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Sample records for 320-slice volume mdct

  1. Electrocardiogram-Gated 320-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography for the Measurement of Pulmonary Arterial Distensibility in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Hajime; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Sakurai, Yoriko; Yahaba, Misuzu; Matsuura, Yukiko; Shigeta, Ayako; Kawata, Naoko; Sakao, Seiichiro; Kasahara, Yasunori; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to study whether pulmonary arterial distensibility (PAD) correlates with hemodynamic parameters in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 320-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Methods and Findings ECG-gated 320-slice MDCT and right heart catheterization (RHC) was performed in 53 subjects (60.6±11.4 years old; 37 females) with CTEPH. We retrospectively measured the minimum and maximum values of the cross sectional area (CSA) of the main pulmonary artery (mainPA), right pulmonary artery (rtPA), and left pulmonary artery (ltPA) during one heartbeat. PAD was calculated using the following formula: PAD = [(CSAmaximum−CSAminimum)/CSAmaximum]×100(%). The correlation between hemodynamic parameters and PAD was assessed. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were 40.8±8.7 mmHg and 8.3±3.0 wood units, respectively. PAD values were as follows: mainPA (14.0±5.0%), rtPA (12.8±5.6%), and ltPA (9.7±4.6%). Good correlations existed between mainPAD, with mPAP (r = −0.594, p<0.001) and PVR (r = −0.659, p<0.001). The correlation coefficients between rtPAD and ltPAD with pulmonary hemodynamics were all lower or equal than for mainPAD. Conclusions PAD measured using ECG-gated 320-slice MDCT correlates with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with CTEPH. The mainPA is suitable for PAD measurement. PMID:25365168

  2. Dynamic 320-slice CT larynx for detection and management of idiopathic bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Laurence E; Lau, Kenneth K; Low, Kathy; Crossett, Marcus; Vallance, Neil; Bardin, Philip G

    2014-03-01

    Idiopathic bilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a rare and difficult condition often undiagnosed and frequently confused with asthma and other respiratory conditions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial since 80% of cases patients require surgical intervention, such as tracheostomy or laser surgery, to relieve symptoms. The "gold standard" for diagnosing VCP has been laryngoscopy. In this case study, we demonstrate for the first time that idiopathic bilateral VCP can be accurately diagnosed by means of a novel noninvasive methodology: dynamic volume 320-slice computed tomography larynx. Three-dimensional reconstruction of laryngeal motion during the breathing cycle permitted functional assessment of the larynx showing absence of vocal cord movements. The new methodology may be valuable for noninvasive diagnosis of vocal cord movement disorders before and for follow-up after surgery. PMID:25473555

  3. Implementation and characterization of a 320-slice volumetric CT scanner for simulation in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Coolens, C.; Breen, S.; Purdie, T. G.; Owrangi, A.; Publicover, J.; Bartolac, S.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Effective target definition and broad employment of treatment response assessment with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT in radiation oncology requires increased speed and coverage for use within a single bolus injection. To this end, a novel volumetric CT scanner (Aquilion One, Toshiba, Tochigi Pref., Japan) has been installed at the Princess Margaret Hospital for implementation into routine CT simulation. This technology offers great advantages for anatomical and functional imaging in both scan speed and coverage. The aim of this work is to investigate the system's imaging performance and quality as well as CT quantification accuracy which is important for radiotherapy dose calculations. Methods: The 320-slice CT scanner uses a 160 mm wide-area (2D) solid-state detector design which provides the possibility to acquire a volumetric axial length of 160 mm without moving the CT couch. This is referred to as ''volume'' and can be scanned with a rotation speed of 0.35-3 s. The scanner can also be used as a 64-slice CT scanner and perform conventional (axial) and helical acquisitions with collimation ranges of 1-32 and 16-32 mm, respectively. Commissioning was performed according to AAPM Reports TG 66 and 39 for both helical and volumetric imaging. Defrise and other cone-beam image analysis tests were performed. Results: Overall, the imaging spatial resolution and geometric efficiency (GE) were found to be very good (>10 lp/mm, <1 mm spatial integrity and GE{sub 160mm}=85%) and within the AAPM guidelines as well as IEC recommendations. Although there is evidence of some cone-beam artifacts when scanning the Defrise phantom, image quality was found to be good and sufficient for treatment planning (soft tissue noise <10 HU). Measurements of CT number stability and contrast-to-noise values across the volume indicate clinically acceptable scan accuracy even at the field edge. Conclusions: Initial experience with this exciting new technology confirms its accuracy for

  4. Assessing Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Depression Using 320-Slice Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Songlin; Liu, Xingde; O'Neil, Adrienne; Turner, Alyna; Chai, Fangxian; Chen, Fanying; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    While there is evidence that the development and course of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptomatology is associated with vascular disease, and that there are changes in energy utilization in the disorder, the extent to which cerebral blood flow is changed in this condition is not clear. This study utilized a novel imaging technique previously used in coronary and stroke patients, 320-slice Computed-Tomography (CT), to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in those with MDD and examine the pattern of regional cerebral perfusion. Thirty nine participants with depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 24 (HAMD24) score >20, and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) score >53) and 41 healthy volunteers were studied. For all subjects, 3 ml of venous blood was collected to assess hematological parameters. Trancranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was utilized to measure parameters of cerebral artery rCBFV and analyse the Pulsatility Index (PI). 16 subjects (8 =  MDD; 8 =  healthy) also had rCBF measured in different cerebral artery regions using 320-slice CT. Differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson's tests were employed in our statistical analyses. Compared with the control group, whole blood viscosity (including high\\middle\\low shear rate)and hematocrit (HCT) were significantly increased in the MDD group. PI values in different cerebral artery regions and parameters of rCBFV in the cerebral arteries were decreased in depressive participants, and there was a positive relationship between rCBFV and the corresponding vascular rCBF in both gray and white matter. rCBF of the left gray matter was lower than that of the right in MDD. Major depression is characterized by a wide range of CBF impairments and prominent changes in gray matter blood flow. 320-slice CT appears to be a valid and promising tool for measuring rCBF, and could thus be employed in psychiatric settings for biomarker and treatment response purposes. PMID:25251476

  5. Value of segmental coronary calcium score on diagnosis and interventional treatment of coronary lesions by 320-slice DVCT

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Ming; Sun, Gang; Han, Shu-Fang; Tan, Hong; Gao, Yu-Qi; Jin, Qun; Li, Yan-Min; Fang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The global coronary calcium score has been widely used in the evaluation of coronary plaque burden and cardiovascular disease events. In this study, we investigated the value of segmental coronary calcium score (SCCS) on the diagnosis and interventional treatment. We studied 87 patients with coronary angiography (CAG) and coronary CT angiography (CTA) by 320-slice dynamic volume CT (DVCT). SCCS was determined for each segmental separately. All lesions which SCCS was greater than 0 were enrolled, and were divided into three groups, mild calcification group (SCCS were less than 80), Moderate calcification group (SCCS were more than 80 and less than 200) and Severe calcification group (SCCS were more than 200). From above three groups, lesions received the intervention treatment were elected as subgroup. The position of lesions, plaque morphology, calcification proportion and interventional treatment data were analyzed. Severe calcification group were more frequent in the proximal lesions, stenosis with lesser extent, nubbly and nodular types of plaque, and the inconsistency with CAG was higher than the other two groups (P < 0.05). In the subgroup, more pre-dilatation and post-dilatation balloon were used in severe calcification group, with higher expansion pressure of balloon and stent (P < 0.05), but the diameter of stents was no difference between the three groups. Conclusion: SCCS is better than GCCS in the evaluation of coronary calcification, and play an important role in the judgment of stenosis by coronary CT and in the choice of interventional therapeutic devices. PMID:25232412

  6. Dynamic real-time 4D cardiac MDCT image display using GPU-accelerated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2009-09-01

    Intraoperative cardiac monitoring, accurate preoperative diagnosis, and surgical planning are important components of minimally-invasive cardiac therapy. Retrospective, electrocardiographically (ECG) gated, multidetector computed tomographical (MDCT), four-dimensional (3D + time), real-time, cardiac image visualization is an important tool for the surgeon in such procedure, particularly if the dynamic volumetric image can be registered to, and fused with the actual patient anatomy. The addition of stereoscopic imaging provides a more intuitive environment by adding binocular vision and depth cues to structures within the beating heart. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a comprehensive stereoscopic 4D cardiac image visualization and manipulation platform, based on the opacity density radiation model, which exploits the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) in the rendering pipeline. In addition, we present a new algorithm to synchronize the phases of the dynamic heart to clinical ECG signals, and to calculate and compensate for latencies in the visualization pipeline. A dynamic multiresolution display is implemented to enable the interactive selection and emphasis of volume of interest (VOI) within the entire contextual cardiac volume and to enhance performance, and a novel color and opacity adjustment algorithm is designed to increase the uniformity of the rendered multiresolution image of heart. Our system provides a visualization environment superior to noninteractive software-based implementations, but with a rendering speed that is comparable to traditional, but inferior quality, volume rendering approaches based on texture mapping. This retrospective ECG-gated dynamic cardiac display system can provide real-time feedback regarding the suspected pathology, function, and structural defects, as well as anatomical information such as chamber volume and morphology.

  7. Investigation of lung nodule detectability in low-dose 320-slice computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J. D.; Paul, N. S.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2009-05-15

    Low-dose imaging protocols in chest CT are important in the screening and surveillance of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules. Techniques that maintain nodule detectability yet permit dose reduction, particularly for large body habitus, were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which radiation dose can be minimized while maintaining diagnostic performance through knowledgeable selection of reconstruction techniques. A 320-slice volumetric CT scanner (Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems) was used to scan an anthropomorphic phantom at doses ranging from {approx}0.1 mGy up to that typical of low-dose CT (LDCT, {approx}5 mGy) and diagnostic CT ({approx}10 mGy). Radiation dose was measured via Farmer chamber and MOSFET dosimetry. The phantom presented simulated nodules of varying size and contrast within a heterogeneous background, and chest thickness was varied through addition of tissue-equivalent bolus about the chest. Detectability of a small solid lung nodule (3.2 mm diameter, -37 HU, typically the smallest nodule of clinical significance in screening and surveillance) was evaluated as a function of dose, patient size, reconstruction filter, and slice thickness by means of nine-alternative forced-choice (9AFC) observer tests to quantify nodule detectability. For a given reconstruction filter, nodule detectability decreased sharply below a threshold dose level due to increased image noise, especially for large body size. However, nodule detectability could be maintained at lower doses through knowledgeable selection of (smoother) reconstruction filters. For large body habitus, optimal filter selection reduced the dose required for nodule detection by up to a factor of {approx}3 (from {approx}3.3 mGy for sharp filters to {approx}1.0 mGy for the optimal filter). The results indicate that radiation dose can be reduced below the current low-dose (5 mGy) and ultralow-dose (1 mGy) levels with knowledgeable selection of

  8. Systems for Lung Volume Standardization during Static and Dynamic MDCT-based Quantitative Assessment of Pulmonary Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuld, Matthew K.; Grout, Randall; Guo, Junfeng; Morgan, John H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Multidetector-row Computed Tomography (MDCT) has emerged as a tool for quantitative assessment of parenchymal destruction, air trapping (density metrics) and airway remodeling (metrics relating airway wall and lumen geometry) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Critical to the accuracy and interpretability of these MDCT-derived metrics is the assurance that the lungs are scanned during a breath-hold at a standardized volume. Materials and Methods A computer monitored turbine-based flow meter system was developed to control patient breath-holds and facilitate static imaging at fixed percentages of the vital capacity. Due to calibration challenges with gas density changes during multi-breath xenon-CT an alternative system was required. The design incorporated dual rolling seal pistons. Both systems were tested in a laboratory environment and human subject trials. Results The turbine-based system successfully controlled lung volumes in 32/37 subjects, having a linear relationship for CT measured air volume between repeated scans: for all scans, the mean and confidence interval of the differences (scan1-scan2) was −9 ml (−169, 151); for TLC alone 6 ml (−164, 177); for FRC alone, −23 ml (−172, 126). The dual-piston system successfully controlled lung volume in 31/41 subjects. Study failures related largely to subject non-compliance with verbal instruction and gas leaks around the mouthpiece. Conclusion We demonstrate the successful use of a turbine-based system for static lung volume control and demonstrate its inadequacies for dynamic xenon-CT studies. Implementation of a dual-rolling seal spirometer has been shown to adequately control lung volume for multi-breath wash-in xenon-CT studies. These systems coupled with proper patient coaching provide the tools for the use of CT to quantitate regional lung structure and function. The wash-in xenon-CT method for assessing regional lung function, while not

  9. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 3,2015 ... facts MDCT is a very fast type of computed tomography (CT) scan. MDCT creates pictures of the healthy ...

  10. MDCT and MR imaging of the jejunum.

    PubMed

    El Fattach, H; Dohan, A; Guerrache, Y; Dautry, R; Eveno, C; Boudiaf, M; Hoeffel, C; Soyer, P

    2015-03-01

    Recent refinements in cross-sectional imaging have dramatically modified the investigation of the jejunum. Improvements in multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology have made detection and characterization of jejunal abnormalities easier. Current options include MDCT and MR imaging using either enterography or enteroclysis. The goal of this pictorial review is to outline the current imaging techniques that are used to investigate the jejunum and illustrate the most common conditions that affect this small bowel segment with a specific focus on MDCT and MR imaging using enterography or enteroclysis. MR imaging used in conjunction with optimal jejunal distension appears as the modality of choice for the diagnosis of a wide range of jejunal abnormalities. MDCT remains the first line imaging modalities because of an acute presentation in a substantial number of patients. PMID:25482665

  11. Perinephric abscess caused by ruptured retrocecal appendix: MDCT demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Nisar Ahmad; Farooq, Mir; Gojwari, Tariq; Kosar, Tasleem

    2010-01-01

    Acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening yet difficult to diagnose. One such presentation is described in a 60-year-old man who was brought to the hospital due to right lumbar pain and fever for the last 15 days. Ultrasonography showed a right perinephric gas and fluid collection. Abdominal computed tomography with multidetector-row CT (MDCT) revealed gas-containing abscess in the right retroperitoneal region involving the perinephric space, extending from the lower pole of the right kidney up to the bare area of the liver. Inflamed retrocecal appendix was seen on thick multiplanar reformat images with its tip at the lower extent of the abscess. Laparotomy and retroperitoneal exploration were performed immediately and a large volume of foul smelling pus was drained. A ruptured retrocecal appendix was confirmed as the cause of the abscess. PMID:20842255

  12. MDCT evaluation of acute aortic syndrome (AAS).

    PubMed

    Valente, Tullio; Rossi, Giovanni; Lassandro, Francesco; Rea, Gaetano; Marino, Maurizio; Muto, Maurizio; Molino, Antonio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic acute thoracic aortic syndromes (AAS) describe a spectrum of life-threatening aortic pathologies with significant implications on diagnosis, therapy and management. There is a common pathway for the various manifestations of AAS that eventually leads to a breakdown of the aortic intima and media. Improvements in biology and health policy and diffusion of technology into the community resulted in an associated decrease in mortality and morbidity related to aortic therapeutic interventions. Hybrid procedures, branched and fenestrated endografts, and percutaneous aortic valves have emerged as potent and viable alternatives to traditional surgeries. In this context, current state-of-the art multidetector CT (MDCT) is actually the gold standard in the emergency setting because of its intrinsic diagnostic value. Management of acute aortic disease has changed with the increasing realization that endovascular therapies may offer distinct advantages in these situations. This article provides a summary of AAS, focusing especially on the MDCT technique, typical and atypical findings and common pitfalls of AAS, as well as recent concepts regarding the subtypes of AAS, consisting of aortic dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and unstable aortic aneurysm or contained aortic rupture. MDCT findings will be related to pathophysiology, timing and management options to achieve a definite and timely diagnostic and therapeutic definition. In the present article, we review the aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, outcomes and therapeutic approaches to acute aortic syndromes. PMID:27033344

  13. Comparison of the accuracy of multidetector computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography to measure left atrial volume.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Erick; Durst, Ronen; Rosito, Guido A; Thangaroopan, Molly; Kumar, Simi; Tournoux, Francois; Chan, Raymond C; Hung, Judy; Hoffmann, Udo; Abbara, Suhny; Brady, Thomas; Cury, Ricardo C

    2010-07-01

    Left atrial (LA) volume is an important prognostic factor in cardiovascular disease. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is an emerging cardiac imaging modality; however, its accuracy in measuring the LA volume has not been well studied. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of MDCT in quantifying the LA volume. A total of 48 patients underwent MDCT and 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (2DE) on the same day. The area-length and Simpson's methods were used to obtain the 2D echocardiographic LA volume. The LA volume assessment by MDCT was obtained using the modified Simpson's method. Four artificial phantoms were created, and their true volume was assessed by an independent observer using both imaging modalities. The correlation between the LA volume by MDCT and 2DE was significant (r = 0.68). The mean 2D echocardiographic LA volume was lower than the LA volume obtained with MDCT (2DE 79 +/- 37 vs MDCT 103 +/- 32, p <0.05). In the phantom experiment, the volume obtained using MDCT and 2DE correlated significantly with the true volume (r = 0.97, p <0.05 vs r = 0.96, p <0.05, respectively). However, the mean 2D echocardiographic phantom volume was 16% lower than the true volume (2DE, Simpson's method 53 +/- 24 vs the true volume 61 +/- 24, p <0.05). The mean volume calculated using MDCT did not differ from the true volume (MDCT 60 +/- 21 vs true volume 61 +/- 24, p = NS). 2DE appeared to systematically underestimate the LA volume compared to phantom and cardiac MDCT, suggesting that different normal cutoff values should be used for each modality. In conclusion, LA volume quantification using MDCT is an accurate and feasible method. PMID:20609656

  14. Reperfusion injury components and manifestations determined by cardiovascular MR and MDCT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Maythem; Hetts, Steve; Wilson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) imaging have improved visualization of acute and scar infarct. Over the past decade, there have been and continues to be many significant technical advancements in cardiac MR and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) technologies. The strength of MR imaging relies on a variety of pulse sequences and the ability to noninvasively provide information on myocardial structure, function and perfusion in a single imaging session. The recent technical developments may also allow CT technologies to rise to the forefront for evaluating clinical ischemic heart disease. Components of reperfusion injury including myocardial edema, hemorrhage, calcium deposition and microvascular obstruction (MO) have been demonstrated using MR and CT technologies. MR imaging can be used serially and noninvasively in assessing acute and chronic consequences of reperfusion injury because there is no radiation exposure or administration of radioactive materials. MDCT is better suited for assessing coronary artery stenosis and as an alternative technique for assessing viability in patients where MR imaging is contraindicated. Changes in left ventricular (LV) volumes and function measured on cine MR are directly related to infarct size measured on delayed contrast enhanced images. Recent MR studies found that transmural infarct, MO and peri-infarct zone are excellent predictors of poor post-infarct recovery and mortality. Recent MR studies provided ample evidence that growth factor genes and stem cells delivered locally have beneficial effects on myocardial viability, perfusion and function. The significance of deposited calcium in acute infarct detected on MDCT requires further studies. Cardiac MR and MDCT imaging have the potential for assessing reperfusion injury components and manifestations. PMID:21160735

  15. Dose reduction in paediatric MDCT: general principles.

    PubMed

    Paterson, A; Frush, D P

    2007-06-01

    The number of multi-detector array computed tomography (MDCT) examinations performed per annum continues to increase in both the adult and paediatric populations. Estimates from 2003 suggested that CT contributed 17% of a radiology department's workload, yet was responsible for up to 75% of the collective population dose from medical radiation. The effective doses for some CT examinations today overlap with those argued to have an increased risk of cancer. This is especially pertinent for paediatric CT, as children are more radiosensitive than adults (and girls more radiosensitive than boys). In addition, children have a longer life ahead of them, in which radiation induced cancers may become manifest. Radiologists must be aware of these facts and practise the ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle, when it comes to deciding CT protocols and parameters. PMID:17467387

  16. Giant colonic diverticulum: radiographic and MDCT characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Mahamid, Ahmad; Nachtigal, Alicia; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Shapira-Rootman, Mika

    2015-12-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum (GCD), defined as a diverticulum larger than 4 cm, is a rare entity that is generally a manifestation of colonic diverticular disease. Because of its rarity and its variable and non-specific presentation, the diagnosis of GCD depends mainly on imaging findings. Knowledge of the spectrum of radiographic and CT features of the GCD is important in making the correct diagnosis and potentially preventing complications. This review focuses on imaging findings characteristic of GCD as well as its complications and radiographic mimics. Teaching points • Giant colonic diverticulum is a rare complication of diverticulosis.• The most common symptom is abdominal pain presenting in approximately 70 % of patients.• Diagnosis is based on imaging findings with plain abdominal radiographs and MDCT.• Treatment consists of en bloc resection of the diverticulum and affected adjacent colon.

  17. Quantification of arterial plaque and lumen density with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Narinder S.; Blobel, Joerg; Kashani, Hany; Rice, Murray; Ursani, Ali

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to derive a mathematical correction function in order to normalize the CT number measurements for small volume arterial plaque and small vessel mimicking objects, imaged with multidetector CT (MDCT). Methods: A commercially available calcium plaque phantom (QRM GmbH, Moehrendorf, Germany) and a custom built cardiovascular phantom were scanned with 320 and 64 MDCT scanners. The calcium hydroxyapatite plaque phantom contained objects 0.5-5.0 mm in diameter with known CT attenuation nominal values ranging 50-800 HU. The cardiovascular phantom contained vessel mimicking objects 1.0-5.0 mm in diameter with different contrast media. Both phantoms were scanned using clinical protocols for CT angiography and images were reconstructed with different filter kernels. The measured CT number (HU) and diameter of each object were analyzed on three clinical postprocessing workstations. From the resultant data, a mathematical formula was derived based on absorption function exp(-{mu}{sup *}d) to demonstrate the relation between measured CT numbers and object diameters. Results: The percentage reduction in measured CT number (HU) for the group of selected filter kernels, apparent during CT angiography, is dependent only on the object size (plaque or vessel diameter). The derived formula of the form 1-c{sup *}exp(-a{sup *}d{sup b}) showed reduction in CT number for objects between 0.5 and 5 mm in diameter, with asymptote reaching background noise for small objects with diameters nearing the CT in-plane resolution (0.35 mm). No reduction was observed for the objects with diameters equal or larger than 5 mm. Conclusions: A clear mathematical relationship exists between object diameter and reduction in measured CT number in HU. This function is independent of exposure parameters and inherent attenuation properties of the objects studied. Future developments include the incorporation of this mathematical model function into quantification software in order to

  18. Temporal resolution improvement using PICCS in MDCT cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Tang, Jie; Hsieh, Jiang

    2009-06-01

    The current paradigm for temporal resolution improvement is to add more source-detector units and/or increase the gantry rotation speed. The purpose of this article is to present an innovative alternative method to potentially improve temporal resolution by approximately a factor of 2 for all MDCT scanners without requiring hardware modification. The central enabling technology is a most recently developed image reconstruction method: Prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS). Using the method, cardiac CT images can be accurately reconstructed using the projection data acquired in an angular range of about 120 degrees, which is roughly 50% of the standard short-scan angular range (approximately 240 degrees for an MDCT scanner). As a result, the temporal resolution of MDCT cardiac imaging can be universally improved by approximately a factor of 2. In order to validate the proposed method, two in vivo animal experiments were conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice CT scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at different gantry rotation times and different heart rates. One animal was scanned at heart rate of 83 beats per minute (bpm) using 400 ms gantry rotation time and the second animal was scanned at 94 bpm using 350 ms gantry rotation time, respectively. Cardiac coronary CT imaging can be successfully performed at high heart rates using a single-source MDCT scanner and projection data from a single heart beat with gantry rotation times of 400 and 350 ms. Using the proposed PICCS method, the temporal resolution of cardiac CT imaging can be effectively improved by approximately a factor of 2 without modifying any scanner hardware. This potentially provides a new method for single-source MDCT scanners to achieve reliable coronary CT imaging for patients at higher heart rates than the current heart rate limit of 70 bpm without using the well-known multisegment FBP reconstruction algorithm. This method also enables dual-source MDCT scanner to achieve higher

  19. MDCT of the hand and wrist: beyond trauma.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Shivani; Corl, Frank M; Fishman, Elliot K; Fayad, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has played a pivotal role in assessing patients following trauma; however, recent advancements in technology including dual-energy CT, as well as multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) capabilities, are expanding the potential clinical applications of CT to include nontraumatic pathologies. This article will review optimal technical parameters for the creation of MDCT and 3DCT images and illustrate the imaging capabilities of 3DCT imaging for demonstrating nontraumatic hand and wrist pathology. PMID:25301374

  20. Bypass graft imaging and coronary anomalies in MDCT.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gabriel C

    2005-02-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is used to restore the blood flow in an ischemic area of myocardium using conduits bypassing a diseased coronary artery. Until now, conventional angiography has been the recognized technique to study patients with bypass grafts. Nowadays, non-invasive methods such as multi-detector CT (MDCT) emerge as reliable imaging methods in the study of CABG. Thus, radiologists play an important role in this field, not only to define if the bypass graft is occluded or stenosed but also to report further information such as CABG technique performed, type of conduit used or pre-operative findings. This paper analyzes the most practical information that the radiologist must know in a study of CABG. Another theme which will be briefly described is the use of MDCT in coronary anomalies studies, with particular emphasis on the course of the abnormal vessel and its relation to great vessels. PMID:15801059

  1. CT Hounsfield Numbers of Soft Tissues on Unenhanced Abdominal CT Scans: Variability Between Two Different Manufacturers’ MDCT Scanners

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Ramit; McGahan, John P.; Corwin, Michael T.; Li, Chin-Shang; Tran, Tien; Seibert, J. Anthony; Boone, John M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hounsfield numbers of soft tissues on unenhanced abdominal CT of the same patient vary on repeat scans done on two different manufacturers’ MDCT scanners. MATERIALS AND METHODS A database search was performed to identify patients older than 18 years who underwent unenhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed both on a Volume CT (GE Healthcare) and a Definition AS Plus (Siemens Healthcare) 64-MDCT scanner within 12 months of each other. After excluding those patients for whom Hounsfield unit measurements would be affected by mitigating factors, 48 patients (mean age, 58.8 years) were identified. Hounsfield unit measurements were obtained in nine different soft-tissue anatomic locations on each scan, and the location of these sites was kept identical on each scan pair. Data were analyzed to evaluate Hounsfield unit differences between these scanners. RESULTS In general, there was a low consistency in the Hounsfield unit measurements for each of these sites on scans obtained by the two scanners, with the subcutaneous fat in the left posterolateral flank showing the lowest correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.198). There were differences in the Hounsfield unit measurements obtained in all anatomic sites on scans obtained by both scanners. Mean Hounsfield unit measurements obtained on the Definition AS Plus scanner were lower than those obtained on the Volume CT scanner, with the intriguing exception of the anterior midline subcutaneous fat Hounsfield unit measurements, which were higher on the Definition AS Plus scanner. All differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION Hounsfield unit measurements for unenhanced abdominal soft tissues of the same patient vary between scanners of two common MDCT manufacturers. PMID:25341139

  2. The impacts of open-mouth breathing on upper airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Joong; Choi, Ji Ho; Kim, Kang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Heung Man; Shin, Chol; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2011-04-01

    Open-mouth breathing during sleep is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is associated with increased disease severity and upper airway collapsibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of open-mouth breathing on the upper airway space in patients with OSA using three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3-D MDCT). The study design included a case-control study with planned data collection. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center. 3-D MDCT analysis was conducted on 52 patients with OSA under two experimental conditions: mouth closed and mouth open. Under these conditions, we measured the minimal cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions (mXSA-RP, mXSA-RG), as well as the upper airway length (UAL), defined as the vertical dimension from hard palate to hyoid. We also computed the volume of the upper airway space by 3-D reconstruction of both conditions. When the mouth was open, mXSA-RP and mXSA-RG significantly decreased and the UAL significantly increased, irrespective of the severity of OSA. However, between the closed- and open-mouth states, there was no significant change in upper airway volume at any severity of OSA. Results suggest that the more elongated and narrow upper airway during open-mouth breathing may aggravate the collapsibility of the upper airway and, thus, negatively affect OSA severity.

  3. MDCT of acute colitis in adults: an update in current imaging features.

    PubMed

    Barral, M; Boudiaf, M; Dohan, A; Hoeffel, C; Camus, M; Pautrat, K; Fishman, E K; Cohen, S; Soyer, P

    2015-02-01

    Acute colitis is often diagnosed on multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) because patients with this condition present with abdominal pain and a variety of nonspecific symptoms. Acute colitis has multiple causes with varying degrees of severity. Analysis of the extent of colonic involvement, presence of specific MDCT imaging features and associated signs should help radiologist narrow the diagnosis. Integrating the results of clinical examination and biological tests is mandatory, and in case of ambiguous or nonspecific MDCT findings, endoscopy and colon biopsy should always be considered for a definite diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate MDCT features that are helpful for characterizing acute colitis in adults and to provide an update in current MDCT features. PMID:24835625

  4. MDCT of acute colitis in adults: an update in current imaging features.

    PubMed

    Barral, M; Boudiaf, M; Dohan, A; Hoeffel, C; Camus, M; Pautrat, K; Fishman, E K; Cohen, S; Soyer, P

    2015-02-01

    Acute colitis is often diagnosed on multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) because patients with this condition present with abdominal pain and a variety of nonspecific symptoms. Acute colitis has multiple causes with varying degrees of severity. Analysis of the extent of colonic involvement, presence of specific MDCT imaging features and associated signs should help radiologist narrow the diagnosis. Integrating the results of clinical examination and biological tests is mandatory, and in case of ambiguous or nonspecific MDCT findings, endoscopy and colon biopsy should always be considered for a definite diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate MDCT features that are helpful for characterizing acute colitis in adults and to provide an update in current MDCT features.

  5. Coronary lesion complexity assessed by SYNTAX score in 256-slice dual-source MDCT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yüceler, Zeyneb; Kantarcı, Mecit; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Sade, Recep; Kızrak, Yeşim; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Bayraktutan, Ümmügülsüm; Oğul, Hayri; Aksakal, Enbiya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The SYNTAX Score (SS) has an important role in grading the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing revascularization. Noninvasive determination of SS prior to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) might optimize patient management. We aimed to evaluate the agreement between ICA and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) while testing the diagnostic effectiveness of SS-MDCT. METHODS Our study included 108 consecutive patients who underwent both MDCT angiography with a 256-slice dual-source MDCT system and ICA within 14±3 days. SS was calculated for both ICA and MDCT coronary angiography. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the association of SS-MDCT with SS-ICA, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed. RESULTS The degree of agreement between SS-ICA and SS-MDCT was moderate. The mean SS-MDCT was 14.5, whereas the mean SS-ICA was 15.9. After dividing SS into three groups (high [≥33], intermediate [23–32], and low [≤22] subgroups), agreement analysis was repeated. There was a significant correlation between SS-MDCT and SS-ICA in the low SS group (r=0.63, P = 0.043) but no significant correlation in the high SS group (r=0.036, P = 0.677). The inter-test agreement analysis showed at least moderate agreement, whereas thrombotic lesions and the type of bifurcation lesion showed fair agreement. CONCLUSION The calculation of SS-MDCT by adapting SS-ICA parameters achieved nearly the same degree of precision as SS-ICA and was better than SS-ICA, especially in the low SS group. PMID:27328718

  6. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C{sub 1} continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  7. Mixed-radix Algorithm for the Computation of Forward and Inverse MDCT

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong; Senhadji, Lotfi; Luo, Limin

    2008-01-01

    The modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT) are two of the most computational intensive operations in MPEG audio coding standards. A new mixed-radix algorithm for efficient computing the MDCT/IMDCT is presented. The proposed mixed-radix MDCT algorithm is composed of two recursive algorithms. The first algorithm, called the radix-2 decimation in frequency (DIF) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into two MDCTs with the length N/2. The second algorithm, called the radix-3 decimation in time (DIT) algorithm, is obtained by decomposing an N-point MDCT into three MDCTs with the length N/3. Since the proposed MDCT algorithm is also expressed in the form of a simple sparse matrix factorization, the corresponding IMDCT algorithm can be easily derived by simply transposing the matrix factorization. Comparison of the proposed algorithm with some existing ones shows that our proposed algorithm is more suitable for parallel implementation and especially suitable for the layer III of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio encoding and decoding. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be easily extended to the multidimensional case by using the vector-radix method. PMID:21258639

  8. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-07-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  9. Three-dimensional MDCT angiography for the assessment of arteriovenous grafts and fistulas in hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Raman, S P; Fishman, E K

    2016-03-01

    Arteriovenous grafts and fistulas are placed for long-term hemodialysis access, and their associated complications can lead to considerable morbidity. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images provide accurate delineation of hemodialysis access anatomy and show potential complications. This review makes the reader more familiar with vascular access anatomy and configurations, describes the appearance of access complications encountered on MDCT, and discusses endovascular and surgical treatment options for complications, which should aid in post-treatment evaluation. PMID:26868603

  10. Defining vascular signatures of benign hepatic masses: role of MDCT with 3D rendering.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sameer; Johnson, Pamela T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2013-08-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) provides new opportunities for hepatic tumor characterization. By coupling high-resolution isotropic datasets with advanced post-processing tools, maps of tumor vascularity can be generated to elucidate characteristic findings. This two-part review describes a range of benign and malignant liver masses, with emphasis on IV contrast-enhanced MDCT features and vascular signatures that can be identified on 3D vascular mapping.

