the observation of a narrow resonance at delta((31)P) = 3.0 ppm for two of the studied cements. (31)P{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR spectra following the hydration of a white Portland cement show that the resonances from the hydrous phosphate species fall in the same spectral range as observed for (PO(4))(3-) incorporated in alite. This similarity and the absence of a large (31)P chemical shift ansitropy indicate that the hydrous (PO(4

  1. Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi; Mroue, Kamal H.; Xu, Jiadi; Pavan, Barbara; Fang, Ming; Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T.; Holl, Mark M.Banaszak; Tecklenburg, Mary M.J.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-10-15

    Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}ν{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ν{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. • Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. • Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

  2. Comparison of phosphorus forms in three extracts of dairy feces by solution 31P NMR analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy, we compared three extractants, deionized water, sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) with fresh sodium dithionite (NaAc-SD), and 0.25 M NaOH-0.05 M EDTA (NaOH-EDTA), for the profile of P compounds in two dairy fecal samples. Phosphorus extracted was 35% for water, and...

  3. Solid State FT-IR and (31)P NMR Spectral Features of Phosphate Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid-state spectroscopic techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid-state 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopies, are powerful tools for evaluating metal speciation and transformation mechanisms of P compounds in the environment. Studie...

  4. Distinguishing Bicontinuous Lipid Cubic Phases from Isotropic Membrane Morphologies Using 31P Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Yao, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Nonlamellar lipid membranes are frequently induced by proteins that fuse, bend, and cut membranes. Understanding the mechanism of action of these proteins requires the elucidation of the membrane morphologies that they induce. While hexagonal phases and lamellar phases are readily identified by their characteristic solid-state NMR lineshapes, bicontinuous lipid cubic phases are more difficult to discern, since the static NMR spectra of cubic-phase lipids consist of an isotropic 31P or 2H peak, indistinguishable from the spectra of isotropic membrane morphologies such as micelles and small vesicles. To date, small-angle X-ray scattering is the only method to identify bicontinuous lipid cubic phases. To explore unique NMR signatures of lipid cubic phases, we first describe the orientation distribution of lipid molecules in cubic phases and simulate the static 31P chemical shift lineshapes of oriented cubic-phase membranes in the limit of slow lateral diffusion. We then show that 31P T2 relaxation times differ significantly between isotropic micelles and cubic-phase membranes: the latter exhibit two-orders-of magnitude shorter T2 relaxation times. These differences are explained by the different timescales of lipid lateral diffusion on the cubic-phase surface versus the timescales of micelle tumbling. Using this relaxation NMR approach, we investigated a DOPE membrane containing the transmembrane domain (TMD) of a viral fusion protein. The static 31P spectrum of DOPE shows an isotropic peak, whose T2 relaxation times correspond to that of a cubic phase. Thus, the viral fusion protein TMD induces negative Gaussian curvature, which is an intrinsic characteristic of cubic phases, to the DOPE membrane. This curvature induction has important implications to the mechanism of virus-cell fusion. This study establishes a simple NMR diagnostic probe of lipid cubic phases, which is expected to be useful for studying many protein-induced membrane remodeling phenomena in biology

  5. sup 31 P NMR analysis of coal moieties bearing -OH, -NH, and -SH functions

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a convenient, reliable and rapid NMR method for the determination of labile-hydrogen functional groups and organic sulfur compounds which are components of coal and coal-derived materials. For this purpose, the former functional groups, including water molecules, are derivatized with reagents containing NMR-active nuclei such as {sup 31}P or {sup 119}Sn, while sulfur groups are derivatized with {sup 195}Pt NMR tagging reagents. Knowledge of the heteroatom composition of coals is necessary for the development of increasingly sophisticated coal processing technologies.

  6. Protein analysis by 31p NMR spectroscopy in ionic liquid: quantitative determination of enzymatically created cross-links.

    PubMed

    Monogioudi, Evanthia; Permi, Perttu; Filpponen, Ilari; Lienemann, Michael; Li, Bin; Argyropoulos, Dimitris; Buchert, Johanna; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa

    2011-02-23

    Cross-linking of β-casein by Trichoderma reesei tyrosinase (TrTyr) and Streptoverticillium mobaraense transglutaminase (Tgase) was analyzed by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in ionic liquid (IL). According to (31)P NMR, 91% of the tyrosine side chains were cross-linked by TrTyr at high dosages. When Tgase was used, no changes were observed because a different cross-linking mechanism was operational. However, this verified the success of the phosphitylation of phenolics within the protein matrix in the IL. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in solid state showed that disk-shaped nanoparticles were formed in the reactions with average diameters of 80 and 20 nm for TrTyr and Tgase, respectively. These data further advance the current understanding of the action of tyrosinases on proteins on molecular and chemical bond levels. Quantitative (31)P NMR in IL was shown to be a simple and efficient method for the study of protein modification. PMID:21218836

  7. Evaluation of Phosphorus Characterization in Ileal Digesta, Manure, and Litter Samples: 31P-NMR vs. HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resosonance Spectroscopy (31P-NMR) to characterize phosphorus (P) in manures and litter has become prevalent in the area of nutrient management. To date, there has been no published work evaluating P quantification in manure/litter samples with 31P-NMR compared ...

  8. Evaluation of Phosphorus Characterization in Broiler Ileal Digesta, Manure, and Litter Samples: 31P-NMR vs. HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resosonance Spectroscopy (31P-NMR) to characterize phosphorus (P) in manures and litter has become prevalent in the area of nutrient management. To date, there has been no published work evaluating P quantification in manure/litter samples with 31P-NMR compared t...

  9. 31P MAS-NMR of human erythrocytes: independence of cell volume from angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, P W; Bubb, W A; Ramadan, S; Chapman, B E; Philp, D J; Coen, M; Gready, J E; Harvey, P J; McLean, A J; Hook, J

    2004-09-01

    31P magic angle spinning NMR (MAS-NMR) spectra were obtained from suspensions of human red blood cells (RBCs) that contained the cell-volume-sensitive probe molecule, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). A mathematical representation of the spectral-peak shape, including the separation and width-at-half-height in the 31P NMR spectra, as a function of rotor speed, enabled us to explore the extent to which a change in cell volume would be reflected in the spectra if it occurred. We concluded that a fractional volume change in excess of 3% would have been detected by our experiments. Thus, the experiments indicated that the mean cell volume did not change by this amount even at the highest spinning rate of 7 kHz. The mean cell volume and intracellular 31P line-width were independent of the packing density of the cells and of the initial cell volume. The relationship of these conclusions to other non-NMR studies of pressure effects on cells is noted. PMID:15334588

  10. Prediction of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts for phosphines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jianbo; Liu, Shuling; Zhang, Shengwan; Li, Shengshi Z.

    2007-07-01

    Quantitative relationships of the 31P NMR chemical shifts of the phosphorus atoms in 291 phosphines with the atomic ionicity index (INI) and stereoscopic effect parameters ( ɛα, ɛβ, ɛγ) were primarily investigated in this paper for modeling some fundamental quantitative structure-spectroscopy relationships (QSSR). The results indicated that the 31P NMR chemical shifts of phosphines can be described as the quantitative equation by multiple linear regression (MLR): δp (ppm) = -174.0197 - 2.6724 INI + 40.4755 ɛα + 15.1141 ɛβ - 3.1858 ɛγ, correlation coefficient R = 0.9479, root mean square error (rms) = 13.9, and cross-validated predictive correlation coefficient was found by using the leave-one-out procedure to be Q2 = 0.8919. Furthermore, through way of random sampling, the estimative stability and the predictive power of the proposed MLR model were examined by constructing data set randomly into both the internal training set and external test set of 261 and 30 compounds, respectively, and then the chemical shifts were estimated and predicted with the training correlation coefficient R = 0.9467 and rms = 13.4 and the external predicting correlation coefficient Qext = 0.9598 and rms = 10.8. A partial least square model was developed that produced R = 0.9466, Q = 0.9407 and Qext = 0.9599, respectively. Those good results provided a new, simple, accurate and efficient methodology for calculating 31P NMR chemical shifts of phosphines.

  11. CD and 31P NMR studies of tachykinin and MSH neuropeptides in SDS and DPC micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Sydney C.; Brown, Taylor C.; Gonzalez, Javier D.; Levonyak, Nicholas S.; Rush, Lydia A.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary structural characteristics of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide (α-MSH), γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH, and melittin were evaluated with circular dichroism in phosphite buffer, DPC micelles, and SDS micelles. CD spectral properties of γ1-MSH and γ2-MSH as well as 31P NMR of DPC micelles with all the peptides are reported for the first time. Although, a trend in the neuropeptide/micelle CD data appears to show increased α-helix content for the tachykinin peptides (SP, NKA, NKB) and increased β-sheet content for the MSH peptides (α-MSH, γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH) with increasing peptide charge, the lack of perturbed 31P NMR signals for all neuropeptides could suggest that the reported antimicrobial activity of SP and α-MSH might not be related to a membrane disruption mode of action.

  12. [sup 31]P NMR study of immobilized artificial membrane surfaces. Structure and dynamics of immobilized phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, X.; Pidgeon, C. )

    1993-11-25

    Chromatography surfaces were prepared by immobilizing a single-chain ether phospholipid at approximately a monolayer density on silica particles. The chromatography particles are denoted as [sup ether]IAM.PC[sup C10/C3], and they are stable to all solvents. The structure and dynamics of the interphase created by immobilizing phospholipids on silica particles were studied by [sup 31]P NMR methods. [sup ether]IAM.PC[sup C10/C3] spontaneously wets when suspended in both aqueous and organic solvents, and [sup 31]P NMR spectra were obtained in water, methanol, chloroform, acetonitrile, and acetone. [sup 31]P NMR spectra were subjected to line-shape analysis. From line-shape analysis, the correlation times for rapid internal motion ([tau]-PLL) and wobbling ([tau]-PRP) of the phospholipid headgroup were calculated for each solvent. Immobilized phospholipid headgroups comprising the IAM interfacial region undergo rapid reorientation similar to the case of the phospholipids forming liposome membranes with [tau]-PLL approximately 1 ns. Phospholipids in liposome membranes exhibit slower wobbling motion ([tau]-PRP approximately 1 ms) in the plane of the membrane. However, the immobilized phospholipids on [sup ether]IAM.PC[sup C10/C3] surfaces wobble with correlation times [tau]-PRP that depend on the solvent bathing the [sup ether]IAM.PC[sup C10/C3] surface. 41 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Intracellular pH of perfused single frog skin: combined 19F- and 31P-NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Civan, M M; Lin, L E; Peterson-Yantorno, K; Taylor, J; Deutsch, C

    1984-11-01

    Intracellular pH (pHc) has been determined in frog skin by applying two different methods of pH measurement, 19F and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, to the same tissues. Results from both NMR approaches confirm an observation by Lin, Shporer, and Civan [Am. J. Physiol. 248 (Cell Physiol. 17): 1985] that acidification of the extracellular medium reverses the sign of the pH gradient present under baseline conditions. The fluorinated probe, alpha-(difluoromethyl)-alanine methyl ester, was introduced into the epithelial cells by preincubating skins for 4.7-10.4 h at room temperature in Ringer solutions containing 1 mM ester. The free amino acid was subsequently released by intracellular esterase activity, thus providing a high enough probe concentration for NMR analysis to be practicable. From measurements of short-circuit current and transepithelial resistance under base-line and experimental conditions and the appearance of phosphocreatine (PCr) in the 31P spectrum of preloaded tissues, the fluorinated probe appears to be nontoxic to frog skin. Measurement of the chemical shift of methylphosphonate relative to PCr permitted calculation of extracellular pH. Estimation of the intracellular pH was performed both by measurement of the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate (Pi) relative to PCr and by measurement of the central peak spacing of the 19F spectrum. From four direct comparisons of the two techniques in two experiments, the difference in the estimated pH was only 0.03 +/- 0.07 pH units, supporting the concept that 31P-NMR analysis is a valid method of measuring pH in this tissue. PMID:6496729

  14. 2D 31P solid state NMR spectroscopy, electronic structure and thermochemistry of PbP7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benndorf, Christopher; Hohmann, Andrea; Schmidt, Peer; Eckert, Hellmut; Johrendt, Dirk; Schäfer, Konrad; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Phase pure polycrystalline PbP7 was prepared from the elements via a lead flux. Crystalline pieces with edge-lengths up to 1 mm were obtained. The assignment of the previously published 31P solid state NMR spectrum to the seven distinct crystallographic sites was accomplished by radio-frequency driven dipolar recoupling (RFDR) experiments. As commonly found in other solid polyphosphides there is no obvious correlation between the 31P chemical shift and structural parameters. PbP7 decomposes incongruently under release of phosphorus forming liquid lead as remainder. The thermal decomposition starts at T>550 K with a vapor pressure almost similar to that of red phosphorus. Electronic structure calculations reveal PbP7 as a semiconductor according to the Zintl description and clearly shows the stereo-active Pb-6s2 lone pairs in the electron localization function ELF.

  15. Surface coil localization of /sup 31/P NMR signals from orthotopic human kidney and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, T.; Rothman, D.L.; Lohman, J.A.B.; Hughes, E.W.; Hanstock, C.C.; Shulman, R.G.

    1988-02-01

    By incorporating the hyperbolic secant inversion pulses with the image-selected in vivo spectroscopy localization technique and by applying a gradient-echo imaging method, the authors have selected only the /sup 31/P NMR signals from orthotopic human kidney and liver, using a single concentric /sup 1/H//sup 31/P surface coil. Corresponding to the experimental results on animal studies, the phosphocreatine signal is dramatically reduced in the localized spectra. The localization strategy also allows them to shim easily on the well-defined volume of interest and leads to high-resolution spectra that exhibit multiplet structure. The results indicate that they can obtain localized signals from deep small organs and point the way for other human metabolism studies.

  16. Application of (31P) NMR in analyzing the degradation efficiency of organic phosphorus degrading-bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Sun, Xin; Ji, Si-Yao; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yao-Jian; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Xu, Peng-Xiang

    2007-07-01

    HPLC and HPLC-MS are the fastest and most accurate techniques for analysis of organic phosphorus pesticide (OPP) at the present time. Using these techniques, 14 strains of methamidopho (MAP) degrading-bacteria from the area contaminated with MAP have been identified. The results from HPLC and HPLC-MS analyses showed that the highest degradation rate was 73% after 7 days. In order to determine what metabolites will be formed after degradation, a key issue that has been neglected for a long time, we used ((31)P) NMR to track the degradation process. The results showed that different strains produced different metabolites. Ten strains were divided into three groups (groups A, B and C) by their metabolic profiling. Strains in group A degraded MAP into phosphor acid by breaking down all P-N, P-O and P-S bonds in 7 days. Strains in groups B and C had only broken down partially P-N and P-S bonds at the same time. Therefore, the bacterial strains in group A had a greater application potential than the other two groups. In addition, most metal phosphates are unsolvable in water. The analysis of X-ray showed, that the phosphate radicals generated by bacterial degradation induce crystallogenesis of heavy metal salts in water phase and also cause the chemical sedimentation of their crystals. Furthermore, these crystals are hydrogen phosphates. The results suggested that the MAP-degrading bacteria could be used for cleaning up not only the organic phosphorous pesticide contamination but also the phosphorous and heavy metal contamination in water environment simultaneously. PMID:17072553

  17. In vivo 31P-NMR spectroscopy of right ventricle in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G G; Steinman, S K; Weiner, M W; Matson, G B

    1992-06-01

    The energy metabolism of the right ventricle (RV) in vivo has been largely unexplored. The goal of this study was to develop and implement techniques for in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the RV free wall. A two-turn, crossover-design elliptical surface coil was constructed to provide high sensitivity across the thin RV wall but minimal sensitivity in the blood-filled RV cavity. In 36 open-chest, anesthetized pigs, 31P spectroscopy of the RV free wall was performed with this coil at a field strength of 2 Tesla. Spectra were obtained from 800 acquisitions in 24 min with an average signal-to-noise ratio of 13.2 for phosphocreatine (PCr). The PCr-to-ATP (PCr/ATP) ratio of porcine RV was 1.42 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- SE), uncorrected for saturation at a repetition time of 1.8 s. With the use of literature values of the time constant of longitudinal relaxation (T1) to correct for partial saturation, the RV PCr/ATP was estimated to lie between 1.7 and 2.3. Decreased RV PCr/ATP was observed during RV ischemia and pressure overload. Thus in vivo 31P spectroscopy of the RV is readily accomplished with an appropriate surface coil and can provide new information about RV energy metabolism. PMID:1621852

  18. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by {sup 31}P MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishay Columbus; Daniel Waysbort; Liora Shmueli; Ido Nir; Doron Kaplan

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Four types of activated carbon were used, including coal-based BPL. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) ((DES){sub 2}). Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by 31P MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Ishay; Waysbort, Daniel; Shmueli, Liora; Nir, Ido; Kaplan, Doron

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) {(DES)2}. Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed. PMID:16830567

  20. Detoxification of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents through RSDL: efficacy evaluation by (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Elsinghorst, Paul W; Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, especially by pesticides, poses a considerable risk to the affected individual. Countermeasures involve both medical intervention by means of antidotes as well as external decontamination to reduce the risk of dermal absorption. One of the few decontamination options available is Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), which was originally developed for military use. Here, we present a (31)P NMR spectroscopy based methodology to evaluate the detoxification efficacy of RSDL with respect to a series of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. Kinetic analysis of the obtained NMR data provided degradation half-lives proving that RSDL is also reasonably effective against organophosphorus pesticides. Unexpected observations of different RSDL degradation patterns are presented in view of its reported oximate-catalyzed mechanism of action. PMID:25597861

  1. In vivo 31P-NMR spectroscopy of chronically stimulated canine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Clark, B J; Acker, M A; McCully, K; Subramanian, H V; Hammond, R L; Salmons, S; Chance, B; Stephenson, L W

    1988-02-01

    Chronic stimulation converts skeletal muscle of mixed fiber type to a uniform muscle made up of type I, fatigue-resistant fibers. Here, the bioenergetic correlates of fatigue resistance in conditioned canine latissimus dorsi are assessed with in vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy. After chronic electrical stimulation, five dogs underwent 31P-NMR spectroscopic and isometric tension measurements on conditioned and contralateral control muscle during stimulation for 200, 300, 500, and 800 ms of an 1,100-ms duty cycle. With stimulation, phosphocreatine (PCr) fell proportional to the degree of stimulation in both conditioned and control muscle but fell significantly less in conditioned muscle at all but the least intense stimulation period (200 ms). Isometric tension, expressed as a tension time index per gram muscle, was significantly greater in the conditioned muscle at the two longest stimulation periods. The overall small change in PCr and the lack of a plateau in tension observed in the conditioned muscle are similar to that seen in cardiac muscle during increased energy demand. This study indicates that the conditioned muscle's markedly enhanced resistance to fatigue is in part the result of its increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:3348365

  2. In vivo sup 31 P-NMR spectroscopy of chronically stimulated canine skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.J. III; McCully, A.K.; Subramanian, H.V.; Hammond, R.L.; Salmons, S.; Chance, B.; Stephenson, L.W. Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia Univ. of Birmingham )

    1988-02-01

    Chronic stimulation converts skeletal muscle of mixed fiber type to a uniform muscle made up of type I, fatigue-resistant fibers. Here, the bioenergetic correlates of fatigue resistance in conditioned canine latissimus dorsi are assessed with in vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 31}P-NMR) spectroscopy. After chronic electrical stimulation, five dogs underwent {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopic and isometric tension measurements on conditioned and contralateral control muscle during stimulation for 200, 300, 500, and 800 ms of an 1,100-ms duty cycle. With stimulation, phosphocreatine (PCr) fell proportional to the degree of stimulation in both conditioned and control muscle but fell significantly less in conditioned muscle at all the least intense stimulation period (200 ms). Isometric tension, expressed as a tension time index per gram muscle, was significantly greater in the conditioned muscle at the two longest stimulation periods. The overall small change in PCr and the lack of a plateau in tension observed in the conditioned muscle are similar to that seen in cardiac muscle during increased energy demand. This study indicates that the conditioned muscle's markedly enhanced resistance to fatigue is in part the result of its increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation.

  3. In vivo 31P and multilabel 13C NMR measurements for evaluation of plant metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Rijhwani, S K; Ho, C H; Shanks, J V

    1999-01-01

    Reliable measurements of intracellular metabolites are useful for effective plant metabolic engineering. This study explored the application of in situ 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy for long-term measurements of intracellular pH and concentrations of several metabolites in glycolysis, glucan synthesis, and central carbon metabolic pathways in plant tissues. An NMR perfusion reactor system was designed to allow Catharanthus roseus hairy root cultures to grow for 3-6 weeks, during which time NMR spectroscopy was performed. Constant cytoplasmic pH (7.40+/-0.06), observed during the entire experiment, indicated adequate oxygenation. 13C NMR spectroscopy was performed on hairy root cultures grown in solutions containing 1-13C-, 2-13C-, and 3-13C-labeled glucose in separate experiments and the flow of label was monitored. Activities of pentose phosphate pathways, nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation, and glucan synthesis pathways were evident from the experimental results. Scrambling of label in glucans also indicated recycling of triose phosphate and their subsequent conversion to hexose phosphates. PMID:10935751

  4. 31P NMR Study of Filled Skutterudite CeOs4P12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magishi, K.; Sugawara, H.; Saito, T.; Koyama, K.

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of the electrical resistivity ρ(T) and the 31P-NMR measurements on filled skutterudite CeOs4P12 in order to investigate the magnetic properties at low temperatures from a microscopic point of view. For the polycrystalline sample synthesized under high pressure (HP), ρ(T) increases with decreasing temperature. On the other hand, for the single crystal (SC), ρ(T) reveals a positive temperature dependence between room temperature and 200 K, and increases with decreasing temperature below 200 K. Also, 1/T1 obeys the activated temperature dependence 1/T1 propto exp(-Δ/kBT) above 160 K with an energy gap Δ/fB ~ 500 K and 540 K for the HP and the SC samples, which are slightly larger than that of a previous report.

  5. Analysis of 31P MAS NMR spectra and transversal relaxation of bacteriophage M13 and tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A

    1994-01-01

    Phosphorus magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and transversal relaxation of M13 and TMV are analyzed by use of a model, which includes both local backbone motions of the encapsulated nucleic acid molecules and overall rotational diffusion of the rod-shaped virions about their length axis. Backbone motions influence the sideband intensities by causing a fast restricted reorientation of the phosphodiesters. To evaluate their influence on the observed sideband patterns, we extend the model that we used previously to analyze nonspinning 31P NMR lineshapes (Magusin, P.C.M.M., and M. A. Hemminga. 1993a. Biophys. J. 64:1861-1868) to magic angle spinning NMR experiments. Backbone motions also influence the conformation of the phosphodiesters, causing conformational averaging of the isotropic chemical shift, which offers a possible explanation for the various linewidths of the centerband and the sidebands observed for M13 gels under various conditions. The change of the experimental lineshape of M13 as a function of temperature and hydration is interpreted in terms of fast restricted fluctuation of the dihedral angles between the POC and the OCH planes on both sides of the 31P nucleus in the nucleic acid backbone. Backbone motions also seem to be the main cause of transversal relaxation measured at spinning rates of 4 kHz or higher. At spinning rates less than 2 kHz, transversal relaxation is significantly faster. This effect is assigned to slow, overall rotation of the rod-shaped M13 phage about its length axis. Equations are derived to simulate the observed dependence of T2e on the spinning rate. PMID:8038391

  6. Physiologic significance of the phosphorylation potential in isolated perfused rat hearts (31-P NMR)

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, T.; Wikman-Coffelt, J.; Wu, S.; Wendland, M.; James, T.; Sievers, R.; Botvinick, E.; Parmley, W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors assessed the metabolic and mechanical effects of changes in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and afterload (A) in isolated working apex-ejecting rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing an excess of O/sub 2/ and substrate. Log (phosphorylation potential) or log (ATP)/(ADP)x (Pi), designated (L), and log (PCR)/(Pi), designated (L*), were calculated from HPLC measurements after rapid freeze-clamping. Increasing CPP from 80-140 cm H/sub 2/O caused an increase in coronary flow (flow), developed pressure (DevP), O/sub 2/ consumption (VO/sub 2/), L, L*, and CO. L and L* were directly related to VO/sub 2/ and CO. Increasing A from 80-140 cm H/sub 2/O caused an increase in DevP and VO/sub 2/, but a decrease in L, L*, and CO. L and L* were inversely linearly related to VO/sub 2/ but were directly linearly related to CO. In both experiments, L and L* are directly related to CO, suggesting that determination of L* (which can be done with 31-P NMR spectroscopy) may be a useful non-invasive method for determining cardiac pump function curves. L and L* may be related to the Frank-Starling mechanism. In a separate experiment using 31-P NMR spectroscopy of isovolumic (left ventricular balloon) perfused rat hearts, increasing CPP caused a direct linear increase in flow, DevP, and L*, confirming the L* results reported above with CPP experiments using the rapid freeze-clamp technique.

  7. Physiologic significance of the phosphorylation potential in isolated perfused rat hearts (/sup 31/P NMR)

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, T.; Wikman-Coffelt, J.; Wu, S.; Wendland, M.; James, T.; Sievers, R.; Botvinick, E.; Parmley, W.

    1986-03-05

    The authors assessed the metabolic and mechanical effects of changes in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and afterload (A) in isolated working apex-ejecting rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing an excess of O/sub 2/ and substrate. Log(phosphorylation potential) or log (ATP)/(ADP)x (Pi), designated (L), and log (PCR)/(Pi), designated (L*), were calculated from HPLC measurements after rapid freeze-clamping. Increasing CPP from 80-140 cm H/sub 2/O caused an increase in coronary flow(flow), developed pressure(DevP), O/sub 2/ consumption (VO/sub 2/), L, L*, and CO. L and L* were directly related to VO/sub 2/ and CO. Increasing A from 80-140 cm H/sub 2/O caused an increase in DevP and VO/sub 2/, but a decrease in L, L*, and CO. L and L* were inversely linearly related to VO/sub 2/ but were directly linearly related to CO. In both experiments, L and L* are directly related to CO, suggesting that determination of L* (which can be done with /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy) may be a useful non-invasive method for determining cardiac pump function curves. L and L* may be related to the Frank-Starling mechanism. In a separate experiment using /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy of isovolumic (left ventricular balloon) perfused rat hearts, increasing CPP caused a direct linear increase in flow, DevP, and L*, confirming the L* results reported above with CPP experiments using the rapid freeze-clamp technique.

  8. Composition of phosphorus in wetland soils determined by SMT and solution 31P-NMR analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Jin, Xin; Ding, Yuekui; Zhu, Xiaolei; Rong, Nan; Li, Jie; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-05-01

    In Eastern China, wetlands are common in the lower reaches of catchments or in coastal zones. Wetlands are at risk from eutrophication because of the large quantities of phosphorus (P) they receive from rivers. They are also decreasing in size. In this contribution, we present information about the composition of P in wetland soils, obtained using the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) protocol and (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Average P concentrations varied in the different wetland soils and, in four of the five wetlands sampled, exceeded 500 mg∙kg(-1). HCl-inorganic P (Pi) was the main Pi fraction in wetland soils. The percentage contribution of Pi (89.7 %) to total P was the highest in the Yangtze River estuary wetland. Six P components were detected by (31)P-NMR analysis. Mono-P was the main organic P (Po) in wetland soils. Orthophosphate (Ortho-P) was positively and negatively related to NaOH-Pi (R (2) = 0.957, p < 0.001) and HCl-Pi (R (2) = -0.689, p < 0.001), respectively. Orthophosphate monoesters (Mono-P) were positively related to Po (R (2) = 0.617, p < 0.001) and ortho-P (R (2) = 0.624, p < 0.001), respectively. The main Po component was Mono-P, and it may be mineralized to ortho-P under the frequently changing redox conditions in wetland soils. The information from this study will support the development of robust scientific and effective policy for P management in wetlands. PMID:26832861

  9. {sup 31}P NMR study of the complexation of TBP with lanthanides and actinides in solution and in a clay matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hartzell, C.J.

    1994-07-24

    Goal was to use NMR to study TBP/lanthanide complexes in the interlayer or on edge sites of clays. Work in this laboratory yielded details of the complexation of Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with TBP in hexane solution; this information is crucial to interpretation of results of NMR studies of the complexes exchanged into clays. The solution {sup 31}P-chemical shift values were improved by repeating the studies on the lanthanide salts dissolved directly into neat TBP. NMR studies of these neat solutions of the Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex and the Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex show that the {sup 31}P chemical shift remains relatively constant for TBP: lanthanide ratios below 3: 1. At higher ratios, the chemical shift approaches that of free TBP, indicating rapid exchange of TBP between the free and complexed state. Exchange of these complexes into the clay hectorite yielded discrete {sup 31}P-NMR signals for the Eu{lg_bullet}TBP complex at -190 ppm and free TBP at -6 ppm. Adsorption of the Pr{lg_bullet}TBP complex yielded broad signals at 76 ppm for the complex and -6 ppm for free TBP. There was no evidence of exchange between the incorporated complex and the free TBP.

  10. 31P NMR spectroscopy of rat organs, in situ, using chronically implanted radiofrequency coils.

    PubMed Central

    Koretsky, A P; Wang, S; Murphy-Boesch, J; Klein, M P; James, T L; Weiner, M W

    1983-01-01

    A technique for making 31P NMR spectroscopic measurements in rat kidney, heart, and liver in vivo is presented. Two-turn solenoid coils were surgically implanted around the organ sufficiently in advance of NMR experiments to allow recovery of the animal. These chronically implanted coils allowed acquisition of high-resolution spectra at 40.5 and 97.3 MHz. No resolution improvement occurred at the higher field. Spectra were stable for up to 24 hr, during which time a variety of experiments could be performed. By accumulating spectra at 10-min intervals, the effects of intraperitoneal fructose injections were monitored; in kidney and liver, a rapid increase in sugar phosphates at the expense of Pi and ATP resulted. Fructose had no effect on heart metabolite levels. Spectra from the heart in vivo were obtained at systole and diastole by gating the spectrometer to the aortic pressure wave; no differences in phosphate metabolites were detected. Finally, saturation transfer techniques were used to monitor the rate of ATP synthesis in the kidney. The unidirectional rate constant for the conversion of Pi to ATP was 0.12 +/- 0.03 sec-1. Images PMID:6584867

  11. Modified Prony Method to Resolve and Quantify in Vivo31P NMR Spectra of Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, P.; Guidoni, L.; Ragona, R.; Viti, V.; Furman, E.; Degani, H.

    Prony's method, successfully used in processing NMR signals, performs poorly at low signal-to-noise ratios. To overcome this problem, a statistical approach has been adopted by using Prony's method as a sampling device from the distribution associated with the true spectrum. Specifically, Prony's method is applied for each regression order p and number of data points n, both considered in a suitable range, and the estimates of frequencies, amplitudes, and decay factors are pooled separately. A histogram of the pooled frequencies is computed and, looking at the histogram, a lower and an upper frequency bound for each line of interest is determined. All frequency estimates in each of the determined intervals as well as associated decay factors and amplitudes are considered to be independent normal variates. A mean value and a corresponding 95% confidence interval are computed for each parameter. 31P NMR signals from MCF7 human breast cancer cells, inoculated into athymic mice and which developed into tumors, have been processed with traditional methods and with this modified Prony's method. The main components of the phosphomonoester peak, namely those deriving from phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine, are always well resolved with this new approach and their relative amplitudes can be consequently evaluated. Peak intensities of these two signals show different behavior during treatment of tumors with the antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen. The results of this new approach are compared with those obtainable with traditional techniques.

  12. Mapping hypoxia-induced bioenergetic rearrangements and metabolic signaling by 18O-assisted 31P NMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pucar, Darko; Dzeja, Petras P; Bast, Peter; Gumina, Richard J; Drahl, Carmen; Lim, Lynette; Juranic, Nenad; Macura, Slobodan; Terzic, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Brief hypoxia or ischemia perturbs energy metabolism inducing paradoxically a stress-tolerant state, yet metabolic signals that trigger cytoprotection remain poorly understood. To evaluate bioenergetic rearrangements, control and hypoxic hearts were analyzed with 18O-assisted 31P NMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The 18O-induced isotope shift in the 31P NMR spectrum of CrP, betaADP and betaATP was used to quantify phosphotransfer fluxes through creatine kinase and adenylate kinase. This analysis was supplemented with determination of energetically relevant metabolites in the phosphomonoester (PME) region of 31P NMR spectra, and in both aromatic and aliphatic regions of 1H NMR spectra. In control conditions, creatine kinase was the major phosphotransfer pathway processing high-energy phosphoryls between sites of ATP consumption and ATP production. In hypoxia, creatine kinase flux was dramatically reduced with a compensatory increase in adenylate kinase flux, which supported heart energetics by regenerating and transferring beta- and gamma-phosphoryls of ATP. Activation of adenylate kinase led to a build-up of AMP, IMP and adenosine, molecules involved in cardioprotective signaling. 31P and 1H NMR spectral analysis further revealed NADH and H+ scavenging by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alphaGPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase contributing to maintained glycolysis under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced accumulation of alpha-glycerophosphate and nucleoside 5'-monophosphates, through alphaGPDH and adenylate kinase reactions, respectively, was mapped within the increased PME signal in the 31P NMR spectrum. Thus, 18O-assisted 31P NMR combined with 1H NMR provide a powerful approach in capturing rearrangements in cardiac bioenergetics, and associated metabolic signaling that underlie the cardiac adaptive response to stress. PMID:14977188

  13. Intrauterine fetal brain NMR spectroscopy: 1H and 31P studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nakada, T.; Kwee, I.L.; Suzuki, N.; Houkin, K. )

    1989-11-01

    Fetal brain metabolism was investigated in utero noninvasively using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in rats at two representative prenatal stages: early (17-18 days) and late (20-21 days) stages. Phosphorus-31 (31P) spectroscopy revealed that phosphocreatine is significantly lower in the early stage and increases to the level of early neonates by the late prenatal stage. Intracellular pH at the early stage was found to be strikingly high (7.52 +/- 0.21) and decreased to a level similar to that of neonates by the late stage (7.29 +/- 0.07). Phosphomonoester levels at both stages were similar to the values reported for early neonates. Water-suppressed proton (1H) spectroscopy demonstrated a distinctive in vivo fetal brain spectral pattern characterized by low levels of N-acetyl aspartate and high levels of taurine. High-resolution proton spectroscopy and homonuclear chemical-shift correlate spectroscopy of brain perchloric acid extracts confirmed these in vivo findings. In vitro 31P spectroscopy of acidified chloroform methanol extracts showed the characteristic membrane phospholipid profiles of fetal brain. The phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-to-phosphatidylcholine (PC) ratio (PE/PC) did not show significant changes between the two stages at 0.40 +/- 0.11, a value similar to that of early neonates.

  14. [ 31P]NMR measurements of hexokinase activity in intact red blood cells with 2-deoxyglucose as substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabi, F.; Seguin, J. P.; Fonroget, J.; Goethals, G.

    [ 31P] NMR spectroscopy is demonstrated to be a suitable tool to follow the time course of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate in intact human erythrocytes incubated with 2-deoxyglucose. It allowed to determine hexokinase Vmax and K m in near physiological conditions.

  15. (31)P NMR phospholipid profiling of soybean emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Jung, Stephanie

    2010-04-28

    The quantity and composition of phospholipids in full-fat soybean flour, flakes, and extruded flakes and in the cream fraction recovered after aqueous extraction (AEP) and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAEP) of these substrates were studied with (31)P NMR. Extruded flakes had significantly more phosphatidic acid (PA) than flakes and flour prior to aqueous extraction. The PA content of the cream recovered after AEP and EAEP of extruded flakes was similar to that of the starting material, whereas the PA content of the creams from flour and flakes significantly increased. Changes in the PA content could be explained by the action of phospholipase D during the processing step and aqueous extraction. Total phospholipids in the oil recovered from the creams varied from 0.09 to 0.75%, and free oil yield, which is an indicator of cream stability, varied from 6 to 78%. Total phospholipid did not correlate with emulsion stability when it was lower than 0.20%. Inactivation of phospholipase D prior to aqueous extraction of flour resulted in a cream emulsion less stable toward enzymatic demulsification and containing less PA and total phospholipids than untreated flour. The phospholipid distributions in the cream, skim, and insolubles obtained from AEP flour were 7, 51, and 42%, respectively. PMID:20329795

  16. Molybdenum modified phosphate glasses studied by 31P MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    Glasses have been synthesized in the system P2O5sbnd SiO2sbnd K2Osbnd MgOsbnd CaO modified by addition of MoO3. Glasses were prepared by conventional fusion method from 40 g batches. The influence of Mo-cations on the analysed glass structure was investigated by means of Raman and 31P MAS-NMR techniques. It has been found that molybdate units can form Mo[MoO4/MoO6]sbnd Osbnd P and/or Mo[MoO4/MoO6]sbnd Osbnd Si bonds with non-bridging oxygens atoms of Q2 methaphosphate units, resulting in the transformation of chain methaphosphate structure into pyrophosphate and finally into orthophosphate structure. It has been also found that increasing amount of MoO3 in the structure of investigated glasses causes their gradual depolymerization and molybdenum ions in the analysed glass matrix act as modifying cations.

  17. 31P-NMR studies of isolated adult heart cells: effect of myoglobin inactivation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Wittenberg, B A

    1991-10-01

    31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of isolated adult rat heart cells revealed that the cells maintained high-energy phosphates for up to 6 h in polyamide hollow fibers perfused with well-oxygenated nutrient medium. Glucose plus pyruvate superfused heart cells maintained [phosphocreatine]/[ATP] at 1.4 +/- 0.1, internal pH at 7.09 +/- 0.04 (external pH = 7.25), and intracellular free Mg2+ at 0.51 +/- 0.04 mM. In glucose-containing media, hypoxia was accompanied by a reversible decrease in intracellular ATP and phosphocreatine of approximately 50% and 80%, respectively, while the intracellular free Mg2+ was reversibly increased by 40%. However, inhibition of glycolysis by iodoacetate in aerobic pyruvate-containing medium did not significantly alter high-energy phosphate content. Inactivation of intracellular myoglobin with 1-2 mM sodium nitrite, which reduces the steady-state respiratory oxygen consumption rate by 30%, caused a significant (30%) decrease in intracellular phosphocreatine peak, which was reversed upon removal of sodium nitrite. The nitrite-induced decrease in phosphocreatine was also observed in iodoacetate-treated myocytes but not in oligomycin-treated cells. These results indicate that functional myoglobin enhances high-energy phosphate synthesis in well-oxygenated myocytes. PMID:1928397

  18. Development of a CP 31P NMR broadline simulation methodology for studying the interactions of antihypertensive AT1 antagonist losartan with phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Fotakis, Charalambos; Christodouleas, Dionisios; Chatzigeorgiou, Petros; Zervou, Maria; Benetis, Nikolas-Ploutarch; Viras, Kyriakos; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2009-03-18

    A cross-polarization (CP) (31)P NMR broadline simulation methodology was developed for studying the effects of drugs in phospholipids bilayers. Based on seven-parameter fittings, this methodology provided information concerning the conformational changes and dynamics effects of losartan in the polar region of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. The test molecule for this study was losartan, an antihypertensive drug known to exert its effect on AT(1) transmembrane receptors. The results were complemented and compared with those of differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance. More specifically, these physical chemical methodologies indicated that the amphipathic losartan molecule interacts with the hydrophilic-head zone of the lipid bilayers. The CP (31)P NMR broadline simulations showed that the lipid molecules in the bilayers containing losartan displayed greater collective tilt compared to the tilt displayed by the load-free bilayers, indicating improved packing. The Raman results displayed a decrease in the trans/gauche ratio and increased intermolecular interactions of the acyl chains in the liquid crystalline phase. Additional evidence, suggesting that losartan possibly anchors in the realm of the headgroup, was derived from upfield shift of the average chemical shift sigma(iso) of the (31)P signal in the presence of losartan and from shift of the observed peak at 715 cm(-1) attributed to C-N stretching in the Raman spectra. PMID:19289049

  19. 31P NMR study of erythrocytes from a patient with hereditary pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, M S; Angle, C R; Stohs, S J; Wu, S T; Salhany, J M; Eliot, R S; Markin, R S

    1983-01-01

    The composition of phosphate metabolites and the intracellular pH in erythrocytes from a patient with hereditary pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase deficiency were examined using 31P NMR spectroscopy. Several resonances were identified in spectra from intact cells and from extracts. The 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate line intensities were normal but the NTP resonances were about twice normal due to the presence of millimolar quantities of pyrimidine phosphates. Several intense resonances were also observed in the diphosphodiester region of the spectrum. One compound contributing to these lines has been identified as cytidine diphosphocholine. The resonances of NTPs were in a position indicating that the additional triphosphates were also bound by Mg2+. Direct measurement shows that there is a nearly proportional increase in total cell Mg2+ in the patient's cells, in agreement with the interpretation of the spectra. The intracellular pH was about 0.2 unit lower in the patient's erythrocytes. This lower pH is due to the elevation in intracellular fixed negative charges and the shift in permeable anions consequent to the Donnan equilibrium. We suggest that the lower intracellular pH may explain the lower oxygen affinity of these cells in the presence of otherwise normal 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate levels and the increased Mg2+ triphosphates level, because the Mg2+ form of NTPs is known not to alter the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin under physiologic conditions. Furthermore, the lower intracellular pH can also explain the abnormalities in glycolytic intermediates observed for these cells. PMID:6296865

  20. Interactions of ciprofloxacin with DPPC and DPPG: fluorescence anisotropy, ATR-FTIR and 31P NMR spectroscopies and conformational analysis.

    PubMed

    Bensikaddour, Hayet; Snoussi, Karim; Lins, Laurence; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M; Brasseur, Robert; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule

    2008-11-01

    The interactions between a drug and lipids may be critical for the pharmacological activity. We previously showed that the ability of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, to induce disorder and modify the orientation of the acyl chains is related to its propensity to be expelled from a monolayer upon compression [1]. Here, we compared the binding of ciprofloxacin on DPPC and DPPG liposomes (or mixtures of phospholipids [DOPC:DPPC], and [DOPC:DPPG]) using quasi-elastic light scattering and steady-state fluorescence anisotropy. We also investigated ciprofloxacin effects on the transition temperature (T(m)) of lipids and on the mobility of phosphate head groups using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared-Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) respectively. In the presence of ciprofloxacin we observed a dose-dependent increase of the size of the DPPG liposomes whereas no effect was evidenced for DPPC liposomes. The binding constants K(app) were in the order of 10(5) M(-1) and the affinity appeared dependent on the negative charge of liposomes: DPPG>DOPC:DPPG (1:1; M:M)>DPPC>DOPC:DPPC (1:1; M:M). As compared to the control samples, the chemical shift anisotropy (Deltasigma) values determined by (31)P NMR showed an increase of 5 and 9 ppm for DPPC:CIP (1:1; M:M) and DPPG:CIP (1:1; M:M) respectively. ATR-FTIR experiments showed that ciprofloxacin had no effect on the T(m) of DPPC but increased the order of the acyl chains both below and above this temperature. In contrast, with DPPG, ciprofloxacin induced a marked broadening effect on the transition with a decrease of the acyl chain order below its T(m) and an increase above this temperature. Altogether with the results from the conformational analysis, these data demonstrated that the interactions of ciprofloxacin with lipids depend markedly on the nature of their phosphate head groups and that ciprofloxacin interacts preferentially with anionic lipid compounds

  1. Effect of Ca:Mg ratio on precipitated P species identified using 31P solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimel Wadu, M.

    2009-04-01

    M.C.W. Manimel Wadu1, O.O Akinremi1, S. Kroeker2 1Department of Soil Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2, Canada 2Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2, Canada Agronomic efficiency of added P fertilizer is reduced by the precipitation reactions with the exchangeable Ca and Mg in calcareous soils. We hypothesized that the ratio of Ca to Mg on the soil exchange complex will affect the species of P that is precipitated and its solubility in the soil. A laboratory experiment was conducted using a model calcareous soil system which was composed of resin (Amberlite IRP69) and sand coated with CaCO3 packed into a column. The resin was pre saturated with Ca and Mg in order to achieve five different saturation ratios of Ca:Mg approximately as 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70 and 0:100. Monoammonium Phosphate was applied to the soil surface to simulate one-dimensional diffusive transport. The column was then incubated for 2 weeks. Chemical analysis for water and acid soluble P, pH, NH4, Ca and Mg was performed on 2mm sections of the soil to a depth of 10 cm. This paper will present and discuss the distribution of P along the soil column. Unlike similar studies that have speculated on the precipitation of P, this study will identify and quantify the P species that is formed using 31P solid state NMR technique. Such knowledge will be helpful in understanding the effect of Ca and Mg on P availability in calcareous system and the role of each cation on P precipitation. Key words: P fertilizers, Ca, Mg, model system, solid state NMR

  2. /sup 31/P NMR saturation-transfer and /sup 13/C NMR kinetic studies of glycolytic regulation during anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell-Burk, S.L.; den Hollander, J.A.; Alger, J.R.; Shulman, R.G.

    1987-11-17

    /sup 31/P NMR saturation-transfer techniques have been employed in glucose-gown derepressed yeast to determine unidirectional fluxes in the upper part of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The experiments were performed during anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis by saturating the ATP/sub ..gamma../ resonances and monitoring changes in the phosphomonoester signals from glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. These experiments were supplemented with /sup 13/C NMR measurements of glucose utilization rates and /sup 13/C NMR label distribution studies. Combined with data obtained previously from radioisotope measurement, these /sup 31/P and /sup 13/C NMR kinetic studies allowed estimation of the net glycolytic flow in addition to relative flows through phosphofructokinase (PFK) and Fru-1,6-P/sub 2/ase during anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis. The /sup 31/P NMR saturation-transfer results are consistent with previous results obtained from measurements of metabolite levels, radioisotope data, and /sup 13/C NMR studies, providing additional support for in vivo measurement of the flows during glycolysis.

  3. A 13C{31P} REDOR NMR Investigation of the Role of Glutamic Acid Residues in Statherin-Hydroxyapatite Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ndao, Moise; Ash, Jason T.; Breen, Nicholas F.; Goobes, Gil; Stayton, Patrick S.; Drobny, Gary P.

    2011-01-01

    The side chain carboxyl groups of acidic proteins found in the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) of mineralized tissues play a key role in promoting or inhibiting the growth of minerals such as hydroxyapatite (HAP), the principal mineral component of bone and teeth. Among the acidic proteins found in the saliva is statherin, a 43-residue tyrosine-rich peptide that is a potent lubricant in the salivary pellicle and an inhibitor of both HAP crystal nucleation and growth. Three acidic amino acids – D1, E4, and E5 – are located in the N-terminal 15 amino acid segment, with a fourth amino acid, E26, located outside the N-terminus. We have utilized 13C{31P} REDOR NMR to analyze the role played by acidic amino acids in the binding mechanism of statherin to the HAP surface by measuring the distance between the δ-carboxyl 13C spins of the three glutamic acid side chains of statherin (residues E4, E5, E26) and 31P spins of the phosphate groups at the HAP surface. 13C{31P} REDOR studies of glutamic-5-13C acid incorporated at positions E4 and E26 indicate a 13C–31P distance of more than 6.5 Å between the side chain carboxyl 13C spin of E4 and the closest 31P in the HAP surface. In contrast, the carboxyl 13C spin at E5 has a much shorter 13C–31P internuclear distance of 4.25±0.09 Å, indicating that the carboxyl group of this side chain interacts directly with the surface. 13C T1ρ and slow-spinning MAS studies indicate that the motions of the side chains of E4 and E5 are more restricted than that of E26. Together, these results provide further insight into the molecular interactions of statherin with HAP surfaces. PMID:19678690

  4. 31P NMR study of magnetic phase transitions of MnP single crystal under 2 GPa pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, GuoZhi; Zhao, Bo; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Ping; Luo, JianLin

    2016-05-01

    Superconductivity on the border of the long-range magnetic order has been discovered in MnP under high pressures. In order to investigate the nature of the magnetic properties adjacent to the superconducting state, we performed zero-field 31P NMR for MnP single crystal under ambient and hydrostatic pressure of 2 GPa, respectively. Radio frequency power level was used to determine whether NMR signal originates from a helical state or not. When 2 GPa pressure was applied, the signal from helical state exists even above 160 K, while that from the ferromagnetic phase was not observed. Our NMR results indicate that the magnetic phase which is adjacent to the superconducting state is in a helical magnetic structure.

  5. Trimethylphosphine-Assisted Surface Fingerprinting of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle by (31)P Solid-State NMR: A Zinc Oxide Case Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yung-Kang; Ye, Lin; Qu, Jin; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yingyi; Teixeira, Ivo F; McPherson, Ian James; He, Heyong; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-24

    Nano metal oxides are becoming widely used in industrial, commercial and personal products (semiconductors, optics, solar cells, catalysts, paints, cosmetics, sun-cream lotions, etc.). However, the relationship of surface features (exposed planes, defects and chemical functionalities) with physiochemical properties is not well studied primarily due to lack of a simple technique for their characterization. In this study, solid state (31)P MAS NMR is used to map surfaces on various ZnO samples with the assistance of trimethylphosphine (TMP) as a chemical probe. As similar to XRD giving structural information on a crystal, it is demonstrated that this new surface-fingerprint technique not only provides qualitative (chemical shift) but also quantitative (peak intensity) information on the concentration and distribution of cations and anions, oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on various facets from a single deconvoluted (31)P NMR spectrum. On the basis of this technique, a new mechanism for photocatalytic •OH radical generation from direct surface-OH oxidation is revealed, which has important implications regarding the safety of using nano oxides in personal care products. PMID:26812527

  6. Time course of myocardial sodium accumulation after burn trauma: a (31)P- and (23)Na-NMR study.

    PubMed

    Sikes, P J; Zhao, P; Maass, D L; Horton, J W

    2001-12-01

    In this study, (23)Na- and (31)P- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were examined in perfused rat hearts harvested 1, 2, 4, and 24 h after 40% total body surface area burn trauma and lactated Ringer resuscitation, 4 ml. kg(-1). %(-1) burn. (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy monitored myocardial intracellular Na+ using the paramagnetic shift reagent thulium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetra(methylenephosphonic acid). Left ventricular function, cardiac high-energy phosphates (ATP/PCr), and myocyte intracellular pH were studied by using (31)P NMR spectroscopy to examine the hypothesis that burn-mediated acidification of cardiomyocytes contributes to subsequent Na+ accumulation by this cell population. Intracellular Na+ accumulation was confirmed by sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate loading and fluorescence spectroscopy in cardiomyocytes isolated 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h postburn. This myocyte Na+ accumulation as early as 2 h postburn occurred despite no changes in cardiac ATP/PCr and intracellular pH. Left ventricular function progressively decreased after burn trauma. Cardiomyocyte Na+ accumulation paralleled cardiac contractile dysfunction, suggesting that myocardial Na+ overload contributes, in part, to the progressive postburn decrease in ventricular performance. PMID:11717236

  7. Using 31P-NMR to investigate dynamics of soil phosphorus compounds in the Rothamsted Long Term Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Martin; Turner, Ben; Granger, Steve; Hooper, Tony; Darch, Tegan; Hawkins, Jane; Yuan, Huimin; McGrath, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The technique of 31P-NMR spectroscopy has done more to advance the knowledge of phosphorus forms (especially organic phosphorus) in environmental samples than any other method. The technique has advanced such that specific compounds can be identified where previously only broad categories such as orthophosphate monoesters and diesters were distinguishable. The Soil Archive and Long Term Experiments at Rothamsted Research, UK, potentially provides an unequalled opportunity to use this technique to observe changes in soil phosphorus compounds with time and under different treatments, thereby enhancing our understanding of phosphorus cycling and use by plants. Some of the earliest work using this technique on soils was carried out by Hawkes et al. in 1984 and this used soils from two of the oldest Rothamsted Long Term Experiments, namely Highfield and Park Grass. Here we revisit the samples studied in this early work and reanalyse them using current methodology to demonstrate how the 31P-NMR technique has advanced. We also present results from a study on the phosphorus chemistry in soils along the Hoosfield acid strip (Rothamsted, UK), where a pH gradient from 3.7 to 7.8 occurs in a single soil with little variation in total phosphorus (mean ± standard deviation 399 ± 27 mg P kg-1). Soil pH was found to be an important factor in determining the proportion of phosphomonoesters and phosphodiesters in the soil organic phosphorus, although total organic phosphorus concentrations were a relatively consistent proportion of the total soil phosphorus (36 ± 2%) irrespective of soil pH. Key words. 31P-NMR, soil organic phosphorus, long term experiments, Hoosfield acid strip

  8. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus combines intrinsic phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities: A sup 31 P NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Shashidhar, M.S.; Kuppe, A. ); Volwerk, J.J.; Griffith, O.H.

    1990-09-04

    The inositol phosphate products formed during the cleavage of phosphatidylinositol by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus were analyzed by {sup 31}P NMR. {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy can distinguish between the inositol phosphate species and phosphatidylinositol. Chemical shift values (with reference to phosphoric acid) observed are {minus}0.41, 3.62, 4.45, and 16.30 ppm for phosphatidylinositol, myo-inositol 1-monophosphate, myo-inositol 2-monophosphate, and myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate, respectively. It is shown that under a variety of experimental conditions this phospholipase C cleaves phosphatidylinositol via an intramolecular phosphotransfer reaction producing diacylglycerol and D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate. The authors also report the new and unexpected observation that the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from B. cereus is able to hydrolyze the inositol cyclic phosphate to form D-myo-inositol 1-monophosphate. The enzyme, therefore, possesses phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities. The second reaction requires thousandfold higher enzyme concentrations to be observed by {sup 31}P NMR. This reaction was shown to be regiospecific in that only the 1-phosphate was produced and stereospecific in that only D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate was hydrolyzed. Inhibition with a monoclonal antibody specific for the B.cereus phospholipase C showed that the cyclic phosphodiesterase activity is intrinsic to the bacterial enzyme. They propose a two-step mechanism for the phosphatidyl-inositol-specific phospholipase C from B. cereus involving sequential phosphotransferase and cyclic phosphodiesterase activities. This mechanism bears a resemblance to the well-known two-step mechanism of pancreatic ribonuclease, RNase A.

  9. Phosphate ions in bone: identification of a calcium-organic phosphate complex by 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy at early stages of mineralization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Ackerman, J L; Strawich, E S; Rey, C; Kim, H-M; Glimcher, M J

    2003-05-01

    Previous 31P cross-polarization and differential cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS and DCP/MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy studies of native bone and of the isolated crystals of the calcified matrix synthesized by osteoblasts in cell culture identified and characterized the major PO(-3)(4) phosphate components of the mineral phase. The isotropic and anisotropic chemical shift parameters of the minor HPO(-2)(4) component in bone mineral and in mineral deposited in osteoblast cell cultures were found to differ significantly from those of brushite, octacalcium phosphate, and other synthetic calcium phosphates. However, because of in vivo and in vitro evidence that phosphoproteins may play a significant role in the nucleation of the solid mineral phase of calcium phosphate in bone and other vertebrate calcified tissues, the focus of the current solid-state 31P NMR experiments was to detect the possible presence of and characterize the phosphoryl groups of phosphoproteins in bone at the very earliest stages of bone mineralization, as well as the possible presence of calcium-phosphoprotein complexes. The present study demonstrates that by far the major phosphate components identified by solid-state 31P NMR in the very earliest stages of mineralization are protein phosphoryl groups which are not complexed with calcium. However, very small amounts of calcium-complexed protein phosphoryl groups as well as even smaller, trace amounts of apatite crystals were also present at the earliest phases of mineralization. These data support the hypothesis that phosphoproteins complexed with calcium play a significant role in the initiation of bone calcification. PMID:12724829

  10. Assessment of membrane protection by /sup 31/P-NMR effects of lidocaine on calcium-paradox in myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hirosumi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Teragaki, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Takeda; Ikata, Mari; Ishikawa, Makoto; Miura, Iwao

    1989-01-01

    In studying calcium paradox, perfused rat hearts were used to investigate the myocardial protective effects of lidocaine. Intracellular contents of phosphates were measured using the /sup 31/P-NMR method. In hearts reexposed to calcium, following 3 minute calcium-free perfusion, a rapid contracture occurred, followed by rapid and complete disappearance of intracellular phosphates with no resumption of cardiac function. In hearts where lidocaine was administered from the onset of the calcium-free perfusion until 2 minutes following the onset of reexposure to calcium, both intracellular phosphates and cardiac contractility were maintained. Therefore, it can be said that cell membranes were protected by lidocaine.

  11. [sup 31]P and [sup 27]Al NMR investigations of highly acidic, aqueous solutions containing aluminum and phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Mortlock, R.F.; Bell, A.T.; Radke, C.J. Univ. of California, Berkeley )

    1993-01-21

    [sup 31]P and [sup 27]Al NMR spectroscopies have been used to characterize acidic, aqueous solutions of orthophosphoric acid, aluminum chloride, and tetramethylammonium (TMA) hydroxide. The final compositions of the solutions range from 0.1 to 1 mol % P, 0.0 to 20 mol % HCl, P/Al = 0.1 to 20, and P/(TMA)[sub 2]O = 2 to 20. Soluble aluminophosphate cations form reactions of hexaaqua Al monomeric cations, [Al(H[sub 2]O)[sub 6

  12. Formations of hydroxyapatite and inositol hexakisphosphate in poultry litter during the composting period: sequential fractionation, P K-edge XANES and solution (31)P NMR investigations.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Takamoto, Akira; Kikkawa, Ren; Murakami, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Noriko

    2014-05-20

    Little is known about how the solubility and chemical speciation of phosphorus (P) in poultry litters are altered during the composting period. This study investigated the quantitative and qualitative changes in organic P (Po) and inorganic P (Pi) compositions in poultry litters during the seven-day composting period using sequential extraction in combination with P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The result of sequential extraction illustrated that the significant decrease of H2O-P by 55% in poultry litters occurred concomitantly with the increase of HCl-Pi and HCl-Po during the composting period (p < 0.05). X-ray diffraction results for poultry litter samples showed three distinct peaks indicative of hydroxyapatite. Phosphorus K-edge XANES confirmed the increase of hydroxyapatite during the composting period, corresponding to the increase of HCl-Pi determined by the sequential extraction. The NaOH-EDTA extraction for solution (31)P NMR revealed that myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) constituted about 80% of phosphate monoesters and was increased from 16 to 28% in the poultry litter during the composting period. The combined applications of chemical extraction and molecular-spectroscopic techniques determined that water-soluble P in poultry litter was transformed into less soluble phases, primarily hydroxyapatite and IHP, during the composting period. PMID:24735189

  13. Effects of decreased pH on membrane structural organization of Escherichia coli grown in different fatty acid-supplemented media: a 31P NMR study.

    PubMed

    Ianzini, F; Guidoni, L; Simone, G; Viti, V; Yatvin, M B

    1990-04-01

    Total membranes from Escherichia coli cells grown in different fatty acid-supplemented media have been examined by 31P NMR at different pH values. The isolated inner and outer membranes were also studied and compared to the liposomes formed with the corresponding extracted lipids. While the liposomes show structures that are correlated with lipid composition, degree of fatty acid unsaturation, and pH, the membrane structure is mainly bilayer. The presence of two bilayer phases characterized by different chemical shift anisotropy values (delta nu csa) is detectable at neutral pH; a perturbation of the bilayer phase characterized by the smallest delta nu csa is produced by low pH. Moreover, an isotropic peak is always present in the membrane NMR spectra: its attribution to cardiolipin molecules is discussed on the basis of digestion experiments with phospholipase C. PMID:2181934

  14. Carbon-13, sup 15 N, and sup 31 P NMR studies on 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase from Arthrobacter oxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Pust, S.; Vervoort, J.; Decker, K.; Bacher, A.; Mueller, F. )

    1989-01-24

    The interaction between the apoprotein of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine oxidase from Arthrobacter oxidans and the prosthetic group FAD has been investigated by {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N and {sup 31}P NMR techniques. The FAD prosthetic group was selectively enriched in {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopes by adding isotopically labeled riboflavin derivatives to the growth medium of riboflavin-requiring mutant cells. In the oxidized state the chemical shift of the C(7) and C(8) atoms indicates that the xylene moiety of the isoalloxazine ring is embedded in a hydrophobic environment. The binding of the competitive inhibitor, 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine, influences the resonances of the C(4a) and the N(5) atom strongly. It is suggested that these shifts are due to a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction between the N(5) atom and the inhibitor. On reduction all resonances, except those of the C(10a) and the N(1) atoms, shift upfield, indicating the increased electron density in the ring system. It can unambiguously be concluded from the chemical shift of the N(1) atom that the reduced flavin is anionic. The doublet character of the N(3) and N(5) resonances suggests that bulk water has no access to the active center. The strong downfield shift of the N(1) position indicates that this atom is embedded in a polar environment, but it does not indicate the presence of a positively charged residue. The {sup 31}P NMR spectra show that the resonances of the pyrophosphate group of the bound FAD differ slightly from those of free FAD. Besides the {sup 31}P resonances from FAD, four peaks around 0 ppm are observed that belongs to bound phosphorus residues. The residues are not located close to the isoalloxazine ring.

  15. 2D exchange 31P NMR spectroscopy of bacteriophage M13 and tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A

    1995-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) exchange 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to study the slow overall motion of the rod-shaped viruses M13 and tobacco mosaic virus in concentrated gels. Even for short mixing times, observed diagonal spectra differ remarkably from projection spectra and one-dimensional spectra. Our model readily explains this to be a consequence of the T2e anisotropy caused by slow overall rotation of the viruses about their length axis. 2D exchange spectra recorded for 30% (w/w) tobacco mosaic virus with mixing times < 1 s do not show any off-diagonal broadening, indicating that its overall motion occurs in the sub-Hz frequency range. In contrast, the exchange spectra obtained for 30% M13 show significant off-diagonal intensity for mixing times of 0.01 s and higher. A log-gaussian distribution around 25 Hz of overall diffusion coefficients mainly spread between 1 and 10(3) Hz faithfully reproduces the 2D exchange spectra of 30% M13 recorded at various mixing times in a consistent way. A small but notable change in diagonal spectra at increasing mixing time is not well accounted for by our model and is probably caused by 31P spin diffusion. PMID:7756532

  16. A solid-state 31P-NMR investigation of the allosteric transition in glycogen phosphorylase b.

    PubMed Central

    Challoner, R; McDowell, C A; Stirtan, W; Withers, S G

    1993-01-01

    The catalytic role of the cofactor phosphate moiety at the active site of glycogen phosphorylase has been the subject of many investigations including solution-state high-resolution 31P-NMR studies. In this study the pyridoxal phosphate moiety in both the inactive and active forms of microcrystalline phosphorylase b has been investigated by high-resolution 31P magic-angle spinning NMR. The symmetry of the shielding tensor in model compounds at varying degrees of ionization is investigated and the results indicate a marked difference between the dianionic and monoanionic model compounds. Consequently the observed similarity in the principal tensor components describing the shielding tensor of the phosphorus nuclei present at the active site of both the R- and T-state conformations suggests that there is no change in ionization site upon activation in contrast to suggestions based upon isotropic shifts. Since previous relaxation measurements have pointed to the need to consider motional influences in such systems, several plausible models are considered. Subject to the assumption of congruency between the principal axis system describing the shielding interaction and molecular frame determined by the molecular symmetry axes, we conclude that the phosphate cofactor is dianionic in both forms. PMID:8457672

  17. The intact muscle lipid composition of bulls: an investigation by MALDI-TOF MS and 31P NMR.

    PubMed

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Süss, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin; Fuchs, Beate; Nuernberg, Karin; Schiller, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    The analysis of beef lipids is normally based on chromatographic techniques and/or gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Modern techniques of soft-ionization MS were so far scarcely used to investigate the intact lipids in muscle tissues of beef. The objective of the study was to investigate whether matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are useful tools to study the intact lipid composition of beef. For the MALDI-TOF MS and (31)P NMR investigations muscle samples were selected from a feeding experiment with German Simmental bulls fed different diets. Beside the triacylglycerols (TAGs), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) species the MALDI-TOF mass spectra of total muscle lipids gave also intense signals of cardiolipin (CL) species. The application of different matrix compounds, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and 9-aminoacridine (9-AA), leads to completely different mass spectra: 9-AA is particularly useful for the detection of (polar) phospholipids, whereas apolar lipids, such as cholesterol and triacylglycerols, are exclusively detected if DHB is used. Finally, the quality of the negative ion mass spectra is much higher if 9-AA is used. PMID:19900429

  18. /sup 31/P NMR analysis of membrane phospholipid organization in viable, reversibly electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.; Rols, M.P.; Teissie, J.

