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Sample records for 320x240 pixel lec

  1. X-ray imaging using a 320 x 240 hybrid GaAs pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Irsigler, R.; Andersson, J.; Alverbro, J.

    1999-06-01

    The authors present room temperature measurements on 200 {micro}m thick GaAs pixel detectors, which were hybridized to silicon readout circuits. The whole detector array contains 320 x 240 square shaped pixel with a pitch of 38 {micro}m and is based on semi-insulating liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) GaAs material. After fabricating and dicing, the detector chips were indium bump flip chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration and finally evaluated. This readout chip was originally designed for the readout of flip chip bonded infrared detectors, but appears to be suitable for X-ray applications as well. A bias voltage between 50 V and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector at room temperature. The detector array did respond to x-ray radiation by an increase in current due to production of electron hole pairs by the ionization processes. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard X-ray source for dental imaging. The new X-ray hybrid detector was analyzed with respect to its imaging properties. Due to the high absorption coefficient for X-rays in GaAs and the small pixel size, the sensor shows a high modulation transfer function up to the Nyquist frequency.

  2. 320 x 240 uncooled IRFPA with pixel wise thin film vacuum packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yon, J.-J.; Dumont, G.; Rabaud, W.; Becker, S.; Carle, L.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Hamelin, A.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Silicon based vacuum packaging is a key enabling technology for achieving affordable uncooled Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) as required by the promising mass market for very low cost IR applications, such as automotive driving assistance, energy loss monitoring in buildings, motion sensors… Among the various approaches studied worldwide, the CEA, LETI is developing a unique technology where each bolometer pixel is sealed under vacuum at the wafer level, using an IR transparent thin film deposition. This technology referred to as PLP (Pixel Level Packaging), leads to an array of hermetic micro-caps each containing a single microbolometer. Since the successful demonstration that the PLP technology, when applied on a single microbolometer pixel, can provide the required vacuum < 10-3 mbar, the authors have pushed forward the development of the technology on fully operational QVGA readout circuits CMOS base wafers (320 x 240 pixels). In this outlook, the article reports on the electro optical performance obtained from this preliminary PLP based QVGA demonstrator. Apart from the response, noise and NETD distributions, the paper also puts emphasis on additional key features such as thermal time constant, image quality, and ageing properties.

  3. Design and performance of the ULTRA 320x240 uncooled focal plane array and sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Robert J.; Howard, Philip E.

    1996-06-01

    The ULTRA (Uncooled, Low cost, Technology Reinvestment Alliance) Consortium, consisting of the Honeywell Technology Center of Honeywell Incorporated, the Autonetics Missile Systems Division of Rockwell International Corporation, Inframetrics Incorporated, and the New Jersey Institute of Technology, has been formally working together over the past year in an effort to develop, manufacture and sell industrial and military sensors and components incorporating silicon microbolometer uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) technology. Towards that end, Rockwell has been actively engaged in developing the UFPA component, with assistance from Honeywell, with the intention of being a merchant supplier of the UFPA. Inframetrics has been developing subsystems required to construct and characterize a prototype sensor, and NJIT is designing a Multi-Wavelength Imaging Pyrometry system around the performance of the uncooled prototype sensor. TRP Office funding administered by ARPA has been key to the significant advances made over the course of the year in this program. This paper will describe both the UFPA component specification and the prototype sensor. It will give a architectural overview of the detector array, with the anticipated performance characteristics. Multiplexer design and simulation, and array processing, will be addressed. A description of the array packaging, interface requirements, and unique design considerations will be provided. Anticipated and actual component performance will be explained and contrasted. The background of the sensor development will be presented. An overview of the camera architecture will be given, with some discussion of trade-offs in subsystem design of the sensor. Specific emphasis is placed on the radiometric evaluation of the sensor.

  4. 47 CFR 64.4002 - Notification obligations of LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... available, the identity of the customer's new LEC. (d) Customer contacts LEC or new IXC to change PIC(s) or... customer's PIC(s) of the customer's change in LEC and, if known, the identity of the customer's new LEC. If... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Account Record Exchange...

  5. 47 CFR 64.4002 - Notification obligations of LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... available, the identity of the customer's new LEC. (d) Customer contacts LEC or new IXC to change PIC(s) or... customer's PIC(s) of the customer's change in LEC and, if known, the identity of the customer's new LEC. If... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Account Record Exchange...

  6. Visible light imaging sensor with A/D conversion at the pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.

    1999-04-01

    MOSAD, provides a low power on focal pane analog to digital, A/D, process. In this approach, an oversample A/D is placed at each pixel site, with resultant benefits to response linearity and noise performance. An architecture for a visible light imaging sensor using silicon charge well detection was developed for application into video conferencing. There are a total of 76,800 A/D's on the chip. The devise is a monolithic integrated circuit that includes the sensors, A/D's and readout circuitry. A production 1.2 micron CCD/CMOS process was used in it construction. The array was designed with a 320 X 240 format with the pixels placed on 16 micron centers. There was negligible impact on the pixel area due to the A/D such that a fill factor of 67 percent was achieved with front side illumination. On chip power consumption is under 15 milliwatts. Pixels are read in the same manner as accessing the bit locations of a DRAM. As each row of pixels are accessed, they put ones or zeros on the output column that are sensed and passed onto the output buss. The A/D design is based on the patented MOSAD technology, It uses charge well switching at the pixel to convert the accumulated analog signal to digital data. Because of its high noise immunity, no pixel buffer amplifier is required, thus preserving fill factor. Another unique characteristic is the output data format which is directly compatible with Stream Vision, a patented digital display method. This format was adopted to produce a low cost all digital system from camera to display.

  7. Design of ADC in 25 μm pixels pitch dedicated for IRFPA image processing at LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchagaspanian, M.; Villard, P.; Dupont, B.; Chammings, G.; Martin, J. L.; Pistre, C.; Lattard, D.; Chantre, C.; Arnaud, A.; Yon, J. J.; Simoens, F.; Tissot, J. L.

    2007-04-01

    LETI has been involved in IRFPA development since 1978, the design department (LETI/DCIS) has focused its work on new ROIC architecture since many years. The trend is to integrate advanced functions into the CMOS design in the aim of making cost efficient sensors. The purpose of this paper is to present the latest developments of an Analog to Digital Converter embedded in a 25μm pixel. The design is driven by several goals. It targets both long integration time and snapshot exposure, 100% of image frame time being available for integration. All pixels are integrating the IR signal at the same time. The IR signal is converted into digital by using a charge packet counter. High density 130nm CMOS allows to use many digital functions such as counting, memory and addressing. This new structure has been applied to 25μm pitch bolometer sensors with a dedicated 320 x 240 IRCMOS circuit. Due to smart image processing in the CMOS, the bolometer architecture requirements may become very simple and low cost. The room temperature sensitivity and the DC offset are solved directly in the pixel. This FPA targets low NETD (<50mK), a variation of 80 Kelvin for the FPA temperature, 14 bits output at 50/60Hz video rate.

  8. A wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with dual charge storage in a pixel and a multiple sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamic range expansion technique of CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple exposures. Each pixel contains two photodiodes, PD1 and PD2 whose sensitivity can be set independently by the accumulation time. The difference of charge accumulation time in both photodiode can be manipulated to expand the dynamic range of the sensor. It allows flexible control of the dynamic range since the accumulation time in PD2 is adjustable. The multiple exposure technique used in the sensor reduces the motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image when capturing fast-moving objects. It also reduces the signal-to-nose ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signals in the synthesized wide dynamic range image. A wide dynamic range camera with 320x240 pixels image sensor has been tested. It is found that the sampling of 4 times for the short accumulation time signals is sufficient for the reduction of motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image, and the signal-to-noise ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signal is improved by 6 dB using 4 short-time exposures.

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans Galectins LEC-6 and LEC-10 Interact with Similar Glycoconjugates in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maduzia, Lisa L.; Yu, Evan; Zhang, Yinhua

    2011-01-01

    Galectins are a family of metazoan proteins that show binding to various β-galactoside-containing glycans. Because of a lack of proper tools, the interaction of galectins with their specific glycan ligands in the cells and tissues are largely unknown. We have investigated the localization of galectin ligands in Caenorhabditis elegans using a novel technology that relies on the high binding specificity between galectins and their endogenous ligands. Fluorescently labeled recombinant galectin fusions are found to bind to ligands located in diverse tissues including the intestine, pharynx, and the rectal valve. Consistent with their role as galactoside-binding proteins, the interaction with their ligands is inhibited by galactose or lactose. Two of the galectins, LEC-6 and LEC-10, recognize ligands that co-localize along the intestinal lumen. The ligands for LEC-6 and LEC-10 are absent in three glycosylation mutants bre-1, fut-8, and galt-1, which have been shown to be required to synthesize the Gal-β1,4-Fuc modifications of the core N-glycans unique to C. elegans and several other invertebrates. Both galectins pull down the same set of glycoproteins in a manner dependent on the presence of these carbohydrate modifications. Endogenous LEC-6 and LEC-10 are expressed in the intestinal cells, but they are localized to different subcellular compartments that do not appear to overlap with each other or with the location of their glycan targets. An altered subcellular distribution of these ligands is found in mutants lacking both galectins. These results suggest a model where LEC-6 and LEC-10 interact with glycoproteins through specific glycans to regulate their cellular fate. PMID:21115491

  10. Induced expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 differentially promotes somatic embryogenesis in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengdan; Liu, Chuanliang; Xia, Han; Bi, Yuping; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Zhao, Shuzhen; Hou, Lei; Li, Fuguang; Wang, Xingjun

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC) genes, AtLEC1 and AtLEC2, are important embryonic regulators that play key roles in morphogenesis and maturation phases during embryo development. Ectopic expression of AtLEC1 and AtLEC2 in tobacco caused abnormality in transgenic seedling. When transgenic seeds germinated on medium containing 30 µM DEX, LEC1 transgenic seedlings were ivory and fleshy, with unexpanded cotyledons, stubby hypocotyls, short roots and no obvious callus formation at the shoot meristem position. While LEC2 transgenic seedlings formed embryonic callus on the shoot apical meristem and somatic embryo-like structures emerged from the surface of the callus. When callus were transferred to hormone free MS0 medium more shoots were regenerated from each callus. However, shoot formation was not observed in LEC1 overexpressors. To investigate the mechanisms of LEC2 in somatic embryogenesis, we studied global gene expression by digital gene expression profiling analysis. The results indicated that ectopic expression of LEC2 genes induced accumulation of embryo-specific proteins such as seed storage proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes, products of steroid biosynthesis related genes and key regulatory genes of the embryo development. Genes of plant-specific transcription factors such as NAC domain protein, AP2 and GRAS family, resistance-related as well as salicylic acid signaling related genes were up-regulated in LEC2 transgenic seedlings. Ectopi c expression of LEC2 induced large number of somatic embryo formation and shoot regeneration but 20 d DEX induction of LEC1 is not sufficient to induce somatic embryogenesis and shoot formation. Our data provide new information to understand the mechanisms on LEC2 gene's induction of somatic embryogenesis.

  11. The BABY BOOM Transcription Factor Activates the LEC1-ABI3-FUS3-LEC2 Network to Induce Somatic Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Horstman, Anneke; Li, Mengfan; Heidmann, Iris; Weemen, Mieke; Chen, Baojian; Muino, Jose M; Angenent, Gerco C; Boutilier, Kim

    2017-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is an example of induced cellular totipotency, where embryos develop from vegetative cells rather than from gamete fusion. Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in vitro by exposing explants to growth regulators and/or stress treatments. The BABY BOOM (BBM) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC2 transcription factors are key regulators of plant cell totipotency, as ectopic overexpression of either transcription factor induces somatic embryo formation from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings without exogenous growth regulators or stress treatments. Although LEC and BBM proteins regulate the same developmental process, it is not known whether they function in the same molecular pathway. We show that BBM transcriptionally regulates LEC1 and LEC2, as well as the two other LAFL genes, FUSCA3 (FUS3) and ABSCISIC ACIDINSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). LEC2 and ABI3 quantitatively regulate BBM-mediated somatic embryogenesis, while FUS3 and LEC1 are essential for this process. BBM-mediated somatic embryogenesis is dose and context dependent, and the context-dependent phenotypes are associated with differential LAFL expression. We also uncover functional redundancy for somatic embryogenesis among other Arabidopsis BBM-like proteins and show that one of these proteins, PLETHORA2, also regulates LAFL gene expression. Our data place BBM upstream of other major regulators of plant embryo identity and totipotency. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Genomic Rearrangements and Functional Diversification of lecA and lecB Lectin-Coding Regions Impacting the Efficacy of Glycomimetics Directed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Boukerb, Amine M.; Decor, Aude; Ribun, Sébastien; Tabaroni, Rachel; Rousset, Audric; Commin, Loris; Buff, Samuel; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    LecA and LecB tetrameric lectins take part in oligosaccharide-mediated adhesion-processes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Glycomimetics have been designed to block these interactions. The great versatility of P. aeruginosa suggests that the range of application of these glycomimetics could be restricted to genotypes with particular lectin types. The likelihood of having genomic and genetic changes impacting LecA and LecB interactions with glycomimetics such as galactosylated and fucosylated calix[4]arene was investigated over a collection of strains from the main clades of P. aeruginosa. Lectin types were defined, and their ligand specificities were inferred. These analyses showed a loss of lecA among the PA7 clade. Genomic changes impacting lec loci were thus assessed using strains of this clade, and by making comparisons with the PAO1 genome. The lecA regions were found challenged by phage attacks and PAGI-2 (genomic island) integrations. A prophage was linked to the loss of lecA. The lecB regions were found less impacted by such rearrangements but greater lecB than lecA genetic divergences were recorded. Sixteen combinations of LecA and LecB types were observed. Amino acid variations were mapped on PAO1 crystal structures. Most significant changes were observed on LecBPA7, and found close to the fucose binding site. Glycan array analyses were performed with purified LecBPA7. LecBPA7 was found less specific for fucosylated oligosaccharides than LecBPAO1, with a preference for H type 2 rather than type 1, and Lewisa rather than Lewisx. Comparison of the crystal structures of LecBPA7 and LecBPAO1 in complex with Lewisa showed these changes in specificity to have resulted from a modification of the water network between the lectin, galactose and GlcNAc residues. Incidence of these modifications on the interactions with calix[4]arene glycomimetics at the cell level was investigated. An aggregation test was used to establish the efficacy of these ligands. Great variations

  13. Genomic Rearrangements and Functional Diversification of lecA and lecB Lectin-Coding Regions Impacting the Efficacy of Glycomimetics Directed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Boukerb, Amine M; Decor, Aude; Ribun, Sébastien; Tabaroni, Rachel; Rousset, Audric; Commin, Loris; Buff, Samuel; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    LecA and LecB tetrameric lectins take part in oligosaccharide-mediated adhesion-processes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Glycomimetics have been designed to block these interactions. The great versatility of P. aeruginosa suggests that the range of application of these glycomimetics could be restricted to genotypes with particular lectin types. The likelihood of having genomic and genetic changes impacting LecA and LecB interactions with glycomimetics such as galactosylated and fucosylated calix[4]arene was investigated over a collection of strains from the main clades of P. aeruginosa. Lectin types were defined, and their ligand specificities were inferred. These analyses showed a loss of lecA among the PA7 clade. Genomic changes impacting lec loci were thus assessed using strains of this clade, and by making comparisons with the PAO1 genome. The lecA regions were found challenged by phage attacks and PAGI-2 (genomic island) integrations. A prophage was linked to the loss of lecA. The lecB regions were found less impacted by such rearrangements but greater lecB than lecA genetic divergences were recorded. Sixteen combinations of LecA and LecB types were observed. Amino acid variations were mapped on PAO1 crystal structures. Most significant changes were observed on LecBPA7, and found close to the fucose binding site. Glycan array analyses were performed with purified LecBPA7. LecBPA7 was found less specific for fucosylated oligosaccharides than LecBPAO1, with a preference for H type 2 rather than type 1, and Lewis(a) rather than Lewis(x). Comparison of the crystal structures of LecBPA7 and LecBPAO1 in complex with Lewis(a) showed these changes in specificity to have resulted from a modification of the water network between the lectin, galactose and GlcNAc residues. Incidence of these modifications on the interactions with calix[4]arene glycomimetics at the cell level was investigated. An aggregation test was used to establish the efficacy of these ligands. Great

  14. New insights on the evolution of Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) type genes in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Korbes, Ana Paula; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos; Margis, Rogerio; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    NF-Y is a conserved oligomeric transcription factor found in all eukaryotes. In plants, this regulator evolved with a broad diversification of the genes coding for its three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC). The NF-YB members can be divided into Leafy Cotyledon1 (LEC1) and non-LEC1 types. Here we presented a comparative genomic study using phylogenetic analyses to validate an evolutionary model for the origin of LEC-type genes in plants and their emergence from non-LEC1-type genes. We identified LEC1-type members in all vascular plant genomes, but not in amoebozoa, algae, fungi, metazoa and non-vascular plant representatives, which present exclusively non-LEC1-type genes as constituents of their NF-YB subunits. The non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (Ka/Ks) between LEC1 and non-LEC1-type genes indicate the presence of positive selection acting on LEC1-type members to the fixation of LEC1-specific amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that plant LEC1-type genes are evolutionary divergent from the non-LEC1-type genes of plants, fungi, amoebozoa, algae and animals. Our results point to a scenario in which LEC1-type genes have originated in vascular plants after gene expansion in plants. We suggest that processes of neofunctionalization and/or subfunctionalization were responsible for the emergence of a versatile role for LEC1-type genes in vascular plants, especially in seed plants. LEC1-type genes besides being phylogenetic divergent also present different expression profile when compared with non-LEC1-type genes. Altogether, our data provide new insights about the LEC1 and non-LEC1 evolutionary relationship during the vascular plant evolution.

  15. LEC12 and LEC29 gain-of-function Chinese hamster ovary mutants reveal mechanisms for regulating VIM-2 antigen synthesis and E-selectin binding.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Santosh K; Potvin, Barry; Stanley, Pamela

    2004-11-26

    LEC12 and LEC29 are two gain-of-function Chinese hamster ovary glycosylation mutants that express the Fut9 gene encoding alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase IX (alpha(1,3) Fuc-TIX). Both mutants express the Lewis X (Le(X)) determinant Galbeta(1,4)[Fucalpha(1,3)]GlcNAc, and LEC12, but not LEC29 cells, also express the VIM-2 antigen SAalpha(2,3)-Galbeta(1,4)GlcNAcbeta(1,3)Galbeta(1,4)[Fucalpha(1,3)]GlcNAc. Here we show that LEC29 cells transfected with a Fut9 cDNA express VIM-2, and thus LEC29 cells synthesize appropriate acceptors to generate the VIM-2 epitope. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that LEC12 has 10- to 20-fold less Fut9 gene transcripts than LEC29. However, Western analysis revealed that LEC12 has approximately 20 times more Fut9 protein than LEC29. The latter finding was consistent with our previous observation that LEC12 has approximately 40 times more in vitro alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity than LEC29. The basis for the difference in Fut9 protein levels was found to lie in sequence differences in the 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR) of LEC12 and LEC29 Fut9 gene transcripts. Whereas reporter assays with the respective 5'-UTR regions linked to luciferase did not indicate a reduced translation efficiency caused by the LEC29 5'-UTR, transfected full-length LEC29 Fut9 cDNA or in vitro-synthesized full-length LEC29 Fut9 RNA gave less Fut9 protein than similar constructs with a LEC12 5'-UTR. This difference appears to be largely responsible for the reduced alpha(1,3)Fuc-TIX activity and lack of VIM-2 expression of LEC29 cells. This could be of physiological relevance, because LEC29 and parent Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently expressing a Fut9 cDNA were able to bind mouse E-selectin, although they did not express sialyl-Le(X).

  16. [The Reading Literacy test for Secondary Education (CompLEC)].

    PubMed

    Llorens Tatay, Ana Cristina; Gil Pelluch, Laura; Vidal-Abarca Gámez, Eduardo; Martínez Giménez, Tomás; Mañá Lloriá, Amelia; Gilabert Pérez, Ramiro

    2011-11-01

    A new test to evaluate reading literacy, the Test of Reading Literacy for Secondary Education (CompLEC) is presented. CompLEC is based on the PISA assessment framework and new definitions of reading literacy. The test, easy to apply and score, assesses the level of reading literacy of children between 11 and 14 years of age in several reading situations (i.e., public, educational, personal and occupational) and with different types of texts (i.e., continuous and non-continuous). The scale has been standardized with a sample of 1,854 students from five different Spanish regions. Empirical results show that CompLEC is a homogeneous, reliable and valid instrument.

  17. 47 CFR 51.705 - Incumbent LECs' rates for transport and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent LECs' rates for transport and... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Reciprocal Compensation for Transport and Termination of Telecommunications Traffic § 51.705 Incumbent LECs' rates for transport and termination. (a) An incumbent LEC's...

  18. PIXEL PUSHER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanfill, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    Pixel Pusher is a Macintosh application used for viewing and performing minor enhancements on imagery. It will read image files in JPL's two primary image formats- VICAR and PDS - as well as the Macintosh PICT format. VICAR (NPO-18076) handles an array of image processing capabilities which may be used for a variety of applications including biomedical image processing, cartography, earth resources, and geological exploration. Pixel Pusher can also import VICAR format color lookup tables for viewing images in pseudocolor (256 colors). This program currently supports only eight bit images but will work on monitors with any number of colors. Arbitrarily large image files may be viewed in a normal Macintosh window. Color and contrast enhancement can be performed with a graphical "stretch" editor (as in contrast stretch). In addition, VICAR images may be saved as Macintosh PICT files for exporting into other Macintosh programs, and individual pixels can be queried to determine their locations and actual data values. Pixel Pusher is written in Symantec's Think C and was developed for use on a Macintosh SE30, LC, or II series computer running System Software 6.0.3 or later and 32 bit QuickDraw. Pixel Pusher will only run on a Macintosh which supports color (whether a color monitor is being used or not). The standard distribution medium for this program is a set of three 3.5 inch Macintosh format diskettes. The program price includes documentation. Pixel Pusher was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Think C is a trademark of Symantec Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

  19. PIXEL PUSHER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanfill, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    Pixel Pusher is a Macintosh application used for viewing and performing minor enhancements on imagery. It will read image files in JPL's two primary image formats- VICAR and PDS - as well as the Macintosh PICT format. VICAR (NPO-18076) handles an array of image processing capabilities which may be used for a variety of applications including biomedical image processing, cartography, earth resources, and geological exploration. Pixel Pusher can also import VICAR format color lookup tables for viewing images in pseudocolor (256 colors). This program currently supports only eight bit images but will work on monitors with any number of colors. Arbitrarily large image files may be viewed in a normal Macintosh window. Color and contrast enhancement can be performed with a graphical "stretch" editor (as in contrast stretch). In addition, VICAR images may be saved as Macintosh PICT files for exporting into other Macintosh programs, and individual pixels can be queried to determine their locations and actual data values. Pixel Pusher is written in Symantec's Think C and was developed for use on a Macintosh SE30, LC, or II series computer running System Software 6.0.3 or later and 32 bit QuickDraw. Pixel Pusher will only run on a Macintosh which supports color (whether a color monitor is being used or not). The standard distribution medium for this program is a set of three 3.5 inch Macintosh format diskettes. The program price includes documentation. Pixel Pusher was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Think C is a trademark of Symantec Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

  20. Role of LecA and LecB Lectins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Lung Injury and Effect of Carbohydrate Ligands ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chemani, Chanez; Imberty, Anne; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Pierre, Maud; Wimmerová, Michaela; Guery, Benoît P.; Faure, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequently encountered pathogen that is involved in acute and chronic lung infections. Lectin-mediated bacterium-cell recognition and adhesion are critical steps in initiating P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. This study was designed to evaluate the contributions of LecA and LecB to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa-mediated acute lung injury. Using an in vitro model with A549 cells and an experimental in vivo murine model of acute lung injury, we compared the parental strain to lecA and lecB mutants. The effects of both LecA- and Lec B-specific lectin-inhibiting carbohydrates (α-methyl-galactoside and α-methyl-fucoside, respectively) were evaluated. In vitro, the parental strain was associated with increased cytotoxicity and adhesion on A549 cells compared to the lecA and lecB mutants. In vivo, the P. aeruginosa-induced increase in alveolar barrier permeability was reduced with both mutants. The bacterial burden and dissemination were decreased for both mutants compared with the parental strain. Coadministration of specific lectin inhibitors markedly reduced lung injury and mortality. Our results demonstrate that there is a relationship between lectins and the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. Inhibition of the lectins by specific carbohydrates may provide new therapeutic perspectives. PMID:19237519

  1. Photoswitchable Janus glycodendrimer micelles as multivalent inhibitors of LecA and LecB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yingxue; Beshr, Ghamdan; Garvey, Christopher J; Tabor, Rico F; Titz, Alexander; Wilkinson, Brendan L

    2017-08-16

    The first example of the self-assembly and lectin binding properties of photoswitchable glycodendrimer micelles is reported. Light-addressable micelles were assembled from a library of 12 amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers composed of variable carbohydrate head groups and hydrophobic tail groups linked to an azobenzene core. Spontaneous association in water gave cylindrical micelles with uniform size distribution as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Trans-cis photoisomerization of the azobenzene dendrimer core was used to probe the self-assembly behaviour and lectin binding properties of cylindrical micelles, revealing moderate-to-potent inhibition of lectins LecA and LecB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Lec4A CHO glycosylation mutant arises from miscompartmentalization of a Golgi glycosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Two CHO glycosylation mutants that were previously shown to lack N- linked carbohydrates with GlcNAc beta 1,6Man alpha 1,6 branches, and to belong to the same genetic complementation group, are shown here to differ in the activity of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAc-TV) (UDP-GlcNA: alpha 1,6mannose beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V). One mutant, Lec4, has no detectable GlcNAc-TV activity whereas the other, now termed Lec4A, has activity equivalent to that of parental CHO in detergent cell extracts. However, Lec4A GlcNAc-TV can be distinguished from CHO GlcNAc-TV on the basis of its increased sensitivity to heat inactivation and its altered subcellular compartmentalization. Sucrose density gradient fractionation shows that the major portion of GlcNAc-TV from Lec4A cells cofractionates with membranes of the ER instead of Golgi membranes where GlcNAc-TV is localized in parental CHO cells. Other experiments show that Lec4A GlcNAc-TV is not concentrated in lysosomes, or in a post-Golgi compartment, or at the cell surface. The altered localization in Lec4A cells is specific for GlcNAc-TV because two other Lec4A Golgi transferases cofractionate at the density of Golgi membranes. The combined data suggest that both lec4 and lec4A mutations affect the structural gene for GlcNAc-TV, causing either the loss of GlcNAc-TV activity (lec4) or its miscompartmentalization (lec4A). The identification of the Lec4A defect indicates that appropriate screening of different glycosylation-defective mutants should enable the isolation of other mammalian cell trafficking mutants. PMID:2530238

  3. 47 CFR 51.707 - Default proxies for incumbent LECs' transport and termination rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default proxies for incumbent LECs' transport... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Reciprocal Compensation for Transport and Termination of Telecommunications Traffic § 51.707 Default proxies for incumbent LECs' transport...

  4. Inactivation of wine spoilage yeasts Dekkera bruxellensis using low electric current treatment (LEC).

    PubMed

    Lustrato, G; Vigentini, I; De Leonardis, A; Alfano, G; Tirelli, A; Foschino, R; Ranalli, G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation of a selected yeast Dekkera bruxellensis strain 4481 in red wine by application of low electric current treatment (LEC). LEC (200 mA) was applied for 60 days to a red wine, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, in an alternative strategy to the SO(2) addition during wine storage. The LEC effect on both cell activity and microflora viability was assessed. LEC decreased significantly the survival viable cells and increased the death rate of D. bruxellensis strain 4481 yeast. A final comparison was made of the main physico-chemical parameters of the wine after the different treatments. The study suggests the importance of an appropriate LEC treatment which limits wine deterioration in terms of off-flavours synthesis. The results demonstrate that the growth of undesirable Dekkera can be inhibited by low voltage treatment; LEC was shown to be useful to prevent wine spoilage and has the potential of being a concrete alternative method for controlling wine spoilage. Wine spoilage can be avoided by preventing the growth of undesirable Dekkera yeasts, through the effective use of LEC in the winemaking process.