  11. 3D Reconstruction of Phalangeal and Metacarpal Bones of Male Judo Players and Sedentary Men by MDCT Images

    PubMed Central

    Kalayci, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    This study has been performed to reveal hand bone peculiarities of elite male judoists by comparing their phalangeal and metacarpal bones with those of sedentary men on the basis of biometric ratio of the bones by means of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images. For this purpose, the axial images of the right and left hands of 8 elite male judo players (mean age: 22.0 ± 2.9 years, mean weight: 64.0 ± 4.9 kg) and 8 sedentary men (mean age: 26.0 ± 2.8 years, mean weight: 69.0 ± 3.6 kg) were obtained from MDCT. After semi-automatic segmentation and manual editing, the tracings of bone surfaces were stacked and overlaid to be reconstructed as the 3D images by the 3D program. All biometrical measurements of the reconstructed images of the bones were automatically calculated by this program to analyze statistically. This study showed that the differences between biometric ratios of judoist and sedentary men’s hand bones were significant contrary to null hypothesis which was established as there is no difference between biometric hand bone ratios of these men of both groups. Therefore null hypothesis was rejected. Author suggests that intense clutching actions practised in judo sports can most probably lead to some hand bone proliferations. 3D reconstructed results belonging to the judo players and sedentary men help orthopaedists to diagnose pathological formations related to hand bones of judoists and may be used for anatomical education in medicine faculties, respectively. We hope that the results from the biometric and reconstructive techniques carried out in this work will contribute to the present knowledge on judoist and shed light on the future studies on sports medicine related to skeletal structure of other sportsmen. Key pointsImage processing of hands of sedentary man and male judo players.3D models of hands of those men by using MDCT images.The results from those models compared in terms of volume

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of upper airways from MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perchet, Diane; Fetita, Catalin; Preteux, Francoise

    2005-03-01

    Under the framework of clinical respiratory investigation, providing accurate modalities for morpho-functional analysis is essential for diagnosis improvement, surgical planning and follow-up. This paper focuses on the upper airways investigation and develops an automated approach for 3D mesh reconstruction from MDCT acquisitions. In order to overcome the difficulties related to the complex morphology of the upper airways and to the image gray level heterogeneity of the airway lumens and thin bony septa, the proposed 3D reconstruction methodology combines 2D segmentation and 3D surface regularization approaches. The segmentation algorithm relies on mathematical morphology theory and provides airway lumen robust discrimination from the surrounding tissues, while preserving the connectivity relationship between the different anatomical structures. The 3D regularization step uses an energy-based modeling in order to achieve a smooth and well-fitted 3D surface of the upper airways. An accurate 3D mesh representation of the reconstructed airways makes it possible to develop specific clinical applications such as virtual endoscopy, surgical planning and computer assisted intervention. In addition, building up patient-specific 3D models of upper airways is highly valuable for the study and design of inhaled medication delivery via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

  13. CT angiography of neonates and infants: comparison of radiation dose and image quality of target mode prospectively ECG-gated 320-MDCT and ungated helical 64-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Siddharth P; Golriz, Farahnaz; Atweh, Lamya A; Zhang, Wei; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose and image quality of target mode prospectively ECG-gated volumetric CT angiography (CTA) performed with a 320-MDCT scanner compared with the radiation dose and image quality of ungated helical CTA performed with a 64-MDCT scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS. An experience with CTA for cardiovascular indications in neonates and infants 0-6 months old was retrospectively assessed. Radiation doses and quantitative and qualitative image quality scores of 28 CTA examinations performed with a 320-MDCT scanner and volumetric target mode prospective ECG gating plus iterative reconstruction (target mode) were compared with the doses and scores of 28 CTA examinations performed with a 64-MDCT scanner and ungated helical scanning plus filtered back projection reconstruction (ungated mode). All target mode studies were performed during free breathing. Seven ungated CTA examinations (25%) were performed with general endotracheal anesthesia. The findings of 17 preoperative CTA examinations performed in target mode were also compared with surgical reports for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS. All studies performed with target mode technique were diagnostic for the main clinical indication. Effective doses were significantly lower in the target mode group (0.51 ± 0.19 mSv) compared with the ungated mode group (4.8 ± 1.4 mSv) (p < 0.0001). Quantitative analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (of pulmonary artery and aorta) and contrast-to-noise ratio. Subjective image quality was significantly better with target mode than with ungated mode (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION. Target mode prospectively ECG-gated volumetric scanning with iterative reconstruction performed with a 320-MDCT scanner has several benefits in cardiovascular imaging of neonates and infants, including low radiation dose, improved image quality, high diagnostic

  14. Robust extraction of the aorta and pulmonary artery from 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Accurate definition of the aorta and pulmonary artery from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents robust methods for defining the aorta and pulmonary artery in the central chest. The methods work on both contrast enhanced and no-contrast 3D MDCT image data. The automatic methods use a common approach employing model fitting and selection and adaptive refinement. During the occasional event that more precise vascular extraction is desired or the method fails, we also have an alternate semi-automatic fail-safe method. The semi-automatic method extracts the vasculature by extending the medial axes into a user-guided direction. A ground-truth study over a series of 40 human 3D MDCT images demonstrates the efficacy, accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of the methods.

  15. Feasibility of Free-breathing CCTA using 256-MDCT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Zhuolu; Chen, Lei; Hong, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Usually, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is performed during breath-holding to reduce artifact caused by respiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing CCTA compared to breath-holding using CT scanner with wide detector. To evaluate the feasibility of CCTA during free-breathing using a 256-MDCT. In 80 patients who underwent CCTA, 40 were performed during breath-holding (group A), and the remaining 40 during free-breathing (group B). The quality scores for coronary arteries were analyzed and defined as: 3 (excellent), 2 (good), and 1 (poor). The image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and effective radiation dose as well as the heart rate variation were compared. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and effective radiation dose were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The mean heart rate variation between planning and scanning for group A was 7 ± 7.6 bpm, and larger than 3 ± 2.6 bpm for group B (P = 0.012). Quality scores of the free-breathing group were better than those of the breath-holding group (group A: 2.55 ± 0.64, group B: 2.85 ± 0.36, P = 0.018). Free-breathing CCTA is feasible on wide detector CT scanner to provide acceptable image quality with reduced heart rate variation and better images for certain patients. PMID:27399104

  16. Automated diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases and emphysema in MDCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetita, Catalin; Chang Chien, Kuang-Che; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Prêteux, Françoise

    2007-09-01

    Diffuse lung diseases (DLD) include a heterogeneous group of non-neoplasic disease resulting from damage to the lung parenchyma by varying patterns of inflammation. Characterization and quantification of DLD severity using MDCT, mainly in interstitial lung diseases and emphysema, is an important issue in clinical research for the evaluation of new therapies. This paper develops a 3D automated approach for detection and diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases such as fibrosis/honeycombing, ground glass and emphysema. The proposed methodology combines multi-resolution 3D morphological filtering (exploiting the sup-constrained connection cost operator) and graph-based classification for a full characterization of the parenchymal tissue. The morphological filtering performs a multi-level segmentation of the low- and medium-attenuated lung regions as well as their classification with respect to a granularity criterion (multi-resolution analysis). The original intensity range of the CT data volume is thus reduced in the segmented data to a number of levels equal to the resolution depth used (generally ten levels). The specificity of such morphological filtering is to extract tissue patterns locally contrasting with their neighborhood and of size inferior to the resolution depth, while preserving their original shape. A multi-valued hierarchical graph describing the segmentation result is built-up according to the resolution level and the adjacency of the different segmented components. The graph nodes are then enriched with the textural information carried out by their associated components. A graph analysis-reorganization based on the nodes attributes delivers the final classification of the lung parenchyma in normal and ILD/emphysematous regions. It also makes possible to discriminate between different types, or development stages, among the same class of diseases.

  17. US and MDCT findings in a caudal blind ending bifid ureter with calculi

    PubMed Central

    Ustuner, Evren; Atman, Ebru Dusunceli; Yagci, Cemil; Tokatli, Zafer Nida; Uzun, Caglar

    2011-01-01

    Herein we present a rare ureteric duplication anomaly; blind ending bifid ureter with calculi which is asymptomatic unless complicated by infection, reflux, calculi or malignancy. The diagnosis is often missed at intravenous urography (IVU) and US because the ipsilateral ureter and kidney are grossly normal. In this case the diagnosis was established with ultrasound (US) and mainly with multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) imaging using multiplanar reformats and 3-D reconstructions which were unique to this case. MDCT scans not only revealed the exact diagnosis and anatomic relationships but also ruled out other pathologies included in the differential diagnosis as well, such as ureter and bladder diverticula. PMID:24765338

  18. Assessment of microembolization associated with revascularization in acute myocardial infarction: MDCT cardiac perfusion and function study.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Maythem; Hetts, Steven W; Do, Loi; Wilson, Mark W

    2013-12-01

    To use multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for assessing the effects of coronary microemboli on pre-existing acute myocardial infarct (AMI) and to compare this pathology to LAD microembolization and occlusion/reperfusion. An angioplasty balloon catheter was placed in the LAD coronary artery of pigs under X-ray guidance. Four animals served as controls without intervention (group A) and an additional 24 animals (8/group) were subjected to microembolization (group B), occlusion/reperfusion (group C) or combination of the two insults (group D). MDCT was used to assess perfusion, LV function and viability. At postmortem, the LV sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). Dynamic perfusion and helical cine MDCT demonstrated decline in regional LV perfusion and function, respectively, after all interventions. MDCT showed significant differences in ejection fraction between groups: A = 57.5 ± 4.7%, B = 40.3 ± 0.5% P < 0.05, C = 34.9 ± 1.3% P < 0.05 and D = 30.7 ± 1.2% P < 0.05, while viability MDCT demonstrated differences in enhancement patterns and extents of damage between the groups (B = 9.1 ± 0.4% LV mass, C = 11.9 ± 0.7% and D = 16.2 ± 1.2%, P < 0.05) and extent of microvascular obstruction (MVO) (group C = 3.2 ± 1.0% LV mass versus D = 5.2 ± 0.7%, P < 0.01). DE-MDCT overestimated all types of myocardial damage compared with TTC, but showed a close correlation (r > 0.7). Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of patchy and contiguous necrosis, MVO, edema and calcium deposits. Dynamic and helical cine MDCT imaging can grade LV dysfunction and perfusion deficit, respectively. DE-MDCT demonstrated a large and persistent MVO zone after microembolization of pre-existing AMI. Furthermore, it has the potential to visualize patchy microinfarct, detect perfusion deficits and dysfunction at the border zone after microembolization of pre-existing AMI.

  19. Three-dimensional MDCT angiography of splanchnic arteries: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Dohan, A; Dautry, R; Guerrache, Y; Fargeaudou, Y; Boudiaf, M; Le Dref, O; Sirol, M; Soyer, P

    2015-02-01

    Fast scanning along with high resolution of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have expanded the role of non-invasive imaging of splanchnic arteries. Advancements in both MDCT scanner technology and three-dimensional (3D) imaging software provide a unique opportunity for non-invasive investigation of splanchnic arteries. Although standard axial computed tomography (CT) images allow identification of splanchnic arteries, visualization of small or distal branches is often limited. Similarly, a comprehensive assessment of the complex anatomy of splanchnic arteries is often beyond the reach of axial images. However, the submillimeter collimation that can be achieved with MDCT scanners now allows the acquisition of true isotropic data so that a high spatial resolution is now maintained in any imaging plane and in 3D mode. This ability to visualize the complex network of splanchnic arteries using 3D rendering and multiplanar reconstruction is of major importance for an optimal analysis in many situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate the role of 3D MDCT angiography in the detection and assessment of abnormalities of splanchnic arteries as well as the limitations of the different reconstruction techniques. PMID:24994585

  20. Three-dimensional MDCT angiography of splanchnic arteries: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Dohan, A; Dautry, R; Guerrache, Y; Fargeaudou, Y; Boudiaf, M; Le Dref, O; Sirol, M; Soyer, P

    2015-02-01

    Fast scanning along with high resolution of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have expanded the role of non-invasive imaging of splanchnic arteries. Advancements in both MDCT scanner technology and three-dimensional (3D) imaging software provide a unique opportunity for non-invasive investigation of splanchnic arteries. Although standard axial computed tomography (CT) images allow identification of splanchnic arteries, visualization of small or distal branches is often limited. Similarly, a comprehensive assessment of the complex anatomy of splanchnic arteries is often beyond the reach of axial images. However, the submillimeter collimation that can be achieved with MDCT scanners now allows the acquisition of true isotropic data so that a high spatial resolution is now maintained in any imaging plane and in 3D mode. This ability to visualize the complex network of splanchnic arteries using 3D rendering and multiplanar reconstruction is of major importance for an optimal analysis in many situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate the role of 3D MDCT angiography in the detection and assessment of abnormalities of splanchnic arteries as well as the limitations of the different reconstruction techniques.

  1. Coronary artery dissection with rupture of aortic valve commissure following type A aortic dissection: the role of 64-slice MDCT.

    PubMed

    Das, K M; Abdou, Sayed M; El-Menyar, Ayman; Ayman, El Menyar; Khulaifi, A A; Nabti, A L

    2008-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral coronary artery dissection with rupture of aortic valve commissure following type A aortic dissection is described. 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) was able to demonstrate both this findings along with involvement of other neck vessels. TEE demonstrated the severity and mechanisms of aortic valve damage and assisted the surgeon in valve repair. MDCT has played an invaluable role in the diagnosis of the abnormal details of such life-threatening vascular complications. PMID:18384568

  2. MDCT Versus MRI Assessment of Tumor Response After Transarterial Chemoembolization for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kloeckner, Roman; Otto, Gerd; Biesterfeld, Stefan; Oberholzer, Katja; Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B.

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate treatment results after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), with a special focus on the influence of Lipiodol on calculation of tumor necrosis according to EASL criteria. A total of 115 nodules in 20 patients (17 males, 3 females; 69.5 {+-} 9.35 years) with biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma were treated with TACE. Embolization was performed using a doxorubicin-Lipiodol emulsion (group I) or DC Beads loaded with doxorubicin (group II). Follow-up included triphasic contrast-enhanced 64-row MDCT (collimation, 0.625 mm; slice, 3 mm; contrast bolus, 120 ml iomeprol; delay by bolus trigger) and contrast-enhanced MRI (T1 native, T2 native; five dynamic contrast-enhanced phases; 0.1 mmol/kg body weight gadolinium-DTPA; slice thickness, 4 mm). Residual tumor and the extent of tumor necrosis were evaluated according to EASL. Contrast enhancement within tumor lesions was suspected to represent vital tumor. In the Lipiodol-based TACE protocol, MDCT underestimated residual viable tumor compared to MRI, due to Lipiodol artifacts (23.2% vs 47.7% after first, 11.9% vs 31.2% after second, and 11.4% vs 23.7% after third TACE; p = 0.0014, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). In contrast to MDCT, MRI was completely free of any artifacts caused by Lipiodol. In the DC Bead-based Lipiodol-free TACE protocol, MRI and CT showed similar residual tumor and rating of treatment results (46.4% vs 41.2%, 31.9 vs 26.8%, and 26.0% vs 25.6%; n.s.). In conclusion, MRI is superior to MDCT for detection of viable tumor residuals after Lipiodol-based TACE. Since viable tumor tissue is superimposed by Lipiodol artifacts in MDCT, MRI is mandatory for reliable decision-making during follow-up after Lipiodol-based TACE protocols.

  3. MDCT-Guided Transthoracic Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Lung Using the Transscapular Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Umberto G. Seitun, Sara; Ferro, Carlo

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to report our preliminary experience using MDCT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy using the transscapular approach in the upper posterolateral lung nodules, an area that it is difficult or hazardous to reach with the conventional approach. Five patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy of the lung via the transscapular approach. A coaxial needle technique was used in all patients. Biopsy was successful in all patients. No major complications were encountered. One patient developed a minimal pneumothorax next to the lesion immediately after biopsy, which resolved spontaneously. MDCT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy of the lung via the transscapular approach is an effective and safe procedure that reduces the risk of pneumothorax in selected patients.

  4. Coronary artery bypass grafts and MDCT imaging: what to know and what to look for.

    PubMed

    Marano, Riccardo; Liguori, Carlo; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Storto, Maria Luigia; Politi, Marco Angelo; Savino, Giancarlo; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2007-12-01

    Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scanners with high spatial and temporal resolutions are now available and are increasingly used for non-invasive assessment of vascular disease, including coronary arteries and coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG). Follow-up of patients who have previously undergone surgical revascularization for coronary artery disease is nowadays one of the main applications of MDCT. Thanks to the continuous technical evolution of the CT scanners, it is now possible to scan the heart and the full anatomic extent of grafts with sub-millimeter slice-thickness within a single breath-hold. In the evaluation of these patients, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with the different types of grafts and surgical techniques to know the main characteristics of each graft type and what to look for in the assessment of a patient who has undergone coronary artery surgical revascularization. This review summarizes some surgical aspects, the biological characteristics of conduits, and the main technical MDCT features, and describes the CABG anatomy together with some typical CT findings. PMID:17874112

  5. Significant reduction of left atrial volume concomitant with clinical improvement after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation for drug-refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and its precise detection with multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Yuichiro; Akita, Keitaro; Tsuruta, Hikaru; Yamada, Yoshitake; Hayashida, Kentaro; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Murata, Mitsushige; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), left atrial (LA) volume measurement is very important to provide prognostic information. Recent studies demonstrated that multidetector CT (MDCT) is useful to assess the changes in LA volume. Our aim was to examine the utility of a follow-up cardiac MDCT for long-term evaluation of the effect of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) on LA volume. Methods We studied a consecutive cohort of 20 patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM after PTSMA. We evaluated LA volume analyses with cardiac MDCT on patients who underwent PTSMA as compared to echocardiography. Results Before PTSMA, 75% of all patients had heart failure-associated symptoms in the New York Heart Association functional class III/IV. All patients experienced relief from heart failure-associated symptoms after PTSMA. Cardiac MDCT showed significant reduction in the index of maximum LA volume during follow-up compared to before PTSMA in the same way as in echocardiography (93.6±34.1 mL/m2 vs 82.6±35.3 mL/m2, p=0.035). A Bland-Altman plot showed small mean differences and limits of agreement in the measurements of the index of maximum LA volume before and after PTSMA between echocardiography and MDCT. Conclusions The follow-up cardiac MDCT was a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of PTSMA on reduction of LA volume. Cardiac MDCT might provide comparable measurements of the LA volume in patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM before and after PTSMA compared to echocardiography. PMID:27307994

  6. Coronary fly-through or virtual angioscopy using dual-source MDCT data.

    PubMed

    van Ooijen, Peter M A; de Jonge, Gonda; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2007-11-01

    Coronary fly-through or virtual angioscopy (VA) has been studied ever since its invention in 2000. However, application was limited because it requires an optimal computed tomography (CT) scan and time-consuming post-processing. Recent advances in post-processing software facilitate easy construction of VA, but until now image quality was insufficient in most patients. The introduction of dual-source multidetector CT (MDCT) could enable VA in all patients. Twenty patients were scanned using a dual-source MDCT (Definition, Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using a standard coronary artery protocol. Post-processing was performed on an Aquarius Workstation (TeraRecon, San Mateo, Calif.). Length travelled per major branch was recorded in millimetres, together with the time required in minutes. VA could be performed in every patient for each of the major coronary arteries. The mean (range) length of the automated fly-through was 80 (32-107) mm for the left anterior descending (LAD), 75 (21-116) mm for the left circumflex artery (LCx), and 109 (21-190) mm for the right coronary artery (RCA). Calcifications and stenoses were visualised, as well as most side branches. The mean time required was 3 min for LAD, 2.5 min for LCx, and 2 min for the RCA. Dual-source MDCT allows for high quality visualisation of the coronary arteries in every patient because scanning with this machine is independent of the heart rate. This is clearly shown by the successful VA in all patients. Potential clinical value of VA should be determined in the near future. PMID:17562048

  7. Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula: MDCT findings in 1010 patients and proposal for a new classification.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, W; Beglinger, Ch; Oertli, D; Steinbrich, W

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the MDCT findings of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula (JPDD) and to propose a new radiological classification. CT-examinations of 1010 consecutive patients, all examined by 16-row MDCT of the abdomen over a time period of 20 months were retrospectively analyzed. All study patients were examined by triple phase CT (native, arterial and portal venous CT scan) of the abdomen and all recieved positive oral contrast prior to the examination. Thirty-three patients showed a juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum, which could be seen on all CT scans, but jusually was depicted most clearly on the thin collimated arterial phase CT images. Size of diverticula range from 4 mm to 4.5 cm (mean 1.7 cm). In 17 cases the diverticulum was located ventrally to the vaterian sphincter complex, extending less or more into the pancreas at the site where the dorsal and the ventral anlage of the pancreas have fused (type I). 12 diverticula were located dorsally to the sphincter complex (type II). Three patients presented with a bilobated juxtapapillary diverticulum extending to both sides, ventrally and dorsally (type III) and one patient showed a little diverticulum ventrally to the minor papilla (type IV).Three patients presented with food impaction in the diverticulum but only one of these patients with a large IPDD showed a Lemmel-syndrome, whereas the other three patients with non-calculous extrahepatic cholostasis showed larger diverticula without food impaction. MDCT allows to identify four different types of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula and using the proposed classification may be helpful for a more exact, anatomy based radiological description of this CT finding.

  8. Can outer-to-outer diameter be used alone in diagnosing appendicitis on 128-slice MDCT?

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Jamal; Idris, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Kashif, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency of visualization, position and diameter of normal appendix on 128-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in adult population. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study conducted at Radiology Department, Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from March 2013 to October 2013. Non-enhanced computed tomography scans of abdomen and pelvis of 98 patients presenting with hematuria (not associated with abdominal pain, fever or colonic disease) were reviewed by two radiologists, blinded to patient history. The study group included 55 females and 43 males with overall mean age of 54.7 years (range 21 to 94 years). The coronal reformatted images were reviewed in addition to the axial images. The frequency of visualization of appendix was recorded with assessment of position, diameter and luminal contents. RESULTS: The appendix was recorded as definitely visualized in 99% of patients and mean outer-to-outer diameter of the appendix was 5.6 ± 1.3 mm (range 3.0-11.0 mm). CONCLUSION: MDCT with its multiplanar reformation display is extremely useful for visualization of normal appendix. The normal appendix is very variable in its position and diameter. In the absence of other signs, the diagnosis of acute appendix should not be made solely on outer-to-outer appendiceal diameter. PMID:25550996

  9. Accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations compared to in-vivo MDCT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bostani, Maryam McMillan, Kyle; Cagnon, Chris H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Mueller, Jonathon W.; Cody, Dianna D.; DeMarco, John J.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a Monte Carlo simulation-based method for estimating radiation dose from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing simulated doses in ten patients to in-vivo dose measurements. Methods: MD Anderson Cancer Center Institutional Review Board approved the acquisition of in-vivo rectal dose measurements in a pilot study of ten patients undergoing virtual colonoscopy. The dose measurements were obtained by affixing TLD capsules to the inner lumen of rectal catheters. Voxelized patient models were generated from the MDCT images of the ten patients, and the dose to the TLD for all exposures was estimated using Monte Carlo based simulations. The Monte Carlo simulation results were compared to the in-vivo dose measurements to determine accuracy. Results: The calculated mean percent difference between TLD measurements and Monte Carlo simulations was −4.9% with standard deviation of 8.7% and a range of −22.7% to 5.7%. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate very good agreement between simulated and measured doses in-vivo. Taken together with previous validation efforts, this work demonstrates that the Monte Carlo simulation methods can provide accurate estimates of radiation dose in patients undergoing CT examinations.

  10. Effect of Low-Dose MDCT and Iterative Reconstruction on Trabecular Bone Microstructure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Felix K; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Baum, Thomas; Nasirudin, Radin A; Mei, Kai; Garcia, Eduardo G; Burgkart, Rainer; Rummeny, Ernst J; Kirschke, Jan S; Noël, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low-dose multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) in combination with statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms on trabecular bone microstructure parameters. Twelve donated vertebrae were scanned with the routine radiation exposure used in our department (standard-dose) and a low-dose protocol. Reconstructions were performed with filtered backprojection (FBP) and maximum-likelihood based statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR). Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were assessed and statistically compared for each reconstruction. Moreover, fracture loads of the vertebrae were biomechanically determined and correlated to the assessed microstructure parameters. Trabecular bone microstructure parameters based on low-dose MDCT and SIR significantly correlated with vertebral bone strength. There was no significant difference between microstructure parameters calculated on low-dose SIR and standard-dose FBP images. However, the results revealed a strong dependency on the regularization strength applied during SIR. It was observed that stronger regularization might corrupt the microstructure analysis, because the trabecular structure is a very small detail that might get lost during the regularization process. As a consequence, the introduction of SIR for trabecular bone microstructure analysis requires a specific optimization of the regularization parameters. Moreover, in comparison to other approaches, superior noise-resolution trade-offs can be found with the proposed methods.

  11. Effect of Low-Dose MDCT and Iterative Reconstruction on Trabecular Bone Microstructure Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Felix K; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Baum, Thomas; Nasirudin, Radin A; Mei, Kai; Garcia, Eduardo G; Burgkart, Rainer; Rummeny, Ernst J; Kirschke, Jan S; Noël, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low-dose multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) in combination with statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms on trabecular bone microstructure parameters. Twelve donated vertebrae were scanned with the routine radiation exposure used in our department (standard-dose) and a low-dose protocol. Reconstructions were performed with filtered backprojection (FBP) and maximum-likelihood based statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR). Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were assessed and statistically compared for each reconstruction. Moreover, fracture loads of the vertebrae were biomechanically determined and correlated to the assessed microstructure parameters. Trabecular bone microstructure parameters based on low-dose MDCT and SIR significantly correlated with vertebral bone strength. There was no significant difference between microstructure parameters calculated on low-dose SIR and standard-dose FBP images. However, the results revealed a strong dependency on the regularization strength applied during SIR. It was observed that stronger regularization might corrupt the microstructure analysis, because the trabecular structure is a very small detail that might get lost during the regularization process. As a consequence, the introduction of SIR for trabecular bone microstructure analysis requires a specific optimization of the regularization parameters. Moreover, in comparison to other approaches, superior noise-resolution trade-offs can be found with the proposed methods. PMID:27447827

  12. Effect of Low-Dose MDCT and Iterative Reconstruction on Trabecular Bone Microstructure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thomas; Nasirudin, Radin A.; Mei, Kai; Garcia, Eduardo G.; Burgkart, Rainer; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Kirschke, Jan S.; Noël, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low-dose multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) in combination with statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms on trabecular bone microstructure parameters. Twelve donated vertebrae were scanned with the routine radiation exposure used in our department (standard-dose) and a low-dose protocol. Reconstructions were performed with filtered backprojection (FBP) and maximum-likelihood based statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR). Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were assessed and statistically compared for each reconstruction. Moreover, fracture loads of the vertebrae were biomechanically determined and correlated to the assessed microstructure parameters. Trabecular bone microstructure parameters based on low-dose MDCT and SIR significantly correlated with vertebral bone strength. There was no significant difference between microstructure parameters calculated on low-dose SIR and standard-dose FBP images. However, the results revealed a strong dependency on the regularization strength applied during SIR. It was observed that stronger regularization might corrupt the microstructure analysis, because the trabecular structure is a very small detail that might get lost during the regularization process. As a consequence, the introduction of SIR for trabecular bone microstructure analysis requires a specific optimization of the regularization parameters. Moreover, in comparison to other approaches, superior noise-resolution trade-offs can be found with the proposed methods. PMID:27447827

  13. Comparison between a new reconstruction algorithm (OPED) and filtered backprojection (FBP) for MDCT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, Bernhard; No"l, Peter B.; Tischenko, Oleg; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    Previously the Orthogonal Polynomial Expansion on the Disk (OPED) algorithm was presented. Further, in prototype experiments in combination with the CT D`or geometry feasibility was demonstrated. In this study we implemented OPED with a clinical Scanner, and evaluated the potential using phantom studies. All studies were acquired on a Siemens Somatom 64 (Erlangen, Germany) scanner, where raw projection data were reconstructed with the conventional FBP reconstruction and the OPED algorithm. OPED allows one to use fan beam geometry directly without any additional procedures such as interpolation or rebinning if using the CT D`or geometry. In particular, OPED describes an approximation of the image function as a sum of polynomials using Chebychev polynomials. For performance evaluation, the Catphan phantom 600 was imaged. OPED Images where reconstructed using C++ and MATLAB® .We measured uniformity, MTF and CNR for different dose levels and compared these to standard FBP images reconstructions with different filter kernels. The integration and interpretation of the MDCT projection data for the OPED algorithm was accomplished. Reconstruction time is about 6 s on Quad-Core 3 GHz Intel Xeon processor. Typical artifacts are reduced when applying OPED. Using OPED the MTF maintains constant over the whole FOV. Uniformity and CNR are equal compared to FBP. Advantages of OPED were demonstrated by applying the algorithm to projections images from a clinical MDCT scanner. In the future, we see OPED applications for low-dose or limited angle geometries to reduce the radiation dose while improving diagnostic quality of the reconstructed slices.

  14. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    PubMed

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-10-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know. PMID:25489130

  15. Data compression in wireless sensors network using MDCT and embedded harmonic coding.

    PubMed

    Alsalaet, Jaafar K; Ali, Abduladhem A

    2015-05-01

    One of the major applications of wireless sensors networks (WSNs) is vibration measurement for the purpose of structural health monitoring and machinery fault diagnosis. WSNs have many advantages over the wired networks such as low cost and reduced setup time. However, the useful bandwidth is limited, as compared to wired networks, resulting in relatively low sampling. One solution to this problem is data compression which, in addition to enhancing sampling rate, saves valuable power of the wireless nodes. In this work, a data compression scheme, based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT) followed by Embedded Harmonic Components Coding (EHCC) is proposed to compress vibration signals. The EHCC is applied to exploit harmonic redundancy present is most vibration signals resulting in improved compression ratio. This scheme is made suitable for the tiny hardware of wireless nodes and it is proved to be fast and effective. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is investigated by conducting several experimental tests.

  16. Acute colonic diverticulitis: an update on clinical classification and management with MDCT correlation.

    PubMed

    Barat, Maxime; Dohan, Anthony; Pautrat, Karine; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Pocard, Marc; Hoeffel, Christine; Eveno, Clarisse; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the most commonly used classification of acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is the modified Hinchey classification, which corresponds to a slightly more complex classification by comparison with the original description. This modified classification allows to categorize patients with ACD into four major categories (I, II, III, IV) and two additional subcategories (Ia and Ib), depending on the severity of the disease. Several studies have clearly demonstrated the impact of this classification for determining the best therapeutic approach and predicting perioperative complications for patients who need surgery. This review provides an update on the classification of ACD along with a special emphasis on the corresponding MDCT features of the different categories and subcategories. This modified Hinchey classification should be known by emergency physicians, radiologists, and surgeons in order to improve patient care and management because each category has a specific therapeutic approach. PMID:27138434

  17. The feasibility of a 64-slice MDCT for detection of the Adamkiewicz artery: comparison of the detection rate of intravenous injection CT angiography using a 64-slice MDCT versus intra-arterial and intravenous injection CT angiography using a 16-slice MDCT.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K; Negi, Noriyuki; Hashimura, Hiromi; Uotani, Kensuke; Okita, Yutaka; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-12-01

    Identification of the Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) using CT angiography (CTA) is crucial in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) or aortic dissection (AD). The purpose of this study was to compare the AKA detection rate of intravenous injection with a 64-slice MDCT (IV64) versus a 16-slice MDCT (IV16) as well as by CTA using intra-arterial injection with a 16-slice MDCT (IA16). A retrospective review of 160 consecutive patients who underwent CTA was performed. There were 108 TAA and 52 AD cases, 105 of whom were examined with IV64, 15 with IV16, and 40 with IA16. The AKA detectability for each imaging method was assessed, and the factors influencing the detectability were analyzed by multivariate analysis. The detection rates for IV64, IV16, and IA16 were 85.7, 60.0, and 80.0 %, respectively, with IV64 being more sensitive than IV16 (P = 0.025). The detection rate for AD patients was 66.7 % with IV64, which was similar to IV16 (57.1 %) and IA16 (66.8 %). On the other hand, the detection rate for TAA patients was 93.3 % with IV64, which was higher than IV16 (62.5 %, P = 0.021) and similar to IA16 (88.0 %). Multivariate analysis demonstrated the independent factors for AKA detectability were TAA versus AD (P = 0.005, Odds ratio = 3.98) and IV64 versus IV16 (P = 0.037, Odds ratio = 4.03). The detection rate was higher for IV64 than for IV16, especially for TAA patients, while the rate was similar between IV64 and invasive IA16. A 64-slice MDCT thus provides a less invasive visualization of the AKA.

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Metastases-Software-Assisted Evaluation of the Ablation Zone in MDCT: Tumor-Free Follow-Up Versus Local Recurrent Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, Sebastian Bruners, Philipp; Schiffl, Katharina; Sedlmair, Martin; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Guenther, Rolf W.; Das, Marco; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in change of size and CT value between local recurrences and tumor-free areas after CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic metastases during follow-up by means of dedicated software for automatic evaluation of hepatic lesions. Thirty-two patients with 54 liver metastases from breast or colorectal cancer underwent triphasic contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) to evaluate hepatic metastatic spread and localization before CT-guided RFA and for follow-up after intervention. Sixteen of these patients (65.1 {+-} 10.3 years) with 30 metastases stayed tumor-free (group 1), while the other group (n = 16 with 24 metastases; 62.0 {+-} 13.8 years) suffered from local recurrent disease (group 2). Applying an automated software tool (SyngoCT Oncology; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany), size parameters (volume, RECIST, WHO) and attenuation were measured within the lesions before, 1 day after, and 28 days after RFA treatment. The natural logarithm (ln) of the quotient of the volume 1 day versus 28 days after RFA treament was computed: lnQ1//28/0{sub volume}. Analogously, ln ratios of RECIST, WHO, and attenuation were computed and statistically evaluated by repeated-measures ANOVA. One lesion in group 2 was excluded from further evaluation due to automated missegmentation. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to initial volume, RECIST, and WHO (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ln ratios corresponding to volume, RECIST, and WHO differed significantly between the two groups. Attenuation evaluations showed no significant differences, but there was a trend toward attenuation assessment for the parameter lnQ28/0{sub attenuation} (p = 0.0527), showing higher values for group 1 (-0.4 {+-} 0.3) compared to group 2 (-0.2 {+-} 0.2). In conclusion, hepatic metastases and their zone of coagulation necrosis after RFA differed significantly between tumor

  19. Accuracy of gantry rotation time of less than 300 ms for modern MDCT systems.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Matsubara, Kosuke; Miyati, Tosiaki

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of gantry rotation times of less than 300 ms has been assessed for two "state-of-the art" MDCT systems. The rotation time was measured at selected nominal rotation times (275 and 280 ms) with a solid-state detector; Unfors Xi probe. The detector was positioned on the inner bottom of the gantry bore. Because a pair of two successive radiation peaks is necessary for determination of the rotation time, the radiation detection was performed with the helical scan mode of operation. Upon completion of the data acquisition, we determined the peak times with the Unfors Xi View software program to obtain the rotation time. The means and standard deviations of the measured rotation times were 275.3 ± 0.5 and 285.1 ± 0.4 ms, respectively. The inaccuracy of the rotation time was approximately 5 ms at most, which was comparable to that previously reported for slower rotation times.