    1988-02-23

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 ..mu..s). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 4/sup 0/C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. The authors proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells.

  19. FTIR and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopic analyses of surface species in phosphate-catalyzed lactic acid conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, G.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J.

    1996-11-01

    The surface species present on silica/alumina-supported sodium phosphates, active catalysts for the conversion of lactic acid to acrylic acid and 2,3-pentanedione, are examined by pre- and postreaction MAS {sup 31}P-NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. Species present following lactic acid conversion are identified by transmission FTIR of phosphates supported on silicon disks (as a model catalyst system) and verified by {sup 31}P-NMR and diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy of actual catalysts used in reaction. Monosodium phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) condenses to a mixture of sodium polyphosphate (NaPO{sub 3}){sub n} and sodium trimetaphosphate (Na{sub 3}P{sub 3}O{sub 9}), which exhibit little catalytic activity for converting lactic acid to desired products. Disodium phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) condenses to tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and proton transfer from lactic acid to pyrophosphate results in the formation of sodium lactate. Trisodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) accepts a proton from lactic acid to form sodium lactate and disodium phosphate, which condenses to pyrophosphate. The presence of pyrophosphate and sodium lactate on supported disodium and trisodium phosphates explains their similar catalytic properties; the larger quantity of sodium lactate present on trisodium phosphate leads to higher conversions at lower temperatures. 40 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Local structure of spin Peierls compound TiPO4: 47/49Ti and 31P NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Raivo; Heinmaa, Ivo; Leitmäe, Alexander; Joon, Enno; Tsirlin, Alexander; Kremer, Reinhard; Glaum, Robert

    TiPO4 structure is made of slightly corrugated TiO2 ribbon chains of edge-sharing TiO6 octahedra. The almost perfect 1D spin 1/2 Ti3 + chains are well separated by PO4 tetrahedra. By magnetic susceptibility and MAS-NMR measurements [1] it was shown that TiPO4 has nonmagnetic singlet ground state with remarkably high Spin-Peierls (SP) transition temperature. The high-T magnetic susceptibility of TiPO4 follows well that of a S =1/2 Heisenberg chain with very strong nearest-neighbor AF spin-exchange coupling constant of J =965K. On cooling TiPO4 shows two successive phase transitions at 111K and 74K, with incommensurate (IC) SP phase between them. We studied local structure and dynamics in TiPO4 single crystal using 47/49Ti and 31P NMR in the temperature range 40K to 300K, and determined the principal values and orientation of the magnetic shift tensors for 31P and 47,49Ti nuclei. Since 47,49Ti (S =5/2 and S =7/2, respectively) have quadrupolar moments, we also found the principal axis values and orientations of the electric field gradient (efg) tensor in SP phase and at 295K. In SP phase the structure contains 2 magnetically inequivalent P sites and only one Ti site. From the T-dependence of the relaxation rate of 31P and 47Ti nuclei we determined activation energy Ea = 550 K for spin excitations in SP phase. J. Law et al ., PRB 83, 180414(R) (2011).

  1. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    PubMed

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-01

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation. PMID:21254775

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. )

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used [sub 31]P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850[degrees]F[sup +] distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.[sup 31]P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different [sup 31]P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a [sup 31]P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe[sub 2]CMe[sub 2]O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G.

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used {sub 31}P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850{degrees}F{sup +} distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.{sup 31}P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different {sup 31}P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a {sup 31}P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  4. 31P NMR study of daunorubicin-d(CGTACG) complex in solution. Evidence of the intercalation sites.

    PubMed

    Ragg, E; Mondelli, R; Battistini, C; Garbesi, A; Colonna, F P

    1988-08-15

    The interaction of daunorubicin with the self-complementary DNA fragment d(CGTACG) was studied by 31P NMR spectroscopy. The individual phosphates have been assigned for the nucleotide and the complex and signals from bound and free species in slow exchange at 19 degrees C were detected. In solution, the hexanucleotide binds two molecules of daunorubicin, which intercalate in the d(CG) sequence at both ends of the helix. Evidence for local deformations of the backbone at the sites of C5pG6, C1pG2 and G2pT3 phosphates is given. The binding constants for the stepwise equilibrium and the rate of dissociation of the intercalated duplex were also determined. PMID:3402614

  5. An efficient 1H/31P double-resonance solid-state NMR probe that utilizes a scroll coil

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Christopher V.; Sit, Siu-Ling; De Angelis, Anna A.; Khuong, Kelli S.; Wu, Chin H.; Plesniak, Leigh A.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of a scroll coil double-resonance probe for solid-state NMR on stationary samples is described. The advantages of the scroll coil at the high resonance frequencies of 1H and 31P include: high efficiency, minimal perturbations of tuning by a wide range of samples, minimal RF sample heating of high dielectric samples of biopolymers in aqueous solution, and excellent RF homogeneity. The incorporation of a cable tie cinch for mechanical stability of the scroll coil is described. Experimental results obtained on a Hunter Killer Peptide 1 (HKP1) interacting with phospholipid bilayers of varying lipid composition demonstrate the capabilities of this probe on lossy aqueous samples. PMID:17719813

  6. An efficient (1)H/(31)P double-resonance solid-state NMR probe that utilizes a scroll coil.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christopher V; Sit, Siu-Ling; De Angelis, Anna A; Khuong, Kelli S; Wu, Chin H; Plesniak, Leigh A; Opella, Stanley J

    2007-10-01

    The construction and performance of a scroll coil double-resonance probe for solid-state NMR on stationary samples is described. The advantages of the scroll coil at the high resonance frequencies of (1)H and (31)P include: high efficiency, minimal perturbations of tuning by a wide range of samples, minimal RF sample heating of high dielectric samples of biopolymers in aqueous solution, and excellent RF homogeneity. The incorporation of a cable tie cinch for mechanical stability of the scroll coil is described. Experimental results obtained on a Hunter Killer Peptide 1 (HKP1) interacting with phospholipid bilayers of varying lipid composition demonstrate the capabilities of this probe on lossy aqueous samples. PMID:17719813

  7. Ab Initio Calculation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemical Shift Anisotropy Tensors 1. Influence of Basis Set on the Calculation of 31P Chemical Shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, T.M.

    1998-09-01

    The influence of changes in the contracted Gaussian basis set used for ab initio calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phosphorous chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors was investigated. The isotropic chemical shitl and chemical shift anisotropy were found to converge with increasing complexity of the basis set at the Hartree-Fock @IF) level. The addition of d polarization function on the phosphorous nucIei was found to have a major impact of the calculated chemical shi~ but diminished with increasing number of polarization fimctions. At least 2 d polarization fimctions are required for accurate calculations of the isotropic phosphorous chemical shift. The introduction of density fictional theory (DFT) techniques through tie use of hybrid B3LYP methods for the calculation of the phosphorous chemical shift tensor resulted in a poorer estimation of the NMR values, even though DFT techniques result in improved energy and force constant calculations. The convergence of the W parametem with increasing basis set complexity was also observed for the DFT calculations, but produced results with consistent large deviations from experiment. The use of a HF 6-31 l++G(242p) basis set represents a good compromise between accuracy of the simulation and the complexity of the calculation for future ab initio calculations of 31P NMR parameters in larger complexes.

  8. /sup 31/P NMR probes of sipunculan erythrocytes containing the O/sub 2/-carying protein hemerythrin

    SciTech Connect

    Robitaille, P.M.L.; Kurtz, D.M. Jr

    1988-06-14

    Reported are the first examinations by /sup 31/P NMR of erythrocytes containing the non-heme iron O/sub 2/ carrying protein hemerythrin (Hr). Intact coelomic erythrocytes from the sipunculids Phascolopsis gouldii and Themiste zostericola were shown by /sup 31/P NMR to contain O-phosphorylethanolamine and 2-amino-ethylphosphonate as the major soluble phosphorus metabolites. This combination of major metabolites appears to be unique to sipunculan erythrocytes. Nucleoside triphosphates and mannose 1-phosphate were present in lower concentrations. The concentration of O-phosphorylethanolamine within P. gouldii erythrocytes was established to be > 20 mM. T. zostericola erythrocytes contained relatively high levels of 2-amino-ethylphosphonate and lower levels of O-phosphorylethanolamine compared with those of P. gouldii. For P. gouldii and T. zostericola the intracellular pHs were determined to be 7.2 +/- 0.1 and 7.1 +/- 0.1, respectively, in air-equilibrated erythrocytes, and 6.5 +/- 0.1 in anaerobic P. gouldii erythrocytes. O-Phosphorylethanolamine was found to bind weakly to P. gouldii metHr. This interaction is best characterized by either negative cooperativity or nonspecific binding. O-phosphorylethanolamine strongly inhibits azide binding to the iron site of P. gouldii metHr at pH 7.2. The rate of azide binding decreases by approx. 85-fold in the presence of 0.33 M O-phosphorylethanolamine. However, neither O-phosphorylethanolamine nor 2-aminoethylphosphonate at 0.33 M was found to have any significant effect on O/sub 2/ affinity of P. gouldii deoxyHr. Alternative functions for the two metabolites are suggested.

  9. Determination of neo- and D-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate in soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cheesman, Alexander W; Godage, H Yasmin; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-05-01

    The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and D-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable (31)P NMR signals at δ = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP(6)) and δ = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of D-chiro-IP(6)) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46-54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (D-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP(6) stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

  10. Roles of Arginine and Lysine Residues in the Translocation of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide from 13C, 31P and 19F Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small cationic peptides that cross the cell membrane while carrying macromolecular cargoes. We use solid-state NMR to investigate the structure and lipid interaction of two cationic residues, Arg10 and Lys13, in the CPP penetratin. 13C chemical shifts indicate that Arg10 adopts a rigid β-strand conformation in the liquid-crystalline state of anionic lipid membranes. This behavior contrasts with all other residues observed so far in this peptide, which adopt a dynamic β-turn conformation with coil-like chemical shifts at physiological temperature. Low-temperature 13C-31P distances between the peptide and the lipid phosphates indicate that both the Arg10 guanidinium Cζ and the Lys13 Cε lie in close proximity to the lipid 31P (4.0 - 4.2 Å), proving the existence of charge-charge interaction for both Arg10 and Lys13 in the gel-phase membrane. However, since lysine substitution in CPPs are known to reduce their translocation ability, we propose that low temperature stabilizes both lysine and arginine interactions with the phosphates, whereas at high temperature the lysine-phosphate interaction is much weaker than the arginine-phosphate interaction. This is supported by the unusually high rigidity of the Arg10 sidechain and its β-strand conformation at high temperature. The latter is proposed to be important for ion pair formation by allowing close approach of the lipid headgroups to guanidinium sidechains. 19F and 13C spin diffusion experiments indicate that penetratin is oligomerized into β-sheets in gel-phase membranes. These solid-state NMR data indicate that guanidinium-phosphate interactions exist in penetratin, and guanidinium groups play a stronger structural role than ammonium groups in the lipid-assisted translocation of CPPs across liquid-crystalline cell membranes. PMID:19364134

  11. 13C and 31P chemical shielding tensors of a single crystal of dipotassium α- D-glucose-1-phosphate dihydrate. An application of a 13C-{ 1H, 31P} triple-resonance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, C. A.; Naito, A.; Sastry, D. L.; Takegoshi, K.

    The 13C NMR spectra of a single crystal of dipotassium α- D-glucose-l-phosphate dehydrate for different orientations in the external magnetic field, were recorded by using 1H and 31P double nuclear decoupling. To overcome difficulties encountered because of the high 13C RF power required to achieve the Hartmann-Hahn condition, a new cross-polarization method (K. Takegoshi and C. A. McDowell, J. Magn. Reson.67, 356 (1986)) was used. The directions of the most shielded principal value of the 13C chemical shielding tensors for the C2-C6 carbon nuclei in the glucose group were along the CO bond, and that for the CI carbon nucleus made an angle of 42† with the C1-O5 bond direction in the O1-C1-O5 plane. The 31P chemical shielding tensors are axially symmetric and the direction of the least shielded principal value is almost parallel to the P-O1(R) bond, which is the longest among the four PO bonds in the phosphate moiety.

  12. /sup 31/P NMR studies of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis kinetics in the intact myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley-Hickman, P.B.; Sako, E.Y.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Robitaille, P.M.L.; From, A.H.L.; Foker, J.E.; Ugurbil, K.

    1987-11-17

    The origin of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-measurable ATP in equilibrium P/sub i/ exchange and whether it can be used to determine net oxidative ATP synthesis rates in the intact myocardium were examined by detailed measurements of ATP in equilibrium P/sub i/ exchange rates in both directions as a function of the myocardial oxygen consumption rate (MVO/sub 2/) in (1) glucose-perfused, isovolumic rat hearts with normal glycolytic activity and (2) pyruvate-perfused hearts where glycolytic activity was reduced or eliminated either by depletion of their endogenous glycogen or by use of the inhibitor iodoacetate. In glucose-perfused hearts, the P/sub i/ ..-->.. ATP rate measured by the conventional two-site saturation transfer (CST) technique remained constant while MVO2 was increased approximately 2-fold. When the glycolytic activity was reduced, the P/sub i/ ..-->.. ATP rate decreased significantly, demonstrating the existence of a significant glycolytic contribution. The ATP ..-->.. P/sub i/ rates and rate:MVO ratios measured by the multiple-site saturation transfer method at two MVO/sub 2/ levels were equal to the corresponding P/sub i/..-->.. ATP rates and rate:MVO ratios obtained in the absence of a glycolytic contribution. The following conclusions are drawn from these studies: (1) unless the glycolytic contribution to the ATP in equilibrium P/sub i/ exchange is inhibited or is specifically shown not to exist, the myocardial P/sub i/ in equilibrium ATP exchange due to oxidative phosphorylation cannot be studied by NMR; (2) at moderate MVO/sub 2/ levels, the reaction catalyzed by the two glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase is near equilibrium; (3) the ATP synthesis by the mitochondrial H/sup +/-ATPase occurs unidirectionally (i.e., the reaction is far out of equilibrium); (4) the operative P:O ratio in the intact myocardium under our conditions is significantly less than the canonically accepted value

  13. sup 13 C and sup 31 P NMR studies of myocardial metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The fluxes through two enzyme systems have been measured in perfused or in in vivo heart using NMR: phosphocreatine kinase, and glycogen synthase and phosphorylase. The rates of synthesis and degradation of glycogen were monitored in vivo in fed, fasted, and diabetic rat heart during infusions of {sup 13}C-1-glucose and insulin using proton-decoupled {sup 13}C-NMR at 1.9 and 4.7 tesla. The enzyme activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase were also measured in this tissue which had been freeze clamped at the end of the experiment, for comparison with the synthetic rates. For normal fed, fasted, and diabetic animals, synthesis rates were 0.28, 0.16, and 0.15 {mu}mol/min.gww respectively. Glycogen synthase i activity was 0.23, 0.14, and 0.14 {mu}mol/min.gww in these hearts at the end of the experiment, when measured at appropriate substrate and activator concentrations, and follow activation time courses that are consistent with being the main rate determinant for net synthesis in all cases. Turnover of glycogen was studied by observing the preformed {sup 13}C-1-glycogen signal during infusion of {sup 12}C-glucose and insulin, and was found to be close to zero. Extracted phosphorylase a activity was approximately ten times that of synthase i under these circumstances. In order to fully interpret the turnover studies, glycogenolysis of preformed {sup 13}C-glycogen was observed after a bolus of glucagon. The glycogen had either been synthesized from {sup 13}C-1-glucose for a single hour, or during an hour of {sup 13}C-glucose and a subsequent hour of {sup 12}C-glucose infusion. The author observed that breakdown follows an exponential time course related to the phosphorylase a activation state and that the last synthesized glycogen breaks down at the rate of 2.5 {mu}mol/min.gww, five times faster than that synthesized an hour earlier.

  14. Hetergeneous tumour response to photodynamic therapy assessed by in vivo localised 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ceckler, T. L.; Gibson, S. L.; Kennedy, S. D.; Hill, R.; Bryant, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is efficacious in the treatment of small malignant lesions when all cells in the tumour receive sufficient drug, oxygen and light to induce a photodynamic effect capable of complete cytotoxicity. In large tumours, only partial effectiveness is observed presumably because of insufficient light penetration into the tissue. The heterogeneity of the metabolic response in mammary tumours following PDT has been followed in vivo using localised phosphorus NMR spectroscopy. Alterations in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH within localised regions of the tumour were monitored over 24-48 h following PDT irradiation of the tumour. Reduction of NTP and increases in Pi were observed at 4-6 h after PDT irradiation in all regions of treated tumours. The uppermost regions of the tumours (those nearest the skin surface and exposed to the greatest light fluence) displayed the greatest and most prolonged reduction of NTP and concomitant increase in Pi resulting in necrosis. The metabolite concentrations in tumour regions located towards the base of the tumour returned a near pre-treatment levels by 24-48 h after irradiation. The ability to follow heterogeneous metabolic responses in situ provides one means to assess the degree of metabolic inhibition which subsequently leads to tumour necrosis. Images Figure 4 PMID:1829953

  15. Temperature-dependent interconversion of phosphoramidite-Cu complexes detected by combined diffusion studies, 31P NMR, and low-temperature NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schober, Katrin; Zhang, Hongxia; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2008-09-17

    For copper-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions, knowledge about the precatalytic and catalytic complexes has not yet been sufficiently developed to understand the strong influence of different temperatures on these famous reactions. Therefore, NMR experiments with four Cu(I) salts and two phosphoramidite ligands have been performed to elucidate the temperature dependence and the low-temperature structures of these copper complexes. The existence of the precatalytic binuclear complex with a mixed trigonal/tetrahedral coordination on copper is for the first time proven with direct NMR spectroscopic methods. Below 200 K, intermolecular interactions between free ligands and [Cu2X2L3] complexes induce binuclear [Cu2X2L4] complexes similar to the crystal structures. By combining diffusion experiments and (31)P integrals at different temperatures, it is for the first time possible to follow the formation of stoichiometrically different complexes, even under experimental conditions in which the (31)P signals of the complexes are spectroscopically not resolved due to exchange processes. This allows a first correlation between the complex species observed and the synthetic conditions reported. Furthermore, different preferences to build homo- or heterochiral complexes are detected for binaphthol and biphenol phosphoramidite complexes. PMID:18717560

  16. 31P NMR spectroscopy of hypertrophied rat heart: effect of graded global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Clarke, K; Sunn, N; Willis, R J

    1989-12-01

    To investigate the cause for the greater susceptibility of hypertrophied hearts to ischemic injury, we determined the interrelations of total work output, contractile function and energy metabolism in isolated, perfused normal and hypertrophied rat hearts subjected to graded global ischemia. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by giving rats seven daily injections of either triiodothyronine (0.2 mg/kg) or isoproterenol (5 mg/kg). All hearts were perfused at an aortic pressure of 100 mmHg in the isovolumic mode in an NMR spectrometer (7.05 Tesla). Heart rate, developed pressure, and coronary flow were monitored simultaneously with changes in pH, creatine phosphate, ATP and inorganic phosphate. During pre-ischemic perfusion, the total work output (rate-pressure product) of hyperthyroid hearts was 28% higher than that of control hearts, whereas hearts from isoproterenol-treated animals showed no difference. However, when related to unit muscle mass, work was normal in hyperthyroid hearts and 26% lower after isoproterenol. Contractile function per unit myocardium (developed pressure/g wet weight) was lower in the hypertrophied hearts. ATP content was the same in all groups. Creatine phosphate decreased 41% after triiodothyronine and 25% after isoproterenol. Inorganic phosphate levels and intracellular pH were similar in control and isoproterenol-treated rat hearts, but were higher in the hyperthyroid rat hearts. The phosphorylation potential and the free energy change of ATP hydrolysis were lowered by hypertrophy, the levels correlating with the depressed contractile function. At each ischemic flow rate, both work and contractile function per unit myocardium were the same for all hearts, but the relations between flow and phosphorylation potential were different for each type of heart. Thus, at low flow rates, hypertrophied hearts perform the same amount of work and have the same contractile function as control hearts, but with abnormal changes in energy metabolism

  17. Direct Speciation of Phosphorus in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter: Solid-State 31P NMR Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, Stefan; Cho, Herman M.; Sims, James T.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2004-02-01

    Amending poultry litter (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P) in the litter and in runoff from fields that have received PL applications; it has therefore been suggested as a best management practice. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated on a macroscopic scale in the field, little is known about P speciation in either alumamended or unamended litter. This knowledge is important for the evaluation of the long-term stability and bioavailability of P, which is a necessary prerequisite for the assessment of the sustainability of intensive poultry operations. Both solid state MAS and CP-MAS {sup 31}P NMR as well as {sup 31}P({sup 27}Al) TRAPDOR were used to investigate P speciation in alumamended and unamended PL. The results indicate the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic orthophosphate phases. A calcium phosphate phase, probably a surface precipitate on calcium carbonate, could be identified in both unamended and alum-amended PL, as well as physically bound HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Phosphate associated with Al was found in the alum-amended PL, most probably a mixture of a poorly ordered wavellite and phosphate surface complexes on aluminum hydroxide that had been formed by the hydrolysis of alum. However, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic phosphate species could not be resolved. Phosphate associated with Al comprised on average 40{+-}14% of the total P in alum-amended PL, whereas calcium phosphate phases comprised on average 7{+-}4% in the alum-amended PL and 14{+-}5% in the unamended PL.

  18. In vivo effects of photosynthesis inhibitors in Synechococcus as determined by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, W.J.; Gleason, F.K.

    1987-05-05

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from darkened cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Resonance peaks were assigned to intracellular pools of sugar-phosphates, inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), nucleotides, and polyphosphate. An internal pH of 7.2 was estimated from the chemical shift of the P/sub i/ resonance. Cells were then illuminated at 1600 ..mu..E m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ photosynthetically active radiation by a fiber optic cable immersed in the cell sample. Spectra obtained after approximately 15 min of illumination showed an increase in nucleotide pools and an increase in the cytoplasmic pH to 7.6. In the presence of 0.3 mM dinitrophenol (DNP), an uncoupler of phosphorylation, spectra of illuminated cells showed an immediate decline in nucleotide pools while sugar-phosphate levels remained constant. Addition of the photosystem II (PS II) electron-transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) (7.2 ..mu..M) did not affect nucleotide levels in the cells during the time course of the experiment (15-30 min). However, an abrupt rise in the resonance in the sugar-phosphate region was noted. Spectra of DCMU-treated cells extracts indicated that one metabolite was principally responsible for the change in pool size. The metabolite was identified as 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Spectra of illuminated cells were also obtained in the presence of the natural herbicide cyanobacterin. Unlike results obtained with DNP or DCMU, spectra of cyanobacterin-treated cells showed no major changes in nucleotide or sugar-phosphate resonances. A slow decline in cytoplasmic pH was seen in the presence of cyanobacterin, indicating that the natural product affects the proton pumping mechanism in PS II.

  19. On Neglecting Chemical Exchange Effects When Correcting in Vivo 31P MRS Data for Partial Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    Signal acquisition in most MRS experiments requires a correction for partial saturation that is commonly based on a single exponential model for T1 that ignores effects of chemical exchange. We evaluated the errors in 31P MRS measurements introduced by this approximation in two-, three-, and four-site chemical exchange models under a range of flip-angles and pulse sequence repetition times (TR) that provide near-optimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In two-site exchange, such as the creatine-kinase reaction involving phosphocreatine (PCr) and γ-ATP in human skeletal and cardiac muscle, errors in saturation factors were determined for the progressive saturation method and the dual-angle method of measuring T1. The analysis shows that these errors are negligible for the progressive saturation method if the observed T1 is derived from a three-parameter fit of the data. When T1 is measured with the dual-angle method, errors in saturation factors are less than 5% for all conceivable values of the chemical exchange rate and flip-angles that deliver useful SNR per unit time over the range T1/5 ≤ TR ≤ 2T1. Errors are also less than 5% for three- and four-site exchange when TR ≥ T1*/2, the so-called "intrinsic" T1's of the metabolites. The effect of changing metabolite concentrations and chemical exchange rates on observed T1's and saturation corrections was also examined with a three-site chemical exchange model involving ATP, PCr, and inorganic phosphate in skeletal muscle undergoing up to 95% PCr depletion. Although the observed T1's were dependent on metabolite concentrations, errors in saturation corrections for TR = 2 s could be kept within 5% for all exchanging metabolites using a simple interpolation of two dual-angle T1 measurements performed at the start and end of the experiment. Thus, the single-exponential model appears to be reasonably accurate for correcting 31P MRS data for partial saturation in the presence of chemical exchange. Even in systems where

  20. 31P-NMR analysis of congestive heart failure in the SHHF/Mcc-facp rat heart.

    PubMed

    Michael O'Donnell, J; Narayan, P; Bailey, M Q; Abduljalil, A M; Altschuld, R A; McCune, S A; Robitaille, P M

    1998-02-01

    31P-NMR was used to monitor myocardial bioenergetics in compensated and failing SHHF/MCC-fa(cp) (SHF) rat hearts. The SHHF/Mcc-fa(cp) (spontaneous hypertension and heart failure) rat is a relatively new genetic model in which all individuals spontaneously develop congestive heart failure, most during the second year of life. Failing SHF rat hearts displayed a pronounced decrease in resting PCr:ATP ratios (P<0.001), which was explained by a significant (P<0. 0001) drop in total creatine (47.2+/-3.1 nmol/mg protein) v age matched controls (106+/-3 nmol/mg protein). In end stage failure, NMR determined PCr was 2.9+/-0.1 micro mol/g wet weight under basal conditions. In contrast, 6- and 20-month-old controls and compensated SHFs had PCr values of 5.3+/-0.1, and 5.1+/-0.5 and 5. 1+/-0.2 micro mol/g wet weight. Both compensated and failing SHF hearts were metabolically compromised when the rate pressure product (RPP) was increased, as evidenced by an increase in Pi and a drop in PCr. Compensated SHF hearts, however, were able to increase rate pressure products (RRP, mmHg X beats/min) from 44.5+/-1.4 to 66.6+/-3. 4 K with dobutamine infusion, whereas hearts in end-stage failure were able to increase their RPP from baseline values of 27+/-4 K to only 37+/-7 K. The data indicate that a pronounced decline in PCr and total creatine signals the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to decompensation and failure in the SHF rat model of hypertensive cardiomyopathy. PMID:9515000

  1. Modulation of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate 31P-NMR resonance positions by red cell membrane shape.

    PubMed

    Fossel, E T; Solomon, A K

    1976-06-17

    Na+ transport in the red cells of the dog is dependent on cell volume, a 20% change in cell volume leading to a 25-fold increase in apparent Na+ flux; the effect is dependent upon metabolic energy. We have found that swelling and shrinking dog red cells causes a shift in the 31P-NMR peak of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, which is present in dog red cells at 5.5 mM. Control experiments indicate that the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate resonance peak shifts may not be attributed to: interaction with hemoglobin, changes in cell pH, ionic strength, diamagnetic susceptibility or small changes in the Mg2+/2,3-diphosphoglycerate ratio. Experiments with chlorpromazine and pentanol which alter red cell membrane area by a mechanism different from osmotic swelling suggest that 2,3-diphosphoglycerate interacts with a binding site in the cell that is dependent upon the physical condition of the dog red cell membrane. PMID:1276226

  2. Phospholipid fingerprints of milk from different mammalians determined by 31P NMR: towards specific interest in human health.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Cyrielle; Lutz, Norbert W; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Armand, Martine; Bernard, Monique

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to identify and quantify phospholipids in milk from different species (human HM, cow CoM, camel CaM, and mare MM) using an optimised (31)P NMR spectroscopy procedure. The phospholipid fingerprints were species-specific with a broader variety of classes found in HM and MM; HM and CaM were richer in sphingomyelin (78.3 and 117.5μg/ml) and plasmalogens (27.3 and 24μg/ml), possibly important for infant development. Total phospholipid content was higher in CaM (0.503mM) and lower in MM (0.101mM) compared to HM (0.324mM) or CoM (0.265mM). Our optimised method showed good sensitivity, high resolution, and easy sample preparation with minimal loss of target molecules. It is suitable for determining the accurate composition of a large number of bioactive phospholipids with putative health benefits, including plasmalogens, and should aid in selecting appropriate ingredient sources for infant milk substitutes or fortifiers, and for functional foods dedicated to adults. PMID:22953921

  3. 13C/31P NMR studies on the role of glucose transport/phosphorylation in human glycogen supercompensation.

    PubMed

    Price, T B; Laurent, D; Petersen, K F

    2003-05-01

    This study measured muscle glycogen during a 7-day carbohydrate loading protocol. Twenty healthy subjects (12 male, 8 female) performed 1 hr treadmill/toe-raise exercise immediately before a 3-day low carbohydrate (LoCHO) diet (20 % carbohydrate, 60 % fat, 20 % protein). On day 3 they repeated the exercise and began a 4-day high carbohydrate (HiCHO) diet (90 % carbohydrate, 2 % fat, 8 % protein). The order of administration of the diet was reversed in a subpopulation (n = 3). Interleaved natural abundance 13C/ 31P NMR spectra were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and each day during the controlled diets in order to determine concentrations of glycogen (GLY), glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), and muscle pH. Following exercise, muscle GLY and pH were reduced (p < 0.001) while muscle G6P was elevated (p

  4. Use of superfused rat skeletal muscle for metabolic studies: assessment of pH by 31P n.m.r.

    PubMed Central

    Meynial-Denis, D; Mignon, M; Foucat, L; Bonnet, Y; Bielicki, G; Renou, J P; Lacourt, P; Lacourt, A; Arnal, M

    1993-01-01

    We developed a muscle superfusion system suitable for metabolic studies of small isolated rat muscle ex vivo in real time and in a non-destructive manner by n.m.r. spectroscopy. In order to determine biochemical stability of superfused extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle (from fasted 45 and 100 g rats), the energy state and the pH of muscle were continuously monitored by 31P n.m.r. spectroscopy. ATP and phosphocreatine remained stable during 2 h whatever the muscle size (20 or 45 mg). Neither metabolite was a sensitive probe of possible metabolic compartmentation within muscle under our experimental conditions. By contrast, the chemical shift of Pi by its sensitivity to pH was a discriminant factor in the assessment of muscle stability. Indeed, heterogeneity of pH was observed only in the 45 mg EDL muscle resulting from a core region with loss of glycogen. Together, these observations suggest deviations of energy metabolism to supply ATP. Consequently, pH may be considered as a new real-time criterion for monitoring a metabolic heterogeneity due to changes in energy metabolism of muscle preparations ex vivo. Images Figure 1 PMID:8343121

  5. ¹¹³Cd NMR experiments reveal an unusual metal cluster in the solution structure of the yeast splicing protein Bud31p.

    PubMed

    van Roon, Anne-Marie M; Yang, Ji-Chun; Mathieu, Daniel; Bermel, Wolfgang; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Neuhaus, David

    2015-04-13

    Establishing the binding topology of structural zinc ions in proteins is an essential part of their structure determination by NMR spectroscopy. Using (113)Cd NMR experiments with (113)Cd-substituted samples is a useful approach but has previously been limited mainly to very small protein domains. Here we used (113)Cd NMR spectroscopy during structure determination of Bud31p, a 157-residue yeast protein containing an unusual Zn3Cys9 cluster, demonstrating that recent hardware developments make this approach feasible for significantly larger systems. PMID:25703931

  6. 113Cd NMR Experiments Reveal an Unusual Metal Cluster in the Solution Structure of the Yeast Splicing Protein Bud31p**

    PubMed Central

    van Roon, Anne-Marie M; Yang, Ji-Chun; Mathieu, Daniel; Bermel, Wolfgang; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Neuhaus, David

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the binding topology of structural zinc ions in proteins is an essential part of their structure determination by NMR spectroscopy. Using 113Cd NMR experiments with 113Cd-substituted samples is a useful approach but has previously been limited mainly to very small protein domains. Here we used 113Cd NMR spectroscopy during structure determination of Bud31p, a 157-residue yeast protein containing an unusual Zn3Cys9 cluster, demonstrating that recent hardware developments make this approach feasible for significantly larger systems. PMID:25703931

  7. {sup 31}P NMR analysis of coal moieties bearing -OH, -NH, and -SH functions. Quarterly report, June 1, 1991--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a convenient, reliable and rapid NMR method for the determination of labile-hydrogen functional groups and organic sulfur compounds which are components of coal and coal-derived materials. For this purpose, the former functional groups, including water molecules, are derivatized with reagents containing NMR-active nuclei such as {sup 31}P or {sup 119}Sn, while sulfur groups are derivatized with {sup 195}Pt NMR tagging reagents. Knowledge of the heteroatom composition of coals is necessary for the development of increasingly sophisticated coal processing technologies.

  8. sup 31 P NMR saturation-transfer study of the in situ kinetics of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase

    SciTech Connect

    Masiakos, P.T.; Williams, G.D.; Berkich, D.A.; Smith, M.B.; LaNoue, K.F. )

    1991-08-27

    The exchange of intramitochondrial ATP (ATP{sub in}) for extramitochondrial ATP (ATP{sub out}) was measured by using {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy over a range of temperatures in isolated rat liver mitochondria oxidizing glutamate and succinate in the presence of external ATP but no added ADP (state 4). The rate of this exchange is more than an order of magnitude faster than rates reported previously that were determined by using isotopic techniques in the presence of oligomycin, the potent ATPase inhibitor. Differences are ascribed in part to the low levels of matrix ATP present in oligomycin-treated mitochondrial. Intramitochondrial ATP content regulates the rate of the ATP{sub in}/ATP{sub out} exchange. At 18C, the concentration of internal ATP that produces half-maximal transport rate is 6.6{plus minus}0.12 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein. The relationship between substrate concentration and flux is sigmoidal and is 90% saturated at 11.3{plus minus}0.18 nmol/mg of mitochondrial protein. Since the measured rates of exchange of ATP{sub in} for ATP{sub out} are almost 10 times faster than the ATP synthase (ATP/P{sub i}) exchange rates, the translocase cannot limit net ATP/P{sub i} exchange in state 4. It may, nonetheless, limit net synthesis of ATP under other conditions when matrix ATP concentration is lower than in state 4 and when external ADP is present at higher concentrations than in these experiments.

  9. The effect of ethanol on hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in biopolyol produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of loblolly pine: (31)P-NMR and (19)F-NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Celikbag, Yusuf; Via, Brian K; Adhikari, Sushil; Buschle-Diller, Gisela; Auad, Maria L

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the role of ethanol and temperature on the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in biopolyol produced from hydrothermal liquefaction of loblolly pine (Pinus spp.) carried out at 250, 300, 350 and 390°C for 30min. Water and water/ethanol mixture (1/1, wt/wt) were used as liquefying solvent in the HTL experiments. HTL in water and water/ethanol is donated as W-HTL and W/E-HTL, respectively. It was found that 300°C and water/ethanol solvent was the optimum liquefaction temperature and solvent, yielding up to 68.1wt.% bio-oil and 2.4wt.% solid residue. (31)P-NMR analysis showed that biopolyol produced by W-HTL was rich in phenolic OH while W/E-HTL produced more aliphatic OH rich biopolyols. Moreover, biopolyols with higher hydroxyl concentration were produced by W/E-HTL. Carbonyl groups were analyzed by (19)F-NMR, which showed that ethanol reduced the concentration of carbonyl groups. PMID:27126078

  10. Assessment of Preparation Methods for Organic Phosphorus Analysis in Phosphorus-Polluted Fe/Al-Rich Haihe River Sediments Using Solution 31P-NMR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Shan, Baoqing; Zhang, Hong; Tang, Wenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Fe/Al-rich river sediments that were highly polluted with phosphorus (P) were used in tests to determine the optimum preparation techniques for measuring organic P (Po) using solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR). The optimum pre-treatment, extraction time, sediment to solution ratio and sodium hydroxide-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) extractant solution composition were determined. The total P and Po recovery rates were higher from freeze- and air-dried samples than from fresh samples. An extraction time of 16 h was adequate for extracting Po, and a shorter or longer extraction time led to lower recoveries of total P and Po, or led to the degradation of Po. An ideal P recovery rate and good-quality NMR spectra were obtained at a sediment:solution ratio of 1∶10, showing that this ratio is ideal for extracting Po. An extractant solution of 0.25 M NaOH and 50 mM EDTA was found to be more appropriate than either NaOH on its own, or a more concentrated NaOH-EDTA mixture for 31P-NMR analysis, as this combination minimized interference from paramagnetic ions and was appropriate for the detected range of Po concentrations. The most appropriate preparation method for Po analysis, therefore, was to extract the freeze-dried and ground sediment sample with a 0.25 M NaOH and 50 mM EDTA solution at a sediment:solution ratio of 1∶10, for 16 h, by shaking. As lyophilization of the NaOH-EDTA extracts proved to be an optimal pre-concentration method for Po analysis in the river sediment, the extract was lyophilized as soon as possible, and analyzed by 31P-NMR. PMID:24143192

  11. Phosphorus speciation in agro-industrial byproducts: sequential fractionation, solution (31)P NMR, and P K- and L(2,3)-edge XANES spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Negassa, Wakene; Kruse, Jens; Michalik, Dirk; Appathurai, Narayana; Zuin, Lucia; Leinweber, Peter

    2010-03-15

    Little is known about P species in agro-industrial byproducts from developing countries, which may be either pollutants or valuable soil amendments. The present study speciated P in dry (COD) and wet (COW) coffee, sisal (SIS), barley malt (BEB) and sugar cane processing (FIC) byproducts, and filter cakes of linseed (LIC) and niger seed (NIC)with sequential fractionation, solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and P K- and L(2,3)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The sequential P fractionation recovered 59% to almost 100% of total P (P(t)), and more than 50% of P(t) was extracted by H(2)O and NaHCO(3) in five out of seven samples. Similarly, the NaOH + EDTA extraction for solution (31)P NMR recovered 48-94% of P(t). The (31)P NMR spectra revealed orthophosphate (6-81%), pyrophosphate (0-10%), and orthophosphate monoesters (6-94%). Orthophosphate predominated in COD, COW, SIS, and FIC, whereas BEB, UC, and NIC were rich in orthophosphate monoesters. The concentrations of P(i), and P(o) determined in the sequential and NaOH + EDTA extractions and (31)P NMR spectra were strongly and positively correlated (r = 0.88-1.00). Furthermore, the P K- and L(2,3)-edge XANES confirmed the H(2)SO(4)--P(i) detected in the sequential fractionation by unequivocal identification of Ca--P phases in a few samples. The results indicate that the combined use of all four analytical methods is crucial for comprehensive P speciation in environmental samples and the application of these byproducts to soil. PMID:20146464

  12. Vacuolar glyphosate-sequestration correlates with glyphosate resistance in ryegrass (Lolium spp.) from Australia, South America, and Europe: a 31P NMR investigation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xia; d'Avignon, D André; Ackerman, Joseph J H; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio; Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Hall, Erin L; Sammons, R Douglas; Preston, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Lolium spp., ryegrass, variants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Italy showing differing levels of glyphosate resistance were examined by (31)P NMR. Extents of glyphosate (i) resistance (LD(50)), (ii) inhibition of 5-enopyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity (IC(50)), and (iii) translocation were quantified for glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) Lolium multiflorum Lam. variants from Chile and Brazil. For comparison, LD(50) and IC(50) data for Lolium rigidum Gaudin variants from Italy were also analyzed. All variants showed similar cellular uptake of glyphosate by (31)P NMR. All GR variants showed glyphosate sequestration within the cell vacuole, whereas there was minimal or no vacuole sequestration in the GS variants. The extent of vacuole sequestration correlated qualitatively with the level of resistance. Previous (31)P NMR studies of horseweed ( Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist) revealed that glyphosate sequestration imparted glyphosate resistance. Data presented herein suggest that glyphosate vacuolar sequestration is strongly contributing, if not the major contributing, resistance mechanism in ryegrass as well. PMID:22224711

  13. Modeling Ti/Ge Distribution in LiTi2-xGex(PO4)3 NASICON Series by (31)P MAS NMR and First-Principles DFT Calculations.

    PubMed

    Diez-Gómez, Virginia; Arbi, Kamel; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-08-01

    Ti/Ge distribution in rhombohedral LiTi2-xGex(PO4)3 NASICON series has been analyzed by (31)P magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Nuclear magnetic resonance is an excellent probe to follow Ti/Ge disorder, as it is sensitive to the atomic scale environment without long-range periodicity requirements. In the samples considered here, PO4 units are surrounded by four Ti/Ge octahedra, and then, five different components ascribed to P(OTi)4, P(OTi)3(OGe), P(OTi)2(OGe)2, P(OTi)(OGe)3, and P(OGe)4 environments are expected in (31)P MAS NMR spectra of R3̅c NASICON samples. However, (31)P MAS NMR spectra of analyzed series display a higher number of signals, suggesting that, although the overall symmetry remains R3̅c, partial substitution causes a local decrement in symmetry. With the aid of first-principles DFT calculations, 10 detected (31)P NMR signals have been assigned to different Ti4-nGen arrangements in the R3 subgroup symmetry. In this assignment, the influence of octahedra of the same or different R2(PO4)3 structural units has been considered. The influence of bond distances, angles and atom charges on (31)P NMR chemical shieldings has been discussed. Simulation of the LiTi2-xGex(PO4)3 series suggests that detection of 10 P environments is mainly due to the existence of two oxygen types, O1 and O2, whose charges are differently affected by Ge and Ti occupation of octahedra. From the quantitative analysis of detected components, a random Ti/Ge distribution has been deduced in next nearest neighbor (NNN) sites that surround tetrahedral PO4 units. This random distribution was supported by XRD data displaying Vegard's law. PMID:27373306

  14. Interaction of Lipopolysaccharide and Phospholipid in Mixed Membranes: Solid-State 31P-NMR Spectroscopic and Microscopic Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kaoru; Inaba, Takehiko; Morigaki, Kenichi; Brandenburg, Klaus; Seydel, Ulrich; Kusumoto, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which constitutes the outermost layer of Gram-negative bacterial cells as a typical component essential for their life, induces the first line defense system of innate immunity of higher animals. To understand the basic mode of interaction between bacterial LPS and phospholipid cell membranes, distribution patterns were studied by various physical methods of deep rough mutant LPS (ReLPS) of Escherichia coli incorporated in phospholipid bilayers as simple models of cell membranes. Solid-state 31P-NMR spectroscopic analysis suggested that a substantial part of ReLPS is incorporated into 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid bilayers when multilamellar vesicles were prepared from mixtures of these. In egg L-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg-PC)-rich membranes, ReLPS undergoes micellization. In phosphatidylethanolamine-rich membranes, however, micellization was not observed. We studied by microscopic techniques the location of ReLPS in membranes of ReLPS/egg-PC (1:10 M/M) and ReLPS/egg-PC/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) (1:9:1 M/M/M). The influence of ReLPS on the physicochemical properties of the membranes was studied as well. Microscopic images of both giant unilamellar vesicles and supported planar lipid bilayers showed that LPS was uniformly incorporated in the egg-PC lipid bilayers. In the egg-PC/POPG (9:1 M/M) lipid bilayers, however, ReLPS is only partially incorporated and becomes a part of the membrane in a form of aggregates (or as mixed aggregates with the lipids) on the bilayer surface. The lipid lateral diffusion coefficient measurements at various molar ratios of ReLPS/egg-PC/POPG indicated that the incorporated ReLPS reduces the diffusion coefficients of the phospholipids in the membrane. The retardation of diffusion became more significant with increasing POPG concentrations in the membrane at high ReLPS/phospholipid ratios. This work demonstrated that the phospholipid composition has critical

  15. Interaction Study of an Amorphous Solid Dispersion of Cyclosporin A in Poly-Alpha-Cyclodextrin with Model Membranes by 1H-, 2H-, 31P-NMR and Electron Spin Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Bourbon, Fréderic; Lahiani-Skiba, Malika; Skiba, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The properties of an amorphous solid dispersion of cyclosporine A (ASD) prepared with the copolymer alpha cyclodextrin (POLYA) and cyclosporine A (CYSP) were investigated by 1H-NMR in solution and its membrane interactions were studied by 1H-NMR in small unilamellar vesicles and by 31P 2H NMR in phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) in comparison with those of POLYA and CYSP alone. 1H-NMR chemical shift variations showed that CYSP really interacts with POLYA, with possible adduct formation, dispersion in the solid matrix of the POLYA, and also complex formation. A coarse approach to the latter mechanism was tested using the continuous variations method, indicating an apparent 1 : 1 stoichiometry. Calculations gave an apparent association constant of log Ka = 4.5. A study of the interactions with phospholipidic dispersions of DMPC showed that only limited interactions occurred at the polar head group level (31P). Conversely, by comparison with the expected chain rigidification induced by CYSP, POLYA induced an increase in the fluidity of the layer while ASD formation led to these effects almost being overcome at 298 K. At higher temperature, while the effect of CYSP seems to vanish, a resulting global increase in chain fluidity was found in the presence of ASD. PMID:24883210

  16. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: Insights from solid-state (13)C NMR and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Zhu, Yuanrong; Meng, Wei; He, Zhongqi; Feng, Weiying; Zhang, Chen; Giesy, John P

    2016-02-01

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions and degradation of WEOM derived from six aquatic macrophytes species of Tai Lake, China, were investigated by use of solid-state (13)C NMR and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were the predominant constituents of WEOM fractions, followed by carboxylic acid. Orthophosphate (ortho-P) was the dominant form of P (78.7% of total dissolved P) in the water extracts, followed by monoester P (mono-P) (20.6%) and little diester P (0.65%). The proportion of mono-P in total P species increased with the percentage of O-alkyl and O-C-O increasing in the WEOM, which is likely due to degradation and dissolution of biological membranes and RNA from aquatic plants. Whereas the proportion of mono-P decreased with alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O increasing, which may be owing to the insoluble compounds including C functional groups of alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O, such as aliphatic biopolymers, lignin and peptides. Based on the results of this study and information in the literature about water column and sediment, we propose that WEOM, dominated by polysaccharides, are the most labile and bioavailable component in debris of macrophytes. Additionally, these WEOMs would also be a potential source for bioavailable organic P (e.g., RNA, DNA and phytate) for lakes. PMID:26624522

  17. [31P-NMR analysis of high energy phosphorous compounds (ATP and phosphocreatine) in the living rat brain--effects of halothane anesthesia and a hypoxic condition].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, T; Miyatake, T; Kuwabara, T; Umeda, M; Eguchi, K

    1983-11-01

    31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) measurements have provided new and valuable insights for studying the metabolism of living systems. The aim of this paper is to introduce a technique of application of 31P-NMR measurements using a surface coil method, and to discuss the effects of halothane anesthesia and hypoxic hypoxia on the energetic metabolism of intact rat brains. All measurements were made using a JEOL FX 270 spectrometer with a super conducting magnet of 54-mm bore diameter. The magnetic field intensity of this machine is 6.3 tesla, and the resonance frequency used for 31P was 109.14 MHz. We remodelled an ordinary probe to take a live rat, and the animals were made to inhale anesthetic halothane or mixture of oxygen and nitrogen at various concentrations controlled by a flow regulator. The best conditions for measurements with our surface coil method were determined in this study as follows: (1) 90 degrees pulse width and selectivity, Fig. 1 shows signal selectivity in depthwise direction changed with 90 degrees pulse width, which was set to 20 microseconds. (2) Sensitivity and resolution; To obtain a spectrum of 31P-NMR from a rat brain 500 accumulations of free induction decays were considered suitable for both time and space resolution. Fig. 2 shows variations of signal intensity with pulse repetition time, which was set to 2 sec. It took about 17 min for averaging to get a spectrogram. (3) Quantitative accuracy and qualification; As shown in Fig. 3, a linear relationship was found between the signal intensity of beta-phosphate of ATP and the concentration of ATP solutions, thus proving the quantitative accuracy of our systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6661335

  18. 31P NMR lineshapes of beta-P (ATP) in the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+: estimate of exchange rates.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, K V; Ray, B D; Nageswara Rao, B D

    1984-08-01

    The 31P NMR chemical shift of beta-P of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) undergoes a substantial change (approximately 2-3 ppm) upon chelation of divalent ions such as Mg2+ or Ca2+. In the presence of nonsaturating amounts of Mg2+ or Ca2+, the lineshape of this resonance depends on the characteristic association and dissociation rates of these metal-ATP complexes. A procedure for computer simulation of this lineshape is outlined. A comparison of computer-simulated lineshapes with the experimental lineshapes obtained at 121 MHz was used to determine the following dissociation rate of Mg2+ and Ca2+ from their ATP complexes at 20 degrees C and pH 8.0: Ca2+, greater than 3 X 10(5) s-1 (Hepes buffer); Mg2+, 1200 s-1 (no buffer), 1000 s-1 (Tris buffer) and 2100 s-1 (Hepes buffer). The limits of error are +/- 10% in these values. For the Mg2+ complexes, the rates were determined as a function of temperature to obtain activation energies (with a maximum deviation of 10% in the least-squares fit): 8.1 Kcal/mole (no buffer and Hepes buffer) and 6.8 kcal/mole (Tris buffer). Lineshapes of the beta-P resonance simulated as a function of Mg2+ concentration, using 2100 s-1 for the dissociation rate, are also presented. The computer simulation of lineshapes offers a reliable and straightforward method for the determination of exchange rates of diamagnetic cations from their ATP complexes, under a variety of sample conditions. PMID:6332879

  19. Hydration behaviour of POPC/C(12)-Bet mixtures investigated by sorption gravimetry, (31)P NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Weichert, H; Klose, G; Heremans, K

    2012-02-01

    The hydration behaviour of mixtures of the zwitterionic phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleolyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and the zwitterionic surfactant N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-betain (C(12)-Bet) was investigated by sorption gravimetry, solid-state (31)P NMR-spectroscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD). Negative excess hydration (dehydration) was found for almost all hydration degrees investigated. This behaviour is explained by the formation of an inner salt between the dipoles of phospholipid and surfactant headgroups that show a reverse sequence of partial charges with respect to the hydrocarbon backbone. The formation of an inner-salt most probably reduces potential water binding sites. Moreover, NMR data suggest that the incorporation of the zwitterionic surfactant into the phospholipid membrane is correlated with reorientation of the phosphate axis towards the membrane director as well as with reduced lateral and wobbling diffusion. PMID:22285958

  20. Combined (Super 31)P and (Super 1)H NMR Experiments in the Structural Elucidation of Polynuclear Thiolate Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    A facile synthesis of two gold(I) complexes with 1,2-benzenedithiolate ligand and two different bidentate phosphines are described. A detailed sequence of NMR experiments is suggested to determine the structure of the compounds.

  1. Studies of uptake and suppresion of Mn/sup 2 +/ migration in highly vacuolated sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L) cells by /sup 31/P NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, C.; Bligny, R.; Douce, R.; Pfeffer, P.E.

    1987-04-01

    Recent /sup 31/P NMR studies have demonstrated that Mn/sup 2 +/ appears to invade the cells of heterogeneous excised tissue of corn root tips sequentially, first entering the cytoplasmic compartment, where it complexes with nucleotides and P/sub i/. Under aerobic conditions, further migration across the tonoplast, followed by vacoule trapping was visualized through paramagnetic broadening of the vacoular P/sub i/ resonance. Cultured cells such as Acer pseudoplatanus L offer better opportunities for studying cellular activity by /sup 31/P NMR because of their homogeneity and uniformly rapid response to various metabolic disturbances. In contrast to excised root tissue, Mn/sup 2 +/ showed no measurable accumulation in the cytoplasmic compartments of these cells under aerobic conditions. However, a rapid crossing of the large tonoplast resulted in immediate vacuolar metal ion sequestration. Anoxia did not foster leakage of Mn/sup 2 +/ from the vacuole to the cytoplasm, while hypoxia completely halted all movement of Mn/sup 2 +/ across the plasmalema. This disparity in terms of cell and tissue morphology, membrane permeability and possible tissue trapping of metal ions will be discussed.

  2. Coupling of Li motion and structural distortions in olivine LiMnPO4 from 7Li and 31P NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudisch, Christian; Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Geck, Jochen; Partzsch, Sven; Zimmermann, M. v.; Wizent, Nadja; Klingeler, Rüdiger; Büchner, Bernd

    2013-08-01

    We present a detailed 7Li- and 31P-NMR study on single crystalline LiMnPO4 in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase (AFM, TN˜34 K). This allows us to determine the spin directions in the field-induced spin-flop phase. In addition, the anisotropic dipolar hyperfine coupling tensor of the 7Li and 31P nuclei is also fully determined by orientation and temperature-dependent NMR experiments and compared to the calculated values from crystal structure data. Deviations of the experimental values from the theoretical ones are discussed in terms of Mn disorder which is induced by Li disorder. In fact, the disorder in the Mn sublattice is directly revealed by diffuse x-ray scattering data. The present results provide experimental evidence for the Li diffusion strongly coupling to structural distortions within the MnPO4 host, which is expected to significantly affect the Li mobility as well as the performance of batteries based on this material.

  3. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-02-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ.

  4. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae.

    PubMed

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on (31)P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  5. On the use of 31P NMR for the quantification of hydrosoluble phosphorus-containing compounds in coral host tissues and cultured zooxanthellae

    PubMed Central

    Godinot, Claire; Gaysinski, Marc; Thomas, Olivier P.; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Grover, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was assessed to investigate the phosphorus-containing compounds present in the tissues of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata as well as of cultured zooxanthellae (CZ). Results showed that phosphorus-containing compounds observed in CZ were mainly phosphate and phosphate esters. Phosphate accounted for 19 ± 2% of the total phosphorus compounds observed in CZ maintained under low P-levels (0.02 μM). Adding 5 mM of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (KH2PO4) to the CZ culture medium led to a 3.1-fold increase in intracellular phosphate, while adding 5 mM of dissolved organic phosphorus led to a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus compounds, including a 2.5-fold intracellular phosphate decrease. In sharp contrast to zooxanthellae, the host mainly contained phosphonates, and to a lesser extent, phosphate esters and phosphate. Two-months of host starvation decreased the phosphate content by 2.4 fold, while bleaching of fed corals did not modify this content. Based on 31P NMR analyses, this study highlights the importance of phosphonates in the composition of coral host tissues, and illustrates the impact of phosphorus availability on the phosphorus composition of host tissues and CZ, both through feeding of the host and inorganic phosphorus enrichment of the CZ. PMID:26902733

  6. Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Viability and Metabolism in a Fluidized-Bed Bioartificial Liver Using 31P and 13C NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Rex E.; Gamcsik, Michael P.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Pediaditakis, Peter; Tikunov, Andrey P.; Young, Gregory B.; Lee, Haakil; Watkins, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Many oxygen mass-transfer modeling studies have been performed for various bioartificial liver (BAL) encapsulation types; yet, to our knowledge, there is no experimental study that directly and noninvasively measures viability and metabolism as a function of time and oxygen concentration. We report the effect of oxygen concentration on viability and metabolism in a fluidized-bed NMR-compatible BAL using in vivo 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy, respectively, by monitoring nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) and 13C-labeled nutrient metabolites, respectively. Fluidized-bed bioreactors eliminate the potential channeling that occurs with packed-bed bioreactors and serve as an ideal experimental model for homogeneous oxygen distribution. Hepatocytes were electrostatically encapsulated in alginate (avg. diameter, 500 μm; 3.5×107 cells/mL) and perfused at 3 mL/min in a 9-cm (inner diameter) cylindrical glass NMR tube. Four oxygen treatments were tested and validated by an in-line oxygen electrode: (1) 95:5 oxygen:carbon dioxide (carbogen), (2) 75:20:5 nitrogen:oxygen:carbon dioxide, (3) 60:35:5 nitrogen:oxygen:carbon dioxide, and (4) 45:50:5 nitrogen:oxygen:carbon dioxide. With 20% oxygen, β-NTP steadily decreased until it was no longer detected at 11 h. The 35%, 50%, and 95% oxygen treatments resulted in steady β-NTP levels throughout the 28-h experimental period. For the 50% and 95% oxygen treatment, a 13C NMR time course (∼5 h) revealed 2-13C-glycine and 2-13C-glucose to be incorporated into [2-13C-glycyl]glutathione (GSH) and 2-13C-lactate, respectively, with 95% having a lower rate of lactate formation. 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy is a noninvasive method for determining viability and metabolic rates. Modifying tissue-engineered devices to be NMR compatible is a relatively easy and inexpensive process depending on the bioreactor shape. PMID:22835003

  7. In vivo /sup 31/P NMR studies of corn root tissue and its uptake of toxic metals. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, P.E.; Tu, S.I.; Gerasimowicz, W.V.; Cavanaugh, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Excised corn root tissue has been evaluated for its viability, integrity of compartmentation, intracellular pH gradients, total mobile phosphorus content and nucleotide concentrations under different levels of acidity, and mineral stresses using in vivo /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 21 to 23/sup 0/C. Perfusion with Al/sup 3 +/ ion at low pH (4.0) for 20 hours caused the overall concentration of nucleotides in the cytoplasm to decrease significantly relative to the control. Respiratory activity as measured by O/sub 2/ uptake decreased by a comparable amount over this time period. The addition of glucose to the Al-containing perfusate negated the inhibitory effects on the respiratory system. Treatment of the tissue with paramagnetic manganese ion while perfusing in the presence of O/sub 2/ allowed for the observation of the sequence of events leading to the irreversible trapping of Mn/sup 2 +/ in the vacuole. Pretreatment of the roots with Mg/sup 2 +/ prevented Mn/sup 2 +/ migration to the vacuole over the time period of this experiment. Hypoxia prevented all but a limited uptake of Mn/sup 2 +/ into the cytoplasm of the root tips. No evidence of Mn/sup 2 +/ complexation of either cytoplasmic or vacuole Pi suggests that the energy derived from O/sub 2/ consuming processes is necessary for the facilitated movement of this divalent cation.

  8. Combining solid-state and solution-state 31P NMR to study in vivo phosphorus metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Cholli, A L; Yamane, T; Jelinski, L W

    1985-01-01

    Otherwise unavailable information concerning the distribution of phosphorylated compounds in biological systems is obtained by a combined solid-state/solution-state NMR approach, illustrated here for oocytes from Rana pipiens. General methodology is developed, and further extensions are proposed. The following conclusions pertain to the specific system under examination. (i) Nucleoside phosphates can be observed by magic-angle sample spinning of the lyophilized material. (ii) The solid-state NMR technique of dipolar decoupling provides no additional resolution of the phospholipid and phosphoprotein components of the yolk. However, cellular death produces sufficient pH changes to cause the phospholipid and protein phosphate peaks to become resolvable. The concentration of nucleoside phosphates also decreases. (iii) The phospholipid and phosphoprotein components are shown by computer simulation to be present in a ratio of 40:60, respectively. (iv) The amounts of inorganic phosphate, nucleoside phosphates, and sugar phosphates are determined by solution-state NMR observation of the perchloric acid extract of the oocytes. PMID:3871524

  9. Determination of glucan phosphorylation using heteronuclear 1H, 13C double and 1H, 13C, 31P triple-resonance NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Peter; Nitschke, Felix; Steup, Martin; Mallow, Keven; Specker, Edgar

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of starch and glycogen are important for their physicochemical properties and also their physiological functions. It is therefore desirable to reliably determine the phosphorylation sites. Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR-spectroscopy is in principle a straightforward analytical approach even for complex carbohydrate molecules. With heterogeneous samples from natural sources, however, the task becomes more difficult because a full assignment of the resonances of the carbohydrates is impossible to obtain. Here, we show that the combination of heteronuclear (1) H,(13) C and (1) H,(13) C,(31) P techniques and information derived from spectra of a set of reference compounds can lead to an unambiguous determination of the phosphorylation sites even in heterogeneous samples. PMID:23913630

  10. 31P NMR analysis of intracellular pH of Swiss Mouse 3T3 cells: effects of extracellular Na+ and K+ and mitogenic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Civan, M M; Williams, S R; Gadian, D G; Rozengurt, E

    1986-01-01

    Swiss mouse 3T3 cells grown on microcarrier beads were superfused with electrolyte solution during continuous NMR analysis. Conventional 31P and 19F probes of intracellular pH (pHc) were found to be impracticable. Cells were therefore superfused with 1 to 4 mM 2-deoxyglucose, producing a large intracellular, pH-sensitive signal of 2-deoxyglucose phosphate (2DGP). The intracellular incorporation of 2DGP inhibited the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. However, intracellular ATP was at least in part retained and the cellular responsivity to changes in extracellular ionic composition and to the application of growth factors proved intact. Transient replacement of external Na+ with choline or K+ reversibly acidified the intracellular fluids. Quiescent cells and mitogenically stimulated cells displayed the same dependence of shifts in pHc on external Na+ concentration (CoNa). PHc also depended on intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa). Increasing ccNa by withdrawing external K+ (thereby inhibiting the Na,K-pump) caused reversible intracellular acidification; subsequently reducing CoNa produced a larger acid shift in pHc than with external K+ present. Comparison of separate preparations indicated that pHc was higher in stimulated than in quiescent cells. Transient administration of mitogens also reversibly alkalinized quiescent cells studied continuously. This study documents the feasibility of monitoring pHc of Swiss mouse 3T3 cells using 31P NMR analysis of 2DGP. The results support the concept of a Na/H antiport operative in these cells, both in quiescence and after mitogenic stimulation. The data document by an independent technique that cytoplasmic alkalinization is an early event in mitogenesis, and that full activity of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway is not required for the expression of this event. PMID:3543375

  11. Studies of vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen selective oxidation catalysts by sup 31 P and sup 51 V NMR spin-echo and volume susceptibility measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juan.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the vanadium-phosphorous oxide (V-P-O) catalysts for the selective oxidation of n-butane and 1-butene to maleic anhydride. The utility of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance as an analytical tool in this investigation lies in its sensitivity to the electronic environment surrounding the phosphorous and vanadium nuclei, and proximity of paramagnetic species. Spin-echo mapping NMR of {sup 31}p and {sup 51}v and volume magnetic susceptibility measurements were used as local microscopic probes of the presence of V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+}, V{sup 3+} species in the model compounds: {beta}-VOPO{sub 4}, {beta}-VOPO{sub 4} treated with n-butane/1-butene, (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} treated with n-butane/1-butene; and industrial catalysts with P/V (phosphorus to vanadium) ratio of 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1, before and after treatment with n-butane and 1-butene. The NMR spectra provide a picture of how the oxidation states of vanadium are distributed in these catalysts. 73 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Singlet-triplet separations measured by [sup 31]P[l brace][sup 1]H[r brace] NMR: Applications to quadruply bonded dimolybdenum and ditungsten complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, F.A.; Eglin, J.L.; Bo Hong; James, C.A. )

    1993-05-12

    A series of quadruply bonded dimolybdenum and ditungsten compounds M[sub 2]X[sub 4](PP)[sub 2] (M = Mo, W; PP = bidentate phosphine ligands; X = Cl, Br, I) with internal rotational angles [chi] varying from 0.0 to 69.4[degrees] have been studied. Their [sup 31]P[l brace][sup 1]H[r brace] NMR spectra are characterized by their temperature-dependent shifts and line widths that broaden with increasing temperature. A nonlinear, least-squares fit of this temperature dependence of the paramagnetic shifts for their NMR signals allows the evaluation of the singlet-triplet energy separation ([minus]2J), the diamagnetic shift (H[sub dia]), and the electron-nucleus hyperfine coupling constant (A). The singlet-triplet energy separations for all the compounds investigated are found to be in the range 1200-3000 cm[sup [minus]1]. It is now clearly established that the ground state remains [sup 1]A[sub 1g] ([delta][sup 2]) even at [chi] = 45[degrees], where [sup 3]A[sub 2u] ([delta][delta]*) lies 1230 cm[sup [minus]1] above it. The [delta]-bond energy and electronic [delta]-barrier can also be experimentally estimated as 13.8[+-]0.5 kcal mol[sup [minus]1] and 10.3[+-]0.5 kcal mol[sup [minus]1], respectively. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Solid state 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy and conductivity measurements on NbOPO4 and H3PO4 composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risskov Sørensen, Daniel; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Skou, Eivind M.

    2014-11-01

    A systematic study of composite powders of niobium oxide phosphate (NbOPO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) has been performed in order to characterize the material's ability to perform as an electrolyte material in medium temperature fuel cells and electrolyzers. Powders of H3PO4 contents between 13.1 and 74.2 M% were produced and characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, 31P MAS NMR and impedance spectroscopy. NMR revealed that a significant degree of dehydration and vaporization of H3PO4 takes place above 200 °C, and increases with temperature. At 500 °C the NbOPO4 and H3PO4 has reacted to form niobium pyrophosphate (Nb2P4O15). Impedance spectroscopy showed an increase in conductivity with increasing acid concentration, whereas the conductivity decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The highest conductivity measured was 2.5·10-3 S/cm for a sample containing 74.2 M% of H3PO4. Lastly, it was shown that NbOPO4 has no significant conductivity of its own.