  5. The galactophilic lectin, LecA, contributes to biofilm development in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Stephen P; Stacey, Rachael E; Dodd, Christine; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Winzer, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    LecA (PA-IL) is a cytotoxic lectin and adhesin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa which binds hydrophobic galactosides with high specificity and affinity. By using a lecA-egfp translation fusion and immunoblot analysis of the biofilm extracellular matrix, we show that lecA is expressed in biofilm-grown cells. In static biofilm assays on both polystyrene and stainless steel, biofilm depth and surface coverage was reduced by mutation of lecA and enhanced in the LecA-overproducing strain PAO-P47. Biofilm surface coverage by the parent strain, PAO-P47 but not the lecA mutant on steel coupons was also inhibited by growth in the presence of either isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) or p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-galactoside (NPG). Furthermore, mature wild-type biofilms formed in the absence of these hydrophobic galactosides could be dispersed by the addition of IPTG. In contrast, addition of p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-fucose (NPF) which has a high affinity for the P. aeruginosa LecB (PA-IIL) lectin had no effect on biofilm formation or dispersal. Planktonic growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was unaffected by the presence of IPTG, NPG or NPF, nor was the strain able to utilize these sugars as carbon sources, suggesting that the observed effects on biofilm formation were due to the competitive inhibition of LecA-ligand binding. Similar results were also obtained for biofilms grown under dynamic flow conditions on steel coupons, suggesting that LecA contributes to P. aeruginosa biofilm architecture under different environmental conditions.

  6. Pixel Perfect

    SciTech Connect

    Perrine, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2005-09-01

    cubic warp. During image acquisitions, the cubic warp is evaluated by way of forward differencing. Unwanted pixelation artifacts are minimized by bilinear sampling. The resulting system is state-of-the-art for biological imaging. Precisely registered images enable the reliable use of FRET techniques. In addition, real-time image processing performance allows computed images to be fed back and displayed to scientists immediately, and the pipelined nature of the FPGA allows additional image processing algorithms to be incorporated into the system without slowing throughput.

  7. Requirement of the Lec35 Gene for All Known Classes of Monosaccharide-P-Dolichol-dependent Glycosyltransferase Reactions in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Monika; Rush, Jeffrey S.; Ray, Sutapa; Doucey, Marie-Agnes; Weik, Jennifer; Ware, Felecia E.; Hofsteenge, Jan; Waechter, Charles J.; Lehrman, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    The Lec35 gene product (Lec35p) is required for utilization of the mannose donor mannose-P-dolichol (MPD) in synthesis of both lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLOs) and glycosylphosphatidylinositols, which are important for functions such as protein folding and membrane anchoring, respectively. The hamster Lec35 gene is shown to encode the previously identified cDNA SL15, which corrects the Lec35 mutant phenotype and predicts a novel endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein. The mutant hamster alleles Lec35.1 and Lec35.2 are characterized, and the human Lec35 gene (mannose-P-dolichol utilization defect 1) was mapped to 17p12-13. To determine whether Lec35p was required only for MPD-dependent mannosylation of LLO and glycosylphosphatidylinositol intermediates, two additional lipid-mediated reactions were investigated: MPD-dependent C-mannosylation of tryptophanyl residues, and glucose-P-dolichol (GPD)-dependent glucosylation of LLO. Both were found to require Lec35p. In addition, the SL15-encoded protein was selective for MPD compared with GPD, suggesting that an additional GPD-selective Lec35 gene product remains to be identified. The predicted amino acid sequence of Lec35p does not suggest an obvious function or mechanism. By testing the water-soluble MPD analog mannose-β-1-P-citronellol in an in vitro system in which the MPD utilization defect was preserved by permeabilization with streptolysin-O, it was determined that Lec35p is not directly required for the enzymatic transfer of mannose from the donor to the acceptor substrate. These results show that Lec35p has an essential role for all known classes of monosaccharide-P-dolichol-dependent reactions in mammals. The in vitro data suggest that Lec35p controls an aspect of MPD orientation in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane that is crucial for its activity as a donor substrate. PMID:11179430

  8. Decreased tumorigenicity correlates with expression of altered cell surface carbohydrates in Lec9 CHO cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, J; Shin, S; Stanley, P

    1986-01-01

    To investigate a role for surface carbohydrates in cellular malignancy, 15 different glycosylation-defective CHO cell mutants were examined for their tumorigenic and metastatic capacities after subcutaneous injection into nude mice. Most of the glycosylation mutants displayed similar or slightly decreased tumorigenicity compared with parental CHO cells. Neither parental CHO cells nor any of the mutants were observed to metastasize. However, independent isolates of one mutant type, Lec9, showed a dramatic reduction in tumor formation. The altered carbohydrates expressed at the surface of Lec9 cells appeared to be responsible for their loss of tumorigenicity, because revertants for lectin resistance were able to form tumors, and a double mutant (Lec9.Lec1) that expressed a Lec1 glycosylation phenotype also formed tumors. Finally, Lec9 cells were able to form tumors in gamma-irradiated nude mice, suggesting that recognition by an irradiation-sensitive host cell(s) was responsible for their reduced tumorigenicity in untreated nude mice. PMID:3785164

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecB inhibits tissue repair processes by triggering β-catenin degradation.

    PubMed

    Cott, Catherine; Thuenauer, Roland; Landi, Alessia; Kühn, Katja; Juillot, Samuel; Imberty, Anne; Madl, Josef; Eierhoff, Thorsten; Römer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that induces severe lung infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and acute lung injury. Under these conditions, the bacterium diminishes epithelial integrity and inhibits tissue repair mechanisms, leading to persistent infections. Understanding the involved bacterial virulence factors and their mode of action is essential for the development of new therapeutic approaches. In our study we discovered a so far unknown effect of the P. aeruginosa lectin LecB on host cell physiology. LecB alone was sufficient to attenuate migration and proliferation of human lung epithelial cells and to induce transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These effects are characteristic of impaired tissue repair. Moreover, we found a strong degradation of β-catenin, which was partially recovered by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. In addition, LecB induced loss of cell-cell contacts and reduced expression of the β-catenin targets c-myc and cyclin D1. Blocking of LecB binding to host cell plasma membrane receptors by soluble l-fucose prevented these changes in host cell behavior and signaling, and thereby provides a powerful strategy to suppress LecB function. Our findings suggest that P. aeruginosa employs LecB as a virulence factor to induce β-catenin degradation, which then represses processes that are directly linked to tissue recovery. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecB inhibits tissue repair processes by triggering β-catenin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Cott, Catherine; Thuenauer, Roland; Landi, Alessia; Kühn, Katja; Juillot, Samuel; Imberty, Anne; Madl, Josef; Eierhoff, Thorsten; Römer, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that induces severe lung infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and acute lung injury. Under these conditions, the bacterium diminishes epithelial integrity and inhibits tissue repair mechanisms, leading to persistent infections. Understanding the involved bacterial virulence factors and their mode of action is essential for the development of new therapeutic approaches. In our study we discovered a so far unknown effect of the P. aeruginosa lectin LecB on host cell physiology. LecB alone was sufficient to attenuate migration and proliferation of human lung epithelial cells and to induce transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These effects are characteristic of impaired tissue repair. Moreover, we found a strong degradation of β-catenin, which was partially recovered by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. In addition, LecB induced loss of cell–cell contacts and reduced expression of the β-catenin targets c-myc and cyclin D1. Blocking of LecB binding to host cell plasma membrane receptors by soluble l-fucose prevented these changes in host cell behavior and signaling, and thereby provides a powerful strategy to suppress LecB function. Our findings suggest that P. aeruginosa employs LecB as a virulence factor to induce β-catenin degradation, which then represses processes that are directly linked to tissue recovery. PMID:26862060

  11. Senescence-inducible LEC2 enhances triacylglycerol accumulation in leaves without negatively affecting plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Jung, Su-Jin; Shin, Hyun A; Go, Young Sam; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of fatty acids and glycerolipids in wild-type Arabidopsis leaves do not typically lead to strong triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation. LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) is a master regulator of seed maturation and oil accumulation in seeds. Constitutive ectopic LEC2 expression causes somatic embryogenesis and defects in seedling growth. Here, we report that senescence-inducible LEC2 expression caused a 3-fold increase in TAG levels in transgenic leaves compared with that in the leaves of wild-type plants. Plant growth was not severely affected by the accumulation the TAG in response to LEC2 expression. The levels of plastid-synthesized lipids, mono- and di-galactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, were reduced more in senescence-induced LEC2 than endoplasmic reticulum-synthesized lipids, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol. Senescence-induced LEC2 upregulated the expression of many genes involved in fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis at precise times in senescent leaves, including WRINKLED1 (WRI1), which encodes a fatty acid transcription factor. The expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 and phospholipid:diacylglycerol 2 were increased in the transgenic leaves. Five seed-type oleosin-encoding genes, expressed during oil-body formation, and the seed-specific FAE1 gene, which encodes the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of C20:1 and C22:1 fatty acids, were also expressed at higher levels in senescing transgenic leaves than in wild-type leaves. Senescence-inducible LEC2 triggers the key metabolic steps that increase TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues. PMID:25790072

  12. Phenotype of preneoplastic and neoplastic liver lesions during spontaneous liver carcinogenesis of LEC rats.

    PubMed

    Sawaki, M; Enomoto, K; Takahashi, H; Nakajima, Y; Mori, M

    1990-10-01

    The incidence and phenotype of preneoplastic and neoplastic liver lesions appearing in LEC rats after recovery from severe hereditary hepatitis were studied in comparison with the liver lesions appearing in chemical liver carcinogenesis. The livers of 168 rats (90 male, 78 female) were stained for seven histochemical markers at different time periods from the 20th week to the 122nd week of life. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and non-specific esterase (ES) were used as negative markers. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), glutathione S-transferase placental form (GSTP), esterase isozyme L-1 (L1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were used as positive markers. The study on the incidence of liver lesions in the LEC rats revealed sequential development of liver foci, nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) similar to those seen in chemically induced liver carcinogenesis. These lesions appeared earlier and more frequently in male LEC rats than in female ones, suggesting the importance of hormonal environment in spontaneous HCC development. The histochemical analysis of spontaneous liver lesions in LEC rats showed that GSTP was the most reliable positive marker as previously reported in chemical liver carcinogenesis. There was no essential difference in the expression of the markers in spontaneous and chemically induced liver lesions except for L1, which is considered to be related to xenobiotic metabolism. The results of this study suggest that both spontaneous and chemically induced liver cancer may develop by passing through phenotypically similar preneoplastic processes. In addition, the LEC rat uniquely showed chronic liver damage (hepatocyte death and regeneration) at the promotion stage of carcinogenesis. Such a natural history of HCC development in LEC rats is similar to that of human HCC which is frequently associated with chronic liver damage. Thus, the LEC rat provides a useful model for studying the process and underlying

  13. A high frequency of induction of chromosome aberrations in the fibroblasts of LEC strain rats by X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Okui, T; Endoh, D; Arai, S; Hayashi, M

    1996-08-01

    The LEC strain of rats (LEC rats), originally developed as a model for hereditary fulminant hepatitis, is highly sensitive to whole-body X-irradiation when compared to WKAH strain of rats (WKAH rats). The present results showed that frequencies of certain types of chromosome aberrations induced by in vitro X-irradiation in the fibroblasts of LEC rats were higher than those of WKAH rats. In particular, frequencies of chromatid gaps and chromosome exchanges in LEC cells were higher approximately 4- to 5-fold and 6- to 8-fold, respectively, than those of WKAH cells.

  14. A posteriori error estimates for the Johnson–Nédélec FEM–BEM coupling

    PubMed Central

    Aurada, M.; Feischl, M.; Karkulik, M.; Praetorius, D.

    2012-01-01

    Only very recently, Sayas [The validity of Johnson–Nédélec's BEM-FEM coupling on polygonal interfaces. SIAM J Numer Anal 2009;47:3451–63] proved that the Johnson–Nédélec one-equation approach from [On the coupling of boundary integral and finite element methods. Math Comput 1980;35:1063–79] provides a stable coupling of finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM). In our work, we now adapt the analytical results for different a posteriori error estimates developed for the symmetric FEM–BEM coupling to the Johnson–Nédélec coupling. More precisely, we analyze the weighted-residual error estimator, the two-level error estimator, and different versions of (h−h/2)-based error estimators. In numerical experiments, we use these estimators to steer h-adaptive algorithms, and compare the effectivity of the different approaches. PMID:22347772

  15. Recent improvements and developments in uncooled systems at BAE SYSTEMS North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, Brian S.; Butler, Neal R.; Kohin, Margaret; Gurnee, Mark N.; Whitwam, Jason T.; Breen, Tom

    2002-08-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has designed and developed MicroIR microbolometer focal plane arrays (FPAs) in three formats (160x120, 320x240, and 640x480) and with two different pixel sizes (46micrometers and 28micrometers ). In addition to successfully demonstrating these FPA technologies, BAE SYSTEMS has produced and delivered thousands of 320x240 (46micrometers pixel) imaging modules and camera cores for military, thermography, firefighting, security and numerous other applications throughout the world. Recently, BAE SYSTEMS has started production deliveries of 160x120 (46micrometers ) systems, demonstrated 320x240 and 640x480 second-generation (28micrometers ) imaging, and demonstrated second-generation thermoelectric cooler-less operation. This paper discusses these recent accomplishments and, when possible, provides quantitative NETD and performance data for our newly developed FPAs and systems. Video will be shown to demonstrate sensor performance capabilities.

  16. Structural Insight into Multivalent Galactoside Binding to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lectin LecA.

    PubMed

    Visini, Ricardo; Jin, Xian; Bergmann, Myriam; Michaud, Gaelle; Pertici, Francesca; Fu, Ou; Pukin, Aliaksei; Branson, Thomas R; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M E; Kemmink, Johan; Gillon, Emilie; Imberty, Anne; Stocker, Achim; Darbre, Tamis; Pieters, Roland J; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-20

    Multivalent galactosides inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms may help control this problematic pathogen. To understand the binding mode of tetravalent glycopeptide dendrimer GalAG2 [(Gal-β-OC6H4CO-Lys-Pro-Leu)4(Lys-Phe-Lys-Ile)2Lys-His-Ile-NH2] to its target lectin LecA, crystal structures of LecA complexes with divalent analog GalAG1 [(Gal-β-OC6H4CO-Lys-Pro-Leu)2Lys-Phe-Lys-Ile-NH2] and related glucose-triazole linked bis-galactosides 3u3 [Gal-β-O(CH2)n-(C2HN3)-4-Glc-β-(C2HN3)-[β-Glc-4-(N3HC2)]2-(CH2)n-O-β-Gal (n = 1)] and 5u3 (n = 3) were obtained, revealing a chelate bound 3u3, cross-linked 5u3, and monovalently bound GalAG1. Nevertheless, a chelate bound model better explaining their strong LecA binding and the absence of lectin aggregation was obtained by modeling for all three ligands. A model of the chelate bound GalAG2·LecA complex was also obtained rationalizing its unusually tight LecA binding (KD = 2.5 nM) and aggregation by lectin cross-linking. The very weak biofilm inhibition with divalent LecA inhibitors suggests that lectin aggregation is necessary for biofilm inhibition by GalAG2, pointing to multivalent glycoclusters as a unique opportunity to control P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  17. ATLAS IBL Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rosa, A.; Atlas Ibl Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The upgrade for ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards super-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel detector will consist of the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (LHC phase-I upgrade). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reducing the pixel size and of the material budget. Three different promising sensor technologies (planar-Si, 3D-Si and diamond) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the project with particular emphasis on the pixel module is presented in this paper.

  18. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access services...

  19. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access services...

  20. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  1. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  2. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  3. 47 CFR 52.23 - Deployment of long-term database methods for number portability by LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deployment of long-term database methods for... database methods for number portability by LECs. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, all... LECs must provide a long-term database method for number portability in the 100 largest...

  4. 47 CFR 52.23 - Deployment of long-term database methods for number portability by LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deployment of long-term database methods for... database methods for number portability by LECs. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, all... LECs must provide a long-term database method for number portability in the 100 largest...

  5. 47 CFR 52.23 - Deployment of long-term database methods for number portability by LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deployment of long-term database methods for... database methods for number portability by LECs. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, all... LECs must provide a long-term database method for number portability in the 100 largest...

  6. 47 CFR 52.23 - Deployment of long-term database methods for number portability by LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deployment of long-term database methods for... database methods for number portability by LECs. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, all... LECs must provide a long-term database method for number portability in the 100 largest...

  7. 47 CFR 52.23 - Deployment of long-term database methods for number portability by LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deployment of long-term database methods for... database methods for number portability by LECs. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, all... LECs must provide a long-term database method for number portability in the 100 largest...

  8. Low susceptibility to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced transplacental carcinogenesis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuchigauchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Ohnishi, Takamasa; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Bando, Yoshimi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takizawa, Tamotsu; Kaneda, Shinya; Nakai, Tokiko; Shiota, Hiroshi; Izumi, Keisuke

    2009-08-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, an animal model of Wilson's disease, is resistant to a variety of chemical carcinogenesis except liver and colon. In the present study, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced transplacental carcinogenesis was examined in male and female LEC, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA), a sibling line of the LEC rat, and F344 rats (n=21). ENU was administered to pregnant rats as a single s.c. injection at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight on the 17th day after conception. Cerebral/spinal gliomas and trigeminal/spinal nerve schwannomas developed in both LEA and F344 rats at 30 weeks of age, but no nervous system tumors developed in LEC rats, the difference being statistically significant. Lung adenomas also developed in LEA and F344 rats, but not in LEC rats. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that metallothionein (MT)1a, MT2 and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA levels in the liver of LEC rats were higher than those in F344 and LEA rats. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that MT (MT1 plus MT2) in the liver of LEC rats was also higher than that in other strains. Present results suggest that high levels of MT and/or MGMT contribute to the resistance to nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in LEC rats.

  9. Bad pixel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roger M.; Hale, David; Wizinowich, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Bad pixels are generally treated as a loss of useable area and then excluded from averaged performance metrics. The definition and detection of "bad pixels" or "cosmetic defects" are seldom discussed, perhaps because they are considered self-evident or of minor consequence for any scientific grade detector, however the ramifications can be more serious than generally appreciated. While the definition of pixel performance is generally understood, the classification of pixels as useable is highly application-specific, as are the consequences of ignoring or interpolating over such pixels. CMOS sensors (including NIR detectors) exhibit less compact distributions of pixel properties than CCDs. The extended tails in these distributions result in a steeper increase in bad pixel counts as performance thresholds are tightened which comes as a surprise to many users. To illustrate how some applications are much more sensitive to bad pixels than others, we present a bad pixel mapping exercise for the Teledyne H2RG used as the NIR tip-tilt sensor in the Keck-1 Adaptive Optics system. We use this example to illustrate the wide range of metrics by which a pixel might be judged inadequate. These include pixel bump bond connectivity, vignetting, addressing faults in the mux, severe sensitivity deficiency of some pixels, non linearity, poor signal linearity, low full well, poor mean-variance linearity, excessive noise and high dark current. Some pixels appear bad by multiple metrics. We also discuss the importance of distinguishing true performance outliers from measurement errors. We note how the complexity of these issues has ramifications for sensor procurement and acceptance testing strategies.

  10. LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) promotes embryogenic induction in somatic tissues of Arabidopsis, via YUCCA-mediated auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wójcikowska, Barbara; Jaskóła, Karolina; Gąsiorek, Przemysław; Meus, Magdalena; Nowak, Katarzyna; Gaj, Małgorzata D

    2013-09-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) transcription factor with a plant-specific B3 domain plays a central role in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis (SE). LEC2 overexpression induced in planta leads to spontaneous somatic embryo formation, but impairs the embryogenic response of explants cultured in vitro under auxin treatment. The auxin-related functions of LEC2 appear during SE induction, and the aim of the present study was to gain further insights into this phenomenon. To this end, the effect of LEC2 overexpression on the morphogenic responses of Arabidopsis explants cultured in vitro under different auxin treatments was evaluated. The expression profiles of the auxin biosynthesis genes were analysed in embryogenic cultures with respect to LEC2 activity. The results showed that LEC2 overexpression severely modifies the requirement of cultured explants for an exogenous auxin concentration at a level that is effective in SE induction and suggested an increase in the auxin content in 35S::LEC2-GR transgenic explants. The assumption of an LEC2 promoted increase in endogenous auxin in cultured explants was further supported by the expression profiling of the genes involved in auxin biosynthesis. The analysis indicated that YUCCAs and TAA1, working in the IPA-YUC auxin biosynthesis pathway, are associated with SE induction, and that the expression of three YUCCA genes (YUC1, YUC4 and YUC10) is associated with LEC2 activity. The results also suggest that the IAOx-mediated auxin biosynthesis pathway involving ATR1/MYB34 and CYP79B2 does not seem to be involved in SE induction. We conclude that de novo auxin production via the tryptophan-dependent IPA-YUC auxin biosynthesis pathway is implicated in SE induction, and that LEC2 plays a key role in this mechanism.

  11. Effect of melt stoichiometry on twin formation in LEC GaAs. [Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T.; Holmes, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the incidence of twin formation in large diameter, undoped, (100) LEC GaAs is reduced when the melt composition is slightly As-rich. Twenty GaAs crystals were grown from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts. The results suggest that the barrier to twin formation is related to the stoichiometry of the solid at the solidification front.

  12. 47 CFR 51.911 - Access reciprocal compensation rates for competitive LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access reciprocal compensation rates for competitive LECs. 51.911 Section 51.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Transitional Access Service Pricing § 51.911 Access...

  13. 47 CFR 51.911 - Access reciprocal compensation rates for competitive LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access reciprocal compensation rates for competitive LECs. 51.911 Section 51.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Transitional Access Service Pricing § 51.911 Access...

  14. 47 CFR 51.911 - Access reciprocal compensation rates for competitive LECs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access reciprocal compensation rates for competitive LECs. 51.911 Section 51.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Transitional Access Service Pricing § 51.911 Access...

  15. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  16. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  17. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  18. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  19. 47 CFR 69.711 - Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises. 69.711 Section 69.711 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.711 Channel...

  20. PixelLearn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; Wagstaff, Kiri; Bornstein, Benjamin; Tang, Nghia; Roden, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    PixelLearn is an integrated user-interface computer program for classifying pixels in scientific images. Heretofore, training a machine-learning algorithm to classify pixels in images has been tedious and difficult. PixelLearn provides a graphical user interface that makes it faster and more intuitive, leading to more interactive exploration of image data sets. PixelLearn also provides image-enhancement controls to make it easier to see subtle details in images. PixelLearn opens images or sets of images in a variety of common scientific file formats and enables the user to interact with several supervised or unsupervised machine-learning pixel-classifying algorithms while the user continues to browse through the images. The machinelearning algorithms in PixelLearn use advanced clustering and classification methods that enable accuracy much higher than is achievable by most other software previously available for this purpose. PixelLearn is written in portable C++ and runs natively on computers running Linux, Windows, or Mac OS X.

  1. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. Results An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Conclusions Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm. PMID:24758406

  2. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Clemens, Adam; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-04-24

    The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm.

  3. Multivalent ligand mimetics of LecA from P. aeruginosa: synthesis and NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Bini, Davide; Marchetti, Roberta; Russo, Laura; Molinaro, Antonio; Silipo, Alba; Cipolla, Laura

    2016-06-24

    Molecular recognition of glycans plays an important role in glycomic and glycobiology studies. For example, pathogens have a number of different types of lectin for targeting host sugars. In bacteria, lectins exist sometimes as domains of bacterial toxins and exploit adhesion to glycoconjugates as a means of entering host cells. Herein, we describe the synthesis of three glycodendrons with the aim to dissect the fine structural details involved in the multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions. LecA, from the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been used to characterize galactose dendrons interaction using one of the most widespread NMR technique for the elucidation of receptor-ligand binding in solution, the saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR. Furthermore, the effective hydrodynamic radius of each dendrimer recognized by LecA was estimated from the diffusion coefficients determined by pulsed-field-gradient stimulated echo (PFG-STE) NMR experiments.

  4. Isolation and characterization of BanLec-I, a mannoside-binding lectin from Musa paradisiac (banana).

    PubMed Central

    Koshte, V L; van Dijk, W; van der Stelt, M E; Aalberse, R C

    1990-01-01

    A lectin (BanLec-I) from banana (Musa paradisiac) with a binding specificity for oligomannosidic glycans of size classes higher than (Man)6GlcNAc was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-75 column. It did not agglutinate untreated human or sheep erythrocytes, but it did agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes. BanLec-I stimulated T-cell proliferation. On size-exclusion chromatography, BanLec-I has a molecular mass of approx. 27 kDa, and on SDS/PAGE the molecular mass is approx. 13 kDa. The isoelectric point is 7.2-7.5. BanLec-I was found to be very effective as a probe in detecting glycoproteins, e.g. on nitrocellulose blots. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2268297

  5. High density pixel array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener-Avnear, Eliezer (Inventor); McFall, James Earl (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A pixel array device is fabricated by a laser micro-milling method under strict process control conditions. The device has an array of pixels bonded together with an adhesive filling the grooves between adjacent pixels. The array is fabricated by moving a substrate relative to a laser beam of predetermined intensity at a controlled, constant velocity along a predetermined path defining a set of grooves between adjacent pixels so that a predetermined laser flux per unit area is applied to the material, and repeating the movement for a plurality of passes of the laser beam until the grooves are ablated to a desired depth. The substrate is of an ultrasonic transducer material in one example for fabrication of a 2D ultrasonic phase array transducer. A substrate of phosphor material is used to fabricate an X-ray focal plane array detector.

  6. Fucofullerenes as tight ligands of RSL and LecB, two bacterial lectins.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Kevin; Gillon, Emilie; Holler, Michel; Nierengarten, Jean-François; Imberty, Anne; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2015-06-21

    A series of water-soluble glycofullerenes containing up to 24 fucose residues have been prepared. These compounds were tested against the two bacterial fucose-binding lectins LecB and RSL, and C60(E)12 bearing 24 fucose residues appeared to be the best known inhibitor of both lectins to date. We have shown that increasing both the valency and the length of the spacer between the central core and the peripheral sugars can be beneficial for the affinity.

  7. Undoped semi-insulating LEC GaAs - A model and a mechanism. [Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, J. R.; Fairman, R. D.; Chen, R. T.; Yu, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Undoped semi-insulating GaAs grown by the high-pressure liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method has been produced for use in direct ion implantation in several laboratories. A clear understanding of the factors controlling impurity transport and compensation in these materials has been lacking to date. In this work, detailed characterization has been performed on undoped semi-insulating crystals grown from both SiO2 and PBN crucibles followed by a proposed impurity model and compensation mechanism.