  20. A Numerical Study of Heat and Water Vapor Transfer in MDCT-Based Human Airway Models

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) thermo-fluid model is developed to study regional distributions of temperature and water vapor in three multi-detector row computed-tomography (MDCT)-basedhuman airwayswith minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. A one-dimensional (1D) model is also solved to provide necessary initial and boundary conditionsforthe 3D model. Both 3D and 1D predicted temperature distributions agree well with available in vivo measurement data. On inspiration, the 3D cold high-speed air stream is split at the bifurcation to form secondary flows, with its cold regions biased toward the inner wall. The cold air flowing along the wall is warmed up more rapidly than the air in the lumen center. The repeated splitting pattern of air streams caused by bifurcations acts as an effective mechanism for rapid heat and mass transfer in 3D. This provides a key difference from the 1D model, where heating relies largely on diffusion in the radial direction, thus significantly affecting gradient-dependent variables, such as energy flux and water loss rate. We then propose the correlations for respective heat and mass transfer in the airways of up to 6 generations: Nu=3.504(ReDaDt)0.277, R = 0.841 and Sh=3.652(ReDaDt)0.268, R = 0.825, where Nu is the Nusselt number, Sh is the Sherwood number, Re is the branch Reynolds number, Da is the airway equivalent diameter, and Dt is the tracheal equivalentdiameter. PMID:25081386

  1. MDCT Anatomic Assessment of Right Inferior Phrenic Artery Origin Related to Potential Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma and its Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio Tsetis, Dimitrios; Montineri, Arturo; Puleo, Stefano; Massa Saluzzo, Cesare; Runza, Giuseppe; Coppolino, Francesco; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo; Patti, Maria Teresa

    2008-03-15

    Purpose. To prospectively assess the anatomic variation of the right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA) origin with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans in relation to the technical and angiographic findings during transcatheter arterial embolization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods. Two hundred patients with hepatocellular carcinomas were examined with 16-section CT during the arterial phase. The anatomy of the inferior phrenic arteries was recorded, with particular reference to their origin. All patients with subcapsular HCC located at segments VII and VIII underwent arteriography of the RIPA with subsequent embolization if neoplastic supply was detected. Results. The RIPA origin was detected in all cases (sensitivity 100%), while the left inferior phrenic artery origin was detected in 187 cases (sensitivity 93.5%). RIPAs originated from the aorta (49%), celiac trunk (41%), right renal artery (5.5%), left gastric artery (4%), and proper hepatic artery (0.5%), with 13 types of combinations with the left IPA. Twenty-nine patients showed subcapsular HCCs in segments VII and VIII and all but one underwent RIPA selective angiography, followed by embolization in 7 cases. Conclusion. MDCT assesses well the anatomy of RIPAs, which is fundamental for planning subsequent cannulation and embolization of extrahepatic RIPA supply to HCC.

  2. Influence of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithm in MDCT assessment of airway wall thickness: A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Nagle, Scott K.; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Robinson, Terry E.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Wall thickness (WT) is an airway feature of great interest for the assessment of morphological changes in the lung parenchyma. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has recently been used to evaluate airway WT, but the potential risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis—particularly in younger patients—might limit a wider use of this imaging method in clinical practice. The recent commercial implementation of the statistical model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, instead of the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm, has enabled considerable radiation dose reduction in many other clinical applications of MDCT. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of radiation dose and MBIR in the MDCT assessment of airway WT. Methods: An airway phantom was scanned using a clinical MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) at 4 kV levels and 5 mAs levels. Both FBP and a commercial implementation of MBIR (Veo{sup TM}, GE Healthcare) were used to reconstruct CT images of the airways. For each kV–mAs combination and each reconstruction algorithm, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the airways was measured, and the WT of each airway was measured and compared with the nominal value; the relative bias and the angular standard deviation in the measured WT were calculated. For each airway and reconstruction algorithm, the overall performance of WT quantification across all of the 20 kV–mAs combinations was quantified by the sum of squares (SSQs) of the difference between the measured and nominal WT values. Finally, the particular kV–mAs combination and reconstruction algorithm that minimized radiation dose while still achieving a reference WT quantification accuracy level was chosen as the optimal acquisition and reconstruction settings. Results: The wall thicknesses of seven airways of different sizes were analyzed in the study. Compared with FBP, MBIR improved the CNR of the airways, particularly at low radiation dose

  3. Shading correction for on-board cone-beam CT in radiation therapy using planning MDCT images

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Tianye; Sun, Mingshan; Star-Lack, Josh; Gao Hewei; Fan Qiyong; Zhu Lei

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Applications of cone-beam CT (CBCT) to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) are hampered by shading artifacts in the reconstructed images. These artifacts are mainly due to scatter contamination in the projections but also can result from uncorrected beam hardening effects as well as nonlinearities in responses of the amorphous silicon flat panel detectors. While currently, CBCT is mainly used to provide patient geometry information for treatment setup, more demanding applications requiring high-quality CBCT images are under investigation. To tackle these challenges, many CBCT correction algorithms have been proposed; yet, a standard approach still remains unclear. In this work, we propose a shading correction method for CBCT that addresses artifacts from low-frequency projection errors. The method is consistent with the current workflow of radiation therapy. Methods: With much smaller inherent scatter signals and more accurate detectors, diagnostic multidetector CT (MDCT) provides high quality CT images that are routinely used for radiation treatment planning. Using the MDCT image as ''free'' prior information, we first estimate the primary projections in the CBCT scan via forward projection of the spatially registered MDCT data. Since most of the CBCT shading artifacts stem from low-frequency errors in the projections such as scatter, these errors can be accurately estimated by low-pass filtering the difference between the estimated and raw CBCT projections. The error estimates are then subtracted from the raw CBCT projections. Our method is distinct from other published correction methods that use the MDCT image as a prior because it is projection-based and uses limited patient anatomical information from the MDCT image. The merit of CBCT-based treatment monitoring is therefore retained. Results: The proposed method is evaluated using two phantom studies on tabletop systems. On the Catphan(c)600 phantom, our approach reduces the reconstruction error

  4. Comparison of MDCT protocols in trauma patients with suspected splenic injury: superior results with protocol that includes arterial and portal venous phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Melikian, Raymond; Goldberg, Stephanie; Strife, Brian James; Halvorsen, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine which intravenous contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocol produced the most accurate results for the detection of splenic vascular injury in hemodynamically stable patients who had sustained blunt abdominal trauma. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 88 patients from 2003 to 2011 who sustained blunt splenic trauma and underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT and subsequent angiography. Results of MDCT scans utilizing single phase (portal venous only, n=8), dual phase (arterial + portal venous or portal venous + delayed, n=42), or triple phase (arterial + portal venous + delayed, n=38) were compared with results of subsequent splenic angiograms for the detection of splenic vascular injury. RESULTS Dual phase imaging was more sensitive and accurate than single phase imaging (P = 0.016 and P = 0.029, respectively). When the subsets of dual phase imaging were compared, arterial + portal venous phase imaging was more sensitive and accurate than portal venous + delayed phase imaging (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively). Triple phase imaging was more accurate (P = 0.015) than dual phase; however, when compared with the dual phase subset of arterial + portal venous, there was no statistical difference in either sensitivity or accuracy. CONCLUSION Our results support the use of dual phase contrast-enhanced MDCT, which includes the arterial phase, in patients with suspected splenic injury and question the utility of obtaining a delayed sequence. PMID:27334296

  5. Coronary calcium mass scores measured by identical 64-slice MDCT scanners are comparable: a cardiac phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Greuter, Marcel J W; Groen, Jaap M; Vliegenthart-Proença, Rozemarijn; Renema, Klaasjan W K; de Lange, Frank; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    To assess whether absolute mass scores are comparable or differ between identical 64-slice MDCT scanners of the same manufacturer and to compare absolute mass scores to the physical mass and between scan modes using a calcified phantom. A non-moving anthropomorphic phantom with nine calcifications of three sizes and three densities was scanned 30 times on three 64-slice MDCT scanners of manufacturer A and on three 64-slice MDCT scanners of manufacturer B in both sequential and spiral scan mode. The mean mass scores and mass score variabilities of seven calcifications were determined for all scanners; two non-detectable calcifications were omitted. It was analyzed whether identical scanners yielded similar or significantly different mass scores. Furthermore mass scores were compared to the physical mass and mass scores were compared between scan modes. The mass score calibration factor was determined for all scanners. Mass scores obtained on identical scanners were similar for almost all calcifications. Overall, mass score differences between the scanners were small ranging from 1.5 to 3.4% for the total mass scores, and most differences between scanners were observed for high density calcifications. Mass scores were significantly different from the physical mass for almost all calcifications and all scanners. In sequential mode the total physical mass (167.8 mg) was significantly overestimated (+2.3%) for 4 out of 6 scanners. In spiral mode a significant overestimation (+2.5%) was found for system B and a significant underestimation (-1.8%) for two scanners of system A. Mass scores were dependent on the scan mode, for manufacturer A scores were higher in sequential mode and for manufacturer B in spiral mode. For system A using spiral scan mode no differences were found between identical scanners, whereas a few differences were found using sequential mode. For system B the scan mode did not affect the number of different mass scores between identical scanners. Mass

  6. Correlating MDCT Liver Injury Grade and Clinical Outcome in Patients Without Significant Extra-hepatic Injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Atin; Baliyan, Vinit; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Subodh; Misra, M C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to correlate multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) grading with clinical severity and outcome in liver trauma patients without significant extrahepatic injury. Over a period of 2 years (2011-2013), all patients showing evidence of liver injury on contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) abdomen and without significant extrahepatic trauma were prospectively included in the study. Correlation between the CT injury grade and outcome in terms of mortality, duration of ICU/hospital stay, fluid and blood requirements, need for intervention and complications were assessed. The significance of the difference in mortality, duration of ICU/hospital stay, fluid requirement and blood requirements among the patients with various injury grades was assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance of the difference in need for intervention and complications among the patients with various injury grades was assessed by Fisher's exact test. A total of 198 patients were found to have evidence of hepatic injury on CECT. Out of 198 patients, 117 had insignificant extrahepatic trauma. The overall mean age for these 117 patients was 25.74 ± 15.53 (age range 2-84 years). Death rates according to AAST grades were 0 % in grades II and III, 6.89 % in grade IV and 9.09 % in grade V (p = 0.053). The mean ICU and total hospital stay for grade II was 1.32 and 5.91 days, for grade III was 1.76 and 8.48, for grade IV was 2.86 and 10.31 days and for grade V was 6.54 and 12 days, respectively (p = 0.0001 for ICU, p = 0.0003 for total stay). Mean input and fluid deficit according to various grades were 8634/2607 ml for grade II, 9535/2555 ml for grade III, 15,549/6242 ml for grade IV and 19,958/8280 ml for grade V (p value input-0.0016, output-input (fluid deficit)-0.0001). Average unit of RBC and sum of the blood products transfused were 1.73 and 2.26 for grade II, 2.18 and 2.72 for grade III, 3.03 and 6.27 for grade IV, 6.85 and 38.12 for grade V

  7. Role of cardiac CTA in estimating left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Robin Man; Singh, Balkrishna Man; Mehta, Jawahar Lal

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is an important predictor of cardiac outcome and helps in making important diagnostic and therapeutic decisions such as the treatment of different types of congestive heart failure or implantation of devices like cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator. LVEF can be measured by various techniques such as transthoracic echocardiography, contrast ventriculography, radionuclide techniques, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The development of cardiac CTA using multi-detector row CT (MDCT) has seen a very rapid improvement in the technology for identifying coronary artery stenosis and coronary artery disease in the last decade. During the acquisition, processing and analysis of data to study coronary anatomy, MDCT provides a unique opportunity to measure left ventricular volumes and LVEF simultaneously with the same data set without the need for additional contrast or radiation exposure. The development of semi-automated and automated software to measure LVEF has now added uniformity, efficiency and reproducibility of practical value in clinical practice rather than just being a research tool. This article will address the feasibility, the accuracy and the limitations of MDCT in measuring LVEF. PMID:25276310

  8. Radiological surveillance of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers: rates and risk factors of benign changes on chest X-ray and MDCT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asbestos-related changes on chest X-ray (CXR) and low-dose multidetector-row CT (MDCT) of the thorax in a cohort of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers and to assess the importance of common risk factors associated with specific radiological changes. Methods To assess the influence of selected risk factors (age, time since first exposure, exposure duration, cumulative exposure and pack years) on typical asbestos-related radiographic changes, we employed multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results On CXR, pleural changes and asbestosis were strongly associated with age, years since first exposure and exposure duration. The MDCT results showed an association between asbestosis and age and between plaques and exposure duration, years since first exposure and cumulative exposure. Parenchymal changes on CXR and MDCT, and diffuse pleural thickening on CXR were both associated with smoking. Using a cut-off of 55 years for age, 17 years for exposure duration and 28 years for latency, benign radiological changes in the cohort with CXR could be predicted with a sensitivity of 82.0% for all of the three variables and a specificity of 47.4%, 39.0% and 40.6%, respectively. Conclusions Participants aged 55 years and older and those with an asbestos exposure of at least 17 years or 28 years since first exposure should be seen as having an increased risk of abnormal radiological findings. For implementing a more focused approach the routine use of low-dose MDCT rather than CXR at least for initial examinations would be justified. PMID:24808921

  9. Pulmonary 64-MDCT angiography with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material in an unselected patient population: a feasible protocol*

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Henrique Simão; Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Giacometti, Tiago Rangon; Trad, Catherine Yang; Zoghbi Neto, Orlando Salomão; Trad, Clovis Simão

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose a protocol for pulmonary angiography using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) with 50 mL of iodinated contrast material, in an unselected patient population, as well as to evaluate vascular enhancement and image quality. Materials and Methods We evaluated 29 patients (22-86 years of age). The body mass index ranged from 19.0 kg/m2 to 41.8 kg/m2. Patients underwent pulmonary CT angiography in a 64-MDCT scanner, receiving 50 mL of iodinated contrast material via venous access at a rate of 4.5 mL/s. Bolus tracking was applied in the superior vena cava. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality and vascular enhancement. Results The mean density was 382 Hounsfield units (HU) for the pulmonary trunk; 379 and 377 HU for the right and left main pulmonary arteries, respectively; and 346 and 364 HU for the right and left inferior pulmonary arteries, respectively. In all patients, subsegmental arteries were analyzed. There were streak artifacts from contrast material in the superior vena cava in all patients. However, those artifacts did not impair the image analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that pulmonary angiography using 64-MDCT with 50 mL of iodinated contrast can produce high quality images in unselected patient populations. PMID:27141128

  10. [Application possibilities and initial experience with digital volume tomography in hand and wrist imaging].

    PubMed

    Goerke, Sebastian M; Neubauer, J; Zajonc, H; Thiele, J R; Kotter, E; Langer, M; Stark, G B; Lampert, F M

    2015-02-01

    During the last decade, DVT (digital volume tomography) imaging has become a widely used standard technique in head and neck imaging. Lower radiation exposure compared to conventional computed tomography (MDCT) has been described. Recently, DVT has been developed as an extremity scanner and as such represents a new imaging technique for hand surgery. We here describe the first 24 months experience with this new imaging modality in hand and wrist imaging by presenting representative cases and by describing the technical background. Furthermore, the method's advantages and disadvantages are discussed with reference to the given literature.

  11. Development of a voxel-matching technique for substantial reduction of subtraction artifacts in temporal subtraction images obtained from thoracic MDCT.

    PubMed

    Itai, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyoungseop; Ishikawa, Seiji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Doi, Kunio

    2010-02-01

    A temporal subtraction image, which is obtained by subtraction of a previous image from a current one, can be used for enhancing interval changes (such as formation of new lesions and changes in existing abnormalities) on medical images by removing most of the normal structures. However, subtraction artifacts are commonly included in temporal subtraction images obtained from thoracic computed tomography and thus tend to reduce its effectiveness in the detection of pulmonary nodules. In this study, we developed a new method for substantially removing the artifacts on temporal subtraction images of lungs obtained from multiple-detector computed tomography (MDCT) by using a voxel-matching technique. Our new method was examined on 20 clinical cases with MDCT images. With this technique, the voxel value in a warped (or nonwarped) previous image is replaced by a voxel value within a kernel, such as a small cube centered at a given location, which would be closest (identical or nearly equal) to the voxel value in the corresponding location in the current image. With the voxel-matching technique, the correspondence not only between the structures but also between the voxel values in the current and the previous images is determined. To evaluate the usefulness of the voxel-matching technique for removal of subtraction artifacts, the magnitude of artifacts remaining in the temporal subtraction images was examined by use of the full width at half maximum and the sum of a histogram of voxel values, which may indicate the average contrast and the total amount, respectively, of subtraction artifacts. With our new method, subtraction artifacts due to normal structures such as blood vessels were substantially removed on temporal subtraction images. This computerized method can enhance lung nodules on chest MDCT images without disturbing misregistration artifacts.

  12. Unenhanced MDCT in Suspected Urolithiasis: Improved Stone Detection and Density Measurements Using Coronal Maximum-Intensity-Projection Images

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Michael T.; Hsu, Margaret; McGahan, John P.; Wilson, Machelle; Lamba, Ramit

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether coronal maximum-intensity-projection (MIP) reformations improve urinary tract stone detection and density measurements compared with routine axial and coronal images. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-five consecutive patients who underwent MDCT for suspected urolithiasis were included. Two radiologists independently determined the number of stones on 5-, 3-, and 1.25-mm axial, 5- and 3-mm coronal, and 5-mm coronal MIP images. The reference standard was obtained by consensus review using all six datasets. Stone density was determined for all calculi 4 mm or larger on all datasets. RESULTS There were a total of 115 stones. Reader 1 identified 111 (96.5%), 112 (97.4%), 97 (84.3%), 102 (88.7%), 99 (86.1%), and 85 (73.9%) stones and reader 2 identified 105 (91.3%), 102 (88.7%), 85 (73.9%), 89 (77.4%), 89 (77.4%), and 76 (66.1%) stones on the MIP, 1.25-mm axial, 3-mm axial, 3-mm coronal, 5-mm coronal, and 5-mm axial images, respectively. Both readers identified more stones on the MIP images than on the 3- or 5-mm axial or coronal images (p < 0.0001). The mean difference in stone attenuation compared with the thin axial images was significantly less for the MIP images (44.6 HU) compared with 3-mm axial (235 HU), 3-mm coronal (309 HU), and 5-mm coronal (329.6 HU) or axial images (347.8 HU) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION Coronal MIP reformations allow more accurate identification and density measurements of urinary tract stones compared with routine axial and coronal reformations. PMID:24147474

  13. Monte Carlo simulations in multi-detector CT (MDCT) for two PET/CT scanner models using MASH and FASH adult phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, W.; Santos, W. S.; Paschoal, C. M. M.; Souza, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) has been extensively used in oncology for diagnosis and staging of tumors, radiotherapy planning and follow-up of patients with cancer, as well as in cardiology and neurology. This study determines by the Monte Carlo method the internal organ dose deposition for computational phantoms created by multidetector CT (MDCT) beams of two PET/CT devices operating with different parameters. The different MDCT beam parameters were largely related to the total filtration that provides a beam energetic change inside the gantry. This parameter was determined experimentally with the Accu-Gold Radcal measurement system. The experimental values of the total filtration were included in the simulations of two MCNPX code scenarios. The absorbed organ doses obtained in MASH and FASH phantoms indicate that bowtie filter geometry and the energy of the X-ray beam have significant influence on the results, although this influence can be compensated by adjusting other variables such as the tube current-time product (mAs) and pitch during PET/CT procedures.

  14. Comparison of sensitivity and reading time for the use of computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules at MDCT as concurrent or second reader.

    PubMed

    Beyer, F; Zierott, L; Fallenberg, E M; Juergens, K U; Stoeckel, J; Heindel, W; Wormanns, D

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sensitivity for detection of pulmonary nodules in MDCT scans and reading time of radiologists when using CAD as the second reader (SR) respectively concurrent reader (CR). Four radiologists analyzed 50 chest MDCT scans chosen from clinical routine two times and marked all detected pulmonary nodules: first with CAD as CR (display of CAD results immediately in the reading session) and later (median 14 weeks) with CAD as SR (display of CAD markers after completion of first reading without CAD). A Siemens LungCAD prototype was used. Sensitivities for detection of nodules and reading times were recorded. Sensitivity of reading with CAD as SR was significantly higher than reading without CAD (p < 0.001) and CAD as CR (p < 0.001). For nodule size of 1.75 mm or above no significant sensitivity difference between CAD as CR and reading without CAD was observed; e.g., for nodules above 4 mm sensitivity was 68% without CAD, 68% with CAD as CR (p = 0.45) and 75% with CAD as SR (p < 0.001). Reading time was significantly shorter for CR (274 s) compared to reading without CAD (294 s; p = 0.04) and SR (337 s; p < 0.001). In our study CAD could either speed up reading of chest CT cases for pulmonary nodules without relevant loss of sensitivity when used as CR, or it increased sensitivity at the cost of longer reading times when used as SR.

  15. Celiac Axis, Common Hepatic and Hepatic Artery Variants as Evidenced on MDCT Angiography in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the increase in the hepatobiliary, pancreatic surgeries and liver transplantation, being aware of the anatomic variations of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries is of paramount importance. Aim To illustrate the normal anatomy and variants of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries with multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in South Indian population and determine the potential variations in the celiac axis anatomy and the hepatic arteries, thus assisting the hepatobiliary surgeon and the interventional radiologist in avoiding iatrogenic injury to the arteries. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients undergoing abdominal CT angiography from July 2014 till July 2015 were retrospectively studied for hepatic arterial and celiac axis anatomical variation. The anatomic variations in our study were correlated with other studies. Results The celiac axis (CA) and the hepatic artery (HA) variations were analysed as per criteria laid by Song et al., and Michel. Out of 15 possible CA variations, 5 types of celiac artery variations were seen in 14 patients. A normal CA was seen in 179(89.5%) patients of the 200 patients. In the remaining 7 patients, the CA anatomy was classified as ambiguous since there was separate origin of the right and left hepatic arteries from the CA with absent common hepatic artery (CHA). The CHA originated normally from the celiac axis in 94% of the cases. Variation of CHA origin was seen in 5 patients. Normal HA anatomy was seen in 114 (57%) patients. Variation in HA anatomy was seen in 86 (43%) patients. Origin of the right hepatic artery (RHA) from the hepatic artery proper was seen in 182 (91%) patients and replaced origin of RHA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was seen in 18 (9%) of the cases. Accessory RHA was seen in 7(3.5%) patients. The left hepatic artery (LHA) originated from the hepatic artery proper in 186 (93%) patients and replaced origin of LHA from the left gastric artery (LGA) was

  16. Evaluation of bone substitute materials: comparison of flat-panel based volume CT to conventional multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Duttenhoefer, Fabian; Sachlos, Elefterios; Haberstroh, Jörg; Scheifele, Christian; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Voss, Pit Jacob; Veigel, Egle; Smedek, Jörg; Ganter, Philip; Tuna, Taskin; Gutwald, Ralf; Palmowski, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a key factor in bone regeneration within the field of cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Despite this in vivo analysis of tissue-engineered-constructs to monitor bone rehabilitation are difficult to conduct. Novel high-resolving flat-panel based volume CTs (fp-VCT) are increasingly used for imaging bone structures. This study compares the potential value of novel fp-VCT with conventional multidetector CT (MDCT) based on a sheep sinus floor elevation model. Calcium-hydroxyapatite reinforced collagen scaffolds were populated with autologous osteoblasts and implanted into sheep maxillary sinus. After 8, 16 and 24 weeks MDCT and fp-VCT scans were performed to investigate the volume of the augmented area; densities of cancellous and compact bone were assessed as comparative values. fp-VCT imaging resulted in higher spatial resolution, which was advantageous when separating closely related anatomical structures (i.e. trabecular and compact bone, biomaterials). Fp-VCT facilitated imaging of alterations occurring in test specimens over time. fp-VCTs therefore displayed high volume coverage, dynamic imaging potential and superior performance when investigating superfine bone structures and bone remodelling of biomaterials. Thus, fp-VCTs may be a suitable instrument for intraoperative imaging and future in vivo tissue-engineering studies.

  17. Unusual vanishing interstitial lymphatic "pearls" in a patient presenting with extensive interstitial and mediastinal MDCT features of acute cardiogenic failure related to bradycardia and mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Coulier, Bruno; El Khoury, Elie; Deprez, Fabrice C; Ghaye, Benoît; Van den Broeck, Stephane; Tourmous, Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Thoracic multidetector computed tomography-MDCT-was simultaneously performed during emergency abdominal CT in a patient presenting with abdominal pain and acute cardiogenic edema related to sick sinus syndrome and mitral prolapse with regurgitation. A constellation of severe but completely reversible interstitial and mediastinal features was found comprising pleural effusions, diffuse alveolar ground glass, thickening of the bronchial walls and septal lines, hazy infiltration of the mediastinal fat, and enlarged lymphatic nodes. Multiple atypical hypodense nodular "pearls" were also found. These oval shape or fusiform pearls were distributed along the thickened septal lines and disappeared completely after treatment. The hypothesis of transient lymphatic ectasia or lakes is proposed for these never previously described abnormalities.

  18. Hepatic Arterial Configuration in Relation to the Segmental Anatomy of the Liver; Observations on MDCT and DSA Relevant to Radioembolization Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoven, Andor F. van den Leeuwen, Maarten S. van Lam, Marnix G. E. H. Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2015-02-15

    PurposeCurrent anatomical classifications do not include all variants relevant for radioembolization (RE). The purpose of this study was to assess the individual hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern and to develop an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended classification.MethodsThe hepatic vascular anatomy was assessed on MDCT and DSA in patients who received a workup for RE between February 2009 and November 2012. Reconstructed MDCT studies were assessed to determine the hepatic arterial configuration (origin of every hepatic arterial branch, branching pattern and anatomical course) and the hepatic segmental vascularization territory of all branches. Aberrant hepatic arteries were defined as hepatic arterial branches that did not originate from the celiac axis/CHA/PHA. Early branching patterns were defined as hepatic arterial branches originating from the celiac axis/CHA.ResultsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern could be assessed in 110 of 133 patients. In 59 patients (54 %), no aberrant hepatic arteries or early branching was observed. Fourteen patients without aberrant hepatic arteries (13 %) had an early branching pattern. In the 37 patients (34 %) with aberrant hepatic arteries, five also had an early branching pattern. Sixteen different hepatic arterial segmental vascularization patterns were identified and described, differing by the presence of aberrant hepatic arteries, their respective vascular territory, and origin of the artery vascularizing segment four.ConclusionsThe hepatic arterial configuration and segmental vascularization pattern show marked individual variability beyond well-known classifications of anatomical variants. We developed an individualized RE treatment strategy based on an extended anatomical classification.

  19. Influence of body habitus and use of oral contrast on reader confidence in patients with suspected acute appendicitis using 64 MDCT.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stephan W; Rhea, James T; Milch, Holly N; Ozonoff, Al; Lucey, Brian C; Soto, Jorge A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how body habitus affects reader confidence in diagnosing acute appendicitis and appendiceal visualization using 64 MDCT technology with and without oral contrast. We conducted a HIPAA compliant, IRB approved study of adult patients presenting to the Emergency Department with nontraumatic abdominal pain. Subjects were randomized to two groups: 64 MDCT scans performed with oral and intravenous contrast or scans performed solely with intravenous contrast. Three radiologists established their confidence about the presence of appendicitis as well as recording whether the appendix was visualized. Reader confidence in diagnosing acute appendicitis was compared between the two groups for the three readers. The impact of patient BMI and estimated intra-abdominal fat on reader confidence in diagnosing appendicitis was determined. Finally, a comparison of the effect of BMI and intra-abdominal fat on appendiceal visualization between the two groups was carried out. Three hundred three patients were enrolled in this study. There was a statistically significant difference in confidence based on BMI for reader 2, group 1 in diagnosing appendicitis. No further statistically significant differences in reader confidence for diagnosing appendicitis based on BMI or intra-abdominal fat were identified. There was no influence of BMI or intra-abdominal fat on appendiceal visualization. Increasing BMI was seen to improve reader confidence for one of three readers in patients that received both oral and intravenous contrast. No further effects of BMI or intra-abdominal fat on confidence in diagnosing or excluding appendicitis were seen. Neither BMI nor intra-abdominal fat were seen to influence appendiceal visualization.

  20. Dynamic volume vs respiratory correlated 4DCT for motion assessment in radiation therapy simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Coolens, Catherine; Bracken, John; Driscoll, Brandon; Hope, Andrew; Jaffray, David

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Conventional (i.e., respiratory-correlated) 4DCT exploits the repetitive nature of breathing to provide an estimate of motion; however, it has limitations due to binning artifacts and irregular breathing in actual patient breathing patterns. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and image quality of a dynamic volume, CT approach (4D{sub vol}) using a 320-slice CT scanner to minimize these limitations, wherein entire image volumes are acquired dynamically without couch movement. This will be compared to the conventional respiratory-correlated 4DCT approach (RCCT). Methods: 4D{sub vol} CT was performed and characterized on an in-house, programmable respiratory motion phantom containing multiple geometric and morphological ''tumor'' objects over a range of regular and irregular patient breathing traces obtained from 3D fluoroscopy and compared to RCCT. The accuracy of volumetric capture and breathing displacement were evaluated and compared with the ground truth values and with the results reported using RCCT. A motion model was investigated to validate the number of motion samples needed to obtain accurate motion probability density functions (PDF). The impact of 4D image quality on this accuracy was then investigated. Dose measurements using volumetric and conventional scan techniques were also performed and compared. Results: Both conventional and dynamic volume 4DCT methods were capable of estimating the programmed displacement of sinusoidal motion, but patient breathing is known to not be regular, and obvious differences were seen for realistic, irregular motion. The mean RCCT amplitude error averaged at 4 mm (max. 7.8 mm) whereas the 4D{sub vol} CT error stayed below 0.5 mm. Similarly, the average absolute volume error was lower with 4D{sub vol} CT. Under irregular breathing, the 4D{sub vol} CT method provides a close description of the motion PDF (cross-correlation 0.99) and is able to track each object, whereas the RCCT method results in a

  1. Reducing radiation dose to selected organs by selecting the tube start angle in MDCT helical scans: A Monte Carlo based study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Di; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Angel, Erin; Turner, Adam C.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Previous work has demonstrated that there are significant dose variations with a sinusoidal pattern on the peripheral of a CTDI 32 cm phantom or on the surface of an anthropomorphic phantom when helical CT scanning is performed, resulting in the creation of ''hot'' spots or ''cold'' spots. The purpose of this work was to perform preliminary investigations into the feasibility of exploiting these variations to reduce dose to selected radiosensitive organs solely by varying the tube start angle in CT scans. Methods: Radiation dose to several radiosensitive organs (including breasts, thyroid, uterus, gonads, and eye lenses) resulting from MDCT scans were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on voxelized patient models, including GSF's Baby, Child, and Irene. Dose to fetus was also estimated using four pregnant female models based on CT images of the pregnant patients. Whole-body scans were simulated using 120 kVp, 300 mAs, both 28.8 and 40 mm nominal collimations, and pitch values of 1.5, 1.0, and 0.75 under a wide range of start angles (0 deg. - 340 deg. in 20 deg. increments). The relationship between tube start angle and organ dose was examined for each organ, and the potential dose reduction was calculated. Results: Some organs exhibit a strong dose variation, depending on the tube start angle. For small peripheral organs (e.g., the eye lenses of the Baby phantom at pitch 1.5 with 40 mm collimation), the minimum dose can be 41% lower than the maximum dose, depending on the tube start angle. In general, larger dose reductions occur for smaller peripheral organs in smaller patients when wider collimation is used. Pitch 1.5 and pitch 0.75 have different mechanisms of dose reduction. For pitch 1.5 scans, the dose is usually lowest when the tube start angle is such that the x-ray tube is posterior to the patient when it passes the longitudinal location of the organ. For pitch 0.75 scans, the dose is lowest when the tube start angle is such that the x

  2. The development, validation and application of a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner model for assessing organ doses to the pregnant patient and the fetus using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J.; Bednarz, B.; Caracappa, P. F.; Xu, X. G.

    2009-05-01

    The latest multiple-detector technologies have further increased the popularity of x-ray CT as a diagnostic imaging modality. There is a continuing need to assess the potential radiation risk associated with such rapidly evolving multi-detector CT (MDCT) modalities and scanning protocols. This need can be met by the use of CT source models that are integrated with patient computational phantoms for organ dose calculations. Based on this purpose, this work developed and validated an MDCT scanner using the Monte Carlo method, and meanwhile the pregnant patient phantoms were integrated into the MDCT scanner model for assessment of the dose to the fetus as well as doses to the organs or tissues of the pregnant patient phantom. A Monte Carlo code, MCNPX, was used to simulate the x-ray source including the energy spectrum, filter and scan trajectory. Detailed CT scanner components were specified using an iterative trial-and-error procedure for a GE LightSpeed CT scanner. The scanner model was validated by comparing simulated results against measured CTDI values and dose profiles reported in the literature. The source movement along the helical trajectory was simulated using the pitch of 0.9375 and 1.375, respectively. The validated scanner model was then integrated with phantoms of a pregnant patient in three different gestational periods to calculate organ doses. It was found that the dose to the fetus of the 3 month pregnant patient phantom was 0.13 mGy/100 mAs and 0.57 mGy/100 mAs from the chest and kidney scan, respectively. For the chest scan of the 6 month patient phantom and the 9 month patient phantom, the fetal doses were 0.21 mGy/100 mAs and 0.26 mGy/100 mAs, respectively. The paper also discusses how these fetal dose values can be used to evaluate imaging procedures and to assess risk using recommendations of the report from AAPM Task Group 36. This work demonstrates the ability of modeling and validating an MDCT scanner by the Monte Carlo method, as well as

  3. An hybrid CPU-GPU framework for quantitative follow-up of abdominal aortic aneurysm volume by CT angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Claude; Tang, An; Therasse, Eric; Soulez, Gilles

    2010-03-01

    We developed a hybrid CPU-GPU framework enabling semi-automated segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) on Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) examinations. AAA maximal diameter (D-max) and volume measurements and their progression between 2 examinations can be generated by this software improving patient followup. In order to improve the workflow efficiency some segmentation tasks were implemented and executed on the graphics processing unit (GPU). A GPU based algorithm is used to automatically segment the lumen of the aneurysm within short computing time. In a second step, the user interacted with the software to validate the boundaries of the intra-luminal thrombus (ILT) on GPU-based curved image reformation. Automatic computation of D-max and volume were performed on the 3D AAA model. Clinical validation was conducted on 34 patients having 2 consecutive MDCT examinations within a minimum interval of 6 months. The AAA segmentation was performed twice by a experienced radiologist (reference standard) and once by 3 unsupervised technologists on all 68 MDCT. The ICC for intra-observer reproducibility was 0.992 (>=0.987) for D-max and 0.998 (>=0.994) for volume measurement. The ICC for inter-observer reproducibility was 0.985 (0.977-0.90) for D-max and 0.998 (0.996- 0.999) for volume measurement. Semi-automated AAA segmentation for volume follow-up was more than twice as sensitive than D-max follow-up, while providing an equivalent reproducibility.