  14. Outcome-related metabolomic patterns from 1H/31P NMR after mild hypothermia treatments of oxygen–glucose deprivation in a neonatal brain slice model of asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Litt, Lawrence; Segal, Mark R; Kelly, Mark J S; Yoshihara, Hikari A I; James, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Human clinical trials using 72 hours of mild hypothermia (32°C–34°C) after neonatal asphyxia have found substantially improved neurologic outcomes. As temperature changes differently modulate numerous metabolite fluxes and concentrations, we hypothesized that 1H/31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of intracellular metabolites can distinguish different insults, treatments, and recovery stages. Three groups of superfused neonatal rat brain slices underwent 45 minutes oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) and then were: treated for 3 hours with mild hypothermia (32°C) that began with OGD, or similarly treated with hypothermia after a 15-minute delay, or not treated (normothermic control group, 37°C). Hypothermia was followed by 3 hours of normothermic recovery. Slices collected at different predetermined times were processed, respectively, for 14.1 Tesla NMR analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) cell-death quantification, and superoxide production. Forty-nine NMR-observable metabolites underwent a multivariate analysis. Separated clustering in scores plots was found for treatment and outcome groups. Final ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels, severely decreased at normothermia, were restored equally by immediate and delayed hypothermia. Cell death was decreased by immediate hypothermia, but was equally substantially greater with normothermia and delayed hypothermia. Potentially important biomarkers in the 1H spectra included PCr-1H (phosphocreatine in the 1H spectrum), ATP-1H (adenosine triphosphate in the 1H spectrum), and ADP-1H (adenosine diphosphate in the 1H spectrum). The findings suggest a potential role for metabolomic monitoring during therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20717124

  15. Outcome-related metabolomic patterns from 1H/31P NMR after mild hypothermia treatments of oxygen-glucose deprivation in a neonatal brain slice model of asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Litt, Lawrence; Segal, Mark R; Kelly, Mark J S; Yoshihara, Hikari A I; James, Thomas L

    2011-02-01

    Human clinical trials using 72 hours of mild hypothermia (32°C-34°C) after neonatal asphyxia have found substantially improved neurologic outcomes. As temperature changes differently modulate numerous metabolite fluxes and concentrations, we hypothesized that (1)H/(31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of intracellular metabolites can distinguish different insults, treatments, and recovery stages. Three groups of superfused neonatal rat brain slices underwent 45 minutes oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and then were: treated for 3 hours with mild hypothermia (32°C) that began with OGD, or similarly treated with hypothermia after a 15-minute delay, or not treated (normothermic control group, 37°C). Hypothermia was followed by 3 hours of normothermic recovery. Slices collected at different predetermined times were processed, respectively, for 14.1 Tesla NMR analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) cell-death quantification, and superoxide production. Forty-nine NMR-observable metabolites underwent a multivariate analysis. Separated clustering in scores plots was found for treatment and outcome groups. Final ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels, severely decreased at normothermia, were restored equally by immediate and delayed hypothermia. Cell death was decreased by immediate hypothermia, but was equally substantially greater with normothermia and delayed hypothermia. Potentially important biomarkers in the (1)H spectra included PCr-(1)H (phosphocreatine in the (1)H spectrum), ATP-(1)H (adenosine triphosphate in the (1)H spectrum), and ADP-(1)H (adenosine diphosphate in the (1)H spectrum). The findings suggest a potential role for metabolomic monitoring during therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20717124

  16. Catalytic mechanism of α-phosphate attack in dUTPase is revealed by X-ray crystallographic snapshots of distinct intermediates, 31P-NMR spectroscopy and reaction path modelling

    PubMed Central

    Barabás, Orsolya; Németh, Veronika; Bodor, Andrea; Perczel, András; Rosta, Edina; Kele, Zoltán; Zagyva, Imre; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince I.; Wilmanns, Matthias; Vértessy, Beáta G.

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of nucleoside phosphate compounds play a key role in various biological pathways, like signal transduction, DNA synthesis and metabolism. Although these processes have been studied extensively, numerous key issues regarding the chemical pathway and atomic movements remain open for many enzymatic reactions. Here, using the Mason–Pfizer monkey retrovirus dUTPase, we study the dUTPase-catalyzed hydrolysis of dUTP, an incorrect DNA building block, to elaborate the mechanistic details at high resolution. Combining mass spectrometry analysis of the dUTPase-catalyzed reaction carried out in and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulation, we show that the nucleophilic attack occurs at the α-phosphate site. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy (31P-NMR) analysis confirms the site of attack and shows the capability of dUTPase to cleave the dUTP analogue α,β-imido-dUTP, containing the imido linkage usually regarded to be non-hydrolyzable. We present numerous X-ray crystal structures of distinct dUTPase and nucleoside phosphate complexes, which report on the progress of the chemical reaction along the reaction coordinate. The presently used combination of diverse structural methods reveals details of the nucleophilic attack and identifies a novel enzyme–product complex structure. PMID:23982515

  17. Catalytic mechanism of α-phosphate attack in dUTPase is revealed by X-ray crystallographic snapshots of distinct intermediates, 31P-NMR spectroscopy and reaction path modelling.

    PubMed

    Barabás, Orsolya; Németh, Veronika; Bodor, Andrea; Perczel, András; Rosta, Edina; Kele, Zoltán; Zagyva, Imre; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince I; Wilmanns, Matthias; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2013-12-01

    Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of nucleoside phosphate compounds play a key role in various biological pathways, like signal transduction, DNA synthesis and metabolism. Although these processes have been studied extensively, numerous key issues regarding the chemical pathway and atomic movements remain open for many enzymatic reactions. Here, using the Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus dUTPase, we study the dUTPase-catalyzed hydrolysis of dUTP, an incorrect DNA building block, to elaborate the mechanistic details at high resolution. Combining mass spectrometry analysis of the dUTPase-catalyzed reaction carried out in and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulation, we show that the nucleophilic attack occurs at the α-phosphate site. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy ((31)P-NMR) analysis confirms the site of attack and shows the capability of dUTPase to cleave the dUTP analogue α,β-imido-dUTP, containing the imido linkage usually regarded to be non-hydrolyzable. We present numerous X-ray crystal structures of distinct dUTPase and nucleoside phosphate complexes, which report on the progress of the chemical reaction along the reaction coordinate. The presently used combination of diverse structural methods reveals details of the nucleophilic attack and identifies a novel enzyme-product complex structure. PMID:23982515

  18. 31P MAS-NMR study of flux-grown rare-earth element orthophosphate (monazite/xenotime) solid solutions: Evidence of random cation distribution from paramagnetically shifted NMR resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Palke, A. C.; Stebbins, J. F.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2013-01-01

    We present 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectra of flux-grown solid solutions of La1-xCexPO4 ( x between 0.027 and 0.32) having the monoclinic monazite structure, and of Y1-xMxPO4 (M = Vn+, Ce3+, Nd3+, x between 0.001 and 0.014) having the tetragonal zircon structure. Paramagnetically shifted NMR resonances are observed in all samples due to the presence of paramagnetic Vn+, Ce3+, and Nd3+ in the diamagnetic LaPO4 or YPO4. As a first-order observation, the number and relative intensity of these peaks is related to the symmetry and structure of the diamagnetic host phase. The presence of paramagnetic shifts allows for increased resolution between NMR resonances for distinct atomic species which leads to the observation of low intensity peaks related to PO4 species having more than one paramagnetic neighbor two or four atomic bonds away. Through careful analysis of peak areas and comparison with predictions for simple models, it was determined that solid solutions in the systems examined here are characterized by complete disorder (random distribution) of diamagnetic La3+ or Y3+ with the paramagnetic substitutional species Ce3+ and Nd3+. The increased resolution given by the paramagnetic interactions also leads to the observation of splitting of specific resonances in the 31P NMR spectra that may be caused by local, small-scale distortions from the substitution of ions having dissimilar ionic radii.

  19. /sup 31/P NMR saturation-transfer measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization of phosphate exchange reactions by iodoacetate and antimycin A inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell-Burk, S.L.; Jones, K.A.; Shulman, R.G.

    1987-11-17

    /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) saturation-transfer (ST) techniques have been used to measure steady-state flows through phosphate-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) exchange reactions in glucose-grown derepressed yeast. The results have revealed that the reactions catalyzed by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphoglycerate kinase (GAPDH/PGK) and by the mitochondrial ATPase contribute to the observed ST. Contributions from these reactions were evaluated by performing ST studies under various metabolic conditions in the presence and absence of either iodoacetate, a specific inhibitor of GAPDH, or the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin A. Intracellular phosphate (P/sub i/) longitudinal relaxation times were determined by performing inversion recovery experiments during steady-state ATP/sub lambda/ saturation and were used in combination with ST data to determine P/sub i/ consumption rates. /sup 13/C NMR and O/sub 2/ electrode measurements were also conducted to monitor changes in rates of glucose consumption and O/sub 2/ consumption, respectively, under the various metabolic conditions examined. The results suggest that GAPDH/PGK-catalyzed P/sub i/-ATP exchange is responsible for antimycin-resistant saturation transfer observed in anaerobic and aerobic glucose-fed yeast. Kinetics through GAPDH/PGK were found to depend on metabolic conditions. The coupled system appears to operate in a unidirectional manner during anaerobic glucose metabolism and bidirectionally when the cells are respiring on exogenously supplied ethanol. Additionally, mitochondrial ATPase activity appears to be responsible for the transfer observed in iodoacetate-treated aerobic cells supplied with either glucose or ethanol, with synthesis of ATP occurring unidirectionally.

  20. Skeletal muscle intracellular pH and levels of high energy phosphates during hypercapnia in intact lizards by /sup 31/P NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.C.; Hitzig, B.M.; Elmden, K.; McFarland, E.; Koutcher, J.; Kazemi, H.

    1986-03-05

    Lizards have been shown to reduce ventilation during CO/sub 2/ breathing. This is thought to be detrimental to the maintenance of intracellular pH (pHi) and levels of high energy phosphates. The authors subjected chameleons (n=4) to 5% CO/sub 2/ breathing and made serial measurements of tail (skeletal) muscle pHi, levels of phosphocreatine (PCr), and ATP utilizing high resolution /sup 31/P NMR. pHi was unchanged from controls (7.27 +/- 0.06 units) (mean +/- SE) during 30 minutes of hypercapnia (7.19 +/- 0.09 units) (p>.2) demonstrating effective regulation of skeletal muscle pHi; however, there were significant decreases in the PCr/ATP ratios to 65% +/- 5% (p<.05) of control. The reduced PCr/ATP ratio does not appear due to decreased O/sub 2/ availability because there were no increases in the levels of glycolytic intermediates and inorganic phosphate which would indicate tissue hypoxia. It is possible that an active process requiring ATP is required for the maintenance of pHi in the presence of hypercapnia and that the reduction of PCr/ATP ratio is a reflection of an increased utilization of ATP.

  1. Uptake of metal ions by a new chelating ion exchange resin. Part 3: Protonation constants via potentiometric titration and solid state [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Rickert, P.G.; Muntean, J.V.; Alexandratos, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new chelating ion exchange resin which incorporates methylenediphosphonate, carboxylate, and sulfonate functional groups in a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix has been prepared. This resin exhibits exceptionally high affinity for polyvalent cations even from moderately acidic aqueous media. Metal ion coordination occurs primarily at the diphosphonate group with the secondary binding sites contributing to charge neutralization when necessary and possible, and to increasing hydrophilicity of the resin pores. In the present investigation, the protonation equilibria of the phosphonate groups in the resin are investigated via potentiometric titration and solid-state [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy of the resin. Intrinsic equilibrium constants for the first two diphosphonate protonation reactions are pK[sub 4] = 10.47 and pK[sub 3] = 7.24. The last two protons added to the diphosphonate group are acidic having pK[sub a] values less than 2.5. These protonation constants are consistent with those reported previously for monomer analog 1,1-diphosphonic acids. This result implies that thermodynamic data available in the literature can be used to predict the relative affinity of the resin for polyvalent cations. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Thin-layer chromatography combined with MALDI-TOF-MS and 31P-NMR to study possible selective bindings of phospholipids to silica gel.

    PubMed

    Teuber, Kristin; Riemer, Thomas; Schiller, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is a highly established separation method in the field of lipid and (particularly) phospholipid (PL) research. HPTLC is not only used to identify certain lipids in a mixture but also to isolate lipids (preparative TLC). To do this, the lipids are separated and subsequently re-eluted from the silica gel. Unfortunately, it is not yet known whether all PLs are eluted to the same extent or whether some lipids bind selectively to the silica gel. It is also not known whether differences in the fatty acyl compositions affect the affinities to the stationary phase. We have tried to clarify these questions by using a readily available extract from hen egg yolk as a selected example of a lipid mixture. After separation, the complete lanes or selected spots were eluted from the silica gel and investigated by a combination of MALDI-TOF MS and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The data obtained were compared with the composition of the total extract (without HPTLC). Although there were significant, solvent-dependent losses in the amount of each lipid, the relative composition of the mixture remained constant; there were also only very slight changes in the fatty acyl compositions of the individual PL classes. Therefore, lipid isolation by TLC may be used without any risk of major sample alterations. PMID:20694807

  3. [sup 31]P and [sup 27]Al NMR investigations of the effects of pH on aqueous solutions containing aluminum and phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Mortlock, R.F.; Bell, A.T.; Radke, C.J. Univ. of California, Berkeley )

    1993-01-21

    [sup 31]P and [sup 27]Al NMR spectroscopies are used to characterize the distribution of soluble aluminophosphate species in aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium (TMA) hydroxide, phosphoric acid, and aluminum chloride. Solution compositions range from 0.1 to 1 mol % P, P/Al = 0.1-5, P/(TMA)[sub 2]O = 0.37-10. For solutions of 1 mol % P, a phase diagram is constructed for various concentrations of TMAOH and Al. The phase diagram is divided into three regions: a high-pH region (pH [ge] 6), a medium-pH range (2 [le] pH [le] 10) in which stable solid phases exist, and a low-pH region (pH [le] 2). In the low-pH region, soluble aluminophosphate complexes form between P species (H[sub 3]PO[sub 4] acid dimers, H[sub 3]PO[sub 4] molecules, and H[sub 2]PO[sub 4][sup [minus

  4. Early estrogen-induced metabolic changes and their inhibition by actinomycin D and cycloheximide in human breast cancer cells: sup 31 P and sup 13 C NMR studies

    SciTech Connect

    Neeman, M.; Degani, H. )

    1989-07-01

    Metabolic changes following estrogen stimulation and the inhibition of these changes in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide were monitored continuously in perfused human breast cancer T47D clone 11 cells with {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C NMR techniques. The experiments were performed by estrogen rescue of tamoxifen-treated cells. Immediately after perfusion with estrogen-containing medium, a continuous enhancement in the rates of glucose consumption, lactate production by glycolysis, and glutamate synthesis by the Krebs cycle occurred with a persistent 2-fold increase at 4 hr. Pretreatment with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, at concentrations known to inhibit mRNA and protein synthesis, respectively, and simultaneous treatment with estrogen and each inhibitor prevented the estrogen-induced changes in glucose metabolism. This suggested that the observed estrogen stimulation required synthesis of mRNA and protein. These inhibitors also modulated several metabolic activities that were not related to estrogen stimulation. The observed changes in the in vivo kinetics of glucose metabolism may provide a means for the early detection of the response of human breast cancer cells to estrogen versus tamoxifen treatment.

  5. Effect of sugars on headgroup mobility in freeze-dried dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers: solid-state 31P NMR and FTIR studies.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkova, N M; Phillips, B L; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H; Risbud, S H

    1998-12-01

    The effect of the carbohydrates trehalose, glucose, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on the motional properties of the phosphate headgroup of freeze-dried dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes was studied by means of 31P NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that trehalose, which is a strong glass former (Tg = 115 degreesC), elevates the onset of the lipid headgroup rotations and preserves some rotational mobility of the phosphate headgroups after cooling from the liquid-crystalline state. Glucose (Tg = 30 degreesC), a very effective depressant of the phase transition temperature of freeze-dried DPPC, markedly elevates the initiation of the temperature of headgroup rotations. On the other hand, the monosaccharide does not preserve the headgroup disordering when cooled from the liquid-crystalline state. These effects are consistent with formation of hydrogen bonds between the OH groups of the sugar and the polar headgroups of DPPC. They show, however, that hydrogen bonding is not sufficient for preservation of the dynamic properties of freeze-dried DPPC. HES, although a very good glass former (Tg > 110 degreesC), does not depress the phase transition temperature and affects only slightly the rotational properties of freeze-dried DPPC. This lack of effect of HES is associated with the absence of direct interactions with the lipid phosphates, as evidenced by the FTIR results. These data show that vitrification of the additive is not sufficient to affect the dynamic properties of dried DPPC. PMID:9826615

  6. Centerband-only analysis of rotor-unsynchronized spin echo for measurement of lipid (31) P chemical shift anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Umegawa, Yuichi; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Murata, Michio; Matsuoka, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Structural diversity and molecular flexibility of phospholipids are essential for biological membranes to play key roles in numerous cellular processes. Uncovering the behavior of individual lipids in membrane dynamics is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying biological functions of cell membranes. In this paper, we introduce a simple method to investigate dynamics of lipid molecules in multi-component systems by measuring the (31) P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. For achieving both signal separation and CSA determination, we utilized a centerband-only analysis of rotor-unsynchronized spin echo (COARSE). This analysis is based on the curve fitting of periodic modulation of centerband intensity along the interpulse delay time in rotor-unsynchronized spin-echo experiments. The utility of COARSE was examined by using phospholipid vesicles, a three-component lipid raft model system, and archaeal purple membranes. We found that the apparent advantages of this method are high resolution and high sensitivity given by the moderate MAS speed and the one-dimensional acquisition with short spin-echo delays. COARSE provides an alternative method for CSA measurement that is effective in the investigation of lipid polymorphologies. PMID:26017552

  7. Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy: A dose-dependent subchronic study

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2012-11-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup −}) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179–188]. However, ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH{sup −} and ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton ({sup 1}H) and {sup 31}phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH{sup −} deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH{sub 2}-) and FAMEs) were

  8. Solid state {sup 31}P MAS NMR spectroscopy and conductivity measurements on NbOPO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Risskov Sørensen, Daniel; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Skou, Eivind M.

    2014-11-15

    A systematic study of composite powders of niobium oxide phosphate (NbOPO{sub 4}) and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) has been performed in order to characterize the material's ability to perform as an electrolyte material in medium temperature fuel cells and electrolyzers. Powders of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} contents between 13.1 and 74.2 M% were produced and characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, {sup 31}P MAS NMR and impedance spectroscopy. NMR revealed that a significant degree of dehydration and vaporization of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} takes place above 200 °C, and increases with temperature. At 500 °C the NbOPO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has reacted to form niobium pyrophosphate (Nb{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 15}). Impedance spectroscopy showed an increase in conductivity with increasing acid concentration, whereas the conductivity decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The highest conductivity measured was 2.5·10{sup −3} S/cm for a sample containing 74.2 M% of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Lastly, it was shown that NbOPO{sub 4} has no significant conductivity of its own. - Graphical abstract: Conductivity of NbOPO{sub 4}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} composites as a function of equivalent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} content. The conductivity is insignificant for pure NbOPO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Composites have been made from NbOPO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • The composites composition has been investigated with solid state NMR. • The composites have shown clear signs of acid dehydration upon heating. • The conductivity of the composites increases for increasing acid content. • NbOPO{sub 4} has no significant conductivity of its own.

  9. 31P magic angle spinning NMR study of flux-grown rare-earth element orthophosphate (monazite/xenotime) solid solutions: evidence of random cation distribution from paramagnetically shifted NMR resonances.

    PubMed

    Palke, Aaron C; Stebbins, Jonathan F; Boatner, Lynn A

    2013-11-01

    We present (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of flux-grown solid solutions of La(1-x)Ce(x)PO4 (x between 0.027 and 0.32) having the monoclinic monazite structure, and of Y(1-x)M(x)PO4 (M = V(n+), Ce(3+), Nd(3+), x between 0.001 and 0.014) having the tetragonal zircon structure. Paramagnetically shifted NMR resonances are observed in all samples due to the presence of paramagnetic V(n+), Ce(3+), and Nd(3+) in the diamagnetic LaPO4 or YPO4. As a first-order observation, the number and relative intensities of these peaks are related to the symmetry and structure of the diamagnetic host phase. The presence of paramagnetic shifts allows for increased resolution between NMR resonances for distinct atomic species which leads to the observation of low intensity peaks related to PO4 species having more than one paramagnetic neighbor two or four atomic bonds away. Through careful analysis of peak areas and comparison with predictions for simple models, it was determined that solid solutions in the systems examined here are characterized by complete disorder (random distribution) of diamagnetic La(3+) or Y(3+) with the paramagnetic substitutional species Ce(3+) and Nd(3+). The increased resolution given by the paramagnetic interactions also leads to the observation of splitting of specific resonances in the (31)P NMR spectra that may be caused by local, small-scale distortions from the substitution of ions having dissimilar ionic radii. PMID:24131129

  10. 31P NMR 2D Mapping of Creatine Kinase Forward Flux Rate in Hearts with Postinfarction Left Ventricular Remodeling in Response to Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Cui, Weina; Zhang, Pengyuan; Jang, Albert; Zhu, Wuqiang; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a fast 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 2-dimensional chemical shift imaging (2D-CSI) method, this study examined the heterogeneity of creatine kinase (CK) forward flux rate of hearts with postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Immunosuppressed Yorkshire pigs were assigned to 4 groups: 1) A sham-operated normal group (SHAM, n = 6); 2) A 60 minutes distal left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and reperfusion (MI, n = 6); 3) Open patch group; ligation injury plus open fibrin patch over the site of injury (Patch, n = 6); and 4) Cell group, hiPSCs-cardiomyocytes, -endothelial cells, and -smooth muscle cells (2 million, each) were injected into the injured myocardium pass through a fibrin patch (Cell+Patch, n = 5). At 4 weeks, the creatine phosphate (PCr)/ATP ratio, CK forward flux rate (Flux PCr→ATP), and k constant of CK forward flux rate (kPCr→ATP) were severely decreased at border zone myocardium (BZ) adjacent to MI. Cell treatment results in significantly increase of PCr/ATP ratio and improve the value of kPCr→ATP and Flux PCr→ATP in BZ myocardium. Moreover, the BZ myocardial CK total activity and protein expression of CK mitochondria isozyme and CK myocardial isozyme were significantly reduced, but recovered in response to cell treatment. Thus, cell therapy results in improvement of BZ bioenergetic abnormality in hearts with postinfarction LV remodeling, which is accompanied by significantly improvements in BZ CK activity and CK isozyme expression. The fast 2D 31P MR CSI mapping can reliably measure the heterogeneity of bioenergetics in hearts with post infarction LV remodeling. PMID:27606901

  11. Structural investigations of silicate-phosphate glasses containing MoO3 by FTIR, Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Szumera, M

    2014-09-15

    Molybdenum is a transition metal (refers to the "d" block of the periodic table) whose atom has an incomplete d sub-shell. It is known that in silicate glasses molybdenum may exist under four oxidation states: Mo6+, Mo5+, Mo4+ and Mo3+, simultaneously molybdenum cations, depending on their content in the glass network, may either be a glass forming component, or act as a modifier. The contemporary literature data show studies conducted mostly on the structure of silicate, phosphate, borate and borosilicate glasses containing molybdenum ions, but not silicate-phosphate glasses. Therefore, the author has undertaken detailed studies using FTIR, Raman and 31P MAS NMR techniques in order to examine the effect of MoO3 addition into the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses from SiO2P2O5K2OCaOMgO system. On the basis of obtained results it was concluded that molybdenum ions in the analysed glasses act as a modifier, which follows from the gradual breakage of oxygen bridges, i.e. POP, SiOSi, and SiOP, and the following formation of connections such as Mo[MoO4]OSi and/or Mo[MoO4]OP. In summary, it is concluded that the increase of MoO3 content (up to 4.4 mol.%) in the structure of glasses of SiO2P2O5K2OMgOCaO system results in weakening of the structure and gradual increase of the degree of silico-oxygen and phosphor-oxygen frameworks depolymerisation. PMID:24759778

  12. Influence of muscle temperature during fatiguing work with the first dorsal interosseous muscle in man: a 31P-NMR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wade, A J; Broadhead, M W; Cady, E B; Llewelyn, M E; Tong, H N; Newham, D J

    2000-02-01

    Six healthy subjects rapidly lifted and lowered a small (250 g) weight with the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) of one hand while the work performed was recorded continuously until fatigue (defined as losing the ability to continue lifting). Work was recorded in units of chart recorder trace displacement from baseline (centimeters) as an isotonic transducer followed the movement of the weight. In all experiments, the temperature of the hand was first adjusted by immersion in a controlled-temperature water bath. In the warmest condition, the skin surface temperature over the FDI was 30.5(0.30) degrees C [mean (SE)]. After moderate cooling, this surface temperature was 21.5(0.16) degrees C. Cooling significantly reduced the time taken to reach fatigue and more than halved the work capacity. An intermediate degree of cooling was also used in four subjects, showing that most of the effects seen were changing incrementally. Before work, and at fatigue, intracellular metabolic conditions in the FDI were studied by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy, with occlusion of the blood flow maintained during measurements. The mean intracellular pH of the FDI was also calculated. The changes observed were all consistent with the fact that intense work requires energy which must be derived largely from intracellular stores of phosphocreatine and glycogen. Less work made less demand upon reserves, and created lower concentrations of waste products and by-products. The observations did not, however, allow us to explain why fatigue occurred at a particular point or why work capacity was reduced by cooling. PMID:10638378

  13. Constraints on the structure and dynamics of the β-cristobalite polymorphs of SiO2 and AlPO4 from 31P, 27Al and 29Si NMR spectroscopy to 770 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Brian L.; Thompson, John G.; Xiao, Yuehui; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data are presented for the cristobalite polymorphs of AlPO4 and SiO2 from RT to 770 K, through their respective α- β transitions. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data include chemical shifts for 31P, 27Al, and 29Si, 27Al quadrupole coupling parameters, and 31P and 27Al spin-lattice relaxation rates. Also presented are electron diffraction patterns of β-cristobalite AlPO4 that show diffuse scattering similar to that reported previously for SiO2. For the α-phases of both AlPO4 and SiO2, the chemical shifts decrease approximately linearly with increasing temperature from RT to Tc and discontinuously by -2 to -3 ppm from α to β. This result is consistent with a small, continuous increase in the mean T-O-T angle (<θ>) of the α-phases with increasing T and an increase of <θ> by about 4° across the α- β transition for both cristobalite and its AlPO4 analogue. Based on the 29Si chemical shifts, the mean Si-O-Si angle for β-cristobalite is 152.7±1° near Tc. For AlPO4-cristobalite, the 27Al nuclear quadrupole coupling constant (CQ) decreases approximately linearly from 1.2 MHz at RT to 0.94 MHz near Tc (493±10 K). At the α- β transition the 27Al CQ approaches zero, in agreement with the cubic average structure observed by diffraction. The satellite transitions retain a small frequency distribution above the α- β transition from electric field gradients attributed to defects. The short-range cubic symmetry of the Al-site and non-linear Al-O-P angle support a dynamically disordered model of the β-cristobalite structure. Complete averaging of the 27Al quadrupole coupling in the β-phase indicates that the lifetime of any short-range ordered domains must be shorter than about 1 μs.

  14. Theoretical Studies on the Fe-M Interactions and 31P NMR in Fe(CO)3(EtPhPpy)2MX2 (X = NCS, SCN, Cl; M = Zn, Cd, Hg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-xuan; Xu, Xuan; Xie, Mei-xiang

    2008-10-01

    To study the Fe-M interactions and their effects on 31P NMR, the structures of Fe(CO)3(EtPhPpy)2 1, Fe(CO)3(EtPhPpy)2M(NCS)2 (2: M = Zn, 3: M = Cd, 4: M = Hg) and Fe(CO)3(EtPhPpy)2CdX2 (5: X = C1, 6: X = SCN) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) PBE0 method. The stabilities S of complexes follow S(2)>S(3)>S(4) and S(3)approxS(6)>S(5), indicating that 6 is stable and may be synthesized. The complexes with thiocyanate are more stable than that with chloride in Fe(CO)3(EtPhPpy)2CdX2. The strength / of Fe-M interactions follows I(2)approxI(3)31P chemical shifts are caused (compared with mononuclear complex 1).

  15. Muscle metabolism and activation heterogeneity by combined 31P chemical shift and T2 imaging, and pulmonary O2 uptake during incremental knee-extensor exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Daniel T.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Whipp, Brian J.; Ward, Susan A.; McIntyre, Dominick J.; Ladroue, Christophe; Griffiths, John R.; Kemp, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of skeletal muscle substrate depletion, metabolite accumulation, and fatigue during large muscle-mass exercise is not well understood. Measurement of intramuscular energy store degradation and metabolite accumulation is confounded by muscle heterogeneity. Therefore, to characterize regional metabolic distribution in the locomotor muscles, we combined 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging, and T2-weighted imaging with pulmonary oxygen uptake during bilateral knee-extension exercise to intolerance. Six men completed incremental tests for the following: 1) unlocalized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and 2) spatial determination of 31P metabolism and activation. The relationship of pulmonary oxygen uptake to whole quadriceps phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) was inversely linear, and three of four knee-extensor muscles showed activation as assessed by change in T2. The largest changes in [PCr], [inorganic phosphate] ([Pi]) and pH occurred in rectus femoris, but no voxel (72 cm3) showed complete PCr depletion at exercise cessation. The most metabolically active voxel reached 11 ± 9 mM [PCr] (resting, 29 ± 1 mM), 23 ± 11 mM [Pi] (resting, 7 ± 1 mM), and a pH of 6.64 ± 0.29 (resting, 7.08 ± 0.03). However, the distribution of 31P metabolites and pH varied widely between voxels, and the intervoxel coefficient of variation increased between rest (∼10%) and exercise intolerance (∼30–60%). Therefore, the limit of tolerance was attained with wide heterogeneity in substrate depletion and fatigue-related metabolite accumulation, with extreme metabolic perturbation isolated to only a small volume of active muscle (<5%). Regional intramuscular disturbances are thus likely an important requisite for exercise intolerance. How these signals integrate to limit muscle power production, while regional “recruitable muscle” energy stores are presumably still available, remains uncertain. PMID:23813534

  16. The solubilisation of boar sperm membranes by different detergents - a microscopic, MALDI-TOF MS, 31P NMR and PAGE study on membrane lysis, extraction efficiency, lipid and protein composition

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Detergents are often used to isolate proteins, lipids as well as "detergent-resistant membrane domains" (DRMs) from cells. Different detergents affect different membrane structures according to their physico-chemical properties. However, the effects of different detergents on membrane lysis of boar spermatozoa and the lipid composition of DRMs prepared from the affected sperm membranes have not been investigated so far. Results Spermatozoa were treated with the selected detergents Pluronic F-127, sodium cholate, CHAPS, Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Brij 96V. Different patterns of membrane disintegration were observed by light and electron microscopy. In accordance with microscopic data, different amounts of lipids and proteins were released from the cells by the different detergents. The biochemical methods to assay the phosphorus and cholesterol contents as well as 31P NMR to determine the phospholipids were not influenced by the presence of detergents since comparable amounts of lipids were detected in the organic extracts from whole cell suspensions after exposure to each detergent. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry applied to identify phospholipids was essentially disturbed by the presence of detergents which exerted particular suppression effects on signal intensities. After separation of the membrane fractions released by detergents on a sucrose gradient only Triton X-100 and sodium cholate produced sharp turbid DRM bands. Only membrane solubilisation by Triton X-100 leads to an enrichment of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine in a visible DRM band accompanied by a selective accumulation of proteins. Conclusion The boar sperm membranes are solubilised to a different extent by the used detergents. Particularly, the very unique DRMs isolated after Triton X-100 exposure are interesting candidates for further studies regarding the architecture of sperm. PMID

  17. Characteristics and assessment of biogenic phosphorus in sediments from the multi-polluted Haihe River, China, using phosphorus fractionation and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. Q.; Zhang, H.; Tang, W. Z.; Shan, B. Q.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the phosphorus (P) pollution, as described by concentrations, distribution and transformation potential, of sediments of the water scarce and heavily polluted Fuyang River, a tributary of the Haihe River, using P fractionation and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR).The sediments of the Fuyang River accumulate significant amounts of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and organic phosphorus (Po) from industrial and domestic wastewater and agricultural non-point pollution. In terms of their contribution to total phosphorus, the rank order of the P fractions was as follows: H2SO4-P > NaOH-Pi > Res-P > NaOH-Po > KCl-P and their average relative proportions were 69.7:47.5:15.9:2.9:1.0 (the proportion was based on the average proportion of the KCl-P). Seven P compounds were detected by the 31P-NMR analysis. Orthophosphate (Ortho-P: 45.2-92.4%) and orthophosphate monoesters (mono-P: 6.6-45.7%) were the dominant forms. Smaller amounts of pyrophosphates (pyro-P: 0.1-6.6%), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA-P: 0.3-3.9%), phosphonates (phon-P: 0-3.3%), phospholipids (lipids-P: 0-2.7%) and polyphosphate (poly-P: 0-0.04%) were observed in the sediments. Results of P fractionation and 31P-NMR analysis showed that 35% of Pi was labile P, including KCl-P and NaOH-Pi (Fe-P and Al-P). Biogenic-P accounted for 24% of P in the sediments. Analysis of the relationships between P species and water quality indicated that the Po compounds would mineralize to form ortho-P and would be potentially bioavailable for recycling to surface water, supporting further growth of phytoplankton and leading to algal blooms.

  18. A sup 31 P NMR study of mitochondrial inorganic phosphate visibility: Effects of Ca sup 2+ , Mn sup 2+ , and the pH gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Williams, G.D.; Berkich, D.A.; LaNoue, K.F.; Briggs, R.W. )

    1992-02-11

    The effects of external pH, temperature, and Ca{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} concentrations on the compartmentation and NMR visibility of inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) were studied in isolated rat liver mitochondria respiring on succinate and glutamate. Mitochondrial matrix P{sub i} is totally visible by NMR at 8C and at low external concentrations of P{sub i}. However, when the external P{sub i} concentration is increased above 7 mM, the pH gradient decreases, the amount of matrix P{sub i} increases, and the fraction not observed by NMR increases. Raising the temperature to 25C also decreases the pH gradient and the P{sub i} fraction observed by NMR. At physiologically relevant concentrations, Ca{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} do not seem to play a major role in matrix P{sub i} NMR invisibility. For Ca{sup 2+} concentrations above 30 nmol/mg of protein, formation of insoluble complexes will cause loss of P{sub i} signal intensity. For Mn{sup 2+} concentrations above 2 nmol/mg of protein, the P{sub i} peak can be broadened sufficiently to preclude detection of a high-resolution signal. The results indicate that mitochondrial matrix P{sub i} should be mostly observable up to 25C by high-resolution NMR. While the exact nature of the NMR-invisible phosphate in perfused or in vivo liver is yet to be determined, better success at detecting and resolving both P{sub i} pools by NMR is indicated at high field, low temperature, and optimized pulsing conditions.

  19. 1H and 31P NMR and HPLC studies of mouse L1210 leukemia cell extracts: the effect of Au(I) and Cu(I) diphosphine complexes on the cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Berners-Price, S J; Sant, M E; Christopherson, R I; Kuchel, P W

    1991-03-01

    The effect of the antitumor complex [Au(dppe)2]Cl (where dppe is Ph2P(CH2)2PPh2) on the overall metabolism of cultured mouse L1210 leukemia cells was investigated by comparing 1H and 31P NMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts of cells incubated for 1 h in the presence and absence of 2 microM [Au(dppe)2]Cl. There were marked (ca. two-fold) increases in the levels of lactate and almost all detectable amino acids suggesting a drug-induced increase in the rate of glycolysis and inhibition of protein synthesis. The levels of taurine and phosphorylcholine were significantly decreased and 31P NMR spectra revealed a depletion of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP). The effect on nucleotide metabolism was investigated further by separating purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and precursors by anion-exchange HPLC. NTP levels were depleted by ca. 70-90% and there was a ca. three- to four-fold increase in nucleoside di- and monophosphates. The effect is postulated to be the result of uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The Cu(I) complex [Cu(Ph2PCH = CHPPh2)2]Cl produced a similar effect on the cellular metabolism but was more potent. The water-soluble complex [Cu(Ph2P(CH2)PEt2)2]Cl caused the accumulation of cellular amino acids at a concentration that did not significantly deplete ATP levels. PMID:2062226

  20. Multiple Antiferromagnetic Spin Fluctuations and Novel Evolution of Tc in Iron-Based Superconductors LaFe(As1‑xPx)(O1‑yFy) Revealed by 31P-NMR Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Takayoshi; Mukuda, Hidekazu; Uekubo, Masahiro; Engetsu, Fuko; Yashima, Mitsuharu; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Lai, Kwing To; Usui, Hidetomo; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Shigeki; Tajima, Setsuko

    2016-05-01

    We report on 31P-NMR studies of LaFe(As1‑xPx)(O1‑yFy) over wide compositions for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.14, which provide clear evidence that antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations (AFMSFs) are one of the indispensable elements for enhancing Tc. Systematic 31P-NMR measurements revealed two types of AFMSFs in the temperature evolution, that is, one is the AFMSFs that develop rapidly down to Tc with low-energy characteristics, and the other, with relatively higher energy than the former, develops gradually upon cooling from high temperature. The low-energy AFMSFs in low y (electron doping) over a wide x (pnictogen height suppression) range are associated with the two orbitals of dxz/yz, whereas the higher-energy ones for a wide y region around low x originate from the three orbitals of dxy and dxz/yz. We remark that the nonmonotonic variation of Tc as a function of x and y in LaFe(As1‑xPx)(O1‑yFy) is attributed to these multiple AFMSFs originating from degenerated multiple 3d orbitals inherent to Fe-pnictide superconductors.

  1. Supramolecular self-organisation and conformational isomerism of a binuclear O,O'-dipropyl dithiophosphate gold(I) complex, [Au2{S2P(OC3H7)2}2]: Synthesis, (13)C and (31)P CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction study and thermal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rodina, Tatyana A; Korneeva, Eugenia V; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Ivanov, Alexander V

    2015-10-01

    Crystalline one-dimensional polymeric catena-poly[bis(μ2-O,O'-dipropyldithiophosphato-S,S')digold(I)] (Au-Au) (1) was prepared and studied using (13)C and (31)P CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. To elucidate the structural function of Dtph ligands in crystalline gold(I) O,O'-dipropyl dithiophosphate, the chemical shift anisotropy parameters (δaniso and η) were calculated from spinning sideband manifolds in (31)P MAS NMR spectra. A novel structure of the gold(I) compound comprises two isomeric, non-centrosymmetric binuclear molecules of [Au2{S2P(OC3H7)2}2] (isomers 'A' and 'B'), whose four Dtph groups display structural inequivalence. In each isomeric binuclear molecule of 1, a pair of μ2-bridging dipropyl Dtph ligands almost symmetrically links two neighbouring gold atoms, forming an extensive eight-membered metallocycle [Au2S4P2], while the intramolecular aurophilic Au⋯Au bond additionally stabilises this central cyclic moiety. At the supramolecular level of complex 1, intermolecular aurophilic Au⋯Au bonds yield almost linear infinite polymeric chains (⋯'A'⋯'B'⋯'A'⋯'B'⋯)n. The thermal behaviour of this compound was studied by the simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) technique (a combination of TG and DSC) under an argon atmosphere. PMID:26004097

  2. Pyridoxal phosphate binding sites are similar in human heme-dependent and yeast heme-independent cystathionine beta-synthases. Evidence from 31P NMR and pulsed EPR spectroscopy that heme and PLP cofactors are not proximal in the human enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kabil, O; Toaka, S; LoBrutto, R; Shoemaker, R; Banerjee, R

    2001-06-01

    Two classes of cystathionine beta-synthases have been identified in eukaryotes, the heme-independent enzyme found in yeast and the heme-dependent form found in mammals. Both classes of enzymes catalyze a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent condensation of serine and homocysteine to produce cystathionine. The role of the heme in the human enzyme and its location relative to the PLP in the active site are unknown. (31)P NMR spectroscopy revealed that spin-lattice relaxation rates of the phosphorus nucleus in PLP are similar in both the paramagnetic ferric (T(1) = 6.34 +/- 0.01 s) and the diamagnetic ferrous (T(1) = 5.04 +/- 0.06 s) enzyme, suggesting that the two cofactors are not proximal to each other. This is also supported by pulsed EPR studies that do not provide any evidence for strong or weak coupling between the phosphorus nucleus and the ferric iron. However, the (31)P signal in the reduced enzyme moved from 5.4 to 2.2 ppm, and the line width decreased from 73 to 16 Hz, providing the first structural evidence for transmission to the active site of an oxidation state change in the heme pocket. These results are consistent with a regulatory role for the heme as suggested by previous biochemical studies from our laboratory. The (31)P chemical shifts of the resting forms of the yeast and human enzymes are similar, suggesting that despite the difference in their heme content, the microenvironment of the PLP is similar in the two enzymes. The addition of the substrate, serine, resulted in an upfield shift of the phosphorus resonance in both enzymes, signaling formation of reaction intermediates. The resting enzyme spectra were recovered following addition of excess homocysteine, indicating that both enzymes retained catalytic activity during the course of the NMR experiment. PMID:11278994

  3. Electrochemical lithiation/delithiation of SnP2O7 observed by in situ XRD and ex situ(7)Li/(31)P NMR, and (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bezza, Ilham; Kaus, Maximilian; Riekehr, Lars; Pfaffmann, Lukas; Doyle, Stephen; Indris, Sylvio; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Solhy, Abderrahim; Saadoune, Ismael

    2016-04-21

    SnP2O7 was prepared by a sol-gel route. The structural changes of tin pyrophosphate during the electrochemical lithiation were followed by using in situ XRD measurements that reveal the existence of a crystalline phase at the beginning of the discharge process. Nevertheless, it becomes amorphous after the full discharge as a result of a conversion reaction leading to the formation of LixSny alloys. The electrochemical tests show a high capacity with high retention upon cycling. To better understand the reaction mechanism of SnP2O7 with Li, several techniques were applied, such as ex situ(119)Sn Mössbauer and ex situ(7)Li and (31)P NMR spectroscopies with which we can follow the changes in the local environment of each element during cycling. PMID:27029601

  4. Mechanochemical and solution synthesis, X-ray structure and IR and 31P solid state NMR spectroscopic studies of copper(I) thiocyanate adducts with bulky monodentate tertiary phosphine ligands.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, Graham A; Hanna, John V; Hart, Robert D; Healy, Peter C; King, Scott P; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Skelton, Brian W; Tabacaru, Aurel; White, Allan H

    2012-07-01

    A number of adducts of copper(I) thiocyanate with bulky tertiary phosphine ligands, and some nitrogen-base solvates, were synthesized and structurally and spectroscopically characterised. CuSCN:PCy3 (1:2), as crystallized from pyridine, is shown by a single crystal X-ray study to be a one-dimensional polymer ...(Cy3P)2CuSCN(Cy3P)2CuSCN... (1) with the four-coordinate copper atoms linked end-on by S-SCN-N bridging thiocyanate groups. A second form (2), obtained from acetonitrile, was also identified and shown by IR and 31P CPMAS NMR spectroscopy to be mononuclear, with the magnitude of the dν(Cu) parameter measured from the 31P CPMAS and the ν(CN) value from the IR clearly establishing this compound as three-coordinate [(Cy3P)2CuNCS]. Two further CuSCN/PCy3 compounds CuSCN:PCy3 (1:1) (3), and CuSCN:PCy3:py (1:1:1) (4) were also characterized spectroscopically, with the dν(Cu) parameters indicating three- and four-coordinate copper sites, respectively. Attempts to obtain a 1:2 adduct with tri-t-butylphosphine have yielded, from pyridine, the 1:1 adduct as a dimer [(Bu(t)3P)((SCN)(NCS))Cu(PBu(t)3)] (5), while similar attempts with tri-o-tolylphosphine (from acetonitrile and pyridine (= L)) resulted in solvated 1:1:1 CuSCN:P(o-tol)3:L forms as dimeric [{(o-tol)3P}LCu((SCN)(NCS))CuL{P(o-tol)3}] (6 and 8). The solvent-free 1:1 CuSCN:P(o-tol)3 adduct (7), obtained by desolvation of 6, was characterized spectroscopically and dν(Cu) measurements from the 31P CPMAS NMR data are consistent with the decrease in coordination number of the copper atom from four (for 6) (P,N(MeCN)Cu,S,N) to three (for 7) (PCuS,N) upon loss of the acetonitrile of solvation. These results are compared with those previously reported for mononuclear and binuclear PPh3 adducts which demonstrate a clear tendency for the copper centre to remain four-coordinate. The IR spectroscopic measurements on these compounds show that bands in the far-IR spectra provide a much more definitive criterion for

  5. NMR crystallography: the use of chemical shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robin K.

    2004-10-01

    Measurements of chemical shifts obtained from magic-angle spinning NMR spectra (together with quantum mechanical computations of shielding) can provide valuable information on crystallography. Examples are given of the determination of crystallographic asymmetric units, of molecular symmetry in the solid-state environment, and of crystallographic space group assignment. Measurements of full tensor components for 199Hg have given additional coordination information. The nature of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in cortisone acetate polymorphs and solvates is obtained from chemical shift information, also involving measurement of the full tensor parameters. The resulting data have been used as restraints, built into the computation algorithm, in the analysis of powder diffraction patterns to give full crystal structures. A combination of quantum mechanical computation of shielding and measurement of proton chemical shifts (obtained by high-speed MAS) leads to the determination of the position of a proton in an intermolecular hydrogen bond. A recently-developed computer program specifically based on crystallographic repetition has been shown to give acceptable results. Moreover, NMR chemical shifts can distinguish between static and dynamic disorder in crystalline materials and can be used to determine modes and rates of molecular exchange motion.

  6. Solid-state distortions of nominally square-planar palladium and platinum (R sub 3 P) sub 2 MX sub 2 complexes as determined by a combination of sup 13 C( sup 1 H) and sup 31 P( sup 31 H) NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, J.A.; Nelson, J.H. ); O'Donnell, D.J.; Pamer, A.R. )

    1989-06-28

    Phosphorus-31 and carbon-13 NMR spectra have been obtained for a series of 20 (R{sub 3}P){sub 2}MX{sub 2} complexes (R{sub 3}P = MePh{sub 2}P and Me{sub 2}PhP; M = Pd, Pt; X = Cl, Br, I, CN, N{sub 3}) in the solid state by cross-polarization and magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) techniques. Comparison of these data with spectral data obtained at 300 K in CDCl{sub 3} solutions was made in order to investigate the influence of local symmetry on {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C chemical shifts in the solid state. It was found that most of these compounds, which have regular square-planar geometries in solution, are distorted in the solid state. The solid-state distortions are evidenced by additional {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C resonances in the CP/MAS spectra as compared to the solution spectra. The nature and degree of these distortions are discussed. 25 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis, X-ray structure refinement, 31P NMR spectra and vibrational study of NaLa(HPO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hassen, C.; Boujelbene, M.; Mhiri, T.

    2013-10-01

    NaLa(HPO4)2 was obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The structure of NaLa(HPO4)2 was determined by X-ray powder diffraction methods. The results of Rietveld refinement revealed a space group P21/c (No. 14), with lattice parameters of a = 9.7151(17) Å, b = 8.320(12) Å, c = 9.83(2) Å, beta = 114.65(17)°, V = 722 (8) Å3 and Z = 4. Final refinement led to RF = 4.86% and RB = 12.35%.The existence of bound O-H and bound P-O in the structure has been confirmed by IR and Raman spectroscopy. The existence of two crystallographically independent phosphorus atoms in the structure has been confirmed by NMR spectrum. The structure is characterized by LaO6 octahedra which are solely connected to six adjacent HPO4 tetrahedra via common O-corners. This structure contains twelve- and four-membered rings forming channels along [1 1¯ 1]. The cross sections of the channels are given by twelve-membered rings consisting of four lanthanum coordination octahedral and eight hydrogenphosphate groups as well as four-membered rings consisting of two lanthanum coordination octahedra and two hydrogenphosphate tetrahedra. Sodium ions are located within those channels of the twelve-membered rings.

  8. Effect of aging on phosphate metabolites of rat brain as revealed by the in vivo and in vitro sup 31 P NMR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hsiuchih; Chi, Chinwen; Liu, Tsungyun; Liu, Lianghui ); Luh, Wenming; Hsieh, Changhuain; Wu, Wenguey )

    1991-01-01

    Changes of phosphate metabolism in brains of neonate, weaning and adult rats were compared using both in vivo and in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Ratios of phosphocreatine/nucleoside triphosphate (PCr/NTP) were the same in neonatal brain in both in vivo and in vitro studies, but not in weaning and adult brains. This discrepancy may have resulted from extended cerebral hypoxia due to slowed freezing of the brain by the increased skull thickness and brain mass in the weaning and adult rats. Variations of in vitro extraction condition for this age-related study may lead to systematic errors in the adult rats. Nevertheless, the phosphomonoester/nucleoside triphosphate (PME/NTP) ratios in extracts of brain from neonatal rats were higher than those obtained in vivo. In addition, the glycerophosphorylethanolamine plus glycerophosphorylcholine/nucleoside triphosphate (GPE+GPC/NTP) ratios, which were not measurable in vivo, showed age-dependent increase in extracts of rat brain. Some of the phosphomonoester and phosphodiester molecules in rat brain may be undetectable in in vivo NMR analysis because of their interaction with cellular components. The total in vitro GPE and GPC concentration in brain from neonatal rat was estimated to be 0.34 mmole/g wet tissue.

  9. Interplay between Fe 3d and Ce 4f magnetism and Kondo interaction in CeFeAs(1-x)P(x)O probed by 75As and 31P NMR.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R; Baenitz, M; Jesche, A; Geibel, C; Steglich, F

    2012-04-01

    A detailed (31)P (I = 1/2) and (75)As (I = 3/2) NMR study on polycrystalline CeFeAs(1-x)P(x)O alloys is presented. The magnetism of CeFeAsO changes drastically upon P substitution on the As site. CeFePO is a heavy fermion system without long-range order whereas CeFeAsO exhibits an Fe 3d SDW type of ordering accompanied by a structural transition from tetragonal (TT) to orthorhombic (OT) structure. Furthermore, Ce 4f(1) orders antiferromagnetically (AFM) at low temperature. At the critical concentration where the Fe magnetism is diminished the Ce-Ce interaction changes to a ferromagnetic (FM) type of ordering. Three representative samples of the CeFeAs(1-x)P(x)O (x = 0.05, 0.3 and 0.9) series are systematically investigated. (1) For the x = 0.05 alloy a drastic change of the linewidth at 130 K indicates the AFM-SDW type of ordering of Fe and the structural change from the TT to the OT phase. The linewidth roughly measures the internal field in the ordered state and the transition is most likely first order. The small and nearly constant shift from (31)P and (75)As NMR suggests the presence of competing hyperfine interactions between the nuclear spins and the 4f and 3d ions of Ce and Fe. (2) For the x = 0.3 alloy, the evolution of the Fe-SDW type of order takes place at around 70 K corroborating the results of bulk measurement and μSR. Here we found evidence for phase separation of paramagnetic and magnetic SDW phases. (3) In contrast to the heavy fermion CeFePO for the x = 0.9 alloy a phase transition is found at 2 K. The field-dependent NMR shift gives evidence of FM ordering. Above the ordering the spin-lattice relaxation rate (31)(1/T(1)) shows unconventional, non-Korringa-like behaviour which indicates a complex interplay of Kondo and FM fluctuations. PMID:22407024

  10. The Effect of a C-Terminal Peptide of Surfactant Protein B (SP-B) on Oriented Lipid Bilayers, Characterized by Solid-State 2H- and 31P-NMR

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tran-Chin; McDonald, Mark; Morrow, Michael R.; Booth, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    SP-BCTERM, a cationic, helical peptide based on the essential lung surfactant protein B (SP-B), retains a significant fraction of the function of the full-length protein. Solid-state 2H- and 31P-NMR were used to examine the effects of SP-BCTERM on mechanically oriented lipid bilayer samples. SP-BCTERM modified the multilayer structure of bilayers composed of POPC, POPG, POPC/POPG, or bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES), even at relatively low peptide concentrations. The 31P spectra of BLES, which contains ∼1% SP-B, and POPC/POPG with 1% SP-BCTERM, look very similar, supporting a similarity in lipid interactions of SP-BCTERM and its parent protein, full-length SP-B. In the model systems, although the peptide interacted with both the oriented and unoriented fractions of the lipids, it interacted differently with the two fractions, as demonstrated by differences in lipid headgroup structure induced by the peptide. On the other hand, although SP-BCTERM induced similar disruptions in overall bilayer orientation in BLES, there was no evidence of lipid headgroup conformational changes in either the oriented or the unoriented fractions of the BLES samples. Notably, in the model lipid systems the peptide did not induce the formation of small, rapidly tumbling lipid structures, such as micelles, or of hexagonal phases, the observation of which would have provided support for functional mechanisms involving peptide-induced lipid flip-flop or stabilization of curved lipid structures, respectively. PMID:19413982

  11. Cumulative “roof effect” in high-resolution in vivo 31P NMR spectra of human calf muscle and the Clebsch Gordan coefficients of ATP at 1.5 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2005-05-01

    NMR spectra of non-weakly coupled spin systems exhibit asymmetries in line intensities known as "roof effect" in 1D spectroscopy. Due to limited spectral resolution, this effect has not been paid much attention so far in in vivo spectroscopy. But when high-quality spectra are obtained, this effect should be taken into account to explain the quantum-mechanical fine structure of the system. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) represents a 31P spin system with multiple line splittings which are caused by J-couplings of medium strength at 1.5 T. We analyzed the ATP roof effect in vivo, especially for the β-ATP multiplet. The intensities of its outer resonances deviate by ca. 12.5% from a symmetrical triplet. As this asymmetry reflects the transition from Paschen-Back to Zeeman effect with total spin that is largely broken up, the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the system can be indicated in analogy to the hyperfine structure of hydrogen. Taking the roof effect into account, the χ2 of fitting in vivo ATP resonances is reduced by ca. 9% ( p < 0.005).

  12. Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature due to antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in iron pnictides LaFe(As1-xPx)(O1-yFy): 31P-NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuda, H.; Engetsu, F.; Yamamoto, K.; Lai, K. T.; Yashima, M.; Kitaoka, Y.; Takemori, A.; Miyasaka, S.; Tajima, S.

    2014-02-01

    Systematic 31P-NMR studies on LaFe(As1-xPx)(O1-yFy) with y =0.05 and 0.1 have revealed that the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations (AFMSFs) at low energies are markedly enhanced around x =0.6 and 0.4, respectively, and as a result, Tc exhibits respective peaks at 24 and 27 K against the P substitution for As. This result demonstrates that the AFMSFs are responsible for the increase in Tc for LaFe(As1-xPx)(O1-yFy) as a primary mediator of the Cooper pairing. From a systematic comparison of AFMSFs with a series of (La1-zYz)FeAsOδ compounds in which Tc reaches 50 K for z =0.95, we remark that a moderate development of AFMSFs causes Tc to increase up to 50 K under the condition that the local lattice parameters of the FeAs tetrahedron approach those of the regular tetrahedron. We propose that Tc of Fe-pnictides exceeding 50 K is maximized under an intimate collaboration of the AFMSFs and other factors originating from the optimization of the local structure.

  13. Measurement of the lateral diffusion of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine adsorbed on silica beads in the absence and presence of melittin: a 31P two-dimensional exchange solid-state NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, F; Paquet, M J; Dufourc, E J; Auger, M

    1998-01-01

    31P two-dimensional exchange solid-state NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the lateral diffusion, D(L), in the fluid phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence and absence of melittin. The use of a spherical solid support with a radius of 320 +/- 20 nm, on which lipids and peptides are adsorbed together, and a novel way of analyzing the two-dimensional exchange patterns afforded a narrow distribution of D(L) centered at a value of (8.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(-8) cm2/s for the pure lipid system and a large distribution of D(L) spanning 1 x 10(-8) to 10 x 10(-8) cm2/s for the lipids in the presence of melittin. In addition, the determination of D(L) for nonsupported DPPC multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) suggests that the support does not slow down the lipid diffusion and that the radii of the bilayers vary from 300 to 800 nm. Finally, the DPPC-melittin complex is stabilized at the surface of the silica beads in the gel phase, opening the way to further study of the interaction between melittin and DPPC. PMID:9533697

  14. Chemical Equilibrium in Supramolecular Systems as Studied by NMR Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gaitano, Gustavo; Tardajos, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate students are required to study the chemical balance in supramolecular assemblies constituting two or more interacting species, by using proton NMR spectrometry. A good knowledge of physical chemistry, fundamentals of chemical balance, and NMR are pre-requisites for conducting this study.

  15. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Hafsa, Noor E; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    Accessible surface area (ASA) is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent. The calculation of a molecule's ASA requires three-dimensional coordinate data and the use of a "rolling ball" algorithm to both define and calculate the ASA. For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information (derived from chemical modification studies) as a structure constraint. Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. Using machine learning techniques (specifically a boosted tree regression model) we developed an algorithm called "ShiftASA" that combines chemical-shift and sequence derived features to accurately estimate per-residue fractional ASA values of water-soluble proteins. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.79 when evaluated on a set of 65 independent test proteins, which was an 8.2 % improvement over the next best performing (sequence-only) method. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.82, which was 12.3 % better than the next best performing method. ShiftASA is available as a web server ( http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com ) for submitting input queries for fractional ASA calculation. PMID:26078090

  16. Direct evidence for a role of intramitochondrial Ca2+ in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in the stimulated rat heart. Studies using 31P n.m.r. and ruthenium red.

    PubMed Central

    Unitt, J F; McCormack, J G; Reid, D; MacLachlan, L K; England, P J

    1989-01-01

    1. The concentrations of free ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), Pi, H+ and ADP (calculated) were monitored in perfused rat hearts by 31P n.m.r. before and during positive inotropic stimulation. Data were accumulated in 20 s blocks. 2. Administration of 0.1 microM-(-)-isoprenaline resulted in no significant changes in ATP, transient decreases in PCr, and transient increases in ADP and Pi. However, the concentrations of all of these metabolites returned to pre-stimulated values within 1 min, whereas cardiac work and O2 uptake remained elevated. 3. In contrast, in hearts perfused continuously with Ruthenium Red (2.5 micrograms/ml), a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, administration of isoprenaline caused significant decreases in ATP, and also much larger and more prolonged changes in the concentrations of ADP, PCr and Pi. In this instance values did not fully return to pre-stimulated concentrations. Administration of Ruthenium Red alone to unstimulated hearts had minor effects. 4. It is proposed that, in the absence of Ruthenium Red, the transmission of changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane is able to maintain the phosphorylation potential of the heart during positive inotropic stimulation, through activation of the Ca2+-sensitive intramitochondrial dehydrogenases (pyruvate, NAD+-isocitrate and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenases) leading to enhanced NADH production. 5. This mechanism is unavailable in the presence of Ruthenium Red, and oxidative phosphorylation must be stimulated primarily by a fall in phosphorylation potential, in accordance with the classical concept of respiratory control. However, the full oxidative response of the heart to stimulation may not be achievable under such circumstances. PMID:2479373

  17. Magnetism of the spin-trimer compound CaNi 3(P 2O 7)2: Microscopic insight from combined 31P NMR and first-principles studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, M.; Kanungo, S.; Ghoshray, A.; Ghosh, M.; Ghoshray, K.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetization, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study, and first-principles electronic structure calculations have been performed in the spin-1 trimer chain compound CaNi3(P2O7 )2. Two separate spectra arising from magnetically and crystallographically inequivalent P sites are observed. In the ordered state, the resonance lines for both the P sites (P1 and P2) are found to be split into two, which is clear microscopic evidence of the development of two-sublattice AFM order below TM. A nonnegligible contribution of ferromagnetic hyperfine field and dipolar field have also been seen in the ordered state. The first-principles calculations show that the intratrimer (J1) and intertrimer interactions (J2) are of weak ferromagnetic type with the values 2.85 and 1.49 meV, respectively, whereas the interchain interaction (J3) is of strong antiferromagnetic type with a value of 5.63 meV. The anisotropy of the imaginary part of dynamical spin susceptibility around TM along with the exponential decrement of 1 /T1 below TM indicate the probable participation of the Ni -3 d electron's orbital degrees of freedom in the ferrimagnetic transition. The dominance of orbital fluctuations over the spin fluctuations seems to be responsible for showing low value of the binding energy u of the local spin configuration (estimated from local spin models) and an unusually weak exponent in the power-law behavior of 1 /T1 below 50 K, in the paramagnetic state. Electronic structure calculations also reveal the importance of orbital degrees of freedom of Ni -3 d moments, which is consistent with our NMR data analysis.

  18. 31P NMR studies of enzyme-bound substrate complexes of yeast 3-phosphoglycerate kinase: III. Two ADP binding sites and their Mg(II) affinity; effects of vanadate and arsenate on enzymic complexes with ADP and 3-P-glycerate.

    PubMed

    Ray, B D; Moore, J M; Rao, B D

    1990-09-01

    31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements (at 121.5 MHz and 5 degrees C) were made on complexes of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase with ADP and 3-P-glycerate. Addition of Mg(II) to E.ADP shifts the alpha-P signal downfield by 3.8 ppm such that the alpha-P signal superimposes that for beta-P(E.MgADP). Such a shift is atypical among the Mg(II)-nucleotide complexes with other ATP-utilizing enzymes. This shift allowed the determination that enzyme bound ADP is saturated with Mg(II) for [Mg(II)]/[ADP] = 3.0--similar to that reported for ATP complexes with this enzyme (B.D. Ray and B.D. Nageswara Rao, Biochemistry 27, 5574 (1988]. This parallel behavior suggests that ADP binds at two sites on the enzyme as does ATP with disparate Mg(II) affinities. 31P relaxation times in E.MnADP.vanadate.3-P-glycerate and E.CoADP.vanadate.3-P-glycerate complexes indicate that these are long-lived, tightly bound complexes. 31P chemical shift measurements on diamagnetic complexes (with Mg(II] revealed three signals in the 2-5 ppm region (attributable to 3-P-glycerate) only upon addition of all the components necessary to form the E.MgADP.vanadate.3-P-glycerate complex. Subsequent sequestration of Mg(II) from the complex with excess EDTA reversed the Mg(II) induced effects on the ADP signals but did not cause coalescence of the three signals seen in the 2-5 ppm region. Addition of excess sulfate to dissociate these complexes from the enzyme resulted in a single resonance of 3-P-glycerate. The use of arsenate in place of vanadate yielded very similar results. These results suggest that, in the presence of MgADP, vanadate or arsenate, and 3-P-glycerate, the enzyme catalyzed the formation of multiple structurally distinguishable complexes that are stable on the enzyme and labile off the enzyme. PMID:2283509

  19. Prediction of Bioactive Compounds Using Computed NMR Chemical Shifts.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil Ramanpillai; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    NMR based chemical shifts are an important diagnostic parameter for structure elucidation as they capture rich information related to conformational, electronic and stereochemical arrangement of functional groups in a molecule which is responsible for its activity towards any biological target. The present work discusses the importance of computing NMR chemical shifts from molecular structures. The NMR chemical shift data (experimental or computed) was used to generate fingerprints in binary formats for mapping molecular fragments (as descriptors) and correlating with the bioactivity classes. For this study, chemical shift data derived binary fingerprints were computed for 149 classes and 4800 bioactive molecules. The sensitivity and selectivity of fingerprints in discriminating molecules belonging to different therapeutic categories was assessed using a LibSVM based classifier. An accuracy of 82% for proton and 94% for carbon NMR fingerprints were obtained for anti-psoriatic and anti-psychotic molecules demonstrating the effectiveness of this approach for virtual screening. PMID:26138568

  20. Identification by stopped-exchange solution /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy of the stepwise formation of (AgL/sub n/)PF/sub 6/ (n = 1-4). Comparison of metal-phosphorus coupling constants for triphenylphosphine and 5-phenyldibenzophosphole

    SciTech Connect

    Alyea, E.C.; Malito, J.; Nelson, J.H.