  8. Angiogenenic effects of BpLec, a C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Letícia Eulalio; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie Cirilo; Deconte, Simone Ramos; Ferreira, Bruno Antônio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Filho, Luiz Ricardo Goulart; Tomiosso, Tatiana Carla; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Araújo, Fernanda de Assis; Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo

    2017-09-01

    The present work reports the effects of a C-type lectin (BpLec) isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom upon in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis models. Initially, we noted that BpLec was not cytotoxic to endothelial cells (tEnd) in doses up to 40μg/mL, but lower doses (2.5μg/mL, 5μg/mL, 10μg/mL and 20μg/mL) reduced tEnd cells adhesion to some extracellular matrix proteins and inhibited the in vitro vessel formation in Matrigel assay stimulated by bFGF. β-galactosides (d-lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and d-galactose) at 400mM reversed the effect of BpLec on tEnd cells adhesion, whereas d-galactose (400mM) partially reversed BpLec property of inhibiting vessel formation by tEnd cells in Matrigel. In vivo assays showed that BpLec increased hemoglobin content and capillary vessels number in polyether-polyurethane sponge discs subcutaneously implanted into dorsal skin mice. Additionally, BpLec also reduced collagen deposition and did not induce a pro-inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the decreased the secretion of some inflammatory cytokines, whereas myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities were not altered by BpLec. Taken together, our results indicate that BpLec might represent an interesting angiogenesis and inflammatory modulator that could also be used for searching possible therapeutic targets involved in these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Partial gene deletion in LEC rat: An animal model for Wilson disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Forbes, J.R.; Cox, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    Wilson disease is an inherited disorder of copper transport in which incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin and excretion of copper into bile are greatly reduced. Copper accumulates to a toxic level in the liver and also in the brain and kidney, causing a spectrum of hepatic and neurological abnormalities. We have recently cloned the gene for Wilson disease (designated ATP7B), which encodes a putative copper-transporting P-type ATPase. The inbred mutant Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat strain shows similarity to Wilson disease in many clinical and biochemical features. We have cloned cDNAs for the rat homologue (Atp7b) of the human Wilson disease gene (ATP7B) and have shown that the two genes have {approximately}82% identity at the amino acid sequence level. Rat cDNA sequences were used to identify a partial deletion in the Atp7b gene in the LEC rat. The deletion removes at least 750 bp of the coding region at the 3{prime} end, which includes the crucial ATP binding domain and extends downstream of the gene. The proximal breakpoint has been precisely localized at the cDNA level. Our results provide convincing evidence that the LEC rat is an animal model for Wilson disease. This model will be important for studying liver pathophysiology, for developing therapy for Wilson disease, and for studying the pathway of copper transport and its possible interaction with other heavy metals.

  10. The Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 enhances resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Solanaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Klaas; Han, Miao; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Song, Wei; Weide, Rob; Guo, Li-Yun; van der Vossen, Edwin A G; Govers, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Late blight caused by the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans is known as one of the most destructive potato diseases. Plant breeders tend to employ NB-LRR-based resistance for introducing genetically controlled late blight resistance in their breeding lines. However, P. infestans is able to rapidly escape this type of resistance, and hence, NB-LRR-based resistance in potato cultivars is often not durable. Previously, we identified a novel type of Phytophthora resistance in Arabidopsis. This resistance is mediated by the cell surface receptor LecRK-I.9, which belongs to the family of L-type lectin receptor kinases. In this study, we report that expression of the Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 gene in potato and Nicotiana benthamiana results in significantly enhanced late blight resistance. Transcriptional profiling showed strong reduction in salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence gene expression in LecRK-I.9 transgenic potato lines (TPLs). In contrast, transcripts of two protease inhibitor genes accumulated to extreme high levels, suggesting that LecRK-I.9-mediated late blight resistance is relying on a defence response that includes activation of protease inhibitors. These results demonstrate that the functionality of LecRK-I.9 in Phytophthora resistance is maintained after interfamily transfer to potato and N. benthamiana and suggest that this novel type of LecRK-based resistance can be exploited in breeding strategies to improve durable late blight resistance in Solanaceous crops.

  11. Structural basis of preferential binding of fucose-containing saccharide by the Caenorhabditis elegans galectin LEC-6.

    PubMed

    Makyio, Hisayoshi; Takeuchi, Tomoharu; Tamura, Mayumi; Nishiyama, Kazusa; Takahashi, Hideyo; Natsugari, Hideaki; Arata, Yoichiro; Kasai, Ken-Ichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Kato, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    Galectins are a group of lectins that can bind carbohydrate chains containing β-galactoside units. LEC-6, a member of galectins of Caenorhabditis elegans, binds fucose-containing saccharides. We solved the crystal structure of LEC-6 in complex with galactose-β1,4-fucose (Galβ1-4Fuc) at 1.5 Å resolution. The overall structure of the protein and the identities of the amino-acid residues binding to the disaccharide are similar to those of other galectins. However, further structural analysis and multiple sequence alignment between LEC-6 and other galectins indicate that a glutamic acid residue (Glu67) is important for the preferential binding between LEC-6 and the fucose moiety of the Galβ1-4Fuc unit. Frontal affinity chromatography analysis indicated that the affinities of E67D and E67A mutants for Galβ1-4Fuc are lower than that of wild-type LEC-6. Furthermore, the affinities of Glu67 mutants for an endogenous oligosaccharide, which contains a Galβ1-4Fuc unit, are drastically reduced relative to that of the wild-type protein. We conclude that the Glu67 in the oligosaccharide-binding site assists the recognition of the fucose moiety by LEC-6.

  12. CfLec-3 from scallop: an entrance to non-self recognition mechanism of invertebrate C-type lectin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jialong; Huang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Hao; Wang, Leilei; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2015-01-01

    A C-type lectin (CfLec-3) from Chlamys farreri with three carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) was selected to dissect the possible mechanisms of PAMP binding and functional differentiation of invertebrate lectins. CfLec-3 distributed broadly, and its mRNA expression in hemocytes increased significantly after stimulations with LPS, PGN or β-glucan, but not poly(I:C). The recombinant CfLec-3 (rCfLec-3) could bind PAMPs and several microbes. rCfLec-3 mediated hemocytes phagocytosis against Escherichia coli and encapsulation towards agarose beads. Obvious functional differentiation occurred among the three CRDs, as CRD1 exhibited higher activity to bind PAMPs, while CRD2/3 were expert in promoting hemocyte mediated opsonisation. The tertiary structural differences were suspected to be associated with such functional differentiation. PAMP binding abilities of CfLec-3 were determined by Ca2+-binding site 2 motif. When Pro in this motif of each CRD was mutated into Ser, their PAMP binding abilities were deprived absolutely. rCRD2 acquired mannan binding capability when its EPD was replaced by EPN, but lost when EPN in rCRD3 was changed into EPD. The Pro in Ca2+-binding site 2 was indispensable for PAMPs binding, while Asn was determinant for specific binding to mannan. It shed new insight into PAMPs binding mechanism of invertebrate C-type lectins and their functional differentiation. PMID:25975813

  13. Fiber pixelated image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Anant; Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Matham, Murukeshan Vadakke

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of physically inaccessible parts of the body such as the colon at micron-level resolution is highly important in diagnostic medical imaging. Though flexible endoscopes based on the imaging fiber bundle are used for such diagnostic procedures, their inherent honeycomb-like structure creates fiber pixelation effects. This impedes the observer from perceiving the information from an image captured and hinders the direct use of image processing and machine intelligence techniques on the recorded signal. Significant efforts have been made by researchers in the recent past in the development and implementation of pixelation removal techniques. However, researchers have often used their own set of images without making source data available which subdued their usage and adaptability universally. A database of pixelated images is the current requirement to meet the growing diagnostic needs in the healthcare arena. An innovative fiber pixelated image database is presented, which consists of pixelated images that are synthetically generated and experimentally acquired. Sample space encompasses test patterns of different scales, sizes, and shapes. It is envisaged that this proposed database will alleviate the current limitations associated with relevant research and development and would be of great help for researchers working on comb structure removal algorithms.

  14. Selecting Pixels for Kepler Downlink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Klaus, Todd C.; Cote, Miles T.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Hall, Jennifer R.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission monitors > 100,000 stellar targets using 42 2200 1024 pixel CCDs. Bandwidth constraints prevent the downlink of all 96 million pixels per 30-minute cadence, so the Kepler spacecraft downlinks a specified collection of pixels for each target. These pixels are selected by considering the object brightness, background and the signal-to-noise of each pixel, and are optimized to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the target. This paper describes pixel selection, creation of spacecraft apertures that efficiently capture selected pixels, and aperture assignment to a target. Diagnostic apertures, short-cadence targets and custom specified shapes are discussed.

  15. Deletion of lec-10, a galectin-encoding gene, increases susceptibility to oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nemoto-Sasaki, Yoko; Kasai, Ken-ichi

    2009-12-01

    Galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding lectins. They are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological phenomena in mammals. However, little is known about their roles in invertebrates. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-characterized model organism whose complete genome has been sequenced. C. elegans is now being studied extensively in various fields of medical sciences. In this study, we examined the phenotypes of a mutant strain of C. elegans (tm1262) lacking lec-10, a galectin-encoding gene. We observed no difference in the rates of embryonic lethality and larval arrest/slow growth between this mutant strain and the wild-type strain. No apparent morphological defect was observed in the lec-10-deletion mutant (tm1262). Moreover, the life-spans of this mutant and the wild-type strain were equivalent. However, this mutant showed significantly greater susceptibility to paraquat and hydrogen peroxide than the wild type did. The lec-10-deletion mutants (tm1262) were as susceptible as the daf-16-deletion mutants (mu86) to paraquat and hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that the deletion of lec-10 does not have a notable effect on the worm's survival under laboratory conditions. However, this study indicates that lec-10 does confer some protection against oxidative stress.

  16. The effect of buoyancy on the weight gain signal in LEC crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Tom H.

    1987-02-01

    Crystal diameter monitoring in liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth using the weighing method is investigated. An analytical expression for the differential weight gain signal is derived for stationary growth conditions accounting for bouyancy. For the GaAs/B 2O 3 system the buoyancy component of the signal can easily amount to 30%. The formula can be applied to determine the crystal/melt interface area, provided the radius of the part emerging from the encapsulant is known, either in advance as the seed dimension, or by separate monitoring using, e.g., conventional optical methods.

  17. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0. Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming. PMID:27647723

  18. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0 Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming.

  19. A C-type lectin (MrLec) with high expression in intestine is involved in innate immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinling; Huang, Xin; Jin, Min; Zhang, Yi; Li, Tingting; Hui, Kaimin; Ren, Qian

    2016-12-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are pattern-recognition proteins that play an important role in innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, a lectin cDNA named MrLec was cloned and characterized from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachiun rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrLec was 1431 bp, which contained an open reading frame of 1041 bp that encoded a protein with 346 amino acids. MrLec was found to contain a typical signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain with 121 amino acids. The phylogenetic analysis showed that MrLec was grouped with vertebrates and had 57% identity with C-type lectin 3 from Marsupenaeus japonicas. Tissue expression analysis showed that MrLec was ubiquitously distributed at a high level in the intestine, with lower expression levels in the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill and stomach. Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection induced the upregulation of MrLec in the gills and intestine. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, MrLec in gills was upregulated at 24, 36 and 48 h. In intestine, MrLec also went up at 36 and 48 h WSSV challenge. Recombinant MrLec can agglutinate (Ca(2+)-dependent) and bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. rMrLec could attach to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated possible MrLec involvement in the immune response of giant freshwater prawns.

  20. Pixel-to-Pixel Flat Field Changes on the WFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, R. L.; Bohlin, R.

    2007-01-01

    The pixel-to-pixel flat field changes noted by Bohlin and Mack (2005) for the WFC are further quantified. During each period between anneals, a population of pixels with lowered sensitivity develops which is largely reset by the next anneal. The sensitivity deficits are twice as large in the blue as in the red. The pixels with lowered sensitivity appear to be a unique set each anneal cycle, rather than a subset that ‘telegraph’ on and off. The low QE pixels recover 90% of their losses on a time scale of a few monthly anneals, but never return fully. Some evidence for spontaneous recovery of the low QE pixels between anneal cycles is developed, but is not conclusive. The number of low pixels would become a large source of error in the absence of performing anneals on a frequent basis. Prior to cooldown in July 2006, the flat field changes that arise continuously within anneal cycles are larger than cumulative persistent changes in the pixel-to-pixel flats. The pre-cooldown reference flat field remained excellent. Post-cooldown, the number of persistent deviant pixels, although still modest in number, may have reached a level justifying delivery of new pixel-to-pixel flats, although providing such will require acquisition of further data.

  1. Nonlinear Pixel Replacement Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Systems Command _________ _______________________ _____ 6e ADDRESS IC,,, Sra,. and ZIP Co~ de , 10 SOURCE Of FUNDING NUMBERS% RORMELEMENT NO PROJECT NO... de - scribed, this method does not replace array elements with computed values, but rather replaces them with one of the nine original pixel values. The...8217, gmx . NOISE PStd dev=’. sd call exit end include ’mathfunc For/nolist’ C-9 c biweighted 3xZ3 filter compute weighted mean from input iara subroutine

  2. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; D'Auria, S.; da Vià, C.; del Papa, C.; Heijne, E. M.; Middelkamp, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Smith, K.; Snoeys, W.

    1998-02-01

    GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV π- beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e -.

  3. Recovery and recycling of limestone in LEC flue gas desulfurization. Final report, third year

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.C.; Boo, J.Y.

    1993-12-20

    A potentially attractive flue gas desulfurization method called Limestone Emission Control (LEC) is currently being investigated by Prudich at Ohio University. In this process, beds of 1/8 inch limestone gravel particles absorb sulfur dioxide from flue gas. This forms sulfite and sulfate salts which coat limestone, blinding the surface and limiting utilization to 20%. Favorable economics can be generating when the unreacted portion of the limestone is recovered by mechanical grinding. This project is a wet method for grinding and recovering the spent limestone from the LEC process, utilizing an impeller fluidizer, a new type of slurry processor. It consists of a cylindrical vessel with an impeller at one end. The impeller generates sufficient pressure head to serve as a slurry pump. It combines the operation of wet grinding, washing, and transporting the spent and recovered limestone as an aqueous slurry. The objectives of the first two years were to operate fluidizer in a batch mode to carry grinding experiments, and to determine the removal of the sulfur coatings from the limestone when operating the fluidizer in a continuous mode. The main thrusts of the third year were to complete the grinding data and coordinate the data with reactivity determinations of the recovered limestone. Direct measurement of power requirements, operation of single impeller fluidizer, grinding of surface deposits and other methods of removing surface deposits have also been investigated along with sorption characteristics of recovered limestone, microscopic examination of the limestone surface, and limestone attrition.

  4. Expression, purification, and evaluation of recombinant LecA as a candidate for an amebic colitis vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, L.; Abhyankar, M.; Noor, Z.; Read, K.; Pedersen, K.; White, R.; Fox, C.; Petri, W.A.; Lyerly, D.

    2013-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic colitis and liver abscess, is considered a major enteric pathogen in residents and travelers to developing countries where the disease is endemic. Interaction of this protozoan parasite with the intestine is mediated through the binding of the trophozoite stage to intestinal mucin and epithelium via a galactose and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) lectin comprised of a disulfide linked heavy (ca. 180 kDa) and light chain (ca. 35 kDa) and a noncovalently bound intermediate subunit (ca. 150 kDa). Our efforts to develop a vaccine against this pathogen have focused on an internal 578 amino acid fragment, designated LecA, located within the cysteine-rich region of the heavy chain subunit because: (i) it is a major target of adherence-blocking antibodies of seropositive individuals and (ii) vaccination with his-tagged LecA provides protection in animal models. We developed a purification process for preparing highly purified non-tagged LecA using a codon-optimized gene expressed in Escherichia coli. The process consisted of: (i) cell lysis, collection and washing of inclusion bodies; (ii) solubilization and refolding of denatured LecA; and (iii) a polishing gel filtration step. The purified fragment existed primarily as a random coil with β-sheet structure, contained low endotoxin and nucleic acid, was highly immunoreactive, and elicited antibodies that recognized native lectin and that inhibited in vitro adherence of trophozoites to CHO cells. Immunization of CBA mice with LecA resulted in significant protection against cecal colitis. Our procedure yields sufficient amounts of highly purified LecA for future studies on stability, immunogenicity, and protection with protein-adjuvant formulations. PMID:23827311

  5. Expression, purification, and evaluation of recombinant LecA as a candidate for an amebic colitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Barroso, L; Abhyankar, M; Noor, Z; Read, K; Pedersen, K; White, R; Fox, C; Petri, W A; Lyerly, D

    2014-02-26

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic colitis and liver abscess, is considered a major enteric pathogen in residents and travelers to developing countries where the disease is endemic. Interaction of this protozoan parasite with the intestine is mediated through the binding of the trophozoite stage to intestinal mucin and epithelium via a galactose and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) lectin comprised of a disulfide linked heavy (ca. 180 kDa) and light chain (ca. 35 kDa) and a noncovalently bound intermediate subunit (ca. 150 kDa). Our efforts to develop a vaccine against this pathogen have focused on an internal 578 amino acid fragment, designated LecA, located within the cysteine-rich region of the heavy chain subunit because: (i) it is a major target of adherence-blocking antibodies of seropositive individuals and (ii) vaccination with his-tagged LecA provides protection in animal models. We developed a purification process for preparing highly purified non-tagged LecA using a codon-optimized gene expressed in Escherichia coli. The process consisted of: (i) cell lysis, collection and washing of inclusion bodies; (ii) solubilization and refolding of denatured LecA; and (iii) a polishing gel filtration step. The purified fragment existed primarily as a random coil with β-sheet structure, contained low endotoxin and nucleic acid, was highly immunoreactive, and elicited antibodies that recognized native lectin and that inhibited in vitro adherence of trophozoites to CHO cells. Immunization of CBA mice with LecA resulted in significant protection against cecal colitis. Our procedure yields sufficient amounts of highly purified LecA for future studies on stability, immunogenicity, and protection with protein-adjuvant formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effects of trientine, a copper-chelating agent, on induction of DNA strand breaks in kidney cells of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Miyane, Kazuhiro; Senou, Misato; Endoh, Daiji; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Nagahata, Hajime; Nakayama, Kenji; Kon, Yasuhiro; Okui, Toyo

    2005-10-01

    The effects of treatment with trientine, a specific copper-chelating agent, on the accumulation of copper and induction of DNA strand breaks were investigated in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, an animal model for human Wilson's disease. Copper accumulated in the kidneys of LEC rats in an age-dependent manner from 12 to 18 weeks of age. When LEC rats were treated with trientine from 10 weeks of age, renal copper contents did not increase and were maintained at the same levels as those in 4-week-old LEC rats. Estimation of the amounts of DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) by comet assay showed that SSBs of DNA were induced in a substantial population of LEC rat renal cortex cells around 12 weeks of age and that the amounts of SSBs increased in an age-dependent manner from 12 to 18 weeks of age. When LEC rats were treated with trientine from 10 weeks of age, the observed number of cells with DNA damage decreased, suggesting that induction of SSBs of DNA was inhibited and/or SSBs were repaired during the period of treatment with trientine. The results show that SSBs of DNA in LEC rat kidney cells are induced prior to occurrence of clinical signs of hepatic injury and that treatment of LEC rats with trientine decreases the number of DNA strand breaks.

  7. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  8. Enhanced Seed Oil Production in Canola by Conditional Expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in Developing Seeds1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-01-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production. PMID:21562329

  9. Hepatic iron accumulation is not directly associated with induction of DNA strand breaks in the liver cells of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masanobu; Kuge, Tomoko; Endoh, Daiji; Nakayama, Kenji; Arikawa, Jiro; Takazawa, Akira; Okui, Toyo

    2002-01-01

    Effects of accumulation of copper and iron on induction of DNA strand breaks were investigated in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats that spontaneously develop fulminant hepatitis. Copper and iron accumulated in the liver of LEC rats in an age-dependent manner from 4 to 15 weeks. Low-iron diet prevented the accumulation of iron in the liver, but did not prevent accumulation of copper. The amounts of DNA strand breaks that were estimated by comet assay in the liver cells of rats fed standard diet increased with age from 4 to 15 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the proportions of LEC rat liver cells without tail and the average lengths of tail momentum in the comet images between LEC rats that had been fed standard MF diet and low-iron diet. These results support the idea that accumulation of iron is not directly associated with the induction of DNA damage in the liver cells of LEC rats.

  10. Pixelated neutron image plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  11. The ALICE Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado-Perez, Jorge

    2002-07-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well.

  12. Analog pixel array detectors.

    PubMed

    Ercan, A; Tate, M W; Gruner, S M

    2006-03-01

    X-ray pixel array detectors (PADs) are generally thought of as either digital photon counters (DPADs) or X-ray analog-integrating pixel array detectors (APADs). Experiences with APADs, which are especially well suited for X-ray imaging experiments where transient or high instantaneous flux events must be recorded, are reported. The design, characterization and experimental applications of several APAD designs developed at Cornell University are discussed. The simplest design is a ;flash' architecture, wherein successive integrated X-ray images, as short as several hundred nanoseconds in duration, are stored in the detector chips for later off-chip digitization. Radiography experiments using a prototype flash APAD are summarized. Another design has been implemented that combines flash capability with the ability to continuously stream X-ray images at slower (e.g. milliseconds) rates. Progress is described towards radiation-hardened APADs that can be tiled to cover a large area. A mixed-mode PAD, design by combining many of the attractive features of both APADs and DPADs, is also described.

  13. Structure binding relationship of galactosylated Glycoclusters toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecA using a DNA-based carbohydrate microarray.

    PubMed

    Gerland, Béatrice; Goudot, Alice; Ligeour, Caroline; Pourceau, Gwladys; Meyer, Albert; Vidal, Sébastien; Gehin, Thomas; Vidal, Olivier; Souteyrand, Eliane; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Chevolot, Yann; Morvan, François

    2014-02-19

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a major public health issue due to its impact on nosocomial infections as well as its impact on cystic fibrosis patient mortality. One of the main concerns is its ability to develop antibiotic resistance. Therefore, inhibition of PA virulence has been proposed as an alternative strategy to tackle PA based infections. LecA (or PA-IL), a galactose binding lectin from PA, is involved in its virulence. Herein, we aimed at designing high affinity synthetic ligands toward LecA for its inhibition and at understanding the key parameters governing the binding of multivalent galactosylated clusters. Twenty-five glycoclusters were synthesized and their bindings were studied on a carbohydrate microarray. Monosaccharide centered clusters and linear comb-like clusters were synthesized with different linkers separating the core and the galactosyl residues. Their length, flexibility, and aromaticity were varied. Our results showed that the binding profile of LecA to galactosylated clusters was dependent on both the core and the linker and also that the optimal linker was different for each core. Nevertheless, an aryl group in the linker structure drastically improved the binding to LecA. Our results also suggest that optimal distances are preferred between the core and the aromatic group and the core and the galactose.

  14. Assessing the susceptibility of white fir to the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis Lec. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), using fungal inoculation

    Treesearch

    G.T. Ferrell; W.J. Otrosina; C.J. DeMars

    1993-01-01

    A method of assessing susceptibility of white fir, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl., by fungal inoculation was tested during an outbreak of the fir engraver beetle, Scolytus ventralis LeC., at Lake Tahoe, California, in 1987 through 1989.A total of 592 firs growing in six forest stands containing trees infested by the beetle were inoculated with the mutualistic...

  15. Deep levels in semi-insulating LEC GaAs before and after silicon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Dindo, S.; Abdel-Motaleb, I.; Lowe, K.; Tang, W.; Young, L.

    1985-11-01

    The deep trapping levels present before ion implantation of silicon into the semi-insulating LEC GaAs starting material were investigated using optical transient current spectroscopy (OTCS). MESFET channel current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used for the implanted material. With a silicon nitride layer used t encapsulate the GaAs for postimplantation annealing and with implantation directly into the GaAs, it was found tha of seven or more deep levels seen in the semi-insulating substrate prior to silicon implantation only the level believed to be EL12 remained. On implanting through a thin Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ encapsulating layer and annealing under Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, only EL2 was found. With a silicon dioxide layer as an encapsulant, two traps remained and two apparently unreported levels appeared.

  16. Imaging properties of pixellated scintillators with deep pixels

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H. Bradford; Fastje, David; Lemieux, Daniel; Grim, Gary P.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Miller, Brian W.; Parkhurst, Philip; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the light-transport properties of scintillator arrays with long, thin pixels (deep pixels) for use in high-energy gamma-ray imaging. We compared 10×10 pixel arrays of YSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and BGO (1mm × 1mm × 20 mm pixels) made by Proteus, Inc. with similar 10×10 arrays of LSO:Ce and BGO (1mm × 1mm × 15mm pixels) loaned to us by Saint-Gobain. The imaging and spectroscopic behaviors of these scintillator arrays are strongly affected by the choice of a reflector used as an inter-pixel spacer (3M ESR in the case of the Proteus arrays and white, diffuse-reflector for the Saint-Gobain arrays). We have constructed a 3700-pixel LYSO:Ce Prototype NIF Gamma-Ray Imager for use in diagnosing target compression in inertial confinement fusion. This system was tested at the OMEGA Laser and exhibited significant optical, inter-pixel cross-talk that was traced to the use of a single-layer of ESR film as an inter-pixel spacer. We show how the optical cross-talk can be mapped, and discuss correction procedures. We demonstrate a 10×10 YSO:Ce array as part of an iQID (formerly BazookaSPECT) imager and discuss issues related to the internal activity of 176Lu in LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce detectors. PMID:26236070

  17. Imaging properties of pixellated scintillators with deep pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, H. Bradford; Fastje, David; Lemieux, Daniel; Grim, Gary P.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Miller, Brian W.; Parkhurst, Philip; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2014-09-01

    We have investigated the light-transport properties of scintillator arrays with long, thin pixels (deep pixels) for use in high-energy gamma-ray imaging. We compared 10x10 pixel arrays of YSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and BGO (1mm x 1mm x 20 mm pixels) made by Proteus, Inc. with similar 10x10 arrays of LSO:Ce and BGO (1mm x 1mm x 15mm pixels) loaned to us by Saint-Gobain. The imaging and spectroscopic behaviors of these scintillator arrays are strongly affected by the choice of a reflector used as an inter-pixel spacer (3M ESR in the case of the Proteus arrays and white, diffuse-reflector for the Saint-Gobain arrays). We have constructed a 3700-pixel LYSO:Ce Prototype NIF Gamma-Ray Imager for use in diagnosing target compression in inertial confinement fusion. This system was tested at the OMEGA Laser and exhibited significant optical, inter-pixel cross-talk that was traced to the use of a single-layer of ESR film as an inter-pixel spacer. We show how the optical cross-talk can be mapped, and discuss correction procedures. We demonstrate a 10x10 YSO:Ce array as part of an iQID (formerly BazookaSPECT) imager and discuss issues related to the internal activity of 176Lu in LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce detectors.

  18. Imaging properties of pixellated scintillators with deep pixels.

    PubMed

    Barber, H Bradford; Fastje, David; Lemieux, Daniel; Grim, Gary P; Furenlid, Lars R; Miller, Brian W; Parkhurst, Philip; Nagarkar, Vivek V

    2014-08-17

    We have investigated the light-transport properties of scintillator arrays with long, thin pixels (deep pixels) for use in high-energy gamma-ray imaging. We compared 10×10 pixel arrays of YSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce and BGO (1mm × 1mm × 20 mm pixels) made by Proteus, Inc. with similar 10×10 arrays of LSO:Ce and BGO (1mm × 1mm × 15mm pixels) loaned to us by Saint-Gobain. The imaging and spectroscopic behaviors of these scintillator arrays are strongly affected by the choice of a reflector used as an inter-pixel spacer (3M ESR in the case of the Proteus arrays and white, diffuse-reflector for the Saint-Gobain arrays). We have constructed a 3700-pixel LYSO:Ce Prototype NIF Gamma-Ray Imager for use in diagnosing target compression in inertial confinement fusion. This system was tested at the OMEGA Laser and exhibited significant optical, inter-pixel cross-talk that was traced to the use of a single-layer of ESR film as an inter-pixel spacer. We show how the optical cross-talk can be mapped, and discuss correction procedures. We demonstrate a 10×10 YSO:Ce array as part of an iQID (formerly BazookaSPECT) imager and discuss issues related to the internal activity of (176)Lu in LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce detectors.

  19. Pixelated gamma detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dolinsky, Sergei Ivanovich; Yanoff, Brian David; Guida, Renato; Ivan, Adrian

    2016-12-27

    A pixelated gamma detector includes a scintillator column assembly having scintillator crystals and optical transparent elements alternating along a longitudinal axis, a collimator assembly having longitudinal walls separated by collimator septum, the collimator septum spaced apart to form collimator channels, the scintillator column assembly positioned adjacent to the collimator assembly so that the respective ones of the scintillator crystal are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator channels, the respective ones of the optical transparent element are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator septum, and a first photosensor and a second photosensor, the first and the second photosensor each connected to an opposing end of the scintillator column assembly. A system and a method for inspecting and/or detecting defects in an interior of an object are also disclosed.

