An update of corrosion inhibitors for mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution
Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Lohry, E.J.
1994-10-01
This is a continuation of corrosion studies on the effectiveness of commercial and newly-developed corrosion inhibitors for use with mild steel exposed to urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. This paper provides updated information on five newly-developed corrosion inhibitors. Tests were conducted with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution containing each corrosion inhibitor at ambient temperature and under static conditions. Real-time corrosion of the test specimens was monitored using AC impedance techniques. Corrosion performance of the inhibitors was evaluated based on comparison of the corrosion rate of specimens exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution with and without a corrosion inhibitor.
Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Boles, J.L. ); Lohry, E.J. )
1991-01-01
A series of corrosion tests was performed with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution at ambient temperature, under static conditions, and at pHs of 6.8 to 7.2 to evaluate the effectiveness of several new corrosion inhibitors. Results of the tests revealed that the pH of 32-0-0 UAN in the neutral range does not significantly affect the corrosion rate of mild steel after prolonged exposure. The corrosion rate of mild steel was 60 to 70 mpy. Results of tests with inhibitors showed that 100 ppm of Surtech 143 from Surface Chemists of Florida, Inc., provided excellent corrosion resistance (approximately 1 mpy after long-term exposure). With a 5-minute surface treatment, Rust Resistor from Nutra-Flo Co., provided excellent corrosion resistance (corrosion rates less than 1 mpy). Corblok at 100 ppM provided excellent corrosion resistance up to 14 days (corrosion rate of approximately 2 mpy); the corrosion rate increased slightly when exposed for 28 days. Surtech 145 and Surtech 433 provided only limited protection.
Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gupta, Medhavi; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George
2014-07-01
This study assesses the impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production from glucose in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR). Two mesophilic UAPBRs (UAnPBR1 and 2) were tested at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 6.5 to 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1). To overcome biomass washout, design modifications were made in the UAnPBR2 to include a settling zone to capture the detached biomass. The design modifications in UAnPBR2 increased the average hydrogen yield from 0.98 to 2.0 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose at an OLR of 25.7 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Although, a maximum hydrogen production rate of 23.4 ± 0.9 L H2 L(-1)d(-1) was achieved in the UAnPBR2 at an OLR of 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1), the hydrogen yield dropped by 50% to around 1 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose. The microbiological analysis (PCR/DGGE) showed that the biohydrogen production was due to the presence of the hydrogen and volatile acid producers such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, Megasphaera elsdenii and Propionispira arboris.
Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep
2015-01-01
Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost. PMID:26378534
Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep
2015-09-10
Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost.
Discovery of the Upsilon Andromedids (UAN, IAU #507)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holman, David; Jenniskens, Peter
2013-04-01
During routine low-light level video observations with CAMS (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance) made from 2011 June 2 to August 7, a weak shower with a radiant near Upsilon Andromedae was discovered. In that same section of the sky, the Phi Piscids (PPS) were detected, listed as #372 in the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers. The Alpha Triangulids (ATR, IAU #414) and August Piscids (AUP, IAU #415) are activity from the same stream and should be removed from the list. Radiant and speed of the July Pegasids (JPE, IAU #175) match the Great Comet of 1771 (C/1771 A1) as well as earlier identified comet C/1979 Y1 Bradfield.
A Modular Approach to Time-Based UAN Simulation Development
2007-09-01
foul either vessel’s propeller. Radio communications are only effective for short distances for medium to high frequencies and for long distances at...modifications to the existing radio wireless models which will have an effect on test results [12]. C. A DISTRIBUTED TIME-BASED SIMULATION Recent work in...not only requires calculating the time delay in propagating an acoustic signal from a source to a destination, the latency, but the effects of the
Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.
1976-06-22
This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.
Seitz, M.G.
1982-01-01
Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Lim, Young Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Byeong-Jun; Hwang, Chang-Won
2014-06-01
Since Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 have the same crystal structure, they form a homogeneous solid solution. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the solid solution can be reduced by phonon scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit can be improved by controlling the carrier concentration through doping. In this study, Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:D m (D: dopants such as I, Cu, Ag, Ni, Zn) solid solutions were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction in the measured temperature range (323 K to 523 K), and their electrical conductivities decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The undoped solid solution showed a carrier concentration of 7.37 × 1019 cm-3, power factor of 2.1 mW m-1 K-1, and figure of merit of 0.56 at 323 K. The figure of merit ( ZT) was improved due to the increased power factor by I, Cu, and Ag dopings, and maximum ZT values were obtained as 0.76 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:Cu0.01 and 0.90 at 423 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:I0.005. However, the thermoelectric properties of Ni- and Zn-doped solid solutions were not enhanced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colby, Ralph H.
2008-03-01
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes once described polyelectrolytes as the ``least understood form of condensed matter''. In this talk, I will describe the state of the polyelectrolyte field before and after de Gennes' seminal contributions published 1976-1980. De Gennes clearly explained why electrostatic interactions only stretch the polyelectrolyte chains on intermediate scales in semidilute solution (between the electrostatic blob size and the correlation length) and why the scattering function has a peak corresponding to the correlation length (the distance to the next chain). Despite many other ideas being suggested since then, the simple de Gennes scaling picture of polyelectrolyte conformation in solution has stood the test of time. How that model is used today, including consequences for dynamics in polyelectrolyte solutions, and what questions remain, will clarify the importance of de Gennes' ideas.
Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael
2011-07-26
There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram
2014-11-01
This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Starkman, Neal
2007-01-01
Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Starkman, Neal
2007-01-01
Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…
Detonation of Guanidine Nitrate and Nitroguanidine Manufactured via U/AN and BAF Processes
1979-08-01
COMPL.ETING FORM hn. a REPORTt ARLCIijý1J 2 GOVT ACCESSION No. 3. RE~CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 8 S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Proceses 016...Army Depot Savanna, IL 61704 Civil Engineering Laboratory Naval Construction Battalibn Center ATTN: LS1 Port Hueneme, CA 93043 . Commander Naval
Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs
Mitchell, John W.
1976-08-24
Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Simon Conway
2004-11-01
Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Simon Conway
2003-09-01
Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3
Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.
1983-01-01
Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…
Solute atmospheres at dislocations
Hirth, John P.; Barnett, David M.; Hoagland, Richard G.
2017-06-01
In this study, a two-dimensional plane strain elastic solution is determined for the Cottrell solute atmosphere around an edge dislocation in an infinitely long cylinder of finite radius (the matrix), in which rows of solutes are represented by cylindrical rods with in-plane hydrostatic misfit (axial misfit is also considered). The periphery of the matrix is traction-free, thus introducing an image solute field which generates a solute-solute interaction energy that has not been considered previously. The relevant energy for the field of any distribution of solutes coexistent with a single edge dislocation along the (matrix) cylinder axis is determined, and coherencymore » effects are discussed and studied. Monte Carlo simulations accounting for all pertinent interactions over a range of temperatures are found to yield solute distributions different from classical results, namely, (1) Fermi-Dirac condensations at low temperatures at the free surface, (2) the majority of the atmosphere lying within an unexpectedly large non-linear interaction region near the dislocation core, and (3) temperature-dependent asymmetrical solute arrangements that promote bending. The solute distributions at intermediate temperatures show a 1/r dependence in agreement with previous linearized approximations. With a standard state of solute corresponding to a mean concentration, c0, the relevant interaction energy expression presented in this work is valid when extended to large concentrations for which Henry's Law and Vegard's Law do not apply.« less
Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant
2014-01-21
Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.
Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric
2003-01-01
The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grabinger, R. Scott
1989-01-01
Discussion of the preparation of knowledge for problems appropriate for expert systems focuses on relationships among problem attributes and their solutions through the creation of a solution matrix. Two examples are given, one for wine selection and one for decisions that an automobile manufacturer's sales force might have to make. (LRW)
Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution
Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...
Neace, James C.
1986-01-01
Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Bossard, Guillaume; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David
2017-01-01
We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.
Neace, J.C.
1984-03-13
A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.
Conduction heat transfer solutions
VanSant, James H.
1980-03-01
This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolmatov, Dima; Bastrukov, S.; Lai, P.-Y.; Molodtsova, I.
2014-07-01
A fundamental task of statistical physics is to predict the system's statistical properties and compare them with observable data. We formulate the theory of dipolaron solutions and analyze the screening effects for permanent and field-induced dipolarons. The mathematical treatment of the collective behavior and microscopical morphology of dipolaron solutions are discussed. The presented computations show that the electric field shielding of dipolarons in dielectric nanosolutions is quite different from that of counterionic nano-complexes of Debye-Hückel theory of electrolytes. The limiting case of screening length λ=0 in dipolaron solutions corresponds to Coulomb's law for the potential and field of uniformly charged sphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lion, Thomas W.; Allen, Rosalind J.
2014-05-01
Despite much current interest in active matter, little is known about osmosis in active systems. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how active solutes perturb osmotic steady states. We find that solute activity increases the osmotic pressure, and can also expel solvent from the solution —i.e. cause reverse osmosis. The latter effect cannot be described by an effective temperature, but can be reproduced by mapping the active solution onto a passive one with the same degree of local structuring as the passive solvent component. Our results provide a basic framework for understanding active osmosis, and suggest that activity-induced structuring of the passive component may play a key role in the physics of active-passive mixtures.
The Conductivity of Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rayner-Canham, Geoff
1993-01-01
Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)
The Conductivity of Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rayner-Canham, Geoff
1993-01-01
Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)
Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike
2013-12-01
We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.
Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.
Gault, M. H.
1973-01-01
Certain preventable complications in the treatment of renal failure, in part related to the composition of commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis solutions, continue to occur. Solutions are advocated which would contain sodium 132, calcium 3.5, magnesium 1.5, chloride 102 and lactate or acetate 35 mEq./1., and dextrose 1.5% or about 4.25%. Elimination of 7% dextrose solutions and a reduction of the sodium and lactate concentrations should reduce complications due to hypovolemia, hyperglycemia, hypernatremia and alkalosis. Reduction in the number of solutions should simplify the procedure and perhaps reduce costs. It is anticipated that some of the changes discussed will soon be introduced by industry. PMID:4691094
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions
Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria
2014-01-01
This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725
Reflectance of aqueous solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Querry, M. R.
1972-01-01
The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.
Conduction heat transfer solutions
VanSant, J.H.
1983-08-01
This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.
Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.
Hoorn, Ewout J
2017-08-01
The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.
[Hydroxyethyl starch solutions].
Reingardiene, Dagmara
2005-01-01
Hypovolemia is common among surgical, trauma, and intensive care unit patients. It can occur in the absence of obvious fluid loss secondary to vasodilatation or during generalized alterations of the endothelial barrier resulting in increased capillary permeability. Hydroxyethyl starch solutions are increasingly used for the volume replacement therapy. Hydroxyethyl starch solutions are synthetic colloids with the pharmacological properties that are the closest to natural colloids. Important characteristics for these products are molecular weight, their concentration, the degree of molar substitution, and the substitution pattern. In this review article a large variety of hydroxyethyl starch solutions, their physical and chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, the main route of elimination, mechanism of action, effect on blood plasma volume, safety, tolerability and side effects (the risk of adverse effects on hemostasis, platelet function, frequency of pruritus, anaphylactoid reaction, incidence of rise in serum amylase) are presented.
Decontamination solution development studies
Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.
1993-09-01
This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.
Fissile solution measurement apparatus
Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.
1984-06-11
An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.
Deconstructing graphite: graphenide solutions.
Pénicaud, Alain; Drummond, Carlos
2013-01-15
Growing interest in graphene over past few years has prompted researchers to find new routes for producing this material other than mechanical exfoliation or growth from silicon carbide. Chemical vapor deposition on metallic substrates now allows researchers to produce continuous graphene films over large areas. In parallel, researchers will need liquid, large scale, formulations of graphene to produce functional graphene materials that take advantage of graphene's mechanical, electrical, and barrier properties. In this Account, we describe methods for creating graphene solutions from graphite. Graphite provides a cheap source of carbon, but graphite is insoluble. With extensive sonication, it can be dispersed in organic solvents or water with adequate additives. Nevertheless, this process usually creates cracks and defects in the graphite. On the other hand, graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) provide a means to dissolve rather than disperse graphite. GICS can be obtained through the reaction of alkali metals with graphite. These compounds are a source of graphenide salts and also serve as an excellent electronic model of graphene due to the decoupling between graphene layers. The graphenide macroions, negatively charged graphene sheets, form supple two-dimensional polyelectrolytes that spontaneously dissolve in some organic solvents. The entropic gain from the dissolution of counterions and the increased degrees of freedom of graphene in solution drives this process. Notably, we can obtain graphenide solutions in easily processable solvents with low boiling points such as tetrahydrofuran or cyclopentylmethylether. We performed a statistical analysis of high resolution transmission electronic micrographs of graphene sheets deposited on grids from GICs solution to show that the dissolved material has been fully exfoliated. The thickness distribution peaks with single layers and includes a few double- or triple-layer objects. Light scattering analysis of the
Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions
Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.
2002-08-01
Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.
Dimensionally continued wormhole solutions
Li, X. School of Science, East China University of Science Technology, Shanghai 200237 )
1994-09-15
In this paper we consider wormhole solutions for the action of special Lovelock gravity'' recently discussed by Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli. This action is, in odd dimensions, the Chern-Simons form for the anti--de Sitter group and, in even dimensions, the Euler density constructed with the Lorentz part of the anti--de Sitter curvature tensor. We present a systematic study of classical wormhole solutions in the special Lovelock theory with various matter content, including a perfect fluid energy-momentum tensor, axionic field, and conformal scalar field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lennon, Daniel
2009-07-01
Wavelength dispersion solutions will be determined on a yearly basis as part of a long-term monitoring program. Deep engineering wavecals for each MAMA grating will be obtained at common cenwaves. Intermediate settings will also be taken to check the reliability of derived dispersion solutions. Final selection was determined on basis of past monitoring and C17 requirements. The internal wavelength calibrations will be taken using the LINE line lamp. Extra-deep wavecals are included for some echelle modes and first order modes to ensure detection of weak lines.
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter
2008-01-01
We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finlay, Grace
2011-01-01
This article explores the effectiveness of using Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) in an adult learning environment. Within this discourse, special attention is given to show how SFBT can be used effectively to support the increasing number of adults who find themselves out of work who are now returning to education. Key ideas within SFBT will…
Cells and Hypotonic Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bery, Julia
1985-01-01
Describes a demonstration designed to help students better understand the response of plant and animal cells to hypotonic solutions. The demonstration uses a balloon inside a flexible, thin-walled cardboard box. Air going in corresponds to water entering by osmosis, and, like real cells, if stretched enough, the balloon will burst. (DH)
Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haggard, Susie
Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…
Crystallochemiluminescence of solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gus'kov, A. P.; Nekrasova, L. P.; Gornakova, A. S.; Shikunova, I. A.
2014-09-01
It is shown that the chemiluminescence intensity from luminol solutions reaches a maximum when the latter are crystallized. This phenomenon is explained by the complex dynamics of the phase transition, chemical reactions, and degradation of electronic excitation energy. Luminescence of new type, called crystallochemiluminescence, is revealed.
Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haggard, Susie
Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael
1998-01-01
Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter
2008-01-01
We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
NatureScope, 1989
1989-01-01
Examines some of the reasons tropical rain forests are being destroyed and ways people are working to protect these forests. Provides activities on how people can help, reason for saving the forests, individual actions related to forest problems and solutions, and issues and problems. Three copyable pages accompany activities. (Author/RT)
Antisocial Personalities, Antidemocractic Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schneiderman, Howard G.
1996-01-01
Provides critical analysis of David T. Lykken's article "Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime" (1996) and its correlation between unstable families and sociopathy and the use of parental licensing as a solution. Discusses reasons for the appeal of parental licensing as well as the issue of state control replacing social control. (GR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael
1998-01-01
Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…
Cells and Hypotonic Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bery, Julia
1985-01-01
Describes a demonstration designed to help students better understand the response of plant and animal cells to hypotonic solutions. The demonstration uses a balloon inside a flexible, thin-walled cardboard box. Air going in corresponds to water entering by osmosis, and, like real cells, if stretched enough, the balloon will burst. (DH)
Nitrogen management research in Louisiana sugarcane production systems
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient in sugarcane production and is considered the biggest expense among fertilizer inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer remained expensive after a drastic price increase in 2008. The average cost of a ton of N as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution from 2003 to 2007 wa...
Making and diluting stock solutions.
Adams, Dany Spencer
2008-05-01
INTRODUCTIONFor particular experiments, certain solutions are used frequently and are therefore made up in large quantities. To minimize the volume actually occupied by these solutions, they are often made at a higher concentration than that which will be used. These concentrated solutions are referred to as stock solutions. Stock solutions save time in addition to space; when you need a solution of a given concentration, you need only dilute the stock rather than starting from scratch. This article describes the steps necessary to make and dilute stock solutions appropriately.
Solute transport in groundwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dougherty, David E.
Continued research interest in transport in the subsurface was demonstrated at the “Solute Transport in Groundwater” session held at the 1985 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. This session, following on the heels of the very successful special symposium on “Coupling Geochemical and Hydrologic Models for Subsurface Solute Transport,” was organized by Lenny Konikow of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, Reston, Va.) and copresided by Steve Gorelick (USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.) and David Dougherty (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.). Participation was strong, with 12 contributed papers and about 150 attendees. The papers addressed a wide variety of topics, ranging from the theoretical to the applied, from physics to numerical methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, L. R.
1960-01-01
The problem of solving systems of nonlinear equations has been relatively neglected in the mathematical literature, especially in the textbooks, in comparison to the corresponding linear problem. Moreover, treatments that have an appearance of generality fail to discuss the nature of the solutions and the possible pitfalls of the methods suggested. Probably it is unrealistic to expect that a unified and comprehensive treatment of the subject will evolve, owing to the great variety of situations possible, especially in the applied field where some requirement of human or mechanical efficiency is always present. Therefore we attempt here simply to pose the problem and to describe and partially appraise the methods of solution currently in favor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, G. J.; Engstrom, A.; Bernhardt, R.; Prahl, U.; Adam, L.; Seyfarth, J.; Apel, M.; de Saracibar, C. Agelet; Korzhavyi, P.; Ågren, J.; Patzak, B.
2016-01-01
The Integrated Computational Materials Engineering expert group (ICMEg), a coordination activity of the European Commission, aims at developing a global and open standard for information exchange between the heterogeneous varieties of numerous simulation tools. The ICMEg consortium coordinates respective developments by a strategy of networking stakeholders in the first International Workshop on Software Solutions for ICME, compiling identified and relevant software tools into the Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, discussing strategies for interoperability between different software tools during a second (planned) international workshop, and eventually proposing a scheme for standardized information exchange in a future book or document. The present article summarizes these respective actions to provide the ICME community with some additional insights and resources from which to help move this field forward.
Analytic Parabolic Equation Solutions.
1989-11-01
problem involving a line source in a homogeneous ocean above a homogeneous , semi-infinite, fast fluid bottom has been analyzed in detail. Various...excited duct with laterally homogeneous bilinear height profile. An exact numerical reference solution can be constructed by modal summation for...have been well documented in the literature [1]. Since the final-field is constructed by beam shooting, one avoids the need for eigenray search which
Fletcher, Mary H.; Warner, E. Ray
1953-01-01
description of and complete drawings for the construction of a fluorimeter for the measurement of fluorescence of solutions are given. The instrument is sturdy and versatile. It may be used with various phototubes and measuring devices. It is constructed so that phototubes and filters may be changed readily. Sensitivity is controlled easily over a wide range by limiting the size of either the ultraviolet or fluorescent light beam with standard apertures.
Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers
1979-08-01
side it necessary and identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers High Modulus Fibers and Films Polybenzobisoxazoles Polybenzobisthiazoles 20...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent...Company, Summit, N.J. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................ .......................... .. 1 2. REMARKS ON DRY-JET WET SPUN FIBER
Electrolytes: Oral Electrolyte Solutions.
Harris, Lisa
2017-08-01
Oral electrolyte solutions are used widely for rehydration in diarrheal illness and to maintain hydration during vigorous exercise. In diarrheal illness, an oral rehydration solution (ORS) typically is preferred over intravenous fluids except for patients with severe dehydration. The preferred ORS is one similar to the glucose-containing reduced osmolarity World Health Organization ORS. There also are polymer-based solutions that use rice or wheat as the source of carbohydrates but these are not widely recommended. Use of other liquids, such as sport drinks, juice, soft drinks, and chicken broth is not recommended, though these can be considered for patients with no or mild dehydration. For maintaining hydration during exercise, particularly vigorous high-intensity exercise, recommendations are to consume fluids (ie, 5 to 7 mL/kg) and a sodium-containing snack at least 4 hours before. During exercise, individuals require 200 to 800 mL/hour of liquid that should contain 20 to 30 mEq/L of sodium. Carbohydrate intake is recommended during high-intensity exercise. Intake of excessive sodium-free fluids should be avoided to prevent exercise-induced hyponatremia. Additional fluids (ie, 1.5 L/kg of weight lost) can be consumed after exercise to restore hydration. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not recommended routinely for athletes unless known deficiencies exist. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.
Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami
2011-06-01
Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.
Apparatus Makes Precisely Saturated Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pusey, Marc L.
1989-01-01
Simple laboratory apparatus establishes equilibrium conditions of temperature and concentration in solutions for use in precise measurements of saturation conditions. With equipment typical measurement of saturation concentration of protein in solution established and measured within about 24 hours. Precisely saturated solution made by passing solvent or solution slowly along column packed with solute at precisely controlled temperature. If necessary, flow stopped for experimentally determined interval to allow equilibrium to be established in column.
Rapid Regional Centroid Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, S.; Zhan, Z.; Luo, Y.; Ni, S.; Chen, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.
2009-12-01
The 2008 Wells Nevada Earthquake was recorded by 164 broadband USArray stations within a distance of 550km (5 degrees) with all azimuths uniformly sampled. To establish the source parameters, we applied the Cut and Paste (CAP) code to all the stations to obtain a mechanism (strike/dip/rake=35/41/-85) at a depth of 9km and Mw=5.9. Surface wave shifts range from -8s to 8s which are in good agreement with ambient seismic noise (ASN) predictions. Here we use this data set to test the accuracy of the number of stations needed to obtain adequate solutions (position of the compressional and tension axis) for mechanism. The stations were chosen at random where combinations of Pnl and surface waves were used to establish mechanism and depth. If the event is bracketed by two stations, we obtain an accurate magnitude with good solutions about 80% of the trials. Complete solutions from four stations or Pnl from 10 stations prove reliable in nearly all situations. We also explore the use of this dataset in locating the event using a combination of surface wave travel times and/or the full waveform inversion (CAPloc) that uses the CAP shifts to refine locations. If the mechanism is known (fixed) only a few stations is needed to locate an event to within 5km if date is available at less than 150km. In contrast, surface wave travel times (calibrated to within one second) produce amazing accurate locations with only 6 stations reasonably distributed. It appears this approach is easily automated as suggested by Scrivner and Helmberger (1995) who discussed travel times of Pnl and surface waves and the evolving of source accuracy as the various phases arrive.
Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau
2011-01-01
During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.
Dirac solutions for quaternionic potentials
De Leo, Stefano Giardino, Sergio
2014-02-15
The Dirac equation is solved for quaternionic potentials, i V{sub 0} + j W{sub 0} (V{sub 0}∈R , W{sub 0}∈C). The study shows two different solutions. The first one contains particle and anti-particle solutions and leads to the diffusion, tunneling, and Klein energy zones. The standard solution is recovered taking the complex limit of this solution. The second solution, which does not have a complex counterpart, can be seen as a V{sub 0}-antiparticle or |W{sub 0}|-particle solution.
Solute-Filled Syringe For Formulating Intravenous Solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owens, Jim; Bindokas, AL; Dudar, Tom; Finley, Mike; Scharf, Mike
1993-01-01
Prefilled syringe contains premeasured amount of solute in powder or concentrate form used to deliver solute to sterile interior of large-volume parenteral (LVP) bag. Predetermined amount of sterile water also added to LVP bag through sterilizing filter, and mixed with contents of syringe, yielding sterile intravenous solution of specified concentration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
REI Systems, Inc. developed a software solution that uses the Internet to eliminate the paperwork typically required to document and manage complex business processes. The data management solution, called Electronic Handbooks (EHBs), is presently used for the entire SBIR program processes at NASA. The EHB-based system is ideal for programs and projects whose users are geographically distributed and are involved in complex management processes and procedures. EHBs provide flexible access control and increased communications while maintaining security for systems of all sizes. Through Internet Protocol- based access, user authentication and user-based access restrictions, role-based access control, and encryption/decryption, EHBs provide the level of security required for confidential data transfer. EHBs contain electronic forms and menus, which can be used in real time to execute the described processes. EHBs use standard word processors that generate ASCII HTML code to set up electronic forms that are viewed within a web browser. EHBs require no end-user software distribution, significantly reducing operating costs. Each interactive handbook simulates a hard-copy version containing chapters with descriptions of participants' roles in the online process.
Lee, Chon-Lin; Lee, Jiu-Chang
2002-04-01
This study presents an admicellar enhanced continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Solutions containing single and binary aliphatic alcohols are introduced into this reactor for breakthrough experiments. Two phenomena occur during experiments with binary solutes: (a) a competitive effect caused by background solutes with relatively high hydrophobicity; (b) a co-solvent effect attributable to background solutes with relatively low hydrophobicity. The competition phenomenon and the corresponding mechanism involved are well demonstrated by directly monitoring the pre-adsolubilized solutes drawn out back to the solution while adsolubilizing other solutes with higher hydrophobicity. On the other hand, adsolubilization kinetics hindered by the background solute, which acts as a co-solvent, significantly alters the slopes of breakthrough curves of the target solute treated in the reactor.
Resolved conifolds in supergravity solutions
Ghezelbash, A. M.
2008-01-15
We construct generalized 11D supergravity solutions of fully localized intersecting D2/D4 brane systems. These solutions are obtained by embedding six-dimensional resolved Eguchi-Hanson conifolds lifted to M-theory. We reduce these solutions to ten dimensions, obtaining new D-brane systems in type IIA supergravity. We discuss the limits in which the dynamics of the D2 brane decouples from the bulk for these solutions.
Immersion lithography bevel solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya
2008-03-01
The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Cogent Software, Inc. was formed in January 1995 by David Atkinson and Irene Woerner, both former employees of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Several other Cogent employees also worked at JPL. Atkinson headed JPL's Information Systems Technology section and Woerner lead the Advanced User Interfaces Group. Cogent's mission is to help companies organize and manage their online content by developing advanced software for the next generation of online directories and information catalogs. The company offers a complete range of Internet solutions, including Internet access, Web site design, local and wide-area networks, and custom software for online commerce applications. Cogent also offers DesignSphere Online, an electronic community for the communications arts industry. Customers range from small offices to manufacturers with thousands of employees, including Chemi-Con, one of the largest manufacturers of capacitors in the world.
2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions
Dor Ben-Amotz
2010-08-13
Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).
Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul
2013-01-01
For decades, computer scientists have looked to nature for biologically inspired solutions to computational problems; ranging from robotic control to scheduling optimization. Paradoxically, as we move deeper into the post-genomics era, the reverse is occurring, as biologists and bioinformaticians look to computational techniques, to solve a variety of biological problems. One of the most common biologically inspired techniques are genetic algorithms (GAs), which take the Darwinian concept of natural selection as the driving force behind systems for solving real world problems, including those in the bioinformatics domain. Herein, we provide an overview of genetic algorithms and survey some of the most recent applications of this approach to bioinformatics based problems. PMID:23222169
Knop's Solution Is Not What It Seems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hershey, David R.
2001-01-01
Discusses Knob's solution, which was considered the ideal plant growth solution in 1865, and recommends eliminating Knob's solution from active teaching. Describes solution culture basics including nutrient solutions, containers and aeration, and plants and light. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)
Knop's Solution Is Not What It Seems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hershey, David R.
2001-01-01
Discusses Knob's solution, which was considered the ideal plant growth solution in 1865, and recommends eliminating Knob's solution from active teaching. Describes solution culture basics including nutrient solutions, containers and aeration, and plants and light. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)
VASOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF DIALYSIS SOLUTION
Zakaria, El Rasheid; Patel, Anuj A.; Li, Na; Matheson, Paul J.; Garrison, Richard N.
2008-01-01
Background Conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions elicit vasodilation, which is implicated in the variable rate of solute transport during the dwell. The components causing such vasoactivity are still controversial. This study was conducted to define the vasoactive components of conventional and new PD solutions. Methods Three visceral peritoneal microvascular levels were visualized by intravital video microscopy of the terminal ileum of anesthetized rats. Anesthesia-free decerebrate conscious rats served as control. Microvascular diameter and blood flow by Doppler measurements were conducted after topical peritoneal exposure to 4 clinical PD solutions and 6 prepared solutions designed to isolate potential vasoactive components of the PD solution. Results All clinically available PD solutions produced a rapid and generalized vasodilation at all intestinal microvascular levels, regardless of the osmotic solute. The pattern and magnitude of this dilation was not affected by anesthesia but was determined by arteriolar size, the osmotic solute, and the solution’s buffer anion system. The greatest dilation occurred in the small precapillary arterioles and was elicited by conventional PD solution and heat re-sterilized solution containing low glucose degradation products (GDPs). Hypertonic mannitol solutions produced a dilation that was approximately 50% less than the dilation obtained with glucose solutions with identical osmolarity and buffer. Increasing a solution’s osmolarity did not produce a parallel increase in the magnitude of dilation, suggesting a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. Lactate dissolved in an isotonic solution was completely non-vasoactive unless the solution’s H+ concentration was increased. At low pH, isotonic lactate produced a rapid but transient vasodilation. This vascular reactivity was similar in magnitude and pattern to that obtained with the isotonic 7.5% icodextrin solution (Extraneal; Baxter Healthcare
Molecular Aggregates in Cryogenic Solutions.
1981-07-07
of aggregates from solutions of monomers. Rapid deposition into a precooled sample cell is required to generate an aggregate solution. Such a solution...U AU-A11b 490 COLORAO0 STATE UNIV FORT COLLINS DEPT OF CHEMISTRY F/G 20/8 MOLECULAR AGGREGATES IN CRYOGENIC SOLUTIONS.CU) JUL 81 M W SCHAUER- J LEE...MOLECULAR AGGREGATES IN CRYOGENIC SOLUTIONS by M.W. Schauer, J. Lee, and E.R. Bernstein Prepared for Publication in The Journal of Chemical Physics
Various Boussinesq solitary wave solutions
Yates, G.T.
1995-12-31
The generalized Boussinesq (gB) equations have been used to model nonlinear wave evolution over variable topography and wave interactions with structures. Like the KdV equation, the gB equations support a solitary wave solution which propagates without changing shape, and this solitary wave is often used as a primary test case for numerical studies of nonlinear waves using either the gB or other model equations. Nine different approximate solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equations are presented with simple closed form expressions for the wave elevation and wave speed. Each approximates the free propagation of a single solitary wave, and eight of these solutions are newly obtained. The author compares these solutions with the well known KdV solution, Rayleigh`s solution, Laitone`s higher order solution, and ``exact`` numerical integration of the gB equations. Existing experimental data on solitary wave shape and wave speed are compared with these models.