    1987-12-16

    The coordination properties of 5-phenyldibenzophosphate (PhDBP) have been studied extensively. The stepwise formation of (L/sub n/Ag)/sup +/PF/sub 6//sup -/ (n = 1-4) for L = PhDBP and PhP/sub 3/ observed in situ by stopped-exchange solution /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy is reported herein. The relative coordinating properties of PhDBP and PhP/sub 3/ are compared. 21 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  1. /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of intracellular pH in giant barnacle muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, J.R.; Yue, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of intracellular pH (pH/sub i/) measurements by /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was examined in single muscle fibers from the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilis. The pH/sub i/ was derived from the chemical shifts of 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. In fibers superfused with sea water at pH 7.7, pH/sub i/ = 7.30 +/- 0.02 at 20/sup 0/C. Experimentally induced pH/sub i/ changes were followed with a time resolution of 3 min. Intracellular alkalinization was induced by exposure to NH/sub 3/Cl and intracellular acidification followed when NH/sub 3/ was removed. Then acid extrusion was stimulated by exposure to bicarbonate containing sea water. In single muscle fibers /sup 31/P NMR results were in excellent agreement with microelectrode studies over the pH range of 6.5 to 8.0. The initial acid extrusion rate was 1.7 +/- 0.3 mmol x 1/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ at pH/sub i/ 6.75. The authors results showed that /sup 31/P NMR is a reliable in vivo pH probe.

  2. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of intracellular pH in giant barnacle muscle.

    PubMed

    Hamm, J R; Yue, G M

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of intracellular pH (pHi) measurements by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was examined in single muscle fibers from the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilis. The pHi was derived from the chemical shifts of 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. In fibers superfused with sea water at pH 7.7, pHi = 7.30 +/- 0.02 at 20 degrees C. Experimentally induced pHi changes were followed with a time resolution of 3 min. Intracellular alkalinization was induced by exposure to NH4Cl and intracellular acidification followed when NH3 was removed. Then acid extrusion was stimulated by exposure to bicarbonate containing sea water. In single muscle fibers 31P NMR results were in excellent agreement with microelectrode studies over the pH range of 6.5 to 8.0. The initial acid extrusion rate was 1.7 +/- 0.3 mmol X l-1 X min-1 at pHi 6.75. Our results showed that 31P NMR is a reliable in vivo pH probe. PMID:3812665

  3. Relative Configuration of Natural Products Using NMR Chemical Shifts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By comparing calculated with experimental NMR chemical shifts, we were able to determine the relative configurations of three monoterpene diastereomers produced by the walkingstick Anisomorpha buprestoides. The combined RMSDs of both 1H and 13C quantum chemically calculated shifts were able to predi...

  4. 15N chemical shift referencing in solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Philippe; Raya, Jésus; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has much advanced during the last decade and provides a multitude of data that can be used for high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules, polymers, inorganic compounds or macromolecules. In some cases the chemical shift referencing has become a limiting factor to the precision of the structure calculations and we have therefore evaluated a number of methods used in proton-decoupled (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy adamantane is generally accepted as an external standard, but to calibrate the (15)N chemical shift scale several standards are in use. As a consequence the published chemical shift values exhibit considerable differences (up to 22 ppm). In this paper we report the (15)N chemical shift of several commonly used references compounds in order to allow for comparison and recalibration of published data and future work. We show that (15)NH4Cl in its powdered form (at 39.3 ppm with respect to liquid NH3) is a suitable external reference as it produces narrow lines when compared to other reference compounds and at the same time allows for the set-up of cross-polarization NMR experiments. The compound is suitable to calibrate magic angle spinning and static NMR experiments. Finally the temperature variation of (15)NH4Cl chemical shift is reported. PMID:24746715

  5. Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

  6. Theoretical and experimental NMR chemical shifts of norsanguinarine and norchelerythrine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toušek, Jaromír.; Dostál, Jiří; Marek, Radek

    2004-02-01

    Norchelerythrine and norsanguinarine, tertiary benzo[ c]phenanthridine alkaloids, were examined by gradient-selected 2D NMR spectroscopy and the later also by extensive theoretical calculations. 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shifts assignments of the title isoquinoline alkaloids based on NOE and multiple-bond chemical-shift correlation experiments (GSQMBC) are reported. Various methods were used for the NMR chemical shifts calculations. Molecular mechanics (MM3 forcefield), AM1 method and Ab initio methods were used for optimizing the geometry. Chemical shielding constants were computed by density functional theory, GIAO and IGLO approaches were used. Chemical shifts calculated by all methods display good qualitative agreement with experimentally determined values. The best overall agreement was achieved when geometry was optimized by RHF/6-31G** method and chemical shielding constants were calculated by B3LYP/6-311G** method, GIAO approach.

  7. A high-resolution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method for the non-phosphorus markers of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Avik; Kumar, Ajeet; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, Devendra K

    2012-02-01

    A high-resolution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method has been developed for detection, identification and quantification of non-phosphorus markers of toxic nerve agents (soman and V-class), vesicants (HD, HN-2, HN-3), and incapacitating agent (Bz). These analytes were converted to phosphorus-containing derivatives via phosphitylation reaction of their hydroxyl and sulfhydryl functions (using 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane). This was followed by (31)P{(1)H} and (31)P NMR analysis of these derivatives. The chemical shifts (δ) and coupling constants ((3)J(P-H)) of derivatives were used for their specific detection and identification. The method allowed clear distinction between the alcohols and thiols. The lower limits of detection of these analytes were found to be between 12 and 28 μg obtained from 128 transients of (31)P{(1)H} quantitative NMR experiments. Utility of the method was ensured by the detection and identification of triethanolamine present (at an original concentration of 5 μg/mL) in an aqueous sample from 28th OPCW Official Proficiency Tests. PMID:22160203

  8. Low Cost CE-NMR with Microcoils for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K; Klunder, G; Demas, V; Malba, V; Bernhardt, A; Evan, L; Harvey, C; Maxwell, R; Herberg, J L

    2009-01-08

    Understanding speciation in solids and solutions is important for environmental and toxicological purposes. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a simple rapid separation technique that can be used to identify species in solution. CE is particularly is well suited for rapid separations of metal containing samples. Direct on-capillary measurement of metal compound speciation can be obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The development of a low-cost microcoil CE-NMR system for in situ characterization of samples of interest is discussed. High precision laser lithography is used to produce copper sputtered microcoils that have comparable resistivity and quality factors to that of hand wound microcoils. A portable NMR system coupled with a CE system has the potential to identify chemical species in aqueous solutions. In addition, transient isotachophoresis can separate and pre-concentrate samples of interest to obtain separate chemical peaks for speciation by online NMR analysis. We are developing separation assays to determine the speciation of chemical complexes in solutions with minimal perturbation to the original sample equilibrium. On-line NMR measurements will be made downstream of the UV detector.

  9. Low Cost CE-NMR with Microcoils for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K L; Klunder, G; Demas, V; Malba, V; Bernhardt, A; Evan, L; Harvey, C; Maxwell, R; Herberg, J

    2008-07-25

    Understanding speciation in solids and solutions is important for environmental and toxicological purposes. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a simple rapid separation technique that can be used to identify species in solution. CE is particularly is well suited for rapid separations of metal containing samples. Direct on-capillary measurement of metal compound speciation can be obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The development of a low-cost microcoil CE-NMR system for in situ characterization of samples of interest is discussed. High precision laser lithography is used to produce copper sputtered microcoils that have comparable resistivity and quality factors to that of hand wound microcoils. A portable NMR system coupled with a CE system has the potential to identify chemical species in aqueous solutions. In addition, transient isotachophoresis can separate and pre-concentrate samples of interest to obtain separate chemical peaks for speciation by online NMR analysis. We are developing separation assays to determine the speciation of chemical complexes in solutions with minimal perturbation to the original sample equilibrium. On-line NMR measurements will be made downstream of the UV detector.

  10. Phosphorus speciation by (31)P NMR spectroscopy in bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) and bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L.) Chouard ex Rothm.) dominated semi-natural upland soil.

    PubMed

    Ebuele, Victor O; Santoro, Anna; Thoss, Vera

    2016-10-01

    Access to P species is a driver for plant community composition based on nutrient acquisition. Here we investigated the distribution and accumulation of soil inorganic P (Pi) and organic P (Po) forms in a bracken and bluebell dominated upland soil for the period between bluebell above ground dominance until biomass is formed from half bluebells and half bracken. Chemical characterisation and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to determine the organic and inorganic P species. Total P concentration in soils was 0.87gkg(-1), while in plants (above- and below-ground parts) total P ranged between 0.84-4.0gkg(-1) and 0.14-2.0gkg(-1) for bluebell and bracken, respectively. The P speciation in the plant samples was reflected in the surrounding soil. The main forms of inorganic P detected in the NaOH-EDTA soil extracts were orthophosphate (20.0-31.5%), pyrophosphate (0.6-2.5%) and polyphosphate (0.4-7.0%). Phytate (myo-IP6) was the most dominant organic P form (23.6-40.0%). Other major peaks were scyllo-IP6 and α- and β- glycerophosphate (glyP). In bluebells and bracken the main P form detected was orthophosphate ranging from (21.7-80.4%) and 68.5-81.1%, in above-ground and below-ground biomass, respectively. Other detected forms include α-glyP (4.5-14.4%) and β-glyP (0.9-7.7%) in bluebell, while in bracken they were detected only in stripe and blade in ranges of 2.5-5.5% and 4.4-9.6%, respectively. Pyrophosphate, polyphosphate, scyllo-IP6, phosphonates, found in soil samples, were not detected in any plant parts. In particular, the high abundance of phytate in the soil and in bluebell bulbs, may be related to a mechanism through which bluebells create a recalcitrant phosphorus store which form a key part of their adaptation to nutrient poor conditions. PMID:27288285

  11. sup 31 P and sup 1 H NMR studies of the structure of enzyme-bound substrate complexes of lobster muscle arginine kinase: Relaxation measurements with Mn(II) and Co(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarori, G.K.; Ray, B.D.; Rao, B.D.N. )

    1989-11-28

    The paramagnetic effects of Mn(II) and Co(II) on the spin-lattice relaxation rates of {sup 31}P nuclei of ATP and ADP and of Mn(II) on the spin-lattice relaxation rate of the {delta} protons of arginine bound to arginine kinase from lobster tail muscle have been measured. Temperature variation of {sup 31}P relaxation rates in E-MnADP and E-MnATP yields activation energies ({Delta}E) in the range 6-10 kcal/mol. Thus, the {sup 31}P relaxation rates in these complexes are exchange limited and cannot provide structural information. However, the relaxation rates in E-CoADP and E-CoATP exhibit frequency dependence and {Delta}E values in the range 1-2 kcal/mol; i.e., these rates depend upon {sup 31}P-Co(II) distances. These distances were calculated to be in the range 3.2-4.5 {angstrom}, appropriate for direct coordination between Co(II) and the phosphoryl groups. The paramagnetic effect of Mn(II) on the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate of the {delta} protons of arginine in the E-MnADP-Arg complex was also measured at three frequencies. From the frequency dependence of the relaxation rate an effective {tau}{sub C} of 0.6 ns has also been calculated, which is most likely to be the electron spin relaxation rate ({tau}{sub S1}) for Mn(II) in this complex. The distance estimated on the basis of the reciprocal sixth root of the average relaxation rate of the {delta} protons was 10.9 {plus minus} 0.3 {angstrom}.

  12. Chemical shift referencing in MAS solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcombe, Corey R.; Zilm, Kurt W.

    2003-06-01

    Solid state 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra are typically referenced externally using a probe which does not incorporate a field frequency lock. Solution NMR shifts on the other hand are more often determined with respect to an internal reference and using a deuterium based field frequency lock. Further differences arise in solution NMR of proteins and nucleic acids where both 13C and 1H shifts are referenced by recording the frequency of the 1H resonance of DSS (sodium salt of 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulphonic acid) instead of TMS (tetramethylsilane). In this note we investigate the difficulties in relating shifts measured relative to TMS and DSS by these various approaches in solution and solids NMR, and calibrate adamantane as an external 13C standard for solids NMR. We find that external chemical shift referencing of magic angle spinning spectra is typically quite reproducible and accurate, with better than ±0.03 ppm accuracy being straight forward to achieve. Solid state and liquid phase NMR shifts obtained by magic angle spinning with external referencing agree with those measured using typical solution NMR hardware with the sample tube aligned with the applied field as long as magnetic susceptibility corrections and solvent shifts are taken into account. The DSS and TMS reference scales for 13C and 1H are related accurately using MAS NMR. Large solvent shifts for the 13C resonance in TMS in either deuterochloroform or methanol are observed, being +0.71 ppm and -0.74 ppm from external TMS, respectively. The ratio of the 13C resonance frequencies for the two carbons in solid adamantane to the 1H resonance of TMS is reported.

  13. Chemical shift referencing in MAS solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Morcombe, Corey R; Zilm, Kurt W

    2003-06-01

    Solid state 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra are typically referenced externally using a probe which does not incorporate a field frequency lock. Solution NMR shifts on the other hand are more often determined with respect to an internal reference and using a deuterium based field frequency lock. Further differences arise in solution NMR of proteins and nucleic acids where both 13C and 1H shifts are referenced by recording the frequency of the 1H resonance of DSS (sodium salt of 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulphonic acid) instead of TMS (tetramethylsilane). In this note we investigate the difficulties in relating shifts measured relative to TMS and DSS by these various approaches in solution and solids NMR, and calibrate adamantane as an external 13C standard for solids NMR. We find that external chemical shift referencing of magic angle spinning spectra is typically quite reproducible and accurate, with better than +/-0.03 ppm accuracy being straight forward to achieve. Solid state and liquid phase NMR shifts obtained by magic angle spinning with external referencing agree with those measured using typical solution NMR hardware with the sample tube aligned with the applied field as long as magnetic susceptibility corrections and solvent shifts are taken into account. The DSS and TMS reference scales for 13C and 1H are related accurately using MAS NMR. Large solvent shifts for the 13C resonance in TMS in either deuterochloroform or methanol are observed, being +0.71 ppm and -0.74 ppm from external TMS, respectively. The ratio of the 13C resonance frequencies for the two carbons in solid adamantane to the 1H resonance of TMS is reported. PMID:12810033

  14. Probabilistic validation of protein NMR chemical shift assignments.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Lee, Woonghee; Westler, William M; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L

    2016-01-01

    Data validation plays an important role in ensuring the reliability and reproducibility of studies. NMR investigations of the functional properties, dynamics, chemical kinetics, and structures of proteins depend critically on the correctness of chemical shift assignments. We present a novel probabilistic method named ARECA for validating chemical shift assignments that relies on the nuclear Overhauser effect data . ARECA has been evaluated through its application to 26 case studies and has been shown to be complementary to, and usually more reliable than, approaches based on chemical shift databases. ARECA is available online at http://areca.nmrfam.wisc.edu/. PMID:26724815

  15. Structural models for covalent non-oxidic glasses: Atomic distribution and local order in CdGeAs2-xPx glasses studied by use of 31P and 113Cd spin-echo and 31-113Cd spin-echo double-resonance NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Deanna; Maxwell, Robert; Lathrop, David; Banks, Kesha; Eckert, Hellmut

    1992-10-01

    The structure of glasses in the system CdGeAs2-xPx is discussed on the basis of complementary solid-state NMR experiments, including 31P and 113Cd magic-angle spinning (MAS) and spin-echo techniques, as well as 31-113Cd spin-echo double resonance (SEDOR) NMR. Computer simulations of atomic distribution models and experimental studies on crystalline model systems are used to quantify the results. The analysis reveals striking differences in the short-range order between the glassy and the stoichiometrically analogous crystalline materials. The structure of glasses in the system CdGeAs2-xPx is characterized by the presence of a substantial fraction of homopolar pnictogen-pnictogen bonds and by a distribution of cadmium relative to phosphorus that is close to random. These results lend credence to the bond-switching model invoked for the structural description of amorphous tetrahedral semiconductors.

  16. 93Nb NMR chemical shift scale for niobia systems.

    PubMed

    Lapina, Olga B; Khabibulin, Dzhalil F; Romanenko, Konstantin V; Gan, Zhehong; Zuev, Mikhail G; Krasil'nikov, Vladimir N; Fedorov, Vladimir E

    2005-09-01

    93Nb solid-state NMR spectra of a series of inorganic niobates with Nb in different oxygen coordination environments were measured. For all studied compounds the chemical shielding and quadrupole tensor parameters were determined using conventional and ultrahigh field NMR facilities, ultrahigh speed MAS, DQ STMAS, solid-echo and computer modeling. It has been demonstrated that the 93Nb isotropic chemical shift is sensitive to the coordination number of Nb sites. For the first time the 93Nb NMR chemical shift scale for NbOx polyhedra in solid materials has been proposed: for four-coordinated Nb sites, the isotropic shifts occur from -650 to -950 ppm; five-coordinated Nb sites have the isotropic shifts in the range of -900 to -980 ppm; for six-coordinated Nb sites the isotropic shifts vary from -900 to -1360 ppm; the shifts from -1200 to -1600 ppm are typical for seven-coordinated Nb sites; for eight-coordinated Nb sites the shifts are higher than -1400 ppm. The possible correlation between the value of the isotropic chemical shift and the ionic character of the NbOx-MOy polyhedra association has been suggested. The magnitude of the 93Nb quadrupole coupling constant depends on the local symmetry of Nb sites and may vary from hundreds of kHz to hundreds of MHz. PMID:16216475

  17. Solution (31)P NMR Study of the Acid-Catalyzed Formation of a Highly Charged {U24Pp12} Nanocluster, [(UO2)24(O2)24(P2O7)12](48-), and Its Structural Characterization in the Solid State Using Single-Crystal Neutron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Dembowski, Mateusz; Olds, Travis A; Pellegrini, Kristi L; Hoffmann, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping; Hickam, Sarah; He, Junhong; Oliver, Allen G; Burns, Peter C

    2016-07-13

    The first neutron diffraction study of a single crystal containing uranyl peroxide nanoclusters is reported for pyrophosphate-functionalized Na44K6[(UO2)24(O2)24(P2O7)12][IO3]2·140H2O (1). Relative to earlier X-ray studies, neutron diffraction provides superior information concerning the positions of H atoms and lighter counterions. Hydrogen positions have been assigned and reveal an extensive network of H-bonds; notably, most O atoms present in the anionic cluster accept H-bonds from surrounding H2O molecules, and none of the surface-bound O atoms are protonated. The D4h symmetry of the cage is consistent with the presence of six encapsulated K cations, which appear to stabilize the lower symmetry variant of this cluster. (31)P NMR measurements demonstrate retention of this symmetry in solution, while in situ (31)P NMR studies suggest an acid-catalyzed mechanism for the assembly of 1 across a wide range of pH values. PMID:27322657

  18. Ab initio theory of NMR chemical shifts in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, S.G. |

    1997-12-31

    A new formalism for ab initio calculation of the orbital magnetic susceptibility and the NMR chemical shifts in solids and liquids is presented. The approach can be applied to periodic systems such as crystals, surfaces or polymers, and with a supercell technique, to nonperiodic systems such as amorphous materials, liquids, or solids with defects. The formalism is based on the density functional theory in the local density approximation and makes use of a generalized f-sum rule to eliminate the divergent terms that plagued previous theories. Calculations have been successfully carried out for the diamagnetic susceptibility of a number of insulators and for the NMR chemical shifts of a variety of systems including free molecules, ionic crystals, hydrogen-bonded materials and amorphous carbon.

  19. NMR chemical shifts in periodic systems from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, Daniel; Goward, Gillian; Schnell, Ingo; Parrinello, Michele

    2002-08-01

    A recently developed ab-initio method for the calculation of NMR chemical shifts and magnetic susceptibilities in systems under periodic boundary conditions is presented and applied to a hydrogen-bonded molecular crystal. The calculations can unambiguously assign the chemical shifts to individual atoms in experimental spectra, and can further serve for the validation of simulated atomic trajectories and geometries. Apart from the example presented, the method can be applied to crystalline and amorphous insulators, as well as to isolated molecules using a supercell technique. The results are in good agreement with experiment.

  20. Direct and simultaneous quantification of ATP, ADP and AMP by (1)H and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yakun; Jiang, Hua; Feng, Jinzhou; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Xiandeng; Deng, Pengchi

    2016-04-01

    ATP, ADP and AMP are energy substances with vital biological significance. Based on the structural differences, a simple, rapid and comprehensive method has been established by (1)H and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR and (31)P-NMR) spectroscopies. Sodium 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionate-2,2,3,3-d4 (TMSP) and anhydrous disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) were selected as internal standards for (1)H-NMR and (31)P-NMR, respectively. Those three compounds and corresponding internal standards can be easily distinguished both by (1)H-NMR and (31)P-NMR. In addition, they all have perfect linearity in a certain range: 0.1-100mM for (1)H-NMR and 1-75mM for (31)P-NMR. To validate the precision of this method, mixed samples of different concentrations were measured. Recovery experiments were conducted in serum (91-113% by (1)H-NMR and 89-113% by (31)P-NMR). PMID:26838434

  1. In Vivo 31P Echo-Planar Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Calf Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Bachert, Peter

    2001-03-01

    Localized phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of human calf muscle in vivo were obtained by means of echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) with a 1.5-T whole-body scanner. The technique permits the measurement of two-dimensional 31P SI data at a minimum acquisition time of 2.4 s (8×8 voxels, TR=300 ms). With 9.4 min measurement time (TR=1100 ms, 64 averages) and 25×25×40 mm spatial resolution in vivo the 31P NMR signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the phosphocreatine (PCr) resonance was about 45; the multiplets of nucleoside 5‧-triphosphates were resolved. Spectral quality permits quantitative assessment of the PCr signal in a measurement time that is shorter by a factor of 2 or more than the minimum measurement time feasible with chemical-shift imaging. In a functional EPSI study with a time resolution of 20.5 s on the calf muscle of volunteers, spectra showed a 40% decrease of the PCr signal intensity (at rest: S/N≅12) upon exertion of the muscle.

  2. Calculations of NMR chemical shifts with APW-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Robert; Blaha, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a full potential, all electron augmented plane wave (APW) implementation of first-principles calculations of NMR chemical shifts. In order to obtain the induced current we follow a perturbation approach [Pickard and Mauri, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.63.245101 63, 245101 (2001)] and extended the common APW + local orbital (LO) basis by several LOs at higher energies. The calculated all-electron current is represented in traditional APW manner as Fourier series in the interstitial region and with a spherical harmonics representation inside the nonoverlapping atomic spheres. The current is integrated using a “pseudocharge” technique. The implementation is validated by comparison of the computed chemical shifts with some “exact” results for spherical atoms and for a set of solids and molecules with available published data.

  3. A Solid-State NMR Experiment: Analysis of Local Structural Environments in Phosphate Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stanley E.; Saiki, David; Eckert, Hellmut; Meise-Gresch, Karin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment that can be used to directly study the local chemical environments of phosphorus in solid amorphous materials is demonstrated. The experiment aims at familiarizing the students of chemistry with the principles of solid-state NMR, by having them synthesize a simple phosphate glass, and making them observe the (super 31)P NMR spectrum,…

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of a paramagnetic DNA-drug complex with high spin cobalt; assignment of the 1H and 31P NMR spectra, and determination of electronic, spectroscopic and molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Gochin, M

    1998-08-01

    The proton NMR spectrum of the ternary complex between the octamer duplex d(TTGGCCAA)2, two molecules of the drug chromomycin-A3, and a divalent cobalt ion has been assigned. Assignment procedures used standard two-dimensional techniques and relied upon the expected NOE contacts observed in the equivalent diamagnetic complex containing zinc. The magnetic susceptibility tensor for the cobalt was determined and used to calculate shifts for all nuclei, aiding in the assignment process and verification. Relaxation, susceptibility, temperature and field dependence studies of the paramagnetic spectrum enabled determination of electronic properties of the octahedral cobalt complex. The electronic relaxation tau(s) was determined to be 2.5 +/- 1.5 ps; the effective isotropic g value was found to be 2.6 +/- 0.2, indicating strong spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic susceptibility tensor was determined to be chi(xx) = 8.9 x 10(-3) cm3/mol, chi(yy) = 9.5 x 10(-3) cm3/mol, chi(zz) = 12.8 * 10(-3) cm3/mol. A tentative rotational correlation time of 8 ns was obtained for the complex. Both macroscopic and microscopic susceptibility measurements revealed deviations from Curie behavior over the temperature range accessible in the study. Non-selective relaxation rates were found to be inaccurate for defining distances from the metal center. However, pseudocontact shifts could be calculated with high accuracy using the dipolar shift equation. Isotropic hyperfine shifts were factored into contact and dipolar terms, revealing that the dipolar shift predominates and that contact shifts are relatively small. PMID:9751997

  5. Protein Dielectric Constants Determined from NMR Chemical Shift Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Kukic, Predrag; Farrell, Damien; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; E., Bertrand García-Moreno; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Toleikis, Zigmantas; Teilum, Kaare; Nielsen, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the connection between protein structure and function requires a quantitative understanding of electrostatic effects. Structure-based electrostatics calculations are essential for this purpose, but their use have been limited by a long-standing discussion on which value to use for the dielectric constants (εeff and εp) required in Coulombic models and Poisson-Boltzmann models. The currently used values for εeff and εp are essentially empirical parameters calibrated against thermodynamic properties that are indirect measurements of protein electric fields. We determine optimal values for εeff and εp by measuring protein electric fields in solution using direct detection of NMR chemical shift perturbations (CSPs). We measured CSPs in fourteen proteins to get a broad and general characterization of electric fields. Coulomb's law reproduces the measured CSPs optimally with a protein dielectric constant (εeff) from 3 to 13, with an optimal value across all proteins of 6.5. However, when the water-protein interface is treated with finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann calculations, the optimal protein dielectric constant (εp) rangedsfrom 2-5 with an optimum of 3. It is striking how similar this value is to the dielectric constant of 2-4 measured for protein powders, and how different it is from the εp of 6-20 used in models based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when calculating thermodynamic parameters. Because the value of εp = 3 is obtained by analysis of NMR chemical shift perturbations instead of thermodynamic parameters such as pKa values, it is likely to describe only the electric field and thus represent a more general, intrinsic, and transferable εp common to most folded proteins. PMID:24124752

  6. Quantum chemical 13Cα chemical shift calculations for protein NMR structure determination, refinement, and validation

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jorge A.; Aramini, James M.; Rossi, Paolo; Kuzin, Alexandre; Su, Min; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    A recently determined set of 20 NMR-derived conformations of a 48-residue all-α-helical protein, (PDB ID code 2JVD), is validated here by comparing the observed 13Cα chemical shifts with those computed at the density functional level of theory. In addition, a recently introduced physics-based method, aimed at determining protein structures by using NOE-derived distance constraints together with observed and computed 13Cα chemical shifts, was applied to determine a new set of 10 conformations, (Set-bt), as a blind test for the same protein. A cross-validation of these two sets of conformations in terms of the agreement between computed and observed 13Cα chemical shifts, several stereochemical quality factors, and some NMR quality assessment scores reveals the good quality of both sets of structures. We also carried out an analysis of the agreement between the observed and computed 13Cα chemical shifts for a slightly longer construct of the protein solved by x-ray crystallography at 2.0-Å resolution (PDB ID code 3BHP) with an identical amino acid residue sequence to the 2JVD structure for the first 46 residues. Our results reveal that both of the NMR-derived sets, namely 2JVD and Set-bt, are somewhat better representations of the observed 13Cα chemical shifts in solution than the 3BHP crystal structure. In addition, the 13Cα-based validation analysis appears to be more sensitive to subtle structural differences across the three sets of structures than any other NMR quality-assessment scores used here, and, although it is computationally intensive, this analysis has potential value as a standard procedure to determine, refine, and validate protein structures. PMID:18787110

  7. Feasibility Evaluation of Detecting Hydroxymethylphosphine Oxide In Vivo by (31)P-MRS.

    PubMed

    Doblas, Sabrina; Pathuri, Gopal; Towner, Rheal A; Gali, Hariprasad

    2010-09-01

    Application of organophosphorus compounds in biomedicine is attractive because the (31)P nucleus is very amenable to study by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, particularly, by in vivo (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). The water-soluble organophosphorus compounds that are non-toxic, exhibit metabolic stability, and show a unique resonance peak in (31)P NMR spectroscopy, which could be ideal to be used as probes for (31)P-MRS. Here we evaluated the in vivo feasibility of potentially using a hydroxymethylphosphine oxide as a novel probe for (31)P-MRS studies using tris (hydroxymethyl) phosphine oxide (THPO) as an example. THPO was synthesized, injected in the normal CF1 mice, and (31)P spectra were acquired before and after injection with the coil located on the regions of interest. The NMR signal from the region of interest appeared within one minute of THPO injection. The compound was stable in vivo as no metabolites of THPO were observed. No toxicity was observed after THPO injection in mice. The peak concentrations of THPO in liver and kidney were reached within 15 min and 60 min respectively. THPO was excreted exclusively in urine without undergoing any metabolism indicating that it is very stable under in vivo conditions. These initial studies in normal CF1 mice clearly demonstrate that THPO possess the essential characteristics required for a potential MRS probe. Based on the current preliminary results, we suggest that HMPs, when incorporated into targeted drugs (peptides, proteins, antibodies, etc.), may serve as novel (31)P probes for monitoring the drug distribution in vivo by MRS. PMID:23675197

  8. Monitoring changes of paramagnetically-shifted 31P signals in phospholipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Rebecca E.; Williams, Thomas L.; Serpell, Louise C.; Day, Iain J.

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipid vesicles are commonly used as biomimetics in the investigation of the interaction of various species with cell membranes. In this letter we present a 31P NMR investigation of a simple vesicle system using a paramagnetic shift reagent to probe the inner and outer layers of the lipid bilayer. Time-dependent changes in the 31P NMR signal are observed, which differ whether the paramagnetic species is inside or outside the vesicle, and on the choice of buffer solution used. An interpretation of these results is given in terms of the interaction of the paramagnetic shift reagent with the lipids.

  9. Ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR for a rapid and sensitive chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahola, Susanna; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V.; Mankinen, Otto; Zhang, Guannan; Kantola, Anu M.; Chen, Hsueh-Ying; Hilty, Christian; Koptyug, Igor V.; Telkki, Ville-Veikko

    2015-09-01

    Traditional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy relies on the versatile chemical information conveyed by spectra. To complement conventional NMR, Laplace NMR explores diffusion and relaxation phenomena to reveal details on molecular motions. Under a broad concept of ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR, here we introduce an ultrafast diffusion-relaxation correlation experiment enhancing the resolution and information content of corresponding 1D experiments as well as reducing the experiment time by one to two orders of magnitude or more as compared with its conventional 2D counterpart. We demonstrate that the method allows one to distinguish identical molecules in different physical environments and provides chemical resolution missing in NMR spectra. Although the sensitivity of the new method is reduced due to spatial encoding, the single-scan approach enables one to use hyperpolarized substances to boost the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, significantly enhancing the overall sensitivity of multidimensional Laplace NMR.

  10. Ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR for a rapid and sensitive chemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Susanna; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Mankinen, Otto; Zhang, Guannan; Kantola, Anu M.; Chen, Hsueh-Ying; Hilty, Christian; Koptyug, Igor V.; Telkki, Ville-Veikko

    2015-01-01

    Traditional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy relies on the versatile chemical information conveyed by spectra. To complement conventional NMR, Laplace NMR explores diffusion and relaxation phenomena to reveal details on molecular motions. Under a broad concept of ultrafast multidimensional Laplace NMR, here we introduce an ultrafast diffusion-relaxation correlation experiment enhancing the resolution and information content of corresponding 1D experiments as well as reducing the experiment time by one to two orders of magnitude or more as compared with its conventional 2D counterpart. We demonstrate that the method allows one to distinguish identical molecules in different physical environments and provides chemical resolution missing in NMR spectra. Although the sensitivity of the new method is reduced due to spatial encoding, the single-scan approach enables one to use hyperpolarized substances to boost the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, significantly enhancing the overall sensitivity of multidimensional Laplace NMR. PMID:26381101

  11. Posttranslational modification of Klebsiella pneumoniae flavodoxin by covalent attachment of coenzyme A, shown by sup 31 P NMR and electrospray mass spectrometry, prevents electron transfer from the nifJ protein to nitrogenase. A possible new regulatory mechanism for biological nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Thorneley, R.N.F.; Ashby, G.A.; Drummond, M.H.; Eady, R.R.; Huff, S.; Macdonald, C.J. ); Abell, C.; Schneier, A. )

    1992-02-04

    A strain of Escherichia coli (71-18) that produces ca. 15% of its soluble cytoplasmic protein as a flavodoxin, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifF gene product, has been constructed. The flavodoxin was purified using FPLC and resolved into two forms, designated KpFldI and KpFldII, which were shown to have identical N-terminal amino acid sequences (30 residues) in agreement with that predicted by the K. pneumoniae nifF DNA sequence. {sup 31}P NMR, electrospray mass spectrometry, UV-visible spectra, and thiol group estimations showed that the single cysteine residue (position 68) of KpFldI is posttranslationally modified in KpFldII by the covalent, mixed disulfide, attachment of coenzyme A. KpFldII was inactive as an electron carrier between the K. pneumoniae nifJ product (a pyruvate-flavodoxin oxidoreductase) and K. pneumoniae nifH product (the Fe-protein of nitrogenase). This novel posttranslational modification of a flavodoxin is discussed in terms of the regulation of nitrogenase activity in vivo in response to the level of dissolved O{sub 2} and the carbon status of diazotrophic cultures.

  12. Compatibility of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Labeling for 1H MRI Cell Tracking with 31P MRS for Bioenergetic Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuoli; Hancock, Brynne; Leen, Stephanie; Ramaswamy, Sharan; Sollott, Steven J.; Boheler, Kenneth R.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Lakatta, Edward G.; Spencer, Richard G.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Labeling of cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles permits cell tracking by 1H MRI while 31P MRS allows non-invasive evaluation of cellular bioenergetics. We evaluated the compatibility of these two techniques by obtaining 31P NMR spectra of iron-labeled and unlabeled immobilized C2C12 myoblast cells in vitro. Broadened but usable 31P spectra were obtained, and peak area ratios of resonances corresponding to intracellular metabolites showed no significant differences between labeled and unlabeled cell populations. We conclude that 31P NMR spectra can be obtained from cells labeled with sufficient iron to permit visualization by 1H imaging protocols and that these spectra have sufficient quality to be used in assessing metabolic status. This result introduces the possibility of using localized 31P MRS to evaluate the viability of iron-labeled therapeutic cells as well as surrounding host tissue in vivo. PMID:20853523

  13. Dissemination of original NMR data enhances reproducibility and integrity in chemical research.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jonathan; Simmler, Charlotte; Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-08-25

    The notion of data transparency is gaining a strong awareness among the scientific community. The availability of raw data is actually regarded as a fundamental way to advance science by promoting both integrity and reproducibility of research outcomes. Particularly, in the field of natural product and chemical research, NMR spectroscopy is a fundamental tool for structural elucidation and quantification (qNMR). As such, the accessibility of original NMR data, i.e., Free Induction Decays (FIDs), fosters transparency in chemical research and optimizes both peer review and reproducibility of reports by offering the fundamental tools to perform efficient structural verification. Although original NMR data are known to contain a wealth of information, they are rarely accessible along with published data. This viewpoint discusses the relevance of the availability of original NMR data as part of good research practices not only to promote structural correctness, but also to enhance traceability and reproducibility of both chemical and biological results. PMID:27197893

  14. New adamantane-like mercury-chalcogen cages. Synthetic and multinuclear (/sup 31/P, /sup 77/Se, /sup 199/Hg) NMR study of ((. mu. -ER)/sub 6/(HgL)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/ (E = S or Se; L = tertiary phosphine or arsine) and related species with mixed ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, P.A.W.; Vittal, J.J.; Trattner, M.H.

    1987-12-16

    Reaction between HgL/sub 2/(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, Hg(ER)/sub 2/, and L in a 1:3:2 ratio produces the isolable salts ((..mu..-ER)/sub 6/(HgL)/sub 4/)(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ (L = PPh/sub 3/, ER = SePh, SPh, SMe, or SEt; L = AsPh/sub 3/, ER = SPh; L = PEt/sub 3/, ER = SePh or SPh). Multinuclear (/sup 31/P, /sup 77/Se, /sup 199/Hg) NMR was used to demonstrate the adamantanoid structure of the cations in these salts as well as in those with L = PPh/sub 3/ and ER = S-n-Pr, S-n-Bu, or S-n-C/sub 5/H/sub 11/, which were studied in situ. To confirm that the new cations contain the hitherto unobserved (..mu..-ER)/sub 6/Hg/sub 4/ core, several series of clusters with mixed ligands were investigated (as ClO/sub 4//sup -/ salts) by the multinuclear NMR technique also. The systems ((..mu..-ER)/sub 6/(HgL)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/-((..mu..-ER)/sub 6/(HgL')/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/ (ER = SePh, L = PPh/sub 3/, L' = PEt/sub 3/; ER = SPh, L = PPh/sub 3/, L' = PEt/sub 3/ or AsPh/sub 3/) give the series ((..mu..-ER)/sub 6/(HgL)/sub 4-n/(HgL')/sub n/)/sup 2 +/ (n = 0-4). The related species ((..mu..-SPh)/sub 6/(HgPPh/sub 3/)/sub 4-n/(HgSbPh/sub 3/)/sub n/)/sup 2 +/ (n = 0-2 and possibly 3) were produced from Hg(PPhh/sub 3/)/sub 2/(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, Hg(SPh)/sub 2/, and SbPh/sub 3/. From the notably rich /sup 31/P and /sup 199/Hg NMR spectra of the system ((..mu..-SPh)/sub 6/(HgPPh/sub 3/)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/-((..mu..-SePh)/sub 6/(HgPPh/sub 3/)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/ it was possible to demonstrate the existence of every possible mixed-chalcogen core in the series ((..mu..-SPh)/sub 6-m/(..mu..-SePh)/sub m/(HgPPh/sub 3/)/sub 4/)/sup 2 +/ (m = 0-6). The new (..mu..-SR)/sub 6/Hg/sub 4/ cages are possible models for the proposed Hg/sub 4/(Cys)/sub 11/ cluster in Hg/sub 7/-metallothionein. 46 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Quantum-chemical analyses of aromaticity, UV spectra, and NMR chemical shifts in plumbacyclopentadienylidenes stabilized by Lewis bases.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Toshiaki; Abe, Minori; Saito, Masaichi; Hada, Masahiko

    2014-04-30

    We carried out a series of zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA)-density functional theory (DFT) and ZORA-time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculations for molecular geometries, NMR chemical shifts, nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS), and electronic transition energies of plumbacyclopentadienylidenes stabilized by several Lewis bases, (Ph)2 ((t) BuMe2 Si)2 C4 PbL1 L2 (L1, L2 = tetrahydrofuran, Pyridine, N-heterocyclic carbene), and their model molecules. We mainly discussed the Lewis-base effect on the aromaticity of these complexes. The NICS was used to examine the aromaticity. The NICS values showed that the aromaticity of these complexes increases when the donation from the Lewis bases to Pb becomes large. This trend seems to be reasonable when the 4n-Huckel rule is applied to the fractional π-electron number. The calculated (13)C- and (207)Pb-NMR chemical shifts and the calculated UV transition energies reasonably reproduced the experimental trends. We found a specific relationship between the (13)C-NMR chemical shifts and the transition energies. As we expected, the relativistic effect was essential to reproduce a trend not only in the (207)Pb-NMR chemical shifts and J[Pb-C] but also in the (13)C-NMR chemical shifts of carbons adjacent to the lead atom. PMID:24643814

  16. NMR-based analysis of the chemical composition of Japanese persimmon aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shoraku; Furihata, Kazuo; Koda, Masanori; Wei, Feifei; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-03-01

    Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) is recognized as an outstanding source of biologically active compounds relating to many health benefits. In the present study, NMR spectroscopy provided a comprehensive metabolic overview of Japanese persimmon juice. Detailed signal assignments of Japanese persimmon juice were carried out using various 2D NMR techniques incorporated with broadband water suppression enhanced through T1 effects (BB-WET) or WET sequences, and 26 components, including minor components, were identified. In addition, most components were quantitatively evaluated by the integration of signals using conventional (1) H NMR and BB-WET NMR. This is the first detailed analysis combined with quantitative characterization of chemical components using NMR for Japanese persimmon. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26482562

  17. 15N NMR chemical shifts in papaverine decomposition products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyrski, Andrzej; Girreser, Ulrich; Hermann, Tadeusz

    2013-03-01

    Papaverine can be easily oxidized to papaverinol, papaveraldine and 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxy-12-oxo-12H-indolo[2,1-a]isoquinolinium chloride. On addition of alkali solution the latter compound forms 2-(2-carboxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinolinium inner salt. Together with these structures the interesting 13-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2,3,8,9-tetramethoxy-6a-12a-diazadibenzo[a,g]fluorenylium chloride is discussed, which is formed in the Gadamer-Schulemann reaction of papaverine as a side product. This letter reports the 15N NMR spectra of the above mentioned compounds.

  18. Determination of trace amounts of chemical warfare agent degradation products in decontamination solutions with NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Harri; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Kuitunen, Marja-Leena; Vanninen, Paula

    2007-12-01

    Decontamination solutions are used for an efficient detoxification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As these solutions can be composed of strong alkaline chemicals with hydrolyzing and oxidizing properties, the analysis of CWA degradation products in trace levels from these solutions imposes a challenge for any analytical technique. Here, we present results of application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analysis of trace amounts of CWA degradation products in several untreated decontamination solutions. Degradation products of the nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX were selectively monitored with substantially reduced interference of background signals by 1D 1H-31P heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectrometry. The detection limit of the chemicals was at the low part-per-million level (2-10 microg/mL) in all studied solutions. In addition, the concentration of the degradation products was obtained with sufficient confidence with external standards. PMID:17973498

  19. Tautomerism of Warfarin: Combined Chemoinformatics, Quantum Chemical, and NMR Investigation.

    PubMed

    Guasch, Laura; Peach, Megan L; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2015-10-16

    Warfarin, an important anticoagulant drug, can exist in solution in 40 distinct tautomeric forms through both prototropic tautomerism and ring-chain tautomerism. We have investigated all warfarin tautomers with computational and NMR approaches. Relative energies calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) level of theory indicate that the 4-hydroxycoumarin cyclic hemiketal tautomer is the most stable tautomer in aqueous solution, followed by the 4-hydroxycoumarin open-chain tautomer. This is in agreement with our NMR experiments where the spectral assignments indicate that warfarin exists mainly as a mixture of cyclic hemiketal diastereomers, with an open-chain tautomer as a minor component. We present a diagram of the interconversion of warfarin created taking into account the calculated equilibrium constants (pK(T)) for all tautomeric reactions. These findings help with gaining further understanding of proton transfer and ring closure tautomerization processes. We also discuss the results in the context of chemoinformatics rules for handling tautomerism. PMID:26372257

  20. Benchmarks for the 13C NMR chemical shielding tensors in peptides in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernek, Jiří; Pawlak, Tomasz; Potrzebowski, Marek J.

    2012-02-01

    The benchmark set is proposed, which comprises 126 principal elements of chemical shielding tensors, and the respective isotropic chemical shielding values, of all 42 13C nuclei in crystalline Tyr-D-Ala-Phe and Tyr-Ala-Phe tripeptides with known, but highly dissimilar structures. These data are obtained by both the NMR measurements and the density functional theory in the pseudopotential plane-wave scheme. Using the CASTEP program, several computational strategies are employed, for which the level of agreement between calculations and experiment is established. This set is mainly intended for the validation of methods capable of predicting the 13C NMR parameters in solid-state systems.

  1. Magnetic couplings in the chemical shift of paramagnetic NMR.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Juha; Rouf, Syed Awais; Mareš, Jiří

    2015-10-13

    We apply the Kurland-McGarvey (J. Magn. Reson. 1970, 2, 286) theory for the NMR shielding of paramagnetic molecules, particularly its special case limited to the ground-state multiplet characterized by zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction of the form S·D·S. The correct formulation for this problem was recently presented by Soncini and Van den Heuvel (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 054113). With the effective electron spin quantum number S, the theory involves 2S+1 states, of which all but one are low-lying excited states, between which magnetic couplings take place by Zeeman and hyperfine interactions. We investigate these couplings as a function of temperature, focusing on both the high- and low-temperature behaviors. As has been seen in work by others, the full treatment of magnetic couplings is crucial for a realistic description of the temperature behavior of NMR shielding up to normal measurement temperatures. At high temperatures, depending on the magnitude of ZFS, the effect of magnetic couplings diminishes, and the Zeeman and hyperfine interactions become effectively averaged in the thermally occupied states of the multiplet. At still higher temperatures, the ZFS may be omitted altogether, and the shielding properties may be evaluated using a doublet-like formula, with all the 2S+1 states becoming effectively degenerate at the limit of vanishing magnetic field. We demonstrate these features using first-principles calculations of Ni(II), Co(II), Cr(II), and Cr(III) complexes, which have ZFS of different sizes and signs. A non-monotonic inverse temperature dependence of the hyperfine shift is predicted for axially symmetric integer-spin systems with a positive D parameter of ZFS. This is due to the magnetic coupling terms that are proportional to kT at low temperatures, canceling the Curie-type 1/kT prefactor of the hyperfine shielding in this case. PMID:26574272

  2. Scalar Relativistic Computations and Localized Orbital Analyses of Nuclear Hyperfine Coupling and Paramagnetic NMR Chemical Shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, Fredy W.; Pritchard, Ben; Autschbach, Jochen

    2012-02-14

    A method is reported by which calculated hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs) and paramagnetic NMR (pNMR) chemical shifts can be analyzed in a chemically intuitive way by decomposition into contributions from localized molecular orbitals (LMOs). A new module for density functional calculations with nonhybrid functionals, global hybrids, and range-separated hybrids, utilizing the two-component relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA), has been implemented in the parallel open-source NWChem quantum chemistry package. Benchmark results are reported for a test set of few-atom molecules with light and heavy elements. Finite nucleus effects on ¹⁹⁹Hg HFCCs are shown to be on the order of -11 to -15%. A proof of concept for the LMO analysis is provided for the metal and fluorine HFCCs of TiF₃ and NpF₆. Calculated pNMR chemical shifts are reported for the 2-methylphenyl-t-butylnitroxide radical and for five cyclopentadienyl (Cp) sandwich complexes with 3d metals. Nickelocene and vanadocene carbon pNMR shifts are analyzed in detail, demonstrating that the large carbon pNMR shifts calculated as +1540 for Ni (exptl.: +1514) and -443 for V (exptl.: -510) are caused by different spin-polarization mechanisms. For Ni, Cp to Ni π back-donation dominates the result, whereas for vanadocene, V to Cp σ donation with relaxation of the carbon 1s shells can be identified as the dominant mechanism.

  3. Predicting (17)O NMR chemical shifts of polyoxometalates using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rupali; Zhang, Jie; Ohlin, C André

    2016-03-21

    We have investigated the computation of (17)O NMR chemical shifts of a wide range of polyoxometalates using density functional theory. The effects of basis sets and exchange-correlation functionals are explored, and whereas pure DFT functionals generally predict the chemical shifts of terminal oxygen sites quite well, hybrid functionals are required for the prediction of accurate chemical shifts in conjunction with linear regression. By using PBE0/def2-tzvp//PBE0/cc-pvtz(H-Ar), lanl2dz(K-) we have computed the chemical shifts of 37 polyoxometalates, corresponding to 209 (17)O NMR signals. We also show that at this level of theory the protonation-induced pH dependence of the chemical shift of the triprotic hexaniobate Lindqvist anion, [HxNb6O19]((8-x)), can be reproduced, which suggests that hypotheses regarding loci of protonation can be confidently tested. PMID:26925832

  4. MP2 calculation of (77) Se NMR chemical shifts taking into account relativistic corrections.

    PubMed

    Rusakov, Yury Yu; Rusakova, Irina L; Krivdin, Leonid B

    2015-07-01

    The main factors affecting the accuracy and computational cost of the Second-order Möller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculation of (77) Se NMR chemical shifts (methods and basis sets, relativistic corrections, and solvent effects) are addressed with a special emphasis on relativistic effects. For the latter, paramagnetic contribution (390-466 ppm) dominates over diamagnetic term (192-198 ppm) resulting in a total shielding relativistic correction of about 230-260 ppm (some 15% of the total values of selenium absolute shielding constants). Diamagnetic term is practically constant, while paramagnetic contribution spans over 70-80 ppm. In the (77) Se NMR chemical shifts scale, relativistic corrections are about 20-30 ppm (some 5% of the total values of selenium chemical shifts). Solvent effects evaluated within the polarizable continuum solvation model are of the same order of magnitude as relativistic corrections (about 5%). For the practical calculations of (77) Se NMR chemical shifts of the medium-sized organoselenium compounds, the most efficient computational protocols employing relativistic Dyall's basis sets and taking into account relativistic and solvent corrections are suggested. The best result is characterized by a mean absolute error of 17 ppm for the span of (77) Se NMR chemical shifts reaching 2500 ppm resulting in a mean absolute percentage error of 0.7%. PMID:25998325

  5. Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    NMR measurements do not require separation and chemical modification of samples and therefore rapidly and directly provide non-targeted information on chemical components in complex mixtures. In this study, one-dimensional (1H, 13C, and 31P) and two-dimensional (1H-13C and 1H-31P) NMR spectroscopy were conducted to analyze yogurt without any pretreatment. 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR signals were assigned to 10 types of compounds. The signals of α/β-lactose and α/β-galactose were separately observed in the 1H NMR spectra. In addition, the signals from the acyl chains of milk fats were also successfully identified but overlapped with many other signals. Quantitative difference spectra were obtained by subtracting the diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra from the quantitative 1H NMR spectra. This method allowed us to eliminate interference on the overlaps; therefore, the correct intensities of signals overlapped with those from the acyl chains of milk fat could be determined directly without separation. Moreover, the 1H-31P HMBC spectra revealed for the first time that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate is contained in yogurt. PMID:27322339

  6. Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    NMR measurements do not require separation and chemical modification of samples and therefore rapidly and directly provide non-targeted information on chemical components in complex mixtures. In this study, one-dimensional (¹H, (13)C, and (31)P) and two-dimensional (¹H-(13)C and ¹H-(31)P) NMR spectroscopy were conducted to analyze yogurt without any pretreatment. ¹H, (13)C, and (31)P NMR signals were assigned to 10 types of compounds. The signals of α/β-lactose and α/β-galactose were separately observed in the ¹H NMR spectra. In addition, the signals from the acyl chains of milk fats were also successfully identified but overlapped with many other signals. Quantitative difference spectra were obtained by subtracting the diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra from the quantitative ¹H NMR spectra. This method allowed us to eliminate interference on the overlaps; therefore, the correct intensities of signals overlapped with those from the acyl chains of milk fat could be determined directly without separation. Moreover, the ¹H-(31)P HMBC spectra revealed for the first time that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate is contained in yogurt. PMID:27322339

  7. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew

    2002-03-03

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method.

  8. Contraction and recovery of living muscles studied by 31p nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Gadian, D. G.; Dawson, M. Joan; Wilkie, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    1. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) can be used to measure the concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites within living tissue. We have developed methods for maintaining muscles in physiological condition, stimulating them and recording tension while at the same time accumulating their 31P NMR spectra. Experiments were performed on frog sartorii and frog and toad gastrocnemii at 4° C. 2. The NMR signals from 31P (the naturally occurring phosphorus) is weak, and signal averaging is required. In order to follow the time course of reactions it is necessary to maintain the muscles in a steady state for many hours while they are undergoing repeated contractions. Signals were accumulated in separate computer bins according to time after initiation of contraction. By these means spectra were obtained which corresponded to the different intervals during the contraction and recovery cycle. 3. In the absence of stimulation, the spectra of frog sartorius muscles and of their extracts indicated concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), phosphoryl creatine (PCr), inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and sugar phosphates (sugar P) which are in reasonable agreement with the values obtained by chemical analysis. 4. We have confirmed that unidentified resonances representing unknown compounds appear in the spectra of both frog and toad muscle; one of these is much larger in spectra from toad than from frog. We have found an additional small, unidentified resonance which appears to be specific to toad muscle. 5. Spectra accumulated during actual contractions (1 s tetani every 2 min) did not differ dramatically from those accumulated throughout the 2 min cycle of contraction and partial recovery. 6. Following 25 s tetanii, approximately 20% of the PCr had been hydrolysed; it was then rebuilt exponentially with a half-time of about 10 min. The increase in [Pi] immediately after contraction and the time course of its disappearance corresponded to the changes in

  9. Prediction of (19)F NMR Chemical Shifts in Labeled Proteins: Computational Protocol and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Isley, William C; Urick, Andrew K; Pomerantz, William C K; Cramer, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    The structural analysis of ligand complexation in biomolecular systems is important in the design of new medicinal therapeutic agents; however, monitoring subtle structural changes in a protein's microenvironment is a challenging and complex problem. In this regard, the use of protein-based (19)F NMR for screening low-molecular-weight molecules (i.e., fragments) can be an especially powerful tool to aid in drug design. Resonance assignment of the protein's (19)F NMR spectrum is necessary for structural analysis. Here, a quantum chemical method has been developed as an initial approach to facilitate the assignment of a fluorinated protein's (19)F NMR spectrum. The epigenetic "reader" domain of protein Brd4 was taken as a case study to assess the strengths and limitations of the method. The overall modeling protocol predicts chemical shifts for residues in rigid proteins with good accuracy; proper accounting for explicit solvation of fluorinated residues by water is critical. PMID:27218275

  10. NMR spectroscopic study of organic phosphate esters coprecipitated with calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Brian L.; Zhang, Zelong; Kubista, Laura; Frisia, Silvia; Borsato, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Organic phosphorus incorporated in calcite during laboratory precipitation experiments and in natural cave deposits was investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For calcite precipitated in the presence of organic phosphoesters of varying size and functionality, solid-state 31P{1H} CP/MAS NMR shows that the phosphoesters were incorporated intact into the solid. Systematic changes in the 31P NMR chemical shift of the phosphate group were observed between the solid phosphoester and that incorporated in the solid precipitate, yielding 31P NMR chemical shifts of the coprecipitates in the range of +1.8 to -2.2 ppm. These chemical shifts are distinct from that of similarly prepared calcite coprecipitated with inorganic phosphate, 3.5 ppm. Only minor changes were noted in the phosphoester 31P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) which suggests no significant change in the local structure of the phosphate group, which is dominated by C-O-P bonding. Close spatial proximity of the organic phosphate group to calcite structural components was revealed by 31P/13C rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) experiments for coprecipitates prepared with 13C-labeled carbonate. All coprecipitates showed significant 31P dephasing effects upon 13C-irradiation, signaling atomic-scale proximity to carbonate carbon. The dephasing rate for smaller organophosphate molecules is similar to that observed for inorganic phosphate, whereas much slower dephasing was observed for larger molecules having long and/or bulky side-chains. This result suggests that small organic molecules can be tightly enclosed within the calcite structure, whereas significant structural disruption required to accommodate the larger organic molecules leads to longer phosphate-carbonate distances. Comparison of 31P NMR spectroscopic data from the synthetic coprecipitates with those from calcite moonmilk speleothems indicates that phosphorus occurs mainly as inorganic orthophosphate in the natural deposits, although small

  11. Single-insect NMR: A new tool to probe chemical biodiversity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to analytical limitations, multiple animals or plants are typically required to identify natural products. Using a unique 1-mm high-temperature superconducting NMR probe, we directly examined the chemical composition of defensive secretions from walkingstick insects. Individual milkings were di...

  12. Predicting Pt-195 NMR chemical shift using new relativistic all-electron basis set.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, D; Guerra, C Fonseca; de Oliveira, M A L; Ramalho, T C; Dos Santos, H F

    2016-10-01

    Predicting NMR properties is a valuable tool to assist the experimentalists in the characterization of molecular structure. For heavy metals, such as Pt-195, only a few computational protocols are available. In the present contribution, all-electron Gaussian basis sets, suitable to calculate the Pt-195 NMR chemical shift, are presented for Pt and all elements commonly found as Pt-ligands. The new basis sets identified as NMR-DKH were partially contracted as a triple-zeta doubly polarized scheme with all coefficients obtained from a Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) second-order scalar relativistic calculation. The Pt-195 chemical shift was predicted through empirical models fitted to reproduce experimental data for a set of 183 Pt(II) complexes which NMR sign ranges from -1000 to -6000 ppm. Furthermore, the models were validated using a new set of 75 Pt(II) complexes, not included in the descriptive set. The models were constructed using non-relativistic Hamiltonian at density functional theory (DFT-PBEPBE) level with NMR-DKH basis set for all atoms. For the best model, the mean absolute deviation (MAD) and the mean relative deviation (MRD) were 150 ppm and 6%, respectively, for the validation set (75 Pt-complexes) and 168 ppm (MAD) and 5% (MRD) for all 258 Pt(II) complexes. These results were comparable with relativistic DFT calculation, 200 ppm (MAD) and 6% (MRD). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27510431

  13. Automatic NMR-based identification of chemical reaction types in mixtures of co-occurring reactions.

    PubMed

    Latino, Diogo A R S; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the (1)H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the (1)H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of

  14. Automatic NMR-Based Identification of Chemical Reaction Types in Mixtures of Co-Occurring Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Latino, Diogo A. R. S.; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the 1H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the 1H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of the

  15. (77)Se chemical shift tensor of L-selenocystine: experimental NMR measurements and quantum chemical investigations of structural effects.

    PubMed

    Struppe, Jochem; Zhang, Yong; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2015-03-01

    The genetically encoded amino acid selenocysteine and its dimeric form, selenocystine, are both utilized by nature. They are found in active sites of selenoproteins, enzymes that facilitate a diverse range of reactions, including the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and regulation of redox pathways. Due to selenocysteine and selenocystine's specialized biological roles, it is of interest to examine their (77)Se NMR properties and how those can in turn be employed to study biological systems. We report the solid-state (77)Se NMR measurements of the L-selenocystine chemical shift tensor, which provides the first experimental chemical shift tensor information on selenocysteine-containing systems. Quantum chemical calculations of L-selenocystine models were performed to help understand various structural effects on (77)Se L-selenocystine's chemical shift tensor. The effects of protonation state, protein environment, and substituent of selenium-bonded carbon on the isotropic chemical shift were found to be in a range of ca. 10-20 ppm. However, the conformational effect was found to be much larger, spanning ca. 600 ppm for the C-Se-Se-C dihedral angle range of -180° to +180°. Our calculations show that around the minimum energy structure with a C-Se-Se-C dihedral angle of ca. -90°, the energy costs to alter the dihedral angle in the range from -120° to -60° are within only 2.5 kcal/mol. This makes it possible to realize these conformations in a protein or crystal environment. (77)Se NMR was found to be a sensitive probe to such changes and has an isotropic chemical shift range of 272 ± 30 ppm for this energetically favorable conformation range. The energy-minimized structures exhibited calculated isotropic shifts that lay within 3-9% of those reported in previous solution NMR studies. The experimental solid-state NMR isotropic chemical shift is near the lower bound of this calculated range for these readily accessible conformations. These results suggest

  16. 77Se Chemical Shift Tensor of L-selenocystine: Experimental NMR Measurements and Quantum Chemical Investigations of Structural Effects

    PubMed Central

    Struppe, Jochem; Zhang, Yong; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The genetically encoded amino acid selenocysteine and its dimeric form, selenocystine, are both utilized by nature. They are found in active sites of selenoproteins, enzymes that facilitate a diverse range of reactions, including the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and regulation of redox pathways. Due to selenocysteine and selenocystine’s specialized biological roles, it is of interest to examine their 77Se NMR properties and how those can in turn be employed to study biological systems. We report the solid-state 77Se NMR measurements of the L-selenocystine chemical shift tensor, which provides the first experimental chemical shift tensor information of selenocysteine-containing systems. Quantum chemical calculations of L-selenocystine models were performed to help understand various structural effects on 77Se L-selenocystine’s chemical shift tensor. The effects of protonation state, protein environment, and substituent of selenium-bonded carbon on the isotropic chemical shift were found to be in a range of ca. 10–20 ppm. However, the conformational effect was found to be much larger, spanning ca. 600 ppm for the C-Se-Se-C dihedral angle range of −180° to +180°. Our calculations show that around the minimum energy structure with a C-Se-Se-C dihedral angle of ca. −90°, the energy costs to alter the dihedral angle in the range from −120° to −60° are within only 2.5 kcal/mol. This makes it possible to realize these conformations in a protein or crystal environment. 77Se NMR was found to be a sensitive probe to such changes and has an isotropic chemical shift range of 272±30 ppm for this energetically favorable conformation range. The energy-minimized structures exhibited calculated isotropic shifts that lay within 3–9% of those reported in previous solution NMR studies. The experimental solid-state NMR isotropic chemical shift is near the lower bound of this calculated range for these readily accessible conformations. These results

  17. Optimized 31P MRS in the human brain at 7 T with a dedicated RF coil setup

    PubMed Central

    van de Bank, Bart L.; Orzada, Stephan; Smits, Frits; Lagemaat, Miriam W.; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Bitz, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    The design and construction of a dedicated RF coil setup for human brain imaging (1H) and spectroscopy (31P) at ultra‐high magnetic field strength (7 T) is presented. The setup is optimized for signal handling at the resonance frequencies for 1H (297.2 MHz) and 31P (120.3 MHz). It consists of an eight‐channel 1H transmit–receive head coil with multi‐transmit capabilities, and an insertable, actively detunable 31P birdcage (transmit–receive and transmit only), which can be combined with a seven‐channel receive‐only 31P array. The setup enables anatomical imaging and 31P studies without removal of the coil or the patient. By separating transmit and receive channels and by optimized addition of array signals with whitened singular value decomposition we can obtain a sevenfold increase in SNR of 31P signals in the occipital lobe of the human brain compared with the birdcage alone. These signals can be further enhanced by 30 ± 9% using the nuclear Overhauser effect by B 1‐shimmed low‐power irradiation of water protons. Together, these features enable acquisition of 31P MRSI at high spatial resolutions (3.0 cm3 voxel) in the occipital lobe of the human brain in clinically acceptable scan times (~15 min). © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26492089

  18. DFT study of zigzag (n, 0) single-walled carbon nanotubes: (13)C NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Kupka, Teobald; Stachów, Michal; Stobiński, Leszek; Kaminský, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    (13)C NMR chemical shifts of selected finite-size models of pristine zigzag single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a diameter of ∼0.4-0.8nm and length up to 2.2nm were studied theoretically. Results for finite SWCNTs models containing 1, 4 and 10 adjacent bamboo-type units were compared with data obtained for infinite tubes in order to estimate the reliability of small finite models in predicting magnetic properties of real-size nanotubes and to assess their tube-length dependence. SWCNTs were fully optimized using unrestricted density functional theory (DFT-UB3LYP/6-31G*). Cyclacenes, as the shortest models of open-ended zigzag SWCNTs, with systematically varying diameter were calculated as well. GIAO NMR calculations on the SWCNT and cyclacene models were performed using the BHandH density functional combined with relatively small STO-3Gmag basis set, developed by Leszczyński and coworkers for accurate description of magnetic properties. Regular changes of carbon (13)C chemical shifts along the tube axis of real size (6, 0) and (9, 0) zigzag carbon nanotubes were shown. The (13)C NMR shifts according to increasing diameter calculated for zigzag (n, 0, n=5-10) cyclacenes followed the trends observed for zigzag (n, 0) SWCNTs. The results for 4-units long SWCNTs match reasonably well with the data obtained for infinite zigzag (n, 0) SWCNTs, especially to those with bigger diameter (n=8-15). The presence of rim hydrogens obviously affects theoretical (13)C chemical shieldings and shifts in cyclacenes and thus cyclacenes can provide only approximate estimation of (13)C NMR parameters of real-size SWCNTs. The NMR properties predicted for the longest 10-units long models of SWCNTs reliably correspond to results obtained for infinite nanotubes. They were thus able to accurately predict also recently reported experimental chemical shift of chiral (6, 5) SWCNT. PMID:27155813

  19. Solid-state NMR investigations of bulk and nanocrystalline indium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graw, David Thomas

    Second-rank indirect couplings in bulk InP. The heteronuclear J-coupling tensor between nearest neighbor 31P and 113In spins in undoped InP is investigated by means of 113 In → 31P polarization transfer under rapid magic angle spinning (MAS). The scalar contribution can be measured directly and is found to have the value |Jiso(31 P-113,115In)| = (225 +/- 10) Hz. The principal value of the traceless anisotropic J-coupling tensor (pseudodipolar coupling) is determined to be Janiso(31P- 113,115In) = 2/3(J∥|(31P- 113,115In)-J⊥(31P- 113,115In)) = (813 +/- 50) Hz or (1733 +/- 50) Hz, assuming axial symmetry with the principal axis parallel to the In-P bond. Our values deviate from those reported previously (Phys. Rev. B 5, 3395, 1972), (based on a moment analysis of the 31P resonance |J iso(31P-113,115In)| = 350 Hz and Janiso(31P-113,115 In) = 1273 Hz), but confirm the that the nearest neighbor 31P-113,115In magnetic dipolar and pseudodipolar interactions are of the same order of magnitude and partially cancel each other out. Surface structure and size effects in nanocrystalline InP. The assignment of 31P NMR spectra on trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) passivated InP quantum dots is made using 2D correlation and multinuclear (1H → 13C → 31P) polarization transfer techniques. The spectra show distinct surface-capping sites as well as two crystallite In31P surface components, implying a manifold of crystal-ligand bonding configurations and electronic environments. In a previous NMR study (Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2673, 1988) on Cd 77Se nanocrystals it was shown that the first moment of the resonance line showed an upfield shift with decreasing particle size. However, the resonance line also displayed a significant amount of inhomogeneous broadening. We have shown that with decreasing size, the nanocrystal core resonance displays an increasing upfield chemical shift related to the overall size dependence of the InP electronic structure.