  20. Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, and Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09' for a 0.14' FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to 0.16' if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape

  1. Selective expression and induction of cytochrome P450PB and P450MC during the development of hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma of LEC rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Suzuki, K; Ookawara, T; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, N

    1989-11-01

    The Long-Evans rat with a cinnamon-like coat color (LEC rat) is a mutant strain displaying hereditary hepatitis with severe jaundice. The age related difference in microsomal dealkylation of pentoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin was examined. The enzyme activity levels of pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase in LEC rats were decreased to 25% of the levels in control [Long-Evans rats with an agouti coat color (LEA rats)]. In contrast, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase exhibited a much less marked difference between the strains. In parallel with these strain differences in enzyme activities, a decrease in phenobarbital (PB) inducible P450 isozymes, mainly P450b and P450e, was observed by Western blot analysis. The level of P450PB in LEC rats was more markedly depressed than in the LEA strain. On the other hand, microsomes from uninduced LEC rat liver had more 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) inducible P450MC, mainly P450c and P450d, than microsomes from LEA rat liver and these isozymes in the LEC were markedly induced by 3-methylcholanthrene treatment. The great difference in cytochrome P450PB content of the liver microsomes between LEC and LEA rats and the maintained constitutive levels of hepatic cytochrome P450MC in the LEC rats suggest a possible role of these cytochrome isozymes in the onset of spontaneous hepatitis and hepatoma.

  2. THE KEPLER PIXEL RESPONSE FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Klaus, Todd; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2010-04-20

    Kepler seeks to detect sequences of transits of Earth-size exoplanets orbiting solar-like stars. Such transit signals are on the order of 100 ppm. The high photometric precision demanded by Kepler requires detailed knowledge of how the Kepler pixels respond to starlight during a nominal observation. This information is provided by the Kepler pixel response function (PRF), defined as the composite of Kepler's optical point-spread function, integrated spacecraft pointing jitter during a nominal cadence and other systematic effects. To provide sub-pixel resolution, the PRF is represented as a piecewise-continuous polynomial on a sub-pixel mesh. This continuous representation allows the prediction of a star's flux value on any pixel given the star's pixel position. The advantages and difficulties of this polynomial representation are discussed, including characterization of spatial variation in the PRF and the smoothing of discontinuities between sub-pixel polynomial patches. On-orbit super-resolution measurements of the PRF across the Kepler field of view are described. Two uses of the PRF are presented: the selection of pixels for each star that maximizes the photometric signal-to-noise ratio for that star, and PRF-fitted centroids which provide robust and accurate stellar positions on the CCD, primarily used for attitude and plate scale tracking. Good knowledge of the PRF has been a critical component for the successful collection of high-precision photometry by Kepler.

  3. Small pixel infrared sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon

    2017-02-01

    We report on product maturation of small pixel high definition high charge capacity 2.4 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Arrays. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which enables near Nyquist limited sampling with by the optical system of many IR lenses. These smaller sub diffraction pitch pixels enable improved sensitivity and resolution resulting in clear, crisp high contrast imaging with excellent IFOVs even with small focal length lenses. The small pixel IR sensor allows the designer to trade off field of view, MTF, optics F/# to obtain a more compact and high performance IR sensor. This enables lower size, power and weight reductions of the entire IR Sensor System. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  4. Induction of aldose reductase gene expression in LEC rats during the development of the hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Hoshi, A; Fujii, J; Miyoshi, E; Kasahara, T; Suzuki, K; Aozasa, K; Taniguchi, N

    1996-04-01

    We examined age-related changes in the protein and the mRNA expression of aldose reductase in livers of Long-Evans with a cinnamon-like color (LEC) rats, which develop hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma with aging, using Long-Evans with an agouti color rats as controls. The levels of the protein and mRNA of aldose reductase increased after 20 weeks, at the stage of acute hepatitis, and were maintained at 60 weeks of age, while those of aldehyde reductase seemed to be constant at all ages. The expression of aldose reductase was marked in cancerous lesions in hepatoma-bearing LEC rat liver compared to uninvolved surrounding tissues. These results indicated that elevation of aldose reductase accompanied hepatocarcinogenesis and may be related to the acquisition of immortality of the cancer cells through detoxifying cytotoxic aldehyde compounds.

  5. From Pixels to Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Quantitative analysis of the effects of vertical magnetic fields on microsegregation in Te-doped LEC GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, D. J.; Witt, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    Using near-IR transmission microscopy with computational absorption analysis, the effects of axial magnetic fields on micro- and macrosegregation during LP-LEC growth of GaAs were quantitatively investigated with a spatial resolution approaching 2 microns. Segregation inhomogeneities exceeding one order of magnitude are found to be related to fluid dynamics of the melt. The applicability of the BPS theory as well as the nonapplicability of the Cochran analysis are established.

  7. Pilot-scale Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1, Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Appell, K.W.; McKenna, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. A total of over 90 experimental trials have been performed using the pilot-scale moving-bed LEC dry scrubber as a part of this research project with run times ranging up to a high of 125 hours. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies as high as 99.9% were achievable for all experimental conditions studied during which sufficient humidification was added to the LEC bed. The LEC process and conventional limestone scrubbing have been compared on an equatable basis using flue gas conditions that would be expected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a 500 MW coal-fired power plant. The LEC was found to have a definite economic advantage in both direct capital costs and operating costs. Based on the success and findings of the present project, the next step in LEC process development will be a full-scale commercial demonstration unit.

  8. Metal-induced hydroxyl radical generation by Cu(+)-metallothioneins from LEC rat liver.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Nakayama, K; Shishido, N; Yumino, K; Ohyama, T

    1997-02-24

    Reactions of LEC (Long-Evans rats with a cinnamonlike coat color) rat liver Cu(I)-metallothioneins (MTs) with HgCl2 or K3Fe(CN)6 were investigated by ESR spectroscopy and generation of hydroxyl radicals was demonstrated using the ESR spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). When Cu(I)-MTs were incubated with more than one equivalent mole HgCl2 or K3Fe(CN)6 to Cu+ bound to MTs, strong signals due to Cu2+ appeared. ESR spectra, which were a combination of the DMPO-OH adduct signal and a six-line signal, were observed in the reaction of Cu(I)-MTs with HgCl2, whereas no oxygen radical signal was seen with K3Fe(CN)6. The DMPO-OH signal intensity was greater in the presence of SOD while the signal disappeared in the presence of catalase. The results suggest that addition of HgCl2 causes the liberation of cuprous ions from MTs followed by a reaction with oxygen, leading to hydroxyl radical formation through a Fenton-type Haber-Weiss reaction.

  9. Cinnamide Derivatives of d‐Mannose as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Virulence Factor LecB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa †

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Roman; Hauck, Dirk; Varrot, Annabelle; Wagner, Stefanie; Audfray, Aymeric; Prestel, Andreas; Möller, Heiko M.; Imberty, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram‐negative pathogen with high antibiotic resistance. Its lectin LecB was identified as a virulence factor and is relevant in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Inhibition of LecB with carbohydrate‐based ligands results in a decrease in toxicity and biofilm formation. We recently discovered two classes of potent drug‐like glycomimetic inhibitors, that is, sulfonamides and cinnamides of d‐mannose. Here, we describe the chemical synthesis and biochemical evaluation of more than 20 derivatives with increased potency compared to the unsubstituted cinnamide. The structure–activity relationship (SAR) obtained and the extended biophysical characterization allowed the experimental determination of the binding mode of these cinnamides with LecB. The established surface binding mode now allows future rational structure‐based drug design. Importantly, all glycomimetics tested showed extended receptor residence times with half‐lives in the 5–20 min range, a prerequisite for therapeutic application. Thus, the glycomimetics described here provide an excellent basis for future development of anti‐infectives against this multidrug‐resistant pathogen. PMID:27308201

  10. Effects of soy protein isolate on LEC rats, a model of Wilson disease: mechanisms underlying enhancement of liver cell damage.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Kayo; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Tajima, Rie; Ushigome, Mitsunori; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Yoshikawa, Kunie; Nagao, Minako

    2003-03-07

    Soy-protein isolate (SPI) enhances liver cell damage in Long-Evans rats with a cinnamon-like coat color (LEC rats), which have a defect in Atp7b, the Wilson disease gene. Animals administered an SPI-diet from an age of six weeks died significantly earlier than those administered a control-diet, AIN-93G, from severe liver cell damage associated with jaundice. Since the liver copper level was higher with the SPI-diet than the control-diet, one of the reasons for SPI-toxicity to LEC rats might be due to the higher uptake of copper into liver cells. In the present study, liver levels of glutathione, and liver and intestinal mRNA and protein levels were determined for metallothionein, MT-1 and MT-2. Furthermore, liver and intestinal mRNA expression for the high affinity copper transporter, Ctr1, was determined. None of the parameters showed any significant differences between the SPI-diet and control-diet groups, except for Ctr1 mRNA levels in the liver. It is thus suggested that SPI enhances liver cell copper uptake through induction of Ctr1 expression and this might be the mechanism underlying increased liver damage in LEC rats.

  11. Comparative study on residual strain profiles in GaAs substrates grown by LEC and VB techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, T.; Tatsumi, M.; Fukuzawa, M.; Yamada, M.

    2004-07-01

    Residual strain profiles have been experimentally and theoretically compared between the two different growth techniques preparing GaAs substrates. One is the vertical boat (VB) technique and the other is the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski technique. It is found from the experimental observations that the residual strain profile of VB substrate is simple bowl-shaped, in which the residual strain value is high near the peripheral region, while the residual strain profile of LEC substrate is more complex and fourfold-symmetrical, in which the residual strain value is high in the inner regions as well as near the peripheral regions. In order to explain this experimental observation, we have estimated the thermal stress caused during the crystal growth by computer analysis. Thermal stress during VB growth is dominantly caused near the solid-liquid interface. On the other hand, strong thermal stress is caused during LEC growth both near the surface of boric oxide encapsulant and near the solid-liquid interface. It is therefore concluded that the observed difference of residual strain profiles may be coming mainly from the temperature profile difference between VB and LEC techniques.

  12. Expression of ZmLEC1 and ZmWRI1 increases seed oil production in maize.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bo; Allen, William B; Zheng, Peizhong; Li, Changjiang; Glassman, Kimberly; Ranch, Jerry; Nubel, Douglas; Tarczynski, Mitchell C

    2010-07-01

    Increasing seed oil production is a major goal for global agriculture to meet the strong demand for oil consumption by humans and for biodiesel production. Previous studies to increase oil synthesis in plants have focused mainly on manipulation of oil pathway genes. As an alternative to single-enzyme approaches, transcription factors provide an attractive solution for altering complex traits, with the caveat that transcription factors may face the challenge of undesirable pleiotropic effects. Here, we report that overexpression of maize (Zea mays) LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (ZmLEC1) increases seed oil by as much as 48% but reduces seed germination and leaf growth in maize. To uncouple oil increase from the undesirable agronomic traits, we identified a LEC1 downstream transcription factor, maize WRINKLED1 (ZmWRI1). Overexpression of ZmWRI1 results in an oil increase similar to overexpression of ZmLEC1 without affecting germination, seedling growth, or grain yield. These results emphasize the importance of field testing for developing a commercial high-oil product and highlight ZmWRI1 as a promising target for increasing oil production in crops.

  13. Silicon-Gas Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashindzhagyan, G.; Korotkova, N.; Romaniouk, A.; Sinev, N.; Tikhomirov, V.

    2017-01-01

    The proposed Silicon-Gas Pixel Detector (SGPD) combines the advantages of Silicon and Gas-pixel detectors (GPD). 7 micron space resolution and down to 0.2 degree both angles measurements are inside 10 mm thick and very low material detector. Silicon pixels implemented directly into electronic chip structure allow to know exact time when particle crossed the detector and to use SGPD as a completely self-triggered device. Binary readout, advanced data collection and analysis on hardware level allow to obtain all the information in less than 1 microsecond and to use SGPD for the fast trigger generation.

  14. Cucumis sativus L-type lectin receptor kinase (CsLecRK) gene family response to Phytophthora melonis, Phytophthora capsici and water immersion in disease resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingquan; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaomei; He, Xiaoming; Sun, Baojuan; Zhong, Yujuan; Liang, Zhaojuan; Luo, Shaobo; Lin, Yu'e

    2014-10-10

    L-type lectin receptor kinase (LecRK) proteins are an important family involved in diverse biological processes such as pollen development, senescence, wounding, salinity and especially in innate immunity in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco. Till date, LecRK proteins or genes of cucumber have not been reported. In this study, a total of 25 LecRK genes were identified in the cucumber genome, unequally distributed across its seven chromosomes. According to similarity comparison of their encoded proteins, the Cucumis sativus LecRK (CsLecRK) genes were classified into six major clades (from Clade I to CladeVI). Expression of CsLecRK genes were tested using QRT-PCR method and the results showed that 25 CsLecRK genes exhibited different responses to abiotic (water immersion) and biotic (Phytophthora melonis and Phytophthora capsici inoculation) stresses, as well as that between disease resistant cultivar (JSH) and disease susceptible cultivar (B80). Among the 25 CsLecRK genes, we found CsLecRK6.1 was especially induced by P. melonis and P. capsici in JSH plants. All these results suggested that CsLecRK genes may play important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses.

  15. Local Pixel Bundles: Bringing the Pixels to the People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay

    2014-12-01

    The automated galaxy-based alignment software package developed for the Frontier Fields program (hst2galign, see Anderson & Ogaz 2014 and http://www.stsci.edu/hst/campaigns/frontier-fields/) produces a direct mapping from the pixels of the flt frame of each science exposure into a common master frame. We can use these mappings to extract the flt-pixels in the vicinity of a source of interest and package them into a convenient "bundle". In addition to the pixels, this data bundle can also contain "meta" information that will allow users to transform positions from the flt pixels to the reference frame and vice-versa. Since the un-resampled pixels in the flt frames are the only true constraints we have on the astronomical scene, the ability to inter-relate these pixels will enable many high-precision studies, such as: point-source-fitting and deconvolution with accurate PSFs, easy exploration of different image-combining algorithms, and accurate faint-source finding and photometry. The data products introduced in this ISR are a very early attempt to provide the flt-level pixel constraints in a package that is accessible to more than the handful of experts in HST astrometry. The hope is that users in the community might begin using them and will provide feedback as to what information they might want to see in the bundles and what general analysis packages they might find useful. For that reason, this document is somewhat informally written, since I know that it will be modified and updated as the products and tools are optimized.

  16. OsLEC1/OsHAP3E participates in the determination of meristem identity in both vegetative and reproductive developments of rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2013-03-01

    In the vegetative phase of plant development, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) produces leaf primordia in regular phyllotaxy, and transforms to the inflorescence meristem when the plant enters reproductive growth, which will undergo a series of identity differentiations and will finally form a complete and fertile panicle. Our previous studies indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern of the OsLEC1 (leafy cotyledon) gene, which is homologous to the Arabidopsis AtLEC1 gene and belongs to the CCAAT-binding protein HAP3 subfamily, during embryo development. Expression of additional OsLEC1 genomic sequences resulted in abnormalities in the development of leaves, panicles and spikelets. The spikelets in particular presented abnormities, including panicle and spikelet-like structures that occurred reiteratively inside prior spikelets, and the occasional spikelet structures that completely transformed into plantlets (a reproductive habit alteration from sexual to asexual called "pseudovivipary"). Analysis showed that OsLEC1 interacts with several SEPALLATA-like MADS transcription factors, suggesting that increased levels of the OsLEC1 protein might interfere with the normal interaction network of these MADS proteins and lead to defective spikelet development. The expression of OsMADS1 was dramatically reduced, and the DNA methylation level of cytosine in certain regions of the OsMADS1 promoter was increased under OsLEC1 overexpression. These results indicate that OsLEC1 affects the development of leaves, panicles and spikelets, and is a key regulator of meristem identity determination in both rice (Oryza sativa) vegetative and reproductive development. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. The Arabidopsis thaliana lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is required for full resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and affects jasmonate signalling.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Claudine; Gouget, Anne; Bouchez, Olivier; Souriac, Camille; Haget, Nathalie; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Govers, Francine; Roby, Dominique; Canut, Hervé

    2016-07-11

    On microbial attack, plants can detect invaders and activate plant innate immunity. For the detection of pathogen molecules or cell wall damage, plants employ receptors that trigger the activation of defence responses. Cell surface proteins that belong to large families of lectin receptor kinases are candidates to function as immune receptors. Here, the function of LecRK-I.9 (At5g60300), a legume-type lectin receptor kinase involved in cell wall-plasma membrane contacts and in extracellular ATP (eATP) perception, was studied through biochemical, gene expression and reverse genetics approaches. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LecRK-I.9 expression is rapidly, highly and locally induced on inoculation with avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Two allelic lecrk-I.9 knock-out mutants showed decreased resistance to Pst. Conversely, over-expression of LecRK-I.9 led to increased resistance to Pst. The analysis of defence gene expression suggests an alteration of both the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways. In particular, LecRK-I.9 expression during plant-pathogen interaction was dependent on COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1) and JAR1 (JASMONATE RESISTANT 1) components, and JA-responsive transcription factors (TFs) showed altered levels of expression in plants over-expressing LecRK-I.9. A similar misregulation of these TFs was obtained by JA treatment. This study identified LecRK-I.9 as necessary for full resistance to Pst and demonstrated its involvement in the control of defence against pathogens through a regulation of JA signalling components. The role of LecRK-I.9 is discussed with regard to the potential molecular mechanisms linking JA signalling to cell wall damage and/or eATP perception.

  18. cDNA and Gene Structure of MytiLec-1, A Bacteriostatic R-Type Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Gerdol, Marco; Fujii, Yuki; Rajia, Sultana; Koide, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Daiki; Kawsar, Sarkar M. A.; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    MytiLec is an α-d-galactose-binding lectin with a unique primary structure isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The lectin adopts a β-trefoil fold that is also found in the B-sub-unit of ricin and other ricin-type (R-type) lectins. We are introducing MytiLec(-1) and its two variants (MytiLec-2 and -3), which both possess an additional pore-forming aerolysin-like domain, as members of a novel multi-genic “mytilectin family” in bivalve mollusks. Based on the full length mRNA sequence (911 bps), it was possible to elucidate the coding sequence of MytiLec-1, which displays an extended open reading frame (ORF) at the 5′ end of the sequence, confirmed both at the mRNA and at the genomic DNA sequence level. While this extension could potentially produce a polypeptide significantly longer than previously reported, this has not been confirmed yet at the protein level. MytiLec-1 was revealed to be encoded by a gene consisting of two exons and a single intron. The first exon comprised the 5′UTR and the initial ATG codon and it was possible to detect a putative promoter region immediately ahead of the transcription start site in the MytiLec-1 genomic locus. The remaining part of the MytiLec-1 coding sequence (including the three sub-domains, the 3′UTR and the poly-A signal) was included in the second exon. The bacteriostatic activity of MytiLec-1 was determined by the agglutination of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was reversed by the co-presence of α-galactoside. Altogether, these data support the classification of MytiLec-1 as a member of the novel mytilectin family and suggest that this lectin may play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of mussels. PMID:27187419

  19. Sink Pixels in ACS/WFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryon, J. E.; Grogin, N.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the properties of sink pixels in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) detector. These pixels likely contain extra charge traps and therefore appear anomalously low in images with relatively high backgrounds. We identify sink pixels in the average short (0.5-second) dark image from each monthly anneal cycle, which, since January 2015, have been post-flashed to a background of about 60 e-. Sink pixels can affect the pixels immediately above and below them in the same column, resulting in high downstream pixels and low trails of upstream pixels. We determine typical trail lengths for sink pixels of different depths at various background levels. We create a reference image, one for each anneal cycle since January 2015, that will be used to flag sink pixels and the adjacent affected pixels in science images.

  20. CH-π "T-shape" interaction with histidine explains binding of aromatic galactosides to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin LecA.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Rameshwar U; Garg, Divita; Schwartz, Julian; Visini, Ricardo; Sattler, Michael; Stocker, Achim; Darbre, Tamis; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-20

    The galactose specific lectin LecA mediates biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa . The interaction between LecA and aromatic β-galactoside biofilm inhibitors involves an intermolecular CH-π T-shape interaction between C(ε1)-H of residue His50 in LecA and the aromatic ring of the galactoside aglycone. The generality of this interaction was tested in a diverse family of β-galactosides. LecA binding to aromatic β-galactosides (KD ∼ 8 μM) was consistently stronger than to aliphatic β-galactosides (KD ∼ 36 μM). The CH-π interaction was observed in the X-ray crystal structures of six different LecA complexes, with shorter than the van der Waals distances indicating productive binding. Related XH/cation/π-π interactions involving other residues were identified in complexes of aromatic glycosides with a variety of carbohydrate binding proteins such as concanavalin A. Exploiting such interactions might be generally useful in drug design against these targets.

  1. Passive Collision Avoidance System for UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    85 Figure 77: Schematic of a GMR membrane (purple) above a pixel (light blue). ........................85 Figure 78: SEM of a wire grid...be for the alpha-silicon and the vanadium oxide detectors. 1/f noise may be the limiting noise source for both detectors, especially at the higher...alpha-silicon. We have not seen any data on vanadium oxide at lower temperatures for comparison. 22 SNR vs. range case #1 320x240-28um, FOV40

  2. WFC3 Pixel Area Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalirai, J. S.; Cox, C.; Dressel, L.; Fruchter, A.; Hack, W.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Mack, J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the pixel area maps (PAMs) for the WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR detectors, and discuss the normalization of these images. HST processed flt images suffer from geometric distortion and therefore have pixel areas that vary on the sky. The counts (electrons) measured for a source on these images depends on the position of the source on the detector, an effect that is implicitly corrected when these images are multidrizzled into drz files. The flt images can be multiplied by the PAMs to yield correct and uniform counts for a given source irrespective of its location on the image. To ensure consistency between the count rate measured for sources in drz images and near the center of flt images, we set the normalization of the PAMs to unity at a reference pixel near the center of the UVIS mosaic and IR detector, and set the SCALE in the IDCTAB equal to the square root of the area of this reference pixel. The implications of this choice for photometric measurements are discussed.

  3. Duplication and functional diversification of HAP3 genes leading to the origin of the seed-developmental regulatory gene, LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), in nonseed plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zengyan; Li, Xia; Glover, Beverley J; Bai, Shunong; Rao, Guang-Yuan; Luo, Jingchu; Yang, Ji

    2008-08-01

    The HAP3 gene encodes a subunit of the CCAAT-box-binding factor (CBF), a highly conserved trimeric activator that recognizes and binds the ubiquitous CCAAT promoter element with high affinity. Two types of HAP3 gene have been identified in plant genomes. The LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1)-type HAP3 genes encode a functionally specialized subunit of CBF, which is expressed specifically in developing seeds. In contrast, most non-LEC1-type HAP3 genes are expressed in various tissues. It has been proposed that the LEC1-type HAP3 genes originated from the duplication and functional divergence of non-LEC1-type HAP3 genes. However, it is not yet known when this duplication event took place or whether the LEC1-type HAP3 genes appeared at the same time as the origin of seed plants. Here we describe a comprehensive comparison of the duplication patterns of HAP3 genes in different plant genomes. We recognize a major expansion of the HAP3 gene family accompanying the origin and early diversification of land plants and postulate that retrotransposition and other mechanisms of gene duplication have been involved in the expansion of the plant HAP3 gene family. We provide evidence that the LEC1-type HAP3 genes originated in nonseed vascular plant genomes and demonstrate that they are inductively expressed under drought stress in nonseed plants. These genes, however, were recruited to a novel regulatory network in the early stages of seed plant evolution and steadily expressed during seed development and maturation.

  4. Recognition memory: Cellular evidence of a massive contribution of the LEC to familiarity and a lack of involvement of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3.

    PubMed

    Atucha, Erika; Karew, Artem; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2017-10-01

    A highly debated issue in memory research is whether familiarity is supported by the parahippocampal region, especially the lateral (LEC) and the perirhinal (PER) cortices, or whether it is supported by the same brain structure as recollection: the hippocampus. One reason for this is that conflicting results have emerged regarding the contribution of the hippocampus to familiarity. This might stem from the lack of dissociation between hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 as these areas are involved to a different extent in processes which are pertinent to familiarity. Another reason is that empirical evidence for a contribution of the LEC is still missing. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the superficial and the deep layers of the LEC would equally contribute to this process as these layers are differentially recruited during memory retrieval which partly relies on familiarity. To identify the specific contribution of the LEC, CA1, and CA3, we imaged with cellular resolution activity in the brain of rats performing a version of a standard human memory task adapted to rats that yields judgments based on familiarity. Using this translational approach, we report that in striking contrast to CA1 and CA3, the LEC is recruited for familiarity-judgments and that its contribution is comparable to that of the PER. These results show for the first time that the LEC, specifically its deep layers, contributes to familiarity and constitute the first cellular evidence that the hippocampus does not, thus establishing that familiarity does not share the same neural substrate as recollection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of Pixel's Spatial Characteristics on Recognition of Isolated Pixelized Chinese Character.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yaowei

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pixel's spatial characteristics on recognition of isolated Chinese character was investigated using simulated prosthestic vision. The accuracy of Chinese character recognition with 4 kinds of pixel number (6*6, 8*8, 10*10, and 12*12 pixel array) and 3 kinds of pixel shape (Square, Dot and Gaussian) and different pixel spacing were tested through head-mounted display (HMD). A captured image of Chinese characters in font style of Hei were pixelized with Square, Dot and Gaussian pixel. Results showed that pixel number was the most important factor which could affect the recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Chartars and the accuracy of recognition increased with the addition of pixel number. 10*10 pixel array could provide enough information for people to recognize an isolated Chinese character. At low resolution (6*6 and 8*8 pixel array), there were little difference of recognition accuracy between different pixel shape and different pixel spacing. While as for high resolution (10*10 and 12*12 pixel array), the fluctuation of pixel shape and pixel spacing could not affect the performance of recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Character.

  6. Single-pixel hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Jinli; Wang, Yuwang; Bian, Liheng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-10-01

    Conventional multispectral imaging methods detect photons of a 3D hyperspectral data cube separately either in the spatial or spectral dimension using array detectors, and are thus photon inefficient and spectrum range limited. Besides, they are usually bulky and highly expensive. To address these issues, this paper presents single-pixel multispectral imaging techniques, which are of high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost and light weight. Two mechanisms are proposed, and experimental validation are also reported.

  7. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  8. Advances in uncooled technology at BAE SYSTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, Brian S.; Kohin, Margaret; Leary, Arthur R.; Blackwell, Richard J.; Rumbaugh, Roy N.

    2003-09-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has made tremendous progress in uncooled technology and systems in the last year. In this paper we present performance results and imagery from our latest 640x480 and 320x240 small pixel focal plane arrays. Both were produced using submicron lithography and have achieved our lowest NETDs to date. Testing of the 320x240 devices has shown TNETDs of 30mK at F/1. Video imagery from our 640 x 480 uncooled camera installed in a POINTER Unattended Aerial Vehicle is also shown. In addition, we introduce our newest commercial imaging camera core, the SCC500 and show its vastly improved characteristics. Lastly, plans for future advancements are outlined.

  9. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  10. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  11. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  12. Sensitivity of landscape metrics to pixel size

    Treesearch

    J. D. Wickham; K. H. Riitters

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of diversity and evenness metrics using land cover data are becoming formalized in landscape ecology. Diversity and evenness metrics are dependent on the pixel size (scale) over which the data are collected. Aerial photography was interpreted for land cover and converted into four raster data sets with 4, 12, 28, and 80 m pixel sizes, representing pixel sizes...