Asymptotic solutions in asymptotic safety
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zoë H.
2017-05-01
We explain how to find the asymptotic form of fixed point solutions in functional truncations, in particular f (R ) approximations. We find that quantum fluctuations do not decouple at large R , typically leading to elaborate asymptotic solutions containing several free parameters. By a counting argument, these can be used to map out the dimension of the fixed point solution spaces. They are also necessary to validate the numerical solution and provide the physical part in the limit that the cutoff is removed: the fixed point equation of state. As an example, we apply the techniques to a recent f (R ) approximation by Demmel et al., finding asymptotic matches to their numerical solution. Depending on the value of the endomorphism parameter, we find many other asymptotic solutions and fixed point solution spaces of differing dimensions, yielding several alternative scenarios for the equation of state. Asymptotic studies of other f (R ) approximations are needed to clarify the picture.
Insight solutions are correct more often than analytic solutions
Salvi, Carola; Bricolo, Emanuela; Kounios, John; Bowden, Edward; Beeman, Mark
2016-01-01
How accurate are insights compared to analytical solutions? In four experiments, we investigated how participants’ solving strategies influenced their solution accuracies across different types of problems, including one that was linguistic, one that was visual and two that were mixed visual-linguistic. In each experiment, participants’ self-judged insight solutions were, on average, more accurate than their analytic ones. We hypothesised that insight solutions have superior accuracy because they emerge into consciousness in an all-or-nothing fashion when the unconscious solving process is complete, whereas analytic solutions can be guesses based on conscious, prematurely terminated, processing. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that participants’ analytic solutions included relatively more incorrect responses (i.e., errors of commission) than timeouts (i.e., errors of omission) compared to their insight responses. PMID:27667960
Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2008-01-07
We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable dS minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two Nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, KK, and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.
Burns, D.A.
1994-09-01
A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.
Silverstein, Eva
2008-05-15
We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable de Sitter (dS) minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four-dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, Kaluza Klein (KK), and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.
1995-01-01
The physical properties of a supersaturated binary solution such as its density rho, shear viscosity eta, and solute mass diffusivity D are dependent on the solute concentration c: rho = rho(c), eta = eta(c), and D = D(c). The diffusion boundary layer equations related to crystal growth from solution are derived for the case of natural convection with a solution density, a shear viscosity, and a solute diffusivity that are all depen- dent on solute concentration. The solution of these equations has demonstrated the following. (1) At the vicinity of the saturation concentration c(sub s) the solution shear viscosity eta depends on rho as eta(sub s) = eta(rho(sub s))varies as square root of rho(c(sub s)). This theoretically derived result has been verified in experiments with several aqueous solutions of inorganic and organic salts. (2) The maximum solute mass transfer towards the growing crystal surface can be achieved for values of c where the ratio of d ln(D(c)/dc) to d ln(eta(c)/dc) is a maximum.
Solution nonideality related to solute molecular characteristics of amino acids.
Keener, C R; Fullerton, G D; Cameron, I L; Xiong, J
1995-01-01
By measuring the freezing-point depression for dilute, aqueous solutions of all water-soluble amino acids, we test the hypothesis that nonideality in aqueous solutions is due to solute-induced water structuring near hydrophobic surfaces and solute-induced water destructuring in the dipolar electric fields generated by the solute. Nonideality is expressed with a single solute/solvent interaction parameter I, calculated from experimental measure of delta T. A related parameter, I(n), gives a method of directly relating solute characteristics to solute-induced water structuring or destructuring. I(n)-values correlate directly with hydrophobic surface area and inversely with dipolar strength. By comparing the nonideality of amino acids with progressively larger hydrophobic side chains, structuring is shown to increase with hydrophobic surface area at a rate of one perturbed water molecule per 8.8 square angstroms, implying monolayer coverage. Destructuring is attributed to dielectric realignment as described by the Debye-Hückel theory, but with a constant separation of charges in the amino-carboxyl dipole. By using dimers and trimers of glycine and alanine, this destructuring is shown to increase with increasing dipole strength using increased separation of fixed dipolar charges. The capacity to predict nonideal solution behavior on the basis of amino acid characteristics will permit prediction of free energy of transfer to water, which may help predict the energetics of folding and unfolding of proteins based on the characteristics of constituent amino acids. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7711253
Properties of scintillator solutes
Fluornoy, J.M.
1998-06-01
This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.
Thermodynamics of feldspathoid solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sack, Richard O.; Ghiorso, Mark S.
We have developed models for the thermody-namic properties of nephelines, kalsilites, and leucites in the simple system NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-Ca0.5AlSiO4-SiO2-H2O that are consistent with all known constraints on subsolidus equilibria and thermodynamic properties, and have integrated them into the existing MELTS software package. The model for nepheline is formulated for the simplifying assumptions that (1) a molecular mixing-type approximation describes changes in the configurational entropy associated with the coupled exchange substitutions □Si?NaAl and □Ca? Na2 and that (2) Na+ and K+ display long-range non-convergent ordering between a large cation and the three small cation sites in the Na4Al4Si4O16 formula unit. Notable features of the model include the prediction that the mineral tetrakalsilite (``panunzite'', sensu stricto) results from anti-ordering of Na and K between the large cation and the three small cation sites in the nepheline structure at high temperatures, an average dT/dP slope of about 55°/kbar for the reaction
Iodine addition using triiodide solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.
1992-01-01
The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.
Iodine addition using triiodide solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.
1992-01-01
The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.
Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.
Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R
1989-07-01
A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.
Peritoneal transport with icodextrin solution.
Heimbürger, Olof
2006-01-01
Icodextrin is the only large molecular weight osmotic agent available in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Icodextrin (compared to glucose) has a prolonged positive ultrafiltration because of the slow absortion of icodextrin due to its large molecular weight. As icodextrin induces transcapillary ultrafiltration by a mechanism resembling 'colloid' osmosis (with the ultrafiltration occurring mainly through the small pores) almost no sieving of solutes is observed with icodextrin-based solution resulting in increased convective transport and clearance of small solutes. In general, the transport characteristics of the peritoneal membrane are similar with glucose- and icodextrin-based solution, but results from the EAPOS study suggests that use of icodextrin-based solution may be associated with less changes in peritoneal transport with time.
Local fluctuations in solution mixtures
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Paul E.
2011-01-01
An extension of the traditional Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions is outlined which provides additional fluctuating quantities that can be used to characterize and probe the behavior of solution mixtures. Particle-energy and energy-energy fluctuations for local regions of any multicomponent solution are expressed in terms of experimentally obtainable quantities, thereby supplementing the usual particle-particle fluctuations provided by the established KB inversion approach. The expressions are then used to analyze experimental data for pure water over a range of temperatures and pressures, a variety of pure liquids, and three binary solution mixtures – methanol and water, benzene and methanol, and aqueous sodium chloride. In addition to providing information on local properties of solutions it is argued that the particle-energy and energy-energy fluctuations can also be used to test and refine solute and solvent force fields for use in computer simulation studies. PMID:21806137
Special solutions to Chazy equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varin, V. P.
2017-02-01
We consider the classical Chazy equation, which is known to be integrable in hypergeometric functions. But this solution has remained purely existential and was never used numerically. We give explicit formulas for hypergeometric solutions in terms of initial data. A special solution was found in the upper half plane H with the same tessellation of H as that of the modular group. This allowed us to derive some new identities for the Eisenstein series. We constructed a special solution in the unit disk and gave an explicit description of singularities on its natural boundary. A global solution to Chazy equation in elliptic and theta functions was found that allows parametrization of an arbitrary solution to Chazy equation. The results have applications to analytic number theory.
Celestial mechanics solutions that escape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gingold, Harry; Solomon, Daniel
2017-08-01
We establish the existence of an open set of initial conditions through which pass solutions without singularities to Newton's gravitational equations in R3 on a semi-infinite interval in forward time, for which every pair of particles separates like At , A > 0, as t → ∞. The solutions are constructable as series with rapid uniform convergence and their asymptotic behavior to any order is prescribed. We show that this family of solutions depends on 6N parameters subject to certain constraints.
Solute diffusion in liquid metals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhat, B. N.
1973-01-01
A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.
Colligative properties of simple solutions.
Andrews, F C
1976-11-05
Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider.
Formulation and Stability of Solutions.
Akers, Michael J
2016-01-01
Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. This article, which takes us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions, represents the first of a series of articles discussing how these challenges and issues are addressed.
Larkin, K.A.
1994-08-14
This test plan describes the activities associated with the High Gradient Magnetic Filtration (HGMF) of plutonium-bearing solutions (10-L). The 10-L solutions were received from Argonne National Laboratories in 1972, are highly acidic, and are considered unstable. The purpose of the testing is to show that HGMF is an applicable method of removing plutonium precipitates from solution. The plutonium then can be stored safely in a solid form.
Decoupling solution moduli of bigravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik
2016-12-01
A complete classification of exact solutions of ghost-free, massive bigravity is derived which enables the dynamical decoupling of the background, and the foreground metrics. The general decoupling solution space of the two metrics is constructed. Within this branch of the solution space the foreground metric theory becomes general relativity (GR) with an additional effective cosmological constant, and the background metric dynamics is governed by plain GR.
A heuristic for suffix solutions
Bilgory, A.; Gajski, D.D.
1986-01-01
The suffix problem has appeared in solutions of recurrence systems for parallel and pipelined machines and more recently in the design of gate and silicon compilers. In this paper the authors present two algorithms. The first algorithm generates parallel suffix solutions with minimum cost for a given length, time delay, availability of initial values, and fanout. This algorithm generates a minimal solution for any length n and depth range log/sub 2/ N to N. The second algorithm reduces the size of the solutions generated by the first algorithm.
Mass action in ionic solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eisenberg, Bob
2011-07-01
The law of mass action describes reactants as simple ideal fluids of concentrations of uncharged noninteracting particles. Ionic solutions contain interacting charged particles and are not ideal. Interactions of reactants can then be mistaken for complexities in chemical reactions or enzymatic catalysts. The variational theory of complex fluids describes flowing mixtures like biological solutions. When a component is added, the theory derives-by mathematics alone-a new set of differential equations that automatically captures all interactions. A variational theory of ionic solutions (as complex fluids) provides computable description of ions in solutions and proteins. Numerical inefficiencies have delayed experimental verification.
Molecular aggregates in cryogenic solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schauer, M. W.; Lee, J.; Bernstein, E. R.
1981-07-01
In this report, experimental procedures and results concerning the study of aggregates are presented. Absorption spectra of solutions of the following solutes and solvents have been studied: pyrazine/C3H8; benzene/NF3, C3H8, N2, CO, CF4; and osmium tetroxide/NF3, CH4, C3H8. In order to obtain some qualitative estimation of aggregate size light scattering experiments were also performed on solutions of pyrazine/C3H8, benzene/CF4 benzene/NF3, and benzene/C3H8. The nature of these non-equilibrium molecular clusters in solution will be addressed.
Supercooling behavior in aqueous solutions.
Kimizuka, Norihito; Suzuki, Toru
2007-03-08
Using the emulsion method, we measured the homogeneous nucleation temperature depression, DeltaT(f,hom), and equilibrium melting points depression, DeltaT(m), of various aqueous solutions and then calculated lambda for each solute using the linear relationship DeltaT(f,hom) = lambdaDeltaT(m). We defined lambda as the solute-specific supercooling capacity and examined its correlation with some known hydration characteristics. The results showed that lambda is correlated with D0, the self-diffusion coefficient of solute molecules in infinite dilution.
Exact solutions to quadratic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.; Podolský, J.; Švarc, R.
2017-04-01
Since all Einstein spacetimes are vacuum solutions to quadratic gravity in four dimensions, in this paper we study various aspects of non-Einstein vacuum solutions to this theory. Most such known solutions are of traceless Ricci and Petrov type N with a constant Ricci scalar. Thus we assume the Ricci scalar to be constant which leads to a substantial simplification of the field equations. We prove that a vacuum solution to quadratic gravity with traceless Ricci tensor of type N and aligned Weyl tensor of any Petrov type is necessarily a Kundt spacetime. This will considerably simplify the search for new non-Einstein solutions. Similarly, a vacuum solution to quadratic gravity with traceless Ricci type III and aligned Weyl tensor of Petrov type II or more special is again necessarily a Kundt spacetime. Then we study the general role of conformal transformations in constructing vacuum solutions to quadratic gravity. We find that such solutions can be obtained by solving one nonlinear partial differential equation for a conformal factor on any Einstein spacetime or, more generally, on any background with vanishing Bach tensor. In particular, we show that all geometries conformal to Kundt are either Kundt or Robinson-Trautman, and we provide some explicit Kundt and Robinson-Trautman solutions to quadratic gravity by solving the above mentioned equation on certain Kundt backgrounds.
Exact analytical solutions for ADAFs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habibi, Asiyeh; Abbassi, Shahram; Shadmehri, Mohsen
2017-02-01
We obtain two-dimensional exact analytic solutions for the structure of the hot accretion flows without wind. We assume that the only non-zero component of the stress tensor is Trϕ. Furthermore, we assume that the value of viscosity coefficient α varies with θ. We find radially self-similar solutions and compare them with the numerical and the analytical solutions already studied in the literature. The no-wind solution obtained in this paper may be applied to the nuclei of some cool-core clusters.
Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions
Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai
2008-01-15
In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.
High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions
Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang
1998-01-01
This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.
High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions
Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.
1998-10-20
This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.
Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
School Planning and Management, 1999
1999-01-01
Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennant, Roy
2004-01-01
Small solutions solve discrete, well-bounded problems and can be pieces of larger solutions. They can move things forward by mixing and matching available components in new and previously unimagined ways. A number of innovations, which at first glance are completely unrelated, can come together and create important synergics. This article…
Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
School Planning and Management, 1999
1999-01-01
Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennant, Roy
2004-01-01
Small solutions solve discrete, well-bounded problems and can be pieces of larger solutions. They can move things forward by mixing and matching available components in new and previously unimagined ways. A number of innovations, which at first glance are completely unrelated, can come together and create important synergics. This article…
Evaluation of ITRF2014 Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dach, Rolf; Grahsl, Andrea; Susnik, Andreja; Villiger, Arturo; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian
2017-04-01
For the most recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) realization three candidates have been provided, namely an ITRF2014 solution by IGN, DTRF2014 by DGFI-TUM, and JTRF2014 by JPL. There are significant differences in the way how these solutions have been generated, which parametrization has been applied, and how the solutions from the different space-geodetic techniques are combined. The most recent GNSS reprocessing solution generated in the frame of the EGSIEM project (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management; funded by EC in the frame of Horizon 2020) was used to generate time series of GNSS-based solutions from 2000 to the end of 2014 using these reference frame realizations. The solution contains station coordinates, GNSS satellite orbits, Earth rotation parameters, and troposphere parameters. In order to evaluate the consistency of the contributions from the IGS (GNSS) and ILRS (SLR) in the reference frame solutions, the SLR measurements to the GNSS satellites can be used. Since the microwave-based GNSS satellite orbits obtained in the different reference frames are consistent regarding the orbit modeling differences in the SLR residuals may be interpreted to assess the consistency of the station coordinates between the SLR and GNSS sites in the reference frame solutions. With this contribution we hope to provide an independent contribution to the discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods to generate the IERS-TRF.
TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS
Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.
1958-06-10
The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.
Ion segregation in aqueous solutions.
Bian, Hongtao; Li, Jiebo; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Hailong; Zhuang, Wei; Gao, Yi Qin; Zheng, Junrong
2012-12-13
Microscopic structures and dynamics of aqueous salt solutions were investigated with the ultrafast vibrational energy exchange method and anisotropy measurements. In KSCN aqueous solutions of various concentrations, the rotational time constants of SCN(-) anions are proportional to the viscosities of the solutions. However, the reorientation dynamics of the water molecules are only slightly affected by the solution viscosity. With the addition of strongly hydrated F(-) anions, the rotations of both SCN(-) anions and water molecules slow down. With the addition of weakly hydrated I(-) anions, only the rotation of SCN(-) anions slows down with that of water molecules unaffected. Vibrational energy exchange measurements show that the separation among SCN(-) anions decreases with the addition of F(-) and increases with the addition of I(-). The series of experiments clearly demonstrate that both structures and dynamics of ion and water are segregated in the strong electrolyte aqueous solutions.
Mycobactericidal activity of glutaraldehyde solutions.
Collins, F M; Montalbine, V
1976-01-01
Aqueous solutions of alkaline glutaraldehyde (buffered at pH 8.5) inactivated a standard suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv faster than the corresponding acid (pH 3.7 preparation. Quantitative differences in the rate of inactivation of eight other species of Mycobacterium were determined using a 1% solution of alkaline glutaraldehyde and inactivation of residual glutaraldehyde with 1% sodium bisulfite solution. Variations in the rate of kill were observed between the various mycobacterial species tested, but such differences were probably not sufficiently large to be of practical importance. A 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde solution inactivated 10(5) viable M. tuberculosis cells present on the surface of porcelain penicylinders within 5 min at 18 degrees C. This rate of inactivation was faster than in the acidic solution. PMID:11227
Uremic solutes from colon microbes.
Meyer, Timothy W; Hostetter, Thomas H
2012-05-01
There is renewed interest in identifying organic waste solutes that are normally excreted by the kidneys and must be removed by renal replacement therapy when the kidneys fail. A large number of these waste solutes are produced by colon microbes. Mass spectrometry is expanding our knowledge of their chemical identity, and DNA sequencing technologies are providing new knowledge of the microbes and metabolic pathways by which they are made. There is evidence that the most extensively studied of the colon-derived solutes, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol sulfate, are toxic. Much more study is required to establish the toxicity of other solutes in this class. Because they are made in an isolated compartment by microbes, their production may prove simpler to suppress than the production of other waste solutes. To the extent that they are toxic, suppressing their production could improve the health of renal failure patients without the need for more intensive or prolonged dialysis.
Multigrid solution of internal flows using unstructured solution adaptive meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Wayne A.; Blake, Kenneth R.
1992-01-01
This is the final report of the NASA Lewis SBIR Phase 2 Contract Number NAS3-25785, Multigrid Solution of Internal Flows Using Unstructured Solution Adaptive Meshes. The objective of this project, as described in the Statement of Work, is to develop and deliver to NASA a general three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code using unstructured solution-adaptive meshes for accuracy and multigrid techniques for convergence acceleration. The code will primarily be applied, but not necessarily limited, to high speed internal flows in turbomachinery.
[Platelet-washing solution optimization].
Grossin, E; Chamfly, V
2005-10-01
Different washing and homogénéisation solutions are hereby analysed by comparing the evolution of functional indicators during the preservation of washed aphaeresis platelet concentrates: physiological pH 4.5 and 6 solutions, buffered physiological pH 6.8 glucose solution, and two physiological pH 7 citrate solutions with acetate. Prior acidification of platelet concentrates proved to be essential. Two washings with manual or automated technique, guarantee residual proteins at a level of less than 0.5 g. Solutions T-Sol Baxter or SSP Macopharma allow us to obtain a product that meet the PSL specifications. Routine since June 2004, washings are done with a physiological pH 6 solution, then homogeneised with T-Sol solution. Platelet recovery, swirling phenomenon, lack of agrgegates, pH maintenance, low increase in the platelet average volume and maintenance of intra-cell potassium level, suggest that platelet entirety is preserved beyond the product's expiration date. The platelet transfusion yield of these products is satisfactory.
Solute clustering and interfacial tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, M. A.; Garside, John
1986-07-01
The effect of surface curvature on surface tension has been included in the theory of homogeneous nucleation to show that, under certain conditions, cluster formation results in a decrease in Gibb's free energy. This cluster formation is thus a spontaneous event and a quasi-equilibrium concentration of clusters of narrow size range may then exist in supersaturated solutions. Previous experimental work suggests the existence of solute clusters in a variety of aqueous solutions. The implications for crystal nucleation and growth theory are discussed.
CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Schneider, R.A.
1961-06-20
Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.
Inverse problem solution in ellipsometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabashta, Lubov A.; Zabashta, Oleg I.
1995-11-01
Interactive graphic system 'ELLA' is described which is an integrated program packet for reverse problem solution in ellipsometry. The solutions stable to experimental errors are found by two algorithms: a simplex method under constraints and a regularizing iteration method. A developed graphic procedure kit includes display of graphic surface layers, their optical parameters, and all main results of intermediate calculations. Specialized graphic input functions allow us to change the parameters of a chosen solution method, the basic data, to enter new additional information, etc. On the examples of model structure of GaAs-oxide MAI capabilities in ellipsometry for determination of multilayer structure optical parameters are studied.
Formulation and Stability of Solutions.
Akers, Michael J
2016-01-01
Ready-to-use solutions are the most preferable and most common dosage forms for injectable and topical ophthalmic products. Drugs formulated as solution almost always have chemical and physical stability challenges as well as solubility limitations and the need to prevent inadvertent microbial contamination issues. The first in this series of articles took us through a discussion of optimizing the physical stability of solutions. This article concludes this series of articles with a discussion on foreign particles, protein aggregation, and immunogenicity; optimizing microbiological activity; and osmolality (tonicity) agents, and discusses how these challenges and issues are addressed.
Periodontal ligament injection: alternative solutions.
Gray, R. J.; Lomax, A. M.; Rood, J. P.
1990-01-01
This study was undertaken to investigate whether plain lidocaine, 3% plain mepivacaine and 3% prilocaine with felypressin were suitable epinephrine-free local anesthetic solutions for use in periodontal ligament anesthesia as alternatives to lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Two hundred and seven patients received one of the four test solutions via a periodontal ligament injection and the success rate of anesthesia was confirmed using an electric pulp stimulator. Although neither mepivacaine nor prilocaine were as effective as lidocaine with epinephrine, the success rates of these three solutions were not statistically different. A single periodontal ligament injection of any of the solutions tested resulted in a low incidence of anesthesia. The success rate of lidocaine without epinephrine was consistently poor. PMID:2097910
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services
2016-03-01
The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions
Walker, D.D.
1999-06-08
Waste Processing Technology personnel routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.
Cosmological solution moduli of bigravity
Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik
2015-09-29
We construct the complete set of metric-configuration solutions of the ghost-free massive bigravity for the scenario in which the g−metric is the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) one, and the interaction Lagrangian between the two metrics contributes an effective ideal fluid energy-momentum tensor to the g-metric equations. This set corresponds to the exact background cosmological solution space of the theory.
Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions
Goodhall, C. A.
1960-09-13
A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)
Cosmological solution moduli of bigravity
Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik
2015-09-01
We construct the complete set of metric-configuration solutions of the ghost-free massive bigravity for the scenario in which the g−metric is the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) one, and the interaction Lagrangian between the two metrics contributes an effective ideal fluid energy-momentum tensor to the g-metric equations. This set corresponds to the exact background cosmological solution space of the theory.
Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions
McMordie Stoughton, Kate
2015-07-15
Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.
Weder, R.
1982-05-15
We prove the nonexistence of finite-energy Julia-Zee dyon solutions, in the Bogomol'ny-Prosad-Sommerfield limit, and the generalizations to SU(N) gauge groups, with the same asymptotic value for the Higgs field and the time component of the gauge field. This gives a physically relevant example showing how the topological arguments can fail to provide the existence of a solution in the presence of a nontrivial topological charge.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of pressure solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehner, F. K.; Bataille, J.
1984-01-01
This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic theory of solution and precipitation processes in wet crustal rocks and with the mechanism of steady pressure-solution slip in ‘contact zones,’ such as grain-to-grain contacts, fracture surfaces, and permeable gouge layers, that are infiltrated by a mobile aqueous solution phase. A local dissipation jump condition at the phase boundary is fundamental to identifying the thermodynamic force driving the solution and precipitation process and is used here in setting up linear phenomenological relations to model near-equilibrium phase transformation kinetics. The local thermodynamic equilibrium of a stressed pure solid in contact with its melt or solution phase is governed by Gibbs's relation, which is rederived here, in a manner emphasizing its independence of constitutive assumptions for the solid while neglecting surface tension and diffusion in the solid. Fluid-infiltrated contact zones, such as those formed by rough surfaces, cannot generally be in thermodynamic equilibrium, especially during an ongoing process of pressure-solution slip, and the existing equilibrium formulations are incorrect in overlooking dissipative processes tending to eliminate fluctuations in superficial free energies due to stress concentrations near asperities, defects, or impurities. Steady pressure-solution slip is likely to exhibit a nonlinear dependence of slip rate on shear stress and effective normal stress, due to a dependence of the contact-zone state on the latter. Given that this dependence is negligible within some range, linear relations for pressure-solution slip can be derived for the limiting cases of diffusion-controlled and interface-reaction-controlled rates. A criterion for rate control by one of these mechanisms is set by the magnitude of the dimensionless quantity kδ/2C pD, where k is the interfacial transfer coefficient, δ is the mean diffusion path length, C p is the solubility at pressure p, and D is the mass
Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.
Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young
2014-01-01
Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.
Crystallization of supercooled solutions. [atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, K.; Hallett, John
1988-01-01
Crystallization of uniformly supercooled solutions (Na2SO4, NaCl, H2SO4, HNO3, HCl) was studied. It is shown how crystal growth velocity and habit depend on solution and concentration. The segregation coefficient for the solute in ice is measured by analysis of ice and solution, separated immediately after initial freezing, at different supercoolings. Subsequent solidification gives ion rejection at a varying rate depending on the geometry of the freezing, and may result in separation of hydrates, particularly when the initial concentration is high, as in haze (inactivated) droplets and low temperatures found in the Antarctic stratosphere. Electrical effects associated with rapid freezing are also investigated. Results suggest that more extensive measurements need to be made in solutions at different supercoolings, and that substantial electrical effects may be present for higher concentrations under these conditions. Damage to vegetation could occur under specific conditions as concentrated solutions (possibly H2SO4) are rejected in the freezing of rime or dew.
Crystallization of supercooled solutions. [atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, K.; Hallett, John
1988-01-01
Crystallization of uniformly supercooled solutions (Na2SO4, NaCl, H2SO4, HNO3, HCl) was studied. It is shown how crystal growth velocity and habit depend on solution and concentration. The segregation coefficient for the solute in ice is measured by analysis of ice and solution, separated immediately after initial freezing, at different supercoolings. Subsequent solidification gives ion rejection at a varying rate depending on the geometry of the freezing, and may result in separation of hydrates, particularly when the initial concentration is high, as in haze (inactivated) droplets and low temperatures found in the Antarctic stratosphere. Electrical effects associated with rapid freezing are also investigated. Results suggest that more extensive measurements need to be made in solutions at different supercoolings, and that substantial electrical effects may be present for higher concentrations under these conditions. Damage to vegetation could occur under specific conditions as concentrated solutions (possibly H2SO4) are rejected in the freezing of rime or dew.
Hardness of cubic solid solutions
Gao, Faming
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that a hardening rule exists in cubic solid solutions with various combinations of ionic, covalent and metallic bonding. It is revealed that the hardening stress ∆τFcg is determined by three factors: shear modulus G, the volume fraction of solute atoms fv, and the size misfit degree δb. A simple hardening correlation in KCl-KBr solid-solution is proposed as ∆τFcg = 0.27 G. It is applied to calculate the hardening behavior of the Ag-Au, KCl-KBr, InP-GaP, TiN-TiC, HfN-HfC, TiC-NbC and ZrC-NbC solid-solution systems. The composition dependence of hardness is elucidated quantitatively. The BN-BP solid-solution system is quantitatively predicted. We find a hardening plateau region around the x = 0.55–0.85 in BNxP1−x, where BNxP1−x solid solutions are far harder than cubic BN. Because the prediction is quantitative, it sets the stage for a broad range of applications. PMID:28054659
Hardness of cubic solid solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Faming
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that a hardening rule exists in cubic solid solutions with various combinations of ionic, covalent and metallic bonding. It is revealed that the hardening stress ∆τFcg is determined by three factors: shear modulus G, the volume fraction of solute atoms fv, and the size misfit degree δb. A simple hardening correlation in KCl-KBr solid-solution is proposed as ∆τFcg = 0.27 G. It is applied to calculate the hardening behavior of the Ag-Au, KCl-KBr, InP-GaP, TiN-TiC, HfN-HfC, TiC-NbC and ZrC-NbC solid-solution systems. The composition dependence of hardness is elucidated quantitatively. The BN-BP solid-solution system is quantitatively predicted. We find a hardening plateau region around the x = 0.55-0.85 in BNxP1-x, where BNxP1-x solid solutions are far harder than cubic BN. Because the prediction is quantitative, it sets the stage for a broad range of applications.
Transperitoneal solute movement in children.
Gruskin, A B; Rosenblum, H; Baluarte, H J; Morgenstern, B Z; Polinsky, M S; Perlman, S A
1983-11-01
The transperitoneal movement of solute in children was examined by means of a theoretical consideration of the peritoneal clearance formula and by the performance of peritoneal solute diffusion curves and measurement of peritoneal clearances of multiple solutes. Theoretical considerations led to the conclusion that when dialysis mechanics are held constant, peritoneal clearances scaled for weight are similar in individuals of widely varying weight when the volume of infused dialysate is also scaled for weight if peritoneal permeability and surface area are constant. In one group of studies, solute diffusion curves and weight-scaled peritoneal clearances of urea, phosphate, creatinine, and urate were similar in 3 children ages 4 to 18 months compared to 4 children ages 2.5 to 18.5 years. In a second group of studies, weight-scaled peritoneal clearances of inulin but not urea were shown to be marginally lower in 4 children who had been dialyzed longer than 6 months compared with 4 children dialyzed less than 1 month. Hypertonic glucose dialysis in these children was shown to enhance urea clearance but not that of inulin. It is concluded that comparative studies of peritoneal clearances can characterize the transperitoneal movement of solute in children of widely varying body size. Such studies are of greatest value when systematically performed and similar ratios of dialysate volumes to body pools of solute are used.
Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution
Nash, Charles A.
2016-07-12
Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.
Zielinski, Michal W; McGann, Locksley E; Nychka, John A; Elliott, Janet A W
2014-10-01
Thermodynamic solution theories allow the prediction of chemical potentials in solutions of known composition. In cryobiology, such models are a critical component of many mathematical models that are used to simulate the biophysical processes occurring in cells and tissues during cryopreservation. A number of solution theories, both thermodynamically ideal and non-ideal, have been proposed for use with cryobiological solutions. In this work, we have evaluated two non-ideal solution theories for predicting water chemical potential (i.e. osmolality) in multi-solute solutions relevant to cryobiology: the Elliott et al. form of the multi-solute osmotic virial equation, and the Kleinhans and Mazur freezing point summation model. These two solution theories require fitting to only single-solute data, although they can make predictions in multi-solute solutions. The predictions of these non-ideal solution theories were compared to predictions made using ideal dilute assumptions and to available literature multi-solute experimental osmometric data. A single, consistent set of literature single-solute solution data was used to fit for the required solute-specific coefficients for each of the non-ideal models. Our results indicate that the two non-ideal solution theories have similar overall performance, and both give more accurate predictions than ideal models. These results can be used to select between the non-ideal models for a specific multi-solute solution, and the updated coefficients provided in this work can be used to make the desired predictions.
Stability of tacrolimus ophthalmic solution.