  4. Quantum volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum systems in a mechanical embedding, the breathing mode of a small particles, optomechanical system, etc. are far not the full list of examples in which the volume exhibits quantum behavior. Traditional consideration suggests strain in small systems as a result of a collective movement of particles, rather than the dynamics of the volume as an independent variable. The aim of this work is to show that some problem here might be essentially simplified by introducing periodic boundary conditions. At this case, the volume is considered as the independent dynamical variable driven by the internal pressure. For this purpose, the concept of quantum volume based on Schrödinger’s equation in 𝕋3 manifold is proposed. It is used to explore several 1D model systems: An ensemble of free particles under external pressure, quantum manometer and a quantum breathing mode. In particular, the influence of the pressure of free particle on quantum oscillator is determined. It is shown also that correction to the spectrum of the breathing mode due to internal degrees of freedom is determined by the off-diagonal matrix elements of the quantum stress. The new treatment not using the “force” theorem is proposed for the quantum stress tensor. In the general case of flexible quantum 3D dynamics, quantum deformations of different type might be introduced similarly to monopole mode.

  5. Comparison of sensitivity and reading time for the use of computer aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules at MDCT as concurrent or second reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, F.; Zierott, L.; Fallenberg, E. M.; Juergens, K.; Stoeckel, J.; Heindel, W.; Wormanns, D.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To compare sensitivity and reading time when using CAD as second reader resp. concurrent reader. Materials and Methods: Fifty chest MDCT scans due to clinical indication were analysed independently by four radiologists two times: First with CAD as concurrent reader (display of CAD results simultaneously to the primary reading by the radiologist); then after a median of 14 weeks with CAD as second reader (CAD results were shown after completion of a reading session without CAD). A prototype version of Siemens LungCAD (Siemens,Malvern,USA) was used. Sensitivities and reading times for detecting nodules >=4mm of concurrent reading, reading without CAD and second reading were recorded. In a consensus conference false positive findings were eliminated. Student's T-Test was used to compare sensitivities and reading times. Results: 108 true positive nodules were found. Mean sensitivity was .68 for reading without CAD, .68 for concurrent reading and .75 for second reading. Differences of sensitivities were significant between concurrent and second reading (p<.001) resp. reading without CAD and second reading (p=.001). Mean reading time for concurrent reading was significant shorter (274s) compared to reading without CAD (294s;p=.04) and second reading (337sp<.001). New work to be presented: To our knowledge this is the first study that compares sensitivities and reading times between use of CAD as concurrent resp. second reader. Conclusion: CAD can either be used to speed up reading of chest CT cases for pulmonary nodules without loss of sensitivity as concurrent reader -OR (and not AND) to increase sensitivity and reading time as second reader.

  6. Change in the Growth Rate of Localized Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Response to Gemcitabine, Bevacizumab, and Radiation Therapy on MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, Pedram; Yaghmai, Vahid; Tochetto, Sandra M.; Galizia, Mauricio S.; Miller, Frank H.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Small, William

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To depict treatment response to chemoradiotherapy by comparing tumor growth rate between treated and untreated patients and to compare depicted response with objective response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 guideline. Methods and Materials: This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Volume doubling time (DT) of histologically confirmed locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma was calculated in 16 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and 10 untreated patients by incorporating interscan interval ({Delta}t) and tumor volume at baseline (V0) and follow-up (V1) obtained by semiautomated segmentation into the following equation: DT = {Delta}t . log 2/log (V1/V0). Reciprocal of doubling time (RDT), which is the linear representation of tumor growth rate, was calculated by use of the following equation: RDT = 365/DT. The lowest RDT value of 2.42 in untreated patients was considered as the cutoff value for depiction of treatment response. Depicted response rate was defined as the proportion of patients with an RDT value of less than 2.42. Depicted response was compared with objective response according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in mean RDT between treated (range, -7.12 to 3.27; mean, -1.27; median, -1.30) and untreated (range, 2.42 to 10.74; mean, 5.33; median, 4.26) patients (p < 0.05). Reciprocal of doubling time was less than 2.42 in 14 treated patients, which corresponded to a depicted response rate of 87.50% as opposed to the objective response rate of 18.75% according to the RECIST 1.1 guideline (p < 0.05) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response rate of 62.50% (p > 0.05). Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response was concordant with RDT and RECIST response in 12 patients (75.00%) ({kappa}, 0.38) and 9 patients (56.25%) ({kappa}, 0

  7. High-volume centers.

    PubMed

    Vespa, P; Diringer, Michael N

    2011-09-01

    Outcome from trauma, surgery, and a variety of other medical conditions has been shown to be positively affected by providing treatment at facilities experiencing a high volume of patients with those conditions. An electronic literature search was made to identify English-language articles available through March 2011, addressing the effect of patient treatment volume on outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Limited data were identified, with 16 citations included in the current review. Over 60% of hospitals fall into the lowest case-volume quartile. Outcome is influenced by patient volume, with better outcome occurring in high-volume centers treating >60 cases per year. Patients treated at low-volume hospitals are less likely to experience definitive treatment. Furthermore, transfer to high-volume centers may be inadequately arranged. Several factors may influence the better outcome at high-volume centers, including the availability of neurointensivists and interventional neuroradiologists. PMID:21792754

  8. Navajo History. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Ethelou, Ed.

    This volume, an account of the prerecorded history of the Navajos, is the first of a series of two volumes. (Volume 2 will take up recorded history.) From the knowledge of verbal literature supplied by Navajos themselves, this composite was completed to help alleviate the lack of materials on Navajo culture. Consensus, the authors point out, was…

  9. Variable volume maser techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency stability of hydrogen masers in variable volume storage bulbs is discussed in terms of wall shift. Variable volume devices discussed include: Brenner flexible bulb, Debely device, and the concertina hydrogen maser. A flexible cone variable volume element outside the cavity is described.

  10. Automatic volume calibration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.J.; Aaron, C.C.

    1985-05-06

    The Automatic Volume Calibration System presently consists of three independent volume-measurement subsystems and can possibly be expanded to five subsystems. When completed, the system will manually or automatically perform the sequence of valve-control and data-acquisition operations required to measure given volumes. An LSI-11 minicomputer controls the vacuum and pressure sources and controls solenoid control valves to open and close various volumes. The input data are obtained from numerous displacement, temperature, and pressure sensors read by the LSI-11. The LSI-11 calculates the unknown volume from the data acquired during the sequence of valve operations. The results, based on the Ideal Gas Law, also provide information for feedback and control. This paper describes the volume calibration system, its subsystems, and the integration of the various instrumentation used in the system's design and development. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Front Matter: Volume 8454

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SPIE, Proceedings of

    2012-05-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8454, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  12. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  13. QUANTITATIVE PLANAR AND VOLUMETRIC CARDIAC MEASUREMENTS USING 64 MDCT AND 3T MRI VS. STANDARD 2D AND M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: DOES ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL MATTER?

    PubMed

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Munoz Del Rio, Alejandro; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P = 1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs.

  14. Anthropometric Assessment of Neck Adipose Tissue and Airway Volume Using Multidetector Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Maresky, Hillel S.; Sharfman, Zachary; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Gomori, J.M.; Copel, Laurian; Tal, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neck adiposity tissue volume (NATV) accumulation is an indicator for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Neck circumference is a poor measure of NATV, and a quantifier for this entity has not yet been established. To evaluate volumetric quantification by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as a reproducible anthropometric tool to measure NATV and airway volume (AWV). A total of 519 patients, including a subset of 70 random patients who underwent head and neck CT scanning in our hospital within 1 year (2013), were studied. Included patients were all those undergoing nonenhanced CT (NECT) or CT angiography (CTA). Neck cross-sectional areas (NCSA) were measured at 2 separate levels of the neck, and 3D postprocessing tissue reconstruction was performed, and NATV and AWVs were quantified volumetrically for all patients within the year. The average NCSA at the level of the soft palate and thyroid cartilage was 22,579 and 14,500 mm2, respectively. NATV when compared to the upper and lower levels of NCSA showed correlations of 0.64 and 0.79, respectively (P < 0.001). Interobserver analysis showed mean deviations of 0.46% and 0.32% for NATV and AWV, respectively. A strong correlation between NATV and body mass index (BMI) was found (r = 0.658, P < 0.001), and the top quartile of NATV:AWV patients (out of 519 patients) displayed a statistically significant mortality rate during 670 days of follow-up (d = 7.5%, P = 0.032). After adjustment for age and gender, the association between NATV:AWV and mortality was close to significant (P = 0.072). Volumetric quantification of NATV and AWV is a reproducible and prognostic anthropometric tool, as a high NATV:AWV demonstrated a significant risk factor for mortality; future research may further advance our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:26559286

  15. Quantitative planar and volumetric cardiac measurements using 64 MDCT and 3T MRI versus standard 2D and M-mode echocardiography: Does anesthetic protocol matter?

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Rio, Alejandro Munoz Del; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P=1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs. PMID:26082285

  16. QUANTITATIVE PLANAR AND VOLUMETRIC CARDIAC MEASUREMENTS USING 64 MDCT AND 3T MRI VS. STANDARD 2D AND M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: DOES ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL MATTER?

    PubMed

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Munoz Del Rio, Alejandro; Saunders, Jimmy H; François, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging of the heart utilizing computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and systolic function in humans compared to echocardiography. The purpose of this prospective study was to test the effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac measurements in 10 healthy beagle dogs using 64-multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (64-MDCTA), 3T magnetic resonance (MRI) and standard awake echocardiography. Both anesthetic protocols used propofol for induction and isoflourane for anesthetic maintenance. In addition, protocol A used midazolam/fentanyl and protocol B used dexmedetomedine as premedication and constant rate infusion during the procedure. Significant elevations in systolic and mean blood pressure were present when using protocol B. There was overall good agreement between the variables of cardiac size and systolic function generated from the MDCTA and MRI exams and no significant difference was found when comparing the variables acquired using either anesthetic protocol within each modality. Systolic function variables generated using 64-MDCTA and 3T MRI were only able to predict the left ventricular end diastolic volume as measured during awake echocardiogram when using protocol B and 64-MDCTA. For all other systolic function variables, prediction of awake echocardiographic results was not possible (P = 1). Planar variables acquired using MDCTA or MRI did not allow prediction of the corresponding measurements generated using echocardiography in the awake patients (P = 1). Future studies are needed to validate this approach in a more varied population and clinically affected dogs. PMID:26082285

  17. Stereometric body volume measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herron, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The following studies are reported: (1) effects of extended space flight on body form of Skylab astronauts using biostereometrics; (2) comparison of body volume determinations using hydrostatic weighing and biostereometrics; and (3) training of technicians in biostereometric principles and procedures.

  18. Free volume under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  19. Free volume under shear.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H A; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-14

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems - particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  20. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  1. Geomagnetism. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The latest attempt to summarise the wealth of knowledge now available on geomagnetic phenomena has resulted in this multi-volume treatise, with contributions and reviews from many scientists. The first volume in the series contains a thorough review of all existing information on measuring the Earth's magnetic field, both on land and at sea, and includes a comparative analysis of the techniques available for this purpose.

  2. Precision volume measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, P.A.

    1984-11-01

    An engineering study was undertaken to calibrate and certify a precision volume measurement system that uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) to ratio a known to an unknown volume. The constant-temperature, computer-controlled system was tested for thermodynamic instabilities, for precision (0.01%), and for bias (0.01%). Ratio scaling was used to optimize the quartz crystal pressure transducer calibration.

  3. Volume MLS ray casting.

    PubMed

    Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2008-01-01

    The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data.

  4. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  5. Deafness Annual, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Arthur G., Ed.

    Presented is the second of two volumes on deafness which contains 12 papers and a review of programs or grants sponsored by the federal government and other groups. Larry Stewart identifies the deaf in "A Truly Silent Minority". In the "Seven-Faces of Deafness", G. Loyd tells what deafness means to seven people. E. Mindel maintains that parents…

  6. Children's Literature. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.

    This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…

  7. Liter - Metric Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  8. Strategic Plan. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the strategic plan and associated organizational structure that the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) will utilize to achieve the defined mission and objectives provided by NASA. Much of the information regarding the background and establishment of the NSBRI by NASA has been provided in other documentation and will not be repeated in this Strategic Plan. This Strategic Plan is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this volume) begins with an Introduction (Section 2) that provides the Institute's NASA-defined mission and objectives, and the organizational structure adopted to implement these through three Strategic Programs: Countermeasure Research; Education, Training and Outreach; and Cooperative Research and Development. These programs are described in Sections 3 to 5. Each program is presented in a similar way, using four subsections: Goals and Objectives; Current Strategies; Gaps and Modifications; and Resource Requirements. Section 6 provides the administrative infrastructure and total budget required to implement the Strategic Programs and assures that they form a single cohesive plan. This plan will ensure continued success of the Institute for the next five years. Volume II of the Strategic Plan provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future strategic programs of the 12 current NSBRI teams, including their goals, objectives, mutual interactions and schedules.

  9. Introduction to the Volume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  10. Volunteer Voice. Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the three volume IX issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma Community House Training Project. The first issue consists of one teacher's personal account of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching and includes the following: an annotated list of ESL text books, a list of activities resources,…

  11. Volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oele, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Chamber is designed to be airtight; it includes face mask for person to breathe outside air so that he does not disturb chamber environment. Chamber includes piston to vary air volume inside. Also included are two microphone transducers which record pressure information inside chamber.

  12. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  13. Reproducibility of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in populations with low, intermediate, and high prevalence of coronary artery disease by multidetector computer tomography: a guide to reliable visual coronary plaque assessments.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Martina C; Linde, Jesper J; Fuchs, Andreas; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Køber, Lars V; Hove, Jens D; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the interobserver agreement of visual coronary plaque characteristics by 320-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in three populations with low, intermediate and high CAD prevalence and to identify determinants for the reproducible assessment of these plaque characteristics. 150 patients, 50 asymptomatic subjects from the general population (low CAD prevalence), 50 symptomatic non-acute coronary syndrome (non-ACS) patients (intermediate CAD prevalence), and 50 ACS patients (high CAD prevalence), matched according to age and gender, were retrospectively enrolled. All coronary segments were evaluated for overall image quality, evaluability, presence of CAD, coronary stenosis, plaque composition, plaque focality, and spotty calcification by four readers. Interobserver agreement was assessed using Fleiss' Kappa (κ) and intra-class correlation (ICC). Widely used clinical parameters (overall scan quality, presence of CAD, and determination of coronary stenosis) showed good agreement among the four readers, (ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.73, ICC = 0.74, respectively). When accounting for heart rate, body mass index, plaque location, and coronary stenosis above/below 50 %, interobserver agreement for plaque composition, presence of CAD, and coronary stenosis improved to either good or excellent, (κ = 0.61, κ = 0.81, ICC = 0.78, respectively). Spotty calcification was the least reproducible parameter investigated (κ = 0.33). Across subpopulations, reproducibility of coronary plaque characteristics generally decreased with increasing CAD prevalence except for plaque composition, (limits of agreement: ±2.03, ±1.96, ±1.79 for low, intermediate and high CAD prevalence, respectively). 320-slice MDCT can be used to assess coronary plaque characteristics, except for spotty calcification. Reproducibility estimates are influenced by heart rate, body size, plaque location, and degree of luminal stenosis.

  14. Variable volume calibration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, R.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for determining the volume of a closed chamber. The apparatus includes a body having a cylindrical cavity therein including a threaded rear portion and a closed front end, and a piston having a threaded portion which mates with threaded rear portion of the cavity and which reciprocates in the cavity. A gas-impermeable seal, which is carried by the piston in one embodiment, forms a closed chamber in the front end of the cavity. A linear-movement indicator, attached to the rear end of the piston, measures the reciprocating movement of the piston in the cavity, while a pressure sensing device, connected to the front end of the cavity, determines the pressure in the closed system. In use, a vessel, having a volume enclosing experimental materials, is also connected to the front end of the cavity, and pressure and piston movement measurements are made which enable calculation of a volume change in the vessels. The design and operation of this instrument are presented. 7 figs.

  15. Apodized Volume Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, Sergiy

    2015-03-01

    Reflective and transmissive volume Bragg grating (VBGs) are widely used in high power laser applications because of their large operational aperture and robustness. They are fabricated in photosensitive material through holographic recording of uniform interference pattern of two overlapping coherent waves obtained by splitting a flat-top shaped laser beam. The following thermal treatment produces permanent refractive index modulation (RIM). Reflective VBGs have fringes parallel to operational anti-reflective coated surfaces and they demonstrate narrow reflection bandwidth. Transmissive VBGs are cut with fringes perpendicular to surfaces and they are characterized by narrow angular selectivity. Uniform RIM causes secondary lobes in corresponding reflection and transmission spectra due to sharp boundary conditions for volume Bragg diffraction. We propose to create apodization of RIM by recording two interference patterns with slightly different parameters in the same volume which would create slow varying moire envelope of amplitude of RIM. Cutting the specimen at zeros of moire envelope with one sine semi-period thickness will produce VBGs apodized at sides which will reduce parasitic secondary lobes in spectra. In reflection geometry, two patterns of the same orientation with slightly different periods are required for apodization along Bragg wave vector. In transmission case, recording of the same interference patterns with small mutual rotation angle provides apodization in direction perpendicular to Bragg wave vector. Modeling results show significant improvement in selective properties of VBGs with such moire apodization.

  16. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  17. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  18. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  19. New volume and inverse volume operators for loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinsong; Ma, Yongge

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative volume operator is constructed for loop quantum gravity by using the so-called cotriad operators as building blocks. It is shown that the new volume operator shares the same qualitative properties with the standard volume operator. Moreover, a new alternative inverse volume operator is also constructed in the light of the construction of the alternative volume operator, which is possessed of the same qualitative properties as those of the alternative volume operator. The new inverse volume operator can be employed to construct the Hamiltonian operator of matter fields, which may lead to an anomaly-free on-shell quantum constraint algebra without any special restriction on the regularization procedure for gravity coupled to matter fields.

  20. Organ dose measurements from multiple-detector computed tomography using a commercial dosimetry system and tomographic, physical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Lindsey K.

    The technology of computed tomography (CT) imaging has soared over the last decade with the use of multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanners that are capable of performing studies in a matter of seconds. While the diagnostic information obtained from MDCT imaging is extremely valuable, it is important to ensure that the radiation doses resulting from these studies are at acceptably safe levels. This research project focused on the measurement of organ doses resulting from modern MDCT scanners. A commercially-available dosimetry system was used to measure organ doses. Small dosimeters made of optically-stimulated luminescent (OSL) material were analyzed with a portable OSL reader. Detailed verification of this system was performed. Characteristics studied include energy, scatter, and angular responses; dose linearity, ability to erase the exposed dose and ability to reuse dosimeters multiple times. The results of this verification process were positive. While small correction factors needed to be applied to the dose reported by the OSL reader, these factors were small and expected. Physical, tomographic pediatric and adult phantoms were used to measure organ doses. These phantoms were developed from CT images and are composed of tissue-equivalent materials. Because the adult phantom is comprised of numerous segments, dosimeters were placed in the phantom at several organ locations, and doses to select organs were measured using three clinical protocols: pediatric craniosynostosis, adult brain perfusion and adult cardiac CT angiography (CTA). A wide-beam, 320-slice, volumetric CT scanner and a 64-slice, MDCT scanner were used for organ dose measurements. Doses ranged from 1 to 26 mGy for the pediatric protocol, 1 to 1241 mGy for the brain perfusion protocol, and 2-100 mGy for the cardiac protocol. In most cases, the doses measured on the 64-slice scanner were higher than those on the 320-slice scanner. A methodology to measure organ doses with OSL dosimeters received from CT

  1. Transparent volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wixson, Steve E.

    1990-07-01

    Transparent Volume Imaging began with the stereo xray in 1895 and ended for most investigators when radiation safety concerns eliminated the second view. Today, similiar images can be generated by the computer without safety hazards providing improved perception and new means of image quantification. A volumetric workstation is under development based on an operational prototype. The workstation consists of multiple symbolic and numeric processors, binocular stereo color display generator with large image memory and liquid crystal shutter, voice input and output, a 3D pointer that uses projection lenses so that structures in 3 space can be touched directly, 3D hard copy using vectograph and lenticular printing, and presentation facilities using stereo 35mm slide and stereo video tape projection. Volumetric software includes a volume window manager, Mayo Clinic's Analyze program and our Digital Stereo Microscope (DSM) algorithms. The DSM uses stereo xray-like projections, rapidly oscillating motion and focal depth cues such that detail can be studied in the spatial context of the entire set of data. Focal depth cues are generated with a lens and apeture algorithm that generates a plane of sharp focus, and multiple stereo pairs each with a different plane of sharp focus are generated and stored in the large memory for interactive selection using a physical or symbolic depth selector. More recent work is studying non-linear focussing. Psychophysical studies are underway to understand how people perce ive images on a volumetric display and how accurately 3 dimensional structures can be quantitated from these displays.

  2. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  3. Variable-volume turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, N.; Matsura, Y.; Takemoto, T.; Kohketsu, S.

    1988-01-19

    A variable-volume turbocharger device is described comprising a turbine housing having at least first and second exhaust gas passages divided by a partition wall provided in the housing. The first exhaust gas passage has a large flow characteristic and the second exhaust gas passage has a small flow characteristic. A first valve means operable to open and shut the first exhaust gas passage, and a second valve means operative to open and shut the second exhaust gas passage independently from the first valve means, each of the valve means having a valve member which cooperates with a valve seat to open and shut the corresponding exhaust gas passage, the valve members being arranged so as to open toward the upstream side of the flowing direction of exhaust gas with respect to the valve seats.

  4. Soot Volume Fraction Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Ku, Jerry C.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique is described for the full-field determination of soot volume fractions via laser extinction measurements. This technique differs from previously reported point-wise methods in that a two-dimensional array (i.e., image) of data is acquired simultaneously. In this fashion, the net data rate is increased, allowing the study of time-dependent phenomena and the investigation of spatial and temporal correlations. A telecentric imaging configuration is employed to provide depth-invariant magnification and to permit the specification of the collection angle for scattered light. To improve the threshold measurement sensitivity, a method is employed to suppress undesirable coherent imaging effects. A discussion of the tomographic inversion process is provided, including the results obtained from numerical simulation. Results obtained with this method from an ethylene diffusion flame are shown to be in close agreement with those previously obtained by sequential point-wise interrogation.

  5. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  6. The Occupational Thesaurus: Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, Everett A.

    Presented in two volumes, the job guide handbook can be used by high school and college counselors, students, recruiters for business and industry, and parents in determining areas of employment which are compatible with a student's or potential employee's interests, abilities, and preparation. Volume 1 lists job areas for students majoring in…

  7. Healthy People 2010: Conference Edition, Volume I [and] Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the two volumes of the Conference Edition of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. The first section of Volume I, "Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health," includes "Introduction,""Leading Health Indicators," and "Bibliography. The second section,…

  8. Volume to value.

    PubMed

    Leaver, William B

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fee-for-service medicine has put physicians on an unsustainable treadmill of volume that escalates healthcare costs regardless of the quality of care they provide. This article shares the experience of UnityPoint Health (formerly Iowa Health System) in designing and implementing patient-centered, physician-led, coordinated care as a building block for transforming the delivery system. Keys to the effort's success include aligning physicians, hospitals, and home care delivery in terms of organizational goals and having the ability to gather, analyze, and share data to manage population health. On April 16, 2013, Iowa Health System became UnityPoint Health, dedicated to transforming the delivery of care through a coordinated system that offers regional, organized systems of care in most of our markets in Iowa and Illinois. These capabilities allowed the system to enter into value-based accountable care organization contracts that cover more than 220,000 lives. The transition ultimately will lead to population health-driven approaches in which compensation will be based on the management of specific populations or chronic diseases over a specified period. As increased value from care coordination becomes clear, the external environment will demand this better system, and patients will expect it. PMID:23858985

  9. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -22 deg through -30 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 s and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  10. Cordoba Durchmusterung, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The 'Cordoba Durchmusterung' (CD) is a visual survey of southern stars in the declination zones -22 to -89 deg, carried out as an extension to the 'Bonner Durchmusterung' (BD) catalogs of Argelander and Schoenfeld. This volume covers the declination range -40 deg through -49 deg. The survey was performed using techniques similar to those used for the BD; i.e., the stars were cataloged by allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of the field. The goal of the survey was to obtain a position and estimated visual magnitude for every star down to 10.0 magnitude inclusive, but the faint limit was confirmed from comparisons with other catalogs, to be somewhat below 10. The positions are given to 0.1 s in right ascension and 0.1 min in declination for the equinox 1875. The positional uncertainties quoted in the original publications are plus or minus 0.42 sec and plus or minus 0.23 min for zones -22 deg to -32 deg. A list of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda is presented. No other corrections or changes were incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or comparison with the 'Cape Photographic Durchmusterung'.

  11. Volume rendering for neurosurgical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordmans, Herke J.; Rutten, G. J. M.; Willems, Peter W. A.; van Veelen, C. W. M.; van Rijen, P. C.; Viergever, Max A.

    2001-01-01

    A volume rendering library is presented to interactively analyze volume data from modalities like CT, MR, PET, SPECT< and fMRI for the planning of nuerosurgical procedures. Current applications are logging of Penfield procedures, fMRI visualization, blood vessel visualization and interactive localization of EEG electrodes implanted in the subdural space of a patient with epilepsy.

  12. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  13. Volume restoration and facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Glasgold, Mark J; Glasgold, Robert A; Lam, Samuel M

    2008-11-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the use of volume restoration to restore natural, youthful contours to an aging face. Topics discussed include the discrepancy that can exist between patients' stated wishes and optimal results and the concepts of framing the eye, creating highlights, and restoring facial shape and volume.

  14. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  15. Anthropometric Assessment of Neck Adipose Tissue and Airway Volume Using Multidetector Computed Tomography: An Imaging Approach and Association With Overall Mortality.

    PubMed

    Maresky, Hillel S; Sharfman, Zachary; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Gomori, J M; Copel, Laurian; Tal, Sigal

    2015-11-01

    Neck adiposity tissue volume (NATV) accumulation is an indicator for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Neck circumference is a poor measure of NATV, and a quantifier for this entity has not yet been established. To evaluate volumetric quantification by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as a reproducible anthropometric tool to measure NATV and airway volume (AWV). A total of 519 patients, including a subset of 70 random patients who underwent head and neck CT scanning in our hospital within 1 year (2013), were studied. Included patients were all those undergoing nonenhanced CT (NECT) or CT angiography (CTA). Neck cross-sectional areas (NCSA) were measured at 2 separate levels of the neck, and 3D postprocessing tissue reconstruction was performed, and NATV and AWVs were quantified volumetrically for all patients within the year. The average NCSA at the level of the soft palate and thyroid cartilage was 22,579 and 14,500 mm, respectively. NATV when compared to the upper and lower levels of NCSA showed correlations of 0.64 and 0.79, respectively (P < 0.001). Interobserver analysis showed mean deviations of 0.46% and 0.32% for NATV and AWV, respectively. A strong correlation between NATV and body mass index (BMI) was found (r = 0.658, P < 0.001), and the top quartile of NATV:AWV patients (out of 519 patients) displayed a statistically significant mortality rate during 670 days of follow-up (d = 7.5%, P = 0.032). After adjustment for age and gender, the association between NATV:AWV and mortality was close to significant (P = 0.072). Volumetric quantification of NATV and AWV is a reproducible and prognostic anthropometric tool, as a high NATV:AWV demonstrated a significant risk factor for mortality; future research may further advance our understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:26559286

  16. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  17. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  18. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  19. Midface volumization with injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Marietta; Kontis, Theda C

    2015-05-01

    The aging midface has long been overlooked in cosmetic surgery. Our understanding of facial aging in terms of 3 dimensions has placed increased importance on volume restoration. Although an "off-label" indication for most fillers in this facial region, volumization of the midface with injectable fillers is usually a safe and straightforward procedure technically. Injectors, nevertheless, need to have an excellent understanding of facial anatomy and the characteristics of the injected products should problems arise.

  20. Natural look in volume restoration.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  1. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Supplements to volume 1 are presented herein. Included in these papers are information unavailable when volume 1 was written, an evaluation of the proposed nuclear facility, and answers to questions raised by the AEC concerning volume 1.

  2. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  3. Fatigue and fracture -- 1996: Volume 2. PVP-Volume 324

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K.K.; Bhandari, S.; Bloom, J.M.; Mehta, H.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-12-01

    Fatigue and fracture mechanics are very important topics in addressing aging and maintenance aspects of power plants where pressure vessels and piping technologies are applied most. The papers contained in this volume deal primarily with fracture mechanics. This volume has four sections. The section on basic fracture covers new areas of fracture mechanics. There is also a section on material fracture toughness, a section on failure assessment diagram method user experience with four application-type papers, and finally a section on vessels, which contains a large number of papers on subjects such as the master curve method, the shallow flaw, the local approach, Alloy 600 cracking issue, and validation of the fracture mechanics method by large experiments. Separate abstracts were prepared for 30 papers in this volume.

  4. Fatigue and fracture -- 1996: Volume 1. PVP-Volume 323

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, H.S.; Bhandari, S.; Jones, D.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.; Yoon, K.K.

    1996-12-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue evaluations are an important part of the structural integrity analyses to assure safe operation of pressure vessels and piping components during their service life. The papers presented in this volume illustrate the application of fatigue and fracture mechanics techniques to assess the structural integrity of a wide variety of Pressure Vessels and Piping components. The papers are organized in five sections: (1) fatigue and fracture: piping and components; (2) fatigue and fracture: environmental cracking; (3) leak-before-break analyses; (4) fatigue testing and analyses; and (5) probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses in pressure boundary components. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in this volume.

  5. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  6. Flex bearing UUEC, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapper, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    This volume, Volume 2, of this Flex Bearing UUEC Final Report documents findings and data pertaining to Team B's tasks. Team B was organized as one of two sub-teams of the Unplanned/Unintended Event or Condition (UUEC) board established per InterOffice Memorandum (IOM) A100-FY93-072. Team A determined the cause of the unacceptable unbonds (referred to as 'heat-affect' unbonds), including the initial, light rust film, in the FSM #3 flex bearing was overheating of the Forward End Ring (FER) during cure, specifically in zone 8 of the mold. Team A's findings are documented in Volume 1 of this report. Team B developed flight rationale for existing bearings, based on absence or presence of an unpropitious unbond condition like that in FSM #3's flex bearing.

  7. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  8. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  9. Thai Basic Course. Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Warren G.; Tryon, Absorn

    The 40 lessons in these two volumes and the accompanying tape recordings are designed to teach standard spoken Thai to Foreign Service Officers and other American Government personnel. After completing the "Programed Introduction to Thai Phonology," the student should be able to read the phonemic transcription in which all Thai material is…

  10. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  11. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  12. Be the Volume: A Classroom Activity to Visualize Volume Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylov, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on activity can help multivariable calculus students visualize surfaces and understand volume estimation. This activity can be extended to include the concepts of Fubini's Theorem and the visualization of the curves resulting from cross-sections of the surface. This activity uses students as pillars and a sheet or tablecloth for the…

  13. Foaming volume and foam stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  14. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  15. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  16. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  17. Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics 4 Volume Hardback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2004-11-01

    Volume 1: Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Luis C. Ho. Volume 2: Measuring and Modelling the Universe Wendy L. Freedman. Volume 3: Clusters of Galaxies John S. Mulchaey, Alan Dressler and Augustus Oemler. Volume 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements Andrew McWilliam and Michael Rauch.

  18. Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics 4 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2011-11-01

    Volume 1: Coevolution of Black Holes and Galaxies Luis C. Ho. Volume 2: Measuring and Modelling the Universe Wendy L. Freedman. Volume 3: Clusters of Galaxies John S. Mulchaey, Alan Dressler and Augustus Oemler. Volume 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements Andrew McWilliam and Michael Rauch.

  19. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  20. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  1. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  2. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This volume of newsletters addresses issues related to the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness. Each issue includes feature articles, book reviews, product reviews, letters to the editor, notices of upcoming wilderness conferences and training courses, additional resources, and general information relevant to medical…

  3. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  4. Advances In Librarianship. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Melvin J., Ed.

    The authors of this second volume provide a composite contribution to a broader understanding of some of the major topics affecting libraries and their operation today. These contributions are in keeping with the aim of the series of providing scholarly reviews of specific topics related to the rapidly changing and advancing field of…

  5. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  6. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  7. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  8. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: the nature of reversible processes, equilibrium constants, variable reaction tendencies, practical…

  10. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

  11. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  12. Thinkers on Education. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the third volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  13. Healing Magazine, Volume 8, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue contains articles on intervention for self-injurious behavior, providing school-based grief groups, effectively using time-out as a parenting tool, and KidsPeace's suicide prevention program. The…

  14. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of a series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, synthetic polymers, other natural products, chemical separations…

  15. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  16. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  17. Skylab Experiments, Volume 6, Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Volume 6, one of a series of booklets designed to acquaint teachers with the Skylab Program, is focused on mechanics. Introductory material provides background information on Skylab and its related education program. Section 1 of the booklet presents relevant physics content concerning the concept of mechanics. Section 2 contains a discussion of…

  18. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  19. Construction Cluster Volume 5 [Electrical].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the fifth of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on electrical work and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study: (1) safety precautions and first aid for electrical workers; (2) planning a simple installation;…

  20. The volume change during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rittich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid-solid phase transformation of solidifying metallic melts is accompanied by a volume change Delta-Vm. This volume change produces a gravity-independent microscopic flow near the solidification front. In a ground-based laboratory, solidification processes are also affected by convection due to temperature and concentration gradients. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of these flows on the formation of structure requires reproducible values of Delta-Vm. Alloys with Delta-Vm = 0 would be best suited for such an evaluation, while alloys with a constant value for Delta-Vm are still usable. Another requirement is related to a solidus-liquidus interval which is as small as possible. One-phase alloys, which would be particularly well suited, could not be found. For these reasons, alloys which solidify in two phases, as for example eutectics, have been considered, taking into account the Al-Ge system. Attention is given to the volume change at the melting point, the measurement of this change, the volume change at solidification, and applications to terrestrial technology.