  13. Developments in uncooled IR technology at BAE SYSTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnee, Mark N.; Kohin, Margaret; Blackwell, Richard J.; Butler, Neal R.; Whitwam, Jason T.; Backer, Brian S.; Leary, Arthur R.; Nielson, Thomas

    2001-10-01

    Uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensor technology has begun to successfully address military, government and commercial applications in the real world. BAE SYSTEMS, located in Lexington MA, has been involved in the design and development of uncooled IR technology since the early 1980s. Our current MicroIRTM products are based on vanadium oxide (VOx) microbolometers. Thousands of uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging sensors are now being produced and sold annually. A the same time, applied research and development on the technology continues to improve the basic products and make them suitable for new applications. In this paper we report on the status and improvements achieved in the MicroIRTM product line, based on 320 X 240 element and 160 X 120 element FPA's with 46 μm pixel pitch. Other near term MicroIRTM products include 320 X 240 and 640 X 480 FPA's with 28 micrometers pixel pitch and measured sensitivities below 50 mK. In the systems area we discuss development and testing of a Light Thermal Weapon Sight (LTWS) for the U.S. Army, being developed by BAE SYSTEMS in partnership with Thales, based upon our uncooled MicroIRTM focal plane arrays (FPA) and systems. The LTWS prototypes were based upon our Standard Imaging Module SIM200, which employs our LAM2C, 320 X 240 element, microbolometer FPA. Finally we discuss the 480 X 640 element FPA and its application to the Heavy Thermal Weapon Sight application.

  14. Accumulation of diacylglycerol in the liver membrane of the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat with hepatitis: FT-IR spectroscopic and HPLC detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    2000-04-03

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats develop severe hepatitis and subsequent hepatoma with excess accumulation of copper in the liver with increasing age. Lipids extracted from the LEC rat liver membrane were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy and an HPLC technique at the stages of pre-hepatitis and hepatitis, i.e. at 10 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. The 10-week-old rats exhibited an IR spectrum characteristic of a phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine mixture with a ratio of 2:1. The 16-week-old rats developed new absorption bands at 1161 and 1070 cm(-1), which were assigned to the spectra of triglyceride, neutral lipid, and diacylglycerol, an endogenous activator of protein kinase C, respectively. The diacylglycerol was estimated to amount to ca. 10% (w/w) of phospholipid extract by comparing the spectrum with those of model compounds. This was confirmed using an HPLC assay. Previously, we found that a serum response factor is activated by copper in the LEC rat liver, and suggested that it must mediate proto-oncogene c-fos induction. The results obtained here suggest that accumulation of diacylglycerol plays an important role in development of hepatoma in LEC rats by mediating proto-oncogene c-fos induction.

  15. A Galerkin least squares method for time harmonic Maxwell equations using Nédélec elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagalur-Mohan, J.; Feijóo, G.; Oberai, A.

    2013-02-01

    A Galerkin least squares finite element method for the solution of the time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations using Nédélec elements is proposed. This method appends a least-squares term, evaluated within element interiors, to the standard Galerkin method. For the case of lowest order hexahedral element, the numerical parameter multiplying this term is determined so as to optimize the dispersion properties of the resulting formulation. In particular, explicit expressions for this parameter are derived that lead to methods with no dispersion error for propagation along a specified direction and reduced dispersion error over all directions. It is noted that this method is easy to implement and does not add to the computational costs of the standard Galerkin method. The performance of this method is tested on problems of practical interest.

  16. Making a trillion pixels dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek; Hu, Bin; Toh, Kenny; Bollepalli, Srinivas; Wagner, Stephan; Borodovsky, Yan

    2008-03-01

    In June 2007, Intel announced a new pixelated mask technology. This technology was created to address the problem caused by the growing gap between the lithography wavelength and the feature sizes patterned with it. As this gap has increased, the quality of the image has deteriorated. About a decade ago, Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) was introduced to bridge this gap, but as this gap continued to increase, one could not rely on the same basic set of techniques to maintain image quality. The computational lithography group at Intel sought to alleviate this problem by experimenting with additional degrees of freedom within the mask. This paper describes the resulting pixelated mask technology, and some of the computational methods used to create it. The first key element of this technology is a thick mask model. We realized very early in the development that, unlike traditional OPC methods, the pixelated mask would require a very accurate thick mask model. Whereas in the traditional methods, one can use the relatively coarse approximations such as the boundary layer method, use of such techniques resulted not just in incorrect sizing of parts of the pattern, but in whole features missing. We built on top of previously published domain decomposition methods, and incorporated limitations of the mask manufacturing process, to create an accurate thick mask model. Several additional computational techniques were invoked to substantially increase the speed of this method to a point that it was feasible for full chip tapeout. A second key element of the computational scheme was the comprehension of mask manufacturability, including the vital issue of the number of colors in the mask. While it is obvious that use of three or more colors will give the best image, one has to be practical about projecting mask manufacturing capabilities for such a complex mask. To circumvent this serious issue, we eventually settled on a two color mask - comprising plain glass and etched

  17. A high expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the liver of LEC rats at the stage of hepatoma: the possible implication of induction in uninvolved tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, A; Hanayama, R; Nakamura, M; Suzuki, K; Fujii, J; Tatsumi, H; Taniguchi, N

    1998-04-01

    We have examined changes in the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible isoform and HO-2, a constitutive isoform, in the liver of Long-Evans with a Cinnamon-like color (LEC) rat, a mutant strain which spontaneously develops acute hepatitis and hepatoma. HO-1 expression was highly enhanced in the LEC rat livers with jaundice, and then decreased slightly, but overall remained at a higher level than in the Long-Evans with Agouti color (LEA) control rats, as judged by Northern blotting analysis of the whole liver extract. The high expression of HO-1 in the LEC rat liver was, however, not due to the actual cancer lesion but, rather, due to the surrounding uninvolved tissues including hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis also supported this conclusion. Among normal tissues, the expression of HO-1 but not HO-2 was high in only the spleen of both LEC and LEA rats. The high expression observed in the stage of acute hepatitis and hepatoma stages in the LEC rat is probably due to the oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of free copper and free iron levels which has been reported earlier by our group (Suzuki et al., Carcinogenesis, 1993, 14, 1881-1884 and Koizumi et al., Free Radical Research, in press) as well as by free heme levels. The inflammatory cytokines produced by the surrounding tissue at the hepatoma stage would also be expected to play a role in the induction mechanism. The physiological relevance of HO-1 induction might be an adaptive response to oxidative stress and vasodilatory effect of carbon monoxide on sinusoidal circulation.

  18. The antioxidant effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on copper-induced acute hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Watanabe, T; Mizuno, H; Endo, K; Fukushige, J; Hosokawa, T; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    2001-01-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, due to a genetic defect, accumulate excess copper (Cu) in the liver in a manner similar to patients with Wilson's disease and spontaneously develop acute hepatitis with severe jaundice. In this study we examined the protective effect of DL-alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) against acute hepatitis in LEC rats. LA was administered to LEC rats by gavage in doses of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg five times per week, starting at 8-weeks-old and continuing till 12-weeks-old. Although LA had little effect against the increases in serum transaminase activities, it suppressed the loss of body weight and prevented severe jaundice in a dose-dependent manner. Antioxidant system analyses in liver showed that LA treatment significantly suppressed the inactivations of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and the induction of heme oxygenase-1, an enzyme which is inducible under oxidative stress. Furthermore, LA showed dose-dependent suppressive effect against increase in nonheme iron contents of both cytosolic and crude mitochondrial fractions in a dose-dependent manner. Although at the highest dose, LA slightly suppressed the accumulation of Cu in crude mitochondrial fraction, it had no effect on the accumulation of Cu in cytosolic fraction. While LA completely suppressed the increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the microsomal fraction at the highest dose, the suppressive effect against LPO in crude mitochondrial fractions was slight. From these results, it is concluded that LA has antioxidant effects at the molecular level against the development of Cu-induced hepatitis in LEC rats. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative damage might be involved in the development of acute hepatitis in LEC rats.

  19. The lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is a novel Phytophthora resistance component and a potential host target for a RXLR effector.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Klaas; de Sain, Mara; Weide, Rob; Gouget, Anne; Klamer, Sofieke; Canut, Herve; Govers, Francine

    2011-03-01

    In plants, an active defense against biotrophic pathogens is dependent on a functional continuum between the cell wall (CW) and the plasma membrane (PM). It is thus anticipated that proteins maintaining this continuum also function in defense. The legume-like lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is a putative mediator of CW-PM adhesions in Arabidopsis and is known to bind in vitro to the Phytophthora infestans RXLR-dEER effector IPI-O via a RGD cell attachment motif present in IPI-O. Here we show that LecRK-I.9 is associated with the plasma membrane, and that two T-DNA insertions lines deficient in LecRK-I.9 (lecrk-I.9) have a 'gain-of-susceptibility' phenotype specifically towards the oomycete Phytophthora brassicae. Accordingly, overexpression of LecRK-I.9 leads to enhanced resistance to P. brassicae. A similar 'gain-of-susceptibility' phenotype was observed in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing ipiO (35S-ipiO1). This phenocopy behavior was also observed with respect to other defense-related functions; lecrk-I.9 and 35S-ipiO1 were both disturbed in pathogen- and MAMP-triggered callose deposition. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the RGD cell attachment motif in IPI-O is not only essential for disrupting the CW-PM adhesions, but also for disease suppression. These results suggest that destabilizing the CW-PM continuum is one of the tactics used by Phytophthora to promote infection. As countermeasure the host may want to strengthen CW-PM adhesions and the novel Phytophthora resistance component LecRK-I.9 seems to function in this process.

  20. The Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-I.9 Is a Novel Phytophthora Resistance Component and a Potential Host Target for a RXLR Effector

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Klaas; de Sain, Mara; Weide, Rob; Gouget, Anne; Klamer, Sofieke; Canut, Herve; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In plants, an active defense against biotrophic pathogens is dependent on a functional continuum between the cell wall (CW) and the plasma membrane (PM). It is thus anticipated that proteins maintaining this continuum also function in defense. The legume-like lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is a putative mediator of CW-PM adhesions in Arabidopsis and is known to bind in vitro to the Phytophthora infestans RXLR-dEER effector IPI-O via a RGD cell attachment motif present in IPI-O. Here we show that LecRK-I.9 is associated with the plasma membrane, and that two T-DNA insertions lines deficient in LecRK-I.9 (lecrk-I.9) have a ‘gain-of-susceptibility’ phenotype specifically towards the oomycete Phytophthora brassicae. Accordingly, overexpression of LecRK-I.9 leads to enhanced resistance to P. brassicae. A similar ‘gain-of-susceptibility’ phenotype was observed in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing ipiO (35S-ipiO1). This phenocopy behavior was also observed with respect to other defense-related functions; lecrk-I.9 and 35S-ipiO1 were both disturbed in pathogen- and MAMP-triggered callose deposition. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the RGD cell attachment motif in IPI-O is not only essential for disrupting the CW-PM adhesions, but also for disease suppression. These results suggest that destabilizing the CW-PM continuum is one of the tactics used by Phytophthora to promote infection. As countermeasure the host may want to strengthen CW-PM adhesions and the novel Phytophthora resistance component LecRK-I.9 seems to function in this process. PMID:21483488

  1. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  2. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  3. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  4. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  5. Serial Pixel Analog-to-Digital Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E D

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and “one-hot” counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  6. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  7. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  8. Infrared astronomy - Pixels to spare

    SciTech Connect

    Mccaughrean, M. )

    1991-07-01

    An infrared CCD camera containing an array with 311,040 pixels arranged in 486 rows of 640 each is tested. The array is a chip of platinum silicide (PtSi), sensitive to photons with wavelengths between 1 and 6 microns. Observations of the Hubble Space Telescope, Mars, Pluto and moon are reported. It is noted that the satellite's twin solar-cell arrays, at an apparent separation of about 1 1/4 arc second, are well resolved. Some two dozen video frames were stacked to make each presented image of Mars at 1.6 microns; at this wavelength Mars appears much as it does in visible light. A stack of 11 images at a wavelength of 1.6 microns is used for an image of Jupiter with its Great Red Spot and moons Io and Europa.

  9. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  10. Equivalence of a Bit Pixel Image to a Quantum Pixel Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Laurel Carlos; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new method to transform a pixel image to the corresponding quantum-pixel using a qubit per pixel to represent each pixels classical weight in a quantum image matrix weight. All qubits are linear superposition, changing the coefficients level by level to the entire longitude of the gray scale with respect to the base states of the qubit. Classically, these states are just bytes represented in a binary matrix, having code combinations of 1 or 0 at all pixel locations. This method introduces a qubit-pixel image representation of images captured by classical optoelectronic methods. Supported partially by the project 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico

  11. Method for fabricating pixelated silicon device cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nelson, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Benjamin John

    2015-08-18

    A method, apparatus and system for flexible, ultra-thin, and high efficiency pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array fabrication is disclosed. A structure and method of creation for a pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array with interconnects is described using a manufacturing method that is simplified compared to previous versions of pixelated silicon photovoltaic cells that require more microfabrication steps.

  12. [Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery.

  13. Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

    2008-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

  14. Implementation of TDI based digital pixel ROIC with 15μm pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Burak, A.; Caliskan, Can; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Yazici, Melik; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2016-05-01

    A 15um pixel pitch digital pixel for LWIR time delay integration (TDI) applications is implemented which occupies one fourth of pixel area compared to previous digital TDI implementation. TDI is implemented on 8 pixels with oversampling rate of 2. ROIC provides 16 bits output with 8 bits of MSB and 8 bits of LSB. Pixel can store 75 M electrons with a quantization noise of 500 electrons. Digital pixel TDI implementation is advantageous over analog counterparts considering power consumption, chip area and signal-to-noise ratio. Digital pixel TDI ROIC is fabricated with 0.18um CMOS process. In digital pixel TDI implementation photocurrent is integrated on a capacitor in pixel and converted to digital data in pixel. This digital data triggers the summation counters which implements TDI addition. After all pixels in a row contribute, the summed data is divided to the number of TDI pixels(N) to have the actual output which is square root of N improved version of a single pixel output in terms of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR).

  15. Pilot-scale limestone emission control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1: Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. The primary goal of the current study is the demonstration of the techno/economic capability of the LEC system as a post-combustion FGD process capable of use in both existing and future coal-fired boiler facilities burning high-sulfur coal. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. The pilot plant was normally operated on the slipstream of the Ohio Univ. boiler plant flue gas, but also had the capability of operating at higher inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations (typically equivalent to 3-1/2% sulfur coal) than those normally available from the flue gas slipstream. This was accomplished by injecting SO{sub 2} gas into the slipstream inlet. The pilot plant was instrumented to provide around-the-clock operation and was fully outfitted with temperature, SO{sub 2}, gas flow and pressure drop monitors.

  16. Development of Magnetic Field Assisted Melt Stabilization with Heat and Mass Transfer Control in Low Pressure LEC Growth of GaAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    of GaAs Crystals in LEC Growth Configuration: Optimum Thermal Characteristics of the Growth Environment", Ferrofluidics Corp., Nashua, NH, January...accomplish the task of controlling the temperature distribution in the melt. Thermocouples or single color pyrometers are generally used as sensors for this...D subsystem where a second LUT is used to false color the outgoing monochrome signal. The LUT is defined to map low intensities to blue and high

  17. Optimizing the Multivalent Binding of the Bacterial Lectin LecA by Glycopeptide Dendrimers for Therapeutic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Benjamin

    2016-06-27

    Bacterial lectins are nonenzymatic sugar-binding proteins involved in the formation of biofilms and the onset of virulence. The weakness of individual sugar-lectin interactions is compensated by the potentially large number of simultaneous copies of such contacts, resulting in high overall sugar-lectin affinities and marked specificities. Therapeutic compounds functionalized with sugar residues can compete with the host glycans for binding to lectins only if they are able to take advantage of this multivalent binding mechanism. Glycopeptide dendrimers, featuring treelike topologies with sugar moieties at their leaves, have already shown great promise in this regard. However, optimizing the dendrimers' amino acid sequence is necessary to match the dynamics of the lectin active sites with that of the multivalent ligands. This work combines long-time-scale coarse-grained simulations of dendrimers and lectins with a reasoned exploration of the dendrimer sequence space in an attempt to suggest sequences that could maximize multivalent binding to the galactose-specific bacterial lectin LecA. These candidates are validated by simulations of mixed dendrimer/lectin solutions, and the effects of the dendrimers on lectin dynamics are discussed. This approach is an attractive first step in the conception of therapeutic compounds based on the dendrimer scaffold and contributes to the understanding of the various classes of multivalency that underpin the ubiquitous "sugar code".

  18. Expression of ZmLEC1 and ZmWRI1 Increases Seed Oil Production in Maize1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bo; Allen, William B.; Zheng, Peizhong; Li, Changjiang; Glassman, Kimberly; Ranch, Jerry; Nubel, Douglas; Tarczynski, Mitchell C.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing seed oil production is a major goal for global agriculture to meet the strong demand for oil consumption by humans and for biodiesel production. Previous studies to increase oil synthesis in plants have focused mainly on manipulation of oil pathway genes. As an alternative to single-enzyme approaches, transcription factors provide an attractive solution for altering complex traits, with the caveat that transcription factors may face the challenge of undesirable pleiotropic effects. Here, we report that overexpression of maize (Zea mays) LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (ZmLEC1) increases seed oil by as much as 48% but reduces seed germination and leaf growth in maize. To uncouple oil increase from the undesirable agronomic traits, we identified a LEC1 downstream transcription factor, maize WRINKLED1 (ZmWRI1). Overexpression of ZmWRI1 results in an oil increase similar to overexpression of ZmLEC1 without affecting germination, seedling growth, or grain yield. These results emphasize the importance of field testing for developing a commercial high-oil product and highlight ZmWRI1 as a promising target for increasing oil production in crops. PMID:20488892

  19. High stroke pixel for a deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.

    2005-09-20

    A mirror pixel that can be fabricated using standard MEMS methods for a deformable mirror. The pixel is electrostatically actuated and is capable of the high deflections needed for spaced-based mirror applications. In one embodiment, the mirror comprises three layers, a top or mirror layer, a middle layer which consists of flexures, and a comb drive layer, with the flexures of the middle layer attached to the mirror layer and to the comb drive layer. The comb drives are attached to a frame via spring flexures. A number of these mirror pixels can be used to construct a large mirror assembly. The actuator for the mirror pixel may be configured as a crenellated beam with one end fixedly secured, or configured as a scissor jack. The mirror pixels may be used in various applications requiring high stroke adaptive optics.

  20. Sub-pixel mapping of water boundaries using pixel swapping algorithm (case study: Tagliamento River, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, Milad; Vitti, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Taking the advantages of remotely sensed data for mapping and monitoring of water boundaries is of particular importance in many different management and conservation activities. Imagery data are classified using automatic techniques to produce maps entering the water bodies' analysis chain in several and different points. Very commonly, medium or coarse spatial resolution imagery is used in studies of large water bodies. Data of this kind is affected by the presence of mixed pixels leading to very outstanding problems, in particular when dealing with boundary pixels. A considerable amount of uncertainty inescapably occurs when conventional hard classifiers (e.g., maximum likelihood) are applied on mixed pixels. In this study, Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) is used to estimate the proportion of water in boundary pixels. Firstly by applying an unsupervised clustering, the water body is identified approximately and a buffer area considered ensuring the selection of entire boundary pixels. Then LSMM is applied on this buffer region to estimate the fractional maps. However, resultant output of LSMM does not provide a sub-pixel map corresponding to water abundances. To tackle with this problem, Pixel Swapping (PS) algorithm is used to allocate sub-pixels within mixed pixels in such a way to maximize the spatial proximity of sub-pixels and pixels in the neighborhood. The water area of two segments of Tagliamento River (Italy) are mapped in sub-pixel resolution (10m) using a 30m Landsat image. To evaluate the proficiency of the proposed approach for sub-pixel boundary mapping, the image is also classified using a conventional hard classifier. A high resolution image of the same area is also classified and used as a reference for accuracy assessment. According to the results, sub-pixel map shows in average about 8 percent higher overall accuracy than hard classification and fits very well in the boundaries with the reference map.

  1. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  2. Micro-Pixel Image Position Sensing Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemati, Bijan; Shao, Michael; Zhai, Chengxing; Erlig, Hernan; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    The search for Earth-mass planets in the habitable zones of nearby Sun-like stars is an important goal of astrophysics. This search is not feasible with the current slate of astronomical instruments. We propose a new concept for microarcsecond astrometry which uses a simplified instrument and hence promises to be low cost. The concept employs a telescope with only a primary, laser metrology applied to the focal plane array, and new algorithms for measuring image position and displacement on the focal plane. The required level of accuracy in both the metrology and image position sensing is at a few micro-pixels. We have begun a detailed investigation of the feasibility of our approach using simulations and a micro-pixel image position sensing testbed called MCT. So far we have been able to demonstrate that the pixel-to-pixel distances in a focal plane can be measured with a precision of 20 micro-pixels and image-to-image distances with a precision of 30 micro-pixels. We have also shown using simulations that our image position algorithm can achieve accuracy of 4 micro-pixels in the presence of lambda/20 wavefront errors.

  3. High spatial resolution performance of pixelated scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeta, Kazuki; Fujioka, Nobuyasu; Murai, Takahiro; Hikita, Izumi; Morinaga, Tomohiro; Tanino, Takahiro; Kodama, Haruhito; Okamura, Masaki

    2017-03-01

    In indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) for digital X-ray imaging, scintillating materials such as Terbiumdoped Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gadox) convert X-ray into visible light, and an amorphous silicon (a-Si) photodiode array converts the light into electrons. It is, however, desired that the detector spatial resolution is improved because the light spreading inside scintillator causes crosstalk to next a-Si photodiode pixels and the resolution is degraded compared with direct conversion FPDs which directly convert X-ray into electrons by scintillating material such as amorphous selenium. In this study, the scintillator was pixelated with same pixel pitch as a-Si photodiode array by barrier rib structure to limit the light spreading, and the detector spatial resolution was improved. The FPD with pixelated scintillator was manufactured as follows. The barrier rib structure with 127μm pitch was fabricated on a substrate by a photosensitive organic-inorganic paste method, and a reflective layer was coated on the surface of the barrier rib, then the structure was filled up with Gadox particles. The pixelated scintillator was aligned with 127μm pixel pitch of a-Si photodiode array and set as a FPD. The FPD with pixelated scintillator showed high modulation transfer function (MTF) and 0.94 at 1cycle/mm and 0.88 at 2cycles/mm were achieved. The MTF values were almost equal to the maximum value that can be theoretically achieved in the FPD with 127μm pixel pitch of a-Si photodiode array. Thus the FPD with pixelated scintillators has great potential to apply for high spatial resolution applications such as mammography and nondestructive testing.

  4. LISe pixel detector for neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Wiggins, Brenden; Milburn, Rob; Burger, Arnold; Bilheux, Hassina; Santodonato, Louis; Chvala, Ondrej; Stowe, Ashley; Lukosi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Semiconducting lithium indium diselenide, 6LiInSe2 or LISe, has promising characteristics for neutron detection applications. The 95% isotopic enrichment of 6Li results in a highly efficient thermal neutron-sensitive material. In this study, we report on a proof-of-principle investigation of a semiconducting LISe pixel detector to demonstrate its potential as an efficient neutron imager. The LISe pixel detector had a 4×4 of pixels with a 550 μm pitch on a 5×5×0.56 mm3 LISe substrate. An experimentally verified spatial resolution of 300 μm was observed utilizing a super-sampling technique.

  5. Per-Pixel Lighting Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Inanici, Mehlika

    2005-08-01

    This report presents a framework for per-pixel analysis of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of luminous environments. Recognizing the need for better lighting analysis capabilities and appreciating the new measurement abilities developed within the LBNL Lighting Measurement and Simulation Toolbox, ''Per-pixel Lighting Data Analysis'' project demonstrates several techniques for analyzing luminance distribution patterns, luminance ratios, adaptation luminance and glare assessment. The techniques are the syntheses of the current practices in lighting design and the unique practices that can be done with per-pixel data availability. Demonstrated analysis techniques are applicable to both computer-generated and digitally captured images (physically-based renderings and High Dynamic Range photographs).

  6. Anode readout for pixellated CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, Jaesub; Niestemski, Francis C.

    2004-02-01

    Determination of the photon interaction depth offers numerous advantages for an astronomical hard X-ray telescope. The interaction depth is typically derived from two signals: anode and cathode, or collecting and non-collecting electrodes. We present some preliminary results from our depth sensing detectors using only the anode pixel signals. By examining several anode pixel signals simultaneously, we find that we can estimate the interaction depth, and get sub-pixel 2-D position resolution. We discuss our findings and the requirements for future ASIC development.

  7. Color constancy at a pixel.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, G D; Hordley, S D

    2001-02-01

    In computational terms we can solve the color constancy problem if device red, green, and blue sensor responses, or RGB's, for surfaces seen under an unknown illuminant can be mapped to corresponding RGB's under a known reference light. In recent years almost all authors have argued that this three-dimensional problem is too hard. It is argued that because a bright light striking a dark surface results in the same physical spectra as those of a dim light incident on a light surface, the magnitude of RGB's cannot be recovered. Consequently, modern color constancy algorithms attempt only to recover image chromaticities under the reference light: They solve a two-dimensional problem. While significant progress has been made toward achieving chromaticity constancy, recent work has shown that the most advanced algorithms are unable to render chromaticity stable enough so that it can be used as a cue for object recognition [B. V. Funt, K. Bernard, and L. Martin, in Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Computer Vision (European Vision Society, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998), Vol. II, p. 445.] We take this reductionist approach a little further and look at the one-dimensional color constancy problem. We ask, Is there a single color coordinate, a function of image chromaticities, for which the color constancy problem can be solved? Our answer is an emphatic yes. We show that there exists a single invariant color coordinate, a function of R, G, and B, that depends only on surface reflectance. Two corollaries follow. First, given an RGB image of a scene viewed under any illuminant, we can trivially synthesize the same gray-scale image (we simply code the invariant coordinate as a gray scale). Second, this result implies that we can solve the one-dimensional color constancy problem at a pixel (in scenes with no color diversity whatsoever). We present experiments that show that invariant gray-scale histograms are a stable feature for object recognition. Indexing on

  8. Pixels, Imagers and Related Fabrication Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Pixels, imagers and related fabrication methods are described. The described methods result in cross-talk reduction in imagers and related devices by generating depletion regions. The devices can also be used with electronic circuits for imaging applications.

  9. Pixels, Imagers and Related Fabrication Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Pixels, imagers and related fabrication methods are described. The described methods result in cross-talk reduction in imagers and related devices by generating depletion regions. The devices can also be used with electronic circuits for imaging applications.

  10. Readout and DAQ for Pixel Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platkevic, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Data readout and acquisition control of pixel detectors demand the transfer of significantly a large amounts of bits between the detector and the computer. For this purpose dedicated interfaces are used which are designed with focus on features like speed, small dimensions or flexibility of use such as digital signal processors, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and USB communication ports. This work summarizes the readout and DAQ system built for state-of-the-art pixel detectors of the Medipix family.

  11. Design of the small pixel pitch ROIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qinghua; Jiang, Dazhao; Chen, Honglei; Zhai, Yongcheng; Gao, Lei; Ding, Ruijun

    2014-11-01

    Since the technology trend of the third generation IRFPA towards resolution enhancing has steadily progressed,the pixel pitch of IRFPA has been greatly reduced.A 640×512 readout integrated circuit(ROIC) of IRFPA with 15μm pixel pitch is presented in this paper.The 15μm pixel pitch ROIC design will face many challenges.As we all known,the integrating capacitor is a key performance parameter when considering pixel area,charge capacity and dynamic range,so we adopt the effective method of 2 by 2 pixels sharing an integrating capacitor to solve this problem.The input unit cell architecture will contain two paralleled sample and hold parts,which not only allow the FPA to be operated in full frame snapshot mode but also save relatively unit circuit area.Different applications need more matching input unit circuits. Because the dimension of 2×2 pixels is 30μm×30μm, an input stage based on direct injection (DI) which has medium injection ratio and small layout area is proved to be suitable for middle wave (MW) while BDI with three-transistor cascode amplifier for long wave(LW). By adopting the 0.35μm 2P4M mixed signal process, the circuit architecture can make the effective charge capacity of 7.8Me- per pixel with 2.2V output range for MW and 7.3 Me- per pixel with 2.6V output range for LW. According to the simulation results, this circuit works well under 5V power supply and achieves less than 0.1% nonlinearity.