Ezquer-Garin, Carlos; Ferriols-Lisart, Rafael; Alós-Almiñana, Manuel
2017-07-01
The stability of 0.3-mg/mL tacrolimus ophthalmic solution at different storage temperatures was studied. A sterile ophthalmic solution of 0.3 mg/mL tacrolimus was prepared in triplicate under aseptic conditions by diluting tacrolimus in eye drops. Three aliquots of this solution were transferred into polypropylene bottles and stored at 25, 2-8, or -15 to -25 °C. Samples were collected immediately after preparation and at selected time points and assayed in triplicate using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Samples were also visually examined for macroscopic changes. The 0.3-mg/mL tacrolimus solution was also exposed to acidic treatment and heat to force its degradation and to evaluate the selectivity of the analytic method. The tacrolimus ophthalmic solution was considered stable if at least 90% of the mean initial concentration remained when analyzed by HPLC. When stored at 2-8 °C and between -15 and -25 °C, at least 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration remained throughout the 85-day study period. There were no significant differences in tacrolimus concentrations between the starting and ending points (p > 0.05). However, when tacrolimus solution was stored at 25 °C, the percentage of the initial tacrolimus concentration remaining had decreased to less than 90% on day 28. Tacrolimus diluted to 0.3 mg/mL in eye drop solution was stable for 20 days when stored at 25 °C and for at least 85 days when stored at 2-8 °C or between -15 and -25 °C in polypropylene bottles and protected from light. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF SOLID SOLUTIONS.
Contents: solid solution strengthening and strain aging in Ag-base Al alloys; solid solution strengthening and aging in Cu-base Al alloys; solid ... solution strengthening in NaCl-base NaBr solutions; short-range order; solid solution strength in the gold-silver system.
Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.
Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R
2006-04-20
Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media.
Nucleation of Crystals in Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vekilov, Peter G.
2010-07-01
Solution crystallization is an essential part of processes in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries and a major step in physiological and pathological phenomena. Crystallization starts with nucleation and control of nucleation is crucial for the control of the number, size, perfection, polymorphism and other characteristics of the crystalline materials. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the mechanism of nucleation of crystals in solution. The most significant of these is the two-step mechanism of nucleation, according to which the crystalline nucleus appears inside pre-existing metastable clusters of size several hundred nanometers, which consist of dense liquid and are suspended in the solution. While initially proposed for protein crystals, the applicability of this mechanism has been demonstrated for small molecule organic materials, colloids, and biominerals. This mechanism helps to explain several long-standing puzzles of crystal nucleation in solution: nucleation rates which are many orders of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions, nucleation kinetic dependencies with steady or receding parts at increasing supersaturation, the role of heterogeneous substrates for polymorph selection, the significance of the dense protein liquid, and others. More importantly, this mechanism provides powerful tools for control of the nucleation process by varying the solution thermodynamic parameters so that the volume occupied by the dense liquid shrinks or expands.
Stability of aflatoxins in solution.
Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A
2012-01-01
The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.
Protein aggregation in salt solutions
Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko
2015-01-01
Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322
Silicon oxidation in fluoride solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V.
1980-01-01
Silicon is produced in a NaF, Na2SiF6, and Na matrix when SiF4 is reduced by metallic sodium. Hydrogen is evolved during acid leaching to separate the silicon from the accompanying reaction products, NaF and Na2SiF6. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied under conditions simulating leaching conditions by making suspensions of the dry silicon powder in aqueous fluoride solutions. The mechanism for the hydrogen evolution is discussed in terms of spontaneous oxidation of silicon resulting from the cooperative effects of (1) elemental sodium in the silicon that reacts with water to remove a protective silica layer, leaving clean reactive silicon, and (2) fluoride in solution that complexes with the oxidized silicon in solution and retards formation of a protective hydrous oxide gel.
Plagiarism Detection by Online Solutions.
Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra
2017-01-01
The problem of plagiarism represents one of the burning issues of the modern scientific world. Detection of plagiarism is a problem that the Editorial Board encounters in their daily work. Software solutions represent a good solution for the detection of plagiarism. The problem of plagiarism will become most discussed topic of the modern scientific world, especially due to the development of standard measures, which rank the work of one author. Investment in education, education of young research personnel about the importance of scientific research, with paying particular attention on ethical behavior, becomes an imperative of academic staff. Editors have to invest additional effort in the development of the base of reviewers team as well as in their proper guidance, because after all, despite the software solutions, they are the best weapon to fight plagiarism. Peer review process should be a key of successful operation of each journal.
Recent Mascon Solutions from GRACE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, Dah-Ning; Watkins, M. M.
2006-01-01
Mascon (mass concentration) solutions computed for entire land area of Earth with several variants from Jul. 2003 through Dec. 2005 Automated scripts developed, "pipeline" now in place. Solutions generally consistent with harmonics for large features but appear able to resolve and localize smaller features more cleanly. Greenland solutions generally consistent with areas of max ice mass loss in South, but mascons seem to clearly identify sub-regions of ice mass growth. May be amplified by mascon sensitivity and ground tracks. Irregular coverage, errors due to tides in Arctic or other leakage from nearby sources? Although mascons are technically 30+ years old, gravity/geodesy community has vastly more experience with harmonics and thus we are still learning the full advantages, limitations, and idiosyncrasies of mascons.
A tire contact solution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tielking, J. T.
1983-01-01
An efficient method for calculating the contact boundary and interfacial pressure distribution was developed. This solution technique utilizes the discrete Fourier transform to establish an influence coefficient matrix for the portion of the pressurized tire surface that may be in the contact region. This matrix is used in a linear algebra algorithm to determine the contact boundary and the array of forces within the boundary that are necessary to hold the tire in equilibrium against a specified contact surface. The algorithm also determines the normal and tangential displacements of those points on the tire surface that are included in the influence coefficient matrix. Displacements within and outside the contact region are calculated. The solution technique is implemented with a finite-element tire model that is based on orthotropic, nonlinear shell of revolution elements which can respond to nonaxisymmetric loads. A sample contact solution is presented.
Demonstration of FRET in solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Chib, Rahul; Fudala, Rafal; Baxi, Aatmun; Borejdo, Julian; Synak, Anna; Gryczynski, Ignacy
2016-03-01
We measured the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Uranin (U) donor to Rhodamine 101 (R101) acceptor in propylene glycol. Steady-state fluorescence measurements show a significant difference between mixed and unmixed fluorophore solutions. In the solution with mixed fluorophores, fluorescence intensity of the U donor decreases and intensity of R101 fluorescence increases. This is visualized as a color change from green to orange. Fluorescence anisotropy of the mixture solution increases in the donor emission wavelength region and decreases in the acceptor emission wavelengths; which is consistent with FRET occurrence. Time-resolved (lifetime) measurements show a decrease of the U lifetime in the presence of R101 acceptor. In the intensity decay of R101 acceptor appears a negative component indicating excited state process. All these measurements prove the presence of FRET in U/R101 mixture fluorescence.
Ln polyoxocations: yttrium oxide solution speciation & solution deposited thin films.
Marsh, David A; Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Baumeister, Mary K; Zakharov, Lev N; Nyman, May; Johnson, Darren W
2017-01-17
Rare earth oxide materials, including thin film coatings, are critically important in magnetic, luminescent and microelectric devices, and few substitutes have been discovered with comparable performance. Thin film coatings from solution are almost unknown for rare earth oxides, likely due to their high activity towards hydrolysis which yields poor quality thin films. The hexamer [Ln6(O)(OH)8(H2O)12(NO3)6](2+) is a rare example of a metal-oxo cluster isolated and stabilized without additional supporting organic ligands. Herein we report a new method for both the preparation and stabilization in non-aqueous media, which makes these clusters valuable precursors for solution-processed thin films. Solution characterization (NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy) in wet organic solvents indicated that the clusters evolve via a fragmentation and reaggregation process. This is especially true for hexamers of the smaller Ln(3+)-ions: the higher charge density yields higher hydration rates. This process produced an entirely new hexadecameric cluster formulated Y16O3(OH)24(NO3)18(OSMe2)16(OCMe2)2(H2O)4. The new structure represents an intermediate hydrolysis product on the pathway from hexanuclear clusters to metal oxyhydroxide bulk solid. DMSO solvent ligands displace aqua ligands on the cluster and likely explain the additional stability observed for these clusters in organic solvents. The enhanced cluster stability in DMF and DMSO also enables solution-processing methods to create high quality thin films.
Thermosensitive aqueous solutions of polyvinylacetone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Wei-Tai; Wang, Yusong; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Qingren; Pang, Wenmin; Xu, Guoyong; Lu, Fei
2006-04-01
The dimethylketals of poly(vinyl alcohol), termed polyvinylacetone (PVKA), of moderate ketalization degree in the range from 0.28 to 0.6 exhibited temperature-induced phase transition in aqueous solution, as revealed by cloud point measurements and electron micrographs, which was then further investigated on molecular level using solution-state 1H NMR measurements. The present phase transition is caused by the amphiphilic characteristics in the polymer chain. Moreover, this finding could be further applied as a novel strategy in the syntheses of thermosensitive polymer by the hydrophobic functionalities of linear polyol.
Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution
Hryn, John N.; Daniels, Edward J.; Krumdick, Greg K.
2009-12-15
A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.
Schwarzschild Solution: A Historical Perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartusiak, Marcia
2016-03-01
While eighteenth-century Newtonians had imagined a precursor to the black hole, the modern version has its roots in the first full solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity, derived by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild on a World War I battlefront just weeks after Einstein introduced his completed theory in November 1915. This talk will demonstrate how Schwarzschild's solution is linked to the black hole and how it took more than half a century for the physics community to accept that such a bizarre celestial object could exist in the universe.
Thermal Treatment of EDTA Solutions
Denne, B.
2006-07-01
Chemical cleaning of commercial nuclear power facility secondary systems, using EDTA, results in large volumes of chelated liquids requiring some form of treatment prior to disposal. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates the presence of chelates in disposal cells and this paper will look at several methods used to ensure compliance with disposal site criteria. The emphasis of this paper will be on results achieved through thermal treatment of chemical cleaning wastes at the Pacific EcoSolutions' (PEcoS) low level and mixed radioactive waste processing facility in Richland, Washington. We will discuss challenges in transportation, receipt, storage, processing, and disposal associated with EDTA solutions and how those challenges are overcome. (author)
Steel Sea-Going Ship Construction Standards (Kang-chih Hai-ch’uan Chien-tsao Kuei-fan).
1978-03-06
en. .1. aivets s-o ,Id n-ioch wihrivet holes. Under --ar oicular c --.dris, znfseir ri.et holes aasb re~nedied by resming the hales or b’: elding- uz...casted steel parts should be: sections of 20 x 25, with each side measuring in mm; length not less than 2j-a7.m; corner sides made into rowmd corners...specimens. with each side measuring in mm; diameter of the bend center d.25 mm. Bend Tests 2.5.3 Bend tests are divided into the following types
Analytical Solution for Reactive Solute Transport Considering Incomplete Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellin, A.; Chiogna, G.
2013-12-01
The laboratory experiments of Gramling et al. (2002) showed that incomplete mixing at the pore scale exerts a significant impact on transport of reactive solutes and that assuming complete mixing leads to overestimation of product concentration in bimolecular reactions. We consider here the family of equilibrium reactions for which the concentration of the reactants and the product can be expressed as a function of the mixing ratio, the concentration of a fictitious non reactive solute. For this type of reactions we propose, in agreement with previous studies, to model the effect of incomplete mixing at scales smaller than the Darcy scale assuming that the mixing ratio is distributed within an REV according to a Beta distribution. We compute the parameters of the Beta model by imposing that the mean concentration is equal to the value that the concentration assumes at the continuum Darcy scale, while the variance decays with time as a power law. We show that our model reproduces the concentration profiles of the reaction product measured in the Gramling et al. (2002) experiments using the transport parameters obtained from conservative experiments and an instantaneous reaction kinetic. The results are obtained applying analytical solutions both for conservative and for reactive solute transport, thereby providing a method to handle the effect of incomplete mixing on multispecies reactive solute transport, which is simpler than other previously developed methods. Gramling, C. M., C. F. Harvey, and L. C. Meigs (2002), Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(11), 2508-2514.
Graphical Solution of Polynomial Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grishin, Anatole
2009-01-01
Graphing utilities, such as the ubiquitous graphing calculator, are often used in finding the approximate real roots of polynomial equations. In this paper the author offers a simple graphing technique that allows one to find all solutions of a polynomial equation (1) of arbitrary degree; (2) with real or complex coefficients; and (3) possessing…
Homotopy Solutions of Kepler's Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitz-Coy, Norman; Jang, Jiann-Woei
1996-01-01
Kepler's Equation is solved using an integrative algorithm developed using homotropy theory. The solution approach is applicable to both elliptic and hyperbolic forms of Kepler's Equation. The results from the proposed algorithm compare quite favorably with those from existing iterative schemes.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium
Clark, David L.
2014-01-28
Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.
CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Goodall, C.A.
1960-09-13
A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.
Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Needleman, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.
Hydrophobic Solvation: Aqueous Methane Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Konrod, Oliver; Lankau, Timm
2007-01-01
A basic introduction to concept of a solvation shell around an apolar solute as well as its detection is presented. The hydrophobic solvation of toluene is found to be a good teaching example which connects macroscopic, phenomenological thermodynamic results with an atomistic point of view.
RESISTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERES
Li, Jason; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander
2012-02-10
The current state of the art in the modeling of pulsar magnetospheres invokes either the vacuum or force-free limits for the magnetospheric plasma. Neither of these limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. To better understand the structure of such magnetospheres, we combine accelerating fields and force-free solutions by considering models of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and the force-free magnetosphere solutions. The spin-down luminosity, open field line potential drop, and the fraction of open field lines all transition between the vacuum and force-free values as the plasma conductivity varies from zero to infinity. For fixed inclination angle, we find that the spin-down luminosity depends linearly on the open field line potential drop. We consider the implications of our resistive solutions for the spin-down of intermittent pulsars and sub-pulse drift phenomena in radio pulsars.
Evaluation of ITRF2014 Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dach, R.; Susnik, A.; Maier, A.; Villiger, A.; Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.
2016-12-01
For the most recent IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame(IERS-TRF) realization three candidates have been provided, namely an ITRF2014 solution by IGN, DTRF2014 by DGFI-TUM, and JTRF2014 by JPL. There are significant differences in the way how these solutions have been generated and which parametrization has been applied. In the paper we confront our most recent GNSS reprocessing solution generated in the frame of the EGSIEM project (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management; funded by EC in the frame of Horizon 2020) with these reference frame realizations. That the coordinate time series are well presented by all solution can be expected. We will investigate the effects on geodynamic relevant parameters like Earth rotation parameters and geocenter time series. Also the GNSS satellite orbits will be validated whether there exist some differences when applying the different reference frame realizations. With this contribution we hope to provide an independent contribution to the discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods to generate the IERS-TRF.
Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution
Murray, Benjamin J.
2016-01-01
The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes–Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512
Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polk, Joyce
This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…
Hydrophobic Solvation: Aqueous Methane Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Konrod, Oliver; Lankau, Timm
2007-01-01
A basic introduction to concept of a solvation shell around an apolar solute as well as its detection is presented. The hydrophobic solvation of toluene is found to be a good teaching example which connects macroscopic, phenomenological thermodynamic results with an atomistic point of view.
Processes in Verbal Analogy Solution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grudin, Jonathan
1980-01-01
Verbal analogy solution is more flexible than is suggested by either the standard process theory or Sternberg's theory. It was determined that subjects initially examine terms A and B; if this strategy is not successful, they examine the relationship between A and C. (Author/CP)
Complete solution of Boolean equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapia, M. A.; Tucker, J. H.
1980-01-01
A method is presented for generating a single formula involving arbitary Boolean parameters, which includes in it each and every possible solution of a system of Boolean equations. An alternate condition equivalent to a known necessary and sufficient condition for solving a system of Boolean equations is given.
Stability of pilocarpine ophthalmic solutions.
Pilatti, C; Torre, M C; Chiale, C; Spinetto, M
1999-06-01
The stability of pilocarpine and pilocarpine-timolol eyedrop preparations available on the Argentine market was studied. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method that allows the estimation of pilocarpine in the presence of degradation products was used for the study according to the preestablished design. It was found that pilocarpine solutions are stable, while pilocarpine in association with timolol shows significant degradation.
Bioanalysis: challenges and solutions seminar.
Roberts, Andrew
2011-09-01
Industry challenges and solutions for bioanalysis were top of the agenda for the Spring Seminar organized by Quotient Bioresearch in Munich, Germany. The seminar was attended by representatives from pharmaceutical and biotechnology organisations across Europe and featured debates and panel discussions from leading industry speakers on new techniques and hot topics, including the latest industry guidelines.
Archival storage solutions for PACS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chunn, Timothy
1997-05-01
While they are many, one of the inhibitors to the wide spread diffusion of PACS systems has been robust, cost effective digital archive storage solutions. Moreover, an automated Nearline solution is key to a central, sharable data repository, enabling many applications such as PACS, telemedicine and teleradiology, and information warehousing and data mining for research such as patient outcome analysis. Selecting the right solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, configuration architecture and flexibility, subsystem availability and reliability, security requirements, system cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, strategic fit and more.This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on storage system throughput will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, high cost storage devices to high capacity, low cost storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive. The concept of access density will also be introduced and applied to the selection of the most cost effective archive solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ormancey, E.
2008-07-01
The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.
Universities Becoming the Outsourcing Solution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohley, Katharine A.
2010-01-01
This paper provides a road map for universities to follow in responding to corporations that are in need of a solution to the dilemma of building an executive development program and simultaneously providing their executives with a high quality MBA degree. Difficulties experienced by many corporations are complicated by the fact that MBA programs…
Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.
Cohen, S
1981-01-01
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.
Optimized solution of Kepler's equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kohout, J. M.; Layton, L.
1972-01-01
A detailed description is presented of KEPLER, an IBM 360 computer program used for the solution of Kepler's equation for eccentric anomaly. The program KEPLER employs a second-order Newton-Raphson differential correction process, and it is faster than previously developed programs by an order of magnitude.
Microheterogeneity in frozen protein solutions.
Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin
2015-06-20
In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyo-protectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyo-protectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (-20
Analysis of the Fisher solution
Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Shoom, Andrey A.
2010-01-15
We study the d-dimensional Fisher solution which represents a static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetime with a massless scalar field. The solution has two parameters, the mass M and the 'scalar charge' {Sigma}. The Fisher solution has a naked curvature singularity which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The part which is asymptotically flat we call the Fisher spacetime, and another part we call the Fisher universe. The d-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini solution and the Fisher solution belong to the same theory and are dual to each other. The duality transformation acting in the parameter space (M,{Sigma}) maps the exterior region of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole into the Fisher spacetime which has a naked timelike singularity, and interior region of the black hole into the Fisher universe, which is an anisotropic expanding-contracting universe and which has two spacelike singularities representing its 'big bang' and 'big crunch'. The big bang singularity and the singularity of the Fisher spacetime are radially weak in the sense that a 1-dimensional object moving along a timelike radial geodesic can arrive to the singularities intact. At the vicinity of the singularity the Fisher spacetime of nonzero mass has a region where its Misner-Sharp energy is negative. The Fisher universe has a marginally trapped surface corresponding to the state of its maximal expansion in the angular directions. These results and derived relations between geometric quantities of the Fisher spacetime, the Fisher universe, and the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole may suggest that the massless scalar field transforms the black hole event horizon into the naked radially weak disjoint singularities of the Fisher spacetime and the Fisher universe which are 'dual to the horizon'.
Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions
Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin
2015-01-01
In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798
The Coupling of Solute Fluxes in Membranes
Galey, William R.; Van Bruggen, J. T.
1970-01-01
Our previous description of solute drag on a synthetic membrane has been extended to include the solutes mannitol, sucrose, raffinose, inulin, and dextran. Labeled and nonlabeled forms of these solutes were used in pairs to quantitate solute flux interaction. Three membranes with pore sizes of 350, 80, and 20 A, respectively, have been utilized. It is shown that solute flux interaction occurs with all the solutes and that the extent of interaction is related directly to solute permeability, concentration, and molecular size. The magnitude of solute interaction is reciprocally related to the radii of the membrane pores, greater interaction occurring with small pored membranes. Solute drag is seen as an increased flux of tracer solute in the direction of the diffusion gradient of a second solute as well as a decreased tracer flux into the diffusion gradient. Values are given for self-diffusion and interaction coefficients as well as for a new coefficient, the "effectiveness coefficient." PMID:5413079
Phase diagrams of polyelectrolyte solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahdi, Khaled A.
We study the phase diagram of polyelectrolyte solutions in salt and salt-free environments. We examine the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions, in the semidilute regime, using different physical models, namely the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the cross-linked model. In the RPA, we calculate the electrostatic free energy by summing all the fluctuations of the chains and all present ionic species. Within this approximation, the phase diagrams of salt-free polyelectrolyte solutions show phase separation even without including short-range attractions or ion condensation. We find that the phase behavior of large chains resembles the phase diagram of polymer network solutions. That is, the equilibrium is established between a network phase and a chain-free phase. Upon the addition of salt, the dissociated ions increase the entropy of the system and overcome the energy from the electrostatic fluctuations. When the short-range attraction between monomers is included in the model, the free energy predicts phase segregation for all salt valences at high salt concentrations (1 mol/l and higher). The phenomenon is called salting-out and occurs simply because the addition of salt reduces the quality of the solvent and induces precipitation. However, phase segregation in the presence of multivalent ions in polyelectrolyte solutions occurs at low salt concentrations (less than 1 mol/l). We propose that this phase separation is due to polyions cross-linked by multivalent ions. We constructed a phenomenological two-state model to examine this phenomenon. The two phases coexisting in the solution are a network-like phase and a polymer-free phase. The polymer-free phase is modeled using Debye-Huckel theory. In the cross-linked phase, each condensed multivalent ion attracts an equal number of monomers creating a neutral cluster. The energy of the cluster is evaluated by a simple Coulombic energy. The bare monomer charges between the linkages are treated as line of
REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Schulz, W.W.
1959-08-01
The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.
Revealing Numerical Solutions of a Differential Equation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaister, P.
2006-01-01
In this article, the author considers a student exercise that involves determining the exact and numerical solutions of a particular differential equation. He shows how a typical student solution is at variance with a numerical solution, suggesting that the numerical solution is incorrect. However, further investigation shows that this numerical…
Analysis of earth rotation solution from Starlette
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schutz, B. E.; Cheng, M. K.; Shum, C. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.
1989-01-01
Earth rotation parameter (ERP) solutions were derived from the Starlette orbit analysis during the Main MERIT Campaign, using a technique of a consider-covariance analysis to assess the effects of errors on the polar motion solutions. The polar motion solution was then improved through the simultaneous adjustment of some dynamical parameters representing identified dominant perturbing sources (such as the geopotential and ocean-tide coefficients) on the polar motion solutions. Finally, an improved ERP solution was derived using the gravity field model, PTCF1, described by Tapley et al. (1986). The accuracy of the Starlette ERP solution was assessed by a comparison with the LAGEOS-derived ERP solutions.
Analysis of earth rotation solution from Starlette
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schutz, B. E.; Cheng, M. K.; Shum, C. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.
1989-01-01
Earth rotation parameter (ERP) solutions were derived from the Starlette orbit analysis during the Main MERIT Campaign, using a technique of a consider-covariance analysis to assess the effects of errors on the polar motion solutions. The polar motion solution was then improved through the simultaneous adjustment of some dynamical parameters representing identified dominant perturbing sources (such as the geopotential and ocean-tide coefficients) on the polar motion solutions. Finally, an improved ERP solution was derived using the gravity field model, PTCF1, described by Tapley et al. (1986). The accuracy of the Starlette ERP solution was assessed by a comparison with the LAGEOS-derived ERP solutions.
Finite solutions of fully fuzzy linear system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malkawi, Ghassan; Ahmad, Nazihah; Ibrahim, Haslinda
2014-12-01
The solution of Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS) is normally categorized as unique, finite and infinitely many solutions. However, in the case of more than one solution, the finite or alternative solution is not detected when linear programming is considered. Therefore this paper aims to provide a method of using min-max system and absolute system to append new concept for the consistency of FFLS, which is called finite solution of FFLS, where the FFLS have more than two solutions, and not only an infinite solution.
Fissile solution dynamics: Student research
Hetrick, D.L.
1994-09-01
There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.
Spinning of hydroalcoholic chitosan solutions.
Desorme, Mylène; Montembault, Alexandra; Lucas, Jean-Michel; Rochas, Cyrille; Bouet, Thierry; David, Laurent
2013-10-15
We investigated the spinning of hydroalcoholic chitosan solutions. The dope composition was optimized in order to obtain a continuous alcogel fiber by water evaporation on heating the extruded hydroalcoholic solution. This alcogel fiber was then neutralized in aqueous alkali baths and washed in water to eliminate the residual alcohol and salts before final drying. Depending on the alcohol content in the filament at the neutralization step, on specific alcohol-chitosan interactions and on the nature and concentration of the coagulation base, the process yielded semicrystalline chitosan fibers with different proportions of anhydrous and hydrated allomorphs. Contrarily to the classical annealing method, the formation of mainly anhydrous crystals was obtained without significant molecular weight decrease by neutralizing the polymer in hydrophobic conditions. The control of allomorph content was shown to be related to the hydrophobicity of the solvent (alcohol fraction) at the neutralization step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DNA denaturation in ionic solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maity, Arghya; Singh, Amar; Singh, Navin
2016-05-01
Salt or cations, present in solution play an important role in DNA denaturation and folding kinetics of DNA helix. In this work we study the thermal melting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule using Peyrard Bishop Dauxois (PBD) model. We modify the potential of H-bonding between the bases of the complimentary strands to introduce the salt and solvent effect. We choose different DNA sequences having different contents of GC pairs and calculate the melting temperatures. The melting temperature increases logarithmically with the salt concentration of the solution. The more GC base pairs in the chain enhance the stability of DNA chain at a fix salt concentration. The obtained results are in good accordance with experimental findings.
Solution landscapes in nematic microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo, M.; Majumdar, A.; Ramos, A. M.; Griffiths, I. M.
2017-08-01
We study the static equilibria of a simplified Leslie-Ericksen model for a unidirectional uniaxial nematic flow in a prototype microfluidic channel, as a function of the pressure gradient G and inverse anchoring strength, B. We numerically find multiple static equilibria for admissible pairs (G , B) and classify them according to their winding numbers and stability. The case G = 0 is analytically tractable and we numerically study how the solution landscape is transformed as G increases. We study the one-dimensional dynamical model, the sensitivity of the dynamic solutions to initial conditions and the rate of change of G and B. We provide a physically interesting example of how the time delay between the applications of G and B can determine the selection of the final steady state.
Health solutions for the poor.
Castro, J L; Fujiwara, P I; Bhambal, P; Emaille-Léotard, N; Harries, A D
2014-03-21
The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organisation involved in the fight against tuberculosis. In 2008, the Institute of The Union was challenged to think boldly about the future and to develop a diverse work portfolio covering a wide spectrum of lung health and other disease-related problems. The vision adopted by The Union at that time was 'Health solutions for the poor'. More recently, there has been lengthy debate about the need for the Union to concentrate just on its core mandate of tuberculosis and lung health and for the Union's vision to reflect this narrower spectrum of activity as 'Lung health solutions for the poor'. In this viewpoint article we outline our reasons for believing that this narrower vision is incompatible with The Union's mission statement, and we argue that making such a change would be a mistake.
Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)
Reategui, S.
2012-07-01
The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.
Mentoring adjunct faculty: innovative solutions.
Peters, Mary Anne; Boylston, Mary
2006-01-01
Rising enrollments in schools of nursing have increased the demand for qualified nursing faculty. In the midst of a nurse faculty shortage, many academic institutions are relying on adjunct faculty to fill the gap. The increasing number of adjunct faculty and their need for orientation to the faculty role presents a challenge to schools and departments of nursing. The authors discuss innovative solutions to these challenges.
Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.
2015-06-01
This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Controlling nucleation in protein solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demattei, R. C.; Feigelson, R. S.
1992-01-01
A simple one-step technique for controlling the nucleation stage in protein solutions without the use of a seed crystal was developed using a specially designed apparatus in which the nucleation and growth processes can be separated. The method can be applied only to species that have a temperature-dependent solubility. The effectiveness of this 'thermonucleating' device was demonstrated with the nucleation and growth of ice, Rochelle salt, and lysozyme.
Stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution
Malin, M.J.; Sciafani, L.D.
1988-05-17
This patent describes a stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution having a pH below 7 and an amount of Ferric ion up to about 2 ppm comprising hydrogen peroxide, acetanilide having a concentration which ranges between 0.74 M Mol/L and 2.22 mMol/L, and o-benzene disulfonic acid or salt thereof at a concentration between about 0.86 mMol/L to about 1.62 mMol/L.
Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon
2007-01-01
This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.
Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices
Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark
2008-10-14
Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.
Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices
Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark
2008-11-11
Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.
Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices
Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark
2006-06-20
Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.
Myochrysine Solution Structure and Reactivity
Jones, William B.; Zhao, Zheng; Dorsey, John G.; Tepperman, Katherine
1994-01-01
We have determined the framework structure of Myochrysine (disodium gold(I)thiomalate) in the solid state and extremely concentrated aqueous solution, previously. It consists of an open chain polymer with linear gold coordination to two thiolates from the thiomalic acid moieties which bridge between pairs of gold atoms providing an Au-S-Au angle of 95°. The question remained: was this structure relevant to the dilute solutions of drugs administered and the still lower concentrations of gold found in the bodies of patients (typically 1 ppm Au in blood and urine or 5 μM in Au). We have provided an answer to that question using extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). EXAFS studies confirm that the polymeric structure with two sulfur atoms per gold atom persists from molar concentrations down to millimolar concentrations. CZE is able to separate and detect Myochrysine at millimolar levels. More importantly, at micromolar levels Myochrysine solutions exhibit identical CZE behavior to that measured at millimolar levels. Thus, aqueous solutions of the drug remain oligomeric at concentrations commensurate with those found in patient blood and urine. The reactivity of Myochrysine with cyanide, a species especially prevalent in smoking patients, was explored using CZE. Cyanide freely replaces thiomalic acid to form [Au(CN)2]- and thiomalic acid via a mixed ligand intermediate. The overall apparent equilibrium constant (Kapp) for the reaction is 6×10-4M-1. Further reaction of [Au(CN)2]- with a large excess of L, where L is cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, or glutathione, shows that these amino acids readily replace cyanide to form [AuL2]-. These species are thus potential metabolites and could possibly be active forms of gold in vivo. That all of these species are readily separated and quantified using CZE demonstrates that capillary electrophoresis is an accessible and powerful tool to add to those used for the study of gold
Dielectric decrement of electrolyte solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felderhof, B. U.
We calculate the dielectric decrement of ionic solutions in a continuum model. We show that apart from a familiar static contribution there are three kinetic contributions to the effect, two of which are related by a symmetry relation. The third contribution is due to frequency dispersion of the friction coefficient and for small ions reduces the total effect considerably. We find that the total effect as calculated from the continuum model is too small to account for the experimental data.
Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor
Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A.; Soto, Gabriela C.; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Amodeo, Gabriela
2016-01-01
In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen’s success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange. PMID:27881985
Soft confinement for polymer solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oya, Yutaka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro
2014-07-01
As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 5249).
Specular reflectance of aqueous solutions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Querry, M. R.; Waring, R. C.; Holland, W. E.; Mansell, G. R.
1971-01-01
Description of two laboratory instruments for measuring the specular reflectance of aqueous solutions. The instruments are an organic-dye-laser spectrophotometer for the 360- to 650-nm wavelength region and a reflectometer accessory for a Perkin-Elmer E-system spectrophotometer which will operate in the 0.2- to 20-micron wavelength region. The reflectometer accessory has been used to measure the relative infrared specular reflectance in limited spectral regions for aqueous solutions of NaCl, K2SO4, ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4H2PO4 with radiant flux incident at about 70 deg and polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence. The laser spectrometer has been used to measure the absolute reflectance of aqueous solutions of NaCl in the wavelength region from 575 to 610 nm for light incident at angles of about 60, 65, and 70 deg and polarized parallel to the plane of incidence.
Pollen Aquaporins: The Solute Factor.
Pérez Di Giorgio, Juliana A; Soto, Gabriela C; Muschietti, Jorge P; Amodeo, Gabriela
2016-01-01
In the recent years, the biophysical properties and presumed physiological role of aquaporins (AQPs) have been expanded to specialized cells where water and solute exchange are crucial traits. Complex but unique processes such as stomatal movement or pollen hydration and germination have been addressed not only by identifying the specific AQP involved but also by studying how these proteins integrate and coordinate cellular activities and functions. In this review, we referred specifically to pollen-specific AQPs and analyzed what has been assumed in terms of transport properties and what has been found in terms of their physiological role. Unlike that in many other cells, the AQP machinery in mature pollen lacks plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, which are extensively studied for their high water capacity exchange. Instead, a variety of TIPs and NIPs are expressed in pollen. These findings have altered the initial understanding of AQPs and water exchange to consider specific and diverse solutes that might be critical to sustaining pollen's success. The spatial and temporal distribution of the pollen AQPs also reflects a regulatory mechanism that allowing a properly adjusting water and solute exchange.
Viscoelasticity of Concentrated Proteoglycan Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meechai, Nispa; Jamieson, Alex; Blackwell, John; Carrino, David
2001-03-01
Proteoglycan Aggregate (PGA) is the principal macromolecular component of the energy-absorbing matrix of cartilage and tendon. Its brush-like supramolecular structure consists of highly-ionic subunits, non-covalently bound to a hyaluronate chain. We report viscoelastic behavior of concentrated solutions of PGA, purified by column fractionation to remove free subunits. At physiological ionic strength, these preparations exhibit a sol-to-gel transition when the concentration is increased above molecular overlap. The strain dependence of concentrated solutions shows a pronounced non-linearity above a critical strain, at which the storage modulus decreases suddenly, and the loss modulus exhibits a maximum. This response is similar to that observed for close-packed dispersions of soft spheres, when the applied strain is sufficient to move a sphere past its neighbors. At low and high ionic strength, the elasticity of solutions near the overlap concentration decreases. The former is interpreted as due to a decrease in intramolecular and intermolecular electrostatic repulsions, because of strong trapping of counterions within the PGA brush, the latter to salt-induced brush collapse.
Specular reflectance of aqueous solutions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Querry, M. R.; Waring, R. C.; Holland, W. E.; Mansell, G. R.
1971-01-01
Description of two laboratory instruments for measuring the specular reflectance of aqueous solutions. The instruments are an organic-dye-laser spectrophotometer for the 360- to 650-nm wavelength region and a reflectometer accessory for a Perkin-Elmer E-system spectrophotometer which will operate in the 0.2- to 20-micron wavelength region. The reflectometer accessory has been used to measure the relative infrared specular reflectance in limited spectral regions for aqueous solutions of NaCl, K2SO4, ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4H2PO4 with radiant flux incident at about 70 deg and polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence. The laser spectrometer has been used to measure the absolute reflectance of aqueous solutions of NaCl in the wavelength region from 575 to 610 nm for light incident at angles of about 60, 65, and 70 deg and polarized parallel to the plane of incidence.
Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions
Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.
2006-11-21
A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides
Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions
Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.
2010-02-01
The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zongming; Wei, Juncheng; Zhou, Feng
2017-07-01
Positive singular radial entire solutions of a biharmonic equation with subcritical exponent are obtained via the entire radial solutions of the equation with supercritical exponent and the Kelvin's transformation. The expansions of such singular radial solutions at the singular point 0 are presented. Using these singular radial entire solutions, we construct solutions with a prescribed singular set for the Navier boundary value problem
Rotating regular black hole solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon
2016-07-01
Based on the Newman-Janis algorithm, the Ayón-Beato-García spacetime metric [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5056 (1998)] of the regular spherically symmetric, static, and charged black hole has been converted into rotational form. It is shown that the derived solution for rotating a regular black hole is regular and the critical value of the electric charge for which two horizons merge into one sufficiently decreases in the presence of the nonvanishing rotation parameter a of the black hole.
Transition state structures in solution
Bertran, J.; Lluch, J. M.; Gonzalez-Lafont, A.; Dillet, V.; Perez, V.
1995-04-05
In the present paper the location of transition state structures for reactions in solution has been studied. Continuum model calculations have been carried out on the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and a proton transfer through a water molecule between two oxygen atoms in formic acid. In this model the separation between the chemical system and the solvent has been introduced. On the other hand, the discrete Monte Carlo methodology has also been used to simulate the solvent effect on dissociative electron transfer processes. In this model, the hypothesis of separability is not assumed. Finally, the validity of both approaches is discussed.
Transition state structures in solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertrán, J.; Lluch, J. M.; Gonzàlez-Lafont, A.; Dillet, V.; Pérez, V.
1995-04-01
In the present paper the location of transition state structures for reactions in solution has been studied. Continuum model calculations have been carried out on the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and a proton transfer through a water molecule between two oxygen atoms in formic acid. In this model the separation between the chemical system and the solvent has been introduced. On the other hand, the discrete Monte Carlo methodology has also been used to simulate the solvent effect on dissociative electron transfer processes. In this model, the hypothesis of separability is not assumed. Finally, the validity of both approaches is discussed.
Solutions for a cultivated planet.
Foley, Jonathan A; Ramankutty, Navin; Brauman, Kate A; Cassidy, Emily S; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Mueller, Nathaniel D; O'Connell, Christine; Ray, Deepak K; West, Paul C; Balzer, Christian; Bennett, Elena M; Carpenter, Stephen R; Hill, Jason; Monfreda, Chad; Polasky, Stephen; Rockström, Johan; Sheehan, John; Siebert, Stefan; Tilman, David; Zaks, David P M
2011-10-12
Increasing population and consumption are placing unprecedented demands on agriculture and natural resources. Today, approximately a billion people are chronically malnourished while our agricultural systems are concurrently degrading land, water, biodiversity and climate on a global scale. To meet the world's future food security and sustainability needs, food production must grow substantially while, at the same time, agriculture's environmental footprint must shrink dramatically. Here we analyse solutions to this dilemma, showing that tremendous progress could be made by halting agricultural expansion, closing 'yield gaps' on underperforming lands, increasing cropping efficiency, shifting diets and reducing waste. Together, these strategies could double food production while greatly reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture.
Optical limiting in Buckminsterfullerene solutions
Brandelik, D.M.; McLean, D.G.; Schmitt, M.
1992-12-01
New results on solutions of Buckminsterfullerene in toluene as optical limiters with low limiting thresholds are reported. Limiting thresholds are as low as 15mJ/cm{sup 2} with multiple pulse stability. Evidence for a different mechanism than that operational in graphitic carbon black suspensions is presented. Calculated hyperpolarizability values are presented. The combined CW and Q-switched responses of this material and the promise of lower nonlinear thresholds has potential for application in optical protection devices ranging from welder safety goggles to safe surgical endoscopes.
Quantitative Scattering of Melanin Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riesz, J.; Gilmore, J.; Meredith, P.
2006-06-01
The optical scattering coefficient of a dilute, well solubilised eumelanin solution has been accurately measured as a function of incident wavelength, and found to contribute less than 6% of the total optical attenuation between 210 and 325nm. At longer wavelengths (325nm to 800nm) the scattering was less than the minimum sensitivity of our instrument. This indicates that UV and visible optical density spectra can be interpreted as true absorption with a high degree of confidence. The scattering coefficient vs wavelength was found to be consistent with Rayleigh Theory for a particle radius of 38+-1nm.
Einstein-Cartan wormhole solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ziaie, Amir Hadi
2017-03-01
In the present work, we investigate wormhole structures and the energy conditions supporting them in Einstein-Cartan theory. The matter content consists of a Weyssenhoff fluid along with an anisotropic matter which together generalize the anisotropic energy momentum tensor in general relativity (GR) to include spin effects. Assuming that the radial pressure and energy density obey a linear equation of state, we introduce exact asymptotically flat and anti-de-Sitter spacetimes that admit traversable wormholes and respect energy conditions. Such wormhole solutions are studied in detail for two specific forms for the redshift function, namely a constant redshift function and the one with power law dependency.
Stochastic solution to quantum dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
John, Sarah; Wilson, John W.
1994-01-01
The quantum Liouville equation in the Wigner representation is solved numerically by using Monte Carlo methods. For incremental time steps, the propagation is implemented as a classical evolution in phase space modified by a quantum correction. The correction, which is a momentum jump function, is simulated in the quasi-classical approximation via a stochastic process. The technique, which is developed and validated in two- and three- dimensional momentum space, extends an earlier one-dimensional work. Also, by developing a new algorithm, the application to bound state motion in an anharmonic quartic potential shows better agreement with exact solutions in two-dimensional phase space.
Nucleoside phosphorylation in amide solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoffstall, A. M.; Kokko, B.
1978-01-01
The paper deals with phosphorylation in possible prebiotic nonaqueous solvents. To this end, phosphorylation of nucleosides using inorganic phosphates in amide solutions is studied at room and elevated temperatures. Reaction proceeds most readily in formamide and N-methylformamide. Products obtained at elevated temperature are nucleotides, nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates, and when the phosphate concentration is high, nucleoside diphosphates. At room temperature, adenosine afforded a mixture of nucleotides, but none of the cyclic nucleotide. Conditions leading to the highest relative percentage of cyclic nucleotide involve the use of low concentrations of phosphate and an excess of nucleoside.
Analytic solutions of the relativistic Boltzmann equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatta, Yoshitaka; Martinez, Mauricio; Xiao, Bo-Wen
2015-04-01
We present new analytic solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation. We first obtain spherically expanding solutions which are the kinetic counterparts of the exact solutions of the Israel-Stewart equation in the literature. This allows us to compare the solutions of the kinetic and hydrodynamic equations at an analytical level. We then derive a novel boost-invariant solution of the Boltzmann equation which has an unconventional dependence on the proper time. The existence of such a solution is also suggested in second-order hydrodynamics and fluid-gravity correspondence.
Holographic cosmology from BIonic solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag
2017-02-01
In this paper, we will use a BIonic solution for analyzing the holographic cosmology. A BIonic solution is a configuration of a D3-brane and an anti-D3-brane connected by a wormhole, and holographic cosmology is a recent proposal to explain cosmic expansion by using the holographic principle. In our model, a BIonic configuration will be produced by the transition of fundamental black strings. The formation of a BIonic configuration will cause inflation. As the D3-brane moves away from the anti-D3-brane, the wormhole will get annihilated, and the inflation will end with the annihilation of this wormhole. However, it is possible for a D3-brane to collide with an anti-D3-brane. Such a collision will occur if the distance between the D3-brane and the anti-D3-brane reduces, and this will create tachyonic states. We will demonstrate that these tachyonic states will lead to the formation of a new wormhole, and this will cause acceleration of the universe before such a collision.
Uniqueness of large positive solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Gómez, Julián; Maire, Luis
2017-08-01
We establish the uniqueness of the positive solution of the singular problem (1.1) through some standard comparison techniques involving the maximum principle. Our proofs do not invoke to the blow-up rates of the solutions, as in most of the specialized literature. We give two different types of results according to the geometrical properties of Ω and the regularity of partial Ω . Even in the autonomous case, our theorems are extremely sharp extensions of all existing results. Precisely, when a(x)≡ 1, it is shown that the monotonicity and superadditivity of f( u) with constant C≥ 0 entail the uniqueness; f is said to be superadditive with constant C≥ 0 if f(a+b) ≥ f(a) + f(b) - C \\quad for all a, b ≥ 0. This condition, introduced by Marcus and Véron (J Evol Equ 3:637-652, 2004), weakens all previous sufficient conditions for uniqueness, as it will become apparent in this paper.
Ultrafast studies of solution dynamics
Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Callender, R.H.
1997-10-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fast chemical dynamics generally must be initiated photochemically. This limits the applicability of modern laser methods for following the structural changes that occur during chemical and biological reactions to those systems that have an electronic chromophore that has a significant yield of photoproduct when excited. This project has developed a new and entirely general approach to ultrafast initiation of reactions in solution: laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump). The results open entire new fields of study of ultrafast molecular dynamics in solution. The authors have demonstrated the T-jump technique on time scales of 50 ps and longer, and have applied it to study of the fast events in protein folding. They find that a general lifetime of alpha-helix formation is ca 100 ns, and that tertiary folds (in apomyoglobin) form in ca 100 {mu}s.
Solution assembly of conjugated polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokel, Felicia A.
This dissertation focuses on the solution-state polymer assembly of conjugated polymers with specific attention to nano- and molecular-scale morphology. Understanding how to control these structures holds potential for applications in polymer-based electronics. Optimization of conjugated polymer morphology was performed with three objectives: 1) segregation of donor and acceptor materials on the nanometer length-scale, 2) achieving molecular-scale ordering in terms of crystallinity within distinct domains, and 3) maximizing the number and quality of well-defined donor/acceptor interfaces. Chapter 1 introduces the development of a mixed solvent method to create crystalline poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) fibrils in solution. Chapter 2 describes fibril purification and approaches to robust and functional fibrils, while chapters 3 and 4 demonstrate the formation of hybrid nanocomposite wires of P3HT and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles by two methods: 1) co-crystallization of free and P3HT-grafted CdSe for composite nanowires and 2) direct attachment of CdSe nanoparticles at fibril edges to give superhighway structures. These composite structures show great potential in the application of optoelectronic devices, such as the active layer of solar cells. Finally, ultrafast photophysical characterization of these polymers, using time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption, was performed to determine the aggregation types present in suspended fibrils and monitor the formation and decay of charged species in fibrils and donor-acceptor systems.
Speech privacy: Beyond architectural solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazer, Susan
2005-09-01
HIPAA regulations have brought unparalleled pressures on healthcare organizations to protect private and confidential information from reaching third parties. Yet, as this paper explains, often in the middle of noisy corridors and waiting rooms, this same information needs to be quickly transferred from physician to nurse to family member to others for the care of patients. Research and examples are presented that show that when families, patients, staff are participating together, although independently, in the same or adjacent spaces, the ``caf effect'' produces rising noise levels as each person competes to be heard. This threatens the very confidentiality demanded by HIPAA. Solutions to this problem are not easy or completely resolved by engineering or design specifications. This paper makes the case that it is ultimately the culture of a healthcare organization that determines the ``sound'' of a hospital, and any other organization that battles openness with privacy. It presents and discusses proven solutions to address culture in tandem with architectural and acoustic design interventions.
Germanium-silicon solid solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zemskov, V. S.; Kubasov, V. N.; Belokurova, I. N.; Titkov, A. N.; Shulpina, I. L.; Safarov, V. I.; Guseva, N. B.
1977-01-01
An experiment on melting and directional crystallization of an antimony (Sb) doped germanium silicon (GeSi) solid solution was designed for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) to study the possibility of using zero-g conditions for obtaining solid-solution monocrystals with uniformly distributed components. Crystallization in the zero-g environment did not occur under ideal stationary growth and segregation conditions. Crystallization under zero-g conditions revealed the heterogeneous nature of Si and Sb distribution in the cross sections of crystals. The presence of the radial thermal gradient in the multipurpose furnace could be one of the reasons for such Si and Sb distribution. The structure of space-grown crystals correlates with the nature of heterogeneities of Si and Sb distribution in crystals. The type of surface morphology and the contour observed in space-grown crystals were never observed in ground-based crystals and indicate the absence of wetting of the graphitized walls of the ampoule by the melt during melting and crystallization.
Growth of Solid Solution Crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.; Holland, L. R.
1985-01-01
The major objective of this program is to determine the conditions under which single crystals of solid solutions can be grown from the melt in a Bridgman configuration with a high degree of chemical homogeneity. The central aim is to assess the role of gravity in the growth process and to explore the possible advantages for growth in the absence of gravity. The alloy system being investigated is the solid solution semiconductor with x-values appropriate for infrared detector applications in Hg sub (1-x) Cd sub x Te the 8 to 14 micro m wavelength region. Both melt and Te-solvent growth are being considered. The study consists of an extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research effort followed by flight experimentation where appropriate. Experimental facilities have been established for the purification, casting, and crystal growth of the alloy system. Facilities have been also established for the metallurgical, compositional, electric and optical characterization of the alloys. Crystals are being grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method and are analyzed by various experimental techniques to evaluate the effects of growth conditions on the longitudinal and radial compositional variations and defect densities in the crystals.
Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.
Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce
2008-03-01
Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.
Ion conductance in electrolyte solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Amalendu; Bagchi, Biman
1999-05-01
We develop a new theoretical formulation to study ion conductance in electrolyte solutions, based on a mode coupling theory treatment of the electrolyte friction. The new theory provides expressions for both the ion atmosphere relaxation and electrophoretic contributions to the total electrolyte friction that acts on a moving ion. While the ion atmosphere relaxation term arises from the time-dependent microscopic interaction of the moving ion with the surrounding ions in the solution, the electrophoretic term originates from the coupling of the ion's velocity to the collective current mode of the ion atmosphere. Mode coupling theory, combined with time-dependent density functional theory of ion atmosphere fluctuations, leads to self-consistent expressions for these two terms which also include the effects of self-motion of the ion under consideration. These expressions have been solved for the concentration dependence of electrolyte friction and ion conductance. It is shown that in the limit of very low ion concentration, the present theory correctly reduces to the well-known Debye-Huckel-Onsager limiting law which predicts a linear dependence of conductance on the square root of ion concentration (c). At moderate and high concentrations, the present theory predicts a significant nonlinear and weaker dependence on √c which is in very good agreement with experimental results. The present theory is self-contained and does not involve any adjustable parameter.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry on Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinn, R.; Hecht, M.; Kounaves, S.; Young, S.; West, S.; Fisher, A.; Grunthaner, P.
2007-12-01
Currently en route to Mars, the Phoenix mission carries four wet chemistry cells designed to perform basic solution chemistry on martian soil. The measurement objectives are typical of those that would be performed on an unknown sample on Earth, including detection of common anions and cations, total conductivity, pH, redox potential, cyclic voltammetry (CV), etc. Both the challenge and the novelty arise from the necessity to perform these measurements with severely constrained resources in a harsh and (literally) alien environment. Sensors for all measurements are integrated into a common "beaker," with the ability to perform a two-point calibration of some sensors using a pair of low-concentration solutions. Sulfate measurement is performed with a crude titration. While most measurements use ion selective electrodes, halide interferences are resolved by independent chronopotentiometry (CP) measurements. No preconditioning of the soil-water mixture is possible, nor is any physical characterization of the introduced soil sample beyond coarse visual inspection. Among the idiosyncrasies of the measurement is the low external pressure, which requires that the analysis be performed close to the boiling point of water under an atmosphere consisting almost entirely of water vapor. Despite these liabilities, however, extensive laboratory characterization has validated the basic approach, and protocols for both CV and CP have been developed and tested. Enhancing the value of the measurement is the suite of coordinated observations, such as microscopy and evolved gas analysis, to be performed by other Phoenix instruments.
Fluctuating Hydrodynamics of Electrolytes Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andy; Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B.; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2016-11-01
In this work, we develop a numerical method for multicomponent solutions featuring electrolytes, in the context of fluctuating hydrodynamics as modeled by the Landau-Lifshitz Navier Stokes equations. Starting from a previously developed numerical scheme for multicomponent low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics, we study the effect of the additional forcing terms induced by charged species. We validate our numerical approach with additional theoretical considerations and with examples involving sodium-chloride solutions, with length scales close to Debye length. In particular, we show how charged species modify the structure factors of the fluctuations, both in equilibrium and non-equilibrium (giant fluctuations) systems, and show that the former is consistent with Debye-Huckel theory. We also discuss the consistency of this approach with the electroneutral approximation in regimes where characteristic length scales are significantly larger than the Debye length. Finally, we use this method to explore a type of electrokinetic instability. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research,.
Solution Potentials Indicate Aluminum-Alloy Tempers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danford, M. D.
1985-01-01
Report discusses use of solution potential as measure of temper of aluminum alloys. Technique based on fact that different tempers or heat treatments exhibit different solution potentials as function of aging time.
Polycondensation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zherebtsov, D. A.; Galimov, D. M.; Zagorul'ko, O. V.; Frolova, E. V.; Bol'shakov, O. I.; Zakharov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. G.
2016-01-01
Changes in the viscosity, electrical conductivity, monomer concentration, and the size of growing molecules of polycondensed furfuryl alcohol are studied in solutions containing triethylene glycol and isooctylphenyldecaethylene glycol. The effect the solution compositions have on the condensation kinetics is considered.
[Determination of taste sensitivity with mixed solutions].
Marco Algarra, R
1990-01-01
In the second part of our study we present the results of the mixture of four basic tastes in comparison with those of the simple solutions, mea ng as well the fatigue phenomenon with the mixed solutions.
Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth
Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...
Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, R. D.
1994-11-01
Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.
Static solutions for fourth order gravity
Nelson, William
2010-11-15
The Lichnerowicz and Israel theorems are extended to higher order theories of gravity. In particular it is shown that Schwarzschild is the unique spherically symmetric, static, asymptotically flat, black-hole solution, provided the spatial curvature is less than the quantum gravity scale outside the horizon. It is then shown that in the presence of matter (satisfying certain positivity requirements), the only static and asymptotically flat solutions of general relativity that are also solutions of higher order gravity are the vacuum solutions.
Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saxena, S. K.
1971-01-01
Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.
Dynamical intersecting brane solutions of supergravity
Uzawa, Kunihito
2010-02-10
We present dynamical intersecting brane solutions in higher-dimensional gravitational theory coupled to dilaton and several forms. Assuming the forms of metric, form fields, and dilaton field, we can give the dynamical intersecting brane solutions. The dynamical solutions can be always obtained by replacing the constant modulus h{sub 0} in the warp factor for supersymmetric solutions by a linear function h{sub 0}(t) of the time coordinates t.
ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS
Alter, H.W.; Barney, D.L.
1958-09-30
A process is presented for the treatment of radioactivc waste nitric acid solutions. The nitric acid solution is neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide in an amount sufficient to precipitate insoluble hydroxides, and after separation of the precipitate the solution is electrolyzed to convert the alkali nitrate formed, to alkali hydroxide, gaseous ammonla and oxygen. The solution is then reusable after reducing the volume by evaporating the water and dissolved ammonia.
Periodic solutions of Fokker-Planck equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Feng; Han, Yuecai; Li, Yong; Yang, Xue
2017-07-01
In this paper, the existence of periodic solutions of Fokker-Planck equations is obtained by discussing the existence of periodic solutions in distribution for some stochastic differential equations. To prove the existence of periodic solutions in distribution for stochastic differential equations, a new criterion analogous to Halanay's criterion is given. Actually, the criterion is similar to a law of large numbers. Based on this criterion, the existence of periodic solutions in distribution for stochastic (functional) differential equations is established by Lyapunov's method.
Exact solutions and singularities in string theory
Horowitz, G.T. ); Tseytlin, A.A. )
1994-10-15
We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail.
Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization
Witt, J.B.
1997-07-17
This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.
Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions.
Evans, R D
1994-11-01
Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.
Fullerene triplet states in solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ausman, Kevin Douglas
Triplet state pre-equilibration by reversible energy transfer has been observed by transient-absorption spectroscopy in mixed toluene solutions of C70 and C60 and of C70 and C60(CH 3)2. The equilibrium constants governing the asymptotic partitioning of triplet energy in these mixtures were determined as a function of temperature. The enthalpies of these excited states were found from van't Hoff plots of the equilibrium constant data to be -0.1 +/- 0.2 and -3.4 +/- 0.3 kJ mol-1 for C60 and C60 (CH3)2 respectively relative to a C70 triplet energy exchange partner. The corresponding relative entropies are 5.8 +/- 0.5 and -4.0 +/- 1.0 kJ mol-1 K-1 respectively. Transient spectra from high temperature C70/C60(CH3)2 mixed samples revealed evidence of a third, unidentified transient absorber that exhibited different kinetics from the pre-equilibrated triplet pool. Triplet state transient difference spectra and intrinsic decay kinetics were measured and compared for C60 and several derivatives of C 60. These derivatives were C60H2, C60(CH 3)2, ortho-xylyl-C60, N,N'-dimethyl-1,2-ethylenediamine- C 60, C60C(COOCH2CH3)2, and C60O. The spectral locations of the main triplet-triplet absorption peak for these compounds correlates linearly with the observed intrinsic intersystem crossing rate constant. The triplet state persistence of C60 was measured in toluene solution as a function of both ground state concentration and solution temperature. The unimolecular intersystem crossing deactivation channel shows very little thermal activation, whereas the observed bimolecular self-quenching decay channel is found to be highly activated. At room temperature, the deduced exponential lifetime of the solvent-caged encounter complex between triplet and ground state molecules is three orders of magnitude shorter than that of the isolated monomer triplet state. This suggests that the self-quenching process is not a simple perturbation of an isolated molecule's intersystem crossing, but
Fiber coating with surfactant solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Amy Q.; Gleason, Blake; McKinley, Gareth H.; Stone, Howard A.
2002-11-01
When a fiber is withdrawn at low speeds from a pure fluid, the variation in the thickness of the entrained film with imposed fiber velocity is well-predicted by the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin (LLD) equation. However, surfactant additives are known to alter this response. We study the film thickening properties of the protein BSA (bovine serum albumin), the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, and the anionic surfactant SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). For each of these additives, the film thickening factor alpha (the ratio of the measured thickness to the LLD prediction) for a fixed fiber radius varies as a function of the ratio of the surfactant concentration c to the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the case of BSA, which does not form micelles, the reference value is the concentration at which multilayers form. As a result of Marangoni effects, alpha reaches a maximum as c approaches the CMC from below. However, when the surfactant concentration c exceeds the CMC, the behavior of alpha varies as a consequence of the dynamic surface properties, owing for example to different sorption kinetics of these additives, or possibly surface or bulk rheological effects. For SDS, alpha begins to decrease when c exceeds the CMC and causes the surface to become partially or completely remobilized, which is consistent with the experimental and theoretical results published for studies of slug flows of bubbles and surfactant solutions in a capillary tube and the rise of bubbles in surfactant solutions. However, when the SDS or Triton X-100 surfactant concentration is well above the CMC, we observe that the film thickening parameter alpha increases once again. In the case of SDS we observe a second maximum in the film thickening factor. For all the experiments, transport of monomers to the interface is limited by diffusion and the second maximum in the film thickening factor may be explained as a result of a nonmonotonic change in the stability characteristics of suspended SDS
Subharmonic Solutions of Order One-Third
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2005-01-01
Finding a periodic solution to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation is in general a difficult task. Only in a very few cases can direct methods be applied to an equation to find initial values leading to a solution of the corresponding initial value problem that is periodic. Oscillatory periodic solutions have such practical importance that…
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2014-04-01
The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.
The Classification of Highly Supersymmetric Supergravity Solutions
Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.
2009-02-02
The spinorial geometry method is an effective method for constructing systematic classifications of supersymmetric supergravity solutions. Recent work on analysing highly supersymmetric solutions in type IIB supergravity using this method is reviewed. It is shown that all supersymmetric solutions of IIB supergravity with more than 28 Killing spinors are locally maximally supersymmetric.
27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b) Color...
27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b) Color...
27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b) Color...
27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b) Color...
27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b) Color...
21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of...
21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of...
21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of...
21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...
21 CFR 522.2012 - Prostalene solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prostalene solution. 522.2012 Section 522.2012 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Prostalene solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 1 milligram...
21 CFR 522.2012 - Prostalene solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prostalene solution. 522.2012 Section 522.2012 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Prostalene solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 1 milligram...
21 CFR 522.2012 - Prostalene solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prostalene solution. 522.2012 Section 522.2012 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Prostalene solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 1 milligram...
21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...
21 CFR 522.2012 - Prostalene solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prostalene solution. 522.2012 Section 522.2012 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Prostalene solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile solution contains 1 milligram...
Hyperscaling violating solutions in generalised EMD theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Li
2017-04-01
This short note is devoted to deriving scaling but hyperscaling violating solutions in a generalised Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with an arbitrary number of scalars and vectors. We obtain analytic solutions in some special case and discuss the physical constraints on the allowed parameter range in order to have a well-defined holographic ground-state solution.
21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg...
21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg...
21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg...
21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Shuqiang; Yang, Yuanxi
2017-02-01
Although purely using the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) users cannot obtain the theoretical GDOP minimum unless the GNSS positioning is aided by a certain number of pseudolites, discussing this problem is still meaningful in understanding the issues about the positioning geometry, such as the PDOP minimization. Many literatures have pointed that the GDOP (Geometric Dilution of Precision) minimum in 3-D positioning is the root square of 10/n where n is the total number of GNSS satellites or ground-based beacons with known coordinates. As the case with five known points concerned in this paper, the current knowledge indicates that the GDOP can reach the minimum the root square of 2, but our discussion shows that the GDOP minimum with five known points cannot get the theoretical minimum the root square of 2, although there are infinite positioning configurations with the lowest PDOP. Fortunately, we can find a positioning configuration with the GDOP 1.428 which is very close to the theoretical minimum 1.414. The PDOP can always reach the theoretical minimum the root square of 9/n, and there are infinite solutions for n > 4. However for GDOP minimization, only when n > 5, infinite solutions can be obtained. The configurations with the lowest GDOPs can be given by solving a set of nonlinear algebraic equations.
Thermodynamics of black plane solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Jardim, Deborah F.; Houndjo, Stéphane J. M.; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2013-11-01
We obtain a new phantom black plane solution in D of the Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled with a cosmological constant. We analyse their basic properties, as well as its causal structure, and obtain the extensive and intensive thermodynamic variables, as well as the specific heat and the first law. Through the specific heat and the so-called geometric methods, we analyse in detail their thermodynamic properties, the extreme and phase transition limits, as well as the local and global stabilities of the system. The normal case is shown with an extreme limit and the phantom one with a phase transition only for null mass, which is physically inaccessible. The systems present local and global stabilities for certain values of the entropy density with respect to the electric charge, for the canonical and grand canonical ensembles.