  1. Thinkers on Education. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the second volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  2. Thinkers on Education. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the fourth volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  3. Construction Cluster Volume III [Plumbing].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the third of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on plumbing and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study. The units include: (1) importance of plumbing; (2) pipe and tubing…

  4. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  5. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the third of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  6. Thinkers on Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.

    This collection of essays targets universities, social science research institutes, teacher training colleges, and those who lecture and carry out research on the history of ideas and of education. It is the first volume in a series that presents, in English, French, and Spanish, a comprehensive view of great educators of every age and culture.…

  7. Emergency department visit volume variability

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung Woo; Park, Hyun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objective One of the most important and basic variables in emergency department (ED) operations is patient visit volumes. This variable is usually predicted on the basis of the average ED patient visit volume over a certain period. However, ED patient visit variability is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated ED patient visit variability in order to determine if the average can be used to operate EDs. Methods Nationwide ED patient visit data were from the standard emergency patient data of the National Emergency Department Information System. The data are transferred automatically by 141 EDs nationwide. The hourly ED visit volumes over 365 days were determined, and the variability was analyzed to evaluate the representativeness of the average. Results A total of 4,672,275 patient visits were collected in 2013. The numbers of daily ED patient visits were widely dispersed and positively skewed rather than symmetric and narrow with a normal distribution. Conclusion The daily variability of ED visit is too large and it did not show normal distribution. The average visit volume does not adequately represent ED operation. PMID:27752589

  8. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, H.

    1996-06-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang`s algorithm. The dual window method was used for scatter subtraction. The author used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of (1) fixed thresholding, (2) automatic thresholding, (3) attenuation, (4) scatter, and (5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are performed. The relative error is within 7% for the GLH method combined with attenuation and scatter corrections.

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  10. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  11. Health Manpower Research. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Bureau of Hospital Administration.

    Some informational materials used in the project reported in "Health Manpower Research. Volume 1" (VT 005 426) are presented. A 97-page bibliography covers manpower, health occupations, planning and legislation, migration of health personnel, staffing and utilization, health economics, and research into health manpower. Appendixes include: (1) a…

  12. Advances in Librarianship. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Melvin J., Ed.; Harris, Michael H., Ed.

    A major theme of this volume is the issue of library accountability and evaluation of productivity. Four review papers deal directly with the topic. The first reviews the literature relating to evaluation of libraries generally with an emphasis on school libraries. The second focuses on the measurement of productivity in the academic library. It…

  13. Safety Education Handbook. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    This is the second of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…

  14. Studies in Interpretation. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Esther M., Ed.; Floyd, Virginia Hastings, Ed.

    The purpose of this second book of 21 self-contained essays is the same as that of the first volume published in 1972: to bring together the scholarly theory and current research regarding oral interpretation. One third of the essays are centered on literature itself: prose fiction, poetry, and the drama. These essays discuss topics such as point…

  15. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  16. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. Two tables are provided at the end of the Glossary to help readers: the first defines the prefixes

  17. O*NET Final Technical Report. Volume I [and] Volume II [and] Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Norman G.; Mumford, Michael D.; Borman, Walter C.; Jeanneret, P. Richard; Fleishman, Edwin A.; Levin, Kerry Y.

    This document contains the three volumes of the technical report for development of the prototype of the Occupational Information Network (O*NET), which is intended to replace the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles.""General Introduction" (Norman G. Peterson) presents an overview of O*NET's purpose, content, and structure. "Research Method:…

  18. Blood volume determination in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Riches, A. C.; Sharp, J. G.; Thomas, D. Brynmor; Smith, S. Vaughan

    1973-01-01

    1. The blood volume of the mouse has been measured using 59Fe-labelled red cells to determine the red cell volume and 131I-labelled human serum albumin to determine the plasma volume. 2. Values for the blood volume of 95·0 ± 1·5, 96·3 ± 2·7 and 84·7 ± 1·2 ml./kg body wt. were found for CSI female, CBA female and CBA male mice respectively. 3. A marked discrepancy was observed between the venous (cardiac) haematocrit and the whole body haematocrit. 4. The blood volume of the mouse must be determined from the red cell volume and the plasma volume, measured using appropriate labels, and not from the red cell volume or the plasma volume using the venous haematocrit. PMID:4687099

  19. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  20. Basketball training increases striatum volume.

    PubMed

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2011-02-01

    The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum.

  1. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD, Gill and Kapleyn 1895-1900) is a photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -53 through -89 degrees. Positions are given for the 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.), + 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -18 to -57 degrees, + 0.157 sec + 0.0764/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.056 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -58 to -85 degrees, +0.157 sec + 0.0353/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.0127 arcmin (Dec.) for the polar plate where, as explained in the introduction to the third volume, many positions were derived from rectangular coordinates (these are positions reported to 0.1 sec (R.A.) and 0.001 arcmin (Dec.) in the -86 to -89 degree zones in the catalog). The probable error of a photographic magnitude, as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude, is given as +0.055 mag. From an analysis of the faint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2, but it is stated that it will be found practically complete, in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  2. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD, Gill and Kapteyn 1895-1900) is a Photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -53 through -89 degrees. Positions are given for 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.), +/- 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones - 18 to -57 degrees, + 0.157 sec + 0.0764/cos(delta) sec (R.A.), +/- 0.056 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -58 to -85 degrees, +0.157 sec + 0.0353/cos (delta) sec (R.A.), + 0.0127 arcmin (Dec.) for the polar plate where, as explained in the introduction to the third volume, many positions were derived from rectangular coordinates (these are positions reported to 0.1 SCC (R.A.) and 0.001 arcmin (Dec.) in the -86 to -89 degree zones in the catalog). The probable error of a photographic magnitude, as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude, is given as +0.055 mag. From an analysis of the faint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2, but it is stated that it will be found practically complete, in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  3. Appropriate technology sourcebook. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.; Keller, K.; Pam, R

    1981-01-01

    The second in a 2 volume set of guides to practical books and plans for village and small community technology, with over 500 annotated references in print in 1980/1. The forestry section includes material on deforestation, conservation, reforestation, firewood crops, agroforestry, timber drying and the safe use of chain saws. Improved cooking stoves and charcoal kilns are covered in another section, and there is also a section on aquaculture. A glossary and a general index are included.

  4. Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD Gill and Kapteyn 1895-1900) is a photographic survey of southern stars in the declination range -18 to -90 degrees. This volume covers the declination range -18 through -37 degrees. Positions are given for the 1875 equinox. The summary of the positional uncertainties quoted in the third volume of the published catalog gives +/- 0.28 sec (R.A.) +/- 0.044 arcmin (Dec.) for zones -18 to -57 degrees. The probable error of a photographic magnitude as determined by combining results for different magnitudes and weighting proportionately according to the numbers of stars in each class of magnitude is given as +/- 0.055 mag. From an analysis of the taint magnitude limits on the plates discussed in the third volume introduction, the catalog as a whole can be considered complete to photographic magnitude 9.2 but it is stated that it will be found practically complete in or near the Milky Way, to magnitude 9.5.

  5. Astronautic Structures Manual, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This document (Volumes I, II, and III) presents a compilation of industry-wide methods in aerospace strength analysis that can be carried out by hand, that are general enough in scope to cover most structures encountered, and that are sophisticated enough to give accurate estimates of the actual strength expected. It provides analysis techniques for the elastic and inelastic stress ranges. It serves not only as a catalog of methods not usually available, but also as a reference source for the background of the methods themselves. An overview of the manual is as follows: Section A is a general introduction of methods used and includes sections on loads, combined stresses, and interaction curves; Section B is devoted to methods of strength analysis; Section C is devoted to the topic of structural stability; Section D is on thermal stresses; Section E is on fatigue and fracture mechanics; Section F is on composites; Section G is on rotating machinery; and Section H is on statistics. These three volumes supersede Volumes I and II, NASA TM X-60041 and NASA TM X-60042, respectively.

  6. Computer simulations to estimate organ doses from clinically validated cardiac, neuro, and pediatric protocols for multiple detector computed tomography scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghita, Monica

    Recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology, particularly that of multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanning, have provided increased utilization and more diverse clinical applications including more advanced vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams. Notwithstanding the benefits to the patient undergoing a CT study, the fundamental concern in radiation protection is the minimization of the radiation exposure delivered as well as the implementation of structures to prevent inappropriate ordering and clinical use of these advanced studies. This research work developed a computational methodology for routine clinical use to assess patient organ doses from MDCT scanners. To support the methodology, a computer code (DXS-Diagnostic X-ray Spectra) was developed to accurately and conveniently generate x-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range (45-140 keV). The two accepted standard radiation transport calculation methods namely, deterministic and Monte Carlo, have been preliminarily investigated for their capability and readiness to support the proposed goal of the work. Thorough tests demonstrated that the lack of appropriate discrete photon interaction coefficients in the aforementioned diagnostic energy range impedes the applicability of the deterministic approach to routine clinical use; improvements in the multigroup treatment may make it more viable. Thus, the open source Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, was adapted to appropriately model an MDCT scan. For this, a new method, entirely based on routine clinical CT measurements, was developed and validated to generate an "equivalent source and filtration" model that obviates the need of proprietary information for a given CT scanner. Computer simulations employing the Monte Carlo methodology and UF's tomographic human phantoms were performed to assess, compare, and optimize pediatric, cardiac and neuro-imaging protocols for the new 320-slice scanner at Shands/UF based on dose considerations

  7. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  8. Mammalian cytochromes P-450: Volume I and Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Guengerich, F.P.

    1987-01-01

    This two volume set summarizes the current knowledge of mammalian cytochromes. Ten chapters cover the current understanding of the enzymology of rat, rabbit, and human liver cytochromes P-450, extrahepatic cytochromes P-450, the diversity of substrates for the individual cytochromes P0-450 proteins, the metabolism of pro-toxicants and -carcinogens by cytochrome P-450, the degradation of cytochrome P-450 proteins, and the regulation of cytochrome P-450 activities in vitro and in vivo. The individual chapters outline the historical development of each area, the approaches which are applied, the current state of knowledge, and future directions towards unresolved questions; and index.

  9. Cochlear labyrinth volume in Krapina Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Beals, Michaela E; Frayer, David W; Radovčić, Jakov; Hill, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Research with extant primate taxa suggests that cochlear labyrinth volume is functionally related to the range of audible frequencies. Specifically, cochlear volume is negatively correlated with both the high and low frequency limits of hearing so that the smaller the cochlea, the higher the normal range of audible frequencies. The close anatomical relationship between the membranous cochlea and the bony cochlear labyrinth allows for the determination of cochlear size from fossil specimens. This study compares Krapina Neandertal cochlear volumes to extant taxa cochlear volumes. Cochlear volumes were acquired from high-resolution computed tomography scans of temporal bones of Krapina Neandertals, chimpanzees, gorillas, and modern humans. We find that Krapina Neandertals' cochlear volumes are similar to modern Homo sapiens and are significantly larger than chimpanzee and gorilla cochlear volumes. The measured cochlear volume in Krapina Neandertals suggests they had a range of audible frequencies similar to the modern human range. PMID:26603101

  10. Measurement Corner: Volume, Temperature and Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teates, Thomas G.

    1977-01-01

    Boyle's Law and basic relationships between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature are presented. Suggests two laboratory activities for demonstrating the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas or liquid. (CS)

  11. RADTRAN 4: User guide. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K S; Kanipe, F L

    1992-01-01

    RADTRAN 4 is used to evaluate radiological consequences of incident-free transportation, as well as the radiological risks from vehicular accidents occurring during transportation. This User Guide is Volume 3 in a series of four volume of the documentation of the RADTRAN 4 computer code for transportation risk analysis. The other three volumes are Volume 1, the Executive Summary; Volume 2, the Technical Manual; and Volume 4, the Programmer`s Manual. The theoretical and calculational basis for the operations performed by RADTRAN 4 are discussed in Volume 2. Throughout this User Guide the reader will be referred to Volume 2 for detailed discussions of certain RADTRAN features. This User Guide supersedes the document ``RADTRAN III`` by Madsen et al. (1983). This RADTRAN 4 User Guide specifies and describes the required data, control inputs, input sequences, user options, program limitations, and other activities necessary for execution of the RADTRAN 4 computer code.

  12. Cumulative Heat Diffusion Using Volume Gradient Operator for Volume Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurijala, K C; Wang, Lei; Kaufman, A

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a simple, yet powerful method called the Cumulative Heat Diffusion for shape-based volume analysis, while drastically reducing the computational cost compared to conventional heat diffusion. Unlike the conventional heat diffusion process, where the diffusion is carried out by considering each node separately as the source, we simultaneously consider all the voxels as sources and carry out the diffusion, hence the term cumulative heat diffusion. In addition, we introduce a new operator that is used in the evaluation of cumulative heat diffusion called the Volume Gradient Operator (VGO). VGO is a combination of the LBO and a data-driven operator which is a function of the half gradient. The half gradient is the absolute value of the difference between the voxel intensities. The VGO by its definition captures the local shape information and is used to assign the initial heat values. Furthermore, VGO is also used as the weighting parameter for the heat diffusion process. We demonstrate that our approach can robustly extract shape-based features and thus forms the basis for an improved classification and exploration of features based on shape.

  13. OMAE 1993: Proceedings. Volume 5: Pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, M.; Murray, A.; Thygesen, J.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of conference proceedings is volume five of a five volume series dealing with offshore and arctic pipeline, marine riser, platforms, and ship design and engineering. This volume is a result of increased use of pipeline transportation for oil, gas, and liquid products and the resultant need for lower design and operating costs. Papers in this conference cover topics on environmental considerations, pipeline automation, computer simulation techniques, materials testing, corrosion protection, permafrost problems, pipeline integrity, geotechnical concerns, and offshore engineering problems.

  14. Nomogram for calculation of left ventricular volumes.

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, F B; Saksena, G B

    1977-01-01

    A nomogram has been devised for the rapid derivation of left ventricular volumes from single-plane angiograms obtained in the 30 degrees right anterior oblique projection. The left ventricular volumes are derived from the use of the area-length formula of Dodge. The computed left ventricular volumes may then be adjusted to correspond to the actual volumes by an appropriate conversion chart. PMID:911567

  15. Multilayer Volume Holographic Optical Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, Vladimir; Millerd, James; Trolinger, James; Norrie, Mark; Downie, John; Timucin, Dogan; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate a scheme for volume holographic storage based on the features of shift selectivity of a speckle reference wave hologram. The proposed recording method allows more efficient use of the recording medium and increases the storage density in comparison with spherical or plane-wave reference beams. Experimental results of multiple hologram storage and replay in a photorefractive crystal of iron-doped lithium niobate are presented. The mechanism of lateral and longitudinal shift selectivity are described theoretically and shown to agree with experimental measurements.

  16. Molten salt techniques. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R.J.; Lovering, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    This is the second volume in a series addressing the practical aspects of molten salt research. The book covers experiments with alkali metal carbonates, oxides, silicates, phosphates and borates. Additional sections cover molten salt spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and automated admittance spectroscopy of the semiconductor/molten salt electrolyte interface. Particular emphasis is given to safety considerations for working with these high temperature, often corrosive materials. Planning of experiments is of interest, and several experiments are described. Attention is given to the selection of materials to be used in this research, including the purification of the salts themselves, and the requirements for laboratory apparatus.

  17. Advances in drying: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include recent thoughts in modeling of drying phenomena, use of computers in rational design of drying particulates, recent advances in drying of wood, and heat/mass transfer phenomena in drying of solids. As the readers will no doubt notice, special effort is made to ensure the truly international nature of the contents of this serial publication. As existing knowledge on drying and dryers becomes more widely and readily accessible, it is expected that more and more dryers will be designed rationally rather than built solely with the benefit of empiricism.

  18. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  19. Tetroon evaluation program. [volume accuracies under superpressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beemer, J. D.; Markhardt, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    The actual volume of a constant volume superpressured tetrahedron shaped balloon changes as the amount of superpressure is changed. The experimental methods used to measure these changes in volume are described and results are presented. The basic equations used to determine the amount of inflation gas required for a tetroon to float at a predetermined flight level are presented and inflation techniques discussed.

  20. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The final volume of this 4-volume report contains further selections from "Anthropological Perspectives on Education," a monograph to be published by Basic Books of New York. (Other selections are in Vol. III, SP 003 902.) Monograph selections appearing in this volume are: "Great Tradition, Little Tradition, and Formal Education;""Indians,…

  1. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.36 Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling, measuring, weighing, or counting the logs...

  2. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.36 Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling, measuring, weighing, or counting the logs...

  3. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.36 Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling, measuring, weighing, or counting the logs...

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hand, Maureen; Mai, Treui; Baldwin, Sam; Brinkman, Greg; Sandor, Debbie; Denholm, Paul; Heath, Garvin; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One. This is part of a series of four volumes describing exploring a high-penetration renewable electricity future for the United States of America. This data set is provides data for the entire volume one document and includes all data for the charts and graphs included in the document.

  5. Olympic Training Film Profiles. Volume Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    Providing a convenient reference source to training and educational films, this fourth volume of the "Training Film Profiles" lists films and filmstrips from all sources for 1971 through 1972. The volume first presents an index, listing film titles and categories from the first four volumes, and then provides entries arranged according to subject…

  6. Keys to Cooperative Education Programs. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Labor Committee, New York, NY.

    This first volume of a two-volume manual provides a structure for the analysis of the design of cooperative education and the implementation of the design in terms of the 49 key elements of cooperative education. It is intended for use by persons responsible for cooperative education at state and local levels. Volume I contains the introduction…

  7. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  8. Clinical application of 320-row multidetector computed tomography for a dynamic three-dimensional vascular study: imaging findings and initial experience.

    PubMed

    Nagamatsu, Shogo; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Kayano, Shuji; Koizumi, Takuya; Akazawa, Satoshi; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Endo, Masahiro; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Urikura, Atsushi

    2010-10-01

    The 320-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is now used by both cardiologists and neurosurgeons. It enables dynamic 3D-CT angiography, because the wide-area detector eliminates helical scanning, thus achieving very fast scanning times for single 3D-CT volume data. Some microvascular surgeons are familiar with 64-row MDCT for perforator studies, but there are few reports of studies using 320-row MDCT. This MDCT system was used to follow the dynamic blood flow of small vessels. It is considered to have a great potential in the clinical field of microvascular surgery. PMID:20399163

  9. The GPS Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.; Moreau, M. C.; Dahle-Melsaether, M. E.; Petrofski, W. P.; Stanton, B. J.; Thomason, S.; Harris, G. A.; Sena, R. P.; Temple, L. Parker, III

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the advent of artificial satellites, the concept of navigating in space and the desire to understand and validate the laws of planetary and satellite motion dates back centuries. At the initiation of orbital flight in 1957, space navigation was dominated by inertial and groundbased tracking methods, underpinned by the laws of planetary motion. It was early in the 1980s that GPS was first explored as a system useful for refining the position, velocity, and timing (PVT) of other spacecraft equipped with GPS receivers. As a result, an entirely new GPS utility was developed beyond its original purpose of providing PVT services for land, maritime, and air applications. Spacecraft both above and below the GPS constellation now receive the GPS signals, including the signals that spill over the limb of the Earth. The use of radionavigation satellite services for space navigation in High Earth Orbits is in fact a capability unique to GPS. Support to GPS space applications is being studied and planned as an important improvement to GPS. This paper discusses the formalization of PVT services in space as part of an overall GPS improvement effort. It describes the GPS Space Service Volume (SSV) and compares it to the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV). It also discusses SSV coverage with the current GPS constellation, coverage characteristics as a function of altitude, expected power levels, and coverage figures of merit.

  10. Modeling of landslide volume estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirahmadi, Abolghasem; Pourhashemi, Sima; Karami, Mokhtar; Akbari, Elahe

    2016-06-01

    Mass displacement of materials such as landslide is considered among problematic phenomena in Baqi Basin located at southern slopes of Binaloud, Iran; since, it destroys agricultural lands and pastures and also increases deposits at the basin exit. Therefore, it is necessary to identify areas which are sensitive to landslide and estimate the significant volume. In the present study, in order to estimate the volume of landslide, information about depth and area of slides was collected; then, considering regression assumptions, a power regression model was given which was compared with 17 suggested models in various regions in different countries. The results showed that values of estimated mass obtained from the suggested model were consistent with observed data (P value= 0.000 and R = 0.692) and some of the existing relations which implies on efficiency of the suggested model. Also, relations that were created in small-area landslides were more suitable rather than the ones created in large-area landslides for using in Baqi Basin. According to the suggested relation, average depth value of landslides was estimated 3.314 meters in Baqi Basin which was close to the observed value, 4.609 m.

  11. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  13. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  14. Facelift Techniques That Restore Facial Volume.

    PubMed

    Mittelman, Harry; Kundaria, Summit; Lam, Herman P

    2016-10-01

    The aging face results in increase in laxity of the skin and the underlying supporting tissue. There is a fundamental volume loss in the face and it is most apparent in the midface. A traditional superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) rhytidectomy addresses the laxity of the face but not volume loss. Multivector high SMAS plication allows for natural excess tissue to be placed into the area of volume loss, thereby addressing midface volume loss. This technique is easy to perform, reproducible, and effective with the added benefit of helping to volumize the lower face. PMID:27680527

  15. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume increase (RVI), which is mediated primarily by Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+) channels. Here, we review in detail the current knowledge regarding the molecular identity of these transport pathways and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review. PMID:19126758

  16. Ventricular volume measured from sestamibi gated tomograms

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.; DePuey, E.G.; Salensky, H. |

    1994-05-01

    Since left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) are valuable prognostic indicators, deriving accurate LV volumes could enhance the prognostic utility of Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT. We examined two methods of obtaining volumes adjunctive to sestamibi injections. A previously reported method of computing volumes from gated first pass (FP) images by combining maximum and total counts with IV maximum depth information from an orthogonal view was tested by imaging the LV chamber of a thoracic/cardiac phantom in RAO-30{degrees} and LAO-60{degrees} projections. Computed volume agreed with known volume to within 4.9%. In a separate experiment, tomograms of the simulated myocardium of the phantom were acquired which were reoriented into vertical and horizontal long-axis slices on which an observer drew inner LV outlines, and from which volume was computed using a scatter-corrected Simpson`s rule method. Computed phantom volume agreed with known simulated LV volume to within 3.5%. To evaluate these volume methods for patient data, we analyzed LV ED and ES images of 39 patients acquired in simultaneous biplane RAO-30{degrees} and LAO-60{degrees} projections during FP bolus transit of 840 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi. One hour later, 64 projections were acquired in 64{sup 2} matrices for 20 seconds each, gated at 8 frames per R-R interval.

  17. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered.

  18. Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

    2014-01-01

    The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

  19. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mckay, M.F.; Mckay, D.S.; Duke, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  20. Volume Rendering of AMR Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadens, M.; Pomarède, D.; Chapon, D.; Teyssier, R.; Bournaud, F.; Renaud, F.; Grandjouan, N.

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution simulations often rely on the Adaptive Mesh Resolution (AMR) technique to optimize memory consumption versus attainable precision. While this technique allows for dramatic improvements in terms of computing performance, the analysis and visualization of its data outputs remain challenging. The lack of effective volume renderers for the octree-based AMR used by the RAMSES simulation program has led to the development of the solutions presented in this paper. Two custom algorithms are discussed, based on the splatting and the ray-casting techniques. Their usage is illustrated in the context of the visualization of a high-resolution, 6000-processor simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy. Performance obtained in terms of memory management and parallelism speedup are presented.

  1. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  2. Optics survivability support, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, N.; Simpson, T.; Busdeker, A.; Doft, F.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of the Optics Survivability Support Final Report contains plots of all the data contained in the computerized Optical Glasses Database. All of these plots are accessible through the Database, but are included here as a convenient reference. The first three pages summarize the types of glass included with a description of the radiation source, test date, and the original data reference. This information is included in the database as a macro button labeled 'LLNL DATABASE'. Following this summary is an Abbe chart showing which glasses are included and where they lie as a function of nu(sub d) and n(sub d). This chart is also callable through the database as a macro button labeled 'ABBEC'.

  3. ATF2 Proposal Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Logachev, P.; Podgorny, F.; Telnov, V.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.; Kalinin, A.; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; Braun, H.H.; Schulte, D.; Zimmermann, F.; Appleby, R.; Barlow, R.; Bailey, I.; Jenner, L.; Jones, R.; Kourevlev, G.; Elsen, E.; Vogel, V.; Walker, N.; /DESY /Fermilab /Hiroshima U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Oxford U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Orsay, LAL /Valencia U. /Annecy, LAPP /LBL, Berkeley /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oregon U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /SLAC /Tokyo U.

    2006-02-27

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are: (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction plans and the group organization to execute the research programs at ATF2. The sections in this report have been authored by relevant ATF2 subgroups within the International ATF Collaboration. The time line of the project is described in Section 2. Section 3 discuss the structure of the international collaboration. Sections 4 and 5 discuss budget considerations, which are presented as well as the design and construction tasks to be shared by the international collaboration at ATF2. Concluding remarks have been contributed by Dr. Ewan Paterson, Chair of the International Collaboration Board of the ATF collaboration.

  4. Drug dosage in isolated limb perfusion: evaluation of a limb volume model for extremity volume calculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exact drug dosing in isolated limb perfusion (ILP) and infusion (ILI) is essential. We developed and evaluated a model for calculating the volume of extremities and compared this model with body weight- and height-dependent parameters. Methods The extremity was modeled by a row of coupled truncated cones. The sizes of the truncated cone bases were derived from the circumference measurements of the extremity at predefined levels (5 cm). The resulting volumes were added. This extremity volume model was correlated to the computed tomography (CT) volume data of the extremity (total limb volume). The extremity volume was also correlated with the patient’s body weight, body mass index (BMI) and ideal body weight (IBW). The no-fat CT limb volume was correlated with the circumference-measured limb volume corrected by the ideal-body-weight to actual-body-weight ratio (IBW corrected-limb-volume). Results The correlation between the CT volume and the volume measured by the circumference was high and significant. There was no correlation between the limb volume and the bare body weight, BMI or IBW. The correlation between the no-fat CT volume and IBW-corrected limb volume was high and significant. Conclusions An appropriate drug dosing in ILP can be achieved by combining the limb volume with the simple circumference measurements and the IBW to body-weight ratio. PMID:24684972

  5. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  6. Relationship between stroke volume and pulse pressure during blood volume perturbation: a mathematical analysis.

    PubMed

    Bighamian, Ramin; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Arterial pulse pressure has been widely used as surrogate of stroke volume, for example, in the guidance of fluid therapy. However, recent experimental investigations suggest that arterial pulse pressure is not linearly proportional to stroke volume. However, mechanisms underlying the relation between the two have not been clearly understood. The goal of this study was to elucidate how arterial pulse pressure and stroke volume respond to a perturbation in the left ventricular blood volume based on a systematic mathematical analysis. Both our mathematical analysis and experimental data showed that the relative change in arterial pulse pressure due to a left ventricular blood volume perturbation was consistently smaller than the corresponding relative change in stroke volume, due to the nonlinear left ventricular pressure-volume relation during diastole that reduces the sensitivity of arterial pulse pressure to perturbations in the left ventricular blood volume. Therefore, arterial pulse pressure must be used with care when used as surrogate of stroke volume in guiding fluid therapy.

  7. Waterpower`95. Volume 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Waterpower `95 is organized around 70 sessions with four papers being presented in each session and a poster paper forum, There are 26 topic area, with Volume I containing 5 topics and the poster session papers; Volume II containing 11 topics, and Volume III containing 10 topics and the student paper submittals. The topics are: Volume I (1) environmental, (2) case studies, (3) legal and licensing, (4) performance testing, (5) performance measurement, (6) posters, (7) construction; Volume II (8) rehabilitation and modernization, (9) operation and maintenance, (10) turbines and pump turbines, (11) electrical systems and controls, (12) generators, (13) recreation, (14) EPRI, (15) planning, (16) economics and finance, (17) integrated resource management, (18) technology transfer; Volume III (19) research and development, (20) safety, (21) risk analysis, (22) reservoir system operations, (23) hydraulic analysis, (24) hydrologic analysis, (25) geotechnical, (26) mechanical systems, (27) civil works, and (28) scholarship contest.

  8. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  10. Karl Schwarzschild. Collected works. Volume 3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, H.-H.

    This volume is the third part of a three-volume collection of research papers by Karl Schwarzschild. The complete collection will comprise a total of 119 papers, organized into ten categories. (For volumes 1, 2 see 55.003.011, 55.003.086, respectively). Contents: 8. Optics. Commentary by G. Schmahl. 9. Physical papers. Commentary by F. Hund. 10. Miscellaneous. Commentary by H.-H. Voigt.

  11. Lung volumes: measurement, clinical use, and coding.

    PubMed

    Flesch, Judd D; Dine, C Jessica

    2012-08-01

    Measurement of lung volumes is an integral part of complete pulmonary function testing. Some lung volumes can be measured during spirometry; however, measurement of the residual volume (RV), functional residual capacity (FRC), and total lung capacity (TLC) requires special techniques. FRC is typically measured by one of three methods. Body plethysmography uses Boyle's Law to determine lung volumes, whereas inert gas dilution and nitrogen washout use dilution properties of gases. After determination of FRC, expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory vital capacity are measured, which allows the calculation of the RV and TLC. Lung volumes are commonly used for the diagnosis of restriction. In obstructive lung disease, they are used to assess for hyperinflation. Changes in lung volumes can also be seen in a number of other clinical conditions. Reimbursement for measurement of lung volumes requires knowledge of current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, relevant indications, and an appropriate level of physician supervision. Because of recent efforts to eliminate payment inefficiencies, the 10 previous CPT codes for lung volumes, airway resistance, and diffusing capacity have been bundled into four new CPT codes. PMID:22871760

  12. A Scaling Law of Vascular Volume

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yunlong; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vascular volume is of fundamental significance to the function of the cardiovascular system. An accurate prediction of blood volume in patients is physiologically and clinically significant. This study proposes what we believe is a novel volume scaling relation of the form: Vc=KvDs2/3Lc, where Vc and Lc are cumulative vessel volume and length, respectively, in the tree, and Ds is the diameter of the vessel segment. The scaling relation is validated in vascular trees of various organs including the heart, lung, mesentery, muscle, and eye of different species. Based on the minimum energy hypothesis and volume scaling relation, four structure-function scaling relations are predicted, including the diameter-length, volume-length, flow-diameter, and volume-diameter relations, with exponent values of 3/7, 127, 2⅓, and 3, respectively. These four relations are validated in the various vascular trees, which further confirm the volume scaling relation. This scaling relation may serve as a control reference to estimate the blood volume in various organs and species. The deviation from the scaling relation may indicate hypovolemia or hypervolemia and aid diagnosis. PMID:19167288

  13. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  14. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  16. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Mohamad R.; Samuels, Stuart E.; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  17. Rapid Decimation for Direct Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Jonathan; VanGelder, Allen; Verma, Vivek; Wilhelms, Jane

    1997-01-01

    An approach for eliminating unnecessary portions of a volume when producing a direct volume rendering is described. This reduction in volume size sacrifices some image quality in the interest of rendering speed. Since volume visualization is often used as an exploratory visualization technique, it is important to reduce rendering times, so the user can effectively explore the volume. The methods presented can speed up rendering by factors of 2 to 3 with minor image degradation. A family of decimation algorithms to reduce the number of primitives in the volume without altering the volume's grid in any way is introduced. This allows the decimation to be computed rapidly, making it easier to change decimation levels on the fly. Further, because very little extra space is required, this method is suitable for the very large volumes that are becoming common. The method is also grid-independent, so it is suitable for multiple overlapping curvilinear and unstructured, as well as regular, grids. The decimation process can proceed automatically, or can be guided by the user so that important regions of the volume are decimated less than unimportant regions. A formal error measure is described based on a three-dimensional analog of the Radon transform. Decimation methods are evaluated based on this metric and on direct comparison with reference images.

  18. Physiological volume regulation by spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C H; Barfield, J P; Cooper, T G

    2006-05-16

    Maturing spermatozoa passing through the epididymis experience increasing osmolality in the luminal environment and mature cells are stored in fluids hyper-osmotic to serum. When ejaculated into the female tract, they encounter a hypo-osmotic challenge which initiates the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Defects in RVD result in hindrance of mucus penetration in man and failure of utero-tubal passage in mice. Epididymal sperm from the mouse and cynomolgus monkey and ejaculated sperm from man and monkey have been isolated and dispersed in media with osmolalities mimicking those of uterine fluid or cervical mucus. The effects of specific and broad-spectrum ion channel blockers indicate the involvement of separate K+ and Cl- channels as well as organic osmolytes in physiological sperm RVD, with mechanisms developed during epididymal maturation. Western blotting and immuno-cytochemistry identify and localise some of these channels which play a crucial role in fertilisation in vivo and could be targets for post-testicular contraception. PMID:16446027

  19. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  20. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  1. Blood volume changes. [weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.; Driscoll, T. B.; Leblance, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of radionuclide volume determinations made for the crewmembers of selected Gemini and Apollo missions showed that orbital spaceflight has an effect on red cell mass. Because the methods and the protocol developed for earlier flights were used for the crews of the three Skylab missions, direct comparisons are possible. After each Skylab mission, decreases were found in crewmembers' red cell masses. The mean red cell mass decrease of 11 percent or 232 milliliters was approximately equal to the 10 percent mean red cell mass decrease of the Apollo 14 to 17 crewmembers. The red cell mass drop was greatest and the postrecovery reticulocyte response least for crewmembers of the 28-day Skylab 2 mission. Analyses of data from the red cell mass determinations indicate that the red cell mass drops occurred in the first 30 days of flight and that a gradual recovery of the red cell mass deficits began approximately 60 days after launch. The beginning of red cell mass regeneration during the Skylab 4 flight may explain the higher postmission reticulocyte counts.