  12. Toward Multispectral Imaging with Colloidal Metasurface Pixels.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jon W; Akselrod, Gleb M; Smith, David R; Mikkelsen, Maiken H

    2017-02-01

    Multispectral colloidal metasurfaces are fabricated that exhibit greater than 85% absorption and ≈100 nm linewidths by patterning film-coupled nanocubes in pixels using a fusion of bottom-up and top-down fabrication techniques over wafer-scale areas. With this technique, the authors realize a multispectral pixel array consisting of six resonances between 580 and 1125 nm and reconstruct an RGB image with 9261 color combinations.

  13. Holographic imaging with single pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leportier, Thibault; Lee, Young Tack; Hwang, Do Kyung; Park, Min-Chul

    2016-09-01

    Imaging techniques based on CCD sensors presenting very high number of pixels enable to record images with high resolution. However, the huge storage load and high bandwidth required to store and transmit digital holographic information are technical bottlenecks that should be overcome for the future of holographic display. Techniques to capture images with single pixel sensors have been greatly improved recently with the development of compressive sensing algorithm (CS). Since interference patterns may be considered sparse, the number of measurements required to recover the information with CS is lower than the number of pixels of the reconstructed image. In addition, this method does not need any scanning system. One other advantage of single pixel imaging is that the cost of recording system can be dramatically reduced since high-resolution cameras are expensive while compressive sensing exploits only one pixel. In this paper, we present an imaging system based on phase-shifting holography. First, simulations were performed to confirm that hologram could be reconstructed by compressive sensing even if the number of measurements was smaller than the number of pixels. Then, experimental set-up was realized. Several holograms with different phase shifts introduced by quarter and half wave plates in the reference beam were acquired. We demonstrated that our system enables the reconstruction of the object.

  14. Steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, Alan Anwar; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition. A number of existing schemes such as binary, Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, Lucas, and Catalan-Fibonacci (CF) are evaluated in terms of payload capacity and stego quality. A new technique based on a specific representation is proposed to decompose pixel intensity values into 16 (virtual) bit-planes suitable for embedding purposes. The proposed decomposition has a desirable property whereby the sum of all bit-planes does not exceed the maximum pixel intensity value, i.e. 255. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers an effective compromise between payload capacity and stego quality of existing embedding techniques based on pixel intensity value decomposition. Its capacity is equal to that of binary and Lucas, while it offers a higher capacity than Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, and CF when the secret bits are embedded in 1st Least Significant Bit (LSB). When the secret bits are embedded in higher bit-planes, i.e., 2nd LSB to 8th Most Significant Bit (MSB), the proposed scheme has more capacity than Natural numbers based embedding. However, from the 6th bit-plane onwards, the proposed scheme offers better stego quality. In general, the proposed decomposition scheme has less effect in terms of quality on pixel value when compared to most existing pixel intensity value decomposition techniques when embedding messages in higher bit-planes.

  15. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  16. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  17. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  18. Sensitivity improvements in uncooled microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, William A.; Murphy, Daniel F.; Finch, James A.; Hay, Kathy; Kennedy, Adam; Ray, Michael; Sayed, Aladin A.; Wyles, Jessica; Wyles, Richard; Varesi, John B.; Moody, Edgar A.; Cheung, F.

    1999-07-01

    Raytheon IRCOE has developed a family of uncooled, microbolometer FPAs. These FPAs have been designed to address commercial and high-performance military applications. The SB-151 is a high-sensitivity 320 X 240 FPA with 50 micrometers pixels. The SB-151 FPA has been fabricated with several microbolometer pixel designs that allow optimization of either sensitivity or response time. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) values as low as 8.6 mK have been measured for the SB-151 FPAs with f/1 optics. NETD values less than 25 mK have been measured for FPAs with thermal time constants of approximately 18 msec.

  19. Visualization of high speed phenomena using high-speed infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaoita, T.; Marcotte, F.

    2017-02-01

    The standard infrared camera has taken certain integration time with the photography per once, it was unsuitable for high-speed photography. By the infrared camera which can buffer photography data efficiently continually, high-speed photography of 2,000fps is enabled in 320X240 pixels and 11,000fps in128X100 pixels by windowing mode. The heat generation of specimen phenomenon is used for the monitoring of the start point of the destruction and the thermometry of combustion gases.

  20. Spatial clustering of pixels of a multispectral image

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-08-19

    A method and system for clustering the pixels of a multispectral image is provided. A clustering system computes a maximum spectral similarity score for each pixel that indicates the similarity between that pixel and the most similar neighboring. To determine the maximum similarity score for a pixel, the clustering system generates a similarity score between that pixel and each of its neighboring pixels and then selects the similarity score that represents the highest similarity as the maximum similarity score. The clustering system may apply a filtering criterion based on the maximum similarity score so that pixels with similarity scores below a minimum threshold are not clustered. The clustering system changes the current pixel values of the pixels in a cluster based on an averaging of the original pixel values of the pixels in the cluster.

  1. Control of carbohydrate processing: increased beta-1,6 branching in N-linked carbohydrates of Lec9 CHO mutants appears to arise from a defect in oligosaccharide-dolichol biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, A G; Stanley, P; Krag, S S

    1989-01-01

    A correlation between increased beta-1,6 branching of N-linked carbohydrates and the ability of a cell to metastasize or to form a tumor has been observed in several experimental models. Lec9 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants exhibit a drastic reduction in tumorigenicity in nude mice, and this phenotype directly correlates with their ability to attach an increased proportion of beta-1,6-branched carbohydrates to the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (J. Ripka, S. Shin, and P. Stanley, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:1268-1275, 1986). In this paper we provide evidence that cellular carbohydrates from Lec9 cells also contain an increased proportion of beta-1,6-branched carbohydrates, although they do not possess significantly increased activity of the beta-1,6 branching enzyme (GlcNAc-transferase V). Biosynthetic labeling experiments show that a substantial degree of underglycosylation occurs in Lec9 cells and that this affects several classes of glycoproteins. Lec9 cells synthesize ca. 40-fold less Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-lipid and ca. 2-fold less Man5GlcNAc2-P-P-lipid than parental cells do. In addition, Lec9 cells possess ca. fivefold less protein-bound oligosaccharide intermediates, and one major species is resistant to release by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (endo H). Membranes of Lec9 cells exhibit normal mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase, glucosylphosphoryldolichol synthase, and N-acetylglucosaminylphosphate transferase activities in the presence of exogenous dolichyl phosphate. However, in the absence of exogenous dolichyl phosphate, mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase and glucosylphosphoryldolichol synthase activities are reduced in membranes of Lec9 cells, indicating that membranes of Lec9 cells are deficient in lipid phosphate. This was confirmed by analysis of lipids labeled by [3H]mevalonate, which showed that Lec9 cells have less lipid phosphate than parental CHO cells. Mechanisms by which a defect in the synthesis of dolichol

  2. Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, POR, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2013-12-01

    According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (POR) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the POR. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, POR, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Performances of THz cameras with enhanced sensitivity in sub-terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Ishi, Tsutomu; Kurashina, Seiji; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Isoyama, Goro; Kato, Ryukou; Irizawa, Akinori; Kawase, Keigo

    2015-05-01

    Uncooled microbolometer-type 640x480 and 320x240 Terahertz (THz) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with enhanced sensitivity in sub-THz region are developed, and incorporated into 640x480 and 320x240 cameras, respectively. The pixel in the THz-FPA has such a structure that an area sensitive to electromagnetic wave is suspended above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). A thin metallic layer is formed on the top of the sensitive area, while a thick metallic layer is formed on the surface of ROIC. The structure composed of the thin metallic layer and the thick metallic layer behaves as an optical cavity. The THz-FPAs reported in this paper have a modified pixel structure which has several times longer optical-cavity length than NEC's previous pixel does, by forming a thick SiN layer on the ROIC. The extended optical-cavity structure is favorable for detecting electromagnetic wave with lower frequency. Consequently, the Minimum Detectable Power per pixel (MDP) is improved ten times in sub-THz region, especially 0.5-0.6 THz. This paper presents spectral frequency dependences of MDP values for THz-FPA with the modified pixel structure and THz-FPA with the previous pixel structure, using THz free electron laser (FEL) developed by Osaka University. The modification of pixel structure extends high sensitivity region to lower frequency region, such as sub-THz region, and the wider spectral coverage of THz camera surely expands its applicability

  4. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, S.; Cole, D. M.; Hancock, B. R.; Smith, R. M.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic coupling effects such as Inter-Pixel Capacitance (IPC) affect the quantitative interpretation of image data from CMOS, hybrid visible and infrared imagers alike. Existing methods of characterizing IPC do not provide a map of the spatial variation of IPC over all pixels. We demonstrate a deterministic method that provides a direct quantitative map of the crosstalk across an imager. The approach requires only the ability to reset single pixels to an arbitrary voltage, different from the rest of the imager. No illumination source is required. Mapping IPC independently for each pixel is also made practical by the greater S/N ratio achievable for an electrical stimulus than for an optical stimulus, which is subject to both Poisson statistics and diffusion effects of photo-generated charge. The data we present illustrates a more complex picture of IPC in Teledyne HgCdTe and HyViSi focal plane arrays than is presently understood, including the presence of a newly discovered, long range IPC in the HyViSi FPA that extends tens of pixels in distance, likely stemming from extended field effects in the fully depleted substrate. The sensitivity of the measurement approach has been shown to be good enough to distinguish spatial structure in IPC of the order of 0.1%.

  5. Photothermal Multi-Pixel Imaging Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Chinn, D J; Huber, R D; Weinzapfel, C L; Wu, Z

    2003-12-01

    Photothermal microscopy is a useful nondestructive tool for the identification of fluence-limiting defects in optical coatings. Traditional photothermal microscopes are single-pixel detection devices. Samples are scanned under the microscope to generate a defect map. For high-resolution images, scan times can be quite long (1 mm{sup 2} per hour). Single-pixel detection has been used traditionally because of the ease in separating the laser-induced topographical change due to defect absorption from the defect surface topography. This is accomplished by using standard chopper and lock-in amplifier techniques to remove the DC signal. Multi-pixel photothermal microscopy is now possible by utilizing an optical lock-in technique. This eliminates the lock-in amplifier and enables the use of a CCD camera with an optical lock in for each pixel. With this technique, the data acquisition speed can be increased by orders of magnitude depending on laser power, beam size, and pixel density.

  6. An estimation error bound for pixelated sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreucher, Chris; Bell, Kristine

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the ubiquitous problem of estimating the state (e.g., position) of an object based on a series of noisy measurements. The standard approach is to formulate this problem as one of measuring the state (or a function of the state) corrupted by additive Gaussian noise. This model assumes both (i) the sensor provides a measurement of the true target (or, alternatively, a separate signal processing step has eliminated false alarms), and (ii) The error source in the measurement is accurately described by a Gaussian model. In reality, however, sensor measurement are often formed on a grid of pixels - e.g., Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) measurements are formed for a discrete set of (angle, range, velocity) voxels, and EO imagery is made on (x, y) grids. When a target is present in a pixel, therefore, uncertainty is not Gaussian (instead it is a boxcar function) and unbiased estimation is not generally possible as the location of the target within the pixel defines the bias of the estimator. It turns out that this small modification to the measurement model makes traditional bounding approaches not applicable. This paper discusses pixelated sensing in more detail and derives the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) bound for estimation in the pixelated scenario. We then use this error calculation to investigate the utility of using non-thresholded measurements.

  7. Pixels, Blocks of Pixels, and Polygons: Choosing a Spatial Unit for Thematic Accuracy Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pixels, polygons, and blocks of pixels are all potentially viable spatial assessment units for conducting an accuracy assessment. We develop a statistical population-based framework to examine how the spatial unit chosen affects the outcome of an accuracy assessment. The populati...

  8. Radiation tolerance of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors with self-biased pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveaux, M.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Besson, A.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, M.; Dritsa, C.; Dulinski, W.; Fröhlich, I.; Goffe, M.; Grandjean, D.; Heini, S.; Himmi, A.; Hu, C.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Müntz, C.; Shabetai, A.; Stroth, J.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.

    2010-12-01

    CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) are proposed as a technology for various vertex detectors in nuclear and particle physics. We discuss the mechanisms of ionizing radiation damage on MAPS hosting the dead time free, so-called self bias pixel. Moreover, we introduce radiation hardened sensor designs which allow operating detectors after exposing them to irradiation doses above 1 Mrad.

  9. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  10. Illuminant spectrum estimation at a pixel.

    PubMed

    Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to estimate the spectral power distribution of a light source at a pixel. The first step of the algorithm is forming a two-dimensional illuminant invariant chromaticity space. In estimating the illuminant spectrum, generalized inverse estimation and Wiener estimation methods were applied. The chromaticity space was divided into small grids and a weight matrix was used to estimate the illuminant spectrum illuminating the pixels that fall within a grid. The algorithm was tested using a different number of sensor responses to determine the optimum number of sensors for accurate colorimetric and spectral reproduction. To investigate the performance of the algorithm realistically, the responses were multiplied with Gaussian noise and then quantized to 10 bits. The algorithm was tested with standard and measured data. Based on the results presented, the algorithm can be used with six sensors to obtain a colorimetrically good estimate of the illuminant spectrum at a pixel.

  11. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  12. Vivid, full-color aluminum plasmonic pixels

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Jana; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Liu, Lifei; Chang, Wei-Shun; Foerster, Benjamin; King, Nicholas S.; Knight, Mark W.; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.; Link, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum is abundant, low in cost, compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor manufacturing methods, and capable of supporting tunable plasmon resonance structures that span the entire visible spectrum. However, the use of Al for color displays has been limited by its intrinsically broad spectral features. Here we show that vivid, highly polarized, and broadly tunable color pixels can be produced from periodic patterns of oriented Al nanorods. Whereas the nanorod longitudinal plasmon resonance is largely responsible for pixel color, far-field diffractive coupling is used to narrow the plasmon linewidth, enabling monochromatic coloration and significantly enhancing the far-field scattering intensity of the individual nanorod elements. The bright coloration can be observed with p-polarized white light excitation, consistent with the use of this approach in display devices. The resulting color pixels are constructed with a simple design, are compatible with scalable fabrication methods, and provide contrast ratios exceeding 100:1. PMID:25225385

  13. Towards spark-proof gaseous pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridas, S.; Beuzekom, M. v.; Chan, H. W.; Graaf, H. v. d.; Hartjes, F.; Heijhoff, K.; Hessey, N. P.; Prodanovic, V.

    2016-11-01

    The micro-pattern gaseous pixel detector, is a promising technology for imaging and particle tracking applications. It is a combination of a gas layer acting as detection medium and a CMOS pixelated readout-chip. As a prevention against discharges we deposit a protection layer on the chip and then integrate on top a micromegas-like amplification structure. With this technology we are able to reconstruct 3D track segments of particles passing through the gas thanks to the functionality of the chip. We have turned a Timepix3 chip into a gaseous pixel detector and tested it at the SPS at Cern. The preliminary results are promising and within the expectations. However, the spark protection layer needs further improvement to make reliable detectors. For this reason, we have created a setup for spark-testing. We present the first results obtained from the lab-measurements along with preliminary results from the testbeam.

  14. Pixel lensing observations towards globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, V. F.; Cantiello, M.

    2003-07-01

    It has been suggested that a monitoring program employing the pixel lensing method to search for microlensing events towards galactic globular clusters may increase the statistics and discriminate among different halo models. Stimulated by this proposal, we evaluate an upper limit to the pixel lensing event rate for such a survey. Four different dark halo models have been considered changing both the flattening and the slope of the mass density profile. The lens mass function has been modelled as a homogenous power - law for mu in (mul, muu) and both the mass limits and the slope of the mass function have been varied to investigate their effect on the rate. The target globular clusters have been selected in order to minimize the disk contribution to the event rate. We find that a pixel lensing survey towards globular clusters is unable to discriminate among different halo models since the number of detectable events is too small to allow any reliable statistical analysis.

  15. SVGA AMOLED with world's highest pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2006-05-01

    We present the design and early evaluation results of the world's highest pixel pitch full-color 800x3x600- pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) color microdisplay for consumer and environmentally demanding applications. The design premises were aimed at improving small area uniformity as well as reducing the pixel size while expanding the functionality found in existing eMagin Corporations' microdisplay products without incurring any power consumption degradation when compared to existing OLED microdisplays produced by eMagin. The initial results of the first silicon prototype presented here demonstrate compliance with all major objectives as well as the validation of a new adaptive gamma correction technique that can operate automatically over temperature.

  16. Modulation transfer function of a trapezoidal pixel array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Guo, Rongli; Ni, Jinping; Dong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is the tool most commonly used for quantifying the performance of an electro-optical imaging system. Recently, trapezoid-shaped pixels were designed and used in a retina-like sensor in place of rectangular-shaped pixels. The MTF of a detector with a trapezoidal pixel array is determined according to its definition. Additionally, the MTFs of detectors with differently shaped pixels, but the same pixel areas, are compared. The results show that the MTF values of the trapezoidal pixel array detector are obviously larger than those of rectangular and triangular pixel array detectors at the same frequencies.

  17. K2flix: Kepler pixel data visualizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentsen, Geert

    2015-03-01

    K2flix makes it easy to inspect the CCD pixel data obtained by NASA's Kepler space telescope. The two-wheeled extended Kepler mission, K2, is affected by new sources of systematics, including pointing jitter and foreground asteroids, that are easier to spot by eye than by algorithm. The code takes Kepler's Target Pixel Files (TPF) as input and turns them into contrast-stretched animated gifs or MPEG-4 movies. K2flix can be used both as a command-line tool or using its Python API.

  18. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  19. Physics performance of the ATLAS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, S.

    2017-01-01

    In preparation for LHC Run-2 the ATLAS detector introduced a new pixel detector, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). This detector is located between the beampipe and what was the innermost pixel layer. The tracking and vertex reconstruction are significantly improved and good performance is expected in high level objects such a b-quark jet tagging. This in turn, leads to better physics results. This note summarizes the impact of the IBL detector on physics results, especially focusing on the analyses using b-quark jets throughout 2016 summer physics program.

  20. A Combination of Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses Reveals Bx-LEC-1 as an Antigenic Target for the Monoclonal Antibody 3-2A7-2H5-D9-F10 Specific to the Pine Wood Nematode*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Seo, Jong Bok; Nam, Myung Hee; Kang, Jae Soon; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, A-Young; Kim, Won Tae; Choi, Jin Kyu; Um, Yurry; Lee, Yi; Moon, Il-Sung; Han, Hye Rim; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Je, Yeon Ho; Lim, Kook Jin; Lee, Si Hyeock; Koh, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is one of the most devastating forest diseases in Asia and Europe. The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been identified as the pathogen underlying PWD, although the pathology is not completely understood. At present, diagnosis and confirmation of PWD are time consuming tasks that require nematode extraction and microscopic examination. To develop a more efficient detection method for B. xylophilus, we first generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to B. xylophilus. Among 2304 hybridoma fusions screened, a hybridoma clone named 3-2A7-2H5 recognized a single protein from B. xylophilus specifically, but not those from other closely related nematodes. We finally selected the MAb clone 3-2A7-2H5-D9-F10 (D9-F10) for further studies. To identify the antigenic target of MAb-D9-F10, we analyzed proteins in spots, fractions, or bands isolated from SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis, anion exchange chromatography, and immunoprecipitation via nano liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-Q-IT-MS). Peptides of galactose-binding lectin-1 of B. xylophilus (Bx-LEC-1) were commonly detected in several proteomic analyses, demonstrating that this LEC-1 is the antigenic target of MAb-D9-F10. The localization of MAb-D9-F10 immunoreactivities at the area of the median bulb and esophageal glands suggested that the Bx-LEC-1 may be involved in food perception and digestion. The Bx-LEC-1 has two nonidentical galactose-binding lectin domains important for carbohydrate binding. The affinity of the Bx-LEC-1 to d-(+)-raffinose and N-acetyllactosamine were much higher than that to l-(+)-rhamnose. Based on this combination of evidences, MAb-D9-F10 is the first identified molecular biomarker specific to the Bx-LEC-1. PMID:20410377

  1. X-Ray induced cataract is preceded by LEC loss, and coincident with accumulation of cortical DNA, and ROS; similarities with age-related cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Zitnik, Galynn; Tsai, Ryan; Wolf, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare age-related cataractous (ARC) changes in unirradiated mice lenses to those induced by head-only X-irradiation of 3 month-old mice. Methods lens epithelial cells (LECs) as well as partially degraded cortical DNA were visualized in fixed sections using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and in fresh lenses using the vital stain Hoechst 33342. reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity was also visualized directly in fresh lenses using the vital dye Dihydrorhodamine (DHR). In fixed lenses an antibody specific for 8-OH Guanosine (8-OH-G) lesions was used to visualize DNA oxidative adducts from ROS damage. Alpha smooth muscle actin was visualized using specific antibodies to determine if myofibroblasts were present. Fluorescence was quantified using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM). The degree of lens opacity and cataract formation was determined by slit lamp, or from digitalized images of light reflections taken with a low magnification light microscope. Results Using DNA- and ROS-specific vital fluorescent dyes, and laser scanning confocal microscopy we have previously described 4 changes in the aging rodent lenses: 1) a significantly decreased density of surface LECs in lenses from old compared to younger mice and rats; 2) a very large increase in retained cortical nuclei and DNA fragments in the secondary lens fibers of old rodent lenses; 3) increased cortical ROS in old rodent lenses; 4) increased cataract concomitantly with the cortical DNA and ROS increases. In the current study we report that these same 4 changes also occur in an accelerated fashion in mice given head-only X-irradiation at 3 months of age. In addition to vital staining of fresh lenses, we also examined sections from fixed eyes stained with DAPI or hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and found the same loss of surface LECs and accumulation of undigested nuclei and debris in secondary lens fibers occur with age or following X-irradiation. In addition sections from fixed

  2. From hybrid to CMOS pixels ... a possibility for LHC's pixel future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wermes, N.

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors have been invented for the LHC to make tracking and vertexing possible at all in LHC's radiation intense environment. The LHC pixel detectors have meanwhile very successfully fulfilled their promises and R&D for the planned HL-LHC upgrade is in full swing, targeting even higher ionising doses and non-ionising fluences. In terms of rate and radiation tolerance hybrid pixels are unrivaled. But they have disadvantages as well, most notably material thickness, production complexity, and cost. Meanwhile also active pixel sensors (DEPFET, MAPS) have become real pixel detectors but they would by far not stand the rates and radiation faced from HL-LHC. New MAPS developments, so-called DMAPS (depleted MAPS) which are full CMOS-pixel structures with charge collection in a depleted region have come in the R&D focus for pixels at high rate/radiation levels. This goal can perhaps be realised exploiting HV technologies, high ohmic substrates and/or SOI based technologies. The paper covers the main ideas and some encouraging results from prototyping R&D, not hiding the difficulties.

  3. Dynamic holography using pixelated light modulators.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Susanne; Haist, Tobias; Warber, Michael; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    Dynamic holography using spatial light modulators is a very flexible technique that offers various new applications compared to static holography. We give an overview on the technical background of dynamic holography focusing on pixelated spatial light modulators and their technical restrictions, and we present a selection of the numerous applications of dynamic holography.

  4. Spatially Locating FIA Plots from Pixel Values

    Treesearch

    Greg C. Liknes; Geoffrey R. Holden; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald E. McRoberts

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is required to ensure the confidentiality of the geographic locations of plots. To accommodate user requests for data without releasing actual plot coordinates, FIA creates overlays of plot locations on various geospatial data, including satellite imagery. Methods for reporting pixel values associated...

  5. JPL CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present the JPL-developed complementary metal- oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology. The CMOS APS has achieved performance comparable to charge coupled devices, yet features ultra low power operation, random access readout, on-chip timing and control, and on-chip analog to digital conversion. Previously published open literature will be reviewed.

  6. Pixel telescope test in STAR at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiangming; Szelezniak, Michal; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Vu, Chinh; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Wieman, Howard

    2007-10-01

    The STAR experiment at RHIC is designing a new inner vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT). The HFT's innermost two layers is called the PIXEL detector which uses Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor technology (MAPS). To test the MAPS technology, we just constructed and tested a telescope. The telescope uses a stack of three MIMOSTAR2 chips, Each MIMOSTAR2 sensor, which was designed by IPHC, is an array of 132x128 pixels with a square pixel size of 30 μ. The readout of the telescope makes use of the ALICE DDL/SIU cards, which is compatible with the future STAR data acquisition system called DAQ1000. The telescope was first studied in a 1.2 GeV/c electron beam at LBNL's Advanced Light Source. Afterwards, the telescope was outside the STAR magnet, and then later inside it, 145 cm away from STAR's center. We will describe this first test of MAPS technology in a collider environment, and report on the occupancy, particle flux, and performance of the telescope.

  7. Uncooled infrared detectors toward smaller pixel pitch with newly proposed pixel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Endoh, Tsutomu; Sano, Masahiko; Kato, Koji; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Imai, Tadashi

    2013-12-01

    An uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with 23.5 μm pixel pitch has been successfully demonstrated and has found wide commercial applications in the areas of thermography, security cameras, and other applications. One of the key issues for uncooled IRFPA technology is to shrink the pixel pitch because the size of the pixel pitch determines the overall size of the FPA, which, in turn, determines the cost of the IR camera products. This paper proposes an innovative pixel structure with a diaphragm and beams placed in different levels to realize an uncooled IRFPA with smaller pixel pitch (≦17 μm). The upper level consists of a diaphragm with VOx bolometer and IR absorber layers, while the lower level consists of the two beams, which are designed to be placed on the adjacent pixels. The test devices of this pixel design with 12, 15, and 17 μm pitch have been fabricated on the Si read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) of quarter video graphics array (QVGA) (320×240) with 23.5 μm pitch. Their performances are nearly equal to those of the IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch. For example, a noise equivalent temperature difference of 12 μm pixel is 63.1 mK for F/1 optics with the thermal time constant of 14.5 ms. Then, the proposed structure is shown to be effective for the existing IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch because of the improvements in IR sensitivity. Furthermore, the advanced pixel structure that has the beams composed of two levels are demonstrated to be realizable.

  8. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Via, C.; Bates, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Campbell, M.; Chesi, E.; Conti, M.; D'Auria, S.; DelPapa, C.; Fantacci, M. E.; Grossi, G.; Heijne, E.; Mancini, E.; Middelkamp, P.; Raine, C.; Russo, P.; O'Shea, V.; Scharfetter, L.; Smith, K.; Snoeys, W.; Stefanini, A.

    1997-08-01

    Gallium arsenide pixel detectors processed on a 200 μm Semi-Insulating (SI) Hitachi substrate were bump-bonded to the Omega3 electronics developed at CERN for high energy physics [1]. The pixel dimensions are 50 μm × 500 μm for a total of 2048 cells and an active area of ˜0.5 cm 2. Our aim is to use this system for medical imaging. We report the results obtained after irradiation of the detector with different X-ray sources on phantoms with different contrasts. The system showed good sensitivity to X-rays from 241Am (60 keV) and 109Cd (22.1 keV). It is also sensitive to β- particles from 90Sr as well as from 32P which is used as a tracer for autoradiography applications. The inherent high absorption efficiency of GaAs associated with the self-triggering capabilities of the pixel readout system reduced considerably the acquisition time compared with traditional systems based on silicon or emulsions. The present configuration is not optimised for X-ray imaging. The reduction of the pixel dimensions to 200 μm × 200 μm together with the integration of a counter in the pixel electronics would make the detector competitive for applications like mammography or dental radiology. For certain applications in biochemistry, such as DNA sequencing, where good spatial resolution is required only in one direction, the present setup should allow the best spatial resolution available up to now with respect to other digital autoradiographic systems. DNA sequencing tests are now under way.