  20. The Chemical Shift Baseline for High-Pressure NMR Spectra of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Frach, Roland; Kibies, Patrick; Böttcher, Saraphina; Pongratz, Tim; Strohfeldt, Steven; Kurrmann, Simon; Koehler, Joerg; Hofmann, Martin; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Reiser, Oliver; Horinek, Dominik; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-07-18

    High-pressure (HP) NMR spectroscopy is an important method for detecting rare functional states of proteins by analyzing the pressure response of chemical shifts. However, for the analysis of the shifts it is mandatory to understand the origin of the observed pressure dependence. Here we present experimental HP NMR data on the (15) N-enriched peptide bond model, N-methylacetamide (NMA), in water, combined with quantum-chemical computations of the magnetic parameters using a pressure-sensitive solvation model. Theoretical analysis of NMA and the experimentally used internal reference standard 4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic (DSS) reveal that a substantial part of observed shifts can be attributed to purely solvent-induced electronic polarization of the backbone. DSS is only marginally responsive to pressure changes and is therefore a reliable sensor for variations in the local magnetic field caused by pressure-induced changes of the magnetic susceptibility of the solvent. PMID:27282319

  1. Using Neural Networks for 13C NMR Chemical Shift Prediction-Comparison with Traditional Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiler, Jens; Maier, Walter; Will, Martin; Meusinger, Reinhard

    2002-08-01

    Interpretation of 13C chemical shifts is essential for structure elucidation of organic molecules by NMR. In this article, we present an improved neural network approach and compare its performance to that of commonly used approaches. Specifically, our recently proposed neural network ( J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2000, 40, 1169-1176) is improved by introducing an extended hybrid numerical description of the carbon atom environment, resulting in a standard deviation (std. dev.) of 2.4 ppm for an independent test data set of ˜42,500 carbons. Thus, this neural network allows fast and accurate 13C NMR chemical shift prediction without the necessity of access to molecule or fragment databases. For an unbiased test dataset containing 100 organic structures the accuracy of the improved neural network was compared to that of a prediction method based on the HOSE code ( hierarchically ordered spherical description of environment) using S PECI NFO. The results show the neural network predictions to be of quality (std. dev.=2.7 ppm) comparable to that of the HOSE code prediction (std. dev.=2.6 ppm). Further we compare the neural network predictions to those of a wide variety of other 13C chemical shift prediction tools including incremental methods (C HEMD RAW, S PECT OOL), quantum chemical calculation (G AUSSIAN, C OSMOS), and HOSE code fragment-based prediction (S PECI NFO, ACD/CNMR, P REDICTI T NMR) for the 47 13C-NMR shifts of Taxol, a natural product including many structural features of organic substances. The smallest standard deviations were achieved here with the neural network (1.3 ppm) and S PECI NFO (1.0 ppm).

  2. NMR ANALYSIS OF MALE FATHEAD MINNOW URINARY METABOLITES: A POTENTIAL APPROACH FOR STUDYING IMPACTS OF CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for profiling endogenous metabolites in urine from male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to assess chemical exposures was explored using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy w...

  3. Stereoregularity of poly (lactic acid) and their model compounds as studied by NMR and quantum chemical calculations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the origin of the tacticity splitting in the NMR spectrum of poly(lactic acid), monomer model compound and dimer model compounds (both isotactic and syndiotactic) were synthesized and their 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts observed. Two energetically stable conformations were o...

  4. Chemical structure and heterogeneity differences of two lignins from loblolly pine as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced solid-state NMR was employed to investigate differences in chemical structure and heterogeneity between milled wood lignin (MWL) and residual enzyme lignin (REL). Wiley and conventional milled woods were also studied. The advanced NMR techniques included 13C quantitative direct polarization...

  5. Analysis of atomic scale chemical environments of boron in coal by 11B solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takafumi; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Kanehashi, Koji; Hayashi, Shunichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    Atomic scale chemical environments of boron in coal has been studied by solid state NMR spectroscopy including magic angle spinning (MAS), satellite transition magic angle spinning (STMAS), and cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). The (11)B NMR spectra can be briefly classified according to the degree of coalification. On the (11)B NMR spectra of lignite, bituminous, and sub-bituminous coals (carbon content of 70-90mass%), three sites assigned to four-coordinate boron ([4])B with small quadrupolar coupling constants (≤0.9 MHz) are observed. Two of the ([4])B sites in downfield are considered organoboron complexes with aromatic ligands, while the other in the most upper field is considered inorganic tetragonal boron (BO(4)). By contrast, on the (11)B NMR spectra of blind coal (carbon content >90mass%), the ([4])B which substitutes tetrahedral silicon of Illite is observed as a representative species. It has been considered that the organoboron is decomposed and released from the parent phase with the advance of coal maturation, and then the released boron reacts with the inorganic phase to substitute an element of inorganic minerals. Otherwise boron contained originally in inorganic minerals might remain preserved even under the high temperature condition that is generated during coalification. PMID:21175186

  6. Erythrocytes in muscular dystrophy. Investigation with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarpel, G.; Lubansky, H.J.; Danon, M.J.; Omachi, A.

    1981-05-01

    Phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) signals were recorded from intact human erythrocytes for 16 hours. Total phosphate concentration, which was estimated as the sum of the individual 31P signals, was 25% lower in erythrocytes from men with myotonic dystrophy than in control erythrocytes. The inorganic-phosphate fraction contained the highest average phosphate concentration over the 16-hour period, and made the major contribution to the difference in total phosphate between the two groups. This result was not observed in erythrocytes from either women with myotonic dystrophy or patients with Duchenne's dystrophy and may be due to a change in cell membrane permeability to inorganic phosphate, which lead to lower steady-state concentrations of the intracellular phosphates.

  7. Erythrocytes in muscular dystrophy. Investigation with /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarpel, G.; Lubansky, H.J.; Danon, M.J.; Omachi, A.

    1981-05-01

    Phosphorus 31 nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 31/P NMR) signals were recorded from intact human erythrocytes for 16 hours. Total phosphate concentration, which was estimated as the sum of the individual /sup 31/P signals, was 25% lower in erythrocytes from men with myotonic dystrophy than in control erythrocytes. The inorganic-phosphate fraction contained the highest average phosphate concentration over the 16-hour period, and made the major contribution to the difference in total phosphate between the two groups. This result was not observed in erythrocytes from either women with myotonic dystrophy or patients with Duchenne's dystrophy and may be due to a change in cell membrane permeability to inorganic phosphate, which leads to lower steady-state concentrations of the intracellular phosphates.

  8. Quantifying the chemical composition of soil organic carbon with solid-state 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, J. A.; Sanderman, J.

    2011-12-01

    The vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) to biological decomposition and mineralisation to CO2 is defined at least partially by its chemical composition. Highly aromatic charcoal-like SOC components are more stable to biological decomposition than other forms of carbon including cellulose. Solid-state 13C NMR has gained wide acceptance as a method capable of defining SOC chemical composition and mathematical fitting processes have been developed to estimate biochemical composition. Obtaining accurate estimates depends on an ability to quantitatively detect all carbon present in a sample. Often little attention has been paid to defining the proportion of organic carbon present in a soil that is observable in solid-state 13C NMR analyses of soil samples. However, if such data is to be used to inform carbon cycling studies, it is critical that quantitative assessments of SOC observability be undertaken. For example, it is now well established that a significant discrimination exists against the detection of the low proton content polyaromatic structures typical of charcoal using cross polarisation 13C NMR analyses. Such discrimination does not exist where direct polarisation analyses are completed. In this study, the chemical composition of SOC as defined by cross polarisation and direct polarisation13C NMR analyses will be compared for Australian soils collected from under a diverse range of agricultural managements and climatic conditions. Results indicate that where significant charcoal C contents exist, it is highly under-represented in the acquired CP spectra. For some soils, a discrimination against alkyl carbon was also evident. The ability to derive correction factors to compensate for such discriminations will be assessed and presented.

  9. Quantitative H-1 NMR Analysis of Chemical Stabilities in Anion-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, SA; Hickner, MA

    2013-01-01

    We compared the alkaline stability of three classes of anion exchange membranes that are leading candidates for applications in platinum-free fuel cells. A methodology is presented for the study of chemical stability of anion-exchange polymers in alkaline media that provides clear and quantitative H-1 NMR spectroscopic data of dissolved polymers containing benzyltrimethylammonium functionalities. Recent studies have investigated the stabilities of benzimidazolium- and alkylimidazolium-bearing polymers using periodic H-1 NMR sampling. These studies included varying alkaline concentrations, external heating sources, and excessive processing and contained no internal standard for absolute measurements. Key aspects of our time-resolved H-1 NMR method include in situ heating and sampling within the spectrometer, fixed Stoichiometric relationships between the benzyltrimethylammonium functionalities of each polymer and potassium deuteroxide (KOD), and the incorporation of an internal standard for the absolute measurement of the polymer degradation. In addition, our method permits the identification of the degradation products to find the underlying cause of chemical lability. Our results demonstrate that a styrene-based polymer containing benzyltrimethylammonium functional groups is remarkably stable when exposed to 20 equivalents per cation of KOD at 80 degrees C with a half-life (t(1/2)) of 231 h. Under these standard conditions, functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers, both bearing benzyltrimethylammonium functionalities were found to degrade with a half-lives of 57.8 and 2.7 h, respectively.

  10. Intermolecular (119)Sn,(31)P Through-Space Spin-Spin Coupling in a Solid Bivalent Tin Phosphido Complex.

    PubMed

    Arras, Janet; Eichele, Klaus; Maryasin, Boris; Schubert, Hartmut; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Wesemann, Lars

    2016-05-01

    A bivalent tin complex [Sn(NP)2] (NP = [(2-Me2NC6H4)P(C6H5)](-)) was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction and solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In agreement with the X-ray structures of two polymorphs of the molecule, (31)P and (119)Sn CP/MAS NMR spectra revealed one crystallographic phosphorus and tin site with through-bond (1)J((117/119)Sn,(31)P) and through-space (TS)J((117/119)Sn,(31)P) spin-spin couplings. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the NMR parameters confirm the experimental data. The observation of through-space (TS)J((117/119)Sn,(31)P) couplings was unexpected, as the distances of the phosphorus atoms of one molecule and the tin atom of the neighboring molecule (>4.6 Å) are outside the sum of the van der Waals radii of the atoms P and Sn (4.32 Å). The intermolecular Sn···P separations are clearly too large for bonding interactions, as supported by a natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:27071033

  11. The effects of pregnancy and parturition on phosphorus metabolites in rat uterus studied by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, M J; Wray, S

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of phosphorus metabolites and intracellular pH have been measured in non-pregnant, late-pregnant and post-partum rat uterus using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P n.m.r.). Intact uterine tissue was superfused with oxygenated de-Jalon solution at 4, 20 or 37 degrees C while inside the n.m.r. spectrometer. The phosphocreatine concentration [PCr], was higher and the inorganic phosphate concentration [Pi], lower than values determined by chemical analysis of extracts from both pregnant and non-pregnant rat uterus. [PCr] was 1.4-fold greater in late-pregnant than in non-pregnant rat uterus. Following parturition, large changes were observed in [PCr], [Pi] and in an unidentified metabolite in the phosphomonoester (PME) region of the n.m.r. spectrum. The time course of the recovery of these metabolites to prepregnant values was determined. The [PCr] remained below the non-pregnant value for at least 1 week post-partum and the [Pi] was elevated, compared to the non-pregnant value, during this period. More rapid changes were seen in the [PME], which doubled on day 0 post-partum but almost returned to its non-pregnant value on day 1 post-partum. No significant difference was observed between intracellular pH values in late-pregnant and non-pregnant rat uterus; however, there was a large acid shift following parturition. Intracellular pH depended upon the temperature at which the tissue was maintained. The effect of muscular work during parturition was investigated by comparing Caesarian-sectioned uteri with uteri which had undergone normal parturition. Uteri examined 1 day after Caesarian operation showed no differences in metabolite levels from normal, 1 day post-partum uteri. We conclude that concentrations of phosphorus metabolites depend upon the physiological state of the uterus. We suggest that the changes following parturition are not a consequence of the mechanical work performed by the uterus, but must be caused by some other event associated with

  12. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25616193

  13. NMR Hyperfine Shifts in Blue Copper Proteins: A Quantum Chemical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Oldfield, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the first quantum chemical investigations of 1H NMR hyperfine shifts in the blue copper proteins (BCPs): amicyanin, azurin, pseudoazurin, plastocyanin, stellacyanin, and rusticyanin. We find that very large structural models that incorporate extensive hydrogen bond networks, as well as geometry optimization, are required to reproduce the experimental NMR hyperfine shift results, the best theory vs experiment predictions having R2 = 0.94, a slope = 1.01, and a SD = 40.5 ppm (or ~4.7% of the overall ~860 ppm shift range). We also find interesting correlations between the hyperfine shifts and the bond and ring critical point properties computed using atoms-in-molecules theory, in addition to finding that hyperfine shifts can be well-predicted by using an empirical model, based on the geometry-optimized structures, which in the future should be of use in structure refinement. PMID:18314973

  14. Review of NMR characterization of pyrolysis oils

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Naijia; Ben, Haoxi; Yoo, Chang Geun; Adhikari, Sushil; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-24

    Here, pyrolysis of renewable biomass has been developed as a method to produce green fuels and chemicals in response to energy security concerns as well as to alleviate environmental issues incurred with fossil fuel usage. However, pyrolysis oils still have limited commercial application, mainly because unprocessed oils cannot be readily blended with current petroleum-based transportation fuels. To better understand these challenges, researchers have applied diverse characterization techniques in the development of bio-oil studies. In particular, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a key spectroscopic characterization method through analysis of bio-oil components. This review highlights the NMR strategies for pyrolysis oil characterizationmore » and critically discusses the applications of 1H, 13C, 31P, 19F, and two-dimensional (2-D NMR) analyses such as heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) in representative pyrolysis oil studies.« less

  15. Chemical Shifts to Metabolic Pathways: Identifying Metabolic Pathways Directly from a Single 2D NMR Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Abhinav; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Pal, Debnath; Atreya, Hanudatta S

    2015-12-15

    Identifying cellular processes in terms of metabolic pathways is one of the avowed goals of metabolomics studies. Currently, this is done after relevant metabolites are identified to allow their mapping onto specific pathways. This task is daunting due to the complex nature of cellular processes and the difficulty in establishing the identity of individual metabolites. We propose here a new method: ChemSMP (Chemical Shifts to Metabolic Pathways), which facilitates rapid analysis by identifying the active metabolic pathways directly from chemical shifts obtained from a single two-dimensional (2D) [(13)C-(1)H] correlation NMR spectrum without the need for identification and assignment of individual metabolites. ChemSMP uses a novel indexing and scoring system comprised of a "uniqueness score" and a "coverage score". Our method is demonstrated on metabolic pathways data from the Small Molecule Pathway Database (SMPDB) and chemical shifts from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). Benchmarks show that ChemSMP has a positive prediction rate of >90% in the presence of decluttered data and can sustain the same at 60-70% even in the presence of noise, such as deletions of peaks and chemical shift deviations. The method tested on NMR data acquired for a mixture of 20 amino acids shows a success rate of 93% in correct recovery of pathways. When used on data obtained from the cell lysate of an unexplored oncogenic cell line, it revealed active metabolic pathways responsible for regulating energy homeostasis of cancer cells. Our unique tool is thus expected to significantly enhance analysis of NMR-based metabolomics data by reducing existing impediments. PMID:26556218

  16. Off-resonance rotating frame spin-lattice NMR relaxation studies of phosphorus metabolite rotational diffusion in bovine lens homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Caines, G.H.; Schleich, T.; Morgan, C.F. ); Farnsworth, P.N. )

    1990-08-21

    The rotational diffusion behavior of phosphorus metabolites present in calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates was investigated by the NMR technique of {sup 31}P off-resonance rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation as a means of assessing the occurrence and extent of phosphorus metabolite-lens protein interactions. {sup 31}P NMR spectra of calf lens homogenates were obtained at 10 and 18{degree}C at 7.05 T. Effective rotational correlation times ({tau}{sub 0,eff}) for the major phosphorus metabolites present in cortical and nuclear bovine calf lens homogenates were derived from nonlinear least-squares analysis of R vs {omega}{sub e} data with the assumption of isotropic reorientational motion. Intramolecular dipole-dipole ({sup 1}H-{sup 31}P, {sup 31}P-{sup 31}P), chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), and solvent (water) translational intermolecular dipole-dipole ({sup 1}H-{sup 31}P) relaxation contributions were assumed in the analyses. A fast-exchange model between free and bound forms, was employed in the analysis of the metabolite R vs {omega}{sub e} curves to yield the fraction of free (unbound) metabolite ({Theta}{sub free}). The results of this study establish the occurrence of significant temperature-dependent (above and below the cold cataract phase transition temperature) binding of ATP (cortex) and PME (nucleus) and p{sub i} (nucleus) in calf lens.

  17. Synthesis, vibrational, NMR, quantum chemical and structure-activity relation studies of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Devi, L; Subbalakshmi, R; Rani, T; Mohan, S

    2014-09-15

    The stable geometry of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone is optimised by DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(∗∗) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the optimised geometry have been determined. The effects of substituents (hydroxyl, methoxy and acetyl groups) on the benzene ring vibrational frequencies are analysed. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone have been precisely assigned and analysed and the theoretical results are compared with the experimental vibrations. 1H and 13C NMR isotropic chemical shifts are calculated and assignments made are compared with the experimental values. The energies of important MO's, the total electron density and electrostatic potential of the compound are determined. Various reactivity and selectivity descriptors such as chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the appropriate local quantities are calculated. PMID:24792193

  18. Synthesis, vibrational, NMR, quantum chemical and structure-activity relation studies of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Devi, L.; Subbalakshmi, R.; Rani, T.; Mohan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The stable geometry of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone is optimised by DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G∗∗ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The structural parameters, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies of the optimised geometry have been determined. The effects of substituents (hydroxyl, methoxy and acetyl groups) on the benzene ring vibrational frequencies are analysed. The vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone have been precisely assigned and analysed and the theoretical results are compared with the experimental vibrations. 1H and 13C NMR isotropic chemical shifts are calculated and assignments made are compared with the experimental values. The energies of important MO’s, the total electron density and electrostatic potential of the compound are determined. Various reactivity and selectivity descriptors such as chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the appropriate local quantities are calculated.

  19. Rotation of Lipids in Membranes: Molecular Dynamics Simulation, 31P Spin-Lattice Relaxation, and Rigid-Body Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Klauda, Jeffery B.; Roberts, Mary F.; Redfield, Alfred G.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and 31P-NMR spin-lattice (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}R_{1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) relaxation rates from 0.022 to 21.1 T of fluid phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers are compared. Agreement between experiment and direct prediction from simulation indicates that the dominant slow relaxation (correlation) times of the dipolar and chemical shift anisotropy spin-lattice relaxation are ∼10 ns and 3 ns, respectively. Overall reorientation of the lipid body, consisting of the phosphorus, glycerol, and acyl chains, is well described within a rigid-body model. Wobble, with \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}D_{{\\bot}}=\\end{equation*}\\end{document} 1–2 × 108 s−1, is the primary component of the 10 ns relaxation; this timescale is consistent with the tumbling of a lipid-sized cylinder in a medium with the viscosity of liquid hexadecane. The value for \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}D_{{\\Vert}},\\end{equation*}\\end{document} the diffusion constant for rotation about the long axis of the lipid body, is difficult to determine precisely because of averaging by fast motions and wobble; it is tentatively estimated to be 1 × 107 s−1. The resulting D‖/D⊥

  20. Dynamic processes and chemical composition of Lepidium sativum seeds determined by means of field-cycling NMR relaxometry and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rachocki, A; Latanowicz, L; Tritt-Goc, J

    2012-12-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, such as field-cycling relaxometry, wide-line NMR spectroscopy, and magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, were applied to study the seeds of cress, Lepidium sativum. Field-cycling NMR relaxometry was used for the first time to investigate the properties of the whole molecular system of dry cress seeds. This method not only allowed the dynamics to be studied, but was also successful in the differentiation among the solid (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, or fats forming a solid form of lipids) and liquid-like (oil compounds) components of the seeds. The (1)H NMR relaxation dispersion of oils was interpreted as a superposition of intramolecular and intermolecular contributions. The intramolecular part was described in terms of a Lorentzian spectral density function, whereas a log-Gaussian distribution of correlation times was applied for the intermolecular dipole-dipole contribution. The models applied led to very good agreement with the experimental data and demonstrate that the contribution of the intermolecular relaxation to the overall relaxation should not be disregarded, especially at low frequencies. A power-law frequency dependence of the proton relaxation dispersion was used for the interpretation of the solid components. From the analysis of the (1)H wide-line NMR spectra of the liquid-like component of hydrated cress seeds, we can conclude that the contribution of oil protons should always be taken into account when evaluating the spin-lattice relaxation times values or measuring the moisture and oil content. The application of (1)H magic angle spinning NMR significantly improves resolution in the liquid-like spectrum of seeds and allows the determination of the chemical composition of cress seeds. PMID:23001307

  1. Subtle Chemical Shifts Explain the NMR Fingerprints of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins with High Dentin Biomodification Potency.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Won; Phansalkar, Rasika S; Lankin, David C; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B; Leme, Ariene A; Vidal, Cristina M P; Ramirez, Benjamin; Niemitz, Matthias; Bedran-Russo, Ana; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-08-01

    The ability of certain oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPACs) to enhance the biomechanical properties of dentin involves collagen cross-linking of the 1.3-4.5 nm wide space via protein-polyphenol interactions. A systematic interdisciplinary search for the bioactive principles of pine bark has yielded the trimeric PAC, ent-epicatechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin-(2β→O→7,4β→8)-catechin (3), representing the hitherto most potent single chemical entity capable of enhancing dentin stiffness. Building the case from two congeneric PAC dimers, a detailed structural analysis decoded the stereochemistry, spatial arrangement, and chemical properties of three dentin biomodifiers. Quantum-mechanics-driven (1)H iterative full spin analysis (QM-HiFSA) of NMR spectra distinguished previously unrecognized details such as higher order J coupling and provided valuable information about 3D structure. Detection and quantification of H/D-exchange effects by QM-HiFSA identified C-8 and C-6 as (re)active sites, explain preferences in biosynthetic linkage, and suggest their involvement in dentin cross-linking activity. Mapping of these molecular properties underscored the significance of high δ precision in both (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Occurring at low- to subppb levels, these newly characterized chemical shift differences in ppb are small but diagnostic measures of dynamic processes inherent to the OPAC pharmacophores and can help augment our understanding of nanometer-scale intermolecular interactions in biomodified dentin macromolecules. PMID:26214362

  2. Protein structural information derived from NMR chemical shift with the neural network program TALOS-N.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Bax, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Chemical shifts are obtained at the first stage of any protein structural study by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shifts are known to be impacted by a wide range of structural factors, and the artificial neural network based TALOS-N program has been trained to extract backbone and side-chain torsion angles from (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C shifts. The program is quite robust and typically yields backbone torsion angles for more than 90 % of the residues and side-chain χ 1 rotamer information for about half of these, in addition to reliably predicting secondary structure. The use of TALOS-N is illustrated for the protein DinI, and torsion angles obtained by TALOS-N analysis from the measured chemical shifts of its backbone and (13)C(β) nuclei are compared to those seen in a prior, experimentally determined structure. The program is also particularly useful for generating torsion angle restraints, which then can be used during standard NMR protein structure calculations. PMID:25502373

  3. Chemical shift changes and line narrowing in 13C NMR spectra of hydrocarbon clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Kida, Masato; Sakagami, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Nagao, Jiro

    2013-05-23

    The solid-state (13)C NMR spectra of various guest hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, adamantane) in clathrate hydrates were measured to elucidate the local structural environments around hydrocarbon molecules isolated in guest-host frameworks of clathrate hydrates. The results show that, depending on the cage environment, the trends in the (13)C chemical shift and line width change as a function of temperature. Shielding around the carbons of the guest normal alkanes in looser cage environments tends to decrease with increasing temperature, whereas shielding in tighter cage environments tends to increase continuously with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the (13)C NMR line widths suggest, because of the reorientation of the guest alkanes, that the local structures in structure II are more averaged than those in structure I. The differences between structures I and II tend to be very large in the lower temperature range examined in this study. The (13)C NMR spectra of adamantane guest molecules in structure H hydrate show that the local structures around adamantane guests trapped in structure H hydrate cages are averaged at the same level as in the α phase of solid adamantane. PMID:23607335

  4. Chemical reactivity of graphene oxide towards amines elucidated by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Isabella A.; Spinato, Cinzia; Raya, Jésus; Bianco, Alberto; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia

    2016-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by amidation. We also prove that there is a negligible amount of carboxylic acid groups in two GO samples obtained by a different synthesis process, hence eliminating the possibility of amidation reactions with amine derivatives. This work brings additional insights into the chemical reactivity of GO, which is fundamental to control its functionalization, and highlights the major role of MAS NMR spectroscopy for a comprehensive characterization of derivatized GO.Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by

  5. NMR Chemical Shift Ranges of Urine Metabolites in Various Organic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Görling, Benjamin; Bräse, Stefan; Luy, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Signal stability is essential for reliable multivariate data analysis. Urine samples show strong variance in signal positions due to inter patient differences. Here we study the exchange of the solvent of a defined urine matrix and how it affects signal and integral stability of the urinary metabolites by NMR spectroscopy. The exchange solvents were methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, and dimethyl formamide. Some of these solvents showed promising results with a single batch of urine. To evaluate further differences between urine samples, various acid, base, and salt solutions were added in a defined way mimicking to some extent inter human differences. Corresponding chemical shift changes were monitored. PMID:27598217

  6. Distinguishing Phosphate Structural Defects From Inclusions in Calcite and Aragonite by NMR Spectroscopy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B. L.; Mason, H. E.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in the concentration of minor and trace elements are being studied extensively for potential use as proxies to infer environmental conditions at the time of mineral deposition. Such proxies rely fundamentally on a relationship between the activities in the solution and in the solid that would seem to be simple only in the case that the species substitutes into the mineral structure. Other incorporation mechanisms are possible, including inclusions (both mineral and fluid) and occlusion of surface adsorbate complexes, that might be sensitive to other factors, such as crystallization kinetics, and difficult to distinguish analytically. For example, it is known from mineral adsorption studies that surface precipitates can be nanoscopic, and might not be apparent at resolutions typical of microchemical analysis. Techniques by which a structural relationship between the substituting element and the host mineral structure are needed to provide a sound basis for geochemical proxies. NMR spectroscopy offers methods for probing such spatial relationship. We are using solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate phosphate incorporation in calcium carbonate minerals, including calcite speleothems and coral skeletal aragonite, at concentrations of the order 100 μg P g -1. In 31P NMR spectra of most samples, narrow peaks arising from crystalline inclusions can be resolved, including apatite in coral aragonite and an unidentified phase in calcite. All samples studied yield also a broad 31P signal, centered near chemical shifts of +3 to +4 ppm, that could be assigned to phosphate defects in the host mineral and from which the fraction of P occurring in the carbonate mineral structure can be determined. To test this assignment we applied rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) NMR techniques that probe the molecular-scale proximity of carbonate groups to the phosphate responsible for the broad 31P peak. This method measures dipole-dipole coupling between 31P of

  7. Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-10-14

    Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110–120 kHz), {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow {sup 1}H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) {sup 1}H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic

  8. Chemical reactivity of graphene oxide towards amines elucidated by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Vacchi, Isabella A; Spinato, Cinzia; Raya, Jésus; Bianco, Alberto; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia

    2016-07-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by amidation. We also prove that there is a negligible amount of carboxylic acid groups in two GO samples obtained by a different synthesis process, hence eliminating the possibility of amidation reactions with amine derivatives. This work brings additional insights into the chemical reactivity of GO, which is fundamental to control its functionalization, and highlights the major role of MAS NMR spectroscopy for a comprehensive characterization of derivatized GO. PMID:27411370

  9. Relativistic environmental effects in (29)Si NMR chemical shifts of halosilanes: light nucleus, heavy environment.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Sergey V; Rusakov, Yury Yu; Krivdin, Leonid B

    2015-06-01

    Relativistic calculations of (29)Si NMR shielding constants (chemical shifts) in the series of halosilanes SiX(n)H(4-n) (X = F, Cl, Br and I) are performed within a full four-component relativistic Dirac's scheme using relativistic Dyall's basis sets. Three different theoretical levels are tested in the computation of (29)Si NMR chemical shifts in comparison with experiment: namely, four-component relativistic GIAO-DFT, four-component relativistic GIAO-RPA, and a hybrid scheme of a nonrelativistic GIAO-MP2 with taking into account relativistic corrections using the four-component relativistic GIAO-RPA. The DFT results give larger relativistic effects as compared to the RPA data which might be rationalized in terms of the manifestation of correlation effects taken into account at the DFT level and not accounted for at the uncorrelated RPA level. Taking into account solvent effects slightly improves agreement with experiment, however, being not a matter of principle. Generally, relativistic pure nonempirical wave function methods perform much better as compared to relativistic DFT methods when benchmarked to experiment. PMID:25946056

  10. High-sensitivity chemical derivatization NMR analysis for condition monitoring of aged elastomers.

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, Roger Alan; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Skutnik, Julie Michelle

    2004-06-01

    An aged polybutadiene-based elastomer was reacted with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and subsequently analyzed via 19F NMR spectroscopy. Derivatization between the TFAA and hydroxyl functionalities produced during thermo-oxidative aging was achieved, resulting in the formation of trifluoroester groups on the polymer. Primary and secondary alcohols were confirmed to be the main oxidation products of this material, and the total percent oxidation correlated with data obtained from oxidation rate measurements. The chemical derivatization appears to be highly sensitive and can be used to establish the presence and identity of oxidation products in aged polymeric materials. This methodology represents a novel condition monitoring approach for the detection of chemical changes that are otherwise difficult to analyze.

  11. A theoretical study of rotational diffusion models for rod-shaped viruses. The influence of motion on 31P nuclear magnetic resonance lineshapes and transversal relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A

    1993-01-01

    Information about the interaction between nucleic acids and coat proteins in intact virus particles may be obtained by studying the restricted backbone dynamics of the incapsulated nucleic acids using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this article, simulations are carried out to investigate how reorientation of a rod-shaped virus particle as a whole and isolated nucleic acid motions within the virion influence the 31P NMR lineshape and transversal relaxation dominated by the phosphorus chemical shift anisotropy. Two opposite cases are considered on a theoretical level. First, isotropic rotational diffusion is used as a model for mobile nucleic acids that are loosely or partially bound to the protein coat. The effect of this type of diffusion on lineshape and transversal relaxation is calculated by solving the stochastic Liouville equation by an expansion in spherical functions. Next, uniaxial rotational diffusion is assumed to represent the mobility of phosphorus in a virion that rotates as a rigid rod about its length axis. This type of diffusion is approximated by an exchange process among discrete sites. As turns out from these simulations, the amplitude and the frequency of the motion can only be unequivocally determined from experimental data by a combined analysis of the lineshape and the transversal relaxation. In the fast motional region both the isotropic and the uniaxial diffusion model predict the same transversal relaxation as the Redfield theory. For very slow motion, transversal relaxation resembles the nonexponential relaxation as observed for water molecules undergoing translational diffusion in a magnetic field gradient. In this frequency region T2e is inversely proportional to the cube root of the diffusion coefficient. In addition to the isotropic and uniaxial diffusion models, a third model is presented, in which fast restricted nucleic acid backbone motions dominating the lineshape are superimposed on a slow rotation of the

  12. NMR chemical shift pattern changed by ammonium sulfate precipitation in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Lang, Christina; Kopycki, Jakub; Hughes, Jon; Matysik, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are dimeric biliprotein photoreceptors exhibiting characteristic red/far-red photocycles. Full-length cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 from Synechocystis 6803 is soluble initially but tends to aggregate in a concentration-dependent manner, hampering attempts to solve the structure using NMR and crystallization methods. Otherwise, the Cph1 sensory module (Cph1Δ2), photochemically indistinguishable from the native protein and used extensively in structural and other studies, can be purified to homogeneity in >10 mg amounts at mM concentrations quite easily. Bulk precipitation of full-length Cph1 by ammonium sulfate (AmS) was expected to allow us to produce samples for solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR from dilute solutions before significant aggregation began. It was not clear, however, what effects the process of partial dehydration might have on the molecular structure. Here we test this by running solid-state MAS NMR experiments on AmS-precipitated Cph1Δ2 in its red-absorbing Pr state carrying uniformly 13C/15N-labeled phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore. 2D 13C–13C correlation experiments allowed a complete assignment of 13C responses of the chromophore. Upon precipitation, 13C chemical shifts for most of PCB carbons move upfield, in which we found major changes for C4 and C6 atoms associated with the A-ring positioning. Further, the broad spectral lines seen in the AmS 13C spectrum reflect primarily the extensive inhomogeneous broadening presumably due to an increase in the distribution of conformational states in the protein, in which less free water is available to partake in the hydration shells. Our data suggest that the effect of dehydration process indeed leads to changes of electronic structure of the bilin chromophore and a decrease in its mobility within the binding pocket, but not restricted to the protein surface. The extent of the changes induced differs from the freezing process of the solution samples routinely used in

  13. Benchmarking quantum mechanical calculations with experimental NMR chemical shifts of 2-HADNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuemin; Junk, Thomas; Liu, Yucheng; Tzeng, Nianfeng; Perkins, Richard

    2015-04-01

    In this study, both GIAO-DFT and GIAO-MP2 calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were benchmarked with experimental chemical shifts. The experimental chemical shifts were determined experimentally for carbon-13 (C-13) of seven carbon atoms for the TNT degradation product 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-HADNT). Quantum mechanics GIAO calculations were implemented using Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) and other six hybrid DFT methods (Becke-1-Lee-Yang-Parr (B1LYP), Becke-half-and-half-Lee-Yang-Parr (BH and HLYP), Cohen-Handy-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (O3LYP), Coulomb-attenuating-B3LYP (CAM-B3LYP), modified-Perdew-Wang-91-Lee-Yang-Parr (mPW1LYP), and Xu-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (X3LYP)) which use the same correlation functional LYP. Calculation results showed that the GIAO-MP2 method gives the most accurate chemical shift values, and O3LYP method provides the best prediction of chemical shifts among the B3LYP and other five DFT methods. Three types of atomic partial charges, Mulliken (MK), electrostatic potential (ESP), and natural bond orbital (NBO), were also calculated using MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ method. A reasonable correlation was discovered between NBO partial charges and experimental chemical shifts of carbon-13 (C-13).

  14. Hypophosphite ion as a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance probe of membrane potential in erythrocyte suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, K; Kuchel, P W; Labotka, R J

    1988-01-01

    Hypophosphorus acid has a single pKa of 1.1 and at physiological pH values it is therefore present almost entirely as the univalent hypophosphite ion. When added to a red cell suspension the ion crosses the cell membrane rapidly, via the anion exchange protein, and the intra- and extracellular populations of the ion give rise to separate 31P NMR resonances. From a single 31P NMR spectrum it was possible to determine the relative amounts of hypophosphite in the intra- and extracellular compartments and thereby estimate the corresponding concentrations. The ratio of intracellular to extracellular hypophosphite concentration was independent of the total hypophosphite concentration for cells suspended in NaCl solutions and was independent of hematocrit. The hypophosphite distribution ratio increased as extracellular NaCl was replaced iso-osmotically with citrate or sucrose, through it remained very similar to the corresponding hydrogen ion distribution ratio. Incorporation of the hypophosphite distribution ratio into the Nernst equation yielded an estimate of the membrane potential. For cells suspended in NaCl solutions the estimated potential was consistently around -10 mV. PMID:3207824

  15. 2D NMR Barcoding and Differential Analysis of Complex Mixtures for Chemical Identification: The Actaea Triterpenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of NMR spectroscopic information for structure elucidation involves decoding of complex resonance patterns that contain valuable molecular information (δ and J), which is not readily accessible otherwise. We introduce a new concept of 2D-NMR barcoding that uses clusters of fingerprint signals and their spatial relationships in the δ−δ coordinate space to facilitate the chemical identification of complex mixtures. Similar to widely used general barcoding technology, the structural information of individual compounds is encoded as a specifics pattern of their C,H correlation signals. Software-based recognition of these patterns enables the structural identification of the compounds and their discrimination in mixtures. Using the triterpenes from various Actaea (syn. Cimicifuga) species as a test case, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) barcodes were generated on the basis of their structural subtypes from a statistical investigation of their δH and δC data in the literature. These reference barcodes allowed in silico identification of known triterpenes in enriched fractions obtained from an extract of A. racemosa (black cohosh). After dereplication, a differential analysis of heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) spectra even allowed for the discovery of a new triterpene. The 2D barcoding concept has potential application in a natural product discovery project, allowing for the rapid dereplication of known compounds and as a tool in the search for structural novelty within compound classes with established barcodes. PMID:24673652

  16. 2D NMR barcoding and differential analysis of complex mixtures for chemical identification: the Actaea triterpenes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Burton, Ian; Karakach, Tobias; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2014-04-15

    The interpretation of NMR spectroscopic information for structure elucidation involves decoding of complex resonance patterns that contain valuable molecular information (δ and J), which is not readily accessible otherwise. We introduce a new concept of 2D-NMR barcoding that uses clusters of fingerprint signals and their spatial relationships in the δ-δ coordinate space to facilitate the chemical identification of complex mixtures. Similar to widely used general barcoding technology, the structural information of individual compounds is encoded as a specifics pattern of their C,H correlation signals. Software-based recognition of these patterns enables the structural identification of the compounds and their discrimination in mixtures. Using the triterpenes from various Actaea (syn. Cimicifuga) species as a test case, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) barcodes were generated on the basis of their structural subtypes from a statistical investigation of their δH and δC data in the literature. These reference barcodes allowed in silico identification of known triterpenes in enriched fractions obtained from an extract of A. racemosa (black cohosh). After dereplication, a differential analysis of heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) spectra even allowed for the discovery of a new triterpene. The 2D barcoding concept has potential application in a natural product discovery project, allowing for the rapid dereplication of known compounds and as a tool in the search for structural novelty within compound classes with established barcodes. PMID:24673652

  17. Human cardiac 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 tesla

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Christopher T; Clarke, William T; Snyder, Carl; Vaughan, J Thomas; Neubauer, Stefan; Robson, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) affords unique insight into cardiac energetics but has a low intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in humans. Theory predicts an increased 31P-MRS SNR at 7T, offering exciting possibilities to better investigate cardiac metabolism. We therefore compare the performance of human cardiac 31P-MRS at 7T to 3T, and measure T1s for 31P metabolites at 7T. Methods Matched 31P-MRS data were acquired at 3T and 7T, on nine normal volunteers. A novel Look-Locker CSI acquisition and fitting approach was used to measure T1s on six normal volunteers. Results T1s in the heart at 7T were: phosphocreatine (PCr) 3.05 ± 0.41s, γ-ATP 1.82 ± 0.09s, α-ATP 1.39 ± 0.09s, β-ATP 1.02 ± 0.17s and 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate) 3.05 ± 0.41s (N = 6). In the field comparison (N = 9), PCr SNR increased 2.8× at 7T relative to 3T, the Cramer-Ráo uncertainty (CRLB) in PCr concentration decreased 2.4×, the mean CRLB in PCr/ATP decreased 2.7× and the PCr/ATP SD decreased 2×. Conclusion Cardiac 31P-MRS at 7T has higher SNR and the spectra can be quantified more precisely than at 3T. Cardiac 31P T1s are shorter at 7T than at 3T. We predict that 7T will become the field strength of choice for cardiac 31P-MRS. Magn Reson Med 72:304–315, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Medicine in Resonance. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24006267

  18. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data.

  19. Spectroscopic (vibrational, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations on 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ashgar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde compound as one of the derivatives of vanillin which is a well known flavoring agent, C14H20O3, has been investigated by experimentally and extensively utilizing density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. In this context, the optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts, UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra, HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic parameters and atomic charges of 4-hexyloxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde have been calculated. In addition, theoretically predicted IR, Raman and UV-vis. (in gas phase and in methanol solvent) spectra of the mentioned molecule have been constructed. The results calculated were compared with the experimental data. PMID:25736185

  20. Correlation of Chemical Bond Directions and Functional Group Orientations in Solids by Two-Dimensional NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weliky, D. P.; Dabbagh, G.; Tycko, R.

    We describe a new two-dimensional NMR technique for structural studies of polycrystalline and noncrystalline solids. The technique is a variant of 2D exchange spectroscopy applicable to organic molecules, macromolecules, or molecular complexes that are doubly 13C-labeled at a specific carboncarbon bond and singly 13C labeled at a specific functional group. A Carr-Purcell sequence is used to obtain dipolar spectra in the t1 dimension. Spectra in the t2 dimension are determined primarily by the chemical-shift anisotropy. With spin diffusion among the labeled sites between the t1 and t2 periods, the resulting 2D spectra reveal correlations between the direction of the labeled bond and the orientation of the labeled functional group. Experimental spectra of two polycrystalline model compounds, dimethyl succinate and diammonium succinate, are presented and compared with simulations to illustrate the structural information contained in the 2D spectra.

  1. Toward Relatively General and Accurate Quantum Chemical Predictions of Solid-State 17O NMR Chemical Shifts in Various Biologically Relevant Oxygen-containing Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Rorick, Amber; Michael, Matthew A.; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an important element in most biologically significant molecules and experimental solid-state 17O NMR studies have provided numerous useful structural probes to study these systems. However, computational predictions of solid-state 17O NMR chemical shift tensor properties are still challenging in many cases and in particular each of the prior computational work is basically limited to one type of oxygen-containing systems. This work provides the first systematic study of the effects of geometry refinement, method and basis sets for metal and non-metal elements in both geometry optimization and NMR property calculations of some biologically relevant oxygen-containing compounds with a good variety of XO bonding groups, X= H, C, N, P, and metal. The experimental range studied is of 1455 ppm, a major part of the reported 17O NMR chemical shifts in organic and organometallic compounds. A number of computational factors towards relatively general and accurate predictions of 17O NMR chemical shifts were studied to provide helpful and detailed suggestions for future work. For the studied various kinds of oxygen-containing compounds, the best computational approach results in a theory-versus-experiment correlation coefficient R2 of 0.9880 and mean absolute deviation of 13 ppm (1.9% of the experimental range) for isotropic NMR shifts and R2 of 0.9926 for all shift tensor properties. These results shall facilitate future computational studies of 17O NMR chemical shifts in many biologically relevant systems, and the high accuracy may also help refinement and determination of active-site structures of some oxygen-containing substrate bound proteins. PMID:26274812

  2. Modeling proteins using a super-secondary structure library and NMR chemical shift information

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Vilas; Vallat, Brinda; Dybas, Joseph M.; Fiser, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Summary A remaining challenge in protein modeling is to predict structures for sequences that do not share recognizable sequence similarity to any experimentally solved structure. This challenge can be addressed by hybrid algorithms that utilize easily obtainable experimental data and carry a limited amount of indirect structural information. Based on earlier observations, the library of protein super-secondary structure motifs (Smotifs) saturated about a decade ago, and new folds discovered since then are novel combinations of existing Smotifs. This observation suggests that it should be possible to build any structure, of either a known or yet to be discovered fold, from a combination of existing Smotifs derived from already known structures. In the absence of any sequence similarity signal, limited experimental data can be used to relate the backbone conformations of Smotifs between target proteins and known experimental structures. Here we present a modeling algorithm that relies on an exhaustive Smotif library and on NMR chemical shift patterns without any input of primary sequence information. In a test of 102 proteins with unique folds, the algorithm delivered 90 homology model quality models, among them 24 high quality ones, and a topologically correct solution for almost all cases. Detailed analysis of the method’s performance suggests that further improvement can be achieved by improving sampling algorithms and developing more precise tools that predict dihedral angle preferences from chemical shift assignments. The current approach opens a venue to address the modeling of larger protein structures for which chemical shifts are available. PMID:23685209

  3. Are nucleus-independent (NICS) and 1H NMR chemical shifts good indicators of aromaticity in π-stacked polyfluorenes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, Sílvia; Poater, Jordi; Bofill, Josep M.; Alemany, Pere; Solà, Miquel

    2006-09-01

    We have analyzed the change of local aromaticity in a series of polyfluorene compounds with the increase of the number of π-stacked layers. The local aromaticity of the aromatic and non-aromatic rings of polyfluorenes remains unchanged when going from one to four layers of π-stacked rings according to HOMA, PDI, and FLU aromaticity descriptors. On the contrary, experimental 1H NMR chemical shifts indicate a reduction of the aromaticity of π-stacked rings with the increase of the number of layers. Calculated NICS also show a change of aromaticity, but opposite to the tendency given by the 1H NMR chemical shifts. We show that this increase (decrease) of local aromaticity in superimposed aromatic rings indicated by NICS ( 1H NMR) is not real but the result of the coupling between the magnetic fields generated by the π-stacked rings.

  4. NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the

  5. Mechanism of Spin-Orbit Effects on the Ligand NMR Chemical Shift in Transition-Metal Complexes: Linking NMR to EPR.

    PubMed

    Vícha, Jan; Straka, Michal; Munzarová, Markéta L; Marek, Radek

    2014-04-01

    Relativistic effects play an essential role in understanding the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts in heavy-atom compounds. Particularly interesting from the chemical point of view are the relativistic effects due to heavy atom (HA) on the NMR chemical shifts of the nearby light atoms (LA), referred to as the HALA effects. The effect of Spin-Orbit (SO) interaction originating from HA on the nuclear magnetic shielding at a neighboring LA, σ(SO), is explored here in detail for a series of d(6) complexes of iridium. Unlike the previous findings, the trends in σ(SO) observed in this study can be fully explained neither in terms of the s-character of the HA-LA bonding nor by trends in the energy differences between occupied and virtual molecular orbitals (MOs). Rather, the σ(SO) contribution to the total NMR shielding is found to be modulated by the d-orbital participation of the heavy atom (Ir) in the occupied and virtual spin-orbit active MOs, i.e., those which contribute significantly to the σ(SO). The correlation between the d-character of σ(SO)-active MOs and the size of the corresponding SO contribution to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant at LA is so tight that the magnitude of σ(SO) can be predicted in a given class of compounds on the basis of d-orbital character of relevant MO with relative error smaller than 15%. This correspondence is supported by an analogy between the perturbation theory expressions for the spin-orbit induced NMR σ-tensor and those for the EPR g-tensor as well as the A-tensor of the ligand. This correlation is demonstrated on a series of d(5) complexes of iridium. Thus, known qualitative relationships between electronic structure and EPR parameters can be newly applied to reproduce, predict, and understand the SO-induced contributions to NMR shielding constants of light atoms in heavy-atom compounds. PMID:26580365

  6. Cigarette Butt Decomposition and Associated Chemical Changes Assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Cesarano, Gaspare; Gaglione, Salvatore A.; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years) was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack. PMID:25625643

  7. Cigarette butt decomposition and associated chemical changes assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Cesarano, Gaspare; Gaglione, Salvatore A; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years) was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack. PMID:25625643

  8. Density-functional computation of ⁹³Nb NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Bühl, Michael; Wrackmeyer, Bernd

    2010-12-01

    93Nb chemical shifts of [NbX6](-) (X = Cl, F, CO), [NbXCl4](-) (X = O, S), Nb2(OMe)10, Cp*2Nb(κ2-BH4), (Cp*Nb)2(µ-B2H6)2, CpNb(CO)4, and Cp2NbH3 are computed at the GIAO (gauge-including atomic orbitals)-, BPW91- and B3LYP-, and CSGT (continuous set of gauge transformations)-CAM-B3LYP, -ωB97, and -ωB97X levels, using BP86-optimized or experimental (X-ray) geometries. Experimental chemical shifts are best reproduced at the GIAO-BPW91 level when δ(93Nb) values of inorganic complexes are referenced directly relative to [NbCl6](-) and those of organometallic species are first calculated relative to [Nb(CO)6](-). An inadvertent error in the reported δ(93Nb) values of cyclopentadiene borane complexes (H. Brunner et al., J. Organomet. Chem.1992, 436, 313) is corrected. Trends in the observed 93Nb NMR linewidths for anionic niobates [Nb(CO)5](3-), [Nb(CO)5H](2-), and [Nb(CO)5(NH3)](-) are rationalized in terms of computed electric field gradients at the metal. PMID:20552575

  9. Chemical curing in alkyd paints: An evaluation via FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolozzi, G.; Marchiafava, V.; Mirabello, V.; Peruzzini, M.; Picollo, M.

    2014-01-01

    A study aimed at determining the time necessary for an alkyd paint to attain chemical curing is presented. In particular, the object of our investigation was an oil paint made by Winsor & Newton, namely French ultramarine (PB29) in the Griffin Alkyd “fast drying oil colour” series. Using this paint, we prepared several mock-ups on glass. These were left in the laboratory at room temperature in a piece of furniture with glass doors for a total of 70 days. Samples were taken at different times, and the changes in their composition were monitored by means of FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic analyses. Since the cross-linking reactions involved in the formation of the pictorial film mainly affect the amount of carbon-carbon double bonds, we monitored the decrease in allyl, diallyl and vinyl protons and carbons. The data obtained from the use of both techniques led us to conclude that, in our particular experimental conditions, the chemical curing of the paint layer is reached within the first 70 days, thus establishing the beginning of the ageing phenomena.

  10. Nuclear Spin Polarization of Phosphorus Donors in Silicon. Direct Evidence from 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumann, Patryk; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Patange, Om; Moussa, Osama; Thewalt, Mike; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolay; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Itoh, Kohei; Cory, David G.

    2014-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the optical hyperpolarization and coherent control of 31P, nuclear spins in single crystal silicon via the inductive readout of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal of 31P at a concentration of 1.5 x 1015 cc-1. The obtained polarization is sufficient the 31P spin polarization of 1.17 x 1015 in a 10 mm x 10 mm sample, observed in one FID with signal-to-noise ration of 113. The linewidth is 800 Hz. The Hahn echo pulse sequence reveals a 31P T2 time of 0.42 s at 1.6 K, which was extended by the Carr Purcell cycle to 1.2 s at the same temperature. The maximum build-up of the nuclear polarization was achieved within ~577 seconds, at 4.2 K, in 6.7 T, using optical excitations provided by an infra-red laser. This work has been supported by CERC Canada.

  11. Recoupling of chemical shift anisotropy by R-symmetry sequences in magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guangjin; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2012-10-01

    13C and 15N chemical shift (CS) interaction is a sensitive probe of structure and dynamics in a wide variety of biological and inorganic systems, and in the recent years several magic angle spinning NMR approaches have emerged for residue-specific measurements of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors in uniformly and sparsely enriched proteins. All of the currently existing methods are applicable to slow and moderate magic angle spinning (MAS) regime, i.e., MAS frequencies below 20 kHz. With the advent of fast and ultrafast MAS probes capable of spinning frequencies of 40-100 kHz, and with the superior resolution and sensitivity attained at such high frequencies, development of CSA recoupling techniques working under such conditions is necessary. In this work, we present a family of R-symmetry based pulse sequences for recoupling of 13C/15N CSA interactions that work well in both natural abundance and isotopically enriched systems. We demonstrate that efficient recoupling of either first-rank (σ1) or second-rank (σ2) spatial components of CSA interaction is attained with appropriately chosen γ-encoded RNnv symmetry sequences. The advantage of these γ-encoded RNnv-symmetry based CSA (RNCSA) recoupling schemes is that they are suitable for CSA recoupling under a wide range of MAS frequencies, including fast MAS regime. Comprehensive analysis of the recoupling properties of these RNnv symmetry sequences reveals that the σ1-CSA recoupling symmetry sequences exhibit large scaling factors; however, the partial homonuclear dipolar Hamiltonian components are symmetry allowed, which makes this family of sequences suitable for CSA measurements in systems with weak homonuclear dipolar interactions. On the other hand, the γ-encoded symmetry sequences for σ2-CSA recoupling have smaller scaling factors but they efficiently suppress the homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, the latter family of sequences is applicable for measurements of CSA parameters in

  12. Chemical structure and intra-molecular effects on NMR-NQR tensors of harmine and harmaline alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadinejad, Neda; Tahan, Arezoo; Talebi Tari, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to analyze the effects of molecular structure and ring currents on the NMR chemical shielding tensors and NQR frequencies of harmine and harmaline alkaloids in the gas phase. The results demonstrated that NMR tensors and NQR frequencies of 15N nuclei in these compounds depend on chemical environment and resonance interactions. Hence, their values are obviously different in the mentioned structures. The interpretation of natural bond orbital (NBO) data suggests that in harmine structure, the lone pair participation of N9 in π-system electron clouds causes to development of aromaticity nature in pyrrole ring. However, the chemical shielding around N9 atom in harmine structure is higher than in harmaline, while in harmaline structure, lone pair participation of N2 in π-system electron clouds causes to development of aromaticity nature in pyridine ring. Hence, chemical shielding around N2 atom in harmaline structure is higher than in harmine. It can be deduced that by increasing lone pair electrons contribution of nitrogen atoms in ring resonance interactions and aromaticity development, the values of NMR chemical shielding around them increase, while χ and q zz values of these nuclei decrease.

  13. 125Te NMR chemical-shift trends in PbTe–GeTe and PbTe–SnTe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Njegic, Bosiljka; Levin, Evgenii M.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-10-08

    Complex tellurides, such as doped PbTe, GeTe, and their alloys, are among the best thermoelectric materials. Knowledge of the change in 125Te NMR chemical shift due to bonding to dopant or “solute” atoms is useful for determination of phase composition, peak assignment, and analysis of local bonding. We have measured the 125Te NMR chemical shifts in PbTe-based alloys, Pb1-xGexTe and Pb1-xSnxTe, which have a rocksalt-like structure, and analyzed their trends. For low x, several peaks are resolved in the 22-kHz MAS 125Te NMR spectra. A simple linear trend in chemical shifts with the number of Pb neighbors is observed. No evidence of a proposed ferroelectric displacement of Ge atoms in a cubic PbTe matrix is detected at low Ge concentrations. The observed chemical shift trends are compared with the results of DFT calculations, which confirm the linear dependence on the composition of the first-neighbor shell. The data enable determination of the composition of various phases in multiphase telluride materials. They also provide estimates of the 125Te chemical shifts of GeTe and SnTe (+970 and +400±150 ppm, respectively, from PbTe), which are otherwise difficult to access due to Knight shifts of many hundreds of ppm in neat GeTe and SnTe.

  14. Bacterial spore detection and analysis using hyperpolarized 129Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yubin; Wang, Yanfei; Goulian, Mark; Driks, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported hyperpolarized 129Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR techniques for the ultrasensitive (i.e., 1 picomolar) detection of xenon host molecules known as cryptophane. Here, we demonstrate a more general role for Hyper-CEST NMR as a spectroscopic method for probing nanoporous structures, without the requirement for cryptophane or engineered xenon-binding sites. Hyper-CEST 129Xe NMR spectroscopy was employed to detect Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores in solution, and interrogate the layers that comprise their structures. 129Xe-spore samples were selectively irradiated with radiofrequency pulses; the depolarized 129Xe returned to aqueous solution and depleted the 129Xe-water signal, providing measurable contrast. Removal of the outermost spore layers in B. anthracis and B. subtilis (the exosporium and coat, respectively) enhanced 129Xe exchange with the spore interior. Notably, the spores were invisible to hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR direct detection methods, highlighting the lack of high-affinity xenon-binding sites, and the potential for extending Hyper-CEST NMR structural analysis to other biological and synthetic nanoporous structures. PMID:25089181

  15. Characterization of phosphorus in sludges and sludge amended soils using /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinedi, Z.R.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy was an effective tool in the characterization of phosphorus (P) in municipal sewage sludges and sludge amended soils. Waste activated and aerobically digested sludges contained higher percentages of organic P than anaerobically digested sludges. The /sup 31/P Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (/sup 31/P CP MAS) spectrum of an aerobically digested sludge indicated the presence of a significant organic P fraction over the inorganic P fraction. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra of sludge-borne phospholipids dissolved in cholate, to which a complexing agent was added, were found to be better resolved than those dissolved in chloroform. Phytic acid and ribonucleic acid were shown to be constituents of organic P in sludges based upon their susceptibility to different phosphoric ester hydrolases. Sludge amended soils were incubated to examine the transformations of sludge-borne P in soils. It was found that soil pH affected the biodegradation of organic P as well as that of pyrophosphate. Phosphorus-monoesters and pyrophosphates hydrolyzed after 70 days of incubation under alkaline soil condition while they persisted beyond 140 days of incubation under acid soil condition. The P-diesters completely hydrolyzed after 28 days of incubation under acid and alkaline soil conditions. The solubility study showed that the P in a sludge amended soil was undersaturated with respect to Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P minerals considered. The finding suggested that the activity of the P solid phase under study might be less than unity which would be indicative of a coprecipitated solid solution.

  16. Temperature dependence of contact and dipolar NMR chemical shifts in paramagnetic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bob; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-02-07

    Using a recently proposed equation for NMR nuclear magnetic shielding for molecules with unpaired electrons [A. Soncini and W. Van den Heuvel, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 021103 (2013)], equations for the temperature (T) dependent isotropic shielding for multiplets with an effective spin S equal to 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 in terms of electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian parameters are derived and then expanded in powers of 1/T. One simplifying assumption used is that a matrix derived from the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor and the Zeeman coupling matrix (g-tensor) share the same principal axis system. The influence of the rhombic ZFS parameter E is only investigated for S = 1. Expressions for paramagnetic contact shielding (from the isotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) and pseudo-contact or dipolar shielding (from the anisotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) are considered separately. The leading order is always 1/T. A temperature dependence of the contact shielding as 1/T and of the dipolar shielding as 1/T{sup 2}, which is sometimes assumed in the assignment of paramagnetic chemical shifts, is shown to arise only if S ≥ 1 and zero-field splitting is appreciable, and only if the Zeeman coupling matrix is nearly isotropic (Δg = 0). In such situations, an assignment of contact versus dipolar shifts may be possible based only on linear and quadratic fits of measured variable-temperature chemical shifts versus 1/T. Numerical data are provided for nickelocene (S = 1). Even under the assumption of Δg = 0, a different leading order of contact and dipolar shifts in powers of 1/T is not obtained for S = 3/2. When Δg is not very small, dipolar and contact shifts both depend in leading order in 1/T in all cases, with sizable contributions in order 1/T{sup n} with n = 2 and higher.

  17. Experimental Determination of pK[subscript a] Values by Use of NMR Chemical Shifts, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gift, Alan D.; Stewart, Sarah M.; Bokashanga, Patrick Kwete

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment, using proton NMR spectroscopy to determine the dissociation constant for heterocyclic bases, has been modified from a previously described experiment. A solution of a substituted pyridine is prepared using deuterium oxide (D[subscript 2]O) as the solvent. The pH of the solution is adjusted and proton NMR spectra are…

  18. Comprehensive signal assignment of 13C-labeled lignocellulose using multidimensional solution NMR and 13C chemical shift comparison with solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takanori; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-09-17

    A multidimensional solution NMR method has been developed using various pulse programs including HCCH-COSY and (13)C-HSQC-NOESY for the structural characterization of commercially available (13)C labeled lignocellulose from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and corn (Zea mays). This new method allowed for 119 of the signals in the (13)C-HSQC spectrum of lignocelluloses to be assigned and was successfully used to characterize the structures of lignocellulose samples from three plants in terms of their xylan and xyloglucan structures, which are the major hemicelluloses in angiosperm. Furthermore, this new method provided greater insight into fine structures of lignin by providing a high resolution to the aromatic signals of the β-aryl ether and resinol moieties, as well as the diastereomeric signals of the β-aryl ether. Finally, the (13)C chemical shifts assigned in this study were compared with those from solid-state NMR and indicated the presence of heterogeneous dynamics in the polysaccharides where rigid cellulose and mobile hemicelluloses moieties existed together. PMID:24010724

  19. Use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in enviornmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful analytical techniques for elucidating the molecular structure of organic compounds. In environmental samples, the identification and detection of chemical warfare related compounds is best accomplished using high field high resolution NMR. This paper describes the experimental procedures.

  20. Predicting paramagnetic 1H NMR chemical shifts and state-energy separations in spin-crossover host-guest systems.

    PubMed

    Isley, William C; Zarra, Salvatore; Carlson, Rebecca K; Bilbeisi, Rana A; Ronson, Tanya K; Nitschke, Jonathan R; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-06-14

    The behaviour of metal-organic cages upon guest encapsulation can be difficult to elucidate in solution. Paramagnetic metal centres introduce additional dispersion of signals that is useful for characterisation of host-guest complexes in solution using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, paramagnetic centres also complicate spectral assignment due to line broadening, signal integration error, and large changes in chemical shifts, which can be difficult to assign even for known compounds. Quantum chemical predictions can provide information that greatly facilitates the assignment of NMR signals and identification of species present. Here we explore how the prediction of paramagnetic NMR spectra may be used to gain insight into the spin crossover (SCO) properties of iron(II)-based metal organic coordination cages, specifically examining how the structure of the local metal coordination environment affects SCO. To represent the tetrahedral metal-organic cage, a model system is generated by considering an isolated metal-ion vertex: fac-ML3(2+) (M = Fe(II), Co(II); L = N-phenyl-2-pyridinaldimine). The sensitivity of the (1)H paramagnetic chemical shifts to local coordination environments is assessed and utilised to shed light on spin crossover behaviour in iron complexes. Our data indicate that expansion of the metal coordination sphere must precede any thermal SCO. An attempt to correlate experimental enthalpies of SCO with static properties of bound guests shows that no simple relationship exists, and that effects are likely due to nuanced dynamic response to encapsulation. PMID:24752730

  1. Automated evaluation of chemical shift perturbation spectra: New approaches to quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand interaction NMR spectra

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chen; Unger, Stephen W.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Sattler, Michael; Szalma, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new methods designed for quantitative analysis of chemical shift perturbation NMR spectra. The methods automatically trace the displacements of cross peaks between a perturbed test spectrum and the reference spectrum (or among a series of titration spectra), and measure the changes of chemical shifts, heights, and widths of the altered peaks. The methods are primary aimed at the 1H-15N HSQC spectra of relatively small proteins (<15 kDa) assuming fast exchange between free and ligand-bound states on the chemical shift time scale, or for comparing spectra of free and fully bound states in the slow exchange situation. Using the 1H-15N HSQC spectra from a titration experiment of the 74-residue Pex13p SH3 domain with a Pex14p peptide ligand (14 residues, Kd = ~ 40µM), we demonstrate the scope and limits of our automatic peak tracing (APET) algorithm for efficient scoring of high-throughput SAR by NMR type HSQC spectra, and progressive peak tracing (PROPET) algorithm for detailed analysis of ligand titration spectra. Simulated spectra with low signal-to-noise ratios (S/N ranged from 20 to 1) were used to demonstrate the reliability and reproducibility of the results when dealing with poor quality spectra. These algorithms have been implemented in a new software module, FELIX-Autoscreen, for streamlined processing, analysis and visualization of SAR by NMR and other high-throughput receptor/ligand interaction experiments. PMID:15243180

  2. NMR temperature measurements using a paramagnetic lanthanide complex.

    PubMed

    Zuo, C S; Metz, K R; Sun, Y; Sherry, A D

    1998-07-01

    NMR thermometry has previously suffered from poor thermal resolution owing to the relatively weak dependence of chemical shift on temperature in diamagnetic molecules. In contrast, the shifts of nuclear spins near a paramagnetic center exhibit strong temperature dependencies. The chemical shifts of the thulium 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(methylene phosphonate) complex (TmDOTP5-) have been studied as a function of temperature, pH, and Ca2+ concentration over ranges which may be encountered in vivo. The results demonstrate that the 1H and 31P shifts in TmDOTP5- are highly sensitive to temperature and may be used for NMR thermometry with excellent accuracy and resolution. A new technique is also described which permits simultaneous measurements of temperature and pH changes from the shifts of multiple TmDOTP5- spectral lines. PMID:9654468

  3. Relativistically corrected nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts calculated with the normalized elimination of the small component using an effective potential-NMR chemical shifts of molybdenum and tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2003-07-01

    A new method for relativistically corrected nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts is developed by combining the individual gauge for the localized orbital approach for density functional theory with the normalized elimination of a small component using an effective potential. The new method is used for the calculation of the NMR chemical shifts of 95Mo and 183W in various molybdenum and tungsten compounds. It is shown that quasirelativistic corrections lead to an average improvement of calculated NMR chemical shift values by 300 and 120 ppm in the case of 95Mo and 183W, respectively, which is mainly due to improvements in the paramagnetic contributions. The relationship between electronic structure of a molecule and the relativistic paramagnetic corrections is discussed. Relativistic effects for the diamagnetic part of the magnetic shielding caused by a relativistic contraction of the s,p orbitals in the core region concern only the shielding values, however, have little consequence for the shift values because of the large independence from electronic structure and a cancellation of these effects in the shift values. It is shown that the relativistic corrections can be improved by level shift operators and a B3LYP hybrid functional, for which Hartree-Fock exchange is reduced to 15%.