Analysis of Enterprise Workflow Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Cui-E.; Wang, Shulin; Chen, Ying; Meng, Yang; Ma, Hua
Since the 90’s, workflow technology has been widely applied in various industries, such as office automation(OA), manufacturing, telecommunications services, banking, securities, insurance and other financial services, research institutes and education services, and so on, to improve business process automation and integration capabilities. In this paper, based on Workflow theory, the author proposed a set of policy-based workflow approach in order to support dynamic workflow patterns. Through the expansion of the functions of Shark, it implemented a Workflow engine component-OAShark which can support retrieval / rollback function. The related classes were programmed. The technology was applied to the OA system of an enterprise project. The realization of the enterprise workflow solutions greatly improved the efficiency of the office automation.
Symmetries from the solution manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldaya, Víctor; Guerrero, Julio; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco F.; Cossío, Francisco
2015-07-01
We face a revision of the role of symmetries of a physical system aiming at characterizing the corresponding Solution Manifold (SM) by means of Noether invariants as a preliminary step towards a proper, non-canonical, quantization. To this end, "point symmetries" of the Lagrangian are generally not enough, and we must resort to the more general concept of contact symmetries. They are defined in terms of the Poincaré-Cartan form, which allows us, in turn, to find the symplectic structure on the SM, through some sort of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) transformation. These basic symmetries are realized as Hamiltonian vector fields, associated with (coordinate) functions on the SM, lifted back to the Evolution Manifold through the inverse of this HJ mapping, that constitutes an inverse of the Noether Theorem. The specific examples of a particle moving on S3, at the mechanical level, and nonlinear SU(2)-sigma model in field theory are sketched.
Photovoltaics, the solar electric solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beach, C. D.; Litka, A. H.
Direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by photovoltaic devices (solar cells) may be the most promising solution to the current energy problem. Photovoltaic energy systems provide a clean, simple method of energy conversion, and are reliable, safe, and flexible with respect to size (modular). The federal government is trying to commercialize photovoltaics by funding research on new materials and manufacturing processes. Earliest commercialization will be in residential systems, where the power grid back-up provides for a reliable electrical system without storage costs. The Florida Solar Energy Center has been operating a 5 kW experimental residential facility since 1980. The facility showed an average solar irradiance in the 62.5 sq m panels of 264 kw-hours/day from December 1980 through February 1981. The overall system efficiency was 7%, and the inverter operated with an ac output/dc input efficiency of 85-90%, depending on input levels.
Euclid Data Handling Design Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogiatto, Roberto; Tramutola, Antonio; Maddaleno, Corrado; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril
2014-08-01
Euclid is the next medium-class mission of ESA's Science Programme, to be launched by 2020.The objective of Euclid is to investigate dark energy and dark matter, essential but mysterious components of today's standard model of cosmology. The complete survey will comprise hundreds of thousands of images and several tens of Petabytes of data. The significant amount of scientific data to be stored on-board and transmitted to Ground, imposes some challenging spacecraft requirements leading to innovative design solutions for the data handling and on-board communications.After the mission presentation, the paper provides an overview of the Spacecraft avionics architecture and deepens the Euclid data handling design concept.
Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals
Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH
2009-09-22
A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.
Solution NMR conformation of glycosaminoglycans.
Pomin, Vitor H
2014-04-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been giving a pivotal contribution to the progress of glycomics, mostly by elucidating the structural, dynamical, conformational and intermolecular binding aspects of carbohydrates. Particularly in the field of conformation, NOE resonances, scalar couplings, residual dipolar couplings, and chemical shift anisotropy offsets have been the principal NMR parameters utilized. Molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-data input are usually employed in conjunction to generate glycosidic bond dihedral angles. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a special class of sulfated polysaccharides extensively studied worldwide. Besides regulating innumerous physiological processes, these glycans are also widely explored in the global market as either clinical or nutraceutical agents. The conformational aspects of GAGs are key regulators to the quality of interactions with the functional proteins involved in biological events. This report discusses the solution conformation of each GAG type analyzed by one or more of the above-mentioned methods.
Transport solutions for cleaner air.
Kelly, Frank J; Zhu, Tong
2016-05-20
In cities across the globe, road transport remains an important source of air pollutants that are linked with acute and chronic health effects. Decreasing vehicle emissions--while maintaining or increasing commuter journeys--remains a major challenge for city administrators. In London, congestion-charging and a citywide low-emission zone failed to bring nitrogen dioxide concentrations under control. In Beijing, controls on the purchase and use of cars have not decreased transport emissions to a sufficient extent. As cities continue to grow, not even zero-emission vehicles are the solution. Moving increasingly large numbers of people efficiently around a city can only be achieved by expanding mass transit systems. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Counting solutions from finite samplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun
2012-02-01
We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.
Structure of supersaturated zincate solutions
Dmitrenko, V.E.; Balyakina, N.N.; Baulov, V.I.; Kotov, A.V.; Zubov, M.S.
1985-09-01
During the discharge of chemical power sources with zinc electrodes, supersaturated zincate solution (SZS) is formed from which zinc oxide or hydroxide precipitates as a function of time. The deposit detracts from the functioning of these power sources. In view of the model suggested for the structure of SZS, it is expected that a stabilizing effect would be exerted on SZS by compounds having proton-donating groups which do not give off the protons in the strongly alkaline medium and are not discharged in this medium. For a check of this, the authors chose to use xylitol and molasses in their experiments. The SZS were produced with a mock-up silver-zinc battery using the procedure previously described.
Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions
The Keystone Center
2005-06-15
The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association
Contribution of interstitial solute strengthening in aluminum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsui, Isao; Ono, Satoshi; Hanaoka, Yudai; Uesugi, Tokuteru; Takigawa, Yorinobu; Higashi, Kenji
2014-02-01
Enthalpies of solutions and misfit strains for the Al-X (X = H, B, C, N, and O) binary alloys were determined by first-principles calculations to estimate the strengthening of solid solutions caused by interstitial atoms. The results indicate that interstitial solute atoms produced large misfit strains. Electrodeposited Al containing 0.12-1.32 at.% C was used to assess the validity of solid-solution strengthening by interstitial solute atoms. The role that interstitial carbon plays in strengthening electrodeposited Al is discussed.
Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions
Pulley, Howard; Seltzer, Steven F.
1980-01-01
This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.
Common stock solutions, buffers, and media.
2001-05-01
RECIPES: Ammonium chloride lysing solution, 10x. Complete DMEM. Complete RPMI. DTT (DL-dithiothreitol), 0.1 M. EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid), 0.5 M, pH 8. Ethidium bromide staining solution. FBS (fetal bovine serum). Formamide, deionized. Gel loading buffer, 6x. L-Glutamine, 0.2 M (100x). HBSS (Hanks' buffered salt solution). PBS (phosphate-buffered saline). RNase A stock solution (DNase-free), 2 mg/ml. SSC, 20x. TAE buffer, 50x. TBE buffer, 10x. TE buffer. TrisCl, 1 M. Trypsin/EDTA solution.
Computer simulation of concentrated solid solution strengthening
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuo, C. T. K.; Arsenault, R. J.
1976-01-01
The interaction forces between a straight edge dislocation moving through a three-dimensional block containing a random array of solute atoms were determined. The yield stress at 0 K was obtained by determining the average maximum solute-dislocation interaction force that is encountered by edge dislocation, and an expression relating the yield stress to the length of the dislocation and the solute concentration is provided. The magnitude of the solid solution strengthening due to solute atoms can be determined directly from the numerical results, provided the dislocation line length that moves as a unit is specified.
Gravitational multisoliton solutions on flat space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu
2016-02-01
It is well known that, for even n , the n -soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n , the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n -soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n -soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n . It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number, say m , of solitons can be eliminated in a nontrivial way by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n - and [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly centered Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.
Stability of PMR-polyimide monomer solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lauver, R. W.; Alston, W. B.; Vannucci, R. D.
1979-01-01
The stability of alcohol solutions of norborneyl capped PMR-polyimide resins was monitored during storage at ambient and subambient temperatures. Chemical changes during storage were determined spectroscopically using nuclear magnetic resonance. Resin processability and cured resin quality were determined by fabrication of unidirectional, graphite fiber composites using aged solutions and testing of selected composite properties. PMR-15 solutions exhibit nominally two weeks of useful life and PMR-2 solutions exhibit nominally two days of useful life at ambient conditions. The limiting factor is precipitation of imide reaction produces from the monomer solutions. Both solutions exhibit substantially longer useful lifetimes in subambient storage. PMR-15 shows no precipitation after several months storage at subambient temperatures. PMR-2 solutions do exhibit precipitates after extended subambient storage, however, the precipitates formed under these conditions can be redissolved. The chemical implications of these observations are discussed.
Finite difference solutions to shocked acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walkington, N. J.; Eversman, W.
1983-01-01
The MacCormack, Lambda and split flux finite differencing schemes are used to solve a one dimensional acoustics problem. Two duct configurations were considered, a uniform duct and a converging-diverging nozzle. Asymptotic solutions for these two ducts are compared with the numerical solutions. When the acoustic amplitude and frequency are sufficiently high the acoustic signal shocks. This condition leads to a deterioration of the numerical solutions since viscous terms may be required if the shock is to be resolved. A continuous uniform duct solution is considered to demonstrate how the viscous terms modify the solution. These results are then compared with a shocked solution with and without viscous terms. Generally it is found that the most accurate solutions are those obtained using the minimum possible viscosity coefficients. All of the schemes considered give results accurate enough for acoustic power calculations with no one scheme performing significantly better than the others.
Kirkwood-Buff integrals for ideal solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Bentenitis, Nikolaos; Smith, Paul E.
2010-04-01
The Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions is a rigorous theory of solution mixtures which relates the molecular distributions between the solution components to the thermodynamic properties of the mixture. Ideal solutions represent a useful reference for understanding the properties of real solutions. Here, we derive expressions for the KB integrals, the central components of KB theory, in ideal solutions of any number of components corresponding to the three main concentration scales. The results are illustrated by use of molecular dynamics simulations for two binary solutions mixtures, benzene with toluene, and methanethiol with dimethylsulfide, which closely approach ideal behavior, and a binary mixture of benzene and methanol which is nonideal. Simulations of a quaternary mixture containing benzene, toluene, methanethiol, and dimethylsulfide suggest this system displays ideal behavior and that ideal behavior is not limited to mixtures containing a small number of components.
Pollution! Find a STEM solution!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takač, Danijela; Moćan, Marina
2016-04-01
Primary and secondary school Pantovčak is an innovative school in downtown Zagreb, Croatia. The school is involved in many projects concerning STEM education. Pollution! Find a STEM solution! is a two year long cross-curricular project that grew out of identified need to develop STEM and ICT skills more. Pisa results make evident that students' knowledge is poor and motivation for math and similar subjects is low. Implying priorities of European Commission, like e-learning, raises motivation and also develops basic skills and improves knowledge in science, math, physic, ICT. Main objectives are to increase students' interest in STEM education and careers and introduce them to all available new trends in technology, engineering and science in their region by visiting clean technology industries and strengthening links with them, to introduce some future digital jobs and prepare students for rapid technological changes by integrating ICT into classroom practice more, to highlight the importance of global environmental issues and improve the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development and renewable energy, to develop collaborative partnership between schools and the wider community in formal, non-formal and informal learning, to support multilingualism by publishing Open Educational Resources in 8 different languages and to strengthen the professional profile of the teaching profession. The project brings together 231 teachers and 2729 students from five different European countries in learning to think globally and work on activities that contribute to the community's well-being. There are altogether 33 activities, divided in 4 categories. STEM activities are focused on students building the devices for measuring air, light and noise pollution in their school and homes. They use the scientific method to analyze the data and compare the results with their peers to find a solution. Eskills, digital literacy and digital jobs are focused on introducing career
Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation.
Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha
2012-06-13
Colloids are widely used in the replacement of fluid volume. However doubts remain as to which colloid is best. Different colloids vary in their molecular weight and therefore in the length of time they remain in the circulatory system. Because of this and their other characteristics, they may differ in their safety and efficacy. To compare the effects of different colloid solutions in patients thought to need volume replacement. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Specialised Register (searched 1 Dec 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials 2011, issue 4 (The Cochrane Library); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to November Week 3 2011); EMBASE (Ovid) (1974 to 2011 Week 47); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to 1 Dec 2011); ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (1990 to 1 Dec 2011); CINAHL (EBSCO) (1982 to 1 Dec 2011); National Research Register (2007, Issue 1) and PubMed (searched 1 Dec 2011). Bibliographies of trials retrieved were searched, and for the initial version of the review drug companies manufacturing colloids were contacted for information (1999). Randomised controlled trials comparing colloid solutions in critically ill and surgical patients thought to need volume replacement. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of the trials. The outcomes sought were death, amount of whole blood transfused, and incidence of adverse reactions. Ninety trials, with a total of 5678 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Quality of allocation concealment was judged to be adequate in 35 trials and poor or uncertain in the rest.Deaths were obtained in 61 trials. For albumin or PPF versus hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 32 trials (n = 1769) reported mortality. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.07 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.32). When the trials by Boldt were removed from the analysis the pooled RR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.20). For albumin or PPF versus gelatin, nine trials (n = 824) reported
UXDs-Driven Transferring Method from TRIZ Solution to Domain Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Lihui; Cao, Guozhong; Chang, Yunxia; Wei, Zihui; Ma, Kai
The translation process from TRIZ solutions to domain solutions is an analogy-based process. TRIZ solutions, such as 40 inventive principles and the related cases, are medium-solutions for domain problems. Unexpected discoveries (UXDs) are the key factors to trigger designers to generate new ideas for domain solutions. The Algorithm of UXD resolving based on Means-Ends Analysis(MEA) is studied and an UXDs-driven transferring method from TRIZ solution to domain solution is formed. A case study shows the application of the process.
Wedge wetting by electrolyte solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mußotter, Maximilian; Bier, Markus
2017-09-01
The wetting of a charged wedgelike wall by an electrolyte solution is investigated by means of classical density functional theory. As in other studies on wedge wetting, this geometry is considered as the most simple deviation from a planar substrate, and it serves as a first step toward more complex confinements of fluids. By focusing on fluids containing ions and surface charges, features of real systems are covered that are not accessible within the vast majority of previous theoretical studies concentrating on simple fluids in contact with uncharged wedges. In particular, the filling transition of charged wedges is necessarily of first order, because wetting transitions of charged substrates are of first order and the barrier in the effective interface potential persists below the wetting transition of a planar wall; hence, critical filling transitions are not expected to occur for ionic systems. The dependence of the critical opening angle on the surface charge, as well as the dependence of the filling height, of the wedge adsorption, and of the line tension on the opening angle and on the surface charge are analyzed in detail.
Innovative Solution to Video Enhancement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.
Firnstahl, T W
1993-01-01
Timothy Firnstahl owns five successful restaurants in Seattle, but he recently came very close to owning none. In the early 1990s, he found himself, like so many restauranteurs, facing rising costs, inefficient management, and a recession. Confronting financial annihilation, Firnstahl had to act quickly: since he had no peripherals to trim, he cut off the head of his company. Remarkably, it worked. Firnstahl's problem was his new and innovative restaurant, Sharps Fresh Roasting. The heart of the Sharps concept was a unique long-roasting technique that made lean, inexpensive meats taste as juicy and delicious as fattier, expensive cuts. The process also lent itself to faster service and lower labor costs. But it wasn't working. Sharps wasn't breaking even, and his other restaurants couldn't make up the difference. He needed a solution fast. Firnstahl got his answer from Mikhail Gorbachev: slash the centralized command and liberate the company. In doing so, he would also transfer virtually all power and responsibility to his line managers. And after five months of intensive study and planning, he accomplished what he set out to do. He fired most of his corporate staff, empowered his restaurant managers with "100% Power and Responsibility," and, finally, undertook a massive promotion campaign. A year later, Sharps Fresh Roasting is the gold mine Firnstahl always believed it could be. He's done away with bureaucracy and turned business around in a down market. All this because his managers are managing themselves.
Progress towards daily "swath" solutions from GRACE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.
2015-12-01
The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable daily data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true daily GRACE solution by computing a daily "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.
Preparation and preservation of hypoxia UW solution.
Wan, Chidang; Wang, Chunyou; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Rui; Yang, Zhiyong
2007-10-01
In order to explore the method to prepare hypoxia UW solution and the stability and preservation of hypoxia UW solution, UW solution was purged by argon or air for 15 min or 60 at a flow rate of 0.8 or 2 L/min, and the oxygen partial pressure of UW solution was detected. The hypoxia UW solution was exposed to the air or sealed up to preserve by using different methods, and the changes of oxygen partial pressure was tested. The results showed that oxygen partial presure of 50 mL UW solution, purged by argon for 15 min at a flow rate of 2 L/min, was declined from 242+/-6 mmHg to 83+/-10 mmHg. After exposure to the air, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was gradually increased to 160+/-7 mmHg at 48 h. After sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bad filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was stable, about 88+/-13 mmHg at 72 h. It was concluded that oxygen of UW solution could be purged by argon efficiently. Sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bag filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of UW solution could be stabilized.
Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges
Satkowiak, Lawrence
2014-05-09
The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.
Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satkowiak, Lawrence
2014-05-01
The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.
METHOD FOR DECONTAMINATION OF REACTOR SOLUTIONS
Maraman, W.J.; Baxman, H.R.; Baker, R.D.
1959-05-01
A process for U recovery from phosphate fuel solutions is described. To fuel solution drawn from the reactor is added Fe(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ which destroys the U complex and forms ferric phosphate complex. The UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ formed is extracted into TBP-kerosene in a countercurrent column. The TBP contalning UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ is further purified by an aqueous Al(NO/ sub 3/)/sub 3/ scrub solution. The pregnant solution then goes to an H/sub 3/PO/ sub 4/ stripping and kerosene washing column. The H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/--uranyl phosphate solution is separated at the bottom and boiled to remove HNO/sub 3/ then diluted to fuel solution make-up strength. (T.R.H.)
Supergravity solutions without triholomorphic U(1) isometries
Ghezelbash, A. M.
2008-12-15
We investigate the construction of five-dimensional supergravity solutions that do not have any triholomorphic U(1) isometries. We construct a class of solutions that in various limits of parameters reduces to many of previously constructed five-dimensional supergravity solutions based on both hyper-Kaehler base spaces that can be put into a Gibbons-Hawking form and hyper-Kaehler base spaces that cannot be put into a Gibbons-Hawking form. We find a new solution which is over triaxial Bianchi type IX Einstein-hyper-Kaehler base space with no triholomorphic U(1) symmetry. One special case of this solution corresponds to a five-dimensional solution based on Eguchi-Hanson type II geometry.
Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking.
Nelson, Peter Hugo
2017-01-01
A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult's law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed; others can be tested experimentally or by simulation.
Evaluation of taste solutions by sensor fusion
Kojima, Yohichiro; Sato, Eriko; Atobe, Masahiko; Nakashima, Miki; Kato, Yukihisa; Nonoue, Koichi; Yamano, Yoshimasa
2009-05-23
In our previous studies, properties of taste solutions were discriminated based on sound velocity and amplitude of ultrasonic waves propagating through the solutions. However, to make this method applicable to beverages which contain many taste substances, further studies are required. In this study, the waveform of an ultrasonic wave with frequency of approximately 5 MHz propagating through a solution was measured and subjected to frequency analysis. Further, taste sensors require various techniques of sensor fusion to effectively obtain chemical and physical parameter of taste solutions. A sensor fusion method of ultrasonic wave sensor and various sensors, such as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, to estimate tastes were proposed and examined in this report. As a result, differences among pure water and two basic taste solutions were clearly observed as differences in their properties. Furthermore, a self-organizing neural network was applied to obtained data which were used to clarify the differences among solutions.
Controlled diffusion for laboratory solution preparation.
Yoshida, Makoto; Tohda, Koji; Gratzl, Miklós
2008-10-01
We report here on a method for preparation of precise laboratory solutions using controlled diffusion for dosing. The desired chemical is delivered into the target solution from a stock solution through a mass-transport-limiting delivery port that blocks convection but allows reproducible diffusive transport. Solution making with this approach involves a single step irrespective of how low the desired concentration is. Diffusional delivery of chemicals involves no appreciable movement of water and, thus, no addition of volume. The approach is therefore particularly suitable for standard addition. Precise solutions of usual laboratory volumes can be made within a short time period with proper design of the delivery port or ports. Comparison with the performance of conventional methods of routine solution preparation shows that better precision can be achieved with less labor using this approach.
RECOVERY OF TETRAVALENT CATIONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Moore, R.L.
1958-05-01
The recovery of plutonium, zirconium, and tetravalent cerium values from aqueous solutions is described. It consists of adding an alkyl phosphate to a nnineral acid aqueous solution containing the metal to be recovered, whereby a precipitate forms with the tetravalent values, and separating the precipitate from the solution. All alkyl phosphates, if water-soluble, are suitable for the process; however, monobutyl phosphate has been found best.
Conformally flat solution with heat flux
Banerjee, A.; Dutta Choudhury, S. B.; Bhui, B. K.
1989-07-15
It is shown that the spherically symmetric solution previously given by Maiti is not the most general conformally flat solution for a shear-free and rotation-free fluid with heat flux. We have presented a more general solution for such a distribution and have considered the conditions of fit at the boundary of a simple spherically symmetric model with heat flux across the boundary with the exterior Vaidya metric.
Program for solution of ordinary differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sloate, H.
1973-01-01
A program for the solution of linear and nonlinear first order ordinary differential equations is described and user instructions are included. The program contains a new integration algorithm for the solution of initial value problems which is particularly efficient for the solution of differential equations with a wide range of eigenvalues. The program in its present form handles up to ten state variables, but expansion to handle up to fifty state variables is being investigated.
Cosmological string solutions by dimensional reduction
Behrndt, K.; Foerste, S.
1993-12-01
We obtain cosmological four dimensional solutions of the low energy effective string theory by reducing a five dimensional black hole, and black hole-de Sitter solution of the Einstein gravity down to four dimensions. The appearance of a cosmological constant in the five dimensional Einstein-Hilbert produces a special dilaton potential in the four dimensional effective string action. Cosmological scenarios implement by our solutions are discussed.
Partnering for A Solution: A Case Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jimenez-Smith, Deyrah
2003-01-01
A material-related issue has been identified, which has the potential of impacting the Space Program. Although "in-house" efforts have been underway to solve the problem, a solution has not yet been reached. This presentation shows how a GIDEP member organization is using a Problem Advisory as a solution approach in an effort to receive information from other industry and/or government organizations that may contribute in finding a solution.
Prediction of solute transport during peritoneal dialysis.
Hirszel, P; Lasrich, M; Maher, J M; Maher, J F
1979-08-01
Solute transport, predominantly diffusion, across the peritoneum correlates inversely with molecular weight. Provided that the solute is water soluble, not protein bound, not of unusual density, not ionized, does not have a large hydration shell, and is transported from plasma to dialysate, the peritoneal clearance is predictable over the molecular weight range from 60 to 11,000 daltons. Transport reates that deviate from the predicted can be explained by known physical properties of particular solutes.
Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide
2014-09-01
Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide by Kevin Doyle and Sudhir Trivedi ARL-CR-0744 September 2014...Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide Kevin Doyle and Sudhir Trivedi Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL prepared by...Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W811NF-12-2-0019 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kevin Doyle and
Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.
1995-01-01
Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.
Markovian Solutions of Inviscid Burgers Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabanol, Marie-Line; Duchon, Jean
2004-01-01
For solutions of (inviscid, forceless, one dimensional) Burgers equation with random initial condition, it is heuristically shown that a stationary Feller-Markov property (with respect to the space variable) at some time is conserved at later times, and an evolution equation is derived for the infinitesimal generator. Previously known explicit solutions such as Frachebourg-Martin's (white noise initial velocity) and Carraro-Duchon's Lévy process intrinsic-statistical solutions (including Brownian initial velocity) are recovered as special cases.
Scaling solutions for dilaton quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henz, T.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Wetterich, C.
2017-06-01
Scaling solutions for the effective action in dilaton quantum gravity are investigated within the functional renormalization group approach. We find numerical solutions that connect ultraviolet and infrared fixed points as the ratio between scalar field and renormalization scale k is varied. In the Einstein frame the quantum effective action corresponding to the scaling solutions becomes independent of k. The field equations derived from this effective action can be used directly for cosmology. Scale symmetry is spontaneously broken by a non-vanishing cosmological value of the scalar field. For the cosmology corresponding to our scaling solutions, inflation arises naturally. The effective cosmological constant becomes dynamical and vanishes asymptotically as time goes to infinity.
Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions
Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.
1995-01-01
A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.
RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Reber, E.J.
1959-09-01
A process is described for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions by precipitation on bismuth phosphate. The plutonium is secured in its tetravalent state. bismuth salt is added to the solution, and ant excess of phosphoric acid anions is added to the solution in two approximately equal installments. The rate of addition of the first installment is about two to three times as high as the rate of addition of the second installment, whereby a precipitate of bismuth phosphate forms, the precipitate carrying the plutonium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution.
Generating solutions to the Einstein field equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contopoulos, I. G.; Esposito, F. P.; Kleidis, K.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Witten, L.
2016-11-01
Exact solutions to the Einstein field equations may be generated from already existing ones (seed solutions), that admit at least one Killing vector. In this framework, a space of potentials is introduced. By the use of symmetries in this space, the set of potentials associated to a known solution is transformed into a new set, either by continuous transformations or by discrete transformations. In view of this method, and upon consideration of continuous transformations, we arrive at some exact, stationary axisymmetric solutions to the Einstein field equations in vacuum, that may be of geometrical or/and physical interest.
Relaxation solution of the full Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, G. M.
1982-01-01
A numerical procedure for the relaxation solution of the full steady Euler equations is described. By embedding the Euler system in a second order surrogate system, central differencing may be used in subsonic regions while retaining matrix forms well suited to iterative solution procedures and convergence acceleration techniques. Hence, this method allows the development of stable, fully conservative differencing schemes for the solution of quite general inviscid flow problems. Results are presented for both subcritical and shocked supercritical internal flows. Comparisons are made with a standard time dependent solution algorithm.
Relaxation solution of the full Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, G. M.
1982-01-01
A numerical procedure for the relaxation solution of the full steady Euler equations is described. By embedding the Euler system in a second order surrogate system, central differencing may be used in subsonic regions while retaining matrix forms well suited to iterative solution procedures and convergence acceleration techniques. Hence, this method allows the development of stable, fully conservative differencing schemes for the solution of quite general inviscid flow problems. Results are presented for both subcritical and shocked supercritical internal flows. Comparisons are made with a standard time dependent solution algorithm. Previously announced in STAR as N82-24859
New Cosmological Solutions in Massive Gravity Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinho, S. S. A.; Pereira, S. H.; Mendonça, E. L.
2017-04-01
In this paper we present some new cosmological solutions in massive gravity theory. Some homogeneous and isotropic solutions correctly describe accelerated evolutions for the universe. The study was realized considering a specific form to the fiducial metric and found different functions and constant parameters of the theory that guarantee the conservation of the energy momentum tensor. Several accelerating cosmologies were found, all of them reproducing a cosmological constant term proportional to the graviton mass, with a de Sitter type solution for the scale factor. We have also verified that when the fiducial metric is close to the physical metric the solutions are absent, except for some specific open cases.
New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton Singh, Ksh; Pradhan, Narendra; Pant, Neeraj
2017-08-01
A new exact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropic massive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two compact stars, namely, XTE J1739-289 (strange star 1.51M_{⊙}, 10.9 km) and PSR J1614-2230 (neutron star 1.97M_{⊙}, 14 km). The solution also satisfies all energy conditions with the compactness parameter lying within the Buchdahl limit.
Classical Solution Thermodynamics: A Retrospective View.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Ness, H. C.; Abbott, M. M.
1985-01-01
Examines topics related to classical solution thermodynamics, considering energy, enthalpy, and the Gibbs function. Applicable mathematical equations are introduced and discussed when appropriate. (JN)
Frankenstein's glue: transition functions for approximate solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunes, Nicolás
2007-09-01
Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate analytic solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and prove that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations analytically to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the proposed conditions, then the joined solution does not contain any violations to the Einstein equations larger than those already inherent in the approximations. We further show that if these functions violate the proposed conditions, then the matter content of the spacetime is modified by the introduction of a matter shell, whose stress energy tensor depends on derivatives of these functions.
Supersymmetric Ito equation: Bosonization and exact solutions
Ren Bo; Yu Jun; Lin Ji
2013-04-15
Based on the bosonization approach, the N=1 supersymmetric Ito (sIto) system is changed to a system of coupled bosonic equations. The approach can effectively avoid difficulties caused by intractable fermionic fields which are anticommuting. By solving the coupled bosonic equations, the traveling wave solutions of the sIto system are obtained with the mapping and deformation method. Some novel types of exact solutions for the supersymmetric system are constructed with the solutions and symmetries of the usual Ito equation. In the meanwhile, the similarity reduction solutions of the model are also studied with the Lie point symmetry theory.
Solution for Depositing an Electroless Cobalt Alloy.
SOLUTIONS(MIXTURES), *ELECTROLESS PLATING), (*PATENTS, ELECTROLESS PLATING), (*COBALT ALLOYS, ELECTROLESS PLATING), ADDITIVES, SODIUM COMPOUNDS... TUNGSTATES , POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL COMPOUNDS, SULFATES, THIOUREA, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
Classical Solution Thermodynamics: A Retrospective View.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Ness, H. C.; Abbott, M. M.
1985-01-01
Examines topics related to classical solution thermodynamics, considering energy, enthalpy, and the Gibbs function. Applicable mathematical equations are introduced and discussed when appropriate. (JN)
PREPARATION OF HEMOGLOBIN SOLUTIONS FOR INTRAVENOUS INFUSION
Hamilton, Paul B.; Farr, Lee E.; Hiller, Alma; Van Slyke, Donald D.
1947-01-01
A procedure has been detailed for the preparation of sterile non-pyrogenic solutions of oxyhemoglobin which have the approximate protein content and electrolyte composition of plasma. Large volumes of solution can be rapidly prepared, with 95 to 98 per cent of the hemoglobin in the active form capable of combining with oxygen. The solutions contain no particulate matter; 95 per cent of total blood lipids are removed. Solutions stored at 4°C. showed no conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin over a period of 2½ months; over a 6 month period a small and variable amount of methemoglobin may be formed. PMID:19871690
THE PREPARATION AND STERILIZATION OF OPHTHALMIC SOLUTIONS
Hogan, Michael J.
1949-01-01
Ophthalmic solutions should be prepared and preserved according to whether they are to be used in surgical procedures, in the clinic or office, or by the patient at home. There is an optimum pH level at which the solutions of individual drugs should be buffered in order to obtain the maximum efficiency and stability. Deterioration of the drugs used is greatly diminished when they are dispensed at the proper pH. Quaternary ammonium chloride solutions in proper strength have been shown to be adequate for the preservation of ophthalmic solutions. PMID:15408108
Terahertz absorption of lysozyme in solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.