  9. Adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm for IRFPA based on PCNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Hanbing; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yi, Bo; Yan, Aqi; Zhang, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Bad pixels and response non-uniformity are the primary obstacles when IRFPA is used in different thermal imaging systems. The bad pixels of IRFPA include fixed bad pixels and random bad pixels. The former is caused by material or manufacture defect and their positions are always fixed, the latter is caused by temperature drift and their positions are always changing. Traditional radiometric calibration-based bad pixel detection and compensation algorithm is only valid to the fixed bad pixels. Scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is the effective way to eliminate these two kinds of bad pixels. Currently, the most used scene-based bad pixel correction algorithm is based on adaptive median filter (AMF). In this algorithm, bad pixels are regarded as image noise and then be replaced by filtered value. However, missed correction and false correction often happens when AMF is used to handle complex infrared scenes. To solve this problem, a new adaptive bad pixel correction algorithm based on pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is proposed. Potential bad pixels are detected by PCNN in the first step, then image sequences are used periodically to confirm the real bad pixels and exclude the false one, finally bad pixels are replaced by the filtered result. With the real infrared images obtained from a camera, the experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, Farah

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  11. WFC3/IR Cycle 19 Bad Pixel Table Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, B.

    2012-06-01

    Using data from Cycles 17, 18, and 19, we have updated the IR channel bad pixel table for WFC3. The bad pixel table contains flags that mark the position of pixels that are dead, unstable, have a bad zeroth read value, or are affected by "blobs". In all, 28,500 of the science pixels (2.77%) are flagged as bad. Observers are encouraged to dither their observations as a means of lessening the effects of these bad pixels. The new bad pixel table is in the calibration database system (CDBS) as w681807ii_bpx.fits.

  12. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  13. Pixel-by-pixel absolute phase retrieval using three phase-shifted fringe patterns without markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chufan; Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a method that can recover absolute phase pixel by pixel without embedding markers on three phase-shifted fringe patterns, acquiring additional images, or introducing additional hardware component(s). The proposed three-dimensional (3D) absolute shape measurement technique includes the following major steps: (1) segment the measured object into different regions using rough priori knowledge of surface geometry; (2) artificially create phase maps at different z planes using geometric constraints of structured light system; (3) unwrap the phase pixel by pixel for each region by properly referring to the artificially created phase map; and (4) merge unwrapped phases from all regions into a complete absolute phase map for 3D reconstruction. We demonstrate that conventional three-step phase-shifted fringe patterns can be used to create absolute phase map pixel by pixel even for large depth range objects. We have successfully implemented our proposed computational framework to achieve absolute 3D shape measurement at 40 Hz.

  14. ACS/WFC Pixel Stability - Bringing the Pixels Back to the Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borncamp, David; Grogin, Norman A.; Bourque, Matthew; Ogaz, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Electrical current that has been trapped within the lattice structure of a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) can be present through multiple exposures, which will have an adverse effect on its science performance. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take an image with the camera shutter closed periodically throughout the lifetime of the instrument. These images, generally referred to as dark images, allow for the characterization of the extra charge that is trapped within the CCD at the time of observation. This extra current can then be subtracted out of science images to correct for the extra charge that was there at this time. Pixels that have a charge above a certain threshold of current are marked as “hot” and flagged in the data quality array. However, these pixels may not be "bad" in the traditional sense that they cannot be reliably dark-subtracted. If these pixels are shown to be stable over an anneal period, the charge can be properly subtracted and the extra noise from this dark current can be taken into account. We present the results of a pixel history study that analyzes every pixel of ACS/WFC individually and allows pixels that were marked as bad to be brought back into the science image.

  15. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio (Q/C). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q/C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining sufficient Q/C, collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  16. On the accuracy of pixel relaxation labeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, J. A.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Swain, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of pixel labeling by probabilistic relaxation techniques is presented to demonstrate that these labeling procedures degenerate to weighted averages in the vicinity of fixed points. A consequence of this is that undesired label conversions can occur, leading to a deterioration of labeling accuracy at a stage after an improvement has already been achieved. Means for overcoming the accuracy deterioration are suggested and used as the basis for a possible design strategy for using probabilistic relaxation procedures. The results obtained are illustrated using simple data sets in which labeling on individual pixels can be examined and also using Landsat imagery to show application to data typical of that encountered in remote sensing applications.

  17. Active pixel array devices in space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, G. R.; Purll, D. J.; Abbey, A. F.; Short, A.; Watson, D. J.; Wells, A.

    2003-11-01

    The X-ray Telescope for NASA's Swift mission incorporates a Telescope Alignment Monitor (TAM) to measure thermo-elastic misalignments between the telescope and the spacecraft star tracker. A LED in the X-ray focal plane is imaged on to a position-sensitive detector via two paths, directly and after reflection from the star tracker alignment cube. The separation of the two spots of light on the detector is determined with sub-pixel accuracy using a centroiding algorithm. The active element of the TAM is a miniature camera supplied by Sira Electro-Optics Ltd, using an Active Pixel Sensor (APS). The camera was based on similar pointing sensors developed on European Space Agency programmes, such as acquisition sensors for optical inter-satellite links and miniaturized star trackers. The paper gives the background to APS-based pointing sensors, describes the Swift TAM system, and presents test results from the instrument development programme.

  18. MTF evaluation of white pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Albrecht; Atanassov, Kalin; Luo, Jiafu; Goma, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We present a methodology to compare image sensors with traditional Bayer RGB layouts to sensors with alternative layouts containing white pixels. We focused on the sensors' resolving powers, which we measured in the form of a modulation transfer function for variations in both luma and chroma channels. We present the design of the test chart, the acquisition of images, the image analysis, and an interpretation of results. We demonstrate the approach at the example of two sensors that only differ in their color filter arrays. We confirmed that the sensor with white pixels and the corresponding demosaicing result in a higher resolving power in the luma channel, but a lower resolving power in the chroma channels when compared to the traditional Bayer sensor.

  19. Local Histograms for Per-Pixel Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Domain-Knowledge-Inspired Math - ematical Framework for the Description and Classification of H&E Stained Histopathology Images,” Proceedings of SPIE, 8138... computed over discrete images as the number of pixels in a particular bin. In order to obtain a “density” independent of the bin-width, one can divide the...Notes in Computer Science , 5112: 688–696 (2008). [12] van Ginneken, Bram and Bart M. ter Haar Romeny. “Applications of Locally Orderless Images

  20. Demonstration of a Polarimeter in a Pixel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    Well Infrared Photo- detector ( QWIP ) with gratings at different angles. Annual Progress Report-April 2010...of a single pixel QWIP Polarimeter. 2.2. Growth of Structure Fig.3 Schematic showing the structure of QWIP . 2.3. Modified Fabrication...One side open for Middle contact Next device Ge/Au/Ni/Au/In Ge/Au/Ni/Au Top QWIP Top QWIP Lower QWIP Lower QWIP Underfill Epoxy Top X 50 SI-GaAs

  1. The Silicon Pixel Detector for ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, D.; Bombonati, C.; Dima, R.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pepato, A.; Bohus, L. Sajo; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.; Shen, D.; Turrisi, R.; Viesti, G.; Anelli, G.; Boccardi, A.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Ceresa, S.; Conrad, J.; Kluge, A.; Kral, M.

    2007-10-26

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment is made of position sensitive detectors which have to operate in a region where the track density may be as high as 50 tracks/cm{sup 2}. To handle such densities detectors with high precision and granularity are mandatory. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD), the innermost part of the ITS, has been designed to provide tracking information close to primary interaction point. The assembly of the entire SPD has been completed.

  2. Pixel super resolution using wavelength scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-08

    Journal Article Journal : Light: Science & Applications (Nature Publishing Group) Publication Location: Article Title: Pixel super-resolution using...of a wide-field imaging system and significantly increase its space-bandwidth product . Publication Identifier Type: DOI Issue: 4 Date Published: 12...significantly increase its space-bandwidth product . We confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by improving the resolution of lens-free as

  3. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Hans-Günther

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55-60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70-85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the 'internal gate' modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X0). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO2 system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  4. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations reconstruction with pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuljen, Andrej; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Castorina, Emanuele; Viel, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Gravitational non-linear evolution induces a shift in the position of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak together with a damping and broadening of its shape that bias and degrades the accuracy with which the position of the peak can be determined. BAO reconstruction is a technique developed to undo part of the effect of non-linearities. We present and analyse a reconstruction method that consists of displacing pixels instead of galaxies and whose implementation is easier than the standard reconstruction method. We show that this method is equivalent to the standard reconstruction technique in the limit where the number of pixels becomes very large. This method is particularly useful in surveys where individual galaxies are not resolved, as in 21cm intensity mapping observations. We validate this method by reconstructing mock pixelated maps, that we build from the distribution of matter and halos in real- and redshift-space, from a large set of numerical simulations. We find that this method is able to decrease the uncertainty in the BAO peak position by 30-50% over the typical angular resolution scales of 21 cm intensity mapping experiments.

  5. Status of the CMS pixel project

    SciTech Connect

    Uplegger, Lorenzo; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) will start taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2008. The closest detector to the interaction point is the silicon pixel detector which is the heart of the tracking system. It consists of three barrel layers and two pixel disks on each side of the interaction point for a total of 66 million channels. Its proximity to the interaction point means there will be very large particle fluences and therefore a radiation-tolerant design is necessary. The pixel detector will be crucial to achieve a good vertex resolution and will play a key role in pattern recognition and track reconstruction. The results from test beam runs prove that the expected performances can be achieved. The detector is currently being assembled and will be ready for insertion into CMS in early 2008. During the assembly phase, a thorough electronic test is being done to check the functionality of each channel to guarantee the performance required to achieve the physics goals. This report will present the final detector design, the status of the production as well as results from test beam runs to validate the expected performance.

  6. Pixel electronics for the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.

    2001-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will use 3 barrel layers and 2×5 disks of silicon pixel detectors as the innermost elements of the semiconductor tracker. The basic building blocks are pixel modules with an active area of 16.4 mm×60.8 mm which include an n + on n-type silicon sensor and 16 VLSI front-end (FE) chips. Every FE chip contains a low power, high speed charge sensitive preamplifier, a fast discriminator, and a readout system which operates at the 40 MHz rate of LHC. The addresses of hit pixels (as well as a low resolution pulse height information) are stored on the FE chips until arrival of a level 1 trigger signal. Hits are then transferred to a module controller chip (MCC) which collects the data of all 16 FE chips, builds complete events and sends the data through two optical links to the data acquisition system. The MCC receives clock and data through an additional optical link and provides timing and configuration information for the FE chips. Two additional chips are used to amplify and decode the pin diode signal and to drive the VCSEL laser diodes of the optical links.

  7. Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis with High Pixel Density

    PubMed Central

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the “image capturing” photoreceptors, while neurons in the “image processing” inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems, which deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation was produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations from 0.5 to 4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances from 0.2 to 10 mW/mm2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 μm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully-integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density. PMID:23049619

  8. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, M.A.; Groffman, P.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper addresses the question of soil moisture variation within the field of view of a remote sensing pixel. Remote sensing is the only practical way to sense soil moisture over large areas, but it is known that there can be large variations of soil moisture within the field of view of a pixel. The difficulty with this is that many processes, such as gas exchange between surface and atmosphere can vary dramatically with moisture content, and a small wet spot, for example, can have a dramatic impact on such processes, and thereby bias remote sensing data results. Here the authors looked at the impact of surface topography on the level of soil moisture, and the interaction of both on the variability of soil moisture sensed by a push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR). In addition the authors looked at the question of whether variations of soil moisture within pixel size areas could be used to assign errors to PBMR generated soil moisture data.

  9. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the `image capturing' photoreceptors, while neurons in the `image-processing' inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems that deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation is produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations of 0.5-4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances of 0.2-10 mW mm-2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 µm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density.

  10. Raffinose, a plant galactoside, inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation via binding to LecA and decreasing cellular cyclic diguanylate levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Cha, Eunji; Kim, Yunhye; Jeon, Young Ho; Olson, Betty H.; Byun, Youngjoo; Park, Hee-Deung

    2016-05-01

    Biofilm formation on biotic or abiotic surfaces has unwanted consequences in medical, clinical, and industrial settings. Treatments with antibiotics or biocides are often ineffective in eradicating biofilms. Promising alternatives to conventional agents are biofilm-inhibiting compounds regulating biofilm development without toxicity to growth. Here, we screened a biofilm inhibitor, raffinose, derived from ginger. Raffinose, a galactotrisaccharide, showed efficient biofilm inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa without impairing its growth. Raffinose also affected various phenotypes such as colony morphology, matrix formation, and swarming motility. Binding of raffinose to a carbohydrate-binding protein called LecA was the cause of biofilm inhibition and altered phenotypes. Furthermore, raffinose reduced the concentration of the second messenger, cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), by increased activity of a c-di-GMP specific phosphodiesterase. The ability of raffinose to inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and its molecular mechanism opens new possibilities for pharmacological and industrial applications.

  11. Dispersive properties of high-order Nédélec/edge element approximation of the time-harmonic Maxwell equations.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Mark

    2004-03-15

    The dispersive behaviour of high-order Nédélec element approximation of the time harmonic Maxwell equations at a prescribed temporal frequency omega on tensor-product meshes of size h is analysed. A simple argument is presented, showing that the discrete dispersion relation may be expressed in terms of that for the approximation of the scalar Helmholtz equation in one dimension. An explicit form for the one-dimensional dispersion relation is given, valid for arbitrary order of approximation. Explicit expressions for the leading term in the error in the regimes where omega h is small, showing that the dispersion relation is accurate to order 2p for a pth-order method; and in the high-wavenumber limit where 1< omega h, showing that in this case the error reduces at a super-exponential rate once the order of approximation exceeds a certain threshold, which is given explicitly.

  12. Raffinose, a plant galactoside, inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation via binding to LecA and decreasing cellular cyclic diguanylate levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Shin; Cha, Eunji; Kim, YunHye; Jeon, Young Ho; Olson, Betty H.; Byun, Youngjoo; Park, Hee-Deung

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation on biotic or abiotic surfaces has unwanted consequences in medical, clinical, and industrial settings. Treatments with antibiotics or biocides are often ineffective in eradicating biofilms. Promising alternatives to conventional agents are biofilm-inhibiting compounds regulating biofilm development without toxicity to growth. Here, we screened a biofilm inhibitor, raffinose, derived from ginger. Raffinose, a galactotrisaccharide, showed efficient biofilm inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa without impairing its growth. Raffinose also affected various phenotypes such as colony morphology, matrix formation, and swarming motility. Binding of raffinose to a carbohydrate-binding protein called LecA was the cause of biofilm inhibition and altered phenotypes. Furthermore, raffinose reduced the concentration of the second messenger, cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), by increased activity of a c-di-GMP specific phosphodiesterase. The ability of raffinose to inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and its molecular mechanism opens new possibilities for pharmacological and industrial applications. PMID:27141909

  13. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  14. Effect of mixed (boundary) pixels on crop proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    In estimating acreage proportions of crop types in a segment using Landsat data, considerable problem is caused by the presence of mixed pixels. Due to lack of understanding of their spectral characteristics, mixed pixels have been treated in the past as pure while clustering and classifying the segment data. This paper examines this approach of treating mixed pixels as pure pixels and the effect of mixed pixels on the bias and variance of a crop type proportion estimate. First, the spectral response of a boundary pixel is modeled and an analytical expression for the bias and variance of a proportion estimate is obtained. This is followed by a numerical illustration of the effect of mixed pixels on bias and variance. It is shown that as the size of the mixed pixel class increases in a segment, the variance increases, however, such increase does not always affect the bias of the proportion estimate.

  15. Metallothionein (MT) 1/2 expression in MT 1/2 and MT 3 knock-out mice and Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Kyoumi; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Takamitsu; Kodaira, Tsukasa; Nakayama, Kenji; Satoh, Masahiko; Nagamine, Takeaki

    2012-02-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is known to be involved in various physiological roles and diseases. However, a standard method for MT measurement has not been established until recently. Therefore, we have developed an easy and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine MT-1 and MT-2. In order to evaluate the method we developed, MT-1/2 in liver, kidney and brain was determined in wild type (WT), MT-1/2 knockout (KO) and MT-3 KO mice, with and without Cd treatment. MT 1/2 in urine was determined in genetically disordered LEC rats (an animal model of Wilson disease). MT-1/2 concentrations in the liver, kidney and brain in MT-1/2 KO mice were significantly lower compared to those of WT and MT-3 KO mice. MT-1/2 concentrations in the livers of WT mice significantly increased with Cd administration, but not in MT-1/2 KO mice. Similar results were observed by immunohistochemical staining. To confirm the molecular weight (MW) of MT detected in organs by the ELISA, analysis with a Sephadex G-75 was performed. Two peaks of MT-1/2 (MW small and large) were detected in WT and MT-3 KO mice. The small MT peak was mostly depleted in MT 1/2-KO mice, while a large MT peak remained. A significant increase in MT-1/2 concentration was detected in the urine of LEC rats with age and especially at the hepatitis stage. In conclusion, MT-1/2 ELISA and immunohistochemical staining was highly correlated with MT-1/2 determination in experimental animal specimens and could be a robust analytical tool for physiological and toxicological studies.

  16. PIXELS: Using field-based learning to investigate students' concepts of pixels and sense of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Tinigin, L.; Petcovic, H. L.; Ormand, C. J.; LaDue, N.

    2015-12-01

    Empirical work over the past decade supports the notion that a high level of spatial thinking skill is critical to success in the geosciences. Spatial thinking incorporates a host of sub-skills such as mentally rotating an object, imagining the inside of a 3D object based on outside patterns, unfolding a landscape, and disembedding critical patterns from background noise. In this study, we focus on sense of scale, which refers to how an individual quantified space, and is thought to develop through kinesthetic experiences. Remote sensing data are increasingly being used for wide-reaching and high impact research. A sense of scale is critical to many areas of the geosciences, including understanding and interpreting remotely sensed imagery. In this exploratory study, students (N=17) attending the Juneau Icefield Research Program participated in a 3-hour exercise designed to study how a field-based activity might impact their sense of scale and their conceptions of pixels in remotely sensed imagery. Prior to the activity, students had an introductory remote sensing lecture and completed the Sense of Scale inventory. Students walked and/or skied the perimeter of several pixel types, including a 1 m square (representing a WorldView sensor's pixel), a 30 m square (a Landsat pixel) and a 500 m square (a MODIS pixel). The group took reflectance measurements using a field radiometer as they physically traced out the pixel. The exercise was repeated in two different areas, one with homogenous reflectance, and another with heterogeneous reflectance. After the exercise, students again completed the Sense of Scale instrument and a demographic survey. This presentation will share the effects and efficacy of the field-based intervention to teach remote sensing concepts and to investigate potential relationships between students' concepts of pixels and sense of scale.

  17. Measurements with MÖNCH, a 25 μm pixel pitch hybrid pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramilli, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Andrae, M.; Brückner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Hutwelker, T.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ruat, M.; Redford, S.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    MÖNCH is a hybrid silicon pixel detector based on charge integration and with analog readout, featuring a pixel size of 25×25 μm2. The latest working prototype consists of an array of 400×400 identical pixels for a total active area of 1×1 cm2. Its design is optimized for the single photon regime. An exhaustive characterization of this large area prototype has been carried out in the past months, and it confirms an ENC in the order of 35 electrons RMS and a dynamic range of ~4×12 keV photons in high gain mode, which increases to ~100×12 keV photons with the lowest gain setting. The low noise levels of MÖNCH make it a suitable candidate for X-ray detection at energies around 1 keV and below. Imaging applications in particular can benefit significantly from the use of MÖNCH: due to its extremely small pixel pitch, the detector intrinsically offers excellent position resolution. Moreover, in low flux conditions, charge sharing between neighboring pixels allows the use of position interpolation algorithms which grant a resolution at the micrometer-level. Its energy reconstruction and imaging capabilities have been tested for the first time at a low energy beamline at PSI, with photon energies between 1.75 keV and 3.5 keV, and results will be shown.

  18. ACS/WFC Pixel History, Bringing the Pixels Back to Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borncamp, David; Grogin, Norman; Bourque, Matthew; Ogaz, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Excess thermal energy within a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) results in excess electrical current that is trapped within the lattice structure of the electronics. This excess signal from the CCD itself can be present through multiple exposures, which will have an adverse effect on its science performance unless it is corrected for. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take occasional long-exposure images with the camera shutter closed. These images, generally referred to as ``dark'' images, allow for the measurement of thermal-electron contamination at each pixel of the CCD. This so-called ``dark current'' can then be subtracted from the science images by re-scaling to the science exposure times. Pixels that have signal above a certain value are traditionally marked as ``hot'' and flagged in the data quality array. Many users will discard these pixels as being bad. However, these pixels may not be bad in the sense that they cannot be reliably dark-subtracted; if these pixels are shown to be stable over a given anneal period, the charge can be properly subtracted and the extra Poisson noise from this dark current can be taken into account and put into the error arrays.

  19. Active pixel sensor pixel having a photodetector whose output is coupled to an output transistor gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nakamura, Junichi (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. A Simple Floating Gate (SFG) pixel structure could also be employed in the imager to provide a non-destructive readout and smaller pixel sizes.

  20. Detection and evaluation of mixed pixels in Landsat agricultural scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merickel, M. B.; Lundgren, J. C.; Lennington, R. K.

    1982-01-01

    A major problem area encountered in the identification and estimation of agricultural crop proportions in Landsat imagery involves the large proportion of the pixels which are mixed pixels, whose spectral response is influenced by more than one ground cover type. The development of methods for the detection and estimation of crop proportions in mixed pixels is presently reported. The procedure designated CASCADE, based on the estimation of the gradient image for the detection of mixed pixels, considers the consequences of a linear mixing model and is found to provide a method for the allocation of mixed pixels to the surrounding homogeneous region.

  1. How many pixels does it take to make a good 4"×6" print? Pixel count wars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1980's the future of conventional silver-halide photographic systems was of great concern due to the potential introduction of electronic imaging systems then typified by the Sony Mavica analog electronic camera. The focus was on the quality of film-based systems as expressed in the number of equivalent number pixels and bits-per-pixel, and how many pixels would be required to create an equivalent quality image from a digital camera. It was found that 35-mm frames, for ISO 100 color negative film, contained equivalent pixels of 12 microns for a total of 18 million pixels per frame (6 million pixels per layer) with about 6 bits of information per pixel; the introduction of new emulsion technology, tabular AgX grains, increased the value to 8 bit per pixel. Higher ISO speed films had larger equivalent pixels, fewer pixels per frame, but retained the 8 bits per pixel. Further work found that a high quality 3.5" x 5.25" print could be obtained from a three layer system containing 1300 x 1950 pixels per layer or about 7.6 million pixels in all. In short, it became clear that when a digital camera contained about 6 million pixels (in a single layer using a color filter array and appropriate image processing) that digital systems would challenge and replace conventional film-based system for the consumer market. By 2005 this became the reality. Since 2005 there has been a "pixel war" raging amongst digital camera makers. The question arises about just how many pixels are required and are all pixels equal? This paper will provide a practical look at how many pixels are needed for a good print based on the form factor of the sensor (sensor size) and the effective optical modulation transfer function (optical spread function) of the camera lens. Is it better to have 16 million, 5.7-micron pixels or 6 million 7.8-micron pixels? How does intrinsic (no electronic boost) ISO speed and exposure latitude vary with pixel size? A systematic review of these issues will

  2. Dynamical pixel manipulation of metasurfaces (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jin-Qian

    2017-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) metamaterials or known as metasurfaces have attracted researchers' attention due to their capability to manipulate the amplitudes, phases and polarization states of incident electromagnetic waves by conferring extra phase different phase at different positions through a super cell that is composed of different oriented structures. In other words, metasurfaces can achieve beam steering and wave shaping by imparting local, gradient phase shift to the incoming waves. With these abilities, metasurfaces can be applied to applications such as ultrathin invisibility cloaks, metasurface holograms, planar lenses and a vortex generator. With the above mentioned advantages and applications of metasurfaces, yet, all the demonstrated metasurfaces possess a main insufficiency that once the metasurfaces are designed and fabricated, their optical properties are then fixed without any chance for further manipulation, which limits their versatility in practical applications. Moreover, although some researchers employed dynamically changeable materials to achieve an active metasurface, such manipulation can only change the overall performance such as an operating frequency instead of changing the provided phase on each pixel of a metasurface. To solve this issue, we employ liquid crystal integrated with a metasurface and the combination could be thus be dynamically tuned via electric bias on each pixel of liquid crystals. Through this setup, we can alter the polarization state of the incident electromagnetic wave dynamically and thus manipulate the extra phase provided by each pixel. In this combination, liquid crystal is employed to change the incident polarization from 0 to 360-degree and the metasurface is designed to achieve four different output signals including phase modulated linear- and circular-polarized light and amplitude-modulated linear- and circular-polarized light. Meanwhile, the metasurfaces could also control the transmission efficiency of the

  3. Small pixel uncooled imaging FPAs and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Richard; Franks, Glen; Lacroix, Daniel; Hyland, Sandra; Murphy, Robert

    2010-04-01

    BAE Systems continues to make dramatic progress in uncooled microbolometer sensors and applications. This paper will review the latest advancements in microbolometer technology at BAE Systems, including the development status of 17 micrometer pixel pitch detectors and imaging modules which are entering production and will be finding their way into BAE Systems products and applications. Benefits include increased die per wafer and potential benefits to SWAP for many applications. Applications include thermal weapons sights, thermal imaging modules for remote weapon stations, vehicle situational awareness sensors and mast/pole mounted sensors.

  4. Pixel-Level Simulation of Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, C.; Kuropatkin, N. P.; Neilsen, E., Jr.; Harms, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    We are preparing a set of Java packages to facilitate the design and operation of imaging surveys. The packages use shapelets to describe shapes of astronomical sources, optical distortions, and shear from weak gravitational lensing. We introduce noise, bad pixels, cosmic rays, the pupil image, saturation, and other observational effects. A set of utility classes handles I/O, plotting, and interfaces to existing packages: nom.tam.fits for FITS I/O; uk.ac.starlink.table for tables; and cern.colt for algorithms. The packages have been used to generate images for the Dark Energy Survey data challenges, and will be used by SNAP to continue evaluating its design.

  5. Active pixel sensor array with electronic shuttering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An active pixel cell includes electronic shuttering capability. The cell can be shuttered to prevent additional charge accumulation. One mode transfers the current charge to a storage node that is blocked against accumulation of optical radiation. The charge is sampled from a floating node. Since the charge is stored, the node can be sampled at the beginning and the end of every cycle. Another aspect allows charge to spill out of the well whenever the charge amount gets higher than some amount, thereby providing anti blooming.

  6. A new 9T global shutter pixel with CDS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Cheng; Zhou, Quan; Wang, Xinyang

    2015-04-01

    Benefiting from motion blur free, Global shutter pixel is very widely used in the design of CMOS image sensors for high speed applications such as motion vision, scientifically inspection, etc. In global shutter sensors, all pixel signal information needs to be stored in the pixel first and then waiting for readout. For higher frame rate, we need very fast operation of the pixel array. There are basically two ways for the in pixel signal storage, one is in charge domain, such as the one shown in [1], this needs complicated process during the pixel fabrication. The other one is in voltage domain, one example is the one in [2], this pixel is based on the 4T PPD technology and normally the driving of the high capacitive transfer gate limits the speed of the array operation. In this paper we report a new 9T global shutter pixel based on 3-T partially pinned photodiode (PPPD) technology. It incorporates three in-pixel storage capacitors allowing for correlated double sampling (CDS) and pipeline operation of the array (pixel exposure during the readout of the array). Only two control pulses are needed for all the pixels at the end of exposure which allows high speed exposure control.

  7. A neighbor pixel communication filtering structure for Dynamic Vision Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuan; Liu, Shiqi; Lu, Hehui; Zhang, Zilong

    2017-02-01

    For Dynamic Vision Sensors (DVS), thermal noise and junction leakage current induced Background Activity (BA) is the major cause of the deterioration of images quality. Inspired by the smoothing filtering principle of horizontal cells in vertebrate retina, A DVS pixel with Neighbor Pixel Communication (NPC) filtering structure is proposed to solve this issue. The NPC structure is designed to judge the validity of pixel's activity through the communication between its 4 adjacent pixels. The pixel's outputs will be suppressed if its activities are determined not real. The proposed pixel's area is 23.76×24.71μm2 and only 3ns output latency is introduced. In order to validate the effectiveness of the structure, a 5×5 pixel array has been implemented in SMIC 0.13μm CIS process. 3 test cases of array's behavioral model show that the NPC-DVS have an ability of filtering the BA.