  4. Weak Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds with Fluorine: Detection and Implications for Enzymatic/Chemical Reactions, Chemical Properties, and Ligand/Protein Fluorine NMR Screening.

    PubMed

    Dalvit, Claudio; Vulpetti, Anna

    2016-05-23

    It is known that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions play an important role in many chemical and biological systems. However, weak or very weak hydrogen bonds, which are often difficult to detect and characterize, may also be relevant in many recognition and reaction processes. Fluorine serving as a hydrogen-bond acceptor has been the subject of many controversial discussions and there are different opinions about it. It now appears that there is compelling experimental evidence for the involvement of fluorine in weak intramolecular or intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Using established NMR methods, we have previously characterized and measured the strengths of intermolecular hydrogen-bond complexes involving the fluorine moieties CH2 F, CHF2 , and CF3 , and have compared them with the well-known hydrogen-bond complex formed between acetophenone and the strong hydrogen-bond donor p-fluorophenol. We now report evidence for the formation of hydrogen bonds involving fluorine with significantly weaker donors, namely 5-fluoroindole and water. A simple NMR method is proposed for the simultaneous measurement of the strengths of hydrogen bonds between an acceptor and a donor or water. Important implications of these results for enzymatic/chemical reactions involving fluorine, for chemical and physical properties, and for ligand/protein (19) F NMR screening are analyzed through experiments and theoretical simulations. PMID:27112430

  5. [Comparison of chemical composition between raw and vinegar-baked Paeoniae Radix Alba using NMR based metabolomic approach].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Ma-Li; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-02-01

    To compare the chemical change of Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) after vinegar-baking processing, as well as the effect of vinegar types exerted on the processing, 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the different metabolites between the raw and two vinegar-baked PRA. More than thirty metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum of PRA, and the multivariate statistical analysis showed that raw and two vinegar-baked PRA could be separated obviously. After vinegar-baking, the contents of isoleucine, lactate, alanine, arginine, albiflorin, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) elevated, while those of sucrose, paeoniflorin and its analogues (calculated by benzoate) decreased. The chemical compositions of two vinegar-baked PRA were also different. Shanxi vinegar- baked PRA showed higher levels of leucine, isoleucine, valine, and albiflorin, while rice vinegar-baked PRA contained more sucrose and paeoniflorin's analogues (calculated by benzoate). And the chemical changes in Shanxi vinegar-baked PRA were greater than those of rice vinegar-baked PRA. The results revealed the chemical differences between raw and vinegar-baked PRA, as well as the influence of vinegar type on processing, in a holistic manner, the results obtained suggested that the correlations between the chemical change and the drug action after processing, as well as the vinegar type used in processing, should be further studied. PMID:25975031

  6. (39)K NMR of solid potassium salts at 21 T: effect of quadrupolar and chemical shift tensors.

    PubMed

    Moudrakovski, Igor L; Ripmeester, John A

    2007-01-25

    39K Solid State NMR spectra (static and magic angle spinning (MAS)) on a set of potassium salts measured at 21.14 T show that the chemical shift range for K(+) ions in diamagnetic salts is well in excess of 100 ppm contrary to previous assumptions that it was quite small. Inequivalent potassium sites in crystals can be resolved through differences in chemical shifts, with chemically similar sites showing differences of over 10 ppm. The quadrupolar coupling constants obtained from MAS and solid echo experiments on powders cover the range from zero for potassium in cubic environments in halides to over 3 MHz for the highly asymmetric sites in K2CO3. Although the quadrupolar effects generally dominate the 39K spectra, in several instances, we have observed subtle but significant contributions of chemical shift anisotropy with values up to 45 ppm, a first such observation. Careful analysis of static and MAS spectra allows the observation of the various chemical shift and quadrupole coupling tensor components as well as their relative orientations, thereby demonstrating that high-field 39K NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has a substantial sensitivity to the local environment with parameters that will be of considerable value in materials characterization and electronic structure studies. PMID:17228903

  7. Handling the influence of chemical shift in amplitude-modulated heteronuclear dipolar recoupling solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Basse, Kristoffer; Shankar, Ravi; Bjerring, Morten; Vosegaard, Thomas; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Nielsen, Anders B

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the influence of chemical shifts on amplitude-modulated heteronuclear dipolar recoupling experiments in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The method is demonstrated using the Rotor Echo Short Pulse IRrAdiaTION mediated Cross-Polarization ((RESPIRATION)CP) experiment as an example. By going into the pulse sequence rf interaction frame and employing a quintuple-mode operator-based Floquet approach, we describe how chemical shift offset and anisotropic chemical shift affect the efficiency of heteronuclear polarization transfer. In this description, it becomes transparent that the main attribute leading to non-ideal performance is a fictitious field along the rf field axis, which is generated from second-order cross terms arising mainly between chemical shift tensors and themselves. This insight is useful for the development of improved recoupling experiments. We discuss the validity of this approach and present quaternion calculations to determine the effective resonance conditions in a combined rf field and chemical shift offset interaction frame transformation. Based on this, we derive a broad-banded version of the (RESPIRATION)CP experiment. The new sequence is experimentally verified using SNNFGAILSS amyloid fibrils where simultaneous (15)N → (13)CO and (15)N → (13)Cα coherence transfer is demonstrated on high-field NMR instrumentation, requiring great offset stability. PMID:27608995

  8. Dynamic and structural aspects of PEGylated liposomes monitored by NMR.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cecília; Rögnvaldsson, Sibylla; Fossheim, Sigrid; Nilssen, Esben A; Topgaard, Daniel

    2008-09-15

    Proton-detected NMR diffusion and (31)P NMR chemical shifts/bandwidths measurements were used to investigate a series of liposomal formulations where size and PEGylation extent need to be controlled for ultrasound mediated drug release. The width of the (31)P line is sensitive to aggregate size and shape and self-diffusion (1)H NMR conveys information about diffusional motion, size, and PEGylation extent. Measurements were performed on the formulations at their original pH, osmolality, and lipid concentration. These contained variable amounts of PEGylated phospholipid (herein referred to as PEG-lipid) and cholesterol. At high levels of PEG-lipid (11.5 and 15 mol%) the self-diffusion (1)H NMR revealed the coexistence of two entities with distinct diffusion coefficients: micelles (1.3 to 3x10(-11) m(2)/s) and liposomes (approximately 5x10(-12) m(2)/s). The (31)P spectra showed a broad liposome signal and two distinct narrow lines that were unaffected by temperature. The narrow lines arise from mixed micelles comprising both PEG-lipids and phospholipids. The echo decay in the diffusion experiments could be described as a sum of exponentials revealing that the exchange of PEG-lipid between liposomes and micellar aggregates is slower than the experimental observation time. For low amounts of PEG-lipid (1 and 4.5 mol%) the (31)P spectra consisted of a broad signal typically obtained for liposomes and the diffusion data were best described by a single exponential decay attributed solely to liposomes. For intermediate amounts of PEG-lipid (8 mol%), micellization started to occur and the diffusion data could no longer be fitted to a single or bi-exponential decay. Instead, the data were best described by a log-normal distribution of diffusion coefficients. The most efficient PEG-lipid incorporation in liposomes (about 8 mol%) was achieved for lower molecular weight PEG (2000 Da vs 5000 Da) and when the PEG-lipid acyl chain length matched the acyl chain length of the

  9. Differential cross sections measurement of 31P(p,pγ1)31P reaction for PIGE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-09-01

    Differential cross sections of proton induced gamma-ray emission from the 31P(p,pγ1)31P (Eγ = 1266 keV) nuclear reaction were measured in the proton energy range of 1886-3007 keV at the laboratory angle of 90°. For these measurements a thin Zn3P2 target evaporated onto a self-supporting C film was used. The gamma-rays and backscattered protons were detected simultaneously. An HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction was employed to collect gamma-rays while an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165° was used to detect backscattered protons. Simultaneous collection of gamma-rays and RBS spectra is a great advantage of this approach which makes differential cross-section measurements independent on the collected beam charge. The obtained cross-sections were compared with the previously only measured data in the literature. The validity of the measured differential cross sections was verified through a thick target benchmarking experiment. The overall systematic uncertainty of cross section values was estimated to be better than ±9%.

  10. The chemical structure of highly aromatic humic acids in three volcanic ash soils as determined by dipolar dephasing NMR studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Schnitzer, M.; Vassallo, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR studies of three highly aromatic humic acids, one from a modern soil and two from paleosols, have permitted the determination of the degree of aromatic substitution. From these data and the normal solid-state 13C NMR data we have been able to develop a model for the average chemical structure of these humic acids that generally correlates well with permanganate oxidation data. The models depict these humic acids as benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids interconnected by biphenyl linkages. An increasing degree of substitution is observed with increasing geologic age. These structures may be characteristic of the resistant aromatic part of the "core" of humic substances that survives degradation. ?? 1989.

  11. The use of IRMS, (1)H NMR and chemical analysis to characterise Italian and imported Tunisian olive oils.

    PubMed

    Camin, Federica; Pavone, Anita; Bontempo, Luana; Wehrens, Ron; Paolini, Mauro; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Capitani, Donatella; Vista, Silvia; Mannina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR), conventional chemical analysis and chemometric elaboration were used to assess quality and to define and confirm the geographical origin of 177 Italian PDO (Protected Denomination of Origin) olive oils and 86 samples imported from Tunisia. Italian olive oils were richer in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, whereas Tunisian olive oils showed higher δ(18)O, δ(2)H, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids β-sitosterol, sn-1 and 3 diglyceride values. Furthermore, all the Tunisian samples imported were of poor quality, with a K232 and/or acidity values above the limits established for extra virgin olive oils. By combining isotopic composition with (1)H NMR data using a multivariate statistical approach, a statistical model able to discriminate olive oil from Italy and those imported from Tunisia was obtained, with an optimal differentiation ability arriving at around 98%. PMID:26593470

  12. 31P magnetization transfer measurements of Pi→ATP flux in exercising human muscle

    PubMed Central

    Savage, David B.; Williams, Guy B.; Porter, David; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Brindle, Kevin M.; Kemp, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental criticisms have been made over the use of 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) magnetization transfer estimates of inorganic phosphate (Pi)→ATP flux (VPi-ATP) in human resting skeletal muscle for assessing mitochondrial function. Although the discrepancy in the magnitude of VPi-ATP is now acknowledged, little is known about its metabolic determinants. Here we use a novel protocol to measure VPi-ATP in human exercising muscle for the first time. Steady-state VPi-ATP was measured at rest and over a range of exercise intensities and compared with suprabasal oxidative ATP synthesis rates estimated from the initial rates of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis (VATP). We define a surplus Pi→ATP flux as the difference between VPi-ATP and VATP. The coupled reactions catalyzed by the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) have been shown to catalyze measurable exchange between ATP and Pi in some systems and have been suggested to be responsible for this surplus flux. Surplus VPi-ATP did not change between rest and exercise, even though the concentrations of Pi and ADP, which are substrates for GAPDH and PGK, respectively, increased as expected. However, involvement of these enzymes is suggested by correlations between absolute and surplus Pi→ATP flux, both at rest and during exercise, and the intensity of the phosphomonoester peak in the 31P NMR spectrum. This peak includes contributions from sugar phosphates in the glycolytic pathway, and changes in its intensity may indicate changes in downstream glycolytic intermediates, including 3-phosphoglycerate, which has been shown to influence the exchange between ATP and Pi catalyzed by GAPDH and PGK. PMID:26744504

  13. 31P MRSI and 1H MRS at 7 T: initial results in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Klomp, Dennis W J; van de Bank, Bart L; Raaijmakers, Alexander; Korteweg, Mies A; Possanzini, Cecilia; Boer, Vincent O; van de Berg, Cornelius A T; van de Bosch, Maurice A A J; Luijten, Peter R

    2011-12-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of the noninvasive determination of important biomarkers of human (breast) tumor metabolism using high-field (7-T) MRI and MRS. (31) P MRSI at this field strength was used to provide a direct method for the in vivo detection and quantification of endogenous biomarkers. These encompass phospholipid metabolism, phosphate energy metabolism and intracellular pH. A double-tuned, dual-element transceiver was designed with focused radiofrequency fields for unilateral breast imaging and spectroscopy tuned for optimized sensitivity at 7 T. T(1) -weighted three-dimensional MRI and (1) H MRS were applied for the localization and quantification of total choline compounds. (31) P MRSI was obtained within 20 min per subject and mapped in three dimensions over the breast with pixel volumes of 10 mL. The feasibility of monitoring in vivo metabolism was demonstrated in two patients with breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, validated by ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR and compared with data from an age-matched healthy volunteer. Concentrations of total choline down to 0.4 mM could be detected in the human breast in vivo. Levels of adenosine and other nucleoside triphosphates, inorganic phosphate, phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine and their glycerol diesters detected in glandular tissue, as well as in tumor, were mapped over the entire breast. Altered levels of these compounds were observed in patients compared with an age-matched healthy volunteer; modulation of these levels occurred in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive MRI and MRS study in patients with breast cancer, which reveals detailed information on the morphology and phospholipid metabolism from volumes as small as 10 mL. This endogenous metabolic information may provide a new method for the noninvasive assessment of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer treatment. PMID

  14. 31P-NMR study of different hypothyroid states in rat leg muscle.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, P; Klein, M; Robin-Lherbier, B; Walker, P; Escanye, J M; Brunotte, F; Robert, J; Duc, M

    1991-12-01

    Using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, this study was undertaken to determine the effects of experimental hypothyroidism on muscle bioenergetics. The peaks of phosphocreatine (PCr), Pi, phosphodiesters (PDE), sugar phosphomonoesters, and ATP were obtained at rest, during a 2-Hz hindleg muscle stimulation, and during a subsequent recovery period from four groups of anesthetized rats as follows: one control and three hypothyroid (HT) groups treated by propylthyouracil during 2, 4, and 6 wk, respectively. Resting spectra showed a significant rise in Pi by 30% and decreased intracellular pH and PCr/Pi in all three HT groups. PDE progressively increased to 200% of its initial value with hypothyroidism duration. Muscle stimulation did not lead to significant differences in PCr depletion. The percentage of PCr recovery is less in HT muscle than in control muscle. An abnormal H+ metabolism is obvious in all three HT groups. These results indicate abnormal bioenergetics in HT muscle and suggest an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism and of the H+ efflux. They also evoke a high sensitivity of cellular energetics to thyroid deficiency. PMID:1767830

  15. A Wet-Lab Approach to Stereochemistry Using [superscript 31]P NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Owen S.; Sculimbrene, Bianca R.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding stereochemistry is an important and difficult task for students to master in organic chemistry. In both introductory and advanced courses, students are encouraged to explore the spatial relationships between molecules, but this exploration is often limited either to the lecture hall or the confines of the library. As such, we sought…

  16. Phosphitylation and Quantitative 31P-NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a constant need for new and improved analytical techniques to monitor the quality of incoming feedstocks and their respective conversion products in the biofuels industry. Current analytical methods in the biodiesel industry include high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography...

  17. Phosphorus-31 NMR spectra of ethidium, quinacrine, and daunomycin complexes with poly(adenylic acid)ter dot poly(uridylic acid) RNA duplex and calf thymus DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, D.G.; Lai, K. )

    1989-04-04

    {sup 31}P NMR provides a convenient monitor of the phosphate ester backbone conformational changes upon binding of the intercalating drugs ethidium, quinacrine, and daunomycin to sonicated poly(A){center dot}poly(U) and calf thymus DNA. {sup 31}P chemical shifts can also be used to assess differences in the duplex unwinding angles in the presence of the drug. Thus a new {sup 31}P signal, 1.8-2.2 ppm downfield from the double-stranded helix signals, is observed in the ethidium ion-poly(A){center dot}poly(U) complex. This signal arises from phosphates which are in perturbed environments due to intercalation of the drug. This is in keeping with the hypothesis that the P-O ester torsional angle in phosphates linking the intercalated base pairs is more trans-like. Similar though smaller deshielding of the {sup 31}P signals is observed in sonicated poly(A){center dot}poly(U)-quinacrine complexes as well as in the daunomycin complexes. The effect of added ethidium ion, quinacrine, and daunomycin on the {sup 31}P spectra of sonicated calf thymus DNA is consistent with Wilson and Jones' (1982) earlier study. In these drug-DNA complexes the drug produces a gradual downfield shift in the DNA {sup 31}P signal without the appearance of a separate downfield peak. These differences are attributed to differences in the rate of chemical exchange of the drug between free and bound duplex states. The previous correlation of {sup 31}P chemical shift with drug duplex unwinding angle is confirmed for both the RNA and DNA duplexes.

  18. Measurement of delta(1)J((199)Hg, (31)P) in [HgPCy3(OAc)2]2 and relativistic ZORA DFT investigations of mercury-phosphorus coupling tensors.

    PubMed

    Bryce, David L; Courchesne, Noémie Manuelle Dorval; Perras, Frédéric A

    2009-12-01

    Using 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy, anisotropy in the indirect 199Hg-31P spin-spin coupling tensor (DeltaJ) for powdered [HgPCy3(OAc)2]2 (1) has been measured as 4700 +/- 300 Hz. Zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects, performed on 1 and a series of other related compounds show that DeltaJ(199Hg, (31)P) arises entirely from the ZORA Fermi-contact-spin-dipolar cross term. The calculations validate assumptions made in the spectral analysis of 1 and in previous determinations of DeltaJ in powder samples, namely that J is axially symmetric and shares its principal axis system with the direct dipolar coupling tensor (D). Agreement between experiment and theory for various 199Hg, 31P spin-spin coupling anisotropies is reasonable; however, experimental values of 1J(199Hg, 31P)(iso) are significantly underestimated by the calculations. The most important improvements in the agreement were obtained as a result of including more of the crystal lattice in the model used for the calculations, e.g., a change of 43% was noted for 1J(199Hg, 31P)(iso) in [HgPPh3(NO3)2]2 depending on whether the two or three nearest nitrate ions are included in the model. Finally, we have written a computer program to simulate the effects of non-axial symmetry in J and of non-coincidence of the J and D on powder NMR spectra. Simulations clearly show that both of these effects have a pronounced impact on the 31P NMR spectrum of 199Hg-31P spin pairs, suggesting that the effects should be observable experimentally if a suitable compound can be identified. PMID:20056396

  19. sup 31 P saturation transfer and phosphocreatine imaging in the monkey brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, B.; Narasimhan, P.T.; Ross, B.D. California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena ); Allman, J. ); Barker, P.B. )

    1991-10-01

    {sup 31}P magnetic resonance imaging with chemical-shift discrimination by selective excitation has been employed to determine the phosphocreatine (PCr) distribution in the brains of three juvenile macaque monkeys. PCr images were also obtained while saturating the resonance of the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP, which allowed the investigation of the chemical exchange between PCr and the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP catalyzed by creatine kinase. Superposition of the PCr images over the proton image of the same monkey brain revealed topological variations in the distribution of PCr and creatine kinase activity. PCr images were also obtained with and without visual stimulation. In two out of four experiments, an apparently localized decrease in PCr concentration was noted in visual cortex upon visual stimulation. This result is interpreted in terms of a possible role for the local ADP concentration in stimulating the accompanying metabolic response.

  20. Roles of chemically inequivalent N(CH3)4 ions in phase transition temperatures in [N(CH3)4]2CoCl4 by single-crystal NMR and MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2014-06-01

    The temperature dependences of the 1H and 13C spin-lattice relaxation time in the laboratory frame, T1, and in the rotating frame, T1ρ, in [N(CH3)4]2CoCl4 were measured by static nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. In the ferroelastic phase, 1H T1ρ underwent molecular motion according to the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound theory. Two inequivalent ions, a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4, were identified by 13C cross polarization (CP)/MAS NMR. On the basis of the 13C NMR results, the existence of two chemically inequivalent a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4 ions in the ferroelectric phase and the existence of the ferroelastic twin structure of the N(CH3)4 ions in the ferroelastic phase were discussed.

  1. Carbon-13 chemical-shift tensors in indigo: A two-dimensional NMR-ROCSA and DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Sean T; Dybowski, Cecil

    2015-11-01

    The principal components of the (13)C NMR chemical-shift tensors for the eight unique carbon sites of crystalline indigo have been measured using the ROCSA pulse sequence. The chemical shifts have been assigned unambiguously to their respective nuclear sites through comparison of the experimental data to the results of density-functional calculations employing a refined X-ray diffraction structure. These measurements expand the database of measured aromatic (13)C chemical-shift tensors to the indole ring. Magnetic shielding calculations for hypoxanthine and adenosine are also reported. Comparisons of calculations that include the effect of the crystalline lattice with calculations that model indigo as an isolated molecule give an estimate of the intermolecular contribution to the magnetic shielding. PMID:26344134

  2. Carbon-13 chemical-shift tensors in indigo: A two-dimensional NMR-ROCSA and DFT Study

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Sean T.; Dybowski, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    The principal components of the 13C NMR chemical-shift tensors for the eight unique carbon sites of crystalline indigo have been measured using the ROCSA pulse sequence. The chemical shifts have been assigned unambiguously to their respective nuclear sites through comparison of the experimental data to the results of density-functional calculations employing a refined X-ray diffraction structure. These measurements expand the database of measured aromatic 13C chemical-shift tensors to the indole ring. Magnetic shielding calculations for hypoxanthine and adenosine are also reported. Comparisons of calculations that include the effect of the crystalline lattice with calculations that model indigo as an isolated molecule give an estimate of the intermolecular contribution to the magnetic shielding. PMID:26344134

  3. Study of chemically inequivalent N(CH3)4 ions in [N(CH3)4]2ZnBr4 near the phase transition temperature using 1H MAS NMR, 13C CP/MAS NMR, and 14N NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2016-02-01

    The temperature dependences of the chemical shifts and intensities of 1H, 13C, and 14N nuclei in tetramethylammonium tetrabromozincate, [N(CH3)4]2ZnBr4, were investigated using single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to elucidate the structural geometry near the phase transition temperature. Based on the analysis of the 13C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR and 14N NMR spectra, the two chemically inequivalent N(1) (CH3)4 and N(2) (CH3)4 ions were distinguished. Furthermore, the 14N NMR spectrum at the phase transition temperature indicated the existence of the ferroelastic characteristics of the N(CH3)4 ions.

  4. Chemical structure of soil organic matter in slickspots as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slickspot soils are saline, and knowledge of their humic chemistry would contribute to our limited understanding how salinity affects soil C and N stocks. We characterized humic acids (HAs) from slickspot soils with solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Expanding on previous use of cross...

  5. Chemical compositions of dissolved organic matter from various sources as characterized by solid-state NMR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters plays an important role in biogeochemical and ecological processes. This study used solid-state NMR techniques to explore the molecular signatures of riverine DOM in relation to its point and nonpoint sources. DOM samples were isolated from (1) two st...

  6. Magic-angle spinning solid-state multinuclear NMR on low-field instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Morten K.; Bakharev, Oleg; Jensen, Ole; Jakobsen, Hans J.; Skibsted, Jørgen; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile and cost-effective NMR spectroscopy exploiting low-field permanent magnets is a field of tremendous development with obvious applications for arrayed large scale analysis, field work, and industrial screening. So far such demonstrations have concentrated on relaxation measurements and lately high-resolution liquid-state NMR applications. With high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy being increasingly important in a broad variety of applications, we here introduce low-field magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state multinuclear NMR based on a commercial ACT 0.45 T 62 mm bore Halbach magnet along with a homebuilt FPGA digital NMR console, amplifiers, and a modified standard 45 mm wide MAS probe for 7 mm rotors. To illustrate the performance of the instrument and address cases where the low magnetic field may offer complementarity to high-field NMR experiments, we demonstrate applications for 23Na MAS NMR with enhanced second-order quadrupolar coupling effects and 31P MAS NMR where reduced influence from chemical shift anisotropy at low field may facilitate determination of heteronuclear dipole-dipole couplings.

  7. Chemical ligation of the influenza M2 protein for solid-state NMR characterization of the cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Byungsu; Tietze, Daniel; White, Paul B; Liao, Shu Y; Hong, Mei

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state NMR-based structure determination of membrane proteins and large protein complexes faces the challenge of limited spectral resolution when the proteins are uniformly (13)C-labeled. A strategy to meet this challenge is chemical ligation combined with site-specific or segmental labeling. While chemical ligation has been adopted in NMR studies of water-soluble proteins, it has not been demonstrated for membrane proteins. Here we show chemical ligation of the influenza M2 protein, which contains a transmembrane (TM) domain and two extra-membrane domains. The cytoplasmic domain, which contains an amphipathic helix (AH) and a cytoplasmic tail, is important for regulating virus assembly, virus budding, and the proton channel activity. A recent study of uniformly (13)C-labeled full-length M2 by spectral simulation suggested that the cytoplasmic tail is unstructured. To further test this hypothesis, we conducted native chemical ligation of the TM segment and part of the cytoplasmic domain. Solid-phase peptide synthesis of the two segments allowed several residues to be labeled in each segment. The post-AH cytoplasmic residues exhibit random-coil chemical shifts, low bond order parameters, and a surface-bound location, thus indicating that this domain is a dynamic random coil on the membrane surface. Interestingly, the protein spectra are similar between a model membrane and a virus-mimetic membrane, indicating that the structure and dynamics of the post-AH segment is insensitive to the lipid composition. This chemical ligation approach is generally applicable to medium-sized membrane proteins to provide site-specific structural constraints, which complement the information obtained from uniformly (13)C, (15)N-labeled proteins. PMID:25966817

  8. Chemical ligation of the influenza M2 protein for solid-state NMR characterization of the cytoplasmic domain

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Byungsu; Tietze, Daniel; White, Paul B; Liao, Shu Y; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR-based structure determination of membrane proteins and large protein complexes faces the challenge of limited spectral resolution when the proteins are uniformly 13C-labeled. A strategy to meet this challenge is chemical ligation combined with site-specific or segmental labeling. While chemical ligation has been adopted in NMR studies of water-soluble proteins, it has not been demonstrated for membrane proteins. Here we show chemical ligation of the influenza M2 protein, which contains a transmembrane (TM) domain and two extra-membrane domains. The cytoplasmic domain, which contains an amphipathic helix (AH) and a cytoplasmic tail, is important for regulating virus assembly, virus budding, and the proton channel activity. A recent study of uniformly 13C-labeled full-length M2 by spectral simulation suggested that the cytoplasmic tail is unstructured. To further test this hypothesis, we conducted native chemical ligation of the TM segment and part of the cytoplasmic domain. Solid-phase peptide synthesis of the two segments allowed several residues to be labeled in each segment. The post-AH cytoplasmic residues exhibit random-coil chemical shifts, low bond order parameters, and a surface-bound location, thus indicating that this domain is a dynamic random coil on the membrane surface. Interestingly, the protein spectra are similar between a model membrane and a virus-mimetic membrane, indicating that the structure and dynamics of the post-AH segment is insensitive to the lipid composition. This chemical ligation approach is generally applicable to medium-sized membrane proteins to provide site-specific structural constraints, which complement the information obtained from uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled proteins. PMID:25966817

  9. Chemical structures of manure from conventional and phytase transgenic pigs investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jingdong; Ajakaiye, Ayodele; Lan, Yeqing; Olk, Dan C; Ceballos, Michael; Zhang, Tiequan; Fan, Ming Z; Forsberg, Cecil W

    2008-03-26

    Nonpoint phosphorus (P) pollution from animal manure is becoming a serious global problem. The current solution for the swine industry includes the enzyme phytase as a component in oil meal and cereal grain-based swine diets. A long-term approach is the production of transgenic phytase pigs that express phytase in the salivary glands and secrete it in the saliva. This study provides a detailed comparison of chemical structures of manure from conventional pigs and transgenic pigs that express phytase under growing and finishing phases using new solid-state NMR techniques. Spectral editing techniques and quantitative NMR techniques were used to identify and quantify specific functional groups. Two-dimensional (1)H- (13)C heteronuclear correlation NMR was used to detect their connectivity. Manure from conventional and transgenic pigs had similar peptide, carbohydrate, and fatty acid components, while those from transgenic pigs contained more carbohydrates and fewer nonpolar alkyls. There was no consistent effect from diets with or without supplemental phosphate or growth stages. PMID:17973446

  10. Halogen effect on structure and 13C NMR chemical shift of 3,6-disubstituted-N-alkyl carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald; Ejsmont, Krzysztof; Daszkiewicz, Zdzislaw; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2013-10-01

    Structures of selected 3,6-dihalogeno-N-alkyl carbazole derivatives were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) level of theory, and their (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) isotropic shieldings were predicted using density functional theory (DFT). The model compounds contained 9H, N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives. The relativistic effect of Br and I atoms on nuclear shieldings was modeled using the spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) method. Significant heavy atom shielding effects for the carbon atom directly bonded with Br and I were observed (~-10 and ~-30 ppm while the other carbon shifts were practically unaffected). The decreasing electronegativity of the halogen substituent (F, Cl, Br, and I) was reflected in both nonrelativistic and relativistic NMR results as decreased values of chemical shifts of carbon atoms attached to halogen (C3 and C6) leading to a strong sensitivity to halogen atom type at 3 and 6 positions of the carbazole ring. The predicted NMR data correctly reproduce the available experimental data for unsubstituted N-alkylcarbazoles. PMID:23922027

  11. Reliable resonance assignments of selected residues of proteins with known structure based on empirical NMR chemical shift prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Wei; Meng, Dan; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    A robust NMR resonance assignment method is introduced for proteins whose 3D structure has previously been determined by X-ray crystallography. The goal of the method is to obtain a subset of correct assignments from a parsimonious set of 3D NMR experiments of 15N, 13C labeled proteins. Chemical shifts of sequential residue pairs are predicted from static protein structures using PPM_One, which are then compared with the corresponding experimental shifts. Globally optimized weighted matching identifies the assignments that are robust with respect to small changes in NMR cross-peak positions. The method, termed PASSPORT, is demonstrated for 4 proteins with 100-250 amino acids using 3D NHCA and a 3D CBCA(CO)NH experiments as input producing correct assignments with high reliability for 22% of the residues. The method, which works best for Gly, Ala, Ser, and Thr residues, provides assignments that serve as anchor points for additional assignments by both manual and semi-automated methods or they can be directly used for further studies, e.g. on ligand binding, protein dynamics, or post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation.

  12. A relativistic DFT methodology for calculating the structures and NMR chemical shifts of octahedral platinum and iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Vícha, Jan; Patzschke, Michael; Marek, Radek

    2013-05-28

    A methodology for optimizing the geometry and calculating the NMR shielding constants is calibrated for octahedral complexes of Pt(IV) and Ir(III) with modified nucleic acid bases. The performance of seven different functionals (BLYP, B3LYP, BHLYP, BP86, TPSS, PBE, and PBE0) in optimizing the geometry of transition-metal complexes is evaluated using supramolecular clusters derived from X-ray data. The effects of the size of the basis set (ranging from SVP to QZVPP) and the dispersion correction (D3) on the interatomic distances are analyzed. When structural deviations and computational demands are employed as criteria for evaluating the optimizations of these clusters, the PBE0/def2-TZVPP/D3 approach provides excellent results. In the next step, the PBE0/def2-TZVPP approach is used with the continuum-like screening model (COSMO) to optimize the geometry of single molecules for the subsequent calculation of the NMR shielding constants in solution. The two-component zeroth-order regular approximation (SO-ZORA) is used to calculate the NMR shielding constants (PBE0/TZP/COSMO). The amount of exact exchange in the PBE0 functional is validated for the nuclear magnetic shieldings of atoms in the vicinity of heavy transition metals. For the PBE0/TZP/COSMO setup, an exact exchange of 40% is found to accurately reproduce the experimental NMR shielding constants for both types of complexes. Finally, the effect of the amount of exact exchange on the NMR shielding calculations (which is capable of compensating for the structural deficiencies) is analyzed for various molecular geometries (SCS-MP2, BHLYP, and PBE0) and the influence of a trans-substituent on the NMR chemical shift of nitrogen is discussed. The observed dependencies for an iridium complex cannot be rationalized by visualizing the Fermi-contact (FC) induced spin density and probably originate from changes in the d-d transitions that modulate the spin-orbit (SO) part of the SO/FC term. PMID:23598437

  13. Accurate ab initio prediction of NMR chemical shifts of nucleic acids and nucleic acids/protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Andrea; Möller, Heiko M.; Exner, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    NMR chemical shift predictions based on empirical methods are nowadays indispensable tools during resonance assignment and 3D structure calculation of proteins. However, owing to the very limited statistical data basis, such methods are still in their infancy in the field of nucleic acids, especially when non-canonical structures and nucleic acid complexes are considered. Here, we present an ab initio approach for predicting proton chemical shifts of arbitrary nucleic acid structures based on state-of-the-art fragment-based quantum chemical calculations. We tested our prediction method on a diverse set of nucleic acid structures including double-stranded DNA, hairpins, DNA/protein complexes and chemically-modified DNA. Overall, our quantum chemical calculations yield highly/very accurate predictions with mean absolute deviations of 0.3–0.6 ppm and correlation coefficients (r2) usually above 0.9. This will allow for identifying misassignments and validating 3D structures. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that chemical shifts of protons involved in hydrogen bonding are predicted significantly less accurately. This is in part caused by insufficient inclusion of solvation effects. However, it also points toward shortcomings of current force fields used for structure determination of nucleic acids. Our quantum chemical calculations could therefore provide input for force field optimization. PMID:25404135

  14. Accurate ab initio prediction of NMR chemical shifts of nucleic acids and nucleic acids/protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Victora, Andrea; Möller, Heiko M; Exner, Thomas E

    2014-12-16

    NMR chemical shift predictions based on empirical methods are nowadays indispensable tools during resonance assignment and 3D structure calculation of proteins. However, owing to the very limited statistical data basis, such methods are still in their infancy in the field of nucleic acids, especially when non-canonical structures and nucleic acid complexes are considered. Here, we present an ab initio approach for predicting proton chemical shifts of arbitrary nucleic acid structures based on state-of-the-art fragment-based quantum chemical calculations. We tested our prediction method on a diverse set of nucleic acid structures including double-stranded DNA, hairpins, DNA/protein complexes and chemically-modified DNA. Overall, our quantum chemical calculations yield highly/very accurate predictions with mean absolute deviations of 0.3-0.6 ppm and correlation coefficients (r(2)) usually above 0.9. This will allow for identifying misassignments and validating 3D structures. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that chemical shifts of protons involved in hydrogen bonding are predicted significantly less accurately. This is in part caused by insufficient inclusion of solvation effects. However, it also points toward shortcomings of current force fields used for structure determination of nucleic acids. Our quantum chemical calculations could therefore provide input for force field optimization. PMID:25404135

  15. A multiple pulse zero crossing NMR technique, and its application to F-19 chemical shift measurements in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burum, D. P.; Elleman, D. D.; Rhim, W.-K.

    1978-01-01

    A simple multiple-pulse 'zero crossing technique' for accurately determining the first moment of a solid-state NMR spectrum is introduced. This technique was applied to obtain the F-19 chemical shift versus pressure curves up to 5 kbar for single crystals of CaF2 (0.29 + or - 0.02 ppm/kbar) and BaF2 (0.62 + or - 0.05 ppm/kbar). Results at ambient temperature and pressure are also reported for a number of other fluorine compounds. Because of its high data rate, this technique is potentially several orders of magnitude more sensitive than similar CW methods.

  16. Quantitative study of atomic ordering in Ga0.5In0.5P thin films by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, Robert; Dabbagh, Gary; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Goral, John P.

    1992-06-01

    We use 31P nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectra to measure the degree of cation ordering in thin films of the semiconductor alloy Ga0.5In0.5P grown by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy. We show that the five possible GanIn4-nP clusters in GaxIn1-xP give rise to resolved NMR lines under magic-angle spinning, allowing a determination of the degree of cation ordering from the relative areas of the five lines. The ordering is shown to be weak (order parameter <=0.6) even in films that appear highly ordered in transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Chemical tagging of chlorinated phenols for their facile detection and analysis by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Leif, Roald N.

    2015-03-22

    A derivatization method that employs diethyl (bromodifluoromethyl) phosphonate (DBDFP) to efficiently tag the endocrine disruptor pentachlorophenol (PCP) and other chlorinated phenols (CPs) along with their reliable detection and analysis by NMR is presented. The method accomplishes the efficient alkylation of the hydroxyl group in CPs with the difluoromethyl (CF2H) moiety in extremely rapid fashion (5 min), at room temperature and in an environmentally benign manner. The approach proved successful in difluoromethylating a panel of 18 chlorinated phenols, yielding derivatives that displayed unique 1H, 19F NMR spectra allowing for the clear discrimination between isomerically related CPs. Due to its biphasic nature, the derivatization can be applied to both aqueous and organic mixtures where the analysis of CPs is required. Furthermore, the methodology demonstrates that PCP along with other CPs can be selectively derivatized in the presence of other various aliphatic alcohols, underscoring the superiority of the approach over other general derivatization methods that indiscriminately modify all analytes in a given sample. The present work demonstrates the first application of NMR on the qualitative analysis of these highly toxic and environmentally persistent species.

  18. 4 T Actively detuneable double-tuned 1H/31P head volume coil and four-channel 31P phased array for human brain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Avdievich, N I; Hetherington, H P

    2007-06-01

    Typically 31P in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies are limited by SNR considerations. Although phased arrays can improve the SNR; to date 31P phased arrays for high-field systems have not been combined with 31P volume transmit coils. Additionally, to provide anatomical reference for the 31P studies, without removal of the coil or patient from the magnet, double-tuning (31P/1H) of the volume coil is required. In this work we describe a series of methods for active detuning and decoupling enabling use of phased arrays with double-tuned volume coils. To demonstrate these principles we have built and characterized an actively detuneable 31P/1H TEM volume transmit/four-channel 31P phased array for 4 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the human brain. The coil can be used either in volume-transmit/array-receive mode or in TEM transmit/receive mode with the array detuned. Threefold SNR improvement was obtained at the periphery of the brain using the phased array as compared to the volume coil. PMID:17379554

  19. NMR methodologies for studying mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago C; Jarak, Ivana; Carvalho, Rui A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a technique with an increasing importance in the study of metabolic diseases. Its initial important role in the determination of chemical structures (1, 2) has been considerably overcome by its potential for the in vivo study of metabolism (3-5). The main characteristic that makes this technique so attractive is its noninvasiveness. Only nuclei capable of transitioning between energy states, in the presence of an intense and constant magnetic field, are studied. This includes abundant nuclei such as proton ((1)H) and phosphorous ((31)P), as well as stable isotopes such as deuterium ((2)H) and carbon 13 ((13)C). This allows a wide range of applications that vary from the determination of water distribution in tissues (as obtained in a magnetic resonance imaging scan) to the calculation of metabolic fluxes under ex vivo and in vivo conditions without the need to use radioactive tracers or tissue biopsies (as in a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scan). In this chapter, some technical aspects of the methodology of an NMR/MRS experiment as well as how it can be used to study mitochondrial bioenergetics are overviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of in vivo MRS versus high-resolution NMR using proton high rotation magic angle spinning (HRMAS) of tissue biopsies and tissue extracts are also discussed. PMID:22057574

  20. Determination of nuclear distances and chemical-shift anisotropy from 1H MAS NMR sideband patterns of surface OH groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenzke, Dieter; Hunger, Michael; Pfeifer, Harry

    A procedure is described which allows a separate determination of the proton-aluminum distance and of the chemical-shift anisotropy for the bridging OH groups of crystalline molecular sieves from their 'H MAS NMR sideband patterns. For the bridging OH groups which point into the 6-rings of the framework (line "c"), the 1H- 27Al distance could be determined to be 0.237 ± 0.004 and 0.234 ± 0.004 nm for molecular sieves of type H-Y and SAPO-5, respectively. In contrast, for the bridging OH groups of the 12-rings (line "b"), the corresponding distances are equal and distinctly larger, 0.248 ± 0.004 nm. Within the limits of error, the values of the chemical-shift anisotropy are equal (about 19 ± 2 ppm) except for line b of SAPO-5, which exhibits a much smaller value of 14.5 ± 2 ppm.

  1. Transport of phosphocholine in higher plant cells: sup 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gout, E.; Bligny, R.; Roby, C.; Douce, R. )

    1990-06-01

    Phosphocholine (PC) is an abundant primary form of organic phosphate that is transported in plant xylem sap. Addition of PC to the perfusate of compressed P{sub i}-starved sycamore cells monitored by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy resulted in an accumulation of PC and all the other phosphate esters in the cytoplasmic compartment. Addition of hemicholinium-3, an inhibitor of choline uptake, to the perfusate inhibited PC accumulation but not inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}). When the P{sub i}-starved cells were perfused with a medium containing either P{sub i} or PC, the resulting P{sub i} distribution in the cell was the same. Addition of choline instead of PC to the perfusate of compressed cells resulted in an accumulation of PC in the cytoplasmic compartment from choline kinase activity. In addition, PC phosphatase activity has been discovered associated with the cell wall. These results indicate that PC was rapidly hydrolyzed outside the cell and that choline and P{sub i} entered the cytosolic compartment where choline kinase re-forms PC.

  2. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance studies of chronic myocardial ischemia in the Yucatan micropig.

    PubMed

    Rath, D P; Bailey, M; Zhang, H; Jiang, Z; Abduljalil, A M; Weisbrode, S; Hamlin, R L; Robitaille, P M

    1995-01-01

    In this work, an x-irradiation/high fat/high cholesterol diet-induced atherogenic model was invoked to examine the effects of severe diffuse atherosclerosis on myocardial metabolism in the in vivo porcine heart. This model was studied using spatially localized 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to monitor pH and the levels of inorganic phosphate, phosphomonoesters, creatine phosphate, and adenosine triphosphate as a function of workload transmurally in control swine and in animals suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. These preliminary studies revealed that the development of severe atherosclerosis and the accompanying chronically diseased state produce changes in high energy phosphates and that increases in rate pressure products result in demonstrable signs of ischemia in the myocardium which span the entire left ventricular wall. Ischemic changes include a global increase in inorganic phosphate and corresponding decreases in creatine phosphate, ATP, and pH. Importantly, changes in intracellular pH are noted with even the slightest increase in workload suggesting that these diseased hearts display elevated glycolytic activity. By challenging these animals with increased cardiac workload, we directly visualize how the chronically compromised heart responds to severe oxygen challenges in a clinically relevant model of this situation. PMID:7814609

  3. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance studies of chronic myocardial ischemia in the Yucatan micropig.

    PubMed Central

    Rath, D P; Bailey, M; Zhang, H; Jiang, Z; Abduljalil, A M; Weisbrode, S; Hamlin, R L; Robitaille, P M

    1995-01-01

    In this work, an x-irradiation/high fat/high cholesterol diet-induced atherogenic model was invoked to examine the effects of severe diffuse atherosclerosis on myocardial metabolism in the in vivo porcine heart. This model was studied using spatially localized 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to monitor pH and the levels of inorganic phosphate, phosphomonoesters, creatine phosphate, and adenosine triphosphate as a function of workload transmurally in control swine and in animals suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. These preliminary studies revealed that the development of severe atherosclerosis and the accompanying chronically diseased state produce changes in high energy phosphates and that increases in rate pressure products result in demonstrable signs of ischemia in the myocardium which span the entire left ventricular wall. Ischemic changes include a global increase in inorganic phosphate and corresponding decreases in creatine phosphate, ATP, and pH. Importantly, changes in intracellular pH are noted with even the slightest increase in workload suggesting that these diseased hearts display elevated glycolytic activity. By challenging these animals with increased cardiac workload, we directly visualize how the chronically compromised heart responds to severe oxygen challenges in a clinically relevant model of this situation. Images PMID:7814609

  4. X-ray CT and NMR imaging of rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.

    1986-03-01

    In little more than a decade, X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging have become the premier modalities of medical radiology. Both of these imaging techniques also promise to be useful tools in petrophysics and reservoir engineering, because CT and NMR can nondestructively image a host of physical and chemical properties of porous rocks and multiple fluid phases contained within their pores. The images are taken within seconds to minutes, at reservoir temperatures and pressures, with spatial resolution on the millimeter and submillimeter level. The physical properties imaged by the two techniques are complementary. CT images bulk density and effective atomic number. NMR images the nuclide concentration, M/sub 0/, of a variety of nuclei (/sup 1/H, /sup 19/F, /sup 23/Na, /sup 31/P, etc.), their longitudinal and transverse relaxation-time curves (t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/), and their chemical shift spectra. In rocks, CT images both rock matrix and pore fluids, while NMR images only mobile fluids and the interactions of these mobile fluids with the confining surfaces of the pores.

  5. Quantitative analysis of deuterium using the isotopic effect on quaternary (13)C NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Tamim A; Yepuri, Nageshwar Rao; Holden, Peter J; James, Michael

    2016-07-13

    Quantitative analysis of specifically deuterated compounds can be achieved by a number of conventional methods, such as mass spectroscopy, or by quantifying the residual (1)H NMR signals compared to signals from internal standards. However, site specific quantification using these methods becomes challenging when dealing with non-specifically or randomly deuterated compounds that are produced by metal catalyzed hydrothermal reactions in D2O, one of the most convenient deuteration methods. In this study, deuterium-induced NMR isotope shifts of quaternary (13)C resonances neighboring deuterated sites have been utilized to quantify the degree of isotope labeling of molecular sites in non-specifically deuterated molecules. By probing (13)C NMR signals while decoupling both proton and deuterium nuclei, it is possible to resolve (13)C resonances of the different isotopologues based on the isotopic shifts and the degree of deuteration of the carbon atoms. We demonstrate that in different isotopologues, the same quaternary carbon, neighboring partially deuterated carbon atoms, are affected to an equal extent by relaxation. Decoupling both nuclei ((1)H, (2)H) resolves closely separated quaternary (13)C signals of the different isotopologues, and allows their accurate integration and quantification under short relaxation delays (D1 = 1 s) and hence fast accumulative spectral acquisition. We have performed a number of approaches to quantify the deuterium content at different specific sites to demonstrate a convenient and generic analysis method for use in randomly deuterated molecules, or in cases of specifically deuterated molecules where back-exchange processes may take place during work up. PMID:27237841

  6. Chemical Composition and Seasonality of Aromatic Mediterranean Plant Species by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Scognamiglio, Monica; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    An NMR-based metabolomic approach has been applied to analyse seven aromatic Mediterranean plant species used in traditional cuisine. Based on the ethnobotanical use of these plants, the approach has been employed in order to study the metabolic changes during different seasons. Primary and secondary metabolites have been detected and quantified. Flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivatives) and phenylpropanoid derivatives (e.g., chlorogenic and rosmarinic acid) are the main identified polyphenols. The richness in these metabolites could explain the biological properties ascribed to these plant species. PMID:25785229

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of natural and synthetic desulphoglucosinolates and their chemical validation by UV, NMR and chemical ionisation-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Kiddle, G; Bennett, R N; Botting, N P; Davidson, N E; Robertson, A A; Wallsgrove, R M

    2001-01-01

    Methods are described for the optimised extraction, desulphation and HPLC separation of desulphoglucosinolates. These methods provide rapid separation, identification and quantitative measurements of glucosinolates extracted from Brassica napus L and related crops, of unusual glucosinolates found in crucifer weed species, and also of synthetic alkylglucosinolates. The desulphoglucosinolates used in these studies were either chemically synthesised (at least one example from each major structural class), or purified from various plant sources. Validation of the identities of the desulphoglucosinolates was by comparison of retention times with standards, and by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR and chemical ionisation MS analysis. A list of useful species, and the specific tissues, from which high concentrations of standards can be extracted is included. PMID:11705329

  8. Phosphorus-31, sup 15 N, and sup 13 C NMR of glyphosate: Comparison of pH titrations to the herbicidal dead-end complex with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Castellino, S.; Leo, G.C.; Sammons, R.D.; Sikorski, J.A. )

    1989-05-02

    The herbicidal dead-end ternary complex (E{sup S3P}{sub Glyph}) of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) with 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and the substrate shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P) has been characterized by {sup 31}P, {sup 15}N, and {sup 13}C NMR. The NMR spectra of EPSPS-bound glyphosate show unique chemical shifts ({delta}) for each of the three nuclei. By {sup 31}P NMR, glyphosate in the dead-end complex is a distinct species 3.5 ppm downfield from free glyphosate. The {sup 13}C signal of glyphosate in the dead-end complex is shifted 4 ppm downfield from that of free glyphosate. The {sup 15}N signal for glyphosate (99%) in the dead-end complex is 5 ppm further downfield than that of any free zwitterionic species and 10 ppm downfield from that of the average free species at pH 10.1. The structures of each ionic state of glyphosate are modeled with force field calculations by using MacroModel. A correlation is made for the {sup 31}P {delta} and the C-P-O bond angle, and the {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N {delta} values are postulated to be related to C-C-O and C-N-C bond angles, respectively. The downfield {sup 31}P chemical shift perturbation for S3P in the EPSPS binary complex is consistent with ionization of the 3-phosphate of S3P upon binding. Comparison with the S3P {sup 31}P {delta} vs pH titration curve specifies predominantly the dianion of the 3-phosphate in the E{sup S3P} binary complex, while the E{sup S3P}{sub Glyph} complex indicates net protonation at the 3-phosphate. Chemical shift perturbations of this latter type may be explained by changes in the O-P-O bond angle.

  9. Comparison of the computational NMR chemical shifts of choline with the experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, C.; Cuperlovic-Culf, M.; Ghandi, K.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main biological markers of the presence of cancer in living patients is an over-expression of total choline (tCho), which is the sum of free choline and its derivatives. 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, or H-MRS, enables the quantification of tCho via its proton spectra, and thus has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for the presence of cancer and an accurate early indicator of the response of cancer to treatment. However, it remains difficult to quantify individual choline derivatives, since they share a large structural similarity ((CH3)3-N+-CH2-CH2-O-), of which the strongest signal detectable by MRS is that of the choline "head group": the three methyl groups bonded to the nitrogen. This work used ACENet, a high performance computing system, to attempt to model the NMR parameters of choline derivatives, with the focus of this report being free choline. Optimized structures were determined using Density Functional Theory and the B3LYP electron correlation functional. The Polarizable Continuum Model was used to evaluate solvent effects. The Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital method was found to be the superior method for calculating the NMR parameters of cholines.

  10. Density functional investigation of intermolecular effects on {sup 13}C NMR chemical-shielding tensors modeled with molecular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Sean T.; Dybowski, Cecil; Iuliucci, Robbie J.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2014-10-28

    A quantum-chemical method for modeling solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance chemical-shift tensors by calculations on large symmetry-adapted clusters of molecules is demonstrated. Four hundred sixty five principal components of the {sup 13}C chemical-shielding tensors of 24 organic materials are analyzed. The comparison of calculations on isolated molecules with molecules in clusters demonstrates that intermolecular effects can be successfully modeled using a cluster that represents a local portion of the lattice structure, without the need to use periodic-boundary conditions (PBCs). The accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using a cluster rivals the accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using PBCs, provided the cluster preserves the symmetry properties of the crystalline space group. The size and symmetry conditions that the model cluster must satisfy to obtain significant agreement with experimental chemical-shift values are discussed. The symmetry constraints described in the paper provide a systematic approach for incorporating intermolecular effects into chemical-shielding calculations performed at a level of theory that is more advanced than the generalized gradient approximation. Specifically, NMR parameters are calculated using the hybrid exchange-correlation functional B3PW91, which is not available in periodic codes. Calculations on structures of four molecules refined with density plane waves yield chemical-shielding values that are essentially in agreement with calculations on clusters where only the hydrogen sites are optimized and are used to provide insight into the inherent sensitivity of chemical shielding to lattice structure, including the role of rovibrational effects.

  11. NMR and mass spectrometry of phosphorus in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El-Rifai, H.; Heerboth, M.; Gedris, T.E.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.; Cooper, W.T.

    2008-01-01

    There is at present little information on the long-term stability of phosphorus sequestered in wetlands. Phosphorus sequestered during high loading periods may be relatively unstable and easily remobilized following changes in nutrient status or hydrological regime, but the chemical forms of sequestered phosphorus that do remobilize are largely unknown at this time. A lack of suitable analytical techniques has contributed to this dearth of knowledge regarding the stability of soil organic phosphorus. We analysed phosphorus in soils from the 'head' of Rescue Strand tree island and an adjacent marsh in the Florida Everglades by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Tree islands are important areas of biodiversity within the Everglades and offer a unique opportunity to study phosphorus sequestration because they are exposed to large phosphorus loads and appear to be natural nutrient sinks. The 31P NMR profiling of extracts from surface and sediment samples in the tree island indicates that phosphorus input to Rescue Strand tree island soils is mostly in the form of inorganic ortho-phosphate and is either refractory when deposited or rapidly recycled by the native vegetation into a stable phosphorus pool largely resistant to re-utilization by plants or microbes. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, a common organic monophosphate ester not previously observed in Everglades' soils. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  12. Magic-angle-spinning NMR on solid biological systems. Analysis Of the origin of the spectral linewidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemminga, M. A.; de Jager, P. A.; Krüse, J.; Lamerichs, R. M. J. N.

    Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) high-power 1H-decoupled 13C and 31P NMR has been applied to solid biological materials to obtain information about the mechanisms that determine the spectral linewidths. The line broadening in MAS 31P NMR spectra of solid tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been investigated by selective saturation and T2 measurements. About 90 Hz stems from homogeneous effects, whereas the inhomogeneous contribution is approximately 100 Hz. The inhomogeneous line broadening is assigned to macroscopic inhomogeneities in the sample and not to variations in the nucleotide bases along the RNA strand in TMV. It is concluded that sample preparation is of vital importance for obtaining well-resolved spectra. Under optimal preparation techniques the isotropic values of the chemical shift of the different 31P sites have been determined to obtain information about the secondary structure of the viral RNA. The chemical shift anisotropy has been determined from the relative intensities of the spinning side bands in the spectra. The chemical shift information is used to make a tentative assignment of the resonance in terms of the three structurally distinguishable phosphate groups in TMV. The origin of the linewidths in MAS NMR has been examined further by 13C NMR of approximately 10% 13C-enriched coat protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, using selective excitation and saturation techniques, as well as measurements of the relaxation times T1 γ and T2. The CO resonance in the spectrum is composed of an inhomogeneous and homogeneous part with a total linewidth of 700 Hz. The homogeneous linewidth, contributing with 200 Hz, is found to arise from slow molecular motions in the solid on a millisecond timescale.

  13. Experimental link between the /sup 13/C NMR chemical shift of carbonyl carbons and the energy shifts observed in the n. -->. 3s optical transition of cyclic ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, T.J.; Baer, T.

    1988-09-14

    The n ..-->.. 3s transition energies of cold methylcyclopentanones and -cyclohexanones, as well as those of some branched-chain and bicyclic ketones, have been measured with 2 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). The energy shifts of the n ..-->.. 3s transition origins are found to correlate in a linear fashion with reported /sup 13/C NMR chemical shifts of the carbonyl carbon atoms. Several possible explanations for the experimental connection to NMR are discussed including consideration of both the paramagnetic and diamagnetic shielding contributions to the total chemical shift. 31 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Probing physical and chemical changes in cortical bone due to osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Donghua; Taylor, Amanda; Rendina, Beth; Smith, Brenda; Department of Physics Collaboration; Department of Nutritional Sciences Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 1.5 million fractures occur each year in the U.S. due to osteoporosis, which is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone micro-architecture. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes also significantly increases fracture risks, despite having a normal or even higher bone mineral density. Solid-state NMR has been applied to bone tissues from normal and disease-inflicted mouse models to study structural and chemical dynamics as the disease progresses. Proton relaxation experiments were performed to measure water populations in the bone matrix and pores. Collagen-bound water has strong influence on bone resilience, while water content in the pores reveals amount and size of pores from micro- to millimeter range. Other biochemical and atomic-scale structural alterations in the mineral and organic phases and their interface were investigated by proton, phosphorus, and carbon NMR spectroscopy. Experiments were designed to individually detect different types of phosphorus environments: near the mineral surface, similar to hydroxyapatite, and deficient of hydrogens due to substitution of the hydroxyl group by other ions. A new method was also developed for accurate quantification of each phosphorus species. The authors appreciate financial support for this project from the College of Human Sciences and the College of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University.

  15. CSI 3.0: a web server for identifying secondary and super-secondary structure in proteins using NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Hafsa, Noor E; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    The Chemical Shift Index or CSI 3.0 (http://csi3.wishartlab.com) is a web server designed to accurately identify the location of secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains using only nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) backbone chemical shifts and their corresponding protein sequence data. Unlike earlier versions of CSI, which only identified three types of secondary structure (helix, β-strand and coil), CSI 3.0 now identifies total of 11 types of secondary and super-secondary structures, including helices, β-strands, coil regions, five common β-turns (type I, II, I', II' and VIII), β hairpins as well as interior and edge β-strands. CSI 3.0 accepts experimental NMR chemical shift data in multiple formats (NMR Star 2.1, NMR Star 3.1 and SHIFTY) and generates colorful CSI plots (bar graphs) and secondary/super-secondary structure assignments. The output can be readily used as constraints for structure determination and refinement or the images may be used for presentations and publications. CSI 3.0 uses a pipeline of several well-tested, previously published programs to identify the secondary and super-secondary structures in protein chains. Comparisons with secondary and super-secondary structure assignments made via standard coordinate analysis programs such as DSSP, STRIDE and VADAR on high-resolution protein structures solved by X-ray and NMR show >90% agreement between those made with CSI 3.0. PMID:25979265

  16. Indirectly detected chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast magic angle spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Kanmi

    2011-01-01

    The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-γ nuclei (e.g., 13C and 15N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., 1H and 19F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in 1H detected 2D 1H{l_brace}13C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional 13C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear 1H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5m$\\bar{x}$, PMLG5mm$\\bar{x}$x and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based

  17. On reasons of 29Si NMR chemical shift/structure relations for silicon oxides, nitrides, and carbides: an individual-gauge-for-localized-orbitals study.

    PubMed

    Wolff, R; Jancke, H; Radeglia, R

    1997-12-01

    For alpha-quartz, monoclinic ZSM-5, alpha- and beta-Si3N4 and SiC-6H polytype, the silicon chemical shifts have been calculated using the IGLO (individual gauge for localized orbitals) method and models of different size in real crystal geometry. The result is a theoretical chemical shift scale, which is very similar to the corresponding experimental scale from 29Si MAS NMR experiments. It is shown that the assignment of isotropic silicon chemical shifts of crystallized solids based on theory is a method of practical applicability, also in cases where experimental methods or empirical relations fail. The two NMR spectral lines of alpha-Si3N4 are for the first time assigned to the crystallographic positions. The partition of the silicon chemical shifts into localized contributions from different parts of the model allows insight into the interactions around the resonance nucleus due to substituent and geometry variations leading to silicon chemical shifts. PMID:9477448

  18. 13C and 1H chemical shift assignments and conformation confirmation of trimedlure-Y via 2-D NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warthen, J. D.; Waters, R. M.; McGovern, T. P.

    The conformation of 1,1-dimethylethyl 5-chloro- cis-2-methylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate (trimedlure-Y) was confirmed as 1,2,5 equatorial, axial, equatorial via 13C, 1H, APT, CSCM and COSY NMR analyses. The carbon and proton nuclei in trimedlure-Y and the previously unassigned eight cyclohexyl protons (1.50-2.60 ppm) in 1,1-dimethylethyl 5-chloro- trans-2-methylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate (trimedlure-B 1; 1,2,5 equatorial, equatorial, equatorial) were also characterized by these methods. The effects of the 2-CH 3 in the axial or equatorial conformation upon the chemical shifts of the other nuclei in the molecule are discussed.

  19. Comprehensive Chemical Profiling of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth Using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is an important herb in Indian medicine and contains cucurbitacins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoid-glucoside and their derivatives as active constituents for the treatment of indigestion, fever, hepatitis, cancer, liver and respiratory diseases. Extensive use of P. kurroa needs detailed analysis and recognition of chemical diversity, is of great importance to evaluate their role as quality control markers. In the present study, comprehensive metabolic profiling of crude extracts of leaves and rhizomes of P. kurroa was carried out using NMR, HPTLC and LC-MS/MS. Primary and secondary metabolites were unambiguously identified along with a new report of monoterpenic glycoside (1-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-oct-2(E),6(E)-dienoate) in P. Kurroa. Significant qualitative differences with respect to the secondary metabolites were noticed between the leaves and rhizomes tissues. Leaves contained more cucurbitacins and flavonoids while iridoids were present more in rhizomes. The comprehensive chemical profiling is expected to give an idea of chemical diversity and quality of P. kurroa, for their ultimate utilisation in various applications. PMID:26777484

  20. Monitoring the effects of storage in caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus using chemical, SEM, and NMR methods.