  2. High Performance Schools Best Practices Manual. Volume I: Planning [and] Volume II: Design [and] Volume III: Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eley, Charles, Ed.

    This three-volume manual, focusing on California's K-12 public schools, presents guidelines for establishing schools that are healthy, comfortable, energy efficient, resource efficient, water efficient, secure, adaptable, and easy to operate and maintain. The first volume describes why high performance schools are important, what components are…

  3. Lake volume monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétaux, Jean-Francois; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel; Arsen, Adalbert; Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are integrator of environmental changes occurring at regional to global scale and present a high variety of behaviors on a variety of time scales (cyclic and secular) depending on the climate conditions and their morphology. In addition their crucial importance as water stocks and retaining, given the significant environment changes occurring worldwide at many anthropocentric levels, has increased the necessity of monitoring all its morphodynamics characteristics, say water level, surface (water contour) and volume. The satellite altimetry and satellite imagery together are now widely used for the calculation of lakes and reservoirs water storage changes worldwide. However strategies and algorithms to calculate these characteristics are not straightforward and need development of specific approaches. We intend to present a review of some of these methodologies by using the lakes over the Tibetan Plateau to illustrate some critical aspects and issues (technical and scientific) linked with the survey of climate changes impacts on surface waters from remote sensing data. Many authors have measured water variations using the short period of remote sensing measurements available, although time series are probably too short to lead to definitive conclusions to link these results directly with the framework of climate changes. Indeed, many processes beyond the observations are still uncertain, for example the influence of morphology of the lakes. The time response for a lake to reach new state of equilibrium is one of the key aspects often neglected in the current literature. Observations over long period of time, therein maintaining a constellation of comprehensive and complementary satellite missions with a continuity of services over decades, especially when ground gauges network is too limited is therefore a necessity. In addition, the design of future satellite missions with new instrumental concepts (e.g. SAR, SARin, Ka band altimetry, Ka interferometry) is

  4. Lake Volume Monitoring from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétaux, J.-F.; Abarca-del-Río, R.; Bergé-Nguyen, M.; Arsen, A.; Drolon, V.; Clos, G.; Maisongrande, P.

    2016-03-01

    Lakes are integrators of environmental change occurring at both the regional and global scale. They present a wide range of behavior on a variety of timescales (cyclic and secular) depending on their morphology and climate conditions. Lakes play a crucial role in retaining and stocking water, and because of the significant global environmental changes occurring at several anthropocentric levels, the necessity to monitor all morphodynamic characteristics [e.g., water level, surface (water contour) and volume] has increased substantially. Satellite altimetry and imagery are now widely used together to calculate lake and reservoir water storage changes worldwide. However, strategies and algorithms to calculate these characteristics are not straightforward, and specific approaches need to be developed. We present a review of some of these methodologies by using lakes over the Tibetan Plateau to illustrate some critical aspects and issues (technical and scientific) linked to the observation of climate change impact on surface waters from remote sensing data. Many authors have measured water variation using the limited remote sensing measurements available over short time periods, even though the time series are probably too short to directly link these results with climate change. Indeed, there are many processes and factors, like the influence of lake morphology, that are beyond observation and are still uncertain. The time response for lakes to reach a new state of equilibrium is a key aspect that is often neglected in current literature. Observations over a long period of time, including maintaining a constellation of comprehensive and complementary satellite missions with service continuity over decades, are therefore necessary especially when the ground gauge network is too limited. In addition, the design of future satellite missions with new instrumental concepts (e.g., SAR, SARin, Ka band altimetry, Ka interferometry) will also be suitable for complete

  5. Reflections on America. Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Robert, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    A series of articles celebrating the Bicentennial of the Constitution is presented in two volumes. The first article in Volume 1 is an interview by Bernard Murchland with Barbara Jordan discussing the effectiveness of the original Constitution. The second article, "If I Were President," is an interview by Bernard Murchland with Studs Terkel on the…

  6. Computer Literature Bibliography; Volume 2, 1964 - 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youden, W.W.

    In this second volume of a two-volume bibliography of computer literature approximately 5,200 references from 1964 to 1967 are listed. The full title and the names of all the authors of articles published in 17 journals, 20 books, and 43 conference proceedings are given. In addition, references to all items that were reviewed in the Institute of…

  7. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 3 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The third of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains twenty-five units of instruction in the area of agricultural mechanics. Among the unit topics included are (1) Farm Safety, (2) Ignition Systems; (3) Servicing Wheel Bearings, (4) Oxyacetylene Cutting, (5) Servicing the…

  8. Developmental Physical Education Accountability; Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnieri, Barbara; Sandeen, Cecile

    Presented in the first of a two volume series is a developmental physical education checklist which provides teachers of trainable mentally retarded students with a permanent and accountable record of pupil progress and needs. The checklist is intended to be used with the accompanying volume of curricular activities in a nongraded enviroment for…

  9. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The first of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in two major areas: (1) plant and soil science and (2) leadership (Future Farmers of America). Typical of the nineteen units included in the first section are the following: Plant Insect Control, Plant…

  10. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The second of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in three major areas: (1) Animal Science, (2) Supervised Training Programs--Farm Business Management, and (3) Career Selection/Public Relations. Typical of the sixteen units included in the first…

  11. Flow volumes for interactive vector field visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Becker, B.; Crawfis, R.

    1993-04-06

    Flow volumes are the volumetric equivalent of stream lines. They provide more information about the vector field being visualized than do stream lines or ribbons. Presented is an efficient method for producing flow volumes, composed of transparently rendered tetrahedra, for use in an interactive system. The problems of rendering, subdivision, sorting, rendering artifacts, and user interaction are dealt with.

  12. Site Environmental Report for 2003, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pauer, Ron

    2004-06-22

    Volume II of the ''Site Environmental Report for 2003'' is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 6). Volume I summarizes the results from analyses of the data. For completeness, results from sample collections beginning or ending in calendar year (CY) 2003 are included in this volume but samples representing CY 2002 data are not used in summary results reported in Volume I. (For example, although Ambient Air samples collected on January 6, 2003, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2002 data and are not included in Tables 4-6 and 4-7 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System of Units (SI). For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. For example, stack air results reported as < 1.1 Bq/m{sup 3} are shown variously as < 29, < 30 and < 31 pCi/m{sup 3}. Each of these results is rounded correctly to two significant digits.

  13. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The first volume of this 4-volume report presents the basic rationale for an anthropological and cross-cultural approach to education, abstracts of 14 research projects sponsored by the American Anthropological Association, a proposal for the establishment of a Research Center for Anthropology and Education to be coordinated by the Association, a…

  14. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The third volume of this 4-volume report contains the last two speeches, on educational philosophy and the role of reason in society, from the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research (preceding speeches are in Vol. II, SP 003 901), reports on conferences on the culture of schools held in Pittsburgh and…

  15. Cognitive Conflict, Peers, and Volume Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Peter D.

    This study investigates the effects of a training procedure on children's conservation. Volume conservation was induced in twenty-one 8-year-old non-conserving children by a procedure that combined two sources of conflict. First, the competing schemes used in making decisions on volumes were aroused; second, the non-conserver was made aware of a…

  16. 50th JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 29 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 50th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 11-13 July 2001 at the Salt Lake City Marriott Hotel in Salt Lake City, Utah.

  17. Chesapeake Bay Hypoxic Volume Forecasts and Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Given the average Jan-May 2013 total nitrogen load of 162,028 kg/day, this summer's hypoxia volume forecast is 6.1 km3, slightly smaller than average size for the period of record and almost the same as 2012. The late July 2013 measured volume was 6.92 km3.

  18. Chesapeake Bay hypoxic volume forecasts and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Forecast - Given the average Jan-May 2013 total nitrogen load of 162,028 kg/day, this summer’s hypoxia volume forecast is 6.1 km3, slightly smaller than average size for the period of record and almost the same as 2012. The late July 2013 measured volume was 6.92 km3.

  19. Gender and Education. An Encyclopedia. Volume II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book represents the second of two volumes in a two-volume set where educators explore the intersection of gender and education. Their entries deal with educational theories, research, curricula, practices, personnel, and policies, but also with variations in the gendering of education across historical and cultural contexts. The various…

  20. 21 CFR 868.1760 - Volume plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Volume plethysmograph. 868.1760 Section 868.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1760 Volume plethysmograph....

  1. 21 CFR 868.1760 - Volume plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Volume plethysmograph. 868.1760 Section 868.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1760 Volume plethysmograph....

  2. 21 CFR 868.1760 - Volume plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Volume plethysmograph. 868.1760 Section 868.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1760 Volume plethysmograph....

  3. 21 CFR 868.1760 - Volume plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Volume plethysmograph. 868.1760 Section 868.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1760 Volume plethysmograph....

  4. 21 CFR 868.1760 - Volume plethysmograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Volume plethysmograph. 868.1760 Section 868.1760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1760 Volume plethysmograph....

  5. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  6. Sandia software guidelines, Volume 4: Configuration management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume is based on the IEEE standard and guide for software configuration management. The basic concepts and detailed guidance on implementation of these concepts are discussed for several software project types. Example planning documents for both projects and organizations are included.

  7. Molar volumes and densities of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Bethke, Philip M.

    1962-01-01

    These tables present critically chosen "best values" for the density and molar volume of selected mineral compounds. No attempt was made to be all-inclusive; rather we have tried to present data for chemically and physically well-defined phases for which the molar volume and/or density was knovvn to the order of 0. 2 percent.

  8. Areas and Volumes in Pre-Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Joscelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests the introduction of the concepts of areas bounded by plane curves and the volumes of solids of revolution in Pre-calculus. It builds on the basic knowledge that students bring to a pre-calculus class, derives a few more formulas, and gives examples of some problems on plane areas and the volumes of solids of revolution that…

  9. Trends in Higher Education. Volume 3: Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This third and final volume of the 2007-08 edition of "Trends" focuses on the resources that Canadian universities have to support their teaching and research activities. The volume begins by comparing the combined funding for teaching and research in Canadian universities with higher education funding in some of its most important comparator…

  10. Matter, Motion, and Man, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montag, Betty Jo

    Volume Two of the three-volume experimental program in general science attempts to provide preparation for the new approaches in biology, chemistry, and physics and to give those who will not continue in science a realistic way of understanding themselves, the world, and the role of science in society. Chapters on classification, heredity, light,…

  11. Readings in Intercultural Communication, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Davis S., Ed.

    The second volume contains five articles on the theory of culture conflict, four perspectives on intercultural communications workshop programs, and seventeen syllabi courses on or related to intercultural communications in higher education. This volume attempts to bring about a more worldly perspective in universities and in the nation itself.…

  12. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    SciTech Connect

    Doring, Michael

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  13. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.36 Volume determination. (a) Timber sale... determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has been paid for, the marking or...

  14. SEVENTH YEAR MATHEMATICS, VOLUME 1, EXPERIMENTAL EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    THIS IS VOLUME 1 OF A THREE-VOLUME EXPERIMENTAL EDITION CONTAINING A SEQUENCE OF ENRICHED MATERIALS FOR SEVENTH-GRADE MATHEMATICS. THESE MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR A PROGRAM OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION FOR THE ACCELERATED STUDENT OR FOR CLASSROOM PRESENTATION BY THE TEACHER. THE PRESENTATION OF THE MATERIAL IS IN SUCH A MANNER AS TO REFLECT…

  15. Liposome technology. Volume I: Preparation of liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoriadis, G.

    1984-01-01

    These three volumes cover liposome technology in pharmacology and medicine. Contributors emphasize methodology used in their own laboratories, and include a brief introduction, coverage of relevant literature, applications and critical evaluations for the methods they describe. Volume I examine methods for the preparation of liposomes and auxiliary techniques.

  16. Comparing the Volumes of Rectangular Prisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assuah, Charles K.; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2010-01-01

    Can middle-grades students determine which of two rectangular prisms has a larger volume? Can they do so without using a formula? Geometry, and particularly the concept of volume, is important in many subjects, such as physics and chemistry. Students greatly enhance their mathematics knowledge when they make generalizations and construct arguments…

  17. [ENDOSCOPIC LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION IN PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA].

    PubMed

    Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented.

  18. Ways to Environmental Education, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joel, Ed.; And Others

    This resource guide is the first of three volumes of environmental education ideas and activities compiled by participants at the Tallahassee Junior Museum for the benefit of other environmental educators. This volume contains ten booklets produced by various community groups to educate their membership or target groups about the environment. The…

  19. INTRODUCTION AND STATIC ELECTRICITY, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME, PART OF A TWO-VOLUME SET, PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERS UNITS ON (1) STATIC ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL CHARGES, (2) COULOMB'S LAW, (3) DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AND FLOW OF CURRENT, (4) DIFFERENCE OF POTENTIAL, (5) BATTERIES AND CIRCUITS, (6) RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS, (7) POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND WHEATSTONE…

  20. A COURSE IN URDU, VOLUME TWO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARKER, MUHAMMAD ABD AL RAHMAN; AND OTHERS

    VOLUME TWO, UNITS 16 THROUGH 25, CONTINUE THIS INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN URDU. THE GENERAL FORMAT IN THE FIRST FIVE UNITS IS CONSISTENT WITH VOLUME ONE (IN WHICH THE SOUNDS, BASIC STRUCTURES, AND WRITING SYSTEM WERE INTRODUCED). THE LAST FIVE UNITS BEGIN WITH AN ESSAY WRITTEN IN URDU SCRIPT FOLLOWED BY A VOCABULARY SECTION, WHICH TOGETHER REPLACE THE…

  1. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  2. Working Papers in Dialogue Modeling, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, William C.; And Others

    The technical working papers that comprise the two volumes of this document are related to the problem of creating a valid process model of human communication in dialogue. In Volume 2, the first paper concerns study methodology, and raises such issues as the choice between system-building and process-building, and the advantages of studying cases…

  3. Stories That Must Not Die. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvageau, Juan

    Ranch hands gathered around a campfire and old folks rocking on the porch were some of the sources for the 10 folkloric tales presented in this volume. Written in both Spanish and English, this book of traditional tales from the Mexican American people of South Texas is the first of a series of three volumes. Five of the stories deal with the…

  4. VOLUME COMPENSATING MEANS FOR PULSATING PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, D.L.W.; MacCormack, R.S. Jr.

    1959-12-01

    A double diaphragm, two-liquid pulsating pump for remote control use, having as an improvement an apparatus for maintaining constant the volume of the liquid such as kerosene between the two diaphragms is described. Phase difficulties encountered in the operation of such pumps when the volume of the liquid is altered by changes in temperature are avoided.

  5. Glacier ice-volume modeling and glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, Dennis C.; Hawkins, Daniel B.

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of ice volumes and hydrologic hazards on Redoubt Volcano began four months before the 1989-90 eruptions removed 0.29 cubic kilometer of perennial snow and ice from Drift glacier. A volume model was developed for evaluating glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano. The volume model is based on third-order polynomial simulations of valley cross sections. The third-order polynomial is an interpolation from the valley walls exposed above glacier surfaces and takes advantage of ice-thickness measurements. The fortuitous 1989-90 eruptions removed the ice from a 4.5-kilometer length of Drift glacier, providing a unique opportunity for verification of the volume model. A 2.5-kilometer length was chosen in the denuded glacier valley and the ice volume was measured by digitally comparing two new maps: one derived from the most recent pre-eruption 1979 aerial photographs and the other from post-eruption 1990 aerial photographs. The measured volume in the reference reach was 99 x 106 cubic meters, about 1 percent less than was estimated by the volume model. The volume estimate produced by this volume model was much closer to the measured volume than was the volume estimated by other techniques. The verified volume model was used to evaluate the total volume of perennial snow and glacier ice on Redoubt Volcano, which was estimated to be 4.1?0.8 cubic kilometers. Substantial snow and ice covers on volcanoes exacerbate the hydrologic hazards associated with eruptions. The volume on Redoubt Volcano is about 23 times the volume that was present on Mount St. Helens before its 1980 eruption, which generated lahars and floods.

  6. Research Summary No. 36-3, Volume I, Part I. Volume I, Part One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  7. Development of limb volume measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Kadaba, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reductions in orthostatic tolerance associated with weightlessness are not well established. Contradictory results from measurements of leg volume changes suggest that altered venomotor tone and reduced blood flow may not be the only contributors to orthostatic intolerance. It is felt that a more accurate limb volume system which is insensitive to environmental factors will aid in better quantification of the hemodynamics of the leg. Of the varous limb volume techniques presently available, the ultrasonic limb volume system has proven to be the best choice. The system as described herein is free from environmental effects, safe, simple to operate and causes negligible radio frequency interference problems. The segmental ultrasonic ultrasonic plethysmograph is expected to provide a better measurement of limb volume change since it is based on cross-sectional area measurements.

  8. Free volume in contact lens polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Upchurch, Billy T.; Burns, Karen S.

    1990-01-01

    We have measured the free volume and gas permeability in several contact lens specimens as part of a Space Commercialization Program. Free volume was measured using positron lifetime spectroscopy, while permeability for O2, N2, and CO2 gases was measured using mass spectrometry and polarography. It has been noted that permeability for all gases increases with the mean free volume cell size in the test samples. As might be expected, the specimens with the highest free volume fraction also exhibit the lowest Rockwell Hardness Number. An interesting corollary of this study is the finding that the presence of fluorine atoms in the lens chemical structure inhibits filling up of their free volume cells. This is expected to allow the lenses to breathe freely while in actual use.

  9. Volume Fraction Effects in Electroacoustic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Rasmusson, Mikael

    2001-08-15

    We measured the dynamic mobility of a polystyrene latex at 1 MHz as a function of volume fraction using the ESA-8000. The volume fraction dependence is compared with a semiempirical equation as well as with some theoretical predictions. It turns out that our polystyrene latex exhibits a volume fraction dependence much weaker than that predicted by any of the theories. This suggests that (polystyrene) latices may not be the ideal model system and that the centrifugation process may influence the surface structure of the particles. We also measured the dynamic mobility spectrum of a silica sol as a function of volume fraction using the Acoustosizer. The experimental spectrum of the silica sol was found to agree reasonably well with the semiempirical and theoretical spectra, especially below φ=0.144. At higher volume fractions we observed positive phase angles that were not predicted by the semiempirical method nor the cell model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11482951

  10. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  11. Caring for Children in Family Child Care. Volume I, Volume II, and Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koralek, Derry G.; And Others

    This document contains volume I, volume II and the Trainer's Guide. Volume I contains 6 modules of a course of study designed to help individuals, either on their own or in a formal course of instruction, acquire the skills and knowledge needed to provide high-quality family child care for children from infancy through age 12. The other 7 modules…

  12. The Relationship between Volume Conservation and a Volume Algorithm for a Rectangular Parallelepiped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feghali, Issa Nehme

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the level of conservation of displaced volume and the degree to which sixth-grade children learn the volume algorithm of a cuboid, namely, volume equals weight times length times height. The problem chosen is based on an apparent discrepancy between the present school programs and…

  13. Forensic considerations for preprocessing effects on clinical MDCT scans.

    PubMed

    Wade, Andrew D; Conlogue, Gerald J

    2013-05-01

    Manipulation of digital photographs destined for medico-legal inquiry must be thoroughly documented and presented with explanation of any manipulations. Unlike digital photography, computed tomography (CT) data must pass through an additional step before viewing. Reconstruction of raw data involves reconstruction algorithms to preprocess the raw information into display data. Preprocessing of raw data, although it occurs at the source, alters the images and must be accounted for in the same way as postprocessing. Repeated CT scans of a gunshot wound phantom were made using the Toshiba Aquilion 64-slice multidetector CT scanner. The appearance of fragments, high-density inclusion artifacts, and soft tissue were assessed. Preprocessing with different algorithms results in substantial differences in image output. It is important to appreciate that preprocessing affects the image, that it does so differently in the presence of high-density inclusions, and that preprocessing algorithms and scanning parameters may be used to overcome the resulting artifacts.

  14. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  15. Regulation of mammalian brain cell volume.

    PubMed

    Law, R O

    1994-02-01

    Maintenance of brain cell volume is of crucial importance for normal central nervous system (CNS) function. This review considers volume regulation primarily in response to disturbances of body fluid osmolality. Brain cells counter the tendency to swell or shrink by appropriate adjustment of their internal osmotic potential. This is achieved by loss or uptake of inorganic ions and low molecular weight organic solutes (osmolytes). The latter comprise mainly amino acids, myoinositol, choline, and methylamines. Taurine may be of particular importance in volume control, especially in young animals. Brain cell volume regulation, however, is only one contributory factor to maintenance of constant brain volume (water content), and operates in parallel with important alterations in bulk fluid and electrolyte movement across the blood-brain barrier and between the interstitium and cerebrospinal fluid, which themselves moderate the requirement for transient alteration in cell volume during acute osmotic imbalance. Although altered cerebral content of inorganic ions and osmolytes are usually regarded as responses, respectively, to acute and chronic osmotic disturbances, osmolytes (especially taurine) may also participate in short-term cell volume regulation. PMID:8301256

  16. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-05-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.

  17. Anisosmotic cell volume regulation: a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, M E; Strange, K

    1989-08-01

    A variety of organisms and cell types spanning the five taxonomic kingdoms are exposed, either naturally or through experimental means, to osmotic stresses. A common physiological response to these challenges is maintenance of cell volume through changes in the concentration of intracellular inorganic and organic solutes, collectively termed osmolytes. Research on the mechanisms by which the concentration of these solutes is regulated has proceeded along several experimental lines. Extensive studies on osmotically activated ion transport pathways have been carried out in vertebrate cells and tissues. Much of our knowledge on organic osmolytes has come from investigations on invertebrates, bacteria, and protists. The relative simplicity of bacterial genetics has provided a powerful and elegant tool to explore the modifications of gene expression during volume regulation. An implication of this diverse experimental approach is that phylogenetically divergent organisms employ uniquely adapted mechanisms of cell volume regulation. Given the probability that changes in extracellular osmolality were physiological stresses faced by the earliest organisms, it is more likely that cell volume regulation proceeds by highly conserved physiological processes. We review volume regulation from a comparative perspective, drawing examples from all five taxonomic kingdoms. Specifically, we discuss the role of inorganic and organic solutes in volume maintenance and the mechanisms by which the concentrations of these osmolytes are regulated. In addition, the processes that may transduce volume perturbations into regulatory responses, such as stretch activation of ion channels, intracellular signaling, and genomic regulation, are discussed. Throughout this review we emphasize areas we feel are important for future research.

  18. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media

    PubMed Central

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media. PMID:25574061

  19. Molar volume and thermal expansion of glaucophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David M.; Corona, Juan-Carlos

    2006-08-01

    The molar volume of glaucophane [Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2] has been determined in this study by correcting synthetic glaucophane-rich amphiboles made in the system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O for very small deviations from ideal glaucophane composition using recent volume data on key amphibole components. The derived unit-cell volume for end-member glaucophane is 862.7±1.6 Å3, which gives a molar volume of 259.8±0.5 cm3/mol and a calculated density of 3.016±0.006 g/cm3. This value has been corroborated through an essentially independent method by correcting the volumes of natural sodic amphiboles reported in the literature for non-glaucophane components, particularly including calcium-rich components, to yield a value of 861.2±1.9 Å3. The unit-cell volume derived from the synthetic amphiboles, which is considered here to be more reliable, is somewhat smaller than that reported previously in the literature. A thermal expansion (αV) at 298 K of 1.88±0.06×10-5/K was derived from unit-cell volumes measured in the range of 25-500°C for a synthetic glaucophane sample, which is noticeably smaller than previously reported.

  20. Noninvasive measurement of human ascending colon volume.

    PubMed

    Badley, A D; Camilleri, M; O'Connor, M K

    1993-06-01

    The capacitance and motor functions of the colon are important determinants of its overall function. A simple, noninvasive method to quantify regional colonic volume is required for further physiologic and pharmacologic studies. Our aim was to determine whether measurements of human ascending colon (AC) volume using two-dimensional (2-D) images are as accurate as estimates using three-dimensional (3-D) images. Five healthy male volunteers each ingested a methacrylate-coated capsule containing 99Tcm-labelled Amberlite pellets. Two-and 3-D images were obtained using a gamma camera with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) capability. Ascending colon volume was estimated by a variable region of interest (VROI) program and by full-width half-maximum (FWHM) analysis, and results were compared to the volume estimates by SPECT. Full-width half-maximum analysis yielded volume estimates that were not significantly different from SPECT (slope = 1.093; t = 0.51; P > 0.5), whereas VROI estimates were significantly different from volume measurements by SPECT and, hence, considered less accurate (slope = 0.438; t = 4.93; P < 0.02). Thus, the less expensive and more easily available planar imaging technique with analysis by FWHM estimates AC volume as accurately as SPECT.

  1. Fundamental Kinetics Database Utilizing Shock Tube Measurements (Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, and Volume 6)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K

    The data from shock tube experiments generally takes three forms: ignition delay times, species concentration time-histories and reaction rate measurements. Volume 1 focuses on ignition delay time data measured and published by the Shock Tube Group in the Mechanical Engineering Department of Stanford University. The cut-off date for inclusion into this volume was January 2005. Volume 2 focuses on species concentration time-histories and was cut off December 2005. The two volumes are in PDF format and are accompanied by a zipped file of supporting data. Volume 3 was issued in 2009. Volume 4, Ignition delay times measurements came out in May, 2014, along with Reaction Rates Measurements, Vol 6. Volume 5 is not available at this time.

  2. Computer-assisted venous thrombosis volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Puentes, John; Dhibi, Mounir; Bressollette, Luc; Guias, Bruno; Solaiman, Basel

    2009-03-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) volume assessment, by verifying its risk of progression when anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapies are prescribed, is often necessary to screen life-threatening complications. Commonly, VT volume estimation is done by manual delineation of few contours in the ultrasound (US) image sequence, assuming that the VT has a regular shape and constant radius, thus producing significant errors. This paper presents and evaluates a comprehensive functional approach based on the combination of robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contours to calculate VT volume in a more accurate manner when applied to freehand 2-D US image sequences. Robust anisotropic filtering reduces image speckle noise without generating incoherent edge discontinuities. Prior knowledge of the VT shape allows initializing the deformable contour, which is then guided by the noise-filtering outcome. Segmented contours are subsequently used to calculate VT volume. The proposed approach is integrated into a system prototype compatible with existing clinical US machines that additionally tracks the acquired images 3-D position and provides a dense Delaunay triangulation required for volume calculation. A predefined robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contour parameter set enhances the system usability. Experimental results pertinence is assessed by comparison with manual and tetrahedron-based volume computations, using images acquired by two medical experts of eight plastic phantoms and eight in vitro VTs, whose independently measured volume is the reference ground truth. Results show a mean difference between 16 and 35 mm(3) for volumes that vary from 655 to 2826 mm(3). Two in vivo VT volumes are also calculated to illustrate how this approach could be applied in clinical conditions when the real value is unknown. Comparative results for the two experts differ from 1.2% to 10.08% of the smallest estimated value when the image acquisition cadences are similar.

  3. Breast volume assessment: comparing five different techniques.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, N; Bellamy, E; Shrotria, S

    2001-04-01

    Breast volume assessment is not routinely performed pre-operatively because as yet there is no accepted technique. There have been a variety of methods published, but this is the first study to compare these techniques. We compared volume measurements obtained from mammograms (previously compared to mastectomy specimens) with estimates of volume obtained from four other techniques: thermoplastic moulding, magnetic resonance imaging, Archimedes principle and anatomical measurements. We also assessed the acceptability of each method to the patient. Measurements were performed on 10 women, which produced results for 20 breasts. We were able to calculate regression lines between volume measurements obtained from mammography to the other four methods: (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 379+(0.75 MRI) [r=0.48], (2) Thermoplastic moulding, 132+(1.46 Thermoplastic moulding) [r=0.82], (3) Anatomical measurements, 168+(1.55 Anatomical measurements) [r=0.83]. (4) Archimedes principle, 359+(0.6 Archimedes principle) [r=0.61] all units in cc. The regression curves for the different techniques are variable and it is difficult to reliably compare results. A standard method of volume measurement should be used when comparing volumes before and after intervention or between individual patients, and it is unreliable to compare volume measurements using different methods. Calculating the breast volume from mammography has previously been compared to mastectomy samples and shown to be reasonably accurate. However we feel thermoplastic moulding shows promise and should be further investigated as it gives not only a volume assessment but a three-dimensional impression of the breast shape, which may be valuable in assessing cosmesis following breast-conserving-surgery. PMID:14965570

  4. Lung volumes in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Skinner, J D

    2011-01-01

    We have measured lung mass and trachea dimensions in 46 giraffes of both genders ranging in body mass from 147 kg to 1441 kg, calculated static and dynamic lung volumes, and developed allometric equations that relate changes in them to growth. We found that relative lung mass is 0.6±0.2% of body mass which is significantly less than it is in other mammals (1.1±0.1%). Total lung volume is significantly smaller (46.2±5.9 mL kg⁻¹) than in similar sized mammals (75.0±2.1 mL kg⁻¹). The lung volume:body mass ratio decreases during growth rather than increase as it does in other mammals. Tracheal diameter is significantly narrower than in similar sized mammals but dead space volume (2.9±0.5 mL kg⁻¹) is larger than in similar sized mammals (2.4±0.1 mL kg⁻¹). Our calculations suggest that tidal volume (10.5±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) is increased compared to that in other mammals(10.0±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) so that the dead space:tidal volume ratio is the same as in other mammals. Calculated Functional Residual Capacity is smaller than predicted (53.4±3.5 vs 33.7±0.6 mL kg⁻¹) as is Expiratory Reserve Volume (47.4±2.6 vs 27.2±1.0 mL kg⁻¹, but Residual Volume (6.0±0.4 mL kg⁻¹) is the same as in other similar sized mammals (6.0±0.9 mL kg⁻¹. Our calculations suggest that Inspiratory Reserve Volume is significantly reduced in size (11.6±1.6 vs 3.8±2.4 mL kg⁻¹), and, if so, the capacity to increase tidal volume is limited. Calculated dynamic lung volumes were the same as in similar sized mammals. We have concluded that giraffe morphology has resulted in lung volumes that are significantly different to that of similar sized mammals, but these changes do not compromise ventilatory capacity.

  5. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environment Report for 1998 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and non routine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in chapter 6). Data presented in the tables are given in International System of Units (SI) units of measure.

  6. Measuring Intracranial Pressure And Volume Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic technique eliminates need to drill into brain cavity. Intracranial dynamics instrument probes cranium ultrasonically to obtain data for determination of intracranial pressure (ICP) and pressure-volume index (PVI). Instrument determines sensitivity of skull to changes in pressure and by use of mechanical device to exert external calibrated pressure on skull. By monitoring volume of blood flowing into jugular vein, one determines change of volume of blood in cranial system. By measuring response of skull to increasing pressure (where pressure increased by tilting patient known amount) and by using cranial blood pressure, one determines intial pressure in cerebrospinal fluid. Once PVI determined, ICP determined.

  7. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  8. JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 33 unclassified/unlimited papers which were presented at the 33rd Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee Meeting in conjunction with the Propulsion Systems Hazards at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. The JANNAF papers contained in this volume review airbreathing combustion measurement, performance and control; electrothermal-chemical gun experiment and modeling; liquid propellant gun experiment and modeling; solid propellant gun interior ballistics; formulation modeling and diagnostics, ignition, and gun barrel wear modeling, blast and flash; and ram, fastcore and gas generator gun propulsion concepts.

  9. Lung volumes in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Skinner, J D

    2011-01-01

    We have measured lung mass and trachea dimensions in 46 giraffes of both genders ranging in body mass from 147 kg to 1441 kg, calculated static and dynamic lung volumes, and developed allometric equations that relate changes in them to growth. We found that relative lung mass is 0.6±0.2% of body mass which is significantly less than it is in other mammals (1.1±0.1%). Total lung volume is significantly smaller (46.2±5.9 mL kg⁻¹) than in similar sized mammals (75.0±2.1 mL kg⁻¹). The lung volume:body mass ratio decreases during growth rather than increase as it does in other mammals. Tracheal diameter is significantly narrower than in similar sized mammals but dead space volume (2.9±0.5 mL kg⁻¹) is larger than in similar sized mammals (2.4±0.1 mL kg⁻¹). Our calculations suggest that tidal volume (10.5±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) is increased compared to that in other mammals(10.0±0.2 mL kg⁻¹) so that the dead space:tidal volume ratio is the same as in other mammals. Calculated Functional Residual Capacity is smaller than predicted (53.4±3.5 vs 33.7±0.6 mL kg⁻¹) as is Expiratory Reserve Volume (47.4±2.6 vs 27.2±1.0 mL kg⁻¹, but Residual Volume (6.0±0.4 mL kg⁻¹) is the same as in other similar sized mammals (6.0±0.9 mL kg⁻¹. Our calculations suggest that Inspiratory Reserve Volume is significantly reduced in size (11.6±1.6 vs 3.8±2.4 mL kg⁻¹), and, if so, the capacity to increase tidal volume is limited. Calculated dynamic lung volumes were the same as in similar sized mammals. We have concluded that giraffe morphology has resulted in lung volumes that are significantly different to that of similar sized mammals, but these changes do not compromise ventilatory capacity. PMID:20837156

  10. Swept Volume Parameterization for Isogeometric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigner, M.; Heinrich, C.; Jüttler, B.; Pilgerstorfer, E.; Simeon, B.; Vuong, A.-V.

    Isogeometric Analysis uses NURBS representations of the domain for performing numerical simulations. The first part of this paper presents a variational framework for generating NURBS parameterizations of swept volumes. The class of these volumes covers a number of interesting free-form shapes, such as blades of turbines and propellers, ship hulls or wings of airplanes. The second part of the paper reports the results of isogeometric analysis which were obtained with the help of the generated NURBS volume parameterizations. In particular we discuss the influence of the chosen parameterization and the incorporation of boundary conditions.

  11. Sandia Software Guidelines, Volume 2. Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standards for software documentation, this volume provides guidance in the selection of an adequate document set for a software project and example formats for many types of software documentation. A tutorial on life cycle documentation is also provided. Extended document thematic outlines and working examples of software documents are available on electronic media as an extension of this volume.