2017-08-01
Absorption of radiation by solution is described by its frequency-dependent dielectric function and can be viewed as a specific application of the dielectric theory of solutions. For ideal solutions, the dielectric boundary-value problem separates the polar response into the polarization of the void in the liquid, created by the solute, and the response of the solute dipole. In the case of a protein as a solute, protein nuclear dynamics do not project on significant fluctuations of the dipole moment in the terahertz domain of frequencies and the protein dipole can be viewed as dynamically frozen. Absorption of radiation then reflects the interfacial polarization. Here we apply an analytical theory and computer simulations to absorption of radiation by an ideal solution of lysozyme. Comparison with the experiment shows that Maxwell electrostatics fails to describe the polarization of the protein-water interface and the "Lorentz void," which does not anticipate polarization of the interface by the external field (no surface charges), better represents the data. An analytical theory for the slope of the solution absorption against the volume fraction of the solute is formulated in terms of the cavity field response function. It is calculated from molecular dynamics simulations in good agreement with the experiment. The protein hydration shell emerges as a separate sub-ensemble, which, collectively, is not described by the standard electrostatics of dielectrics.
Terahertz absorption of lysozyme in solution.
Martin, Daniel R; Matyushov, Dmitry V
2017-08-28
Absorption of radiation by solution is described by its frequency-dependent dielectric function and can be viewed as a specific application of the dielectric theory of solutions. For ideal solutions, the dielectric boundary-value problem separates the polar response into the polarization of the void in the liquid, created by the solute, and the response of the solute dipole. In the case of a protein as a solute, protein nuclear dynamics do not project on significant fluctuations of the dipole moment in the terahertz domain of frequencies and the protein dipole can be viewed as dynamically frozen. Absorption of radiation then reflects the interfacial polarization. Here we apply an analytical theory and computer simulations to absorption of radiation by an ideal solution of lysozyme. Comparison with the experiment shows that Maxwell electrostatics fails to describe the polarization of the protein-water interface and the "Lorentz void," which does not anticipate polarization of the interface by the external field (no surface charges), better represents the data. An analytical theory for the slope of the solution absorption against the volume fraction of the solute is formulated in terms of the cavity field response function. It is calculated from molecular dynamics simulations in good agreement with the experiment. The protein hydration shell emerges as a separate sub-ensemble, which, collectively, is not described by the standard electrostatics of dielectrics.
Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.
2016-09-01
This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.
Ibuprofen photodegradation in aqueous solutions.
Iovino, Pasquale; Chianese, Simeone; Canzano, Silvana; Prisciandaro, Marina; Musmarra, Dino
2016-11-01
The advanced treatment of polluted liquid streams containing traces of pharmaceutical compounds is a major issue, since more and more effluents from pharma labs and wastewaters containing the excretions of medically treated humans and animals are discharged in the conventional wastewater treatment plants without previous effective treatments. Ibuprofen is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which explains why it is found in wastewaters so often. In this paper, the removal of IBP from simulated water streams was investigated by using a lab-scale experimental device, consisting of a batch reactor equipped with a lamp emitting monochromatic UV light at a fixed wavelength (254 nm) and various intensities. Three sets of experiments were carried out: the first to study IBP concentration as a function of time, at different volumes of treated solutions (V = 10-30 mL); the second to explore the effect of pH on IBP degradation as a function of time (pH = 2.25-8.25) and the third to evaluate the effect of different UV light intensities on IBP degradation (E = 100-400 mJ m(-2)). The IBP initial concentration (IBP 0) was varied in the range 30-60 mg L(-1). The results obtained show that the concentration of IBP decreases along with treatment time, with a negative effect of the treated volume, i.e. smaller volumes, such as lower liquid heights, are more easily degraded. Moreover, the higher the pH, the better the IBP degradation; actually, when pH increases from 2.25 to 6.6 and 8.25, the IBP concentration, after an hour of treatment, decreases respectively to 45, 34 and 27 % of its initial value. In addition, as the intensity of light increases from 100 to 400 mJ m(-2), the IBP concentration decreases to 34 % of its initial value. A reaction scheme is put forward in the paper, which well describes the effects of volume, pH and light intensity on the IBP degradation measured experimentally. Moreover, the IBP degradation by-products have
New solutions for the confined horizontal aquifer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akylas, Evangelos; Gravanis, Elias
2016-04-01
The Boussinesq equation is a dynamical equation for the free surface of saturated subsurface flows over an impervious bed. Boussinesq equation is non-linear. The non-linearity comes from the reduction of the dimensionality of the problem: The flow is assumed to be vertically homogeneous, therefore the flow rate through a cross section of the flow is proportional to the free surface height times the hydraulic gradient, which is assumed to be equal to the slope of the free surface. In the present work we consider the case of the subsurface flow with horizontal bed. This is a case with an infinite Henderson and Wooding parameter, that is, it is the limiting case where the non-linear term is present in the Boussinesq equation while the linear spatial derivative term vanishes. Nonetheless, no analogue of the kinematic wave exists in this case as there is no exact solution for the build-up phase. Neither is there an exact recession-phase solution that holds in early times, as the Boussinesq separable solution is actually an asymptotic solution for large times. We construct approximate solutions for the horizontal aquifer which utilize directly the dynamical content of the non-linear Boussinesq equation. The approximate character of the solution lies in the fact that we start with a pre-supposed form for the solution, an educated guess, based on the nature of the initial condition as well as empirical observations from the numerical solution of the problem. The forms we shall use are power series of the location variable x along the bed with time-dependent coefficients. The series are not necessarily analytic. The boundary conditions are incorporated in the structure of the series from the beginning. The time-dependent coefficients are then determined by applying the Boussinesq equation and its spatial derivatives at the end-points of the aquifer. The forms are chosen also on the basis of their solubility; we would like to be able to construct explicitly the approximate
Supersaturated Electrolyte Solutions: Theory and Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Na, Han-Soo
1995-01-01
Highly supersaturated electrolyte solutions can be prepared and studied employing an electrodynamic levitator trap (ELT) technique. The ELT technique involves containerless suspension of a microdroplet thus eliminating dust, dirt, and container walls which normally cause heterogeneous nucleation. This allows very high supersaturations to be achieved. A theoretical study of the experimental results obtained for the water activity in microdroplets of various electrolyte solutions is based on the development of the Cahn-Hilliard formalism for electrolyte solutions. In the approach suggested the metastable state for electrolyte solutions is described in terms of the conserved order parameter omega(r,t) associated with fluctuations of the mean solute concentration n(sub 0). Parameters of the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional which defines the dynamics of metastable state relaxation are determined and expressed through the experimentally measured quantities. A correspondence of 96-99 % between theory and experiment for all solutions studied was achieved and allowed the determination of an analytical expression for the spinodal concentration n(sub spin), and its calculation for various electrolyte solutions at 298 K. The assumption that subcritical solute clusters consist of the electrically neutral Bjerrum pairs has allowed both analytical and numerical investigation of the number-size N(sub c) of nucleation monomers (aggregates of the Bjerrum pairs) which are elementary units of the solute critical clusters. This has also allowed estimations for the surface tension Alpha, and equilibrium bulk energy Beta per solute molecule in the nucleation monomers. The dependence of these properties on the temperature T and on the solute concentration n(sub 0) through the entire metastable zone (from saturation concentration n(sub sat) to spinodal n(sub spin) is examined. It has been demonstrated that there are the following asymptotics: N(sub c), = I at spinodal
Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas
2017-04-01
Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.
Solving Solutions: Exploring Unknowns through Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burns, John; Yoshina, Granville; Goodding, Debbie; Streitberger, Eric
2000-01-01
Presents a chemistry activity that introduces students to one type of chemical bond by developing the integer operation concept of zero pairs. Leads to an activity of combining drops of 0.3 molar solutions to form six different colored precipitates from five solutions. (ASK)
Power Series Solution to the Pendulum Equation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benacka, Jan
2009-01-01
This note gives a power series solution to the pendulum equation that enables to investigate the system in an analytical way only, i.e. to avoid numeric methods. A method of determining the number of the terms for getting a required relative error is presented that uses bigger and lesser geometric series. The solution is suitable for modelling the…
SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Beederman, M.; Vogler, S.; Hyman, H.H.
1959-07-14
The separation of rathenium from a rathenium containing aqueous solution is described. The separation is accomplished by adding sodium nitrite, silver nitrate and ozone to the ruthenium containing aqueous solution to form ruthenium tetroxide and ihen volatilizing off the ruthenium tetroxide.
Solution Kinetics Database on the Web
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 40 NDRL/NIST Solution Kinetics Database on the Web (Web, free access) Data for free radical processes involving primary radicals from water, inorganic radicals and carbon-centered radicals in solution, and singlet oxygen and organic peroxyl radicals in various solvents.
ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...
Rheological characterization of nephila spidroin solution.
Chen, Xin; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz
2002-01-01
We report the results of an investigation into the rheology of solutions of natural spider silk dope (spinning solution). We demonstrate that dilute dope solutions showed only shear thinning as the shear rate increased while more concentrated solutions showed an initial shear thinning followed by a shear thickening and a subsequent decline in viscosity. The critical shear rate for shear thickening depended on dope concentration and was very low in concentrated solutions. This helps to explain how spiders are able to spin silk at very low draw rates and why they use a very concentrated dope solution. We also show that the optimum shear rate for shear thickening in moderately concentrated solutions occurred at pH 6.3 close to the observed pH at the distal end of the spider's spinning duct. Finally, we report that the addition of K(+) ions to dilute dope solutions produced a spontaneous formation of nanofibrils that subsequently aggregated and precipitated. This change was not seen after the addition of other common cations. Taken together, these observations support the hypothesis that the secretion of H(+) and K(+) by the spider's duct together with moderate strain rates produced during spinning induce a phase separation in the silk dope in which the silk protein (spidroin) molecules are converted into insoluble nanofibrils.
The Pizza Problem: A Solution with Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shafer, Kathryn G.; Mast, Caleb J.
2008-01-01
This article addresses the issues of coaching and assessing. A preservice middle school teacher's unique solution to the Pizza problem was not what the professor expected. The student's solution strategy, based on sequences and a reinvention of Pascal's triangle, is explained in detail. (Contains 8 figures.)
Power Series Solution to the Pendulum Equation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benacka, Jan
2009-01-01
This note gives a power series solution to the pendulum equation that enables to investigate the system in an analytical way only, i.e. to avoid numeric methods. A method of determining the number of the terms for getting a required relative error is presented that uses bigger and lesser geometric series. The solution is suitable for modelling the…
Electroosmotic flow hysteresis for dissimilar ionic solutions
Lim, An Eng; Lam, Yee Cheong
2015-01-01
Electroosmotic flow (EOF) with two or more fluids is commonly encountered in various microfluidics applications. However, no investigation has hitherto been conducted to investigate the hysteretic or flow direction-dependent behavior during the displacement flow of solutions with dissimilar ionic species. In this investigation, electroosmotic displacement flow involving dissimilar ionic solutions was studied experimentally through a current monitoring method and numerically through finite element simulations. The flow hysteresis can be characterized by the turning and displacement times; turning time refers to the abrupt gradient change of current-time curve while displacement time is the time for one solution to completely displace the other solution. Both experimental and simulation results illustrate that the turning and displacement times for a particular solution pair can be directional-dependent, indicating that the flow conditions in the microchannel are not the same in the two different flow directions. The mechanics of EOF hysteresis was elucidated through the theoretical model which includes the ionic mobility of each species, a major governing parameter. Two distinct mechanics have been identified as the causes for the EOF hysteresis involving dissimilar ionic solutions: the widening/sharpening effect of interfacial region between the two solutions and the difference in ion concentration distributions (and thus average zeta potentials) in different flow directions. The outcome of this investigation contributes to the fundamental understanding of flow behavior in microfluidic systems involving solution pair with dissimilar ionic species. PMID:25945139
Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions
Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.
1994-10-01
Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope {sup 36}Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast.
ADSORPTION OF CERIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Roberts, F.P.
1963-08-13
Cerium can be removed from aqueous nitric acid (2 to 13 M) solutions by passing the latter over a PbO/sub 2/-containing anion exchange resin. The cerium is taken up by the resin, while any lanthanides, yttrium, and strontium present remain in the solution. (AEC)
RHEOLOGY OF CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS
The solution rheology of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent was examined in this study. The solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior over a wide range of polyester concentrations. Also, the relative viscosities of poly(amido...
Optimal solutions of unobservable orbit determination problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cicci, David A.; Tapley, Byron D.
1988-12-01
The method of data augmentation, in the form ofa priori covariance information on the reference solution, as a means to overcome the effects of ill-conditioning in orbit determination problems has been investigated. Specifically, for the case when ill-conditioning results from parameter non-observability and an appropriatea priori covariance is unknown, methods by which thea priori covariance is optimally chosen are presented. In problems where an inaccuratea priori covariance is provided, the optimal weighting of this data set is obtained. The feasibility of these ‘ridge-type’ solution methods is demonstrated by their application to a non-observable gravity field recovery simulation. In the simulation, both ‘ridge-type’ and conventional solutions are compared. Substantial improvement in the accuracy of the conventional solution is realized by the use of these ridge-type solution methods. The solution techniques presented in this study are applicable to observable, but ill-conditioned problems as well as the unobservable problems directly addressed. For the case of observable problems, the ridge-type solutions provide an improvement in the accuracy of the ordinary least squares solutions.
Schwarzschild solution in brane induced gravity
Gabadadze, Gregory; Iglesias, Alberto
2005-10-15
The metric of a Schwarzschild solution in brane induced gravity in five dimensions is studied. We find a nonperturbative solution for which an exact expression on the brane is obtained. We also find a linearized solution in the bulk and argue that a nonsingular exact solution in the entire space should exist. The exact solution on the brane is highly nontrivial as it interpolates between different distance scales. This part of the metric is enough to deduce an important property--the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formalism (ADM) mass of the solution is suppressed compared to the bare mass of a static source. This screening of the mass is due to nonlinear interactions which give rise to a nonzero curvature outside the source. The curvature extends away from the source to a certain macroscopic distance that coincides with the would-be strong interaction scale. The very same curvature shields the source from strong coupling effects. The four-dimensional law of gravity, including the correct tensorial structure, is recovered at observable distances. We find that the solution has no van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity and show that the gravitational field on the brane is always weak, in spite of the fact that the solution is nonperturbative.
On the Preparation of Buffer Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, Bruce M.; Kessick, Michael A.
1981-01-01
Presents a method, suitable for use on programmable calculators, which allows calculation of the pH and ionic strength (I) of a mixed solution of salts of an acid or amounts necessary to produce a solution of a particular pH and I. Includes limitations when using the calculations described. (SK)
RHEOLOGY OF CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS
The solution rheology of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent was examined in this study. The solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior over a wide range of polyester concentrations. Also, the relative viscosities of poly(amido...
Sensitivities of Soap Solutions in Leak Detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuck, D.; Lam, D. Q.; Daniels, C.
1985-01-01
Document describes method for determining minimum leak rate to which soap-solution leak detectors sensitive. Bubbles formed at smaller leak rates than previously assumed. In addition to presenting test results, document discusses effects of joint-flange configurations, properties of soap solutions, and correlation of test results with earlier data.
An Enlarged Profile of Uremic Solutes
Tanaka, Hisae; Sirich, Tammy L.; Plummer, Natalie S.; Weaver, Daniel S.; Meyer, Timothy W.
2015-01-01
Better knowledge of the uremic solutes that accumulate when the kidneys fail could lead to improved renal replacement therapy. This study employed the largest widely available metabolomic platform to identify such solutes. Plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate from 6 maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients and 6 normal controls were first compared using a platform combining gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Further studies compared plasma from 6 HD patients who had undergone total colectomy and 9 with intact colons. We identified 120 solutes as uremic including 48 that had not been previously reported to accumulate in renal failure. Combination of the 48 newly identified solutes with those identified in previous reports yielded an extended list of more than 270 uremic solutes. Among the solutes identified as uremic in the current study, 9 were shown to be colon-derived, including 6 not previously identified as such. Literature search revealed that many uremic phenyl and indole solutes, including most of those shown to be colon-derived, come from plant foods. Some of these compounds can be absorbed directly from plant foods and others are produced by colon microbial metabolism of plant polyphenols that escape digestion in the small intestine. A limitation of the metabolomic method was that it underestimated the elevation in concentration of uremic solutes which were measured using more quantitative assays. PMID:26317986
The Pizza Problem: A Solution with Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shafer, Kathryn G.; Mast, Caleb J.
2008-01-01
This article addresses the issues of coaching and assessing. A preservice middle school teacher's unique solution to the Pizza problem was not what the professor expected. The student's solution strategy, based on sequences and a reinvention of Pascal's triangle, is explained in detail. (Contains 8 figures.)
Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions
HEDENGREN, D.C.
2000-02-01
Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.
Sensitivities of Soap Solutions in Leak Detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stuck, D.; Lam, D. Q.; Daniels, C.
1985-01-01
Document describes method for determining minimum leak rate to which soap-solution leak detectors sensitive. Bubbles formed at smaller leak rates than previously assumed. In addition to presenting test results, document discusses effects of joint-flange configurations, properties of soap solutions, and correlation of test results with earlier data.
Polynomial solutions of nonlinear integral equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominici, Diego
2009-05-01
We analyze the polynomial solutions of a nonlinear integral equation, generalizing the work of Bender and Ben-Naim (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F9, 2008 J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 15 (Suppl. 3) 73). We show that, in some cases, an orthogonal solution exists and we give its general form in terms of kernel polynomials.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CALCINING SALT SOLUTIONS
Lawroski, S.; Jonke, A.A.; Taecker, R.G.
1961-10-31
A method is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution into solid UO/ sub 3/, The solution is sprayed horizontally into a fluidized bed of UO/sub 3/ particles at 310 to 350 deg C by a nozzle of the coaxial air jet type at about 26 psig, Under these conditions the desired conversion takes place, and caking in the bed is avoided.
Urban infrastructure choices structure climate solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creutzig, Felix; Agoston, Peter; Minx, Jan C.; Canadell, Josep G.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Quéré, Corinne Le; Peters, Glen P.; Sharifi, Ayyoob; Yamagata, Yoshiki; Dhakal, Shobhakar
2016-12-01
Cities are becoming increasingly important in combatting climate change, but their overall role in global solution pathways remains unclear. Here we suggest structuring urban climate solutions along the use of existing and newly built infrastructures, providing estimates of the mitigation potential.
On Browne's Solution for Oblique Procrustes Rotation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cramer, Elliot M.
1974-01-01
A form of Browne's (1967) solution of finding a least squares fit to a specified factor structure is given which does not involve solution of an eigenvalue problem. It suggests the possible existence of a singularity, and a simple modification of Browne's computational procedure is proposed. (Author/RC)
ENGINEERING BULLETIN: AIR STRIPPING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Air striding is a means to transfer contaminants from aqueous solutions to air. ontaminants are not destroyed by air stripping but are physically separated from the aqueous solutions. ontaminant vapors are transferred into the air stream and, if necessary, can be treated by incin...
Solving Solutions: Exploring Unknowns through Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burns, John; Yoshina, Granville; Goodding, Debbie; Streitberger, Eric
2000-01-01
Presents a chemistry activity that introduces students to one type of chemical bond by developing the integer operation concept of zero pairs. Leads to an activity of combining drops of 0.3 molar solutions to form six different colored precipitates from five solutions. (ASK)
Disorder solutions of lattice spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batchelor, M. T.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.
1989-01-01
It is shown that disorder solutions, which have been obtained by different methods, follow from a simple decimation method. The method is put in general form and new disorder solutions are constructed for the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on a triangular lattice and for Potts and Ising models on square and fcc lattices.
Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stein, Barry N.
1986-01-01
There are only three durable solutions to the refugee problem--voluntary repatriation, local settlement, and third-country resettlement--and all depend on political will, diplomacy, and statesmanship. It is important to remember, however, that humanitarian concerns must outweigh costs consciousness when durable solutions are sought. (Author/GC)
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)
2016-03-01
This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)
2016-03-01
This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)
2016-03-01
This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)
2016-03-01
This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)
2016-03-01
This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
On the Preparation of Buffer Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, Bruce M.; Kessick, Michael A.
1981-01-01
Presents a method, suitable for use on programmable calculators, which allows calculation of the pH and ionic strength (I) of a mixed solution of salts of an acid or amounts necessary to produce a solution of a particular pH and I. Includes limitations when using the calculations described. (SK)
Approximate solutions to fractional subdiffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hristov, J.
2011-03-01
The work presents integral solutions of the fractional subdiffusion equation by an integral method, as an alternative approach to the solutions employing hypergeometric functions. The integral solution suggests a preliminary defined profile with unknown coefficients and the concept of penetration (boundary layer). The prescribed profile satisfies the boundary conditions imposed by the boundary layer that allows its coefficients to be expressed through its depth as unique parameter. The integral approach to the fractional subdiffusion equation suggests a replacement of the real distribution function by the approximate profile. The solution was performed with Riemann-Liouville time-fractional derivative since the integral approach avoids the definition of the initial value of the time-derivative required by the Laplace transformed equations and leading to a transition to Caputo derivatives. The method is demonstrated by solutions to two simple fractional subdiffusion equations (Dirichlet problems): 1) Time-Fractional Diffusion Equation, and 2) Time-Fractional Drift Equation, both of them having fundamental solutions expressed through the M-Wright function. The solutions demonstrate some basic issues of the suggested integral approach, among them: a) Choice of the profile, b) Integration problem emerging when the distribution (profile) is replaced by a prescribed one with unknown coefficients; c) Optimization of the profile in view to minimize the average error of approximations; d) Numerical results allowing comparisons to the known solutions expressed to the M-Wright function and error estimations.
[Osmolarity of solutions used in nebulization].
Portel, L; Tunon de Lara, J M; Vernejoux, J M; Weiss, I; Taytard, A
1998-04-01
Inhaled medications are widely used in patients suffering from bronchial diseases. Beside their pharmacological properties, nebulised solutions have physico-chemical characteristics that can alter bronchial reactivity. Non-isotonic solutions can induce a bronchial hyperresponsiveness and/or a severe bronchonconstriction. Nevertheless, multiple drugs are used for nebulisation despite their unknown osmolarity. The aim of this study was to measure the tonicity of drug solutions commonly used for nebulisation in patients suffering from bronchial disease. Drug solutions were prepared either according to manufacturer recommendations or by diluting the stock in 5 ml of NaCl (0.9%) or H2CO3 (0.14%). Although bronchodilatator solutions (i.e. salbutamol, terbulatine, ipratropium bromide) were nearly isotonic, some drugs prepared for nebulisation had either a very high (e.g. mesna, netilmicine) or a very low (e.g. gomenol, sodium cromoglycate) tonicity. These values may be responsible for bronchoconstriction. Some hypertonic solutions, prepared with drugs such as acetylcytein or netilmycin, are not commercialised for nebulisation but are commonly used for aerosol therapy. In addition, solutions initially isotonic could become significantly hypertonic towards the end of nebulisation. Taken together, these results suggest that non-isotonic solutions should be used with caution specially in patients with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, even when aerosol therapy is prescribed for upper airways.
PROCESSES OF RECLAIMING URANIUM FROM SOLUTIONS
Zumwalt, L.R.
1959-02-10
A process is described for reclaiming residual enriched uranium from calutron wash solutions containing Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn as impurities. The solution is adjusted to a pH of between 2 and 4 and is contacted with a metallic reducing agent, such as iron or zinc, in order to reduce the copper to metal and thereby remove it from the solution. At the same time the uranium present is reduced to the uranous state The solution is then contacted with a precipitate of zinc hydroxide or barium carbonate in order to precipitate and carry uranium, iron, and chromium away from the nickel and manganese ions in the solution. The uranium is then recovered fronm this precipitate.
SEPARATION OF RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Callis, C.F.; Moore, R.L.
1959-09-01
>The separation of ruthenium from aqueous solutions containing uranium plutonium, ruthenium, and fission products is described. The separation is accomplished by providing a nitric acid solution of plutonium, uranium, ruthenium, and fission products, oxidizing plutonium to the hexavalent state with sodium dichromate, contacting the solution with a water-immiscible organic solvent, such as hexone, to extract plutonyl, uranyl, ruthenium, and fission products, reducing with sodium ferrite the plutonyl in the solvent phase to trivalent plutonium, reextracting from the solvent phase the trivalent plutonium, ruthenium, and some fission products with an aqueous solution containing a salting out agent, introducing ozone into the aqueous acid solution to oxidize plutonium to the hexavalent state and ruthenium to ruthenium tetraoxide, and volatizing off the ruthenium tetraoxide.
Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions
Rigdon, Lester P.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Bullock, Sr., Jack C.; McGuire, Raymond R.
1990-01-01
A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.
Electrical conductivity of acidic chloride solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majima, Hiroshi; Peters, Ernest; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Park, Sung Kook; Aoki, Masami
1988-02-01
The electrical conductivities of aqueous solutions in the system HCl-MCln (where M = K, Na, Mg, Ni, or Cd) were measured at different temperatures. The equivalent electrical conductivity of H+ was calculated on the basis of simple assumptions for these solutions, and show an inverse relationship with water activity in these solutions. The results obtained by varying temperatures, solute ratios, and ionic strength on the electrical conductivity were found to be consistent with a proton jump mechanism for the H+ ion, where the activity of water is the most significant parameter affecting its equivalent conductance, and a viscous (Stokes’ law) drag mechanism (i.e., Walden’s rule is obeyed) for other ions found in acidic solutions.
Radiation Driven Wind Solutions and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curé, M.
2016-11-01
The standard modified-CAK equation of motion is a non-linear differential equation that possesses many singular points and therefore many solutions. Apart from the standard solution, we have found three other physical solutions: i) when the rotational velocity is higher than 3/4 of the critical rotational speed; ii) when there is a high ionization change throughout the wind; and iii) when the k line force parameter is very high (k is the fraction of the total stellar flux which would be blocked in the photosphere if all lines were optically thick). We also show some applications of these solutions, e.g., the wind of a B[e] supergiant, the oblate wind of a Be star, and the winds of BA supergiants. Furthermore, we calculate synthetic spectra with FASTWIND, where we have used our new hydrodynamical solutions as input to the code.
Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabra, W. A.
2017-04-01
In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein-Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D = 5, N = 2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein-Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.
Interior solution for the Kerr metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez-Pastora, J. L.; Herrera, L.
2017-01-01
A recently presented general procedure to find static and axially symmetric, interior solutions to the Einstein equations is extended to the stationary case, and applied to find an interior solution for the Kerr metric. The solution, which is generated by an anisotropic fluid, verifies the energy conditions for a wide range of values of the parameters, and matches smoothly to the Kerr solution, thereby representing a globally regular model describing a nonspherical and rotating source of gravitational field. In the spherically symmetric limit, our model converges to the well-known incompressible perfect fluid solution. The key stone of our approach is based on an ansatz allowing to define the interior metric in terms of the exterior metric functions evaluated at the boundary source. The physical variables of the energy-momentum tensor are calculated explicitly, as well as the geometry of the source in terms of the relativistic multipole moments.
Exact solution to fractional logistic equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, Bruce J.
2015-07-01
The logistic equation is one of the most familiar nonlinear differential equations in the biological and social sciences. Herein we provide an exact solution to an extension of this equation to incorporate memory through the use of fractional derivatives in time. The solution to the fractional logistic equation (FLE) is obtained using the Carleman embedding technique that allows the nonlinear equation to be replaced by an infinite-order set of linear equations, which we then solve exactly. The formal series expansion for the initial value solution of the FLE is shown to be expressed in terms of a series of weighted Mittag-Leffler functions that reduces to the well known analytic solution in the limit where the fractional index for the derivative approaches unity. The numerical integration to the FLE provides an excellent fit to the analytic solution. We propose this approach as a general technique for solving a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations.
Electronic solutions for combating counterfeit drugs
Hemalatha, R.; Rao, A. Srinivasa
2015-01-01
Introduction: The problem of counterfeiting of drugs is assuming alarming proportions and is getting difficult to combat due to its trans-national character. It is undermining the faith of people on health care system. Therefore, there is a need to adopt zero tolerance approach to combat the problem. The Way Forward: There are many solutions available which are being adopted in piece meal manner by individual manufacturers. However, for wholesalers and resellers it is getting difficult to maintain multiple solutions. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a unified solution preferably with the help of the government. Conclusions: This paper discusses the available solutions, their shortcomings and proposes a comprehensive solution where at each level in the supply chain the authenticity is verified preferable linking it with Unique identification. PMID:26229359
Stable FLRW solutions in generalized massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Rham, Claudia; Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J.
2014-12-01
We present exact Friedmann Lemaítre Robertson Walkers (FLRW) solutions in generalized massive gravity where the mass parameters are naturally promoted to Lorentz-invariant functions of the Stückelberg fields. This new dependence relaxes the constraint that would otherwise prevent massive gravity from possessing exact FLRW solutions. It does so without the need to introduce additional degrees of freedom. We find self-accelerating cosmological solutions and show that, with a mild restriction on the region of phase space, these cosmological solutions exhibit full stability, i.e. absence of ghosts and gradient instabilities for all the tensor, vector and scalar modes, for all cosmic time. We perform the full decoupling limit analysis, including vector degrees of freedom, which can be used to confirm the existence of an active Vainshtein mechanism about these solutions.
Almost periodic solutions to difference equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayliss, A.
1975-01-01
The theory of Massera and Schaeffer relating the existence of unique almost periodic solutions of an inhomogeneous linear equation to an exponential dichotomy for the homogeneous equation was completely extended to discretizations by a strongly stable difference scheme. In addition it is shown that the almost periodic sequence solution will converge to the differential equation solution. The preceding theory was applied to a class of exponentially stable partial differential equations to which one can apply the Hille-Yoshida theorem. It is possible to prove the existence of unique almost periodic solutions of the inhomogeneous equation (which can be approximated by almost periodic sequences) which are the solutions to appropriate discretizations. Two methods of discretizations are discussed: the strongly stable scheme and the Lax-Wendroff scheme.
Aquifer properties determined from two analytical solutions
Chen, X.; Ayers, J.F.