    PubMed

    Gussoni, Maristella; Greco, Fulvia; Vezzoli, Alessandra; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Beretta, Giuseppe; Caprino, Fabio; Lanza, Barbara; Zetta, Lucia

    2006-09-01

    The effects of storage at 4 degrees C on the quantity and quality of chemical components in the caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus have been analyzed by SEM, chemical methods, and NMR and MRI techniques. Particular attention has been focused on the lipid components, the distribution and mobility of which were strongly affected by the storage time. MRI and relaxation data indicated that lipids are endowed with two different mobility regimes, one slow (short T1) and one fast (long T1), both lengthening with the storage time. Chemical analysis assessed a total fat content that remained practically unchanged and a constant fatty acid composition during the total storage time. The combination of the two methods allowed one (a) to suppose that a mechanism of lipid hydrolysis (faster in unsalted than in salted eggs) is still occurring during storage of caviar at 4 degrees C for up to approximately 4 months and (b) to exclude that an intensive oxidative process is active in the same storage period. PMID:16939332

  1. Investigations on the Crystal-Chemical Behavior of Transition-Metal-Bearing Aluminosilicate Garnet Solid Solutions Using 27Al and 29Si NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palke, A. C.; Geiger, C. A.; Stebbins, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The petrological importance of silicate garnet is derived from the presence of three distinct cation sites of varying size and coordination number. This allows for a wide range of trace, minor, and major element substitutions. However, a full and precise crystal-chemical understanding of the nature of transition metals in garnet is not at hand. Possible mechanisms of various charge-balanced substitutions (e.g. octahedral Ti4+ or tetrahedral Al3+) and the structural state of solid solutions (i.e. short- to long-range ordering) need study. We report on ongoing efforts in these directions using 27Al and 29Si Magic-Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. Early work on synthetic and natural Fe- and Mn-bearing pyrope- and grossular-rich garnets focused on the effect these paramagnetic transition metals have in measuring and interpreting NMR spectra. These results have been expanded with NMR measurements on synthetic pyrope-rich garnets containing other paramagnetic transition metals including Cr3+, V3+, Co2+, and Ni2+ as well as diamagnetic Ti4+. NMR peaks are severely broadened in the presence of even small concentrations of Cr3+, Mn2+, and Fe3+ leading to a loss of spectral resolution. On the other hand, the spectra of garnet containing V3+, Fe2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ have better resolution and show separate paramagnetically shifted NMR peaks. In some cases, crystal-chemical information can be obtained because of the large frequency separations between the NMR peaks that can be assigned to various local atomic configurations around Al and Si. Furthermore, the 27Al NMR spectrum of a synthetic pyrope garnet with about 2% diamagnetic Ti4+ on the octahedral site showed the absence of any tetrahedral Al3+, which rules out the substitution mechanism VITi + IVAl = VIAl + IVSi in the solid solution. Our NMR investigations on garnet are now being made at the exploratory level. We think that NMR spectra of diamagnetic garnet can provide information on a

  2. Probing silicon and aluminium chemical environments in silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by solid state NMR spectroscopy and accurate first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzzi, Elisa; Pedone, Alfonso; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Angeli, Frédéric; Caurant, Daniel; Charpentier, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    Silicon and aluminium chemical environments in silicate and aluminosilicate glasses with compositions 60SiO2·20Na2O·20CaO (CSN), 60SiO2·20Al2O3·20CaO (CAS), 78SiO2·11Al2O3·11Na2O (NAS) and 60SiO2·10Al2O3·10Na2O·20CaO (CASN) have been investigated by 27Al and 29Si solid state magic angle spinning (MAS) and multiple quantum MAS (MQMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. To interpret the NMR data, first-principles calculations using density functional theory were performed on structural models of these glasses. These models were generated by Shell-model molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The theoretical NMR parameters and spectra were computed using the gauge including projected augmented wave (GIPAW) method and spin-effective Hamiltonians, respectively. This synergetic computational-experimental approach offers a clear structural characterization of these glasses, particularly in terms of network polymerization, chemical disorder (i.e. Si and Al distribution in second coordination sphere) and modifier cation distributions. The relationships between the local structural environments and the 29Si and 27Al NMR parameters are highlighted, and show that: (i) the isotropic chemical shift of both 29Si and 27Al increases of about +5 ppm for each Al added in the second sphere and (ii) both the 27Al and 29Si isotropic chemical shifts linearly decrease with the reduction of the average Si/Al-O-T bond angle. Conversely, 27Al and 29Si NMR parameters are much less sensitive to the connectivity with triple bridging oxygen atoms, precluding their indirect detection from 27Al and 29Si NMR.

  3. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiying; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Fengchang; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P; He, Zhongqi; Song, Lirong; Fan, Mingle

    2016-04-01

    Debris from aquatic macrophytes and algae are important recycling sources of phosphorus (P), which can result in continuing blooms of algae by recycling bioavailable P in the eutrophic lakes. However, knowledge of forms of P in aquatic macrophytes and algae and their contribution to internal loads of P in lakes is limited. Without such knowledge, it is difficult to develop appropriate strategies to remediate and or restore aquatic ecosystems that have become eutrophic. Therefore, in this work, P was extracted from six types of aquatic macrophytes and algae collected from Tai Lake of China and characterized by use of solution (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. When extracted by 0.5 M NaOH-25 mM EDTA, extraction recovery of total P(TP) and organic P(Po) exceeded 90 %. Concentrations of Po in algae and aquatic macrophytes were 5552 mg kg(-1) and 1005 mg kg(-1) and accounted for 56.0 and 47.2 % of TP, respectively. When Po, including condensed P, was characterized by solution (31)P-NMR Po in algae included orthophosphate monoesters (79.8 %), pyrophosphate (18.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (2.0 %), and Po in aquatic macrophytes included orthophosphate monoesters (90.3 %), pyrophosphate (4.2 %), and orthophosphate diester (5.5 %). Additionally, orthophosphate monoesters in algal debris mainly included β-glycerophosphate (44.1 %), α-glycerophosphate (13.5 %), and glucose 6-phosphate (13.5 %). Orthophosphate monoesters in aquatic macrophytes mainly included β-glycerophosphate (27.9 %), α-glycerophosphate (24.6 %), and adenosine 5' monophosphate (8.2 %). Results derived from this study will be useful in better understanding nutrient cycling, relevant eutrophication processes, and pollution control for freshwater lakes. PMID:26681323

  4. ¹³C solid-state NMR analysis of the most common pharmaceutical excipients used in solid drug formulations, Part I: Chemical shifts assignment.

    PubMed

    Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika Agnieszka; Szeleszczuk, Łukasz; Wawer, Iwona

    2016-04-15

    Solid-state NMR is an excellent and useful method for analyzing solid-state forms of drugs. In the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the solid dosage forms many of the signals originate from the excipients and should be distinguished from those of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). In this work the most common pharmaceutical excipients used in the solid drug formulations: anhydrous α-lactose, α-lactose monohydrate, mannitol, sucrose, sorbitol, sodium starch glycolate type A and B, starch of different origin, microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, ethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, sodium alginate, magnesium stearate, sodium laurilsulfate and Kollidon(®) were analyzed. Their (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra were recorded and the signals were assigned, employing the results (R(2): 0.948-0.998) of GIPAW calculations and theoretical chemical shifts. The (13)C ssNMR spectra for some of the studied excipients have not been published before while for the other signals in the spectra they were not properly assigned or the assignments were not correct. The results summarize and complement the data on the (13)C ssNMR analysis of the most common pharmaceutical excipients and are essential for further NMR studies of API-excipient interactions in the pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:26845204

  5. Structure of the Bacterial Cytoskeleton Protein Bactofilin by NMR Chemical Shifts and Sequence Variation.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Maher M; Wang, Yong; Boomsma, Wouter; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2016-06-01

    Bactofilins constitute a recently discovered class of bacterial proteins that form cytoskeletal filaments. They share a highly conserved domain (DUF583) of which the structure remains unknown, in part due to the large size and noncrystalline nature of the filaments. Here, we describe the atomic structure of a bactofilin domain from Caulobacter crescentus. To determine the structure, we developed an approach that combines a biophysical model for proteins with recently obtained solid-state NMR spectroscopy data and amino acid contacts predicted from a detailed analysis of the evolutionary history of bactofilins. Our structure reveals a triangular β-helical (solenoid) conformation with conserved residues forming the tightly packed core and polar residues lining the surface. The repetitive structure explains the presence of internal repeats as well as strongly conserved positions, and is reminiscent of other fibrillar proteins. Our work provides a structural basis for future studies of bactofilin biology and for designing molecules that target them, as well as a starting point for determining the organization of the entire bactofilin filament. Finally, our approach presents new avenues for determining structures that are difficult to obtain by traditional means. PMID:27276252

  6. NMRDSP: an accurate prediction of protein shape strings from NMR chemical shifts and sequence data.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wusong; Cong, Peisheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Lu, Longjian; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Tonghua

    2013-01-01

    Shape string is structural sequence and is an extremely important structure representation of protein backbone conformations. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts give a strong correlation with the local protein structure, and are exploited to predict protein structures in conjunction with computational approaches. Here we demonstrate a novel approach, NMRDSP, which can accurately predict the protein shape string based on nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts and structural profiles obtained from sequence data. The NMRDSP uses six chemical shifts (HA, H, N, CA, CB and C) and eight elements of structure profiles as features, a non-redundant set (1,003 entries) as the training set, and a conditional random field as a classification algorithm. For an independent testing set (203 entries), we achieved an accuracy of 75.8% for S8 (the eight states accuracy) and 87.8% for S3 (the three states accuracy). This is higher than only using chemical shifts or sequence data, and confirms that the chemical shift and the structure profile are significant features for shape string prediction and their combination prominently improves the accuracy of the predictor. We have constructed the NMRDSP web server and believe it could be employed to provide a solid platform to predict other protein structures and functions. The NMRDSP web server is freely available at http://cal.tongji.edu.cn/NMRDSP/index.jsp. PMID:24376713

  7. NMRDSP: An Accurate Prediction of Protein Shape Strings from NMR Chemical Shifts and Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wusong; Cong, Peisheng; Wang, Zhiheng; Lu, Longjian; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Tonghua

    2013-01-01

    Shape string is structural sequence and is an extremely important structure representation of protein backbone conformations. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts give a strong correlation with the local protein structure, and are exploited to predict protein structures in conjunction with computational approaches. Here we demonstrate a novel approach, NMRDSP, which can accurately predict the protein shape string based on nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts and structural profiles obtained from sequence data. The NMRDSP uses six chemical shifts (HA, H, N, CA, CB and C) and eight elements of structure profiles as features, a non-redundant set (1,003 entries) as the training set, and a conditional random field as a classification algorithm. For an independent testing set (203 entries), we achieved an accuracy of 75.8% for S8 (the eight states accuracy) and 87.8% for S3 (the three states accuracy). This is higher than only using chemical shifts or sequence data, and confirms that the chemical shift and the structure profile are significant features for shape string prediction and their combination prominently improves the accuracy of the predictor. We have constructed the NMRDSP web server and believe it could be employed to provide a solid platform to predict other protein structures and functions. The NMRDSP web server is freely available at http://cal.tongji.edu.cn/NMRDSP/index.jsp. PMID:24376713

  8. Comparison of phytate and other organic P forms in Mehlich-3 and Alkaline-EDTA matrices by ICP, NMR and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The favored method of organic P identification over the last few decades has been 31P NMR. While this technique has the distinct advantage of speciating the organic P fraction, it has a relatively poor detection threshold (0.05 mg/ml), which typically limits 31P NMR to qualitative or confirmative ap...

  9. Modeling (15)N NMR chemical shift changes in protein backbone with pressure.

    PubMed

    La Penna, Giovanni; Mori, Yoshiharu; Kitahara, Ryo; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yuko

    2016-08-28

    Nitrogen chemical shift is a useful parameter for determining the backbone three-dimensional structure of proteins. Empirical models for fast calculation of N chemical shift are improving their reliability, but there are subtle effects that cannot be easily interpreted. Among these, the effects of slight changes in hydrogen bonds, both intramolecular and with water molecules in the solvent, are particularly difficult to predict. On the other hand, these hydrogen bonds are sensitive to changes in protein environment. In this work, the change of N chemical shift with pressure for backbone segments in the protein ubiquitin is correlated with the change in the population of hydrogen bonds involving the backbone amide group. The different extent of interaction of protein backbone with the water molecules in the solvent is put in evidence. PMID:27586953

  10. Solid-state NMR strategies for the structural characterization of paramagnetic NO adducts of Frustrated Lewis Pairs (FLPs).

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Thomas; Sajid, Muhammad; Kehr, Gerald; Erker, Gerhard; Eckert, Hellmut

    2014-01-01

    By N,N addition of NO to the norbonane annulated borane-phosphane Frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) 1 a five-membered heterocyclic persistent aminoxyl radical 2 and its diamagnetic hydroxylamine reduction product 3 are prepared, and the comprehensive multinuclear solid state NMR characterization ((1)H, (11)B, (19)F, (31)P) of these FLP adducts is reported. Signal quantification experiments using a standard addition method reveal that the (11)B and (31)P NMR signals observed in 2 actually arise from molecular impurities of 3 embedded in the paramagnetic crystal. In contrast analogous quantification experiments reveal that the (1)H and (19)F MAS-NMR spectra originate from spin-carrying molecules. Peak assignments are based on DFT-calculated Mulliken spin densities, which lead to the surprising result that the largest paramagnetic shift affecting a proton NMR resonance in 2 originates from intermolecular interactions. For the (19)F nuclei, experiments and calculations indicate that paramagnetic shift effects are very small. In this case, assignments are based on DFT chemical shift calculations carried out on diamagnetic 3 and (19)F((11)B) Rotational Echo Adiabatic Passage DOuble Resonance (REAPDOR) experiments. The set of experiments described here defines an efficient strategy for the structural analysis of paramagnetic FLP adducts. PMID:24815176

  11. Comparison of (31)P saturation and inversion magnetization transfer in human liver and skeletal muscle using a clinical MR system and surface coils.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Tania; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris

    2015-02-01

    (31)P MRS magnetization transfer ((31)P-MT) experiments allow the estimation of exchange rates of biochemical reactions, such as the creatine kinase equilibrium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. Although various (31)P-MT methods have been successfully used on isolated organs or animals, their application on humans in clinical scanners poses specific challenges. This study compared two major (31)P-MT methods on a clinical MR system using heteronuclear surface coils. Although saturation transfer (ST) is the most commonly used (31)P-MT method, sequences such as inversion transfer (IT) with short pulses might be better suited for the specific hardware and software limitations of a clinical scanner. In addition, small NMR-undetectable metabolite pools can transfer MT to NMR-visible pools during long saturation pulses, which is prevented with short pulses. (31)P-MT sequences were adapted for limited pulse length, for heteronuclear transmit-receive surface coils with inhomogeneous B1 , for the need for volume selection and for the inherently low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on a clinical 3-T MR system. The ST and IT sequences were applied to skeletal muscle and liver in 10 healthy volunteers. Monte-Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the behavior of the IT measurements with increasing imperfections. In skeletal muscle of the thigh, ATP synthesis resulted in forward reaction constants (k) of 0.074 ± 0.022 s(-1) (ST) and 0.137 ± 0.042 s(-1) (IT), whereas the creatine kinase reaction yielded 0.459 ± 0.089 s(-1) (IT). In the liver, ATP synthesis resulted in k = 0.267 ± 0.106 s(-1) (ST), whereas the IT experiment yielded no consistent results. ST results were close to literature values; however, the IT results were either much larger than the corresponding ST values and/or were widely scattered. To summarize, ST and IT experiments can both be implemented on a clinical body scanner with heteronuclear transmit-receive surface coils; however, ST results are

  12. Automated assignment of NMR chemical shifts based on a known structure and 4D spectra.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Matthias; Fredriksson, Kai; Möller, Heiko M; Exner, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Apart from their central role during 3D structure determination of proteins the backbone chemical shift assignment is the basis for a number of applications, like chemical shift perturbation mapping and studies on the dynamics of proteins. This assignment is not a trivial task even if a 3D protein structure is known and needs almost as much effort as the assignment for structure prediction if performed manually. We present here a new algorithm based solely on 4D [(1)H,(15)N]-HSQC-NOESY-[(1)H,(15)N]-HSQC spectra which is able to assign a large percentage of chemical shifts (73-82 %) unambiguously, demonstrated with proteins up to a size of 250 residues. For the remaining residues, a small number of possible assignments is filtered out. This is done by comparing distances in the 3D structure to restraints obtained from the peak volumes in the 4D spectrum. Using dead-end elimination, assignments are removed in which at least one of the restraints is violated. Including additional information from chemical shift predictions, a complete unambiguous assignment was obtained for Ubiquitin and 95 % of the residues were correctly assigned in the 251 residue-long N-terminal domain of enzyme I. The program including source code is available at https://github.com/thomasexner/4Dassign . PMID:27484442

  13. Studies on vibrational, NMR spectra and quantum chemical calculations of N-Succinopyridine: An organic nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, V.; Thirupugalmani, K.; Brahadeeswaran, S.

    2013-10-01

    Single crystals of N-Succinopyridine (NSP) have been grown from water using solution growth method by isothermal solvent evaporation technique. The solid state Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the grown crystal shows a broad absorption extending from 3450 down to 400 cm-1, due to H-bond vibrations and other characteristic vibrations. Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectrum of NSP single crystal shows Raman intensities ranging from 3100 to 100 cm-1 due the characteristics vibrations of functional groups present in NSP. The proton and carbon positions of NSP have been described by 1H and 13C NMR spectrum respectively. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations on NSP have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations using B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The predicted first hyperpolarizability is found to be 1.29 times greater than that of urea and suggests that the title compound could be an attractive material for nonlinear optical applications. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies show that charge transfers occur within the molecule and other related molecular properties. Molecular properties such as Mulliken population analysis, thermodynamic functions and perturbation theory energy analysis have also been reported. Electrostatic potential map (ESP) of NSP obtained by electron density isosurface provided the information about the size, shape, charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the title molecule. The molecular stability and bond strength have been investigated through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis.

  14. Conformational stability, vibrational and NMR analysis, chemical potential and thermodynamical parameter of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, V.; Karpagam, V.; Revathi, B.; Kavimani, M.; Santhi, G.

    2015-01-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (TBHA) molecule have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. Optimized geometrical structure, harmonic vibrational frequencies has been computed by B3LYP level using 6-31G (d, p) and 6-311 + G (d, p) basis sets. The observed FT-IR and FT-Raman vibrational frequencies are analyzed and compared with theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from DFT method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The Mulliken charges, the natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis, the first-order hyperpolarizability of the investigated molecule were computed using DFT calculations. Besides, charge transfer occurring in the molecule between HOMO and LUMO energies, frontier energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were calculated and analyzed. The isotropic chemical shift computed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the TBHA calculated using the gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method also shows good agreement with experimental observations.

  15. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Emel Maden; Güntert, Peter

    2015-09-01

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary. PMID:26123317

  16. NMR characterization of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 2: Chemical shift assignment and conformation analysis of substituent groups.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi; Tajima, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    The chemical shifts of the substituent groups of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were assigned by examining a series of CMC samples with different degrees of substitution. Comparative analysis of the (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) spectra allowed the complete assignment of the substituent groups at the 2-, 3-, and 6-positions of the seven substituted monomers comprising the CMC chains, namely, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, and 2,3,6-tri-substituted anhydroglucose units (AGUs). In addition, the mole fractions of the monomers were determined by lineshape analysis of the carbonyl carbon resonances. The comparison between the chemical shifts of the substituents revealed strong interactions between 2- and 3-substituents in the same AGU, and showed that the steric hindrance by a substituent at the 2- or 3-position suppresses subsequent substitution at the adjacent position. PMID:27312635

  17. 1H NMR spectra part 31: 1H chemical shifts of amides in DMSO solvent.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Raymond J; Griffiths, Lee; Perez, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The (1)H chemical shifts of 48 amides in DMSO solvent are assigned and presented. The solvent shifts Δδ (DMSO-CDCl3 ) are large (1-2 ppm) for the NH protons but smaller and negative (-0.1 to -0.2 ppm) for close range protons. A selection of the observed solvent shifts is compared with calculated shifts from the present model and from GIAO calculations. Those for the NH protons agree with both calculations, but other solvent shifts such as Δδ(CHO) are not well reproduced by the GIAO calculations. The (1)H chemical shifts of the amides in DMSO were analysed using a functional approach for near ( ≤ 3 bonds removed) protons and the electric field, magnetic anisotropy and steric effect of the amide group for more distant protons. The chemical shifts of the NH protons of acetanilide and benzamide vary linearly with the π density on the αN and βC atoms, respectively. The C=O anisotropy and steric effect are in general little changed from the values in CDCl3. The effects of substituents F, Cl, Me on the NH proton shifts are reproduced. The electric field coefficient for the protons in DMSO is 90% of that in CDCl3. There is no steric effect of the C=O oxygen on the NH proton in an NH…O=C hydrogen bond. The observed deshielding is due to the electric field effect. The calculated chemical shifts agree well with the observed shifts (RMS error of 0.106 ppm for the data set of 257 entries). PMID:24824670

  18. Simulation of chemical isomerization reaction dynamics on a NMR quantum simulator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dawei; Xu, Nanyang; Xu, Ruixue; Chen, Hongwei; Gong, Jiangbin; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

    2011-07-01

    Quantum simulation can beat current classical computers with minimally a few tens of qubits. Here we report an experimental demonstration that a small nuclear-magnetic-resonance quantum simulator is already able to simulate the dynamics of a prototype laser-driven isomerization reaction using engineered quantum control pulses. The experimental results agree well with classical simulations. We conclude that the quantum simulation of chemical reaction dynamics not computable on current classical computers is feasible in the near future. PMID:21797586

  19. Structure, solvent, and relativistic effects on the NMR chemical shifts in square-planar transition-metal complexes: assessment of DFT approaches.

    PubMed

    Vícha, Jan; Novotný, Jan; Straka, Michal; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Marek, Radek

    2015-10-14

    The role of various factors (structure, solvent, and relativistic treatment) was evaluated for square-planar 4d and 5d transition-metal complexes. The DFT method for calculating the structures was calibrated using a cluster approach and compared to X-ray geometries, with the PBE0 functional (def2-TZVPP basis set) providing the best results, followed closely by the hybrid TPSSH and the MN12SX functionals. Calculations of the NMR chemical shifts using the two-component (2c, Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation as implemented in the ADF package) and four-component (4c, Dirac-Coulomb as implemented in the ReSpect code) relativistic approaches were performed to analyze and demonstrate the importance of solvent corrections (2c) as well as a proper treatment of relativistic effects (4c). The importance of increased exact-exchange admixture in the functional (here PBE0) for reproducing the experimental data using the current implementation of the 2c approach is partly rationalized as a compensation for the missing exchange-correlation response kernel. The kernel contribution was identified to be about 15-20% of the spin-orbit-induced NMR chemical shift, ΔδSO, which roughly corresponds to an increase in ΔδSO introduced by the artificially increased exact-exchange admixture in the functional. Finally, the role of individual effects (geometry, solvent, relativity) in the NMR chemical shift is discussed in selected complexes. Although a fully relativistic DFT approach is still awaiting the implementation of GIAOs for hybrid functionals and an implicit solvent model, it nevertheless provides reliable NMR chemical shift data at an affordable computational cost. It is expected to outperform the 2c approach, in particular for the calculation of NMR parameters in heavy-element compounds. PMID:26344822

  20. Inverted cucurbit[n]urils: density functional investigations on the electronic structure, electrostatic potential, and NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Gejji, Shridhar P

    2009-02-19

    Inverted cucurbit[n]uril (i(x)CB[n], x = 1, 2; n = 6-8), the enantiomers of cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) comprising one or more inverted glycouril units, show distinct selectivity in recognition toward the guest by the virtue of shape and dimensions of its cavity. The iCB[n] (x = 1 and n = 6, 7) are isolated as intermediates during the synthesis of CB[n]. In this work, density functional theory using the hybrid B3LYP functional has been employed to derive the electronic structure and the NMR chemical shifts in the i(x)CB[n] hosts. The present calculations have shown that the inversion of the glycouril unit of CB[6] and CB[7] engenders a destabilization by 4.2 and 5.7 kJ mol(-1), respectively, and, as opposed to this, the iCB[8] is favored by 18.6 kJ mol(-1) over the corresponding CB[8] host. Likewise, i2CB[7] possessing two inverted glycourils are highly destabilized over CB[7]. A large separation of the inverted glycouril units reduces the repulsion between methine protons inside the cavity, rendering the 1,4-i2CB[n] (n = 7 or 8) to be of lowest energy. Stabilization energies from the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) theory are calculated with water, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvents. Unlike in gas phase and other solvents, the stabilization hierarchy iCB[6] < iCB[7] < iCB[8] has been predicted in THF. Molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) was used to gauge the cavity shape of these hosts. Consequently the iCB[6] reveals a half-sprocket-like cavity; an additional tooth for each glycouril in the succeeding iCB[n] homologue was noticed. In the case of the 1,5-i2CB[8] enantiomer, the cavity turns out to be rectangular. The deeper MESP minima near the ureido oxygens suggest strong electrostatic interactions with the guest at the iCB[6] portals. The electron-rich region within the cavity explains the large affinity of CB[n] toward the electron deficient guests. The electronic distribution and shape and size of the cavity thus derived provide insights

  1. Calculation of NMR chemical shifts. 7. Gauge-invariant INDO method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, H.; Miura, K.; Hirai, A.

    A gauge-invariant INDO method based on the coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory is presented and applied to the calculation of 1H and 13C chemical shifts of hydrocarbons including ring compounds. Invariance of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic shieldings with respect to displacement of the coordinate origin is discussed. Comparison between calculated and experimental results exhibits fairly good agreement, provided that the INDO parameters of Ellis et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.94, 4069 (1972)) are used with the inclusion of all multicenter one-electron integrals.

  2. NMR analysis and chemical shift calculations of poly(lactic acid) dimer model compounds with different tacticities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, PLA dimer model compounds with different tacticities were synthesized and studied in detail by 1H and 13C NMR in three solvents, CDCl3/CCl4 (20/80 v/v), CDCl3 and DMSO-d6. All the peaks in the 1H and 13C NMR spectra were assigned with the help of two-dimensional NMR. Although the solve...

  3. Qualitative study of substituent effects on NMR (15)N and (17)O chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Rubén H; Llorente, Tomás; Pagola, Gabriel I; Bustamante, Manuel G; Pasqualini, Enrique E; Melo, Juan I; Tormena, Cláudio F

    2009-09-10

    A qualitative approach to analyze the electronic origin of substituent effects on the paramagnetic part of chemical shifts is described and applied to few model systems, where its potentiality can be appreciated. The formulation of this approach is based on the following grounds. The influence of different inter- or intramolecular interactions on a second-order property can be qualitatively predicted if it can be known how they affect the main virtual excitations entering into that second-order property. A set of consistent approximations are introduced in order to analyze the behavior of occupied and virtual orbitals that define some experimental trends of magnetic shielding constants. This approach is applied first to study the electronic origin of methyl-beta substituent effects on both (15)N and (17)O chemical shifts, and afterward it is applied to a couple of examples of long-range substituent effects originated in charge transfer interactions such as the conjugative effect in aromatic compounds and sigma-hyperconjugative interactions in saturated multicyclic compounds. PMID:19685922

  4. Qualitative Study of Substituent Effects on NMR 15N and 17O Chemical Shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Rubén H.; Llorente, Tomás; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Bustamante, Manuel G.; Pasqualini, Enrique E.; Melo, Juan I.; Tormena, Cláudio F.

    2009-08-01

    A qualitative approach to analyze the electronic origin of substituent effects on the paramagnetic part of chemical shifts is described and applied to few model systems, where its potentiality can be appreciated. The formulation of this approach is based on the following grounds. The influence of different inter- or intramolecular interactions on a second-order property can be qualitatively predicted if it can be known how they affect the main virtual excitations entering into that second-order property. A set of consistent approximations are introduced in order to analyze the behavior of occupied and virtual orbitals that define some experimental trends of magnetic shielding constants. This approach is applied first to study the electronic origin of methyl-β substituent effects on both 15N and 17O chemical shifts, and afterward it is applied to a couple of examples of long-range substituent effects originated in charge transfer interactions such as the conjugative effect in aromatic compounds and σ-hyperconjugative interactions in saturated multicyclic compounds.

  5. A palm-size μNMR relaxometer using a digital microfluidic device and a semiconductor transceiver for chemical/biological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ka-Meng; Mak, Pui-In; Law, Man-Kay; Martins, Rui P

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we describe a micro-nuclear magnetic resonance (μNMR) relaxometer miniaturized to palm-size and electronically automated for multi-step and multi-sample chemical/biological diagnosis. The co-integration of microfluidic and microelectronic technologies enables an association between the droplet managements and μNMR assays inside a portable sub-Tesla magnet (1.2 kg, 0.46 Tesla). Targets in unprocessed biological samples, captured by specific probe-decorated magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), can be sequentially quantified by their spin-spin relaxation time (T2) via multiplexed μNMR screening. Distinct droplet samples are operated by a digital microfluidic device that electronically manages the electrowetting-on-dielectric effects over an electrode array. Each electrode (3.5 × 3.5 mm(2)) is scanned with capacitive sensing to locate the distinct droplet samples in real time. A cross-domain-optimized butterfly-coil-input semiconductor transceiver transduces between magnetic and electrical signals to/from a sub-10 μL droplet sample for high-sensitivity μNMR screening. A temperature logger senses the ambient temperature (0 to 40 °C) and a backend processor calibrates the working frequency for the transmitter to precisely excite the protons. In our experiments, the μNMR relaxometer quantifies avidin using biotinylated Iron NPs (Φ: 30 nm, [Fe]: 0.5 mM) with a sensitivity of 0.2 μM. Auto-handling and identification of two targets (avidin and water) are demonstrated and completed within 2.2 min. This μNMR relaxometer holds promise for combinatorial chemical/biological diagnostic protocols using closed-loop electronic automation. PMID:26034784

  6. Magic-angle-spinning NMR studies of zeolite SAPO-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freude, D.; Ernst, H.; Hunger, M.; Pfeifer, H.; Jahn, E.

    1988-01-01

    SAPO-5 was synthesized using triethylamine as template. Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR of 1H, 27Al, 29Si and 31P was used to study the silicon incorporation into the framework and the nature of the Brønsted sites. 1H MAS NMR shows two types of bridging hydroxyl groups. 29Si MAS NMR indicates that silicon substitutes mostly for phosphorus and that there is a small amount of crystalline SiO 2 in the zeolite powder.

  7. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O

  8. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O

  9. 129Xe NMR chemical shift in Xe@C60 calculated at experimental conditions: essential role of the relativity, dynamics, and explicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Standara, Stanislav; Kulhánek, Petr; Marek, Radek; Straka, Michal

    2013-08-15

    The isotropic (129)Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift (CS) in Xe@C60 dissolved in liquid benzene was calculated by piecewise approximation to faithfully simulate the experimental conditions and to evaluate the role of different physical factors influencing the (129)Xe NMR CS. The (129)Xe shielding constant was obtained by averaging the (129)Xe nuclear magnetic shieldings calculated for snapshots obtained from the molecular dynamics trajectory of the Xe@C60 system embedded in a periodic box of benzene molecules. Relativistic corrections were added at the Breit-Pauli perturbation theory (BPPT) level, included the solvent, and were dynamically averaged. It is demonstrated that the contribution of internal dynamics of the Xe@C60 system represents about 8% of the total nonrelativistic NMR CS, whereas the effects of dynamical solvent add another 8%. The dynamically averaged relativistic effects contribute by 9% to the total calculated (129)Xe NMR CS. The final theoretical value of 172.7 ppm corresponds well to the experimental (129)Xe CS of 179.2 ppm and lies within the estimated errors of the model. The presented computational protocol serves as a prototype for calculations of (129)Xe NMR parameters in different Xe atom guest-host systems. PMID:23703381

  10. Characterization of the phosphoserine of pepsinogen using /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance: corroboration of X-ray crystallographic results

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.P.; Bridger, W.A.; James, M.N.G.

    1986-10-21

    The endogenous phosphoserine residue in porcine pepsinogen has been titrated with use of phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 31/P NMR). It has an observed pK/sub a/sub 2// of 6.7 and a narrow line width (approx. =10 Hz). The phosphate can be readily removed by an acid phosphatase from potato; however, it is resistant to hydrolysis by several alkaline phosphatases. The X-ray crystal structure of porcine pepsinogen at 1.8-A resolution shows a rather weak and diffuse region of electron density in the vicinity of the phosphorylated serine residue. This suggests considerable dynamic mobility or conformational disorder of the phosphate. In order to define more fully this behavior the NMR data have been used to corroborate these crystallographic results. All these physical data are consistent with a highly mobile phosphoserine residue on the surface of the zymogen and freely exposed to solvent. In addition, certain properties of this phosphoserine moiety on pepsinogen are similar to those of one of the phosphorylated residues of ovalbumin. The possible significance of this is discussed.

  11. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005; BW: R2 = 0.63, p < 0.0005) and age (31P: R2 = 0.39, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001), and positively with pQCT density (31P: R2 = 0.46, p < 0.05; BW: R2 = 0.50, p < 0.005). In contrast, the bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  12. Chemically selective NMR imaging of a 3-component (solid-solid-liquid) sedimenting system.

    PubMed

    Beyea, Steven D; Altobelli, Stephen A; Mondy, Lisa A

    2003-04-01

    A novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique which resolves the separate components of the evolving vertical concentration profiles of 3-component non-colloidal suspensions is described. This method exploits the sensitivity of MRI to chemical differences between the three phases to directly image the fluid phase and one of the solid phases, with the third phase obtained by subtraction. 19F spin-echo imaging of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) oil was interlaced with 1H SPRITE imaging of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) particles. The third phase was comprised of borosilicate glass spheres, which were not visible while imaging the PTFE or LDPE phases. The method is demonstrated by performing measurements on 2-phase materials containing only the floating (LDPE) particles, with the results contrasted to the experimental behaviour of the individual phases in the full 3-phase system. All experiments were performed using nearly monodisperse particles, with initial suspension volume fractions, phi(i), of 0.1. PMID:12713970

  13. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of six human melanoma xenograft lines: tumour bioenergetic status and blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, H.; Olsen, D. R.; Southon, T. E.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1993-01-01

    Six human melanoma xenograft lines grown s.c. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice were subjected to 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy in vivo. The following resonances were detected: phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate gamma, alpha and beta (NTP gamma, alpha and beta). The main purpose of the work was to search for possible relationships between 31P-NMR resonance ratios and tumour pH on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The latter parameter was measured by using the 86Rb uptake method. Tumour bioenergetic status [the (PCr + NTP beta)/Pi resonance ratio], tumour pH and blood supply per viable tumour cell decreased with increasing tumour volume for five of the six xenograft lines. The decrease in tumour bioenergetic status was due to a decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio as well as an increase in the Pi/total resonance ratio. The decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio was mainly a consequence of a decrease in the PCr/total resonance ratio for two lines and mainly a consequence of a decrease in the NTP beta/total resonance ratio for three lines. The magnitude of the decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio and the magnitude of the decrease in tumour pH were correlated to the magnitude of the decrease in blood supply per viable tumour cell. Tumour pH decreased with decreasing tumour bioenergetic status, and the magnitude of this decrease was larger for the tumour lines showing a high than for those showing a low blood supply per viable tumour cell. No correlations across the tumour lines were found between tumour pH and tumour bioenergetic status or any other resonance ratio on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The differences in the 31P-NMR spectrum between the tumour lines were probably caused by differences in the intrinsic biochemical properties of the tumour

  14. Study of molecular structure, vibrational, electronic and NMR spectra of oncocalyxone A using DFT and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhawani Datt; Srivastava, Anubha; Honorato, Sara Braga; Tandon, Poonam; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Oncocalyxone A (C17H18O5) is the major secondary metabolite isolated from ethanol extract from the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx Taub popularly known as “pau branco”. Oncocalyxone A (Onco A) has many pharmaceutical uses such as: antitumor, analgesic, antioxidant and causative of inhibition of platelet activation. We have performed the optimized geometry, total energy, conformational study, molecular electrostatic potential mapping, frontier orbital energy gap and vibrational frequencies of Onco A employing ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and/or charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in DMSO and MeOH solvent. The TD-DFT calculations have been performed to explore the influence of electronic absorption spectra in the gas phase, as well as in solution environment using IEF-PCM and 6-31G basis set. The 13C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated with the B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) basis set and compared with the experimental values. These methods have been used as tools for structural characterization of Onco A.

  15. DFT calculations of 15N NMR shielding constants, chemical shifts and complexation shifts in complexes of rhodium(II) tetraformate with some nitrogenous organic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leniak, Arkadiusz; Jaźwiński, Jarosław

    2015-03-01

    Benchmark calculations of 15N NMR shielding constants for a set of model complexes of rhodium(II) tetraformate with nine organic ligands using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods have been carried out. The calculations were performed by means of several methods: the non-relativistic, relativistic scalar ZORA, and spin-orbit ZORA approaches at the CGA-PBE/QZ4P theory level, and the GIAO NMR method using the B3PW91 functional with the 6-311++G(2d,p) basis set for C, H, N, O atoms and the Stuttgart basis set for the Rh atom. The geometry of compounds was optimised either by the same basis set as for the NMR calculations or applying the B3LYP functional with the 6-31G(2d) basis set for C, H, N, O atoms and LANL2DZ for the Rh atom. Computed 15N NMR shielding constants σ were compatible with experimental 15N chemical shifts δ of complexes exhibiting similar structure and fulfil the linear equation δ = aσ + b. The a and b parameters for all data sets have been estimated by means of linear regression analysis. In contrast to the correlation method giving "scaled" chemical shifts, the conversion of shielding constants to chemical shifts with respect to the reference shielding of CH3NO2 provided very inaccurate "raw" δ values. The application of the former to the calculation of complexation shifts Δδ (Δδ = δcompl - δlig) reproduced experimental values qualitatively or semi-quantitatively. The non-relativistic B3PW91/[6-311++G(2d,p), Stuttgart] theory level reproduced the NMR parameters as good as the more expensive relativistic CGA-PBE//QZ4P ZORA approaches.

  16. Differentiating and characterizing geminal silanols in silicas by (29)Si NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murray, David K

    2010-12-01

    Single and geminal hydroxyl species in silicas have been characterized using solid-state (29)Si NMR spectroscopy. Differentiating hydroxyl types is important in understanding their roles in chemical toxicity mechanisms for inhaled crystalline silicas responsible for silicosis. (1)H-(29)Si cross polarization NMR spectroscopy has been employed to obtain (29)Si NMR chemical shift data and signal accrual and relaxation characteristics. Spectral deconvolution is used to examine relative single and geminal hydroxyl resonance areas for a series of representative silicas and silica gels. Silicon-containing materials examined include 1878a quartz, and 1879a cristobalite from the National Institute for Science and Technology, kaolin, and several widely used respirable silicas and silica gels. Geminal hydroxyls were observed in every case, with relative resonance areas accounting for 21-65% of total hydroxyl signals. Factors affecting relative areas measured as a function of contact time, relaxation, and surface area are discussed. Subsequent (29)Si and (31)P NMR studies of a silica coated with various sodium hydrogen phosphates show preferential single silanol-phosphate interaction for basic phosphates, and oligomerization products for acidic phosphates. Geminal hydroxyl resonance areas displayed significant error (4-17%) for low surface area silicas, limiting this method to studies exhibiting major changes in chemical or spectroscopic properties. PMID:20825948

  17. A solid-state NMR investigation of the structure of mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported rhodium catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Jennifer; Huang, Yulin; Natella, Michael; Cai, Yang; Lin, Victor S.-Y.; Pruski, Marek

    2009-01-04

    A detailed study of the chemical structure of mesoporous silica catalysts containing rhodium ligands and nanoparticles (RhP-MSN) was carried out by multi-dimensional solid-state NMR techniques. The degree of functionalization of the rhodium-phosphinosilyl complex to the surface of the RhP-MSN channels was determined by {sup 29}Si NMR experiments. The structural assignments of the rhodium-phosphinosilyl complex were unambiguously determined by employing the novel, indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation ({sup 13}C-{sup 1}H and {sup 31}P-{sup 1}H idHETCOR) techniques, which indicated that oxidation of the attached phosphinosilyl groups and detachment of Rh was enhanced upon syngas conversion.

  18. 13C NMR chemical shift correlations in application of “tool of increasing electron demand” to stable long-lived carbocations: Comprehensive evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Olah, George A.; Berrier, Arthur L.; Prakash, G. K. Surya

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of 13C NMR chemical shift correlations in the application of the “tool of increasing electron demand” to stable long-lived carbocationic systems is demonstrated by a comprehensive analysis of 22 stable aryl-substituted carbocationic systems. The observation of slopes of less than unity in such chemical shift correlations for several cationic systems has been attributed to additional charge delocalizing mechanisms present in the system (such as homoallylic, cyclopropyl, and π conjugations). The onset of nonclassical σ-delocalization in 2-aryl-2-norbornyl cations with electron withdrawing-substituents previously observed was further verified by using σC+ substituent constants. Difficulties in relating the CαNMR shifts in different carbocationic systems are also discussed. PMID:16593000

  19. Correlation between 1H NMR chemical shifts of hydroxyl protons in n-hexanol/cyclohexane and molecular association properties investigated using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Mario E.; Shibue, Toshimichi; Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Association of n-hexanol molecules in cyclohexane forming clusters is studied by DFT and 1H NMR. Geometry optimization, corrected binding energies, charge distributions, charge transfer energies, and 1H NMR chemical shifts have been obtained. The calculated chemical shifts of hydroxyl protons have been correlated to experimental data obtained in the range of n-hexanol molar fraction between 0.002 and 0.2, showing that n-hexanol molecules at a molar fraction around 0.1, where well-structured hydrogen bond networks are observed, tend to form linear pentamers and hexamers. The experimental data are consistent with the continuous linear association thermodynamic model, showing a dimensionless association constant of 284.

  20. Selenium Chain Length Distribution in GexSe100-x Glasses: Insights from (77)Se NMR Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Kaseman, Derrick C; Oliveira, Karina Moreira; Palazzo, Teresa; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2016-05-19

    The statistics of selenium chain length distribution in GexSe100-x glasses with 5 ≤ x ≤ 20 are investigated using a combination of high-resolution, two-dimensional (77)Se nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. This combined approach allows for the distinction of various selenium chain environments on the basis of subtle but systematic effects of next-nearest neighbors of Se atoms in -Se-Se-Se- linkages on the (77)Se chemical shift tensor parameters. Simulation of the experimental (77)Se NMR spectral line shapes indicates that Se chain speciation in these chalcogenide glasses follows the Flory-Schulz distribution, originally developed for organic chain polymers. PMID:27129100

  1. Regional Differences of Metabolic Response During Dynamic Incremental Exercise by (31)P-CSI.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Kime, Ryotaro; Hongo, Yoshinori; Ohno, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Ayumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the differences in muscle metabolic response of the quadriceps during incremental dynamic knee exercise using regional (31)Phosphorus Chemical Shift Imaging ((31)P-CSI). Sixteen healthy men participated in this study (age 28 ± 5 years, height 171.4 ± 3.9 cm, weight 67.1 ± 9.8 kg). The experiments were carried out with a 1.5-T superconducting magnet with a 5-in. diameter circular surface coil. The subjects performed isometric unilateral knee extension exercise to detect their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) in prone position. Then they performed dynamic unilateral knee extension exercise in the magnet at 10, 20, 30 and 40 % of their MVC with the transmit-receive coil placed under the right quadriceps. The subjects pulled down a rope with the adjusted weight attached to the ankle at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 380 s. Intracellular pH (pHi) was calculated from the median chemical shift of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) peak relative to phosphocreatine (PCr). The quadriceps were divided into three regions, (1) medial, (2) anterior, (3) lateral, and in comparison, there was no significant difference in Pi/PCr nor in pHi between regions, except Pi/PCr of the medial region was significantly higher than the anterior region at maximum intensity (p < 0.05). These results suggest that regional muscle metabolic response is similar in the quadriceps except at maximum intensity. PMID:27526153

  2. Synthesis of a new 1,2,3,4,5-pentasubstituted cyclohexanol and determining its stereochemistry by NMR spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, Ibrahim; Abbasoglu, Rza; Bayramov, Musa; Maharramov, Abel

    2016-04-01

    The presence of substituents in cyclohexane can influence to the ratio of conformers; for some cases, the boat form is preferable. The new six-membered cyclohexanol derivative 2 has been obtained by the synthesis of (E)-1-(bromophenyl)-3-phenylpropen-2-one (1). The NMR and quantum-chemical conformational analysis for the 2 have carried out, and its possible mechanism of formation was given. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26939987

  3. /sup 13/C and /sup 17/O NMR and IR spectroscopic study of a series of carbonyl(4-substituted pyridine)(meso-tetraphenylporphinato)iron(II) complexes. Correlations between NMR chemical shifts and IR stretching frequencies of the carbonyl ligand and Taft parameters of the pyridine substituent

    SciTech Connect

    Box, J.W.; Gray, G.M.

    1987-08-26

    The results of a /sup 13/C and /sup 17/O NMR and IR spectroscopic study of a series of carbonyl(4 substituted pyridine)(meso-tetraphenylporphinato)iron(II) (Fe(TPP)(CO)(py-4-X)) complexes are presented. Good to excellent linear correlations between the /sup 13/ and /sup 17/O NMR chemical shifts and the IR stretching frequencies of the carbonyl ligand are observed as the pyridine substituent is varied. Good to excellent linear correlations are also observed between these NMR chemical shifts and IR stretching frequencies and the NMR chemical shifts and IR stretching force constants for the trans carbonyls of a series of cis-Mo(CO)/sub 4/(py-4-X)/sub 2/ complexes as the pyridine substituent is varied. The relationship between the donor ability of the pyridine ligands and the /sup 13/C and /sup 17/O NMR chemical shifts and the IR stretching frequencies of the carbonyl ligands in the Fe(TPP)(CO)(py-4-X) complexes has been quantitated by fitting the spectroscopic data to the single and the dual Taft substituent parameters of the pyridine substituent. Good to excellent correlations are observed. The upfield shift in the /sup 13/C NMR resonance of the carbonyl ligand as the electron-donor ability of the pyridine increases is unique. This has been rationalized by using the Buchner and Schenk description of metal carbonyl /sup 13/C NMR chemical shifts. 49 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Demystifying fluorine chemical shifts: electronic structure calculations address origins of seemingly anomalous (19)F-NMR spectra of fluorohistidine isomers and analogues.

    PubMed

    Kasireddy, Chandana; Bann, James G; Mitchell-Koch, Katie R

    2015-11-11

    Fluorine NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying biomolecular structure, dynamics, and ligand binding, yet the origins of (19)F chemical shifts are not well understood. Herein, we use electronic structure calculations to describe the changes in (19)F chemical shifts of 2F- and 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon acid titration. While the protonation of the 2F species results in a deshielded chemical shift, protonation of the 4F isomer results in an opposite, shielded chemical shift. The deshielding of 2F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole upon protonation can be rationalized by concomitant decreases in charge density on fluorine and a reduced dipole moment. These correlations do not hold for 4F-histidine/(5-methyl)-imidazole, however. Molecular orbital calculations reveal that for the 4F species, there are no lone pair electrons on the fluorine until protonation. Analysis of a series of 4F-imidazole analogues, all with delocalized fluorine electron density, indicates that the deshielding of (19)F chemical shifts through substituent effects correlates with increased C-F bond polarity. In summary, the delocalization of fluorine electrons in the neutral 4F species, with gain of a lone pair upon protonation may help explain the difficulty in developing a predictive framework for fluorine chemical shifts. Ideas debated by chemists over 40 years ago, regarding fluorine's complex electronic effects, are shown to have relevance for understanding and predicting fluorine NMR spectra. PMID:26524669

  5. Structure analysis and spectroscopic characterization of 2-Fluoro-3-Methylpyridine-5-Boronic Acid with experimental (FT-IR, Raman, NMR and XRD) techniques and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alver, Özgür; Dikmen, Gökhan

    2016-03-01

    Possible stable conformers, geometrical molecular structures, vibrational properties as well as band assignments, nuclear magnetic shielding tensors of 2-Fluoro-3-Methylpyridine-5-Boronic Acid (2F3MP5BA) were studied experimentally and theoretically using FT-IR, Raman, (CP/MAS) NMR and XRD spectroscopic methods. FT-IR and Raman spectra were evaluated in the region of 3500-400 cm-1, and 3200-400 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometric structures, vibrational wavenumbers and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors were examined using Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid density functional theory method with 6-311++G(d, p) basis set. 1H, 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated using the gauge invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. 1H, 13C, APT and HETCOR NMR experiments of title molecule were carried out in DMSO solution. 13C CP/MAS NMR measurement was done with 4 mm zirconium rotor and glycine was used as an external standard. Single crystal of 2F3MP5BA was also prepared for XRD measurements. Assignments of vibrational wavenumbers were also strengthened by calculating the total energy distribution (TED) values using scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method.

  6. Advancement of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Using GRAPPA Reconstruction on a 3D Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Tony

    The overall objective of this research is to improve currently available metabolic imaging techniques for clinical use in monitoring and predicting treatment response to radiation therapy in liver cancer. Liver metabolism correlates with inflammatory and neoplastic liver diseases, which alter the intracellular concentration of phosphorus- 31 (31P) metabolites [1]. It is assumed that such metabolic changes occur prior to physical changes of the tissue. Therefore, information on regional changes of 31P metabolites in the liver, obtained by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) [1,2], can help in diagnosis and follow-up of various liver diseases. Specifically, there appears to be an immediate need of this technology for both the assessment of tumor response in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) [3--5], as well as assessment of radiation toxicity, which can result in worsening liver dysfunction [6]. Pilot data from our lab has shown that 31P MRSI has the potential to identify treatment response five months sooner than conventional methods [7], and to assess the biological response of liver tissue to radiation 24 hours post radiation therapy [8]. While this data is very promising, commonly occurring drawbacks for 31P MRSI are patient discomfort due to long scan times and prone positioning within the scanner, as well as reduced data quality due to patient motion and respiration. To further advance the full potential of 31P MRSI as a clinical diagnostic tool in the management of liver cancer, this PhD research project had the following aims: I) Reduce the long acquisition time of 3D 31P MRS by formulating and imple- menting an appropriate GRAPPA undersampling scheme and reconstruction on a clinical MRI scanner II) Testing and quantitative validation of GRAPPA reconstruction on 3D 31P MRSI on developmental phantoms and healthy volunteers At completion, this work should considerably advance 31P MRSI

  7. Analysis of the bond-valence method for calculating (29) Si and (31) P magnetic shielding in covalent network solids.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Sean T; Alkan, Fahri; Iuliucci, Robbie J; Mueller, Karl T; Dybowski, Cecil

    2016-07-01

    (29) Si and (31) P magnetic-shielding tensors in covalent network solids have been evaluated using periodic and cluster-based calculations. The cluster-based computational methodology employs pseudoatoms to reduce the net charge (resulting from missing co-ordination on the terminal atoms) through valence modification of terminal atoms using bond-valence theory (VMTA/BV). The magnetic-shielding tensors computed with the VMTA/BV method are compared to magnetic-shielding tensors determined with the periodic GIPAW approach. The cluster-based all-electron calculations agree with experiment better than the GIPAW calculations, particularly for predicting absolute magnetic shielding and for predicting chemical shifts. The performance of the DFT functionals CA-PZ, PW91, PBE, rPBE, PBEsol, WC, and PBE0 are assessed for the prediction of (29) Si and (31) P magnetic-shielding constants. Calculations using the hybrid functional PBE0, in combination with the VMTA/BV approach, result in excellent agreement with experiment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27117609

  8. Combining NMR ensembles and molecular dynamics simulations provides more realistic models of protein structures in solution and leads to better chemical shift prediction.

    PubMed

    Lehtivarjo, Juuso; Tuppurainen, Kari; Hassinen, Tommi; Laatikainen, Reino; Peräkylä, Mikael

    2012-03-01

    While chemical shifts are invaluable for obtaining structural information from proteins, they also offer one of the rare ways to obtain information about protein dynamics. A necessary tool in transforming chemical shifts into structural and dynamic information is chemical shift prediction. In our previous work we developed a method for 4D prediction of protein (1)H chemical shifts in which molecular motions, the 4th dimension, were modeled using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Although the approach clearly improved the prediction, the X-ray structures and single NMR conformers used in the model cannot be considered fully realistic models of protein in solution. In this work, NMR ensembles (NMRE) were used to expand the conformational space of proteins (e.g. side chains, flexible loops, termini), followed by MD simulations for each conformer to map the local fluctuations. Compared with the non-dynamic model, the NMRE+MD model gave 6-17% lower root-mean-square (RMS) errors for different backbone nuclei. The improved prediction indicates that NMR ensembles with MD simulations can be used to obtain a more realistic picture of protein structures in solutions and moreover underlines the importance of short and long time-scale dynamics for the prediction. The RMS errors of the NMRE+MD model were 0.24, 0.43, 0.98, 1.03, 1.16 and 2.39 ppm for (1)Hα, (1)HN, (13)Cα, (13)Cβ, (13)CO and backbone (15)N chemical shifts, respectively. The model is implemented in the prediction program 4DSPOT, available at http://www.uef.fi/4dspot. PMID:22314705

  9. Alkaline earth chloride hydrates: chlorine quadrupolar and chemical shift tensors by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and plane wave pseudopotential calculations.

    PubMed

    Bryce, David L; Bultz, Elijah B

    2007-01-01

    A series of alkaline earth chloride hydrates has been studied by solid-state (35/37)Cl NMR spectroscopy in order to characterize the chlorine electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors and to relate these observables to the structure around the chloride ions. Chlorine-35/37 NMR spectra of solid powdered samples of pseudopolymorphs (hydrates) of magnesium chloride (MgCl(2).6H(2)O), calcium chloride (CaCl(2).2H(2)O), strontium chloride (SrCl(2), SrCl(2).2H(2)O, and SrCl(2).6H(2)O), and barium chloride (BaCl(2).2H(2)O) have been acquired under stationary and magic-angle spinning conditions in magnetic fields of 11.75 and 21.1 T. Powder X-ray diffraction was used as an additional tool to confirm the purity and identity of the samples. Chlorine-35 quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) range from essentially zero in cubic anhydrous SrCl(2) to 4.26+/-0.03 MHz in calcium chloride dihydrate. CS tensor spans, Omega, are between 40 and 72 ppm, for example, Omega= 45+/-20 ppm for SrCl(2).6H(2)O. Plane wave-pseudopotential density functional theory, as implemented in the CASTEP program, was employed to model the extended solid lattices of these materials for the calculation of their chlorine EFG and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors, and allowed for the assignment of the two-site chlorine NMR spectra of barium chloride dihydrate. This work builds upon our current understanding of the relationship between chlorine NMR interaction tensors and the local molecular and electronic structure, and highlights the particular sensitivity of quadrupolar nucleus solid-state NMR spectroscopy to the differences between various pseudopolymorphic structures in the case of strontium chloride. PMID:17385204

  10. Intermediate length scale organisation in tin borophosphate glasses: new insights from high field correlation NMR.

    PubMed

    Tricot, G; Saitoh, A; Takebe, H

    2015-11-28

    The structure of tin borophosphate glasses, considered for the development of low temperature sealing glasses or anode materials for Li-batteries, has been analysed at the intermediate length scale by a combination of high field standard and advanced 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The nature and extent of B/P mixing were analysed using the (11)B((31)P) dipolar heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence NMR sequence and the data interpretation allowed (i) detecting the presence and analysing the nature of the B-O-P linkages, (ii) re-interpreting the 1D (31)P spectra and (iii) extracting the proportion of P connected to borate species. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the (11)B double quantum-simple quantum experiment to (i) investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, (ii) assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and (iii) monitor the borate network formation. In addition, (119)Sn static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. Altogether, the set of data allowed determining the structural units constituting the glass network and quantifying the extent of B/P mixing. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature. PMID:26186677

  11. Stereochemistry of Complex Marine Natural Products by Quantum Mechanical Calculations of NMR Chemical Shifts: Solvent and Conformational Effects on Okadaic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Humberto J.; Crespín, Guillermo D.; Santiago-Benítez, Adrián J.; Gavín, José A.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.; Hernández Daranas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Marine organisms are an increasingly important source of novel metabolites, some of which have already inspired or become new drugs. In addition, many of these molecules show a high degree of novelty from a structural and/or pharmacological point of view. Structure determination is generally achieved by the use of a variety of spectroscopic methods, among which NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) plays a major role and determination of the stereochemical relationships within every new molecule is generally the most challenging part in structural determination. In this communication, we have chosen okadaic acid as a model compound to perform a computational chemistry study to predict 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts. The effect of two different solvents and conformation on the ability of DFT (density functional theory) calculations to predict the correct stereoisomer has been studied. PMID:24402177

  12. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman, NMR and UV-vis.) and quantum chemical investigations of (E)-3-[4-(pentyloxy)phenyl]-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Asghar; Gökce, Halil; Bahçeli, Semiha; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the molecular structure and vibrational and electronic transition spectra and 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values (gas phase and in chloroform solvent), HOMO-LUMO analysis, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), thermodynamic properties and Mulliken atomic charges of (E)-3-[4-(pentyloxy)phenyl]-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one molecule, C20H22O2, which has many biological activities have been calculated using the DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in the ground state. The obtained results indicate a good harmony among the calculated and the experimental FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis. (in methanol solvent) and 1H and 13C NMR (in chloroform-d solvent) spectra of the mentioned compound.

  13. Moving NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico; Danieli, Ernesto; Gong, Qingxia; Greferath, Marcus; Haber, Agnes; Kolz, Jürgen; Perlo, Juan

    2008-12-01

    Initiated by the use of NMR for well logging, portable NMR instruments are being developed for a variety of novel applications in materials testing and process analysis and control. Open sensors enable non-destructive testing of large objects, and small, cup-size magnets become available for high throughput analysis by NMR relaxation and spectroscopy. Some recent developments of mobile NMR are reviewed which delineate the direction into which portable NMR is moving.

  14. Solid-state (185/187)Re NMR and GIPAW DFT study of perrhenates and Re2(CO)10: chemical shift anisotropy, NMR crystallography, and a metal-metal bond.

    PubMed

    Widdifield, Cory M; Perras, Frédéric A; Bryce, David L

    2015-04-21

    Advances in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) methods, such as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), intricate pulse sequences, and increased applied magnetic fields, allow for the study of systems which even very recently would be impractical. However, SSNMR methods using certain quadrupolar probe nuclei (i.e., I > 1/2), such as (185/187)Re remain far from fully developed due to the exceedingly strong interaction between the quadrupole moment of these nuclei and local electric field gradients (EFGs). We present a detailed high-field (B0 = 21.1 T) experimental SSNMR study on several perrhenates (KReO4, AgReO4, Ca(ReO4)2·2H2O), as well as ReO3 and Re2(CO)10. We propose solid ReO3 as a new rhenium SSNMR chemical shift standard due to its reproducible and sharp (185/187)Re NMR resonances. We show that for KReO4, previously poorly understood high-order quadrupole-induced effects (HOQIE) on the satellite transitions can be used to measure the EFG tensor asymmetry (i.e., ηQ) to nearly an order-of-magnitude greater precision than competing SSNMR and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) approaches. Samples of AgReO4 and Ca(ReO4)2·2H2O enable us to comment on the effects of counter-ions and hydration upon Re(vii) chemical shifts. Calcium-43 and (185/187)Re NMR tensor parameters allow us to conclude that two proposed crystal structures for Ca(ReO4)2·2H2O, which would be considered as distinct, are in fact the same structure. Study of Re2(CO)10 provides insights into the effects of Re-Re bonding on the rhenium NMR tensor parameters and rhenium oxidation state on the Re chemical shift value. As overtone NQR experiments allowed us to precisely measure the (185/187)Re EFG tensor of Re2(CO)10, we were able to measure rhenium chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) for the first time in a powdered sample. Experimental observations are supported by gauge-including projector augmented-wave (GIPAW) density functional theory (DFT) calculations, with NMR tensor calculations also

  15. Implications of using approximate Bloch-McConnell equations in NMR analyses of chemically exchanging systems: application to the electron self-exchange of plastocyanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming Hansen, D.; Led, Jens J.

    2003-08-01

    The validity of a series of approximate solutions of the Bloch-McConnell equations normally applied in the analyses of chemically exchanging systems is evaluated, using the electron self-exchange (ESE) in the blue copper protein plastocyanin from Anabaena variabilis as an example. The evaluation is based on a comparison with the results of a complete analysis of the NMR signals of chemically exchanging nuclei that allows an independent and accurate determination of all the involved parameters. The complete analysis is based on the general solution of the Bloch-McConnell equations. It includes a simultaneous analysis of the chemical shift, and the transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates of the observed nuclei as well as the variation of these parameters with the molar fractions of the exchanging species and the rate of the chemical exchange process. The linear prediction model method was used in the data analysis to achieve the highest possible precision. Surprisingly, it is found that the fast exchange condition may not be fulfilled even in cases where a single exchange-averaged NMR signal is observed, and the Larmor frequency and relaxation rates depend linearly on the molar fractions of the exchanging species. In such cases the use of approximate solutions in the analysis of the transverse relaxation rates and the pseudo-contact shifts can lead to erroneous results. In limiting cases close to the fast exchange and slow exchange regimes correct values of some of the parameters can be obtained using the second order approximate solution of the Bloch-McConnell equations. In contrast, the complete analysis of the NMR signals results in an accurate determination of the exchange rates and the NMR parameters of the exchanging sites. This, in turn, can provide information about the structure and function of a protein undergoing chemically exchange. For the investigated plastocyanin the complete analysis results in an accurate determination of the paramagnetic

  16. Characterizing the Microstructure of Heparin and Heparan Sulfate using N-sulfoglucosamine 1H and 15N NMR Chemical Shift Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Langeslay, Derek J.; Beecher, Consuelo N.; Naggi, Annamaria; Guerrini, Marco; Torri, Giangiacomo; Larive, Cynthia K.

    2014-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) are members of a biologically important group of highly anionic linear polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Because of their structural complexity, the molecular-level characterization of heparin and HS continues to be a challenge. The work presented herein describes an emerging approach for the analysis of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins as well as porcine and human-derived HS. This approach utilizes the untapped potential of 15N NMR to characterize these preparations through detection of the NH resonances of N-sulfo-glucosamine residues. The sulfamate group 1H and 15N chemical shifts of six GAG microenvironments were assigned based on the critical comparison of selectively modified heparin derivatives, NMR measurements for a library of heparin-derived oligosaccharide standards, and an in-depth NMR analysis of the low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin through systematic investigation of the chemical exchange properties of NH resonances and residue-specific assignments using the [1H, 15N] HSQC-TOCSY experiment. The sulfamate microenvironments characterized in this study include GlcNS(6S)-UA(2S), ΔUA(2S)-GlcNS(6S), GlcNS(3S)(6S)-UA(2S), GlcNS-UA, GlcNS(6S)-redα, and 1,6-anhydro GlcNS demonstrate the utility of [1H, 15N] HSQC NMR spectra to provide a spectroscopic fingerprint reflecting the composition of intact GAGs and low molecular weight heparin preparations. PMID:23240897

  17. A solid-state 17O NMR, X-ray, and quantum chemical study of N-α-Fmoc-protected amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Hashizume, Daisuke; Shimizu, Tadashi; Ohki, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2008-10-01

    We report the results of a solid-state 17O NMR and X-ray investigation of 17O-enriched N-α-fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl- L-alanine (Fmoc- L-ALA) and N-α-fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl- O- t-butyl- L-serine (Fmoc- L-SER). The present X-ray results for Fmoc- L-SER show that the compound crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2 1 with unit-cell dimensions a = 5.843, b = 11.937, c = 15.042 Å, and β = 96.19°. Analysis of 17O magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectra and stationary NMR spectra recorded at multiple magnetic fields of the present Fmoc-protected amino acids yields the magnitudes of hydroxyl and carbonyl 17O electric-field-gradient (EFG) and chemical shielding (CS) tensors with the relative orientations between the two NMR tensors. The 17O quadrupole coupling constants ( CQ) are found to be 7.05-7.60 MHz and 7.90-8.35 MHz, and the spans of the CS tensors are 218-236 ppm and 450-521 ppm, for hydroxyl and carbonyl oxygen atoms, respectively. We also carry out quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory in order to investigate the effects of hydrogen-bond angles on 17O NMR parameters. It is demonstrated that, in addition to the hydrogen bond distances, hydrogen bond angles are an important factor in determining the magnitudes of these tensor components.