  12. Regulation of cell volume by glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Joerges, Jelena; Schulz, Tobias; Wegner, Jeannine; Schumacher, Udo; Prehm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cell volume is regulated by a delicate balance between ion distribution across the plasma membrane and the osmotic properties of intra- and extracellular components. Using a fluorescent calcein indicator, we analysed the effects of glycosaminoglycans on the cell volume of hyaluronan producing fibroblasts and hyaluronan deficient HEK cells over a time period of 30 h. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans induced cell blebbing after 2 min and swelling of fibroblasts to about 110% of untreated cell volume at low concentrations which decreased at higher concentrations. HEK cells did not show cell blebbing and responded by shrinking to 65% of untreated cell volume. Heparin induced swelling of both fibroblasts and HEK cells. Hyaluronidase treatment or inhibition of hyaluronan export led to cell shrinkage indicating that the hyaluronan coat maintained fibroblasts in a swollen state. These observations were explained by the combined action of the Donnan effect and molecular crowding. PMID:21928313

  13. Solar cell array design handbook, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve chapters discuss the following: historical developments, the environment and its effects, solar cells, solar cell filters and covers, solar cell and other electrical interconnections, blocking and shunt diodes, substrates and deployment mechanisms, material properties, design synthesis and optimization, design analysis, procurement, production and cost aspects, evaluation and test, orbital performance, and illustrative design examples. A comprehensive index permits rapid locating of desired topics. The handbook consists of two volumes: Volume 1 is of an expository nature while Volume 2 contains detailed design data in an appendix-like fashion. Volume 2 includes solar cell performance data, applicable unit conversion factors and physical constants, and mechanical, electrical, thermal optical, magnetic, and outgassing material properties. Extensive references are provided.

  14. Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, M

    2000-08-12

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

  15. Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, M

    2000-08-01

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

  16. Theoretical atomic volumes of the light actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. D.; Boettger, J. C.; Albers, R. C.; Singh, D. J.

    2000-02-15

    The zero-pressure zero-temperature equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are calculated for the light actinides Th through Pu using two independent all-electron, full-potential, electronic-structure methods: the full-potential linear augmented-plane-wave method and the linear combinations of Gaussian-type orbitals-fitting function method. The results produced by these two distinctly different electronic-structure techniques are in good agreement with each other, but differ significantly from previously published calculations using the full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital (FP-LMTO) method. The theoretically calculated equilibrium volumes are in some cases nearly 10% larger than the previous FP-LMTO calculations, bringing them much closer to the experimentally observed volumes. We also discuss the anomalous upturn in equilibrium volume seen experimentally for {alpha}-Pu. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Drishti: a volume exploration and presentation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay

    2012-10-01

    Among several rendering techniques for volumetric data, direct volume rendering is a powerful visualization tool for a wide variety of applications. This paper describes the major features of hardware based volume exploration and presentation tool - Drishti. The word, Drishti, stands for vision or insight in Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language. Drishti is a cross-platform open-source volume rendering system that delivers high quality, state of the art renderings. The features in Drishti include, though not limited to, production quality rendering, volume sculpting, multi-resolution zooming, transfer function blending, profile generation, measurement tools, mesh generation, stereo/anaglyph/crosseye renderings. Ultimately, Drishti provides an intuitive and powerful interface for choreographing animations.

  18. Pacific Basin Communication Study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. L.; Hurd, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Users' meeting summary report, chronology of visits, economic data for forum countries, techniques used in the study, communication choices, existing resources in the Pacific Basin, and warc 79 region 3 rules and regulations were presented in volume 2.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  1. Gravimetric gas determinations for volume calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    Gravimetric measurement of gases is one of the methods available for calibrating gas volumes. By inputting a known quantity of gas and measuring the resulting pressure and temperature, the system volume can be calculated using gas law principles. Historically, this method has been less accurate due to the difficulty in the mass determination. This difficulty comes from several sources. Two examples are the large tare weight of the gas container relative to the weight of gas and the external volume of the gas container relative to the standards. The application of a gravimetric gas determination to tank volume calibrations at the Savannah River Site is discussed. Mass determinations on a 25,000 gram gas container were such that a 1500 gram quantity of gas was routinely determined to within {plus minus}0.2 gram at the 99% confidence level. The weighing design and the methods used to address the difficulties of the mass determination are detailed.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  5. Slurry combustion. Volume 2: Appendices, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Essenhigh, R.

    1993-06-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: coal analyses and slurryability characteristics; listings of programs used to call and file experimental data, and to reduce data in enthalpy and efficiency calculations; and tabulated data sets.

  6. Perennial snow and ice volumes on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, estimated with ice radar and volume modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trabant, Dennis C.

    1999-01-01

    The volume of four of the largest glaciers on Iliamna Volcano was estimated using the volume model developed for evaluating glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano. The volume model is controlled by simulated valley cross sections that are constructed by fitting third-order polynomials to the shape of the valley walls exposed above the glacier surface. Critical cross sections were field checked by sounding with ice-penetrating radar during July 1998. The estimated volumes of perennial snow and glacier ice for Tuxedni, Lateral, Red, and Umbrella Glaciers are 8.6, 0.85, 4.7, and 0.60 cubic kilometers respectively. The estimated volume of snow and ice on the upper 1,000 meters of the volcano is about 1 cubic kilometer. The volume estimates are thought to have errors of no more than ?25 percent. The volumes estimated for the four largest glaciers are more than three times the total volume of snow and ice on Mount Rainier and about 82 times the total volume of snow and ice that was on Mount St. Helens before its May 18, 1980 eruption. Volcanoes mantled by substantial snow and ice covers have produced the largest and most catastrophic lahars and floods. Therefore, it is prudent to expect that, during an eruptive episode, flooding and lahars threaten all of the drainages heading on Iliamna Volcano. On the other hand, debris avalanches can happen any time. Fortunately, their influence is generally limited to the area within a few kilometers of the summit.

  7. Value of volume weighted mean nuclear volume in grading and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Artacho-Pérula, E; Roldán-Villalobos, R; Martínez-Cuevas, J F

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To perform stereological quantitation of volume weighted mean nuclear volume in renal cell carcinomas; and to correlate the data obtained with recognised clinical and pathological variables and determine their prognostic value. METHODS--The point-sampled intercepts method was used to estimate mean nuclear volume in 63 cases of clear cell renal carcinoma diagnosed between 1980 and 1988. New paraffin wax embedded histological sections were analysed after systematic sampling and the test systems superimposed on a projected microscopic image to measure nuclear intercept lengths. After mathematical estimation of mean nuclear volume, statistical analyses of the data in relation to clinical and pathological variables as well as the prognostic impact were investigated. RESULTS--The mean nuclear volume was significantly associated with tumour dedifferentiation. However, mean nuclear volume showed no statistical differences with sex, age, and clinical stage. The prognostic value of mean nuclear volume, nuclear grading, and clinical stage in renal cell carcinomas was high: mean nuclear volume greater than 140 micron3 was associated with short term survival. CONCLUSIONS--Measurement of mean nuclear volume was useful as a guide to objective grading of renal cell carcinomas, though there was an overlap between tumour grades. Based on the limited number of cases analysed, the mean nuclear volume is proposed as an additional prognostic indicator. Images PMID:8027369

  8. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Brain Volumes and Changes in Brain Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Bryan, R. Nick; Goveas, Joseph S.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Siddiqui, Mustafa S.; Liu, Simin; Hogan, Patricia E.; Casanova, Ramon; Coker, Laura H.; Yaffe, Kristine; Masaki, Kamal; Rossom, Rebecca; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study how type 2 diabetes adversely affects brain volumes, changes in volume, and cognitive function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Regional brain volumes and ischemic lesion volumes in 1,366 women, aged 72–89 years, were measured with structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Repeat scans were collected an average of 4.7 years later in 698 women. Cross-sectional differences and changes with time between women with and without diabetes were compared. Relationships that cognitive function test scores had with these measures and diabetes were examined. RESULTS The 145 women with diabetes (10.6%) at the first MRI had smaller total brain volumes (0.6% less; P = 0.05) and smaller gray matter volumes (1.5% less; P = 0.01) but not white matter volumes, both overall and within major lobes. They also had larger ischemic lesion volumes (21.8% greater; P = 0.02), both overall and in gray matter (27.5% greater; P = 0.06), in white matter (18.8% greater; P = 0.02), and across major lobes. Overall, women with diabetes had slightly (nonsignificant) greater loss of total brain volumes (3.02 cc; P = 0.11) and significant increases in total ischemic lesion volumes (9.7% more; P = 0.05) with time relative to those without diabetes. Diabetes was associated with lower scores in global cognitive function and its subdomains. These relative deficits were only partially accounted for by brain volumes and risk factors for cognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is associated with smaller brain volumes in gray but not white matter and increasing ischemic lesion volumes throughout the brain. These markers are associated with but do not fully account for diabetes-related deficits in cognitive function. PMID:22933440

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    PubMed

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  10. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    Volume II of this 4-volume report contains the second half of a report on the Conference on the Culture of Schools held at Greystone, New York, (the first half of the conference report appears in Vol. I, SP 003 900), and the first part of a report on the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research in 1966. (The…

  11. Oceanic sediment volumes and continental drift.

    PubMed

    Gilluly, J

    1969-11-21

    The volume of sediment off the Atlantic Coast of the United States is at least six times as great as that off the Pacific Coast. This disparity is readily accounted for if the continent is drifting westward and has overrun large volumes of sediment on a former Benioff zone. Such an overrunning is also consonant with many features of the geology of the western United States.

  12. Instrument for Measuring Engine Clearance Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W

    1920-01-01

    With the advent of the V type engine, a new method to measure the clearance volume in cylinders was needed. It was suggested that this measurement could be made by a process which consisted essentially of simultaneously changing both a known and unknown volume of gas by a known amount and then calculating the magnitude of the unknown from the resulting difference in pressure between the two. An instrument based on this design is described.

  13. Karl Schwarzschild. Collected works. Volume 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, H.-H.

    This volume is the second part of a three-volume collection of research papers by Karl Schwarzschild. The complete collection will comprise a total of 119 papers, organized into ten categories. (For Vol. 1 see 003.011). Contents: 5. Astronomical positioning. Commentary by G. Seeber. 6. Photographic photometry. Commentary by U. Haug. 7. Measuring techniques, binary stars, variable stars and spectroscopy. Commentary by E. H. Geyer.

  14. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Gabe V.; Carlson, Nancy M.; Donaldson, Alan D.

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  15. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6-months to 1-year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  16. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  17. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  18. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. METHODS Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. RESULTS Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. DISCUSSION Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery. PMID:26005249

  19. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume.

  20. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  1. Chemistry of coal utilization. Second supplementary volume

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The first two volumes of this work, published in 1945, and the first supplemental volume, published in 1963, all under the editorship of H.H. Lowry, are recognized classics. Their comprehensive coverage and critical review of the literature on coal science and technology have been invaluable to workers at all levels of experience. Between 1963 and 1976, however, funding of coal research and development by government and industry in the United States increased from about $22 million to about $322 million per year. Throughout this period the expansion in the literature on coal science and technology and in the number of newcomers to the field made evident the need for a second supplementary volume to Chemistry of Coal Utilization. This second supplementary volume has the following four topics which are not covered in the earlier volumes: Coal Industry and Coal Research and Development in Perspective; Coal Resources; Control of Pollution from Combustion Processes; and Environmental, Health and Safety Implications of Increased Coal Utilization. In addition, the broad areas of pyrolysis, combustion, gasification, and liquefaction, are subdivided for treatment in three separate chapters on fundamentals, processes, and treatment of products. The 31 chapters in this volume have been abstracted and indexed for the data base.

  2. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  3. Effect of Colonoscopy Volume on Quality Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Brad; Hickey, Nikita; Boone, Darrell; McGrath, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is to determine if colonoscopy quality is associated with the annual case volume of endoscopists. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3235 patients who underwent colonoscopy in the city of St. John's, NL, between January and June 2012. Data collected included completion of colonoscopy (CCR) and adenoma detection rates (ADR). Endoscopists were divided into quintiles based on annual case volume. To account for potential confounding variables, univariate analyses followed by multivariable logistic regression were used to identify variables independently associated with CCR and ADR. Results. A total of 13 surgeons and 8 gastroenterologists were studied. There was a significant difference in CCR (p < 0.001) and ADR (p < 0.001) based on annual volume. Following multivariable regression, predictors of successful colonoscopy completion included annual colonoscopy volume, lower age, male sex, an indication of screening or surveillance, and a low ASA score. Predictors of adenoma detection included older age, male sex, an indication of screening or surveillance, and gastroenterology specialty. Conclusion. Higher annual case volume is associated with better quality of colonoscopy in terms of completion. However, gastroenterology specialty appears to be a better predictor of ADR than annual case volume. PMID:27446831

  4. Effect of Colonoscopy Volume on Quality Indicators.

    PubMed

    Pace, David; Borgaonkar, Mark; Lougheed, Muna; Marcoux, Curtis; Evans, Brad; Hickey, Nikita; O'Leary, Meghan; Boone, Darrell; McGrath, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is to determine if colonoscopy quality is associated with the annual case volume of endoscopists. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3235 patients who underwent colonoscopy in the city of St. John's, NL, between January and June 2012. Data collected included completion of colonoscopy (CCR) and adenoma detection rates (ADR). Endoscopists were divided into quintiles based on annual case volume. To account for potential confounding variables, univariate analyses followed by multivariable logistic regression were used to identify variables independently associated with CCR and ADR. Results. A total of 13 surgeons and 8 gastroenterologists were studied. There was a significant difference in CCR (p < 0.001) and ADR (p < 0.001) based on annual volume. Following multivariable regression, predictors of successful colonoscopy completion included annual colonoscopy volume, lower age, male sex, an indication of screening or surveillance, and a low ASA score. Predictors of adenoma detection included older age, male sex, an indication of screening or surveillance, and gastroenterology specialty. Conclusion. Higher annual case volume is associated with better quality of colonoscopy in terms of completion. However, gastroenterology specialty appears to be a better predictor of ADR than annual case volume. PMID:27446831

  5. 40 CFR 86.1826-01 - Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. 86.1826-01 Section 86.1826-01 Protection of... Vehicles § 86.1826-01 Assigned deterioration factors for small volume manufacturers and small volume test groups. (a) Applicability. This program is an option available to small volume manufacturers...

  6. Thoracoabdominal blood volume change and its effect on lung and chest wall volumes.

    PubMed

    Kimball, W R; Kelly, K B; Mead, J

    1986-09-01

    The effects of changing blood volume within the thoracoabdominal cavity (Vtab) have been studied in four male subjects trained in respiratory maneuvers. Subjects were studied lying supine in a pressure plethysmograph with inflatable fracture splints placed around both arms and legs. Changes in Vtab were produced by inflating the splints to 30 cmH2O. Thoracic gas volume (Vtg) measured by Boyle's law, and the change in chest wall volume (delta Vw), measured by anteroposterior magnetometers on rib cage and abdomen, were measured almost simultaneously and at two respiratory system volumes. The quantity of blood moved by splint inflation was estimated for each subject at both respiratory system volumes and varied between 215 and 752 ml. The chest wall increased 64 +/- 11.8% (mean +/- SD) of the increase in Vtab. Thus increases in thoracoabdominal blood volume increase Vw about twice the decrease in Vtg. PMID:3759780

  7. SU-E-I-28: Introduction and Investigation of Effective Diameter Ratios as a New Patient Size Metric for Use in CT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, R; Sinclair, L; Mench, A; Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Bidari, S; Cormack, B; Rill, L; Arreola, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce and investigate effective diameter ratios as a new patient metric for use in computed tomography protocol selection as a supplement to patient-specific size parameter data. Methods: The metrics of outer effective diameter and inner effective diameter were measured for 7 post-mortem subjects scanned with a standardized chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP) protocol on a 320-slice MDCT scanner. The outer effective diameter was calculated by obtaining the anterior/posterior and lateral dimensions of the imaged anatomy at the middle of the scan range using Effective Diameter= SQRT(AP height*Lat Width). The inner effective diameter was calculated with the same equation using the AP and Lat dimensions of the anatomy excluding the adipose tissue. The ratio of outer to inner effective diameter was calculated for each subject. A relationship to BMI, weight, and CTDI conversion coefficients was investigated. Results: For the largest subject with BMI of 43.85 kg/m2 and weight of 255 lbs the diameter ratio was calculated as 1.33. For the second largest subject with BMI of 33.5 kg/m2 and weight of 192.4 lbs the diameter ratio was measured as 1.43, indicating a larger percentage of adipose tissue in the second largest subject’s anatomical composition. For the smallest subject at BMI of 17.4 kg/m2 and weight of 86 lbs a similar tissue composition was indicated as a subject with BMI of 24.2 kg/m2 and weight of 136 lbs as they had the same diameter ratios of 1.11. Conclusion: The diameter ratio proves to contain information about anatomical composition that the BMI and weight alone do not. The utility of this metric is still being examined but could prove useful for determining MDCT techniques and for giving a more in depth detail of the composition of a patient’s body habitus.

  8. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-02-27

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  9. Data collection system. Volume 1, Overview and operators manual; Volume 2, Maintenance manual; Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, R.B.; Bauder, M.E.; Boyer, W.B.; French, R.E.; Isidoro, R.J.; Kaestner, P.C.; Perkins, W.G.

    1993-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Instrumentation Development Department was tasked by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) to record data on Tektronix RTD720 Digitizers on the HUNTERS TROPHY field test conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on September 18, 1992. This report contains a overview and description of the computer hardware and software that was used to acquire, reduce, and display the data. The document is divided into two volumes: an overview and operators manual (Volume 1) and a maintenance manual (Volume 2).

  10. Networking of three dimensional sonography volume data.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, A; Lee, A; Schoisswohl, A

    2000-09-01

    Three-dimensioned (3D) sonography enables the examiner to store, instead of copies from single B-scan planes, a volume consisting of 300 scan planes. The volume is displayed on a monitor in form of three orthogonal planes--longitudinal, axial and coronal. Translation and rotation facilitates anatomical orientation and provides any arbitrary plane within the volume to generate organ optimized scan planes. Different algorithms allow the extraction of different information such as surface, or bone structures by maximum mode, or fluid filled structures, such as vessels by the minimum mode. The volume may contain as well color information of vessels. The digitized information is stored on a magnetic optical disc. This allows virtual scanning in absence of the patient under the same conditions as the volume was primarily stored. The volume size is dependent on different, examiner-controlled settings. A volume may need a storage capacity between 2 and 16 MB of 8-bit gray level information. As such huge data sets are unsuitable for network transfer, data compression is of paramount interest. 100 stored volumes were submitted to JPEG, MPEG, and biorthogonal wavelet compression. The original and compressed volumes were randomly shown on two monitors. In case of noticeable image degradation, information on the location of the original and compressed volume and the ratio of compression was read. Numerical values for proving compression fidelity as pixel error calculation and computation of square root error have been unsuitable for evaluating image degradation. The best results in recognizing image degradation were achieved by image experts. The experts disagreed on the ratio where image degradation became visible in only 4% of the volumes. Wavelet compression ratios of 20:1 or 30:1 could be performed without discernible information reduction. The effect of volume compression is reflected both in the reduction of transfer time and in storage capacity. Transmission time for a

  11. Lung Volume Recruitment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Srour, Nadim; LeBlanc, Carole; King, Judy; McKim, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function abnormalities have been described in multiple sclerosis including reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) and cough but the time course of this impairment is unknown. Peak cough flow (PCF) is an important parameter for patients with respiratory muscle weakness and a reduced PCF has a direct impact on airway clearance and may therefore increase the risk of respiratory tract infections. Lung volume recruitment is a technique that improves PCF by inflating the lungs to their maximal insufflation capacity. Objectives Our goals were to describe the rate of decline of pulmonary function and PCF in patients with multiple sclerosis and describe the use of lung volume recruitment in this population. Methods We reviewed all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to a respiratory neuromuscular rehabilitation clinic from February 1999 until December 2010. Lung volume recruitment was attempted in patients with FVC <80% predicted. Regular twice daily lung volume recruitment was prescribed if it resulted in a significant improvement in the laboratory. Results There were 79 patients included, 35 of whom were seen more than once. A baseline FVC <80% predicted was present in 82% of patients and 80% of patients had a PCF insufficient for airway clearance. There was a significant decline in FVC (122.6 mL/y, 95% CI 54.9–190.3) and PCF (192 mL/s/y, 95% 72–311) over a median follow-up time of 13.4 months. Lung volume recruitment was associated with a slower decline in FVC (p<0.0001) and PCF (p = 0.042). Conclusion Pulmonary function and cough decline significantly over time in selected patients with multiple sclerosis and lung volume recruitment is associated with a slower rate of decline in lung function and peak cough flow. Given design limitations, additional studies are needed to assess the role of lung volume recruitment in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23383293

  12. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E. ); Stephens, L.C.; Price, R.E.; Ang, K.K.; Peters, L.J. )

    1994-04-30

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D[sub 50] = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Poli de Figueiredo, Luiz F

    2005-04-01

    Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field. PMID:15880253

  14. Site Environmental Report for 2002, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pauer, Ron

    2003-07-01

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2002'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterizes environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlights significant programs and efforts for calendar year 2002. Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab,'' ''the Laboratory,'' ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,'' and ''LBNL.'' The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from the monitoring programs. This year, the ''Site Environmental Report'' was distributed on a CD in PDF format that includes Volume I, Volume II, and related documents. The report is also available on the Web at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are additionally reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements because this system is referenced by some current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. The tables included at the end of the Glossary are intended to help readers understand the various prefixes used with SI units of measurement and convert these units from one system to the other.

  15. Developing ultrafast laser inscribed volume gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLachlan, David G.; Choudhury, Debaditya; Arriola, Alexander; Cunningham, Colin; Thomson, Robert R.; Kirkham, Andrew; Lee, David

    2014-07-01

    Due to their high efficiency and broad operational bandwidths, volume phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) are often the grating technology of choice for astronomical instruments, but current VPHGs exhibit a number of drawbacks including limits on their size, function and durability due to the manufacturing process. VPHGs are also generally made using a dichromated gelatine substrate, which exhibits reduced transmission at wavelengths longer than ~2.2 μm, limiting their ability to operate further into the mid-infrared. An emerging alternative method of manufacturing volume gratings is ultrafast laser inscription (ULI). This technique uses focused ultrashort laser pulses to induce a localised refractive index modification inside the bulk of a substrate material. We have recently demonstrated that ULI can be used to create volume gratings for operation in the visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared regions by inscribing volume gratings in a chalcogenide glass. The direct-write nature of ULI may then facilitate the fabrication of gratings which are not restricted in terms of their size and grating profile, as is currently the case with gelatine based VPHGs. In this paper, we present our work on the manufacture of volume gratings in gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) chalcogenide glass. The gratings are aimed at efficient operation at wavelengths around 1 μm, and the effect of applying an anti-reflection coating to the substrate to reduce Fresnel reflections is studied.

  16. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  17. Volume of a laser-induced microjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Hayasaka, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Needle-free injection systems are of great importance for medical treatments. In spite of their great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the common problems is strong pain caused by diffusion shape of the jet. To solve this problem, the usage of a high-speed highly-focused microjet as needle-free injection system is expected. It is thus crucial to control important indicators such as ejected volume of the jet for its safe application. We conduct experiments to reveal which parameter influences mostly the ejected volume. In the experiments, we use a glass tube of an inner diameter of 500 micro-meter, which is filled with the liquid. One end is connected to a syringe and the other end is opened. Radiating the pulse laser instantaneously vapors the liquid, followed by the generation of a shockwave. We find that the maximum volume of a laser-induced bubble is approximately proportional to the ejected volume. It is also found that the occurrence of cavitation does not affect the ejected volume while it changes the jet velocity.

  18. Coupled temperature dependences of volume and compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, A. C.; Ledbetter, H.

    2011-04-01

    We present a new method for understanding the changes with temperature of the volume and compressibility of solids. These changes depend on five parameters: V 0, B 0, Θ, γ G and δ T. V 0 and B 0 are the atomic volume and bulk modulus at T = 0 K, Θ is the Debye temperature, γ G is the Grüneisen parameter, and δ T is the Anderson-Grüneisen parameter. Equations for the temperature-dependent volume, bulk modulus and thermal expansion are given, and examples of the use of these equations are provided, with particular emphasis on the light actinides. For the elements, we examine the relationship between experimental values of γ G and δ T, and find no clear correlation. In particular, Swenson's rule, which states that the bulk modulus does not change with temperature if the volume is held constant, is a poor approximation to the data. We reveal a new useful approximate relationship between dB/dP and γ G. We find that the thermodynamic quantity q, which describes the variation in γ G with volume, distributes around 2, not around 1, as often assumed. We show that the thermal- expansion behavior of Si and Ge (including negative thermal expansion at low temperatures) are well described with the use of a two-level invar model.

  19. Foundations for Measuring Volume Rendering Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peter L.; Uselton, Samuel P.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a foundation for objectively comparing volume rendered images. The key elements of the foundation are: (1) a rigorous specification of all the parameters that need to be specified to define the conditions under which a volume rendered image is generated; (2) a methodology for difference classification, including a suite of functions or metrics to quantify and classify the difference between two volume rendered images that will support an analysis of the relative importance of particular differences. The results of this method can be used to study the changes caused by modifying particular parameter values, to compare and quantify changes between images of similar data sets rendered in the same way, and even to detect errors in the design, implementation or modification of a volume rendering system. If one has a benchmark image, for example one created by a high accuracy volume rendering system, the method can be used to evaluate the accuracy of a given image.

  20. Site Environmental Report for 2002, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pauer, Ron

    2003-07-01

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2002'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterizes environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlights significant programs and efforts for calendar year 2002. Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab,'' ''the Laboratory,'' ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,'' and ''LBNL.'' The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from the monitoring programs. This year, the ''Site Environmental Report'' was distributed on a CD in PDF format that includes Volume I, Volume II, and related documents. The report is also available on the Web at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are additionally reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements because this system is referenced by some current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. The tables included at the end of the Glossary are intended to help readers understand the various prefixes used with SI units of measurement and convert these units from one system to the other.

  1. Physician volume response to price controls.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N X

    1996-02-01

    The need to contain escalating health care costs is one of the major challenges facing health care systems today. It is often argued that price control is an effective tool for reducing both the level and the rate of growth in health spending. However, experience suggests that these savings may be partially offset by volume increases. These are initiated by providers, particularly physicians, who attempt to provide more health care goods and services in order to recapture lost revenues. This phenomenon is called the behavioral offset or volume response. This paper examines the physician behavioral response to the fee reductions at the practice level using the data from the U.S. Medicare program in 1989 and 1990. This is the most recent data currently available at the practice level for the Medicare program at this writing. This period of time corresponds to the fee reductions mandated by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 (OBRA89). The results show that the volume of services whose fees were cut by OBRA89 increased by 3.7% for every 10% fee reduction. This means that, for every dollar cut in their fees, physicians would recoup 37 cents by increasing volume. The presence of a volume response suggests that price control alone is not sufficient to cap rising health care costs. This indicates that additional or other tools must be considered if cost containment is to be attained.

  2. Spent Fuel Working Group Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    O`Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary`s initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group`s Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities.

  3. Relationship between indexed epicardial fat volume and coronary plaque volume assessed by cardiac multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    You, Seulgi; Sun, Joo Sung; Park, Seon Young; Baek, Yoolim; Kang, Doo Kyoung

    2016-07-01

    We explored whether baseline indexed epicardial fat volume (EFVi) and serial changes in EFVi were associated with increase in coronary plaque volume as assessed by multidetector computed tomography.We retrospectively reviewed 87 patients with coronary artery plaque, identified during either baseline or follow-up cardiac computed tomography (CT) examinations. Each plaque volume was measured in volumetric units using a semiautomatic software tool. EFVi was quantified by calculating the total volume of epicardial tissue of CT density -190 to -30 HU, indexed to the body surface area. Clinical cardiovascular risk factors were extracted by medical record review at the time of the cardiac CT examinations. The relationship between EFVi and coronary plaque volume was explored by regression analysis.Although the EFVi did not change significantly from baseline to the time of the follow-up CT (65.7 ± 21.8 vs 66.0 ± 21.8 cm/m, P = 0.620), the plaque volumes were increased significantly on the follow-up CT scans. The annual change in EFVi was not accompanied by a parallel change in coronary plaque volume (P = 0.096-0.500). On univariate analysis, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, 10-year coronary heart disease risk, obesity, and baseline EFVi predicted rapid increases in lipid-rich and fibrous plaque volumes. On multivariate analysis, baseline EFVi (odds ratio = 1.029, P = 0.016) was an independent predictor of a rapid increase in lipid-rich plaque volume.EFVi was shown to be an independent predictor of a rapid increase in lipid-rich plaque volume. However, changes in EFVi were not associated with parallel changes in coronary plaque volume.

  4. Karl Schwarzschild. Collected works. Volume 1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, H.-H.

    This volume is the first part of a three-volume collection of research papers by Karl Schwarzschild. The complete collection will comprise a total of 119 papers, organized into ten categories. Karl Schwarzschild was one of the most important German astronomers and was, in addition, one of the founders of modern astrophysics. His personal papers are held at the Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek in Göttingen, and an extensive collection of reprints can be found in the Observatory in Göttingen. The material presented in these volumes is restricted intentionally to Schwarzschild's published works. Contents: Biography of Karl Schwarzschild (1873 - 1916). 1. Celestial mechanics. Commentary by R. Dvorak. 2. Sun and stellar atmospheres. Commentary by W. Mattig. 3. Cometary tails. Commentary by K. Jockers. 4. Structure, kinematics and dynamics of stellar systems. Commentary by R. Wielen.

  5. Cell volume measurements by optical transmission microscopy.

    PubMed

    Model, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Cell volume is an important parameter in cell adaptation to anisosmotic stress, in the development of apoptosis and necrosis, and in the pathogenesis of several diseases. This unit describes a method for measuring the volume of adherent cells using a standard light microscope. A coverslip with attached cells is placed in a shallow chamber in a medium containing a strongly absorbing and cell-impermeant dye, Acid Blue 9. When such a sample is imaged in transmitted light at a wavelength of maximum dye absorption (630 nm), the resulting contrast quantitatively reflects cell thickness. Once the thickness is known at every point, the volume can be computed as well. Technical details, interpretation of data, and possible artifacts are discussed. Measurements in absolute units require knowledge of the absorption coefficient, and a similar procedure for the measurement of absorption coefficient is described.

  6. Handbook of Semiconductor Technology, 2 Volume Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Kenneth A.; Schröter, Wolfgang

    2000-09-01

    Semiconductor technology is the basis of today's microelectronics industry with its many impacts on our modern life, i.e. computer and communication technology. This two-volume handbook covers the basics of semiconductor processing technology, which are as essential for the design of new microelectronic devices as the fundamental physics. Volume 1 'Electronic Structure and Properties' covers the structure and properties of semiconductors, with particular emphasis on concepts relevant to semiconductor technology. Volume 2 'Processing of Semiconductors' deals with the enabling materials technology for the electronics industry. World-renowned authors have contributed to this unique treatment of the processing of semiconductors and related technologies. Of interest to physicists and engineers in research and in the electronics industry, this is a valuable reference source and state-of-the-art review by the world's top authors.

  7. Primary Teachers' Conceptions about the Concept of Volume: The Case of Volume-Measurable Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiz, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    In this paper part of the results obtained by a research project called "Primary Teachers' Thinking about the Concept of Volume and its Teaching", performed from 1997 to 2001, are reported. This paper focuses in one of the two main objectives of the aforementioned research: To describe the mental object volume of the participant teachers. The…

  8. Making the Grade? Globalisation and the Training Market in Australia. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard; Buchanan, John; Bretherton, Tanya; van Barneveld, Kristin; Pickersgill, Richard

    This two-volume document reports on a study of globalization and Australia's training market. Volume 1 begins by examining debate on globalization and industry training in Australia. Discussed next is the study methodology, which involved field studies of the metals and engineering industry in South West Sydney and the Hunter and the information…

  9. Intracranial Volume and Whole Brain Volume in Infants With Unicoronal Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Cheryl A.; Vaddi, S.; Moffitt, Amanda; Kane, A.A.; Marsh, Jeffrey L.; Panchal, Jayesh; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Aldridge, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Objective Craniosynostosis has been hypothesized to result in alterations of the brain and cerebral blood flow due to reduced intracranial volume, potentially leading to cognitive deficits. In this study we test the hypothesis that intracranial volume and whole brain volume in infants with unilateral coronal synostosis differs from those in unaffected infants. Design Our study sample consists of magnetic resonance images acquired from 7- to 72-week-old infants with right unilateral coronal synostosis prior to surgery (n = 10) and age-matched unaffected infants (n = 10). We used Analyze 9.0 software to collect three cranial volume measurements. We used nonparametric tests to determine whether the three measures differ between the two groups. Correlations were calculated between age and the three volume measures in each group to determine whether the growth trajectory of the measurements differ between children with right unicoronal synostosis and unaffected infants. Results Our results show that the three volume measurements are not reduced in infants with right unicoronal synostosis relative to unaffected children. Correlation analyses between age and various volume measures show similar correlations in infants with right unicoronal synostosis compared with unaffected children. Conclusions Our results show that the relationship between brain size and intracranial size in infants with right unicoronal synostosis is similar to that in unaffected children, suggesting that reduced intracranial volume is not responsible for alterations of the brain in craniosynostosis. PMID:20815706

  10. The Training Director's Guide. Volume 1. Administration of Training. Volume 2. Instructional Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This guide to employee development within industry appears in two sections: Volume 1, administrative guidelines for training directors; and Volume 2, instructional practices for training staffs. Considerations in formulating training policies, steps in organizing the training function, identification and analysis of training needs, employee…

  11. Volume strain within the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Mossop, Antony; Segall, Paul

    1999-12-10

    During the 1970s and 1980s. The Geysers geothermal region was rapidly developed as a site of geothermal power production. The likelihood that this could cause significant strain within the reservoir, with corresponding surface displacements, led to a series of deformation monitoring surveys. In 1973, 1975, 1977, and 1980, The Geysers region was surveyed using first-order, class I, spirit leveling. In 1994, 1995, and 1996, many of the leveling control monuments were resurveyed using high-precision Global Positioning System receivers. The two survey methods are reconciled using the GEOID96 geoid model. The displacements are inverted to determine volume strain within the reservoir. For the period 1980-1994, peak volume strains in excess of 5x10{sup -4} are imaged. There is an excellent correlation between the observed changes in reservoir steam pressures and the imaged volume strain. If reservoir pressure changes are inducing volume strain, then the reservoir quasi-static bulk modulus K must be <4.6x10{sup 9} Pa. However, seismic velocities indicate a much stiffer reservoir with K=3.4x10{sup 10} Pa. This apparent discrepancy is shown to be consistent with predicted frequency dependence in K for fractured and water-saturated rock. Inversion of surface deformation data therefore appears to be a powerful method for imaging pressure change within the body of the reservoir. Correlation between induced seismicity at The Geysers and volume strain is observed. However, earthquake distribution does not appear to have a simple relationship with volume strain rate. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  12. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  13. Impact of monitoring blood volume in the BD BACTEC™ FX blood culture system: virtual volume versus actual volume.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeonghyun; Park, Jeong Su; Park, Sookja; Choi, Byeonghoo; Yoon, Nam Seop; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na

    2015-02-01

    The BACTEC™ FX (BD, USA) has been recently upgraded to measure virtual blood volume (VV) in batches of 25 PLUS Aerobic/F bottles. VVs were compared with manually measured actual volumes (AVs). The mean AV was larger in anaerobic bottles: 2.6±1.9mL in 2995 Aerobic/F bottles and 3.3±1.8mL in 3053 Lytic/10 Anaerobic/F bottles (P<0.001). The VV of Aerobic/F bottles was 2.4±1.4mL, and there was a significant correlation between the VVs and AVs of each department (P<0.001). The potential positivity in aerobic bottles increased 1.2-fold with a 1-mL increase in the AV (P<0.001). AV and VV were consistently less than adequate. Although the proportional effect of volume on positivity can be proven only with the AV, VVs are a reliable substitute for AVs to monitor the overall blood volumes and provide feedback to the individual departments or locations.