1998-09-01
Many ground water flow and contaminant transport studies involve unconfined aquifers. Determination of reliable hydraulic properties of unconfined aquifers is therefore important. In the analysis of pumping test data, the quality of the determined aquifer parameters can be greatly improved by using a proper model of the aquifer system. Moench (1995) provided an analytical solution for flow to a well partially penetrating an unconfined aquifer. His solution, in contrast to the Neuman solution (1974), accounts for the noninstantaneous decline of the water table (delayed yield). Consequently, the calculated drawdown in these two solutions is different under certain circumstances, and this difference may therefore affect the computation of aquifer properties from pumping test data. This paper uses an inverse computational method to calculate four aquifer parameters as well as a delayed yield parameter, {alpha}{sub 1}, from pumping test data using both the Neuman (1974) and Moench (1995) solutions. Time-drawdown data sets from a pumping test in an unconfined alluvial aquifer near Grand Island, Nebraska, were analyzed. In single-well analyses, horizontal hydraulic conductivity values derived from the Moench solution are lower, but vertical hydraulic conductivity values are higher than those calculated from the Neuman solution. However, the hydraulic conductivity values in composite-well analyses from both solutions become very close. Furthermore, the Neuman solution produces similar hydraulic conductivity values in the single-well and composite-well analyses, but the Moench solution does not. While variable {alpha}{sub 1} seems to play a role in affecting the computation of aquifer parameters in the single-well analysis, a much smaller effect was observed in the composite-well analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Metcalf, Linda
The intended audience for this handbook is teachers, administrators and school counselors who would like to approach school populations with a more positive, solution-focused approach. The ideas developed are based on the principles of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) and other competency-based models that address solutions rather than…
Non-weak/strong solutions in gasdynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dyne, David George
1999-10-01
Convergence of weak solutions of three conservation law gasdynamics equations to strong solutions cannot be proven. We compute non-weak/strong solutions directly utilizing gasdynamics equations without constructing weak forms. Dimensionless forms of Navier-Stokes equations are derived in matrix form directly from conservation laws for one-dimensional transient compressible flow using primitive variables ρ, u, p, and ρ, u, T. Analytical solutions of these parabolic equations must possess C2 continuity in space and C 1 continuity in time. For high-speed compressible flows analytical solutions of the GDE can be assumed to be of class C 11 in space and time since C1 continuity in space is justifiable. We construct p-version space-time least squares finite element formulations (STLSFEF) of the GDE in original parabolic form (i.e. no auxiliary variables or weak forms) in Eulerian and Lagrangian frames of reference using C11 type p-version hierarchical interpolations. Time-marching procedure is used to compute time evolution solutions for subsequent space-time strips. Numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations for high- speed gasdynamics for isentropic and non-isentropic shocks without assumptions or approximations is demonstrated. Time accurate numerical studies show resolution of the shock structure (i.e. shock speed, shock width and shock relations) in excellent agreement with the analytical solutions. The role and influence of artificial viscosity and thermal conductivity on shock structure is demonstrated. Riemann shock tubes with pressure ratios of 20:1; 100:1 and 40:1:10 are used as model problems for formulations in Eulerian frame. Compression of air in a cylinder by a moving piston at velocities of Mach 1/
Ions, solutes and solvents, oh my!
Kemp, Daniel David
2009-08-01
Modern methods in ab initio quantum mechanics have become efficient and accurate enough to study many gas-phase systems. However, chemists often work in the solution phase. The presence of solvent molecules has been shown to affect reaction mechanisms1, lower reaction energy barriers2, participate in energy transfer with the solute3 and change the physical properties of the solute4. These effects would be overlooked in simple gas phase calculations. Careful study of specific solvents and solutes must be done in order to fully understand the chemistry of the solution phase. Water is a key solvent in chemical and biological applications. The properties of an individual water molecule (a monomer) and the behavior of thousands of molecules (bulk solution) are well known for many solvents. Much is also understood about aqueous microsolvation (small clusters containing ten water molecules or fewer) and the solvation characteristics when bulk water is chosen to solvate a solute. However, much less is known about how these properties behave as the cluster size transitions from the microsolvated cluster size to the bulk. This thesis will focus on species solvated with water clusters that are large enough to exhibit the properties of the bulk but small enough to consist of fewer than one hundred solvent molecules. New methods to study such systems will also be presented.
Stability of melatonin in aqueous solution.
Cavallo, A; Hassan, M
1995-03-01
Melatonin solutions are frequently used in human, animal, and in vitro research. Generally, fresh solutions are prepared, for fear of instability of melatonin in solution. We tested the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) stability of melatonin in aqueous solutions stored room temperature, 4 degrees C, and -70 degrees C for up to 6 months. Solutions were prepared in a laminar flow hood using sterile technique, directly into sterile, pyrogen-free glass vacuum vials for storage. Different concentrations were tested (1.0-113.0 micrograms/ml). There was no loss of potency as assessed by HPLC, and the preparations remained sterile and pyrogen-free. We conclude that melatonin solutions may be prepared in batches maintained in sterile, pyrogen-free vials at 4 degrees C or at -70 degrees C until use within 6 months. This method will save on research time used for preparation of fresh solutions and will reduce the number of dose validation tests for each new experiment.
Solute drag on perfect and extended dislocations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sills, R. B.; Cai, W.
2016-04-01
The drag force exerted on a moving dislocation by a field of mobile solutes is studied in the steady state. The drag force is numerically calculated as a function of the dislocation velocity for both perfect and extended dislocations. The sensitivity of the non-dimensionalized force-velocity curve to the various controlling parameters is assessed, and an approximate analytical force-velocity expression is given. A non-dimensional parameter S characterizing the strength of the solute-dislocation interaction, the background solute fraction ?, and the dislocation character angle ?, are found to have the strongest influence on the force-velocity curve. Within the model considered here, a perfect screw dislocation experiences no solute drag, but an extended screw dislocation experiences a non-zero drag force that is about 10 to 30% of the drag on an extended edge dislocation. The solutes can change the spacing between the Shockley partials in both stationary and moving extended dislocations, even when the stacking fault energy remains unaltered. Under certain conditions, the solutes destabilize an extended dislocation by either collapsing it into a perfect dislocation or causing the partials to separate unboundedly. It is proposed that the latter instability may lead to the formation of large faulted areas and deformation twins in low stacking fault energy materials containing solutes, consistent with experimental observations of copper and stainless steel containing hydrogen.
Graft preservation solutions in cardiovascular surgery.
Winkler, Bernhard; Reineke, David; Heinisch, Paul Philip; Schönhoff, Florian; Huber, Christoph; Kadner, Alexander; Englberger, Lars; Carrel, Thierry
2016-08-01
Vein grafts are still the most commonly used graft material in cardiovascular surgery and much effort has been spent in recent years on investigating the optimal harvesting technique. One other related topic of similar importance remained more or less an incidental one. The storage solutions of vein grafts following procurement and prior to implantation are, despite their assumed impact, a relatively neglected theme. There is no doubt that the endothelium plays a key role in long-term patency of vein grafts, but the effects of the different storage solutions on the endothelium remain unclear : In a review of the literature, we could find 20 specific papers that addressed the question, of which the currently available preservation solutions are superior, harmless, damaging or ineffective. The focus lies on saline and autologous whole blood. Besides these two storage media, novel or alternative solutions have been investigated with surprising findings. In addition, a few words will be spent on potential alternatives and novel solutions on the market. As there is currently no randomized clinical trial regarding saline versus autologous whole blood available, this review compares all previous studies and methods of analysis to provide a certain level of evidence on this topic. In summary, saline has negative effects on the endothelial layers and therefore may compromise graft patency. Related factors, such as distension pressure, may outbalance the initial benefit of autologous whole blood or storage solutions and intensify the harmful effects of warm saline. In addition, there is no uniform consent on the superiority of autologous whole blood for vein graft storage. This may open the door to alternatives such as the University of Wisconsin solution or one of the specific designed storage solutions like TiProtec™ or Somaluthion™. Whether these preservation solutions are superior or advantageous remains the subject of further studies.
EOS for critical slurry and solution systems
DiPeso, G; Peterson, P
1998-10-27
In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios
Logical gaps in the approximate solutions of the social learning game and an exact solution.
Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Xin; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan
2014-01-01
After the social learning models were proposed, finding solutions to the games becomes a well-defined mathematical question. However, almost all papers on the games and their applications are based on solutions built either upon an ad-hoc argument or a twisted Bayesian analysis of the games. Here, we present logical gaps in those solutions and offer an exact solution of our own. We also introduce a minor extension to the original game so that not only logical differences but also differences in action outcomes among those solutions become visible.
Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions
Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart
2015-09-01
A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.
High-Solids Polyimide Precursor Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)
2004-01-01
The invention is a highly concentrated stable solution of polymide precursors (monometers) having a solids content ranging from about 80 to 98 percent by weight in lower aliphatic alcohols i.e. methyl and/or ethylalcohol. the concentrated polyimide precursos solution comparisons effective amounts of at least one aromatic diamine, at least one aromatic dianhydride, and a monofunctional endcap including monoamines, monoanhydrides and lower alkyl esters of said monoanhydrides. These concentrated polyimide precursor solutions are particularly useful for the preparation of fibrous prepregs and composites for use in structural materials for military and civil applications.
Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives
Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.
1996-01-01
A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.
Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of thiamine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chijate, C.; Albarran, G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.
1998-06-01
The results of the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of thiamine (vitamin B 1) are presented. The yields for decomposition of thiamine and the product of radiolytic products were determined. The G values decrease as the dose increases. Some radiolytic products were identified. Decomposition of thiamine was slightly dependent on the presence of oxygen and on the pH of the solution. At pH 4.4 with a concentration of 2.5 × 10 -4 mol L -1 of thiamine in an oxygen free aqueous solution, the G 0 value for decomposition is 5.0.
Thermophysical properties of lysozyme (protein) solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jiaching; Yang, Wen-Jei
1992-01-01
Thermophysical properties of protein solutions composed of the lysozyme crystals with a 0.1 M sodium acetate and 5 percent NaCl solution as the buffer (pH = 4.0) are determined. The properties being measured include specific heat, thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension. The protein concentrations are varied. Thermal diffusivity is calculated using the measured results. The purpose of the research is to measure thermophysical properties of lysozyme solutions which would serve as the data bank for controlling and modeling the crystal growth process on earth as well as in space.
Solutions of the cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations.
Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Ding, Chunling; Lü, Xin-You; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying
2012-01-01
Cylindrical nonlinear optics is a burgeoning research area which describes cylindrical electromagnetic wave propagation in nonlinear media. Finding new exact solutions for different types of nonlinearity and inhomogeneity to describe cylindrical electromagnetic wave propagation is of great interest and meaningful for theory and application. This paper gives exact solutions for the cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations and presents an interesting connection between the exact solutions for different cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations. We also provide some examples and discussion to show the application of the results we obtained. Our results provide the basis for solving complex systems of nonlinearity and inhomogeneity with simple systems.
Single crystals of metal solid solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, J. F.; Austin, A. E.; Richard, N.; Griesenauer, N. M.; Moak, D. P.; Mehrabian, M. R.; Gelles, S. H.
1974-01-01
The following definitions were sought in the research on single crystals of metal solid solutions: (1) the influence of convection and/or gravity present during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; (2) the influence of a magnetic field applied during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; and (3) requirements for a space flight experiment to verify the results. Growth conditions for the selected silver-zinc alloy system are described, along with pertinent technical and experimental details of the project.
Novel third-order Lovelock wormhole solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2016-06-01
In this work, we consider wormhole geometries in third-order Lovelock gravity and investigate the possibility that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions. In this framework, by applying a specific equation of state, we obtain exact wormhole solutions, and by imposing suitable values for the parameters of the theory, we find that these geometries satisfy the weak energy condition in the vicinity of the throat, due to the presence of higher-order curvature terms. Finally, we trace out a numerical analysis, by assuming a specific redshift function, and find asymptotically flat solutions that satisfy the weak energy condition throughout the spacetime.
Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions
Almon, Amy C.
1994-01-01
A process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flow cell containing flow bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flow cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flow cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.
Viscoelastic Phase Separation of Protein Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Hajime; Nishikawa, Yuya
2005-08-01
In addition to the known behavior of normal phase separation and gelation, we report novel phase-separation behavior of protein solutions as their intermediate case. A network structure of the protein-rich phase may be formed even if it is the minority phase, contrary to the conventional wisdom. This behavior is characteristic of viscoelastic phase separation found in polymer solutions. This kinetic pathway may play crucial roles in the complex phase ordering of protein solutions, in particular, protein network formation in biological systems and foods.
Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives
Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.
1996-12-10
A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.
Colligative Properties of Solutions: I. Fixed Concentrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, Kenneth S.; Biskup, Marek; Chayes, Lincoln
2005-05-01
Using the formalism of rigorous statistical mechanics, we study the phenomena of phase separation and freezing-point depression upon freezing of solutions. Specifically, we devise an Ising-based model of a solvent--solute system and show that, in the ensemble with a fixed amount of solute, a macroscopic phase separation occurs in an interval of values of the chemical potential of the solvent. The boundaries of the phase separation domain in the phase diagram are characterized and shown to asymptotically agree with the formulas used in heuristic analyses of freezing-point depression. The limit of infinitesimal concentrations is described in a subsequent paper.
Common stock solutions, buffers, and media.
2001-05-01
This collection of recipes describes the preparation of buffers and reagents used in Current Protocols in Pharmacology for cell culture, manipulation of neural tissue, molecular biological methods, and neurophysiological/neurochemical measurements. RECIPES: Acid, concentrated stock solutions Ammonium hydroxide, concentrated stock solution EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), 0.5 M (pH 8.0) Ethidium bromide staining solution Fetal bovine serum (FBS) Gel loading buffer, 6× LB medium (Luria broth) and LB plates Potassium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M Sodium phosphate buffer, 0.1 M TE (Tris/EDTA) buffer Tris⋅Cl, 1 M.
After-hours coverage: problems and solutions.
Wagner, Andrew L
2004-05-01
Among the problems facing many radiology groups today is how to cover after-hours studies, because the demand is increasing while the number of available radiologists is still relatively low. There are a number of possible solutions, each of which has its own pros and cons, and no solution is right for every group. Recently, there have been a number of companies whose sole business is providing outside teleradiology coverage of after-hours radiology studies, sometimes referred to as "nighthawk" services. This article describes one group's decision-making process in choosing to hire a nighttime teleradiology provider as well as its subsequent experiences and ideas for future solutions.
Terahertz absorption of dilute aqueous solutions.
Heyden, Matthias; Tobias, Douglas J; Matyushov, Dmitry V
2012-12-21
Absorption of terahertz (THz) radiation by aqueous solutions of large solutes reports on the polarization response of their hydration shells. This is because the dipolar relaxation of the solute is dynamically frozen at these frequencies, and most of the solute-induced absorption changes, apart from the expulsion of water, are caused by interfacial water. We propose a model expressing the dipolar response of solutions in terms of a single parameter, the interface dipole moment induced in the interfacial water by electromagnetic radiation. We apply this concept to experimental THz absorption of hydrated sugars, amino acids, and proteins. None of the solutes studied here follow the expectations of dielectric theories, which predict a negative projection of the interface dipole on the external electric field. We find that this prediction is not able to describe the available experimental data, which instead suggests a nearly zero interface dipole for sugars and a more diverse pattern for amino acids. Hydrophobic amino acids, similarly to sugars, give rise to near zero interface dipoles, while strongly hydrophilic ones are best described by a positive projection of the interface dipole on the external field. The sign of the interface dipole is connected to the slope of the absorption coefficient with the solute concentration. A positive slope, implying an increase in the solution polarity relative to water, mirrors results frequently reported for protein solutions. We therefore use molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated glucose and lambda repressor protein to calculate the interface dipole moments of these solutes and the concentration dependence of the THz absorption. The absorption at THz frequencies increases with increasing solute concentration in both cases, implying a higher polarity of the solution compared to bulk water. The structure of the hydration layer, extracted from simulations, is qualitatively similar in both cases, with spatial correlations
Solutions of the coupled Higgs field equations.
Talukdar, Benoy; Ghosh, Swapan K; Saha, Aparna; Pal, Debabrata
2013-07-01
By an appropriate choice for the phase of the complex nucleonic field and going over to the traveling coordinate, we reduce the coupled Higgs equations to the Hamiltonian form and treat the resulting equation using the dynamical system theory. We present a phase-space analysis of its stable points. The results of our study demonstrate that the equation can support both traveling- and standing-wave solutions. The traveling-wave solution appears in the form of a soliton and resides in the midst of doubly periodic standing-wave solutions.
Thermophysical properties of lysozyme (protein) solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jiaching; Yang, Wen-Jei
1992-01-01
Thermophysical properties of protein solutions composed of the lysozyme crystals with a 0.1 M sodium acetate and 5 percent NaCl solution as the buffer (pH = 4.0) are determined. The properties being measured include specific heat, thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension. The protein concentrations are varied. Thermal diffusivity is calculated using the measured results. The purpose of the research is to measure thermophysical properties of lysozyme solutions which would serve as the data bank for controlling and modeling the crystal growth process on earth as well as in space.
Sun, Xiang; Ladanyi, Branka M; Stratt, Richard M
2015-07-23
Experimental studies of solvation dynamics in liquids invariably ask how changing a solute from its electronic ground state to an electronically excited state affects a solution's dynamics. With traditional time-dependent-fluorescence experiments, that means looking for the dynamical consequences of the concomitant change in solute-solvent potential energy. But if one follows the shift in the dynamics through its effects on the macroscopic polarizability, as recent solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra do, there is another effect of the electronic excitation that should be considered: the jump in the solute's own polarizability. We examine the spectroscopic consequences of this solute polarizability change in the classic example of the solvation dye coumarin 153 dissolved in acetonitrile. After demonstrating that standard quantum chemical methods can be used to construct accurate multisite models for the polarizabilities of ground- and excited-state solvation dyes, we show via simulation that this polarizability change acts as a contrast agent, significantly enhancing the observable differences in optical-Kerr spectra between ground- and excited-state solutions. A comparison of our results with experimental solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra supports our interpretation and modeling of this spectroscopy. We predict, in particular, that solute-pump/solvent-probe spectra should be sensitive to changes in both the solvent dynamics near the solute and the electronic-state-dependence of the solute's own rotational dynamics.
Momentum and mass transfer in supersaturated solutions and crystal growth from solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.
1997-04-01
The physical properties of supersaturated solutions such as solution density ϱ, shear viscosity η and solute diffusivity D are strongly dependent on solute concentration c∞: ϱ = ϱ( c∞), η = η( c∞) and D = D( c∞). The concentration dependence of the properties has been taken into account in the rederivation of the generalized momentum and mass transport equations governing crystal growth from solutions. The non-linear ordinary differential equations obtained for the steady regime of isothermal crystal growth were analyzed. The exact simultaneous solutions obtained for the rederived transport equations resulted in the following conclusions: (a) There exists a restriction imposed on the Schmidt number for supersaturated solutions: Sc∞ ≫ {4}/{9}. Only under this restriction the generalized momentum and mass transfer equations have simultaneous consistent solutions. (b) The solution-crystal interface profile "thickness" · int( x1) is proportional to the diffusion boundary layer (DBL) thickness: · int( x1) ≈ 0.24· diff( x1). (c) The ratio of solute flux along the solution-crystal interface to the flux along the DBL edge is the increasing function of and is dependent only on Sc ∞.
Wynveen, Aaron; Bresme, Fernando
2010-10-14
We investigate the distributions of various salts about large hydrophobic polarizable solutes in aqueous electrolyte solutions. The solutes are modeled as nanometer-sized cylindrical objects, a scale relevant to biomolecules and nanomaterials, and particularly high aspect ratio nanoparticles. Interactions, including image charge forces arising from the finite polarizability of the solute, between explicit solvent/ions and the solute are computed explicitly using a molecular dynamics simulation methodology we have recently introduced. Comparisons are made between several salt species and different models of the force fields for each ionic component of the salt. We find evidence that both small cations, Li(+), and large anions, I(-), adsorb at hydrophobic interfaces. Our results indicate that the ion structure about the solute is strongly dependent on the force field investigated, suggesting that ion selectivity is quite sensitive to the respective parameters defining the ion's size and binding energy as well as to the polarizability of the solute.
Jawor-Baczynska, Anna; Moore, Barry D; Lee, Han Seung; McCormick, Alon V; Sefcik, Jan
2013-01-01
Aqueous solutions of highly soluble substances such as small amino acids are usually assumed to be essentially homogenous systems with some degree of short range local structuring due to specific interactions on the sub-nanometre scale (e.g. molecular clusters, hydration shells), usually not exceeding several solute molecules. However, recent theoretical and experimental studies have indicated the presence of much larger supramolecular assemblies or mesospecies in solutions of small organic and inorganic molecules as well as proteins. We investigated both supersaturated and undersaturated aqueous solutions of two simple amino acids (glycine and DL-alanine) using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Brownian Microscopy/Nanoparticles Tracking Analysis (NTA) and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM). Colloidal scale mesospecies (nanodroplets) were previously reported in supersaturated solutions of these amino acids and were implicated as intermediate species on non-classical crystallization pathways. Surprisingly, we have found that the mesospecies are also present in significant numbers in undersaturated solutions even when the solute concentration is well below the solid-liquid equilibrium concentration (saturation limit). Thus, mesopecies can be observed with mean diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm and a size distribution that broadens towards larger size with increasing solute concentration. We note that the mesospecies are not a separate phase and the system is better described as a thermodynamically stable mesostructured liquid containing solute-rich domains dispersed within bulk solute solution. At a given temperature, solute molecules in such a mesostructured liquid phase are subject to equilibrium distribution between solute-rich mesospecies and the surrounding bulk solution.
Rayco Development Solutions, Inc. Information Sheet
Rayco Development Solutions, Inc. (the Company) is located in Hayward, California. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in several cities in California.
Pinching solutions of slender cylindrical jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Orellana, Oscar
1993-01-01
Simplified equations for slender jets are derived for a circular jet of one fluid flowing into an ambient second fluid, the flow being confined in a circular tank. Inviscid flows are studied which include both surface tension effects and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. For slender jets a coupled nonlinear system of equations is found for the jet shape and the axial velocity jump across it. The equations can break down after a finite time and similarity solutions are constructed, and studied analytically and numerically. The break-ups found pertain to the jet pinching after a finite time, without violation of the slender jet ansatz. The system is conservative and admissible singular solutions are those which conserve the total energy, mass, and momentum. Such solutions are constructed analytically and numerically, and in the case of vortex sheets with no surface tension certain solutions are given in closed form.
Exact solutions for nonlinear foam drainage equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zayed, E. M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani
2017-02-01
In this paper, the modified simple equation method, the exp-function method, the soliton ansatz method, the Riccati equation expansion method and the ( G^' }/G)-expansion method are used to construct exact solutions with parameters of the nonlinear foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions and the trigonometric function solutions are derived from the exact solutions. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methods are efficient techniques for analytic treatments of a wide variety of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. We compare our results together with each other yielding from these integration tools. Also, our results have been compared with the well-known results of others.
Ionic solutions of two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cullen, Patrick L.; Cox, Kathleen M.; Bin Subhan, Mohammed K.; Picco, Loren; Payton, Oliver D.; Buckley, David J.; Miller, Thomas S.; Hodge, Stephen A.; Skipper, Neal T.; Tileli, Vasiliki; Howard, Christopher A.
2017-03-01
Strategies for forming liquid dispersions of nanomaterials typically focus on retarding reaggregation, for example via surface modification, as opposed to promoting the thermodynamically driven dissolution common for molecule-sized species. Here we demonstrate the true dissolution of a wide range of important 2D nanomaterials by forming layered material salts that spontaneously dissolve in polar solvents yielding ionic solutions. The benign dissolution advantageously maintains the morphology of the starting material, is stable against reaggregation and can achieve solutions containing exclusively individualized monolayers. Importantly, the charge on the anionic nanosheet solutes is reversible, enables targeted deposition over large areas via electroplating and can initiate novel self-assembly upon drying. Our findings thus reveal a unique solution-like behaviour for 2D materials that enables their scalable production and controlled manipulation.
Crafting Elegant Solutions: Strategies for Conflict Resolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koch, Susan J.; Decker, Robert H.
1993-01-01
The conflict-resolution technique of interpersonal negotiation involves five steps: (1) state your positive intentions; (2) define, analyze, and discuss the problem; (3) summarize progress; (4) explore alternative solutions; and (5) set a time for follow-up. (MLF)
Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry
Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho
2010-06-15
Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.
Application of thermodynamics to silicate crystalline solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saxena, S. K.
1972-01-01
A review of thermodynamic relations is presented, describing Guggenheim's regular solution models, the simple mixture, the zeroth approximation, and the quasi-chemical model. The possibilities of retrieving useful thermodynamic quantities from phase equilibrium studies are discussed. Such quantities include the activity-composition relations and the free energy of mixing in crystalline solutions. Theory and results of the study of partitioning of elements in coexisting minerals are briefly reviewed. A thermodynamic study of the intercrystalline and intracrystalline ion exchange relations gives useful information on the thermodynamic behavior of the crystalline solutions involved. Such information is necessary for the solution of most petrogenic problems and for geothermometry. Thermodynamic quantities for tungstates (CaWO4-SrWO4) are calculated.
Dynamics of bimolecular reactions in solution.
Orr-Ewing, Andrew J
2015-04-01
Mechanisms of bimolecular chemical reactions in solution are amenable to study on picosecond timescales, both by transient absorption spectroscopy and by computer simulation. The dynamics of exothermic reactions of CN radicals and of Cl and F atoms with organic solutes in commonly used solvents are contrasted with the corresponding dynamics in the gas phase. Many characteristics of the gas-phase reaction dynamics persist in solution, such as efficient energy release to specific vibrational modes of the products. However, additional complexities associated with the presence of the solvent are open to investigation. These features of liquid-phase reactions include the role of solvent-solute complexes, solvent caging, coupling of the product motions to the solvent bath, thermalization of internally excited reaction products, incipient hydrogen bond formation, and involvement of charge-separated states that arise from proton transfer.
Suitable Candidates for Monte Carlo Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Jerome L.
1998-01-01
Discusses Monte Carlo methods, powerful and useful techniques that rely on random numbers to solve deterministic problems whose solutions may be too difficult to obtain using conventional mathematics. Reviews two excellent candidates for the application of Monte Carlo methods. (ASK)
A Solution Framework for Environmental Characterization Problems
This paper describes experiences developing a grid-enabled framework for solving environmental inverse problems. The solution approach taken here couples environmental simulation models with global search methods and requires readily available computational resources of the grid ...
Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution
Magid, L.J.; Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.
1981-01-01
The surfactant 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa solutions; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8 phenyl C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.
Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution
Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement
1990-11-13
A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.
Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution
Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement
1990-01-01
A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.
Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions
Knapp, Furn F.; Beets, Arnold L.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Guhlke, Stefan
1998-01-01
A method of preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: a. providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; b. eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate. c. eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; d. eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and e. eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution.
RECOVERY OF CESIUM FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS
Burgus, W.H.
1959-06-30
This patent covers the precipitation of fission products including cesium on nickel or ferric ferrocyanide and subsequent selective dissolution from the carrier with a solution of ammonia or mercurlc nitrate.
Non-ideal Solution Thermodynamics of Cytoplasm
Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U.; McGann, Locksley E.
2012-01-01
Quantitative description of the non-ideal solution thermodynamics of the cytoplasm of a living mammalian cell is critically necessary in mathematical modeling of cryobiology and desiccation and other fields where the passive osmotic response of a cell plays a role. In the solution thermodynamics osmotic virial equation, the quadratic correction to the linear ideal, dilute solution theory is described by the second osmotic virial coefficient. Herein we report, for the first time, intracellular solution second osmotic virial coefficients for four cell types [TF-1 hematopoietic stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), porcine hepatocytes, and porcine chondrocytes] and further report second osmotic virial coefficients indistinguishable from zero (for the concentration range studied) for human hepatocytes and mouse oocytes. PMID:23840923
Knee System Utilizing Personalized Solutions Instrumentation
ATTUNE® Knee System utilizing the TRUMATCH® Personalized Solutions Instrumentation Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.
Knee System Utilizing Personalized Solutions Instrumentation
ATTUNE® Knee System utilizing the TRUMATCH® Personalized Solutions Instrumentation Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution
... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...
Thermoelectric Properties of Solution Synthesized Nanostructured Materials.
Finefrock, Scott W; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue
2015-01-01
Thermoelectric nanocomposites made by solution synthesis and compression of nanostructured chalcogenides could potentially be low-cost, scalable alternatives to traditional solid-state synthesized materials. We review the progress in this field by comparing the power factor and/or the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of four classes of materials: (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3, PbTe, ternary and quaternary copper chalcogenides, and silver chalcogenides. We also discuss the thermal conductivity reduction associated with multiphased nanocomposites. The ZT of the best solution synthesized materials are, in several cases, shown to be equal to or greater than the corresponding bulk materials despite the generally reduced mobility associated with solution synthesized nanocomposites. For the solution synthesized materials with the highest performance, the synthesis and processing conditions are summarized to provide guidance for future work.
Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions
Knapp, F.F.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S.
1998-03-17
A method is described for preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: (a) providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; (b) eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate; (c) eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; (d) eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and (e) eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution. 1 fig.
Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.
2007-12-01
We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.
A Solution Framework for Environmental Characterization Problems
This paper describes experiences developing a grid-enabled framework for solving environmental inverse problems. The solution approach taken here couples environmental simulation models with global search methods and requires readily available computational resources of the grid ...
Internet Education: Potential Problems and Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharma, Preeti; Maleyeff, John
2003-01-01
Highlights some of the unplanned consequences that might be encountered as the use of the Internet in education increases, categorizing them as potential problems of judgment, distance, and ethics. Suggests course design, pedagogical, and student activity solutions. (EV)
Solution of a Simple Inelastic Scattering Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knudson, Stephen K.
1975-01-01
Provides an analytical solution of a model representing the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Presents results for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering. (Author/CP)
Extemporaneous preparation of antibiotic ophthalmic solutions.
Hammond, R W; Walker, T P; McClung, H F; Edmondson, W
1996-03-01
Until the introduction of ocular ciprofloxacin, the standard of practice in treating bacterial corneal ulcers required topical antibiotic ophthalmic solutions that were either not commercially available or not available in the higher concentrations needed. A survey was mailed to 125 hospital pharmacies and 125 community pharmacies in Oklahoma to determine the availability of extemporaneously prepared antibiotic ophthalmic solutions. Of 72 hospital pharmacies and 60 community pharmacies that responded, 17 hospital and 2 community pharmacies reported that they do compound these solutions. The main reasons given by the other pharmacies for not offering this service were the lack of a laminar flow hood or other equipment and lack of an aseptic environment. If extemporaneously prepared antibiotic ophthalmic solutions are needed to treat corneal ulcers, then pharmacists have a responsibility to prepare them. The recent publication of a handbook providing formulations for those products and the "ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Pharmacy-Prepared Ophthalmic Products" may encourage more pharmacies to provide this needed service.
Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gruen, D. M.
1969-01-01
Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.
On the solution of the Liouville equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menotti, Pietro
2017-09-01
We give a short and rigorous proof of the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the Liouville equation with sources, both elliptic and parabolic, on the sphere and on all higher genus compact Riemann surfaces.
Unusual hydrophobic interactions in acidic aqueous solutions.
Chen, Hanning; Xu, Jianqing; Voth, Gregory A
2009-05-21
Hydrophobic interaction, which is believed to be a primary driving force for many fundamental chemical and biological processes such as nanostructure self-assembly, micelle formation, and protein folding, is different in acidic aqueous solutions compared to salt solutions. In this study, the aggregation/dispersion behavior of nonpolar hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions with varying acid (HCl) concentrations is investigated using novel molecular dynamics simulations and compared to the hydrophobic behavior in corresponding salt (NaCl) solutions. The formation of unusual weakly bound hydrophobe-hydrated proton solvation structures is observed and can be attributed to the unique "amphiphilic" characteristic of hydrated protons. This molecular-level mechanism for the acid-enhanced dissolution of hydrophobic particles also provides a novel interpretation for the apparent anomaly of the hydronium cation in the Hofmeister series.
Technology Solutions for School Food Service.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Begalle, Mary
2002-01-01
Considers ways to include schools' food service departments in technology planning. Discusses school food service software applications, considerations and challenges of automating food service operations, and business-to-business Internet solutions. (EV)
Recovery of pyruvic acid from biotransformation solutions.