  18. Decreased energy requirement of toad retina during light adaptation as demonstrated by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Apte, D V; Ebrey, T G; Dawson, M J

    1993-01-01

    1. The effect of light and dark adaptation on the levels of phosphorus metabolites (nucleotide di- and triphosphates, phosphocreatine, pyridine nucleotide, inorganic phosphate, phosphodiesters, phosphomonoesters, and uridine diphosphate-glucose) in the toad (Bufo marinus) retina and retinal extracts was studied by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 2. Spectra were acquired using an NMR probe specifically designed for superfusion and illumination of a single retina. Retinae were maintained at a steady state for up to 10 h in an electrolyte solution containing 10 mM Hepes buffer and bubbled with 98% O2-2% CO2, pH 7.8 at 20 degrees C. 3. The intracellular concentrations of the phosphorus metabolites were measured in total darkness or during prolonged exposure to light. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) in the dark-adapted retina was about 1.5 mM and that of phosphocreatine (PCr) was about 0.7 mM. 4. In saturating levels of light, 6.0 x 10(11) or 1.5 x 10(13) quanta s-1 cm-2 at 520 nm, the levels of PCr and phosphomonoesters rose, the levels of NTP and protons (pH) were maintained, and the levels of pyridine nucleotides and nucleotide diphosphates (NDP) fell. 5. A rise in the level of PCr in the presence of an unchanged level of NTP in the light-adapted retina indicates that the energy consumption of the retina is greater in the dark. 6. These results are in agreement with the results of oxygen consumption, glucose dependence, and electrophysiological studies which also indicate that the metabolic energy requirement of the retina decreases in light. PMID:8229802

  19. Silver and Gold NMR

    PubMed Central

    Zangger, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Silver and gold, together with copper, form the transition metal group IB elements in the periodic table and possess very different nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic properties. While there is only one gold isotope (197Au), which has a spin of 3/2 and therefore a quadrupole moment, silver occurs in two isotopic forms (109Ag and 109Au), both of which have a spin 1/2 and similar NMR spectroscopic properties. The unfavorable properties of gold have prevented its NMR spectroscopic investigation thus far. On the other hand, there are several reports of silver NMR. However, the low sensitivity of silver, combined with its long relaxation times have rendered the direct detection of silver possible only with concentrations greater than a few tenth molar. Reviewed here are the general limitations of silver NMR and some techniques to partially overcome these limitations, as well as a summary of currently available chemical shift and scalar coupling data on 109Ag. PMID:18475898

  20. Chemical Origins of Permanent Set in a Peroxide Cured Filled Silicone Elastomer - Tensile and 1H NMR Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S; Deteresa, S; Shields, A; Sawvel, A; Balazs, B; Maxwell, R S

    2004-10-29

    The aging of a commercial filled siloxane polymeric composite in states of high stress and Co-60 {gamma}-radiation exposure has been studied. DC-745 is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and vinyl-methyl siloxane monomers crosslinked with a peroxide vinyl specific curing agent. It is filled with {approx}30 wt.% mixture of high and low surface area silicas. This filled material is shown to be subject to permanent set if exposed to radiation while under tensile stress. Tensile modulus measurements show that the material gets marginally softer with combined radiation exposure and tensile strain as compared to material exposed to radiation without tensile strain. In addition, the segmental dynamics as measured by both uniaxial NMR relaxometry and Multiple Quantum NMR methods indicate that the material is undergoes radiatively-induced crosslinking in the absence of tensile strain and a combination of crosslinking and strain dependent increase in dynamic order parameter for the network chains. The MQ-NMR also suggests a small change in the number of polymer chains associated with the silica filler surface. Comparison of the prediction of the relative change in crosslink density from the NMR data as well as solvent swelling data and from that predicted from the Tobolsky model suggest that degradation leads to a deviation from Gaussian chain statistics and the formation of increased numbers of elastically ineffective network chains.

  1. Solid-state NMR in the analysis of drugs and naturally occurring materials.

    PubMed

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wawer, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This article presents some of the solid-state NMR (SSNMR) techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical research. Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR provides structural information on powder amorphous solids for which single-crystal diffraction structures cannot be obtained. NMR is non-destructive; the powder sample may be used for further studies. Quantitative results can be obtained, although solid-state NMR spectra are not normally quantitative. As compared with other techniques, MAS NMR is insensitive and requires a significant amount of the powder sample (2-100mg) to fill the 1.3-7 mm ZrO2 rotor. This is its main drawback, since natural compounds isolated from plants, microorganisms or cell cultures are difficult to obtain in quantities higher than a few milligrams. Multinuclear MAS NMR routinely uses (1)H and (13)C nuclei, less frequently (15)N, (19)F, (31)P, (77)Se, (29)Si, (43)Ca or (23)Na. The article focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of SSNMR, the studies were aimed to control over manufacturing processes (e.g. crystallization and milling) investigation of chemical and physical stability of solid forms both as pure drug and in a formulated product. SSNMR is used in combination with some other analytical methods (DSC, XRD, FT-IR) and theoretical calculations of NMR parameters. Biologically active compounds, such as amino acids and small peptides, steroids and flavonoids were studied by SSNMR methods (part 4) providing valuable structural information. The SSNMR experiments performed on biopolymers and large natural products like proteins, cellulose and lipid layers are commented upon briefly in part 5. PMID:24173236

  2. Distinctive features of complexation of anthracycline antibiotic daunomycin with deoxyhexanucleotide d(GCATGC) in aqueous solution: 1D- and 2D-NMR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahomov, Valery I.; Rogova, Olga V.; Volynkin, Vladimir S.; Veselkov, Kyrill A.; Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Semanin, Alexander V.; Djimant, Leonid N.; Veselkov, Alexei N.

    2004-07-01

    Complexation of anthracycline antibiotic daunomycin (DAU) with self-complementary deoxyhexanucleotide d(GCATGC) in aqueous solution has been investigated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional homonuclear 'H NMR spectroscopy (TOCSY and NOESY) and heteronuclear 'H-31P NMR spectroscopy (HMBC). Quantitative determination of parameters of oligonucleotide self-association and its complexation with DAU was based on the analysis of the dependences of proton chemical shifts on concentration and temperature. Experimental results were analysed in terms of the equilibrium reaction constants, limiting proton chemical shifts and thermodynamical parameters (enthalpies AN, entropies AS) of the formation of hexamer duplex and different drug-DNA complexes. The most favourable structures of the single-stranded form of d(GCATGC) and the intercalated DAU-hexamer complex have been determined using X-PLOR software taking into consideration both intra- and intermolecular NOE contacts.

  3. High accuracy NMR chemical shift corrected for bulk magnetization as a tool for structural elucidation of dilutable microemulsions. Part 1 - Proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Roy E; Darmon, Eliezer; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-02-01

    In microemulsions, changes in droplet size and shape and possible transformations occur under various conditions. They are difficult to characterize by most analytical tools because of their nano-sized structure and dynamic nature. Several methods are usually combined to obtain reliable information, guiding the scientist in understanding their physical behavior. We felt that there is a need for a technique that complements those in use today in order to provide more information on the microemulsion behavior, mainly as a function of dilution with water. The improvement of NMR chemical shift measurements independent of bulk magnetization effects makes it possible to study the very weak intermolecular chemical shift effects. In the present study, we used NMR high resolution magic angle spinning to measure the chemical shift very accurately, free of bulk magnetization effects. The chemical shift of microemulsion components is measured as a function of the water content in order to validate the method in an interesting and promising, U-type dilutable microemulsion, which had been previously studied by a variety of techniques. Phase transition points of the microemulsion (O/W, bicontinuous, W/O) and changes in droplet shape were successfully detected using high-accuracy chemical shift measurements. We analyzed the results and found them to be compatible with the previous studies, paving the way for high-accuracy chemical shifts to be used for the study of other microemulsion systems. We detected two transition points along the water dilution line of the concentrate (reverse micelles) corresponding to the transition from swollen W/O nano-droplets to bicontinuous to the O/W droplets along with the changes in the droplets' sizes and shapes. The method seems to be in excellent agreement with other previously studied techniques and shows the advantage of this easy and valid technique. PMID:25113928

  4. Accuracy and precision of quantitative 31P-MRS measurements of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Layec, Gwenael; Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Hart, Corey R; Garten, Ryan S; Park, Song Y; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-08-01

    Although theoretically sound, the accuracy and precision of (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) approaches to quantitatively estimate mitochondrial capacity are not well documented. Therefore, employing four differing models of respiratory control [linear, kinetic, and multipoint adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and phosphorylation potential], this study sought to determine the accuracy and precision of (31)P-MRS assessments of peak mitochondrial adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rate utilizing directly measured peak respiration (State 3) in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers. In 23 subjects of different fitness levels, (31)P-MRS during a 24-s maximal isometric knee extension and high-resolution respirometry in muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis was performed. Although significantly correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.72), both the linear (45 ± 13 mM/min) and phosphorylation potential (47 ± 16 mM/min) models grossly overestimated the calculated in vitro peak ATP synthesis rate (P < 0.05). Of the ADP models, the kinetic model was well correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.72, P < 0.05), but moderately overestimated ATP synthesis rate (P < 0.05), while the multipoint model, although being somewhat less well correlated with State 3 respiration (r = 0.55, P < 0.05), most accurately reflected peak ATP synthesis rate. Of note, the PCr recovery time constant (τ), a qualitative index of mitochondrial capacity, exhibited the strongest correlation with State 3 respiration (r = 0.80, P < 0.05). Therefore, this study reveals that each of the (31)P-MRS data analyses, including PCr τ, exhibit precision in terms of mitochondrial capacity. As only the multipoint ADP model did not overstimate the peak skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis, the multipoint ADP model is the only quantitative approach to exhibit both accuracy and precision. PMID:27302751

  5. Use of solid waste for chemical stabilization: Adsorption isotherms and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR study of hazardous organic compounds sorbed on coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Rovani, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Clark, J.A.; Miknis, F.P.

    1993-09-01

    Adsorption of hazardous organic compounds on the Dave Johnston plant fly ash is described. Fly ash from Dave Johnston and Laramie River power plants were characterized using elemental, x-ray, and {sup 29}Si NMR; the Dave Johnston (DJ) fly ash had higher quartz contents, while the Laramie River fly ash had more monomeric silicate anions. Adsorption data for hydroaromatics and chlorobenzenes indicate that the adsorption capacity of DJ coal fly ash is much less than that of activated carbon by a factor of >3000; but it is needed to confirm that solid-gas and solid-liquid equilibrium isotherms can indeed be compared. However, for pyridine, pentachlorophenol, naphthalene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the DJ fly ash appears to adsorb these compounds nearly as well as activated carbon. {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the adsorption of hazardous org. cpds on coal fly ash; the nuclear spin relaxation times often were very long, resulting in long experimental times to obtain a spectrum. Using a jumbo probe, low concentrations of some hazardous org. cpds could be detected; for pentachlorophenol adsorbed onto fly ash, the chemical shift of the phenolic carbon was changed. Use of NMR to study the adsorption needs further study.

  6. Investigation of the Curvature Induction and Membrane Localization of the Influenza Virus M2 Protein Using Static and Off-Magic-Angle Spinning Solid-State NMR of Oriented Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of membrane proteins induce membrane curvature for function, thus it is important to develop new methods to simultaneously determine membrane curvature and protein binding sites in membranes with multiple curvatures. We introduce solid-state NMR methods based on magnetically oriented bicelles and off-magic-angle spinning (OMAS) to measure membrane curvature and the binding site of proteins in mixed-curvature membranes. We demonstrate these methods on the influenza virus M2 protein, which not only acts as a proton channel but also mediates virus assembly and membrane scission. An M2 peptide encompassing the transmembrane (TM) domain and an amphipathic helix, M2(21-61), was studied and compared with the TM peptide (M2TM). Static 31P NMR spectra of magnetically oriented DMPC/DHPC bicelles exhibit a temperature-independent isotropic chemical shift in the presence of M2(21-61) but not M2TM, indicating that the amphipathic helix confers the peptide with the ability to generate a high-curvature phase. 2D 31P spectra indicate that this high-curvature phase is associated with the DHPC bicelle edges, suggestive of the structure of budding viruses from the host cell. 31P- and 13C-detected 1H relaxation times of the lipids indicate that the majority of M2(21-61) is bound to the high-curvature phase. Using OMAS experiments, we resolved the 31P signals of lipids with identical headgroups based on their distinct chemical shift anisotropies. Based on this resolution, 2D 1H-31P correlation spectra show that the amide protons in M2(21-61) correlate with the DMPC but not the DHPC 31P signal of the bicelle, indicating that a small percentage of M2(21-61) partitions into the planar region of the bicelles. These results show that the M2 amphipathic helix induces high membrane curvature and localizes the protein to this phase, in excellent agreement with the membrane-scission function of the protein. These bicelle-based relaxation and OMAS solid-state NMR techniques are

  7. Structural Aspects of Several Oxide Glasses as Elucidated by Multinuclear NMR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianhui

    1988-03-01

    NMR is sensitive to many interactions that the nucleus experiences with its environment. Included among these interactions are two that were heavily exploited in this thesis. They are the electric quadrupole interaction and the chemical shift interaction. These interactions yield structural information on short-range order and atom coordinations, which are very valuable and important to the understanding of properties and microstructures of glasses. Both the static or MASS NMR at high field and low field CW NMR were utilized to obtain information concerning the coordinations and local environments of several oxide glasses. For some systems, other spectroscopic methods (thermal analysis, X-ray and IR spectroscopies) were also used to assist NMR studies. In Chapter I relevant NMR theory and detection techniques used for this work are introduced. In Chapters 2-4, some structural aspects of alkali borate, borosilicate or alkali boroaluminate glasses are studied. In particular, boron coordinations in these glasses are carefully reinvestigated. The relationship between the change in boron coordinations and the changes in macroscopic characteristics of the glasses (such as electric conductivity and the mixed alkali effects) are studied. In mixed alkali glasses, the postulated alkali -pairing model provides a reasonable explanation for the structural changes. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the ^{71}Ga and ^{69 }Ga NMR studies of alkali gallate glasses. The glassforming range is explored and the gallium atom coordinations are studied. A structural model for the glass systems is suggested based on the distribution of galliums of different coordinations and structural parameters (quadrupole coupling constants, asymmetry parameters, and isotropic chemical shifts, etc.). A study of ^{31} P spectra in lead-iron-phosphate nuclear waste glasses is presented in Chapter 6. By subjecting the samples to various magnetic field strengths and different temperatures, information on the local

  8. Empirical Calculations of {sup 29}Si NMR Chemical Shielding Tensors: A Partial Charge Model Investigation of Hydrolysis in Organically Modified Alkoxy Silanes

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd M.; Henry, Marc

    1999-08-05

    Organically modified alkoxy silanes play an important role in tailoring different properties of silica produced by the sol-gel method. Changes in the size and functionality of the organic group allows control of both physical and chemical properties of the resulting gel, with the kinetics of the polymerization process playing an important role in the design of new siloxane materials. High resolution {sup 29}Si NMR has proven to be valuable tool for monitoring the polymerization reaction, and has been used to investigate a variety of organically modified alkoxy silane systems.

  9. 1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shift Assignments and Conformational Analysis for the Two Diastereomers of the Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Inhibitor Brodifacoum

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R.; Cho, Herman M.

    2009-10-01

    Proton and 13C NMR chemical shift assignments and 1H-1H scalar couplings for the two diastereomers of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) inhibitor brodifacoum have been determined from acetone solutions containing both diastereomers. Data were obtained from homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra acquired at 1H frequencies of 750 and 900 MHz over a 268-303 K temperature range. Conformations inferred from scalar coupling and 1-D NOE measurements exhibit large differences between the diastereomers. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  10. The study of a monocotyledon abscission zone using microscopic, chemical, enzymatic and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J; Davies, H A; Heyes, S J; Osborne, D J

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated distinguishing features in cells of the abscission zone of a monocotyledon fruit, the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. The cell walls of the abscission zone and the subtending mesocarp and pedicel have been analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, by chemical methods and by solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Results show that these abscission zone cells have specific characteristics which include high levels of unmethylated pectin in the walls and an inducible (x35) polygalacturonase enzyme expression. Together these findings help to explain the localised precision of cell separation events. PMID:11219806

  11. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: A solid- state NMR, EXAFS and PXRD study

    SciTech Connect

    Dithmer, Line; Lipton, Andrew S.; Reitzel, Kasper; Warner, Terence E.; Lundberg, Daniel; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2015-04-07

    Phosphate (P) sequestration by a lanthanum (La) exchanged bentonite (a clay mineral), which is extensively used in chemical lake restoration, was investigated on the molecular level using a combination of 31P and 139La solid state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EX-AFS) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) in combination with sorption studies. 31P SSNMR show that all phosphate is immobilized as rhabdophane, LaPO4·xH2O, which is further supported by 139La SSNMR and EXAFS; whereas PXRD results are ambiguous with respect to rhabdophane and monazite (LaPO4). Adsorption studies show that, at humic acids (HA) concentrations above ca. 250 μM the binding capacity is only 50 % of the theoretical value or even less. No other lanthanum or phosphate phases are detected by SSNMR and EXAFS indicating the effect of HA is kinetic. Moreover, 31P SSNMR shows that rhabdophane formed upon P sequestration is in close proximity to the clay matrix.

  12. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: a solid-state NMR, EXAFS, and PXRD study.

    PubMed

    Dithmer, Line; Lipton, Andrew S; Reitzel, Kasper; Warner, Terence E; Lundberg, Daniel; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2015-04-01

    Phosphate (Pi) sequestration by a lanthanum (La) exchanged clay mineral (La-Bentonite), which is extensively used in chemical lake restoration, was investigated on the molecular level using a combination of (31)P and (139)La solid state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and sorption studies. (31)P SSNMR show that all Pi was immobilized as rhabdophane (LaPO4·n H2O, n ≤ 3), which was further supported by (139)La SSNMR and EXAFS. However, PXRD results were ambiguous with respect to rhabdophane and monazite (LaPO4). Adsorption studies showed that at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration above ca. 250 μM the binding capacity was only 50% of the theoretical value or even less. No other La or Pi phases were detected by SSNMR and EXAFS indicating the effect of DOC is kinetic. Moreover, (31)P SSNMR showed that rhabdophane formed upon Pi sequestration is in close proximity to the clay matrix. PMID:25747941

  13. Probing the calcium and sodium local environment in bones and teeth using multinuclear solid state NMR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Laurencin, Danielle; Wong, Alan; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Knowles, Jonathan C; Qiu, Dong; Pickup, David M; Newport, Robert J; Gan, Zhehong; Duer, Melinda J; Smith, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Despite the numerous studies of bone mineral, there are still many questions regarding the exact structure and composition of the mineral phase, and how the mineral crystals become organised with respect to each other and the collagen matrix. Bone mineral is commonly formulated as hydroxyapatite, albeit with numerous substitutions, and has previously been studied by (31)P and (1)H NMR, which has given considerable insight into the complexity of the mineral structure. However, to date, there has been no report of an NMR investigation of the other major component of bone mineral, calcium, nor of common minority cations like sodium. Here, direct analysis of the local environment of calcium in two biological apatites, equine bone (HB) and bovine tooth (CT), was carried out using both (43)Ca solid state NMR and Ca K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, revealing important structural information about the calcium coordination shell. The (43)Ca delta(iso) in HB and CT is found to correlate with the average Ca-O bond distance measured by Ca K-edge EXAFS, and the (43)Ca NMR linewidths show that there is a greater distribution in chemical bonding around calcium in HB and CT, compared to synthetic apatites. In the case of sodium, (23)Na MAS NMR, high resolution 3Q-MAS NMR, as well as (23)Na{(31)P} REDOR and (1)H{(23)Na} R(3)-HMQC correlation experiments give the first direct evidence that some sodium is located inside the apatite phase in HB and CT, but with a greater distribution of environments compared to a synthetic sodium substituted apatite (Na-HA). PMID:20094673

  14. New applications and perspectives of fast field cycling NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Steele, Rebecca M; Korb, Jean-Pierre; Ferrante, Gianni; Bubici, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The field cycling NMR relaxometry method (also known as fast field cycling (FFC) when instruments employing fast electrical switching of the magnetic field are used) allows determination of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1 ) continuously over five decades of Larmor frequency. The method can be exploited to observe the T1 frequency dependence of protons, as well as any other NMR-sensitive nuclei, such as (2) H, (13) C, (31) P, and (19) F in a wide range of substances and materials. The information obtained is directly correlated with the physical/chemical properties of the compound and can be represented as a 'nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion' curve. We present some recent academic and industrial applications showing the relevance of exploiting FFC NMR relaxometry in complex materials to study the molecular dynamics or, simply, for fingerprinting or quality control purposes. The basic nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion features are outlined in representative examples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, porous media, proteins, and food stuffs. We will focus on the new directions and perspectives for the FFC technique. For instance, the introduction of the latest Wide Bore FFC NMR relaxometers allows probing, for the first time, of the dynamics of confined surface water contained in the macro-pores of carbonate rock cores. We also evidence the use of the latest field cycling technology with a new cryogen-free variable-field electromagnet, which enhances the range of available frequencies in the 2D T1 -T2 correlation spectrum for separating oil and water in crude oil. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25855084

  15. NMR studies of bond arrangements in alkali phosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, T.M.; Brow, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for the investigation of local structure and medium range order in glasses. Previous {sup 31}P MAS NMR studies have detailed the local structure for a series of phosphate glasses. Phosphate tetrahedra within the glass network are commonly described using the Q{sup n} notation, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and represents the number of bridging oxygens attached to the phosphate. Using {sup 31}P MAS NMR different phosphate environments are readily identified and quantified. In this paper, the authors present a brief description of recent one dimensional (1D) {sup 6}Li, {sup 7}Li and {sup 31}P MAS experiments along with two-dimensional (2D) {sup 31}P exchange NMR experiments for a series of lithium ultraphosphate glasses. From the 2D exchange experiments the connectivities between different Q{sup n} phosphate tetrahedra were directly measured, while the 1D experiments provided a measure of the P-O-P bond angle distribution and lithium coordination number as a function of Li{sub 2}O concentration.

  16. Effects of structural differences on the NMR chemical shifts in cinnamic acid derivatives: Comparison of GIAO and GIPAW calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeleszczuk, Łukasz; Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika; Wawer, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    In this article we report the results of combined theoretical and experimental structural studies on cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs), one of the main groups of secondary metabolites present in various medicinal plant species and food products of plant origin. The effects of structural differences in CADs on their spectroscopic properties were studied in detail by both: solid-state NMR and GIAO/GIPAW calculations. Theoretical computations were used in order to perform signal assignment in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the cinnamic, o-coumaric, m-coumaric, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acids, and to evaluate the accuracy of GIPAW and GIAO methodology.

  17. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping of DNA binding by a zinc-finger domain from the yeast transcription factor ADR1.

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedeskamp, M.; Rajagopal, P.; Klevit, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Mutagenesis studies have revealed that the minimal DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor ADR1 consists of two Cys2-His2 zinc fingers plus an additional 20 residues proximal and N-terminal to the fingers. We have assigned NMR 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts for the entire minimal DNA-binding domain of ADR1 both free and bound to specific DNA. 1H chemical shift values suggest little structural difference between the zinc fingers in this construct and in single-finger constructs, and 13C alpha chemical shift index analysis indicates little change in finger structure upon DNA binding. 1H chemical shift perturbations upon DNA binding are observed, however, and these are mapped to define the protein-DNA interface. The two zinc fingers appear to bind DNA with different orientations, as the entire helix of finger 1 is perturbed, while only the extreme N-terminus of the finger 2 helix is affected. Furthermore, residues N-terminal to the first finger undergo large chemical shift changes upon DNA binding suggesting a role at the protein-DNA interface. A striking correspondence is observed between the protein-DNA interface mapped by chemical shift changes and that previously mapped by mutagenesis. PMID:9300483

  18. Validation of Relativistic DFT Approaches to the Calculation of NMR Chemical Shifts in Square-Planar Pt(2+) and Au(3+) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Tomasz; Munzarová, Markéta L; Pazderski, Leszek; Marek, Radek

    2011-12-13

    Recently implemented hybrid density functional methods of calculating nuclear magnetic shielding using the two-component zeroth-order regular approximation approach (J. Phys. Chem. A2009, 113, 11495) have been employed for a series of compounds containing heavy transition-metal atoms. These include Pt(2+), Pd(2+), and Au(3+) organometallics and metal complexes with azines, some of which exhibit interesting biological and catalytic activities. In this study we investigate the effects of geometry, exchange-correlation functional, solvent, and scalar relativistic and spin-orbit corrections on the nuclear magnetic shielding-mainly for (13)C and (15)N atoms connected to a heavy-atom center. Our calculations demonstrate that the B3LYP method using effective core potentials and a cc-pwCVTZ-PP/6-31G** basis set augmented with the polarizable continuum model of the dimethylsulfoxide solvent provides geometries for the complexes in question which are compatible with the experimental NMR results in terms of both the trends and the absolute values of the (13)C shifts. The important role of the exact exchange admixture parameter for hybrid functionals based on B3LYP and PBE0 is investigated systematically for selected Pt(2+) and Au(3+) complexes. The (13)C and (15)N NMR chemical shifts are found to be best reproduced by using a B3LYP or PBE0 approach with 30% and 40-50% exact exchange admixtures for the Pt(2+) and Au(3+) complexes, respectively. The spin-orbit contributions to the (15)N NMR chemical shifts reflect metal-ligand bonding that is much more ionic for the Au(3+) than for the Pt(2+) complex. Finally, an optimized density functional method is applied to a series of transition-metal complexes to estimate the scope and the limitations of the current approach. PMID:26598337

  19. ¹H and (15)N NMR Analyses on Heparin, Heparan Sulfates and Related Monosaccharides Concerning the Chemical Exchange Regime of the N-Sulfo-Glucosamine Sulfamate Proton.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally related glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Both GAGs present, although in different concentrations, N-sulfo-glucosamine (GlcNS) as one of their various composing units. The conditional fast exchange property of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in these GAGs has been pointed as the main barrier to its signal detection via NMR experiments, especially ¹H-(15)N HSQC. Here, a series of NMR spectra is collected on heparin, heparan sulfate and related monosaccharides. The N-acetyl glucosamine-linked uronic acid types of these GAGs were properly assigned in the ¹H-(15)N HSQC spectra. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) was employed in order to facilitate 1D spectral acquisition of the sulfamate (15)N signal of free GlcNS. Analyses on the multiplet pattern of scalar couplings of GlcNS (15)N has helped to understand the chemical properties of the sulfamate proton in solution. The singlet peak observed for GlcNS happens due to fast chemical exchange of the GlcNS sulfamate proton in solution. Analyses on kinetics of alpha-beta anomeric mutarotation via ¹H NMR spectra have been performed in GlcNS as well as other glucose-based monosaccharides. 1D ¹H and 2D ¹H-(15)N HSQC spectra recorded at low temperature for free GlcNS dissolved in a proton-rich solution showed signals from all exchangeable protons, including those belonging to the sulfamate group. This work suits well to the current grand celebration of one-century-anniversary of the discovery of heparin. PMID:27618066

  20. Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated (Super 13)C Chemical Shifts and pK[subscript a] Values of Para-Substituted Benzoic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongyi Wang

    2005-01-01

    A study uses the ChemDraw nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) tool to process 15 para-substituted benzoic acids and generate (super 13)C NMR chemical shifts of C1 through C5. The data were plotted against their pK[subscript a] value and a fairly good linear fit was found for pK[subscript a] versus delta[subscript c1].

  1. Solid-state NMR chemical-shift perturbations indicate domain reorientation of the DnaG primase in the primosome of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Gardiennet, Carole; Wiegand, Thomas; Bazin, Alexandre; Cadalbert, Riccardo; Kunert, Britta; Lacabanne, Denis; Gutsche, Irina; Terradot, Laurent; Meier, Beat H; Böckmann, Anja

    2016-03-01

    We here investigate the interactions between the DnaB helicase and the C-terminal domain of the corresponding DnaG primase of Helicobacter pylori using solid-state NMR. The difficult crystallization of this 387 kDa complex, where the two proteins interact in a six to three ratio, is circumvented by simple co-sedimentation of the two proteins directly into the MAS-NMR rotor. While the amount of information that can be extracted from such a large protein is still limited, we can assign a number of amino-acid residues experiencing significant chemical-shift perturbations upon helicase-primase complex formation. The location of these residues is used as a guide to model the interaction interface between the two proteins in the complex. Chemical-shift perturbations also reveal changes at the interaction interfaces of the hexameric HpDnaB assembly on HpDnaG binding. A structural model of the complex that explains the experimental findings is obtained. PMID:26961129

  2. Combined experimental and quantum chemical studies on spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, and NMR) and structural characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumru, Mustafa; Altun, Ahmet; Kocademir, Mustafa; Küçük, Vesile; Bardakçı, Tayyibe; Şaşmaz, İbrahim

    2016-12-01

    Comparative experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the structure and spectral (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis and NMR) features of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out at Hartree-Fock and density functional B3LYP levels with the triple-zeta 6-311++G** basis set. Two stable conformers of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde arising from the orientation of the carboxaldehyde moiety have been located at the room temperature. The energetic separation of these conformers is as small as 2.5 kcal/mol with a low transition barrier (around 9 kcal/mol). Therefore, these conformers are expected to coexist at the room temperature. Several molecular characteristics of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde obtained through B3LYP and time-dependent B3LYP calculations, such as conformational stability, key geometry parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities, UV-Vis vertical excitation energies and the corresponding oscillator strengths have been analyzed. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of quinoline-5-carboxaldehyde were also investigated.

  3. Comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity index analysis studies on 1H NMR chemical shift of NH group of diaryl triazene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rofouie, M K; Salahinejad, M; Ghasemi, J B; Aghaei, A

    2013-05-01

    Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular field analysis region focusing (CoMFA-RF) for optimizing the region for the final partial least square analysis, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods were employed to develop three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models of (1)H NMR chemical shift of NH proton of diaryl triazene derivatives. The best orientation was searched by all-orientation search (AOS) strategy to minimize the effect of the initial orientation of the structures. The predictive abilities of CoMFA-RF and CoMSIA models were determined using a test set of ten compounds affording predictive correlation coefficients of 0.721 and 0.754, respectively, indicating good predictive power. For further model validation, cross validation (leave one out), progressive scrambling, and bootstrapping were also applied. The accuracy and speed of obtained 3D-QSAR models for the prediction of (1)H NMR chemical shifts of NH group of diaryl triazene derivatives were greater compared to some computational well-known procedures. PMID:23456682

  4. NbF{sub 5} and TaF{sub 5}: Assignment of {sup 19}F NMR resonances and chemical bond analysis from GIPAW calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, Mamata; Body, Monique; Legein, Christophe; Sadoc, Aymeric; Boucher, Florent

    2013-11-15

    The {sup 19}F isotropic chemical shifts (δ{sub iso}) of two isomorphic compounds, NbF{sub 5} and TaF{sub 5}, which involve six nonequivalent fluorine sites, have been experimentally determined from the reconstruction of 1D {sup 19}F MAS NMR spectra. In parallel, the corresponding {sup 19}F chemical shielding tensors have been calculated using the GIPAW method for both experimental and DFT-optimized structures. Furthermore, the [M{sub 4}F{sub 20}] units of NbF{sub 5} and TaF{sub 5} being held together by van der Waals interactions, the relevance of Grimme corrections to the DFT optimization processes has been evaluated. However, the semi-empirical dispersion correction term introduced by such a method does not show any significant improvement. Nonetheless, a complete and convincing assignment of the {sup 19}F NMR lines of NbF{sub 5} and TaF{sub 5} is obtained, ensured by the linearity between experimental {sup 19}F δ{sub iso} values and calculated {sup 19}F isotropic chemical shielding σ{sub iso} values. The effects of the geometry optimizations have been carefully analyzed, confirming among other matters, the inaccuracy of the experimental structure of NbF{sub 5}. The relationships between the fluorine chemical shifts, the nature of the fluorine atoms (bridging or terminal), the position of the terminal ones (opposite or perpendicular to the bridging ones), the fluorine charges, the ionicity and the length of the M–F bonds have been established. Additionally, for three of the {sup 19}F NMR lines of NbF{sub 5}, distorted multiplets, arising from {sup 1}J-coupling and residual dipolar coupling between the {sup 19}F and {sup 93}Nb nuclei, were simulated yielding to values of {sup 93}Nb–{sup 19}F {sup 1}J-coupling for the corresponding fluorine sites. - Graphical abstract: The complete assignment of the {sup 19}F NMR lines of NbF{sub 5} and TaF{sub 5} allow establishing relationships between the {sup 19}F δ{sub iso} values, the nature of the fluorine atoms

  5. Excitation functions for actinides produced in the interactions of sup 31 P with sup 248 Cm

    SciTech Connect

    Leyba, J.D.; Henderson, R.A.; Hall, H.L.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.A.; Kreek, S.A.; Brady, E.K.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California )

    1991-11-01

    Excitation functions have been measured for the production of various isotopes of Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm from the interactions of 174- and 239-MeV {sup 31}P projectiles with {sup 248}Cm. The isotopic distributions were symmetric and displayed full widths at half maximum of 2.5, 2.5, and 2.25 mass units for Bk, Cf, and Fm, respectively. The maxima of the isotopic distributions occur for those reaction channels which involve the exchange of the fewest number of nucleons between the target and projectile for which the calculated excitation energy is a positive quantity. The maxima of the excitation functions occur at those projectile energies which are consistent with the calculated reaction barriers based upon a binary reaction mechanism. The effects of the odd proton in the {sup 31}P projectile on the final isotopic distributions are discussed.

  6. DFT-GIAO 1H and 13C NMR prediction of chemical shifts for the configurational assignment of 6beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine diastereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Marcelo A; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2009-07-01

    (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift calculations using the density functional theory-gauge including/invariant atomic orbitals (DFT-GIAO) approximation at the B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) level of theory have been used to assign both natural diastereoisomers of 6beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine. The theoretical chemical shifts of the (1)H and (13)C atoms in both isomers were calculated using a previously determined conformational distribution, and the theoretical and experimental values were cross-compared. For protons, the obtained average absolute differences and root mean square (rms) errors for each comparison showed that the experimental chemical shifts of dextrorotatory and levorotatory 6beta-hydroxyhyoscyamines correlated well with the theoretical values calculated for the (3R,6R,2'S) and (3S,6S,2'S) configurations, respectively, whereas for (13)C atoms the calculations were unable to differentiate between isomers. The nature of the relatively large chemical shift differences observed in nuclei that share similar chemical environments between isomers was asserted from the same calculations. It is shown that the anisotropic effect of the phenyl group in the tropic ester moiety, positioned under the tropane ring, has a larger shielding effect over one ring side than over the other one. PMID:19373852

  7. 1H NMR spectra of alcohols and diols in chloroform: DFT/GIAO calculation of chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Lomas, John S

    2014-12-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shifts of aliphatic alcohols in chloroform have been computed on the basis of density functional theory, the solvent being included by the integral-equation-formalism polarisable continuum model of Gaussian 09. Relative energies of all conformers are calculated at the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE)0/6-311+G(d,p) level, and NMR shifts by the gauge-including atomic orbital method with the PBE0/6-311+G(d,p) geometry and the cc-pVTZ basis set. The 208 computed CH proton NMR shifts for 34 alcohols correlate very well with the experimental values, with a gradient of 1.00 ± 0.01 and intercept close to zero; the overall root mean square difference (RMSD) is 0.08 ppm. Shifts for CH protons of diols in chloroform are well correlated with the theoretical values for (isotropic) benzene, with similar gradient and intercept (1.02 ± 0.01, -0.13 ppm), but the overall RMSD is slightly higher, 0.12 ppm. This approach generally gives slightly better results than the CHARGE model of Abraham et al. The shifts of unsaturated alcohols in benzene have been re-examined with Gaussian 09, but the overall fit for CH protons is not improved, and OH proton shifts are worse. Shifts of vinyl protons in alkenols are systematically overestimated, and the correlation of computed shifts against the experimental data for unsaturated alcohols follows a quadratic equation. Splitting the 20 compounds studied into two sets, and applying empirical scaling based on the quadratic for the first set to the second set, gives an RMSD of 0.10 ppm. A multi-standard approach gives a similar result. PMID:25199903

  8. Multiple acquisition/multiple observation separated local field/chemical shift correlation solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Das, Bibhuti B; Opella, Stanley J

    2014-08-01

    Multiple acquisition spectroscopy (MACSY) experiments that enable multiple free induction decays to be recorded during individual experiments are demonstrated. In particular, the experiments incorporate separated local field spectroscopy into homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy. The measured heteronuclear dipolar couplings are valuable in structure determination as well as in enhancing resolution by providing an additional frequency axis. In one example four different three-dimensional spectra are obtained in a single experiment, demonstrating that substantial potential saving in experimental time is available when multiple multi-dimensional spectra are required as part of solid-state NMR studies. PMID:25023566

  9. Multiple Acquisition/Multiple Observation Separated Local Field/Chemical Shift Correlation Solid-state Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bibhuti B.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple acquisition spectroscopy (MACSY) experiments that enable multiple free induction decays to be recorded during individual experiments are demonstrated. In particular, the experiments incorporate separated local field spectroscopy into homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy. The measured heteronuclear dipolar couplings are valuable in structure determination as well as in enhancing resolution by providing an additional frequency axis. In one example four different three-dimensional spectra are obtained in a single experiment, demonstrating that substantial potential saving in experimental time is available when multiple multi-dimensional spectra are required as part of solid-state NMR studies. PMID:25023566

  10. Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by /sup 31/P-nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, K.L.; Buckman, D.K.; Hubbard, N.E.; Ross, B.

    1986-03-05

    The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. /sup 31/P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (approx. 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites.

  11. Comparison of black coral skeleton and insect cuticle by a combination of carbon-13 NMR and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Holl, S M; Schaefer, J; Goldberg, W M; Kramer, K J; Morgan, T D; Hopkins, T L

    1992-01-01

    Cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning 13C NMR spectra of skeletal components of individual colonies of the New Zealand black coral, Antipathes fiordensis, have a marked similarity to spectra of the sclerotized exoskeleton of the adult tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. NMR analysis estimates the organic content of the load-bearing skeletal base of A. fiordensis as 70% protein, 10% chitin, 15% diphenol, and 5% lipid by weight, and that of M. Sexta moth cuticle as 60% protein, 20% chitin, 15% diphenol, and 5% lipid. The younger pinnules or tips of A. fiordensis are less than 3% diphenol by weight. The only diphenols extracted from coral skeleton by hydrochloric acid are 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-DL-alanine (DOPA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DOBAL), while the predominant diphenols in acid extracts of insect cuticles are N-acyldopamines. More DOPA is found in the base than in the tips of A. fiordensis and it appears to be a peptidyl component of coral skeletal protein. The oxidation of DOPA and DOBAL to quinones may provide mechanical stabilization of the coral skeleton by cross-linking of structural proteins to other proteins or to chitin. PMID:1345775

  12. High-Frequency (13)C and (29)Si NMR Chemical Shifts in Diamagnetic Low-Valence Compounds of Tl(I) and Pb(II): Decisive Role of Relativistic Effects.

    PubMed

    Vícha, Jan; Marek, Radek; Straka, Michal

    2016-02-15

    The (13)C and (29)Si NMR signals of ligand atoms directly bonded to Tl(I) or Pb(II) heavy-element centers are predicted to resonate at very high frequencies, up to 400 ppm for (13)C and over 1000 ppm for (29)Si, outside the typical experimental NMR chemical-shift ranges for a given type of nuclei. The large (13)C and (29)Si NMR chemical shifts are ascribed to sizable relativistic spin-orbit effects, which can amount to more than 200 ppm for (13)C and more than 1000 ppm for (29)Si, values unexpected for diamagnetic compounds of the main group elements. The origin of the vast spin-orbit contributions to the (13)C and (29)Si NMR shifts is traced to the highly efficient 6p → 6p* metal-based orbital magnetic couplings and related to the 6p orbital-based bonding together with the low-energy gaps between the occupied and virtual orbital subspaces in the subvalent Tl(I) and Pb(II) compounds. New NMR spectral regions for these compounds are suggested based on the fully relativistic density functional theory calculations in the Dirac-Coulomb framework carefully calibrated on the experimentally known NMR data for Tl(I) and Pb(II) complexes. PMID:26820039

  13. Structural determination of complex natural products by quantum mechanical calculations of (13)C NMR chemical shifts: development of a parameterized protocol for terpenes.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Joras; de Amorim, Mauro Barbosa

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most important tools for determining the structures of organic molecules. Despite the advances made in this technique, revisions of erroneously established structures for natural products are still commonly published in the literature. In this context, the prediction of chemical shifts through ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations has become a very powerful tool for assisting with the structural determination of complex organic molecules. In this work, we present the development of a protocol for (13)C chemical shift calculations of terpenes, a class of natural products that are widely distributed among plant species and are very important due to their biological and pharmacological activities. This protocol consists of GIAO-DFT calculations of chemical shifts and the application of a parameterized scaling factor in order to ensure accurate structural determination of this class of natural products. The application of this protocol to a set of five terpenes yielded accurate calculated chemical shifts, showing that this is a very attractive tool for the calculation of complex organic structures such as terpenes. PMID:27424297

  14. Recoupling of chemical shift anisotropies in solid-state NMR under high-speed magic-angle spinning and in uniformly 13C-labeled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jerry C. C.; Tycko, Robert

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of recoupling chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) interactions in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) under high-speed magic-angle spinning (MAS) while retaining a static CSA powder pattern line shape and simultaneously attenuating homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions. CSA recoupling is accomplished by a rotation-synchronized radio-frequency pulse sequence with symmetry properties that permit static CSA line shapes to be obtained. We suggest a specific recoupling sequence, which we call ROCSA, for which the scaling factors for CSA and homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions are 0.272 and approximately 0.05, respectively. This sequence is suitable for high-speed 13C MAS NMR experiments on uniformly 13C-labeled organic compounds, including biopolymers. We demonstrate the ROCSA sequence experimentally by measuring the 13C CSA patterns of the uniformly labeled, polycrystalline compounds L-alanine and N-acetyl-D,L-valine at MAS frequencies of 11 and 20 kHz. We also present experimental data for amyloid fibrils formed by a 15-residue fragment of the β-amyloid peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, in which four amino acid residues are uniformly labeled, demonstrating the applicability to biochemical systems of high molecular weight and significant complexity. Analysis of the CSA patterns in the amyloid fibril sample demonstrates the utility of ROCSA measurements as probes of peptide and protein conformation in noncrystalline solids.

  15. Molecular structure, tautomeric stability, protonation and deprotonation effects, vibrational, NMR and NBO analyses of 2,4-Dioxoimidazolidine-5-acetic acid (DOIAA) by quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, C; Velraj, G

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the conformation, tautomeric stability, protonation and deprotonation effects, vibrational, electronic, NBO and NMR aspects of 2,4-Dioxoimidazolidine-5-acetic acid (DOIAA). Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio HF and density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Tautomerism and the effect of solvent on the tautomeric equilibria in the gas phase and in different solvents were studied. The protonation and deprotonation effects on the reactivity and conformations of DOIAA were investigated. Electronic transitions were also studied and the most prominent transition corresponds to π→π*. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was also carried out to find the intramolecular interactions and their stabilization energy. In DOIAA, the interaction between the lone pair donor orbital (n(LP1N5)) and the acceptor antibonding orbital π*(C6O7) reveals the strong stabilization energy of 224.9 kJ mol(-1). Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was calculated to predict the reactive sites of the title compound. The NMR results indicated that the observed chemical shifts for NH, COOH protons of DOIAA not only depend on the structure of the molecule being studied but also on the nature of the solvent, concentration of the sample and the presence of the other exchangeable protons. PMID:24291430

  16. Hydrogen bonding between acetate-based ionic liquids and water: Three types of IR absorption peaks and NMR chemical shifts change upon dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Cao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yuwei; Mu, Tiancheng

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen-bonding interaction between acetate-based ionic liquids (AcIL) and water was investigated by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) and 1H NMR. Interestingly, the relative change of chemical shift δ of 1H NMR upon dilution could be divided into three regions. All the H show an upfield shift in Regions 1 and 2 while a different tendency in Region 3 (upfield, no, and downfield shift classified as Types 1, 2, 3, respectively). For ATR-IR, the red, no, or blue shift of νOD (IR absorption peak of OD in D2O) and ν± (IR absorption peak of AcILs) also have three types, respectively. Two-Times Explosion Mechanism (TTEM) was proposed to interpret the dynamic processes of AcILs upon dilution macroscopically, meanwhile an Inferior Spring Model (ISM) was proposed to help to understand the TTEM microscopically, All those indicate that AcILs present the state of network, sub-network, cluster, sub-cluster, ion pairs and sub-ion pairs in sequence upon dilution by water and the elongation of hydrogen bonding between AcILs-water, between cation-anion of AcILs is plastic deformation rather than elastic deformation.

  17. Optimized (31)P MRS in the human brain at 7 T with a dedicated RF coil setup.

    PubMed

    van de Bank, Bart L; Orzada, Stephan; Smits, Frits; Lagemaat, Miriam W; Rodgers, Christopher T; Bitz, Andreas K; Scheenen, Tom W J

    2015-11-01

    The design and construction of a dedicated RF coil setup for human brain imaging ((1)H) and spectroscopy ((31)P) at ultra-high magnetic field strength (7 T) is presented. The setup is optimized for signal handling at the resonance frequencies for (1)H (297.2 MHz) and (31)P (120.3 MHz). It consists of an eight-channel (1)H transmit-receive head coil with multi-transmit capabilities, and an insertable, actively detunable (31)P birdcage (transmit-receive and transmit only), which can be combined with a seven-channel receive-only (31)P array. The setup enables anatomical imaging and (31)P studies without removal of the coil or the patient. By separating transmit and receive channels and by optimized addition of array signals with whitened singular value decomposition we can obtain a sevenfold increase in SNR of (31)P signals in the occipital lobe of the human brain compared with the birdcage alone. These signals can be further enhanced by 30 ± 9% using the nuclear Overhauser effect by B1-shimmed low-power irradiation of water protons. Together, these features enable acquisition of (31)P MRSI at high spatial resolutions (3.0 cm(3)  voxel) in the occipital lobe of the human brain in clinically acceptable scan times (~15 min). PMID:26492089

  18. Operando NMR and XRD study of chemically synthesized LiCx oxidation in a dry room environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacci, Robert L.; Gill, Lance W.; Hagaman, Edward W.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-08-01

    We test the stability of pre-lithiated graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries in a dry room battery processing room. The reaction between LiCx and laboratory air was followed using operando NMR and x-ray diffraction, as these methods are sensitive to change in Li stoichiometry in graphite. There is minimal reactivity between LiC6 and N2, CO2 or O2; however, LiC6 reacts with moisture to form lithium (hydr)oxide. The reaction rate follows zero-order kinetics with respects to intercalated lithium suggesting that lithium transport through the graphite is fast. The reaction occurs by sequential formation of higher stages-LiC12, then LiC18, and then LiC24-as the hydrolysis proceeds to the formation of LixOHy and graphite end products. Slowing down the formation rate of the LixOHy passivation layer stabilizes of the higher stages.

  19. NMR studies on polyphosphide Ce6Ni6P17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, T.; Yamada, H.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Nakano, T.; Takeda, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report the result of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on Ce6Ni6P17. The observed NMR spectra show a Lorentzian-type and an asymmetric shapes, reflecting the local symmetry around each P site in the cubic unit cell. We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to three inequivalent P sites and deduced the temperature dependence of the Knight shift for each site. The Knight shifts increase with decreasing temperature down to 1.5 K, indicating a localized spin system of Ce6Ni6P17. Antiferromagnetic correlation between 4f spins is suggested from the negative sign of the Weiss-temperature.

  20. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L; Markley, John L; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-08-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001-2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies. PMID:22689068

  1. Reassigning the Structures of Natural Products Using NMR Chemical Shifts Computed with Quantum Mechanics: A Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, Teresa A.; Truong, Tiana T.; Wong, Shirley M. T.; Mack, Emma T.; Lodewyk, Michael W.; Harrison, Jason G.; Gamage, R. Alan; Siegel, Justin B.; Kurth, Mark J.; Tantillo, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    An applied computational chemistry laboratory exercise is described in which students use modern quantum chemical calculations of chemical shifts to assign the structure of a recently isolated natural product. A pre/post assessment was used to measure student learning gains and verify that students demonstrated proficiency of key learning…

  2. Primidone - An antiepileptic drug - characterisation by quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-Visible) investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Subramanian, S.; Mohan, S.

    2013-05-01

    The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of primidone were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The vibrational spectra were analysed and the observed fundamentals were assigned and analysed. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the theoretical scaled vibrational wavenumbers determined by DFT methods. The Raman intensities were also determined with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surface of the molecule were constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of primidone has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated.

  3. Organometallic derivatives of furan. LII. Synthesis of carbofunctional furylsilanes and their /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 29/Si NMR spectroscopic and quantum-chemical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Lukevits, E.; Erchak, N.P.; Castro, I.; Popelis, Yu.Yu.; Kozyrev, A.K.; Anoshkin, V.I.; Kovalev, I.F.

    1986-03-10

    Under the standard conditions for the synthesis of furan compounds it is possible to obtain the carbofunctional derivatives of silylated furfural with retention of the trimethylsilyl group in the ring. By NMR and CNDO/2 LCAO MO methods and also as a result of the investigation of the chemical characteristics of silylated furfural and its carbofunctional derivatives it was established that the introduction of a trimethylsilyl group at position 5 of the furan ring does not change the reactivity of the carbofunctional substituents at position 2. The electronic effects of the substituents are hardly transmitted through the furan ring at all. The effect of substituents in the carbofunctional furylsilanes on the electronic structure of the ring is additive.

  4. Chromatographic NMR in NMR solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Caroline; Viel, Stéphane; Delaurent, Corinne; Ziarelli, Fabio; Excoffier, Grégory; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2008-10-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that pseudo-chromatographic NMR experiments could be performed using typical chromatographic solids and solvents. This first setup yielded improved separation of the spectral components of the NMR spectra of mixtures using PFG self-diffusion measurements. The method (dubbed Chromatographic NMR) was successively shown to possess, in favorable cases, superior resolving power on non-functionalized silica, compared to its LC counterpart. To further investigate the applicability of the method, we studied here the feasibility of Chromatographic NMR in common deuterated solvents. Two examples are provided, using deuterated chloroform and water, for homologous compounds soluble in these solvents, namely aromatic molecules and alcohols, respectively.

  5. A solid-state (11)b NMR and computational study of boron electric field gradient and chemical shift tensors in boronic acids and boronic esters.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Joseph W E; Bryce, David L

    2010-04-22

    The results of a solid-state (11)B NMR study of a series of 10 boronic acids and boronic esters with aromatic substituents are reported. Boron-11 electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors obtained from analyses of spectra acquired in magnetic fields of 9.4 and 21.1 T are demonstrated to be useful for gaining insight into the molecular and electronic structure about the boron nucleus. Data collected at 21.1 T clearly show the effects of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), with tensor spans (Omega) on the order of 10-40 ppm. Signal enhancements of up to 2.95 were achieved with a DFS-modified QCPMG pulse sequence. To understand the relationship between the measured tensors and the local structure better, calculations of the (11)B EFG and magnetic shielding tensors for these compounds were conducted. The best agreement was found between experimental results and those obtained from GGA revPBE DFT calculations. A positive correlation was found between Omega and the dihedral angle (phi(CCBO)), which describes the orientation of the boronic acid/ester functional group relative to an aromatic system bound to boron. The small boron CSA is discussed in terms of paramagnetic shielding contributions as well as diamagnetic shielding contributions. Although there is a region of overlap, both Omega and the (11)B quadrupolar coupling constants tend to be larger for boronic acids than for the esters. We conclude that the span is generally the most characteristic boron NMR parameter of the molecular and electronic environment for boronic acids and esters, and show that the values result from a delicate interplay of several competing factors, including hydrogen bonding, the value of phi(CCBO), and the electron-donating or withdrawing substituents bound to the aromatic ring. PMID:20337440

  6. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: insights from solid-state 13C NMR and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions...

  7. Experimental study of resolution of proton chemical shifts in solids: Combined multiple pulse NMR and magic-angle spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, L.M.; Taylor, R.E.; Paff, A.J.; Gerstein, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of protons in rigid, randomly oriented solids have been measured using combined homonuclear dipolar decoupling (via multiple pulse techniques) and attenuation of chemical shift anisotropies (via magic-angle sample spinning). Under those conditions, isotropic proton chemical shifts were recorded for a variety of chemical species, with individual linewidths varying from about 55 to 110 Hz (1--2 ppm). Residual line broadening was due predominately to (i) magnetic-field instability and inhomogeneity, (ii) unresolved proton--proton spin couplings, (iii) chemical shift dispersion, (iv) residual dipolar broadening, and (v) lifetime broadening under the multiple pulse sequences used. The magnitudes of those effects and the current limits of resolution for this experiment in our spectrometer have been investigated. The compounds studied included organic solids (4, 4'-dimethylbenzophenone, 2, 6-dimethylbenzoic acid, and aspirin), polymers (polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate), and the vitrain portion of a bituminous coal.

  8. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  9. Whole-body radiofrequency coil for (31) P MRSI at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Löring, J; van der Kemp, W J M; Almujayyaz, S; van Oorschot, J W M; Luijten, P R; Klomp, D W J

    2016-06-01

    Widespread use of ultrahigh-field (31) P MRSI in clinical studies is hindered by the limited field of view and non-uniform radiofrequency (RF) field obtained from surface transceivers. The non-uniform RF field necessitates the use of high specific absorption rate (SAR)-demanding adiabatic RF pulses, limiting the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) per unit of time. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using a body-sized volume RF coil at 7 T, which enables uniform excitation and ultrafast power calibration by pick-up probes. The performance of the body coil is examined by bench tests, and phantom and in vivo measurements in a 7-T MRI scanner. The accuracy of power calibration with pick-up probes is analyzed at a clinical 3-T MR system with a close to identical (1) H body coil integrated at the MR system. Finally, we demonstrate high-quality three-dimensional (31) P MRSI of the human body at 7 T within 5 min of data acquisition that includes RF power calibration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037615

  10. Nuclear spin decoherence of neutral 31P donors in silicon: Effect of environmental 29Si nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Evan S.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Morton, J. J. L.; Abe, E.; Tojo, S.; Itoh, K. M.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Lyon, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Spectral diffusion arising from 29Si nuclear spin flip-flops, known to be a primary source of electron spin decoherence in silicon, is also predicted to limit the coherence times of neutral donor nuclear spins in silicon. Here, the impact of this mechanism on 31P nuclear spin coherence is measured as a function of 29Si concentration using X -band pulsed electron nuclear double resonance. The 31P nuclear spin echo decays show that decoherence is controlled by 29Si flip-flops resulting in both fast (exponential) and slow (nonexponential) spectral diffusion processes. The decay times span a range from 100 ms in crystals containing 50% 29Si to 3 s in crystals containing 1% 29Si. These nuclear spin echo decay times for neutral donors are orders of magnitude longer than those reported for ionized donors in natural silicon. The electron spin of the neutral donors "protects" the donor nuclear spins by suppressing 29Si flip-flops within a "frozen core," as a result of the detuning of the 29Si spins caused by their hyperfine coupling to the electron spin.

  11. Distinguishing Vaccinium species by chemical fingerprinting based on NMR spectra, validated with spectra collected in different laboratories.

    PubMed

    Markus, Michelle A; Ferrier, Jonathan; Luchsinger, Sarah M; Yuk, Jimmy; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Hicks, Joshua M; Killday, K Brian; Kirby, Christopher W; Berrue, Fabrice; Kerr, Russell G; Knagge, Kevin; Gödecke, Tanja; Ramirez, Benjamin E; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Burton, Ian; Karakach, Tobias K; Arnason, John T; Colson, Kimberly L

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed to distinguish Vaccinium species based on leaf extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reference spectra were measured on leaf extracts from several species, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), oval leaf huckleberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Using principal component analysis, these leaf extracts were resolved in the scores plot. Analysis of variance statistical tests demonstrated that the three groups differ significantly on PC2, establishing that the three species can be distinguished by nuclear magnetic resonance. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models for each species also showed discrimination between species. To demonstrate the robustness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for botanical identification, spectra of a sample of lowbush blueberry leaf extract were measured at five different sites, with different field strengths (600 versus 700 MHz), different probe types (cryogenic versus room temperature probes), different sample diameters (1.7 mm versus 5 mm), and different consoles (Avance I versus Avance III). Each laboratory independently demonstrated the linearity of their NMR measurements by acquiring a standard curve for chlorogenic acid (R(2) = 0.9782 to 0.9998). Spectra acquired on different spectrometers at different sites classifed into the expected group for the Vaccinium spp., confirming the utility of the method to distinguish Vaccinium species and demonstrating nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting for material validation of a natural health product. PMID:24963620

  12. Operando NMR and XRD study of chemically synthesized LiCx oxidation in a dry room environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sacci, Robert L.; Gill, Lance W.; Hagaman, Edward W.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-04-07

    We test the stability of pre-lithiated graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries in a dry room battery processing room. The reaction between LiCx and laboratory air was followed using operando NMR and x-ray diffraction as these methods are sensitive to change in Li stoichiometry in graphite. There is minimal reactivity between LiC6 and N2, CO2 or O2; however, LiC6 reacts with moisture to form lithium (hydr)oxide. The reaction rate follows zero-order kinetics with respects to intercalated lithium suggesting that lithium transport through the graphite is fast. The reaction mechanism occurs by sequential formation of higher stages LiC12, then LiC18, and thenmore » LiC24 as the hydrolysis proceeds to the formation of LixOHy and graphite end products. Slowing down the formation rate of the LixOHy passivation layer stabilizes of the higher stages.« less

  13. Chemical prospection of important ayurvedic plant Tinospora cordifolia by UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR.

    PubMed

    Bala, Manju; Verma, Praveen Kumar; Awasthi, Shiv; Kumar, Neeraj; Lal, Brij; Singh, Bikram

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS) was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds, syringin (3), cordifolioside A (4), magnoflorine (6) and tinocordiside (10) in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia. The analysis was performed using an Acquity C18 column and gradient elution of 0.05% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a detection wavelength of 267 nm in 5 min. A high correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.998) indicated good correlation between investigated compounds concentration and their peak area within the test ranges. The LODs for compounds 3, 4, 6 and 10 were 1.95, 0.97, 3.90 and 0.97 ng/mL, respectively, and LOQs were 6.64, 3.20, 12.87 and 3.20 ng/mL, respectively. The overall intra- and inter-day variations of the four compounds were less than 1%. The variation of these four bioactive compounds in T. cordifolia hosted on fifteen different trees was also determined. The compounds (3, 4, 6 and 10) were found in high amount in the T. cordifolia hosted on Azadirachta indica and Mangifera indica as compared with other plants. Twelve compounds were identified on the basis of their mass and UV-vis spectra. The NMR fingerprinting of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, fatty acid methyl esters, polysaccharides and marker components of T. cordifolia. PMID:25920217

  14. Operando NMR and XRD study of chemically synthesized LiCx oxidation in a dry room environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sacci, Robert L.; Gill, Lance W.; Hagaman, Edward W.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-04-07

    We test the stability of pre-lithiated graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries in a dry room battery processing room. The reaction between LiCx and laboratory air was followed using operando NMR and x-ray diffraction as these methods are sensitive to change in Li stoichiometry in graphite. There is minimal reactivity between LiC6 and N2, CO2 or O2; however, LiC6 reacts with moisture to form lithium (hydr)oxide. The reaction rate follows zero-order kinetics with respects to intercalated lithium suggesting that lithium transport through the graphite is fast. The reaction mechanism occurs by sequential formation of higher stages LiC12, then LiC18, and then LiC24 as the hydrolysis proceeds to the formation of LixOHy and graphite end products. Slowing down the formation rate of the LixOHy passivation layer stabilizes of the higher stages.

  15. A simple graphical approach to predict local residue conformation using NMR chemical shifts and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Shaghaghi, Hoora; Ebrahimi, Hossein Pasha; Fathi, Fariba; Bahrami Panah, Niloufar; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Tafazzoli, Mohsen

    2016-05-30

    The dependency of amino acid chemical shifts on φ and ψ torsion angle is, independently, studied using a five-residue fragment of ubiquitin and ONIOM(DFT:HF) approach. The variation of absolute deviation of (13) C(α) chemical shifts relative to φ dihedral angle is specifically dependent on secondary structure of protein not on amino acid type and fragment sequence. This dependency is observed neither on any of (13) C(β) , and (1) H(α) chemical shifts nor on the variation of absolute deviation of (13) C(α) chemical shifts relative to ψ dihedral angle. The (13) C(α) absolute deviation chemical shifts (ADCC) plots are found as a suitable and simple tool to predict secondary structure of protein with no requirement of highly accurate calculations, priori knowledge of protein structure and structural refinement. Comparison of Full-DFT and ONIOM(DFT:HF) approaches illustrates that the trend of (13) C(α) ADCC plots are independent of computational method but not of basis set valence shell type. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26940760

  16. The A31P missense mutation in cardiac myosin binding protein C alters protein structure but does not cause haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Sabine J; Bezold Kooiker, Kristina; Mazzalupo, Stacy; Yang, Yuanzhang; Kostyukova, Alla S; Mustacich, Debbie J; Hoye, Elaine R; Stern, Joshua A; Kittleson, Mark D; Harris, Samantha P

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in MYBPC3, the gene encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C), are a major cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). While most mutations encode premature stop codons, missense mutations causing single amino acid substitutions are also common. Here we investigated effects of a single proline for alanine substitution at amino acid 31 (A31P) in the C0 domain of cMyBP-C, which was identified as a natural cause of HCM in cats. Results using recombinant proteins showed that the mutation disrupted C0 structure, altered sensitivity to trypsin digestion, and reduced recognition by an antibody that preferentially recognizes N-terminal domains of cMyBP-C. Western blots detecting A31P cMyBP-C in myocardium of cats heterozygous for the mutation showed a reduced amount of A31P mutant protein relative to wild-type cMyBP-C, but the total amount of cMyBP-C was not different in myocardium from cats with or without the A31P mutation indicating altered rates of synthesis/degradation of A31P cMyBP-C. Also, the mutant A31P cMyBP-C was properly localized in cardiac sarcomeres. These results indicate that reduced protein expression (haploinsufficiency) cannot account for effects of the A31P cMyBP-C mutation and instead suggest that the A31P mutation causes HCM through a poison polypeptide mechanism that disrupts cMyBP-C or myocyte function. PMID:26777460

  17. Optical hyperpolarization and inductive readout of 31P donor nuclei in natural abundance single crystal 29Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Thomas; Haas, Holger; Deshpande, Rahul; Gumann, Patryk; Cory, David

    2016-05-01

    We optically polarize and inductively detect 31P donor nuclei in single crystal silicon at high magnetic fields (6 . 7T). Samples include both natural abundance 29Si and an isotopically purified 28Si sample. We observe dipolar order in the 29Si nuclear spins through a spin-locking measurement. This provides a means of characterizing spin transport in the vicinity of the 31P donors.

  18. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  19. Synthesis, spectral analysis (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-visible) and quantum chemical studies on molecular geometry, NBO, NLO, chemical reactivity and thermodynamic properties of novel 2-amino-4-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-5-oxo-6-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrano[3,2-c]quinoline-3-carbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatma, Shaheen; Bishnoi, Abha; Verma, Anil Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In the present study novel 2-amino-4-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-5-oxo-6-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrano[3,2-c]quinoline-3-carbonitrile was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy and mass spectral analysis. The chemical calculations were done by DFT level of theory using Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) and Coulomb Attenuating Method (CAM-B3LYP)/6-31G(d,p) basis set. 1H, 13C chemical shifts and vibrational wavenumbers were calculated and good correlation with the experimental data has been accomplished. UV-Visible spectrum of the molecule was recorded in the region 200-500 nm and the electronic properties and composition were obtained using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) method. Hyperconjugative interactions were studied with the help of natural bond orbital analysis. Electric dipole moment, polarizability and first static hyperpolarizability values have been calculated. The results show that the title compound possesses nonlinear optical behavior with non-zero values. The thermodynamic properties of the compound were calculated at different temperatures. The local reactivity descriptors show that C(7) is most reactive site for nucleophilic attack.

  20. Homonuclear and Heteronuclear NMR Studies of a Statherin Fragment Bound to Hydroxyapatite Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, Vinodhkumar; Gibson, James M.; Goobes, Gil; Popham, Jennifer M.; Louie, Elizabeth; Stayton, Patrick; Drobny, Gary P.

    2006-05-11

    Acidic proteins found in mineralized tissues act as nature's crystal engineers, where they play a key role in promoting or inhibiting the growth of minerals such as hydroxyapatite (HAP), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, the main mineral component of bone and teeth. Key to understanding the structural basis of protein-crystal recognition and protein control of hard tissue growth is the nature of interactions between the protein side chains and the crystal surface. In an earlier work we have measured the proximity of the lysine (K6) side chain in an SN-15 peptide fragment of the salivary protein statherin adsorbed to the Phosphorus-rich surface of HAP using solid-state NMR recoupling experiments. 15N(31P) rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) NMR data on the side-chain nitrogen in K6 gave rise to three different models of protein-surface interaction to explain the experimental data acquired. In this work we extend the analysis of the REDOR data by examining the contribution of interactions between surface phosphorus atoms to the observed 15N REDOR decay. We performed 31P-31P recoupling experiments in HAP and (NH4)2HPO4 (DHP) to explore the nature of dipolar coupled 31P spin networks. These studies indicate that extensive networks of dipolar coupled 31P spins can be represented as stronger effective dipolar couplings, the existence of which must be included in the analysis of REDOR data. We carried out 15N(31P) REDOR in the case of DHP to determine how the size of the dephasing spin network influences the interpretation of the REDOR data. Although use of an extended 31P coupled spin network simulates the REDOR data well, a simplified 31P dephasing system composed of two spins with a larger dipolar coupling also simulates the REDOR data and only perturbs the heteronuclear couplings very slightly. The 31P-31P dipolar couplings between phosphorus nuclei in HAP can be replaced by an effective dipolar interaction of 600 Hz between two 31P spins. We incorporated this coupling and