  14. Volume accumulator design analysis computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazaki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The computer codes, VANEP and VANES, were written and used to aid in the design and performance calculation of the volume accumulator units (VAU) for the 5-kwe reactor thermoelectric system. VANEP computes the VAU design which meets the primary coolant loop VAU volume and pressure performance requirements. VANES computes the performance of the VAU design, determined from the VANEP code, at the conditions of the secondary coolant loop. The codes can also compute the performance characteristics of the VAU's under conditions of possible modes of failure which still permit continued system operation.

  15. Are Volume Plasmons Excitable by Classical Light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke

    2009-08-01

    Volume plasmons are collective eigenmodes of the free-electron gas inside a metal. Because of their longitudinal character and the transversal nature of light, the photoexcitation of volume plasmons is forbidden in classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, we show their existence for metallic nanoshells using analytical solutions of the classical scattering problem. Solely for the case of a vanishing real part of the shell permittivity, a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency appears in the extinction spectra. For explaining our observations, we suggest a simple physical picture which is supported by examples on silver and gold shells.

  16. Are volume plasmons excitable by classical light?

    PubMed

    Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke

    2009-08-21

    Volume plasmons are collective eigenmodes of the free-electron gas inside a metal. Because of their longitudinal character and the transversal nature of light, the photoexcitation of volume plasmons is forbidden in classical electrodynamics. Nevertheless, we show their existence for metallic nanoshells using analytical solutions of the classical scattering problem. Solely for the case of a vanishing real part of the shell permittivity, a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency appears in the extinction spectra. For explaining our observations, we suggest a simple physical picture which is supported by examples on silver and gold shells.

  17. Measurement of Human Blood and Plasma Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Szalkay, H. G. H.

    1987-01-01

    Report reviews techniques for measuring blood-plasma volume in humans. Common technique of using radioactive iodine isotope to label plasma albumin involves unwarranted risks from low-level radiation. Report emphasizes techniques using Evans-blue-dye (T-1824) labeling of albumin, hematocrit or hemoglobin/hematocrit measurements, or blood densitometry. In Evans-blue-dye technique, plasma volume determined from decrease in dye concentration occurring after small amount of dye solution injected into circulatory system. Subjection of Evans blue dye to test for carcinogenicity gave negative results.

  18. Multiple volume compressor for hot gas engine

    DOEpatents

    Stotts, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    A multiple volume compressor for use in a hot gas (Stirling) engine having a plurality of different volume chambers arranged to pump down the engine when decreased power is called for and return the working gas to a storage tank or reservoir. A valve actuated bypass loop is placed over each chamber which can be opened to return gas discharged from the chamber back to the inlet thereto. By selectively actuating the bypass valves, a number of different compressor capacities can be attained without changing compressor speed whereby the capacity of the compressor can be matched to the power available from the engine which is used to drive the compressor.

  19. OMAE 1994. Volume 5: Pipeline technology

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Fernandez, M.L.; Thygesen, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The pipeline industry in the 1990s faces significant technical challenges requiring innovative design, operating, and maintenance strategies. Public safety, system reliability, environmental issues, and cost reductions are constant concerns. These and other issues are developed and expanded upon in this conference proceedings that represents one volume of a five volume set pertaining to offshore development of mineral resources, predominantly oil and gas. Papers deal with materials and corrosion; numerical modeling; pipeline design and integrity; geotechnical and permafrost; operation and maintenance; pipeline laying in deep water; on-bottom stability; and various case histories.

  20. Satellite voice broadcast. Volume 2: System study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtell, E. E.; Bettadapur, S. S.; Coyner, J. V.; Farrell, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Technical Volume of the Satellite Broadcast System Study is presented. Designs are synthesized for direct sound broadcast satellite systems for HF-, VHF-, L-, and Ku-bands. Methods are developed and used to predict satellite weight, volume, and RF performance for the various concepts considered. Cost and schedule risk assessments are performed to predict time and cost required to implement selected concepts. Technology assessments and tradeoffs are made to identify critical enabling technologies that require development to bring technical risk to acceptable levels for full scale development.

  1. Corrosion testing in natural waters: Second volume

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, R.M.; Young, W.T.

    1997-12-31

    This is the second STP of the same title. The first volume, STP 1086, was published in 1990 and contained papers on seawater corrosivity, crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels, corrosion fatigue testing, and corrosion in potable water. Since then, final results have become available from the worldwide study on corrosion behavior of metals in seawater, and additional studies have been performed that should be brought to the attention of the corrosion engineering community. The second volume contains these studies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. The 1993 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, Debra S.

    1993-11-01

    This volume, the second of six volumes, is a collection of 30 unclassified/unlimited distribution papers which were presented at the 1993 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting, held 15-19 November 1993 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel and Conference Center and the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Specific subjects discussed include grain integrity, hybrid motors, liquid engines, turbopumps, reaction control systems, composite motor cases, continuous propellant mixing, nondestructive testing, solar propulsion, combustion chambers, and foreign propulsion technology.

  3. CRC handbook of radiology. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    The care and testing of measurement and diagnostic instruments are described in detail. Difficulties encountered with therapeutic and diagnostic calibrations are explored and solutions are suggested. Volume I: Measurement of exposure and calibration of ion chambers. Radiation detectors in radiotherapy. The assay of beta and gamma sources in medicine and biology. Statistical and error analysis in medical physics. Calibration of low energy x-ray units (10 to 100 KV). Calibration of medium energy x-ray and Co-60 units used in radiotherapy. Calibration of megavoltage electron radiotherapy beams. Routine clinical dosimetry. Brachytherapy dosimetry. Neutrons and heavy charged particles used in radiation therapy. Time, dose fractionation and volume relationships in radiotherapy. Index.

  4. NASA thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    There are over 17,000 postable terms and nearly 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  5. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  6. Finite volume QCD at fixed topological charge

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Sinya; Fukaya, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Shoji; Onogi, Tetsuya

    2007-09-01

    In finite volume the partition function of QCD with a given {theta} is a sum of different topological sectors with a weight primarily determined by the topological susceptibility. If a physical observable is evaluated only in a fixed topological sector, the result deviates from the true expectation value by an amount proportional to the inverse space-time volume 1/V. Using the saddle point expansion, we derive formulas to express the correction due to the fixed topological charge in terms of a 1/V expansion. Applying this formula, we propose a class of methods to determine the topological susceptibility in QCD from various correlation functions calculated in a fixed topological sector.

  7. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume measuring device. 864.5950 Section... § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is a..., and total blood volume. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  8. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood volume measuring device. 864.5950 Section... § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is a..., and total blood volume. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  9. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood volume measuring device. 864.5950 Section... § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is a..., and total blood volume. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  10. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood volume measuring device. 864.5950 Section... § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is a..., and total blood volume. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  11. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood volume measuring device. 864.5950 Section... § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is a..., and total blood volume. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  12. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  13. 17 CFR 15.04 - Reportable trading volume level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reportable trading volume... REPORTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 15.04 Reportable trading volume level. The volume quantity for the purpose of reports filed under parts 17 and 18 of this chapter is trading volume of 50 or more contracts, during...

  14. CONVERSATIONAL HINDI-URDU, VOLUME 1, PART 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUMPERZ, JOHN J.; AND OTHERS

    VOLUME 1, PART 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME TEXT IN BASIC CONVERSATIONAL HINDI-URDU CONSISTS OF TWO UNITS OF STUDY, EACH SUBDIVIDED INTO THREE CONVERSATIONS WITH ATTENDANT PRONUNCIATION AND GRAMMAR DRILLS. TWO PRECEDING UNITS OF STUDY WERE COVERED IN VOLUME 1, PART 1 (ED 010 447). A VOCABULARY GLOSSARY OF ALL FOUR UNITS OF VOLUME 1 APPEARS AT THE END OF THIS…

  15. STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES DESIGN GUIDE VOLUME 1 - GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is Volume 1 of a three volume series that provides guidance on the selection and design of stormwater management Best Management Practices (BMPs). This first volume provides general considerations associated with the selection and design of BMPs.
    Volume I provi...

  16. Students' Reasoning about Invariance of Volume as a Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Melike

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate how upper-elementary-grade students compare the volume of rectangular prisms of equal volume (specifically, students' noticing and reasoning for invariance of volume and coordination of the three linear dimensions of rectangular prisms) and how students' levels of sophistication in volume measurement…

  17. 42 CFR 413.232 - Low-volume adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.232 Low-volume adjustment. (a) CMS adjusts the base rate for low-volume ESRD facilities, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Definition of low-volume facility. A low-volume facility is an ESRD facility that: (1) Furnished less than...

  18. 42 CFR 413.232 - Low-volume adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.232 Low-volume adjustment. (a) CMS adjusts the base rate for low-volume ESRD facilities, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Definition of low-volume facility. A low-volume facility is an ESRD facility that: (1) Furnished less than...

  19. 42 CFR 413.232 - Low-volume adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.232 Low-volume adjustment. (a) CMS adjusts the base rate for low-volume ESRD facilities, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Definition of low-volume facility. A low-volume facility is an ESRD facility that: (1) Furnished less than...

  20. 46 CFR 69.65 - Calculation of volumes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of volumes. 69.65 Section 69.65 Shipping... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.65 Calculation of volumes. (a) Volumes V and Vc used... accepted naval architectural practices for the spaces concerned. (b) The volume of the hull below the...

  1. Exceptional Infant: Studies in Abnormalities, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    Designed as a complement to Volume 1 on the normal infant (available as EC 003 414), the text examines the following areas: neurological examination of the newborn, neurobehavioral organization of the newborn, neuropsychology examinations in young children, learning of motor skills on the basis of self-induced movements, factors in vulnerability…

  2. CTIC Cablebooks. Volume 1: The Community Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesuale, Nancy, Ed.; Smith, Ralph Lee, Ed.

    The first of a two-part series, this volume addresses the broad scope of questions and issues that confront local governments when formulating or reevaluating cable policy. In 11 chapters, 14 authors present an historical perspective and discuss cable technology and state-of-the-art options: (1) "Overview of Cable TV Services and Technology,"…

  3. PROGRESS IN LEARNING DISABILITIES. VOLUME I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MYKLEBUST, HELMER R., ED.

    THE FIRST OF A SERIES DEALING WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES FROM A PSYCHONEUROLOGICAL STANDPOINT, THE VOLUME CONTAINS CURRENT DISCUSSIONS AND RESEARCH REPORTS. TEN AUTHORS FROM A VARIETY OF FIELDS CONTRIBUTE CHAPTERS, EACH WITH AN ACCOMPANYING LIST OF REFERENCES. THE EDITOR, H.R. MYKLEBUST, PROVIDES THE OPENING ARTICLE ON "LEARNING…

  4. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Doelling, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  5. Teaching: Behaviorally Disordered Youth. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Mary Kay, Ed.

    This volume contains an advice column and five papers on teaching behaviorally disordered youth. The "Grand Rounds" column offers advice on two teaching situations involving extremely disruptive classroom behavior and elective mutism. "The Franklin-Jefferson Program: Demonstration of an Integrated Social Learning Approach to Educational Services…

  6. American Industries. Performance Objectives. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbury, Paul; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of the three categories (Manufacturing, Graphic Communication, and Power) included in this second of a two-volume course guide on American industries. The materials were developed for a 9- to 12-week course for seventh grade students to acquaint…

  7. Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, Regina; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2009-09-21

    The Site Environmental Report for 2008 is an integrated report on environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1 A., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  8. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, Regina E; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wyrick, Steve

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report for 2007 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  9. Equipment for the Disabled. Volumes 1 - 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshere, E. Rosamond, Comp.

    Four volumes of equipment for the disabled which can simplify their lives and those who live with them are presented. The authors have not included surgical, medical, therapeutic, corrective or gymnastic equipment in the publication. Voume one includes house adaptations and planning, beds and bed accessories, chairs, and wheelchairs and…

  10. NSDC Policy Points. Volume 1, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Council, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "NSDC Policy Points" is a newsletter published by the National Staff Development Council (NSDC). This issue of "NSDC Policy Points" discusses why collaborative learning is critical to professional development. Included in this newsletter is an article about team learning in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. [For Volume 1, Number 3 of "NSDC Policy Points," see…

  11. Langley Symposium on Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stack, Sharon H. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to present current work and results of the Langley Aeronautics Directorate covering the areas of computational fluid dynamics, viscous flows, airfoil aerodynamics, propulsion integration, test techniques, and low-speed, high-speed, and transonic aerodynamics. The following sessions are included in this volume: theoretical aerodynamics, test techniques, fluid physics, and viscous drag reduction.

  12. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Doelling, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  13. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  14. Children's Concepts of Volume and Flotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study in which children aged 7 to 9 years and 11 to 13 years were asked to judge which one out of three wooden blocks would float, given weight and volume information for each block relative to a block that was known to float. Indicates that judgments may have been based on the size-weight illusion. (HOD)

  15. Finite Volume Methods: Foundation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Ohlberger, Mario

    2003-01-01

    Finite volume methods are a class of discretization schemes that have proven highly successful in approximating the solution of a wide variety of conservation law systems. They are extensively used in fluid mechanics, porous media flow, meteorology, electromagnetics, models of biological processes, semi-conductor device simulation and many other engineering areas governed by conservative systems that can be written in integral control volume form. This article reviews elements of the foundation and analysis of modern finite volume methods. The primary advantages of these methods are numerical robustness through the obtention of discrete maximum (minimum) principles, applicability on very general unstructured meshes, and the intrinsic local conservation properties of the resulting schemes. Throughout this article, specific attention is given to scalar nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and the development of high order accurate schemes for discretizing them. A key tool in the design and analysis of finite volume schemes suitable for non-oscillatory discontinuity capturing is discrete maximum principle analysis. A number of building blocks used in the development of numerical schemes possessing local discrete maximum principles are reviewed in one and several space dimensions, e.g. monotone fluxes, E-fluxes, TVD discretization, non-oscillatory reconstruction, slope limiters, positive coefficient schemes, etc. When available, theoretical results concerning a priori and a posteriori error estimates are given. Further advanced topics are then considered such as high order time integration, discretization of diffusion terms and the extension to systems of nonlinear conservation laws.

  16. Environment Abstracts Annual 1988. Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuster, Leigh C., Ed.; And Others

    This publication is a compilation of environmental information and resources for the year 1988. The first section details the coverage and use of this volume. Section 2 contains a review of events in 1988; a chronology of events; a status report produced for Congress; three articles on environmental issues including global change, pesticides, and…

  17. MITA Working Papers in Psycholinguistics, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otsu, Yukio, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of working papers in psycholinguistics, from the "MITA Psycholinguistics Circle", contains the following articles: "Some Problems in the Acquisition of Derived Nouns" (Mika Endo); "World Knowledge in Children's Sentence Comprehension" (Yuki Hirose); "Examining the Including and Excluding Roles of Positive Evidence: A Study of a Case…

  18. Reading and Teaching the Novel, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Roslyn M., Ed.

    This volume on reading and teaching the novel contains six articles: "Close Reading: The Novel in the Senior School" by S. E. Lee discusses the advantages of rereading and analytical reading in high school; "Teaching 'The Great Gatsby'" by David Mallick discusses the difficulties of teaching this novel and provides a lesson plan; "The Operation of…

  19. REACH. Teacher's Guide, Volume III. Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James Lee; And Others

    Designed for use with individualized instructional units (CE 026 345-347, CE 026 349-351) in the electromechanical cluster, this third volume of the postsecondary teacher's guide presents the task analysis which was used in the development of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air Conditioning, Heating) curriculum. The major blocks of…

  20. Introducing Literary Arabic, Volume II: Grammatical Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Sami A.; Greis, Naguib

    This volume, designed as a companion to "Introducing Literary Arabic" provides basic grammatical explanations essential in first-year courses. Each of the 15 units, with the exception of the first, contains related grammatical notes, paradigms, and illustrations. The grammatical rules are intended to make explicit general underlying structures.…

  1. Red blood cell volume in preterm neonates

    SciTech Connect

    Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Paxson, C.L. Jr.; McIntire, R.H. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    In the high-risk neonate, the direct determination of the red cell volume by radionuclide dilution technique appears to be the singularly definitive method of defining treatment efficacy, and is thus a useful evaluation and management tool for the pediatrician. For effective patient management, the red blood cell(RBC) volume of 69 preterm and term neonates was determined. The method utilized, Tc-99m-labeled RBCs, provided a fast and accurate answer with a large reduction in the absorbed radiation dose. In the population studied within a high-risk newborn ICU, the mean RBC volumes between the preterm and term neonates were without significant difference. Grouping and analysis of the RBC volume data with respect to birth weight, gestational ages, and 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores revealed on statistical difference. The mean value found in our population, 32.2 +/- 9.2 ml/kg, however, does differ from those previously reported in which the determinations were made using an indirect estimation from the plasma compartment.

  2. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  3. Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1 (PC database for purchase)   NIST has produced a new document image database for evaluating document analysis and recognition technologies and information retrieval systems. NIST Special Database 25 contains page images from the 1994 Federal Register and much more.

  4. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael E., Ed.; Card, Jaclyn A., Ed.

    This volume focuses on therapeutic recreation, as a subject of inquiry and as a treatment tool. The 11 articles include original field based research, program development initiatives, issue and theory of practice papers, and original tutorials in assessment and research. The article titles are: "The Role of Leisure Education with Family Caregivers…

  5. American Indian Doctors Today. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N., Ed.

    The Indians Into Medicine Program presents an additional 44 brief biographies of American Indian health professionals (7 women and 37 men) from 29 different tribal groups, to acquaint young Indian people with potential careers in health professions (4 of the biographies appeared in Volume One). The biographical sketches contain information on:…

  6. 2013 BNL Site Environmental Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ratel, K.; Remien, J.; Pohlot, P.; Williams, J.; Green, T.; Paquette, P.; Dorsch, W.; Welty, T.; Burke, J.

    2014-10-01

    A summary of Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL) Site Environmental Report, meant to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory’s environmental performance in the lab’s surrounding area during the calendar year. The review is comprised of multiple volumes relevant to environmental data/environmental management performance and groundwater status report.

  7. New Trends in Mathematics Teaching, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume consists of 29 papers and articles from leading mathematics-teaching journals in many countries. Discussed is new content and curricula and unusual approaches and techniques in the teaching of mathematics at the elementary and secondary levels. Some topics discussed are theories of mathematics instruction, new mathematical experiences…

  8. Basic Communication Course Annual. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburger, Craig, Ed.

    This volume of an annual collection presents 14 essays relating to instruction in the basic communication course. Essays in the collection are "Using Interactive Video Instruction to Enhance Public Speaking Instruction" (Michael W. Cronin and William R. Kennan); "Interactive Video Instruction for Teaching Organizational Techniques in Public…

  9. Construction Cluster Volume II [Masonry Work].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the second of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials at the basic skills level for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on masonry and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study. The units include: (1) historical aspects of masonry work and occupational…

  10. Studies in Mathematics, Volume IV. Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutuzov, B. V.

    This book is a translation of a Russian text. The translation is exact, and the language used by the author has not been brought up to date. The volume is probably most useful as a source of supplementary materials for high school mathematics. It is also useful for teachers to broaden their mathematical background. Chapters included in the text…

  11. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

  12. Teaching, Learning and Development: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCaro, James J., Ed.; Areson, Ann H., Ed.

    The second volume of papers commissioned by Foundations, a project designed to examine the career development needs of students entering the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, this document contains papers that deal with the instructional components of learning. An introduction presents a conceptual framework for the Foundations project,…

  13. Basic Communication Course Annual. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugenberg, Lawrence W., Ed.

    This volume of an annual collection of essays relating to instruction in the basic communication course presents 1992 Speech Communication Association Basic Course Committee award winning papers, articles on teaching assistants in the basic course, approaches to teaching in the basic course, research on the basic course, and a commentary. Essays…

  14. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in the 1994 annual report for the NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center's Sixth Annual Symposium. This conference covered: (1) Combustors and Nozzles; (2) Turbomachinery Aero- and Hydro-dynamics; (3) On-board Propulsion systems; (4) Advanced Propulsion Applications; (5) Vaporization and Combustion; (6) Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics; and (7) Atomization and Sprays.

  15. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  16. Skylab Experiments, Volume 4, Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book, one of a series, for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their basis for material selection. This fourth volume is concerned with experiments designed to improve man's understanding of…

  17. Energy Information Abstracts Annual 1988. Volume 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuster, Leigh C., Ed.; And Others

    This publication is a compilation of information and resource material concerning energy for the year 1988. The first section details the coverage and usage of this volume. Section 2 contains a review of events in 1988, a compilation of statistical information, an article concerning coal flyash utilization, and a listing of conferences and events…

  18. Gender and Education. An Encyclopedia. Volume I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In this two volume set, educators explore the intersection of gender and education. Their entries deal with educational theories, research, curricula, practices, personnel, and policies, but also with variations in the gendering of education across historical and cultural contexts. The various contributors discuss gender as a social construction.…

  19. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  20. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  1. Pyknometric volume measurement of a quasispherical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, R.; Davidson, S.; Perkin, M.; Morantz, P.; Sutton, G.; de Podesta, M.

    2012-06-01

    We have measured the internal volume of a 1 litre, diamond-turned copper quasispherical resonator with a fractional uncertainty of approximately 1 part in 106 using two independent techniques. This is in response to the need for a uniquely accurate measurement of resonator volume, for the purpose of measuring the Boltzmann constant in pursuit of the redefinition of the kelvin. The first technique is a pyknometric measurement using water as a liquid of known density. We describe the development of a procedure that results in stable, reproducible volume measurements. We provide a detailed discussion of the factors that affect the water density, such as dissolved gases. The second technique is microwave resonance spectroscopy. Here, we measure the resonant frequencies of the TM1n modes and relate them to the dimensions of the resonator. We evaluate the frequency perturbations that arise from the coupling waveguides and the electrical resistivity of the copper surface. The results of the microwave measurements show evidence of a dielectric coating on the surface. We propose that this is an oxide layer and estimate its thickness from the microwave data. Finally, we compare the volume estimates from the two methods, and find that the difference is within the combined uncertainty.

  2. New Trends in Chemistry Teaching, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmell, E.

    In this third volume of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) series on "New Trends in Chemistry Teaching," a total of 29 papers originally published during the period from 1969 to 1971 in leading chemistry-teaching periodicals of the world is compiled for the purpose of promoting information exchange. The…

  3. Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 33, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Mark R., Ed.; Porter, Lyman W., Ed.

    This volume contains 20 essays on current research in representative areas of psychology. The authors are professors and researchers at universities in the United States, England, Colombia, Poland, Australia, the Netherlands, France, and Canada. A wide range of topics is discussed. Included among these are social psychology of intergroup…

  4. Mathematics and Sports. Mathematical World. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovskii, L. E.; Sadovskii, A. L.

    This volume contains some examples of mathematical applications in sports. Sports discussed include tennis, figure skating, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, skiing, hockey, and swimming. Problems and situations are posed and answers with thorough explanations are provided. Chapters include: (1) Mathematics and Sports; (2) What Is Applied…

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  6. The State of Hispanic America. Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Hispanic Univ., Oakland, CA.

    The ten articles collected in this volume report on the socioeconomic status of Hispanics in America. They discuss trends, problems, and developments for Hispanics in these areas: education, business, technology, employment, media, economic development, foreign relations, immigration, and mental health. Titles (and authors) are: (1) "The Role of…

  7. Control-volume representation of molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Smith, E R; Heyes, D M; Dini, D; Zaki, T A

    2012-05-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) parallel to the control volume (CV) formulation of fluid mechanics is developed by integrating the formulas of Irving and Kirkwood [J. Chem. Phys. 18, 817 (1950)] over a finite cubic volume of molecular dimensions. The Lagrangian molecular system is expressed in terms of an Eulerian CV, which yields an equivalent to Reynolds' transport theorem for the discrete system. This approach casts the dynamics of the molecular system into a form that can be readily compared to the continuum equations. The MD equations of motion are reinterpreted in terms of a Lagrangian-to-control-volume (LCV) conversion function ϑ(i) for each molecule i. The LCV function and its spatial derivatives are used to express fluxes and relevant forces across the control surfaces. The relationship between the local pressures computed using the volume average [Lutsko, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1152 (1988)] techniques and the method of planes [Todd et al., Phys. Rev. E 52, 1627 (1995)] emerges naturally from the treatment. Numerical experiments using the MD CV method are reported for equilibrium and nonequilibrium (start-up Couette flow) model liquids, which demonstrate the advantages of the formulation. The CV formulation of the MD is shown to be exactly conservative and is, therefore, ideally suited to obtain macroscopic properties from a discrete system.

  8. A Course in Baluchi. Volume Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman; Mengal, Aqil Khan

    Volume Two contains Units XXI through XXX of the Baluchi course. Unit XXI introduces the Arabic script as adapted for Baluchi. Special conventions, abbreviations, numerals, and punctuation symbols are discussed next, and several sections are devoted to the orthography of certain substantive and verbal affies. A series of reading drills which…

  9. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards...

  10. First CLIPS Conference Proceedings, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The topics of volume 2 of First CLIPS Conference are associated with following applications: quality control; intelligent data bases and networks; Space Station Freedom; Space Shuttle and satellite; user interface; artificial neural systems and fuzzy logic; parallel and distributed processing; enchancements to CLIPS; aerospace; simulation and defense; advisory systems and tutors; and intelligent control.

  11. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  12. New Trends in Biology Teaching, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, R.

    In this third volume of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations's (UNESCO) series on "New Trends in Biology Teaching," a total of 32 papers (mostly published during the period from 1967 to 1970 in leading biology-teaching periodicals of the world) is compiled for the purpose of promoting information exchange. The…

  13. Gastric Residual Volume: Rethinking the Threshold.

    PubMed

    Emami Zeydi, Amir; Sharafkhani, Mohammad; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    There are many challenges related to enteral feedings of the mechanically ventilated patient. Among the most often debated issues is the threshold for gastric residual volume before further feeding. This brief article considers the factors to be considered and reviews current thinking on the topic. PMID:27575801

  14. Transportation Cluster Volume 4 [Driver Training].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is one of seven volumes of instructional materials developed around a cluster of Transportation Industries. Primarily technical in focus, they are designed to be used in a cluster-concept program and to integrate with a regular General Education Development (G.E.D.) program so that students may attain an employable skill level and a…

  15. B-70 Aircraft Study. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taube, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    This volume contains cost, schedule, and technical information on the following B-70 aircraft subsystems: air induction system, flight control, personnel accommodation and escape, alighting and arresting, mission and traffic control, flight indication, test instrumentation, and installation, checkout, and pre-flight.

  16. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  17. Handbook of Early Literacy Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B., Ed.; Dickinson, David K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Building crucial bridges between theory, research, and practice, this volume brings together leading authorities on the literacy development of young children. The "Handbook" examines the full range of factors that shape learning in and out of the classroom, from basic developmental processes to family and sociocultural contexts, pedagogical…

  18. Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.

    Volume 4 of an annual series, this issue focuses chiefly on a variety of perspectives relating to cross-cultural research. The major article is comprised of 15 topics encompassing cognitive and affective aspects of culture contact, language and communication, and culture exchange. The topics address Japanese perceptions of foreigners, learning of…

  19. The State of Hispanic America. Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Hispanic Univ., Oakland, CA.

    The fifth volume of The State of Hispanic America is divided into four sections: Education, Health and Welfare, Business and Technology, and Beyond our Borders. In the first article Steven Arvizu presents Hispanic demographic growth data, describes the overall severity of undereducation among Hispanics, analyzes areas of controversy, and offers…

  20. Annual Review of Psychology: Volume 23, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mussen, Paul H., Ed.; Rosenzweig, Mark R., Ed.

    Nineteen papers reviewed the major works published during the most recent four years in the field of psychology. Most of the publications reviewed were American, but due to the stated concern with international coverage, the volume began a series of chapters on psychological research in other countries. Topics reviewed were developmental…

  1. Unified Technical Concepts. Application Modules Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Unified Technical Concepts (UTC) is a modular system for teaching applied physics in two-year postsecondary technician programs. This UTC laboratory textbook, the second of two volumes, consists of 45 learning modules dealing with basic concepts of physics. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: force…

  2. FLES NEWS, Volume 5, 1991-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FLES NEWS, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Articles in the three Volume 5 issues of the National Network for Early Language Learning newsletter include: "Young Authors--A Double Success" (Carolyn Andrade); "Teacher Preparation for Elementary School Foreign Language Programs" (Carol Ann Pesola); "Strategies in a Small School Setting: The Filley FLES Program" (Zoe E. Louton, Robert E.…

  3. PDLE: Extending Provisional Contributions. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Tim, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Focusing on midcareer professionals, this second volume includes descriptive accounts of professional development opportunities designed specifically so that language teachers can reinvigorate their teaching and remain on the path of lifelong learning. Due to the amount of development that comes from collaboration with other professionals, this…

  4. Practical Nursing, Volume I. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides teachers with up-to-date information and skill-related applications needed by the practical nurse. The volume contains three sections and 24 instructional units: Personal Vocational Relationships (6 units), Nutrition (3 units), and Basic Nursing Principles and Applied Skills (15 units covering such topics as…

  5. Golden Hill, Volume Five. Work and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Lee, Ed.; And Others

    The 12 articles and stories in this issue focus on the integration of work and learning and on adult learning. "An Introduction to 'Work and Learning'" (Lee Herman) outlines the scope of the volume. "Child's Work" (Nancy Wallace) shows children's independent play to be important intellectual work. "Learning to Write" (Laura Robert) is a Kafkaesque…

  6. Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, Regina; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2009-09-21

    The Site Environmental Report for 2008 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  7. Community College Exemplary Instructional Programs, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fideler, Elizabeth F., Ed.; Bazer, Gerald, Ed.

    Third in an annual series, this volume presents brief descriptions of a number of outstanding community college instructional programs identified by the National Council of Instructional Administrators (NCIA). Each description includes the address and telephone number of the college in which the program operates, and the names of the college…

  8. Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 31, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Mark R., Ed.; Porter, Lyman W., Ed.

    This volume contains 19 essays on current research in representative areas of psychology. Although a few authors are from other countries, the majority of the authors are professors and researchers at universities in the United States, representing departments of psychology, education, human development, behavioral sciences, and psychiatry. The…

  9. Partial specific volume of poly(1-butene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  10. MINNETESOL Journal, Volumes 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MINNETESOL Journal, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The 12 volumes of the professional journal contain articles on a wide variety of topics on classroom techniques, curriculum design, class activities, and research in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching at all educational levels. General topics include: communicating with ESL students; current events in the classroom; cultural test bias;…

  11. Construction Cluster Volume IV: [Concrete Work].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the fourth of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on concrete work and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study. The units include: (1) uses of concrete and occupational information; (2) soils, drainage, and…

  12. Finite volume renormalization scheme for fermionic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2013-11-01

    We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation.

  13. Basic Communication Course Annual. Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburger, Craig, Ed.

    This volume of an annual collection of essays presents seven essays relating to instruction in the basic communication course. The essays are: "Gerald M. Phillips' Devotion to Basic Communication Skills" (Julia T. Wood); "The Basic Course in Organizational Communication: A National Survey" (Donald Treadwell and Ronald L. Applbaum); "Improving Oral…

  14. Occupational Information 1990/91. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Nebraska Career Information System.

    The Nebraska Occupational Information books (volumes I and II) contain information about 386 different occupations in the state and answer questions about specific occupations in detail. The descriptions are arranged according to a U.S. Department of Labor classification system, with occupational titles clustered in general groups of selected…

  15. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC... representative volume: (1) It includes the highest concentration level in the plume of contamination in the... plume of contamination in the accessible environment; and (iii) Pumping rates and the placement of...

  16. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC... representative volume: (1) It includes the highest concentration level in the plume of contamination in the... plume of contamination in the accessible environment; and (iii) Pumping rates and the placement of...

  17. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC... representative volume: (1) It includes the highest concentration level in the plume of contamination in the... plume of contamination in the accessible environment; and (iii) Pumping rates and the placement of...

  18. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC... representative volume: (1) It includes the highest concentration level in the plume of contamination in the... plume of contamination in the accessible environment; and (iii) Pumping rates and the placement of...

  19. Advances in Education Research. Volume 2, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advances in Education Research, 1997

    1997-01-01

    "Advances in Education Research" reprints previously published journal articles reporting on research supported in whole or in part by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). The articles are selected from peer-reviewed/referred journals; the journals used are described briefy at the end of the volume. The articles in this…

  20. ATLAS Series of Shuttle Missions. Volume 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This technical paper contains selected papers from Geophysical Research Letters (Volume 23, Number 17) on ATLAS series of shuttle missions. The ATLAS space shuttle missions were conducted in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. This paper discusses solar irradiance, middle atmospheric temperatures, and trace gas concentrations measurements made by the ATLAS payload and companion instruments.