Ma, C Q; Li, J C; Qiu, J H; Wang, M; Xu, P
2006-04-01
The aim of this investigation was to separate pyruvic acid of biotransformation solutions from lactic acid through complex extraction. For this purpose, complex extraction was investigated from model solutions. Tri-n-octanylamine (TOA) was used as the extractant. The effects of various diluents, the stoichiometry of pyruvic acid to TOA, and the initial pH of the aqueous phase on the extraction process were investigated in this study. The effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and trimethylamine (TMA) on the back extraction process were also studied, respectively. The optimal conditions attained from the model solutions proved efficient on the biotransformation solutions of different concentrations. A total recovery of 71-82% of pyruvic acid was obtained, whereas 89-92% of lactic acid was removed. The purity of pyruvic acid reached 97% after the removal of TMA by a simple distillation.
Technology Solutions for School Food Service.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Begalle, Mary
2002-01-01
Considers ways to include schools' food service departments in technology planning. Discusses school food service software applications, considerations and challenges of automating food service operations, and business-to-business Internet solutions. (EV)
Crafting Elegant Solutions: Strategies for Conflict Resolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koch, Susan J.; Decker, Robert H.
1993-01-01
The conflict-resolution technique of interpersonal negotiation involves five steps: (1) state your positive intentions; (2) define, analyze, and discuss the problem; (3) summarize progress; (4) explore alternative solutions; and (5) set a time for follow-up. (MLF)
Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho
2010-06-01
Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.
Ionic solutions of two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cullen, Patrick L.; Cox, Kathleen M.; Bin Subhan, Mohammed K.; Picco, Loren; Payton, Oliver D.; Buckley, David J.; Miller, Thomas S.; Hodge, Stephen A.; Skipper, Neal T.; Tileli, Vasiliki; Howard, Christopher A.
2016-11-01
Strategies for forming liquid dispersions of nanomaterials typically focus on retarding reaggregation, for example via surface modification, as opposed to promoting the thermodynamically driven dissolution common for molecule-sized species. Here we demonstrate the true dissolution of a wide range of important 2D nanomaterials by forming layered material salts that spontaneously dissolve in polar solvents yielding ionic solutions. The benign dissolution advantageously maintains the morphology of the starting material, is stable against reaggregation and can achieve solutions containing exclusively individualized monolayers. Importantly, the charge on the anionic nanosheet solutes is reversible, enables targeted deposition over large areas via electroplating and can initiate novel self-assembly upon drying. Our findings thus reveal a unique solution-like behaviour for 2D materials that enables their scalable production and controlled manipulation.
Gold sulfide replacements of cyanide solutions
Worobey, W.; Norwood, D.; Rieger, D.
1991-01-01
At Sandia National Laboratories we have introduced a non-cyanide gold electroplating solution in the Solid State Circuit Processing Lab. This commercially available solution is based on gold sulfite salts. An evaluation of the plating bath and the deposited gold for use in microelectronic circuit fabrication was conducted. The tests included selective plating compatability, wire bonding, soldering, gold resistivity, adherence, and step coverage. The results were all favorable. Precision gold patterns with line widths as small as 2{mu}m and gold thickness over 4{mu}m were selectively plated using a positive photoresist as a plating mask. Also the gold sulfite solution was used to fabricate gold air bridge crossovers for GaAs circuits. The introduction of the non-hazardous sulfite solution for plating high purity gold films will lead to manufacturing processes which are safer to work with and less damaging to the environment.
GRACE Harmonic and Mascon Solutions at JPL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watkins, M. M.; Yuan, D.; Kuang, D.; Bertiger, W.; Kim, M.; Kruizinga, G. L.
2005-12-01
Gravity field solutions at JPL over the past few years have explored use of range, range-rate, and range-acceleration K/Ka-band satellite-satellite data types (with and without GPS), and with both spherical harmonic and mascon-type local mass representations. Until recently, resource and computing limitations have limited the scope of our mascon and other local solutions to a few months and/or small spatial regions and the standard GRACE products have remained spherical harmonic fields. The use of a new very large (~500 node) beowulf machine at JPL is now enabling a wider range of solutions over longer time spans and deeper understanding of their characteristics. These include much higher spherical harmonic degrees, mascons, and hybrids of the two. We will present the current status for several solution types, strengths and weaknesses of each, and our assessments of limiting errors including data noise and aliasing sensitivity.
Restorative Justice and the Prosocial Communities Solution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blechman, Elaine A.; Hile, Matthew G.; Fishman, Daniel B.
2001-01-01
Restorative justice promotes greater accountability, competency, and public safety through community care of juvenile offenders. The Prosocial Communities Solution builds an infrastructure around information sharing, coordinated supervision, and immersion in prosocial activities. Communities horizontally align parents with professional caregivers…
Solute Transport in Unsaturated Sphagnum Mosses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, J. S.; Faux, E. A.
2009-05-01
Natural Sphagnum cushions develop an upwardly increasing concentration of dissolved solutes during periods of sustained upward capillary flow of solutes, and become enriched by evaporative loss of water. The transport process is poorly documented as a consequence of poor parameterization of unsaturated flow parameters, and the lack of transport parameters such as dispersivity and solute retardation coefficients for flow in unsaturated mosses. Sphagnum mosses contain hyaline cells and dead-end pores that can store but not transmit water and solute. Since these spaces do not drain at moderate (negative) pressures (ψ), the ratio of fluid actively flowing in films in the unsaturated moss to that which is stored decreases as the moss drains. Solutes can pass by diffusion from the film of flowing water into these closed spaces resulting in increased dispersion of the flowing solute, and retardation of even conservative solutes like chloride. These processes were demonstrated in unsaturated Sphagnum mosses using a step input solute (NaCl) source from a constant head device for undecomposed near-surface moss (~5 cm depth), and slightly more decomposed deeper moss (~25 cm depth). Smaller water retention in the undecomposed upper moss sample resulted in lower unsaturated hydraulic conductivity thus lower flow rates. When the sample was initially drained (ψ = ~ 4 cm of water) it was determined that the solute breakthrough expressed as relative concentration (C/C0 = 0.5) occurred at a cumulative discharge of 91.5 ml and at 5.8 minutes in the upper moss, compared to 233.2 ml after 2.8 minutes in the lower (more decomposed) sample. In a drier state (ψ = ~ 16 cm of water), C/C0 = 0.5 was reached after 67.9 ml of discharge at 37.9 minutes in the upper moss compared to 109.2 ml and at 22.4 minutes in the lower sample. Thus less solute flow is required for breakthrough in less decomposed mosses, and in mosses that are relatively dry. Dispersivity was determined on the basis of
SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Peppard, D.F.; Nachtman, E.S.
1958-02-25
This patent relates to a process for the separation of scandium from yttrium, thorium, and trivalent rare earths and with their separation from each other. It has been found that scandium and yttrium can be separated from trivalent rare earths in acidic solution, for example, a solution 6 M in HCl, by contacting with tributyl phosphate, whereupon the scandum is preferentially extracted into the organic phase, leaving the yttrium and trivalent rare earths in the aqueous phase.
Predictive Modeling for Sustainable Energy Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amrani, Chaker El; Bouhali, Othmane
Sustainable energy solutions such as wind and solar power are the key to energy security and economic progress. They are also the best way to reduce carbon emissions and preserve a healthy environment. Modeling these solutions is necessary to compute parameters governing the energy production. In this paper we describe the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, to estimate annual energy output from distributed wind turbines and solar panels.
Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing
2006-01-01
A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.
Solute boundary layer on a rotating crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Povinelli, Michelle L.; Korpela, Seppo A.; Chait, Arnon
1994-11-01
A perturbation analysis has been carried out for the solutal boundary layer next to a rotating crystal. Our aim is to extend the classical results of Burton, Prim and Slicher [1] in order to obtain higher order terms in asymptotic expansions for the concentration field and boundary-layer thickness. Expressions for the effective segregation coefficient are directly obtained from the concentration solution in the two limits that correspond to weak and strong rotation.
Isotopic delta values of molybdenum reference solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Hanjie; Carignan, Jean; Cloquet, Christophe; Zhu, Xiangkun; Zhang, Yuxu
2010-05-01
We report the isotopic composition of five molybdenum (Mo) standard reference solutions and four fractions from one of these solutions eluted through anion resin column relative to a sixth reference solution. Measurements were conducted using Isoprobe multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) at the Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques (France) and Nu Plasma MC-ICP-MS at either the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (France) or the Laboratory of Isotope Geology in the Ministry of Land and Resources (China). The sample-standard bracketing method was employed to correct the mass bias for Mo isotopes during instrumental measurement. Except for the Merck Mo solution, all the Mo solutions were identical in isotopic composition within error. Although the JMC Mo solution has been used as the internal reference material by various groups, uncertainty may still occur with different lot numbers and availability might be limited. Here, we propose the NIST 3134 Mo solution as a new candidate for delta zero reference material, used for reporting Mo isotopic composition of natural samples. Isotopic compositions for four eluted fractions of the Sigma-Aldrich Mo solution range from 2.2 ‰ to -2.0 ‰ for δ97/95Mo relative to the NIST Mo standard. These values span the range of reported isotopic composition for natural terrestrial and experimental samples (approximately -0.5‰ to 1.6‰ for δ97/95Mo). We propose these eluted fractions to be used as secondary reference for Mo isotope measurements.
Solubility of Injectable Valium in Intravenous Solutions
Grower, Marvin F.; Russell, Emery A.; Getter, Lee
1978-01-01
A study of the solubility of Valium in commonly used intravenous solutions showed Valium to be equally insoluble in 5% dextrose in normal saline, 5% dextrose in water, normal saline, and Ringer's lactate. However, the precipitate which was formed became completely resuspended when mixed with as little as 39-42% plasma in vitro. This would indicate that the chalky precipitate seen in the I. V. tubing when Valium is injected into a running I. V. near the venipuncture site becomes resuspended when mixed with plasma in vivo. If one elects to inject Valium into the tubing of a running I. V., it is recommended that the drug be administered slowly to assure adequate mixing with blood plasma in order to prevent the circulation of particulate matter. Valium is currently one of the most popular drugs used in the psychosedative management of the apprehensive dental patient. Various techniques are advocated for its administration from direct injection into a vein to injection of the drug into a running I. V. However, the manufacturer states that the drug should not be added to I. V. fluids or other solutions or drugs. Presumably this is because of the formation of a cloudy precipitate immediately upon addition to aqueous solutions. Grower et al. have shown that saturated aqueous solutions of Valium in normal saline redissolve when added to plasma; however, they presented no data on the behavior of solutions of Valium added to other commonly used intravenous fluids. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to study the behavior of Valium when added to lactated Ringer's solution, 5% dextrose solutions, and normal saline; and to see how human blood plasma affects the solubility of Valium in these solutions. PMID:292338
A Regularized Solution to Edge Detection.
1985-05-01
Arsenin , V. Y. Solutions of ill - posed problems , Winston and Sons, Washington, D.C., 1977 . Torre, V. and Poggio, T. "On edge detection," Al...be an ill - posed problem . As explained by Poggio and Torre (1984), mathematically ill - posed problems are problems where the solution either does not...exist or is not unique or does not depend continuously on the data. Numerical differentiation is a (mildly) ill - posed
Analytical solution for the Feynman ratchet.
Pesz, Karol; Gabryś, Barbara J; Bartkiewicz, Stanisław J
2002-12-01
A search for an analytical, closed form solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with periodic, asymmetric potentials (ratchets) is presented. It is found that logarithmic-type potential functions (related to "entropic" ratchets) allow for an approximate solution within a certain range of parameters. An expression for the net current is calculated and it is shown that the efficiency of the rocked entropic ratchet is always low.
Nitric acid recovery from waste solutions
Wilson, A. S.
1959-04-14
The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.
Chemical-milling solution for invar alloy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batiuk, W.
1980-01-01
Excellent surface finishes and tolerances are achieved using two formulations. Solution A gives finish of 3.17 micrometers after milling at 57 to 63 deg C. Constituents of A are: Hydrofluoric acid (70%), 5,8 oz/gal; nitric acid (40-42) degrees Baume), 40 oz/gal. Alternative solution gives 2.16 micrometer finish, and differs from A by addition of 7% phosphoric acid. Formulations eliminate channeling at root fillets, dishing, island formation, and overhangs.
"Permanence" - An Adaptationist Solution to Fermi's Paradox?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirkovic, Milan M.
A new solution of Fermi's paradox sketched by SF writer Karl Schroeder in his 2002. novel Permanence is investigated. It is argued that this solution is tightly connected with adaptationism - a widely discussed working hypothesis in evolutionary biology. Schroeder's hypothesis has important ramifications for astrobiology, SETI projects, and future studies. Its weaknesses should be explored without succumbing to the emotional reactions often accompanying adaptationist explanations.
Bubble Dynamics in Polymer Solutions Undergoing Shear.
1985-04-01
20D 23 REYNOLDS NUMBER *10’ FIGURE 1-1. The effect of dilute polymer solutes on hydraulic cavitation inception (Ellis &Ting, 1974). (a) ( b ) FIGURE 1-2...Comparison of cavitation appearance in (a) water and ( b ) dilute aqueous Polyox solution (Ting, 1978). 3 cavitation is significantly altered (Figure...research fall into two distinct (but related) areas. These are (a) Newtonian (or viscous) flow-induced cavitation bubble deformation and ( b ) non
Missing solution in a Cornell potential
Castro, L.B.; Castro, A.S. de
2013-11-15
Missing bound-state solutions for fermions in the background of a Cornell potential consisting of a mixed scalar–vector–pseudoscalar coupling is examined. Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed. -- Highlights: •The Dirac equation with scalar–vector–pseudoscalar Cornell potential is investigated. •The isolated solution from the Sturm–Liouville problem is found. •Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed.
Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal
Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.
2003-08-05
One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.
Trivalent Chromium Solutions for Sealing Anodized Aluminum
1994-12-20
the comparatively innocuous trivalent form before acid , chromic acid , oxalic acid , sulfophthalic acid , boric disposal. This method is expensive and...or had only faint anodized aluminum substrates by immersion in a mildly traces of corrosion . All 7075-T6 panels provided with acid solution containing...alloy panels wereP 10 anodized in 15% (weight) sulfuric acid solution for 30 To produce improved corrosion resistance on anod- minutes at 21 C. at 18
Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiodo, R.
1982-01-01
Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.
General solution of the supersymmetry consistency conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piguet, O.; Sibold, K.; Schweda, M.
1980-11-01
Renormalization of (broken-) supersymmetry theories depends on the existence of a local functional solution, with appropriate power counting, to a system of functional differential equations derived from the quantum action principle (QAP). Using consistency conditions which also follow from the QAP, we prove the existence of such a local solution; its dimension ensures ultraviolet renormalizability, whereas infrared behaviour must be discussed from case to case.
Approximations and Solution Estimates in Optimization
2016-04-06
Approximations and Solution Estimates in Optimization Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department Naval Postgraduate School joroyset@nps.edu...Abstract. Approximation is central to many optimization problems and the supporting theory pro- vides insight as well as foundation for algorithms. In...functions quantifies epi-convergence, we are able to obtain estimates of optimal solutions and optimal values through estimates of that distance. In
The HIPPARCOS Double and Multiple Star Solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignard, F.
The Hipparcos catalogue provides general astrometric and photometric information on double and multiple stars in specific fields of the main catalogue and detailed data on the components in the various sections of a dedicated annex: the Double and Multiple Systems Annex (DMSA). Overall statistics of these solutions are presented for the 13,211 entries of this annex and the different types of solutions are outlined.
Premixed Parenteral Nutrition Solution Use in Children
Crill, Catherine M.
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVES: In response to national drug shortages, our institution established criteria for the use of commercial premixed parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions in select pediatric patients. Although these solutions have been marketed for use in children, there are no data in this patient population. The objective of this study was to review our use of commercial premixed PN solutions in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients ≤18 years of age who received a premixed PN solution from October 2010 to April 2012. All premixed PN courses were assessed for incidence of premixed PN discontinuation due to laboratory abnormalities. Estimated goal and actual protein and total caloric intake were evaluated for premixed PN courses that were continued for >48 hours. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients received 74 courses of premixed PN solutions for a mean duration of 5.6 ± 6.2 (range, 1–31) days. Fifteen courses (20%) required discontinuation of premixed PN as a result of mild laboratory abnormalities. No changes in clinical status were observed in patients and all abnormalities were corrected after switching to individualized PN. In patients receiving PN for >48 hours, premixed PN solutions provided goal protein in 48/49 (98%) courses and goal calories in 33/49 (67%) courses. CONCLUSIONS: Premixed PN solutions were used in a wide range of pediatric patients and provide a potential option for PN support in pediatric patients when drug shortages limit PN product supply. Close monitoring for electrolyte abnormalities and protein and caloric intake is recommended when using premixed PN solutions in children. PMID:26472952
Theoretical study of chemical reactions in solution
Yokogawa, D.
2015-12-31
Quantum chemical calculations in solution are becoming more and more important in chemistry. Reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) is one of the powerful approaches to perform quantum chemical calculations in solution. In this work, we developed a new generation of RISM-SCF, where a robust fitting method was newly introduced. We applied the new method to tautomerization reaction of cytosine in aqueous phase. Our calculation reproduced experimentally obtained relative stabilities and relative free energies correctly.
Architecture of COOPTO Remote Voting Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silhavy, Radek; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka
This contribution focuses on investigation of remote electronic voting system, named COOPTO. Researching of suitability of electronic voting solution is forced by necessity of the improvement election process. The COOPTO is based on topical investigation of voting process and their implementation of using modern information and communication technology. The COOPTO allows voters, who are not in their election district, to participate in the democracy process. The aim of this contribution is to describe results of the development of the COOPTO solutions.
Quantum corrections for a cosmological string solution
Behrndt, K.
1994-08-01
The author investigates quantum corrections for a cosmological solution of the string effective action. Starting point is a classical solution containing an antisymmetric tensor field, a dilaton and a modulus field which has singularities in the scalar fields. As a first step he quantizes the scalar fields near the singularity with the result that the singularities disappear and that in general non-perturbative quantum corrections form a potential in the scalar fields.
Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiodo, R.
1982-01-01
Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.
Schwarzschild solution from Weyl transverse gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, Ichiro
2017-01-01
We study classical solutions in the Weyl-transverse (WTDiff) gravity. The WTDiff gravity is invariant under both the local Weyl (conformal) transformation and the volume preserving diffeomorphisms (Diff) (transverse diffeomorphisms (TDiff)) and is known to be equivalent to general relativity at least at the classical level. In particular, we find that in a general spacetime dimension, the Schwarzschild metric is a classical solution in the WTDiff gravity when it is expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system.
Statistical Solutions of Hyperbolic Conservation Laws: Foundations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fjordholm, U. S.; Lanthaler, S.; Mishra, S.
2017-07-01
We seek to define statistical solutions of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws as time-parametrized probability measures on p-integrable functions. To do so, we prove the equivalence between probability measures on L p spaces and infinite families of correlation measures. Each member of this family, termed a correlation marginal, is a Young measure on a finite-dimensional tensor product domain and provides information about multi-point correlations of the underlying integrable functions. We also prove that any probability measure on a L p space is uniquely determined by certain moments (correlation functions) of the equivalent correlation measure. We utilize this equivalence to define statistical solutions of multi-dimensional conservation laws in terms of an infinite set of equations, each evolving a moment of the correlation marginal. These evolution equations can be interpreted as augmenting entropy measure-valued solutions, with additional information about the evolution of all possible multi-point correlation functions. Our concept of statistical solutions can accommodate uncertain initial data as well as possibly non-atomic solutions, even for atomic initial data. For multi-dimensional scalar conservation laws we impose additional entropy conditions and prove that the resulting entropy statistical solutions exist, are unique and are stable with respect to the 1-Wasserstein metric on probability measures on L 1.
Stabilizing Lateritic Soil Using Terrasil Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aderinola, Olumuyiwa S.; Nnochiri, Emeka S.
2017-06-01
This study assesses stabilizing lateritic soil using Terrasil solution. Preliminary tests were carried out on six natural soil samples from three borrow pit locations-two soil samples from a particular borrow pit location, for the purpose of identification and classification. Soil samples 1 and 2 from borrow pit 3 were found to be poor, hence, needed stabilization. While the other four samples from borrow pits 1 and 2 were found to be good enough. Engineering property tests such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR), Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and Compaction tests were performed on both the natural soil samples and the stabilized lateritic soil samples which were stabilized by adding terrasil solution in percentages ranging from 0% to 16% at 2% interval. The results showed that the addition of terrasil solution enhanced the strength of the two soil samples from borrow pit 3. For soil sample 1, the unsoaked CBR values increased from 8.4% at 0% to optimum value of 30.3% at 12% terrasil solution, while for soil sample 2, the unsoaked CBR values increased from 6.2% to optimum value of 32.0% at 12% terrasil solution. It was therefore concluded that the terrasil solution serves as a cheap and effective stabilizing agent for poor soil.
Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.
1988-01-01
Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.
Solutions of the Bohr Hamiltonian, a compendium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortunato, L.
2005-10-01
The Bohr Hamiltonian, also called collective Hamiltonian, is one of the cornerstones of nuclear physics and a wealth of solutions (analytic or approximated) of the associated eigenvalue equation have been proposed over more than half a century (confining ourselves to the quadrupole degree of freedom). Each particular solution is associated with a peculiar form for the V(β,γ) potential. The large number and the different details of the mathematical derivation of these solutions, as well as their increased and renewed importance for nuclear structure and spectroscopy, demand a thorough discussion. It is the aim of the present monograph to present in detail all the known solutions in γ-unstable and γ-stable cases, in a taxonomic and didactical way. In pursuing this task we especially stressed the mathematical side leaving the discussion of the physics to already published comprehensive material. The paper contains also a new approximate solution for the linear potential, and a new solution for prolate and oblate soft axial rotors, as well as some new formulae and comments. The quasi-dynamical SO(2) symmetry is proposed in connection with the labeling of bands in triaxial nuclei.
Clustering of solutions in hard satisfiability problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardelius, John; Aurell, Erik; Krishnamurthy, Supriya
2007-10-01
We study numerically the solution space structure of random 3-SAT problems close to the SAT/UNSAT transition. This is done by considering chains of satisfiability problems, where clauses are added sequentially to a problem instance. Using the overlap measure of similarity between different solutions found on the same problem instance, we examine geometrical changes as a function of α. In each chain, the overlap distribution is first smooth, but then develops a tiered structure, indicating that the solutions are found in well separated clusters. On chains of not too large instances, all remaining solutions are eventually observed to be found in only one small cluster before vanishing. This condensation transition point is estimated by finite size scaling to be αc = 4.26 with an apparent critical exponent of about 1.7. The average overlap value is also observed to increase with α up to the transition, indicating a reduction in solutions space size, in accordance with theoretical predictions. The solutions are generated by a local heuristic, ASAT, and compared to those found by the Survey Propagation algorithm up to αc.
Solute transport by a volatile solvent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Glenn O.; McWhorter, David B.
1990-05-01
In relatively dry porous media, water is transported as both liquid and vapor. Exact knowledge of this two-phase transport, and the phase transfer of water associated with it, is required for the prediction of solute transport. Combined liquid and vapor transport is examined starting from basic principles. An analytic solution is presented for the case of isothermal, transient, one-dimensional sorption of water with constant liquid content boundaries. A relation is also obtained for the evaporation and condensation within the flow field. A numerical solution for the solute transport is obtained which takes maximum advantage of the analytical flow solution. Using the properties of Lurgi retorted oil shale, several special cases are examined which show the relative importance of the separate phases in the total transport of water, the effects on the phase transfer, and the solute transport. It is expected that these methods and results can be applied to other problems in multiple phase transport, such as hazardous waste disposal and pesticide transport.
Cochrane, T T; Cochrane, T A
2016-01-01
To demonstrate that the authors' new "aqueous solution vs pure water" equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of "free" water molecules per unit volume of solution, "Nf," and (c) the "t" factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate Nf was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors' equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. The provisional equations formulated to calculate Nf, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of Nf using recorded relative density data at 20 °C. They were
On the nature of insight solutions: evidence from skill differences in anagram solution.
Novick, Laura R; Sherman, Steven J
2003-02-01
According to the Gestalt psychologists, problem solutions that pop into mind suddenly with no awareness of the process by which they were generated are objectively as well as subjectively sudden. Thus, such pop-out solutions are qualitatively different from search solutions, which are constructed incrementally. The authors tested this claim in the domain of anagram solution. Experiment 1 documented that anagrams yield pop-out solutions, especially among highly skilled solvers. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that both pop-out and search solutions depended on the gradual accumulation of partial information, contrary to the Gestalt view of problem solving. Nevertheless, some aspects of the Experiment 2 results, as well as new analyses of an anagram study reported elsewhere, suggest that there may in fact be a qualitative difference between pop-out and search solutions. In particular, pop-out solutions may result from parallel processing of the constraints on the rearranged order of the anagram letters, whereas search solutions may result from a serial hypothesis-testing procedure. Like dynamite, the insightful solution explodes on the solver's cognitive landscape with breathtaking suddenness, but if one looks closely, a long fuse warns of the impending reorganization. (Durso, Rea, & Dayton, 1994, p. 98)
Photochemistry of Solutes in Different Locations in/on Ice. Part I: Visualizing Solute Locations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anastasio, C.; Hullar, T.
2014-12-01
Solutes in snow and ice are present in at least 3 different types of locations: at the air-ice interface (sometimes called the quasi-liquid layer or QLL), in other liquid-like regions (LLRs) within the ice, and in the matrix of the bulk ice. Some reports in the literature show that direct photodegradation of solutes is enhanced in the QLL relative to in solution, while other reports show that solutes in whole ice samples behave as if they were in supercooled aqueous solution. Our overall goal is to understand where solutes reside in laboratory ice samples and whether their photochemistry depends upon location. In this first portion of our work we will describe our efforts to address the first component of this goal, i.e., the location of solutes. Using micro-CT (computed tomography) we can create a 3-dimensional image of a frozen sample, identifying areas of air, water ice, and concentrated solute. Slower freezing methods tend to produce samples with larger air bubbles and concentrated solute inclusions. Interestingly, areas of concentrated solute are often adjacent to internal air bubbles, providing an air-ice interface that is not at the top surface of the sample. We also see some concentrated solute in internal veins or at the ice-air interface at the top of the sample. These areas have some liquid-like behavior, often forming thin layers and moving within the frozen sample in a thermal gradient (but still below 273 K). In contrast, for samples prepared by flash-freezing solution in liquid nitrogen, the solutes are nearly invisible to the micro-CT technique, suggesting they are present in very small domains, possibly dispersed throughout the sample.
Darvishmanesh, Siavash; Degrève, Jan; Van der Bruggen, Bart
2010-10-28
The separation performance of solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membranes was studied in a systematic way to elucidate the complex mechanisms involved in rejection of solutes. Rejection of three dyes (Sudan II, Sudan Black, Sudan 408) from common organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene and n-hexane) through a polyimide based SRNF membrane, STARMEM™122, was studied. It was found that the rejection of the STARMEM™122 membrane was lower than that indicated by the manufacturer. The experimental observations for Sudan II were not promising for the rejection study as they were lower than expected. Sudan Black and Sudan 408, which are larger solutes than Sudan II, provided more interesting insights. The effects of the solvent on the membrane and solute were studied separately. A higher permeation rate of ketones and alcohols was observed, while permeabilities of non-polar solvents were low which shows that this membrane shows higher affinity toward semi-polar solvents (alcohols, ketones). The effect of the solvent on the solute's rejection, based on the results for Sudan Black and Sudan 408, was studied for solvents in the same chemical groups, since the membrane showed a similar separation performance for solvents with similar functional groups (e.g. alcohols). The effect of solvent on solute molecular size was investigated by using simulation with Molecular Dynamics. It was shown that the effective size of a molecule is dependent on the solvent due to solvation and hydration of the solute by the solvent. The size of the solute in the solvent belonging to a similar family was studied separately. It was clear that the rejection was influenced by molecular size of the solute in the same group of solvents. A surprising negative rejection of solutes was achieved for n-hexane. Although solutes in n-hexane have higher volume compared to those in other solvents, the affinity between the solute and membrane increases the solute
On concentrated solute sources in faulted aquifers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, N. I.; Werner, A. D.
2017-06-01
Finite aperture faults and fractures within aquifers (collectively called 'faults' hereafter) theoretically enable flowing water to move through them but with refractive displacement, both on entry and exit. When a 2D or 3D point source of solute concentration is located upstream of the fault, the plume emanating from the source relative to one in a fault-free aquifer is affected by the fault, both before it and after it. Previous attempts to analyze this situation using numerical methods faced challenges in overcoming computational constraints that accompany requisite fine mesh resolutions. To address these, an analytical solution of this problem is developed and interrogated using statistical evaluation of solute distributions. The method of solution is based on novel spatial integral representations of the source with axes rotated from the direction of uniform water flow and aligning with fault faces and normals. Numerical exemplification is given to the case of a 2D steady state source, using various parameter combinations. Statistical attributes of solute plumes show the relative impact of parameters, the most important being, fault rotation, aperture and conductivity ratio. New general observations of fault-affected solution plumes are offered, including: (a) the plume's mode (i.e. peak concentration) on the downstream face of the fault is less displaced than the refracted groundwater flowline, but at some distance downstream of the fault, these realign; (b) porosities have no influence in steady state calculations; (c) previous numerical modeling results of barrier faults show significant boundary effects. The current solution adds to available benchmark problems involving fractures, faults and layered aquifers, in which grid resolution effects are often barriers to accurate simulation.
Universal BPS structure of stationary supergravity solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bossard, Guillaume; Nicolai, Hermann; Stelle, K. S.
2009-07-01
We study asymptotically flat stationary solutions of four-dimensional supergravity theories via the associated fraktur G/fraktur H* pseudo-Riemannian non-linear sigma models in three spatial dimensions. The Noether charge Script C associated to fraktur G is shown to satisfy a characteristic equation that determines it as a function of the four-dimensional conserved charges. The matrix Script C is nilpotent for non-rotating extremal solutions. The nilpotency degree of Script C is directly related to the BPS degree of the corresponding solution when they are BPS. Equivalently, the charges can be described in terms of a Weyl spinor |Script Crangle of Spin*(2Script N), and then the characteristic equation becomes equivalent to a generalisation of the Cartan pure spinor constraint on |Script Crangle. The invariance of a given solution with respect to supersymmetry is determined by an algebraic `Dirac equation' on the Weyl spinor |Script Crangle. We explicitly solve this equation for all pure supergravity theories and we characterise the stratified structure of the moduli space of asymptotically Taub-NUT black holes with respect to their BPS degree. The analysis is valid for any asymptotically flat stationary solutions for which the singularities are protected by horizons. The fraktur H*-orbits of extremal solutions are identified as Lagrangian submanifolds of nilpotent orbits of fraktur G, and so the moduli space of extremal spherically symmetric black holes is identified as a Lagrangian subvariety of the variety of nilpotent elements of fraktur g. We also generalise the notion of active duality transformations to an `almost action' of the three-dimensional duality group fraktur G on asymptotically flat stationary solutions.