  8. Measurement of Lorentz Angle for the CMS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish

    2010-02-01

    At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracking system is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution 3D coordinates of the tracks produced in high energy pp collisions. Under the combined action of electric and magnetic fields, the charged carriers traversing the pixel sensors experience the Lorentz force. It causes charge sharing among neighboring pixels which is crucial in enhancing the spatial resolution. In the barrel pixels, the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular resulting in maximum Lorentz drift, while, in the disks, the fields are oriented at 20 degrees resulting in much smaller Lorentz drift. We present the results of Lorentz angle measurement for the pixel detector using CMS data taken with cosmic runs. )

  9. Further applications for mosaic pixel FPA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2011-06-01

    In previous papers to this SPIE forum the development of novel technology for next generation PIR security sensors has been described. This technology combines the mosaic pixel FPA concept with low cost optics and purpose-designed readout electronics to provide a higher performance and affordable alternative to current PIR sensor technology, including an imaging capability. Progressive development has resulted in increased performance and transition from conventional microbolometer fabrication to manufacture on 8 or 12 inch CMOS/MEMS fabrication lines. A number of spin-off applications have been identified. In this paper two specific applications are highlighted: high performance imaging IRFPA design and forest fire detection. The former involves optional design for small pixel high performance imaging. The latter involves cheap expendable sensors which can detect approaching fire fronts and send alarms with positional data via mobile phone or satellite link. We also introduce to this SPIE forum the application of microbolometer IR sensor technology to IoT, the Internet of Things.

  10. The Phase1 CMS Pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavolaro, V. R.

    2016-12-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be replaced in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 with an upgraded one able to cope with peak instantaneous luminosities beyond the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. Under the conditions expected in the coming years, which will see an increase of a factor two in instantaneous luminosity, the present system would experience a dynamic inefficiency caused mainly by data losses due to buffer overflows. The Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector, described in this paper, will operate at full efficiency at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1 and beyond, thanks to a new readout chip. The new detector will feature one additional tracking point both in the barrel and in the forward regions, while reducing the material budget as a result of a new CO2 cooling system and optimised layout of the services. In this paper, the design and the technological choices of the Phase I detector will be reviewed and the status of the construction of the detector and the performance of its components will be discussed.

  11. Active pixel sensor array with multiresolution readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. The imaging device can also include an electronic shutter formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate, and/or a storage section to allow for simultaneous integration. In addition, the imaging device can include a multiresolution imaging circuit to provide images of varying resolution. The multiresolution circuit could also be employed in an array where the photosensitive portion of each pixel cell is a photodiode. This latter embodiment could further be modified to facilitate low light imaging.

  12. Ultra large mode area pixelated Bragg fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehouessi, J.-P.; Bouwmans, G.; Vanvincq, O.; Cassez, A.; Habert, R.; Quiquempois, Y.; Bigot, L.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the design and the fabrication of a new design of an all-solid Bragg fiber based on the pixelization and heterostructuration of a cladding made of only two high index rings. The thickness of the low index ring as well as the geometry of the heterostructuration (its symmetry and the number of removed pixels) have been chosen to maximize the confinement losses of the Higher Order Modes (HOM) (above 10 dB/m) while keeping the Fundamental Mode (FM) losses low (below 0.1 dB/m). The proposed geometry allows having access to different Mode Field Diameter (MFD) from 54 μm to 60 μm at 1 μm wavelength by drawing the same stack to different fiber (and hence, core) diameters. As a result, a record MFD of 60 μm is reported for a Solid Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber (SC-PBGF) and single-mode behavior is obtained experimentally even for a short fiber length (few tens centimeters) maintained straight.

  13. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+ e‑ Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3 μm for the vertex detector and 7 μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2% X0 per layer in the vertex detector and 1–2% X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10 ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25×25 μm2 and 55×55 μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50 μm–500 μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  14. A single pixel camera video ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochocki, B.; Gambin, A.; Manzanera, S.; Irles, E.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.; Artal, P.

    2017-02-01

    There are several ophthalmic devices to image the retina, from fundus cameras capable to image the whole fundus to scanning ophthalmoscopes with photoreceptor resolution. Unfortunately, these devices are prone to a variety of ocular conditions like defocus and media opacities, which usually degrade the quality of the image. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to image the retina in real-time using a single pixel camera, which has the potential to circumvent those optical restrictions. The imaging procedure is as follows: a set of spatially coded patterns is projected rapidly onto the retina using a digital micro mirror device. At the same time, the inner product's intensity is measured for each pattern with a photomultiplier module. Subsequently, an image of the retina is reconstructed computationally. Obtained image resolution is up to 128 x 128 px with a varying real-time video framerate up to 11 fps. Experimental results obtained in an artificial eye confirm the tolerance against defocus compared to a conventional multi-pixel array based system. Furthermore, the use of a multiplexed illumination offers a SNR improvement leading to a lower illumination of the eye and hence an increase in patient's comfort. In addition, the proposed system could enable imaging in wavelength ranges where cameras are not available.

  15. Multi-scale feature learning on pixels and super-pixels for seminal vesicles MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qinquan; Asthana, Akshay; Tong, Tong; Rueckert, Daniel; Edwards, Philip "Eddie"

    2014-03-01

    We propose a learning-based approach to segment the seminal vesicles (SV) via random forest classifiers. The proposed discriminative approach relies on the decision forest using high-dimensional multi-scale context-aware spatial, textual and descriptor-based features at both pixel and super-pixel level. After affine transformation to a template space, the relevant high-dimensional multi-scale features are extracted and random forest classifiers are learned based on the masked region of the seminal vesicles from the most similar atlases. Using these classifiers, an intermediate probabilistic segmentation is obtained for the test images. Then, a graph-cut based refinement is applied to this intermediate probabilistic representation of each voxel to get the final segmentation. We apply this approach to segment the seminal vesicles from 30 MRI T2 training images of the prostate, which presents a particularly challenging segmentation task. The results show that the multi-scale approach and the augmentation of the pixel based features with the super-pixel based features enhances the discriminative power of the learnt classifier which leads to a better quality segmentation in some very difficult cases. The results are compared to the radiologist labeled ground truth using leave-one-out cross-validation. Overall, the Dice metric of 0:7249 and Hausdorff surface distance of 7:0803 mm are achieved for this difficult task.

  16. Serial pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Eric D.

    2010-02-01

    This method reduces the data path from the counter to the pixel register of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) from as many as 10 bits to a single bit. The reduction in data path width is accomplished by using a coded serial data stream similar to a pseudo random number (PRN) generator. The resulting encoded pixel data is then decoded into a standard hexadecimal format before storage. The high-speed serial pixel ADC concept is based on the single-slope integrating pixel ADC architecture. Previous work has described a massively parallel pixel readout of a similar architecture. The serial ADC connection is similar to the state-of-the art method with the exception that the pixel ADC register is a shift register and the data path is a single bit. A state-of-the-art individual-pixel ADC uses a single-slope charge integration converter architecture with integral registers and "one-hot" counters. This implies that parallel data bits are routed among the counter and the individual on-chip pixel ADC registers. The data path bit-width to the pixel is therefore equivalent to the pixel ADC bit resolution.

  17. Analysis of pixel circuits in CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zou; Chen, Nan; Yao, Li-bin

    2015-04-01

    CMOS image sensors (CIS) have lower power consumption, lower cost and smaller size than CCD image sensors. However, generally CCDs have higher performance than CIS mainly due to lower noise. The pixel circuit used in CIS is the first part of the signal processing circuit and connected to photodiode directly, so its performance will greatly affect the CIS or even the whole imaging system. To achieve high performance, CMOS image sensors need advanced pixel circuits. There are many pixel circuits used in CIS, such as passive pixel sensor (PPS), 3T and 4T active pixel sensor (APS), capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA), and passive pixel sensor (PPS). At first, the main performance parameters of each pixel structure including the noise, injection efficiency, sensitivity, power consumption, and stability of bias voltage are analyzed. Through the theoretical analysis of those pixel circuits, it is concluded that CTIA pixel circuit has good noise performance, high injection efficiency, stable photodiode bias, and high sensitivity with small integrator capacitor. Furthermore, the APS and CTIA pixel circuits are simulated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and using a n-well/p-sub photodiode by SPICE and the simulation result confirms the theoretical analysis result. It shows the possibility that CMOS image sensors can be extended to a wide range of applications requiring high performance.

  18. Pixel response function experimental techniques and analysis of active pixel sensor star cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumo, Patrick; Waldron, Erik; Laine, Juha-Pekka; Evans, Gary

    2015-04-01

    The pixel response function (PRF) of a pixel within a focal plane is defined as the pixel intensity with respect to the position of a point source within the pixel. One of its main applications is in the field of astrometry, which is a branch of astronomy that deals with positioning data of a celestial body for tracking movement or adjusting the attitude of a spacecraft. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors generally offer better radiation tolerance to protons and heavy ions than CCDs making them ideal candidates for space applications aboard satellites, but like all image sensors they are limited by their spatial frequency response, better known as the modulation transfer function. Having a well-calibrated PRF allows us to eliminate some of the uncertainty in the spatial response of the system providing better resolution and a more accurate centroid estimation. This paper describes the experimental setup for determining the PRF of a CMOS image sensor and analyzes the effect on the oversampled point spread function (PSF) of an image intensifier, as well as the effects due to the wavelength of light used as a point source. It was found that using electron bombarded active pixel sensor (EBAPS) intensification technology had a significant impact on the PRF of the camera being tested as a result of an increase in the amount of carrier diffusion between collection sites generated by the intensification process. Taking the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the resulting data, it was found that the intensified version of a CMOS camera exhibited a PSF roughly 16.42% larger than its nonintensified counterpart.

  19. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  20. Pixel-level robust digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Cofaru, Corneliu; Philips, Wilfried; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2013-12-02

    Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a well-established non-contact optical metrology method. It employs digital image analysis to extract the full-field displacements and strains that occur in objects subjected to external stresses. Despite recent DIC progress, many problematic areas which greatly affect accuracy and that can seldomly be avoided, received very little attention. Problems posed by the presence of sharp displacement discontinuities, reflections, object borders or edges can be linked to the analysed object's properties and deformation. Other problematic areas, such as image noise, localized reflections or shadows are related more to the image acquisition process. This paper proposes a new subset-based pixel-level robust DIC method for in-plane displacement measurement which addresses all of these problems in a straightforward and unified approach, significantly improving DIC measurement accuracy compared to classic approaches. The proposed approach minimizes a robust energy functional which adaptively weighs pixel differences in the motion estimation process. The aim is to limit the negative influence of pixels that present erroneous or inconsistent motions by enforcing local motion consistency. The proposed method is compared to the classic Newton-Raphson DIC method in terms of displacement accuracy in three experiments. The first experiment is numerical and presents three combined problems: sharp displacement discontinuities, missing image information and image noise. The second experiment is a real experiment in which a plastic specimen is developing a lateral crack due to the application of uniaxial stress. The region around the crack presents both reflections that saturate the image intensity levels leading to missing image information, as well as sharp motion discontinuities due to the plastic film rupturing. The third experiment compares the proposed and classic DIC approaches with generic computer vision optical flow methods using images from

  1. How big is an OMI pixel?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Martin; Sihler, Holger; Tilstra, Lieuwe G.; Stammes, Piet

    2016-08-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a push-broom imaging spectrometer, observing solar radiation backscattered by the Earth's atmosphere and surface. The incoming radiation is detected using a static imaging CCD (charge-coupled device) detector array with no moving parts, as opposed to most of the previous satellite spectrometers, which used a moving mirror to scan the Earth in the across-track direction. The field of view (FoV) of detector pixels is the solid angle from which radiation is observed, averaged over the integration time of a measurement. The OMI FoV is not quadrangular, which is common for scanning instruments, but rather super-Gaussian shaped and overlapping with the FoV of neighbouring pixels. This has consequences for pixel-area-dependent applications, like cloud fraction products, and visualisation.The shapes and sizes of OMI FoVs were determined pre-flight by theoretical and experimental tests but never verified after launch. In this paper the OMI FoV is characterised using collocated MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance measurements. MODIS measurements have a much higher spatial resolution than OMI measurements and spectrally overlap at 469 nm. The OMI FoV was verified by finding the highest correlation between MODIS and OMI reflectances in cloud-free scenes, assuming a 2-D super-Gaussian function with varying size and shape to represent the OMI FoV. Our results show that the OMPIXCOR product 75FoV corner coordinates are accurate as the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a super-Gaussian FoV model when this function is assumed. The softness of the function edges, modelled by the super-Gaussian exponents, is different in both directions and is view angle dependent.The optimal overlap function between OMI and MODIS reflectances is scene dependent and highly dependent on time differences between overpasses, especially with clouds in the scene. For partially clouded scenes, the optimal overlap function was

  2. Pixel-level plasmonic microcavity infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, You Liang; Li, Zhi Feng; Li, Qian; Chen, Xiao Shuang; Chen, Ping Ping; Wang, Han; Li, Meng Yao; Li, Ning; Lu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Recently, plasmonics has been central to the manipulation of photons on the subwavelength scale, and superior infrared imagers have opened novel applications in many fields. Here, we demonstrate the first pixel-level plasmonic microcavity infrared photodetector with a single quantum well integrated between metal patches and a reflection layer. Greater than one order of magnitude enhancement of the peak responsivity has been observed. The significant improvement originates from the highly confined optical mode in the cavity, leading to a strong coupling between photons and the quantum well, resulting in the enhanced photo-electric conversion process. Such strong coupling from the localized surface plasmon mode inside the cavity is independent of incident angles, offering a unique solution to high-performance focal plane array devices. This demonstration paves the way for important infrared optoelectronic devices for sensing and imaging.

  3. Pixel-level plasmonic microcavity infrared photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Jing, You Liang; Li, Zhi Feng; Li, Qian; Chen, Xiao Shuang; Chen, Ping Ping; Wang, Han; Li, Meng Yao; Li, Ning; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, plasmonics has been central to the manipulation of photons on the subwavelength scale, and superior infrared imagers have opened novel applications in many fields. Here, we demonstrate the first pixel-level plasmonic microcavity infrared photodetector with a single quantum well integrated between metal patches and a reflection layer. Greater than one order of magnitude enhancement of the peak responsivity has been observed. The significant improvement originates from the highly confined optical mode in the cavity, leading to a strong coupling between photons and the quantum well, resulting in the enhanced photo-electric conversion process. Such strong coupling from the localized surface plasmon mode inside the cavity is independent of incident angles, offering a unique solution to high-performance focal plane array devices. This demonstration paves the way for important infrared optoelectronic devices for sensing and imaging. PMID:27181111

  4. Silicon buried channels for pixel detector cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscardin, M.; Conci, P.; Crivellari, M.; Ronchin, S.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.

    2013-08-01

    The support and cooling structures add important contributions to the thickness, in radiation length, of vertex detectors. In order to minimize the material budget of pixel sensors, we developed a new approach to integrate the cooling into the silicon devices. The microchannels are formed in silicon using isotropic SF6 plasma etching in a DRIE (deep reactive ion etcher) equipment. Due to their peculiar profiles, the channels can be sealed by a layer of a PECVD silicon oxide. We have realized on a silicon wafer microchannels with different geometries and hydraulic diameters. We describe the main fabrication steps of microchannels with focus on the channel definition. The experimental results are reported on the thermal characterization of several prototypes, using a mixture of glycol and water as a liquid coolant. The prototypes have shown high cooling efficiency and high-pressure breaking strength.

  5. CMB component separation in the pixel domain

    SciTech Connect

    Doroshkevich, A.; Verkhodanov, O.

    2011-02-15

    We show that the popular internal linear combination approach is unstable with respect to division of the observed map pixels to a set of 'homogeneous' subsamples. For various choices of such subsamples we can obtain a restored CMB signal with amplitudes ranging from zero to the amplitude of the observed signal. We propose an approach which allows us to obtain corrected estimates of the CMB power spectrum C{sub l} at l{<=}30 and provides results similar to WMAP for larger l. Using this approach, we eliminate some anomalies of the WMAP results. In particular, our estimate of the quadrupole is consistent with the theoretically expected one. The effect of the 'axis of evil' is suppressed, and the symmetry of the north and south galactic hemispheres increases. These results can change estimates of quadrupole polarization and the redshift of reionization of the Universe. We also propose a new simple approach which can improve the WMAP estimates of the high l power spectrum.

  6. Operational experience with the ALICE pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroserio, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment and it is the closest detector to the interaction point. As a vertex detector, it has the unique feature of generating a trigger signal that contributes to the L0 trigger of the ALICE experiment. The SPD started collecting data since the very first pp collisions at LHC in 2009 and since then it has taken part in all pp, Pb-Pb and p-Pb data taking campaigns. This contribution will present the main features of the SPD, the detector performance and the operational experience, including calibration and optimization activities from Run 1 to Run 2.

  7. Artificial Structural Color Pixels: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuqian; Zhao, Yong; Hu, Sheng; Lv, Jiangtao; Ying, Yu; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Si, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by natural photonic structures (Morpho butterfly, for instance), researchers have demonstrated varying artificial color display devices using different designs. Photonic-crystal/plasmonic color filters have drawn increasing attention most recently. In this review article, we show the developing trend of artificial structural color pixels from photonic crystals to plasmonic nanostructures. Such devices normally utilize the distinctive optical features of photonic/plasmon resonance, resulting in high compatibility with current display and imaging technologies. Moreover, dynamical color filtering devices are highly desirable because tunable optical components are critical for developing new optical platforms which can be integrated or combined with other existing imaging and display techniques. Thus, extensive promising potential applications have been triggered and enabled including more abundant functionalities in integrated optics and nanophotonics. PMID:28805736

  8. The kilopixel array pathfinder project (KAPPa), a 16-pixel integrated heterodyne focal plane array: characterization of the single pixel prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Groppi, Christopher E.; Mani, Hamdi; McGarey, Patrick; Kuenzi, Linda; Weinreb, Sander; Russell, Damon S.; Kooi, Jacob W.; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Walker, Christopher K.; Kulesa, Craig

    2014-07-01

    We report on the laboratory testing of KAPPa, a 16-pixel proof-of-concept array to enable the creation THz imaging spectrometer with ~1000 pixels. Creating an array an order of magnitude larger than the existing state of the art of 64 pixels requires a simple and robust design as well as improvements to mixer selection, testing, and assembly. Our testing employs a single pixel test bench where a novel 2D array architecture is tested. The minimum size of the footprint is dictated by the diameter of the drilled feedhorn aperture. In the adjoining detector block, a 6mm × 6mm footprint houses the SIS mixer, LNA, matching and bias networks, and permanent magnet. We present an initial characterization of the single pixel prototype using a computer controlled test bench to determine Y-factors for a parameter space of LO power, LO frequency, IF bandwidth, magnet field strength, and SIS bias voltage. To reduce the need to replace poorly preforming pixels that are already mounted in a large format array, we show techniques to improve SIS mixer selection prior to mounting in the detector block. The 2D integrated 16-pixel array design has been evolved as we investigate the properties of the single pixel prototype. Carful design of the prototype has allowed for rapid translation of single pixel design improvements to be easily incorporated into the 16-pixel model.

  9. Research of IRFPAs' reliability evaluation by bad pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Lichao; Huang, Aibo; Lai, Canxiong; Chen, Xing; Hao, Mingming; Chen, Honglei; Lu, Guoguang; Huang, Yun; En, Yunfei

    2015-10-01

    Reliability is an important index to ensure the application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) in complex environment, and it becomes a major bottleneck problem of IRFPAs' development. Because of the characteristics such as type, nature, quantity, location and distribution et al, bad pixel which contains initial bad pixel and used bad pixel has outstanding advantage for failure analysis and reliability evaluation of IRFPAs. In this paper, the structure of IRPFAs has been introduced in detail, and the damage mechanisms of used bad pixel also have been analyzed deeply. At the same time, the feasibility to study IRPFAs' damage stress, failure position, damage mechanism has been discussed all around. The research of bad pixel can be used to optimize the structure and process, meanwhile it also can improve the accuracy of bad pixel identification and replacements.

  10. Super pixel-level dictionary learning for hyperspectral image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Wen; Liao, Bo; Fu, Xiangzheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a superpixel-level dictionary learning model for hyperspectral data. The idea is to divide the hyperspectral image into a number of super-pixels by means of the super-pixel segmentation method. Each super-pixel is a spatial neighborhood called contextual group. That is, each pixel is represented using a linear combination of a few dictionary items learned from the train data, but since pixels inside a super-pixel are often consisting of the same materials, their linear combinations are constrained to use common items from the dictionary. To this end, the sparse coefficients of the context group have a common sparse pattern by using the joint sparse regularizer for dictionary learning. The sparse coefficients are then used for classification using linear support vector machines. The validity of the proposed method is experimentally verified on a real hyperspectral images.

  11. Electromagnetic modeling of QWIP FPA pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. K.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Forrai, D. P.; Waczynski, A.; Sun, J.; Jones, R.

    2011-06-01

    Rigorous electromagnetic (EM) field modeling is applied to calculate the external quantum efficiency (QE) of various quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) pixel geometries with thinned substrates. We found that for a 24 × 24 × 1.5 μm3 cross-grating QWIP, the QE is peaked at 13.0, 11.0, and 8.4 μm, insensitive to the grating periods. These peaks are identified as the first three harmonic resonances associated with the pixel resonant cavity. For a regular prismshaped corrugated QWIP (C-QWIPs) with a 25-μm pitch, the QE oscillates about its classical value of 24.5% within the calculated wavelength range from 3 to 15 μm. A peaked value of 32% occurs at 9.1 μm. For pyramidal C-QWIPs, the maximum QE is 42%, and for cone-shaped C-QWIPs, it is 35%. In the presence of an anti-reflection coating, the oscillation amplitude diminishes, and the average values generally rise to near the peaks of the oscillations. The modeling results are compared with the experimental data for grating QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) and prismshaped C-QWIP FPAs; satisfactory agreements were achieved for both. After verifying our EM approach, we explored other detector geometries and found new types of resonator QWIPs (R-QWIPs) that can provide 30% QE at certain wavelengths on a 1.5-μm-thick active material. Combining the high QE of a resonator and the high gain of a thin material layer, the new R-QWIPs will have a conversion efficiency far higher than the existing QWIP detectors. The present resonator approach will also have an impact on other detector technologies.

  12. Fast Pixel Buffer For Processing With Lookup Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Timothy E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed scheme for buffering data on intensities of picture elements (pixels) of image increases rate or processing beyond that attainable when data read, one pixel at time, from main image memory. Scheme applied in design of specialized image-processing circuitry. Intended to optimize performance of processor in which electronic equivalent of address-lookup table used to address those pixels in main image memory required for processing.

  13. Steganography on quantum pixel images using Shannon entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurel, Carlos Ortega; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a steganographical algorithm based on least significant bit (LSB) from the most significant bit information (MSBI) and the equivalence of a bit pixel image to a quantum pixel image, which permits to make the information communicate secretly onto quantum pixel images for its secure transmission through insecure channels. This algorithm offers higher security since it exploits the Shannon entropy for an image.

  14. Mapping Capacitive Coupling Among Pixels in a Sensor Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, Suresh; Cole, David M.; Smith, Roger M.

    2010-01-01

    An improved method of mapping the capacitive contribution to cross-talk among pixels in an imaging array of sensors (typically, an imaging photodetector array) has been devised for use in calibrating and/or characterizing such an array. The method involves a sequence of resets of subarrays of pixels to specified voltages and measurement of the voltage responses of neighboring non-reset pixels.

  15. Fast Pixel Buffer For Processing With Lookup Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Timothy E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed scheme for buffering data on intensities of picture elements (pixels) of image increases rate or processing beyond that attainable when data read, one pixel at time, from main image memory. Scheme applied in design of specialized image-processing circuitry. Intended to optimize performance of processor in which electronic equivalent of address-lookup table used to address those pixels in main image memory required for processing.

  16. CMOS monolithic pixel sensors research and development at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contarato, D.; Bussat, J.-M.; Denes, P.; Greiner, L.; Kim, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Wieman, H.; Battaglia, M.; Hooberman, B.; Tompkins, L.

    2007-12-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in the design and characterization of CMOS pixel sensors at LBNL. Results of lab tests, beam tests and radiation hardness tests carried out at LBNL on a test structure with pixels of various sizes are reported. The first results of the characterization of back-thinned CMOS pixel sensors are also reported, and future plans and activities are discussed.

  17. Apoptosis and age-dependant induction of nuclear and mitochondrial etheno-DNA adducts in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats: enhanced DNA damage by dietary curcumin upon copper accumulation.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jagadeesan; Strand, Susanne; Frank, Norbert; Knauft, Jutta; Wesch, Horst; Galle, Peter R; Bartsch, Helmut

    2005-07-01

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, a model for human Wilson's disease, develop chronic hepatitis and liver tumors owing to accumulation of copper and induced oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation (LPO)-induced etheno-DNA adducts in nuclear- and mitochondrial-DNA along with apoptosis was measured in LEC rat liver. Levels of etheno-DNA adducts (1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine) increased with age reaching a peak at 8 and 12 weeks in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first demonstration that etheno-DNA adducts are also formed in mitochondrial DNA. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL+ cells in liver sections. CD95L RNA expression was also measured by in situ hybridization in the same sections. The highest nuclear DNA adduct levels coincided with a reduced apoptotic rate at 8 weeks. Mitochondrial-DNA adducts peaked at 12 weeks that coincided with the highest apoptotic rate, suggesting a link of etheno-DNA adducts in mitochondrial DNA to apoptosis. The DNA damage in liver was further enhanced and sustained by 0.5% curcumin in the diet. Treatment for 2 weeks elevated etheno-DNA adducts 9- to 25-fold in nuclear DNA and 3- to 4-fold in mitochondrial-DNA, providing a plausible explanation as to why in our earlier study [Frank et al. (2003) Mutat. Res., 523-524, 127-135], curcumin failed to prevent liver tumors in LEC rats. Our results also confirm the reported in vitro DNA damaging potential of curcumin in the presence of copper ions by reactive oxygen species. LPO-induced adduct formation in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA appear as early lesions in LEC rat liver carcinogenesis and are discussed in relation to apoptotic events in the progression of malignant disease.

  18. Hit efficiency study of CMS prototype forward pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the measurement of the hit efficiency of a prototype pixel device for the CMS forward pixel detector. These pixel detectors were FM type sensors with PSI46V1 chip readout. The data were taken with the 120 GeV proton beam at Fermilab during the period of December 2004 to February 2005. The detectors proved to be highly efficient (99.27 {+-} 0.02%). The inefficiency was primarily located near the corners of the individual pixels.

  19. Dead pixel correction techniques for dual-band infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Mould, Nick; Regens, James L.

    2015-07-01

    We present two new dead pixel correction algorithms for dual-band infrared imagery. Specifically, we address the problem of repairing unresponsive elements in the sensor array using signal processing techniques to overcome deficiencies in image quality that are present following the nonuniformity correction process. Traditionally, dead pixel correction has been performed almost exclusively using variations of the nearest neighbor technique, where the value of the dead pixel is estimated based on pixel values associated with the neighboring image structure. Our approach differs from existing techniques, for the first time we estimate the values of dead pixels using information from both thermal bands collaboratively. The proposed dual-band statistical lookup (DSL) and dual-band inpainting (DIP) algorithms use intensity and local gradient information to estimate the values of dead pixels based on the values of unaffected pixels in the supplementary infrared band. The DSL algorithm is a regression technique that uses the image intensities from the reference band to estimate the dead pixel values in the band undergoing correction. The DIP algorithm is an energy minimization technique that uses the local image gradient from the reference band and the boundary values from the affected band to estimate the dead pixel values. We evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms with 50 dual-band videos. Simulation results indicate that the proposed techniques achieve perceptually and quantitatively superior results compared to existing methods.

  20. Numerical solution of nonlocal hydrodynamic Drude model for arbitrary shaped nano-plasmonic structures using Nédélec finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiremath, Kirankumar R.; Zschiedrich, Lin; Schmidt, Frank

    2012-07-01

    Nonlocal material response distinctively changes the optical properties of nano-plasmonic scatterers and waveguides. It is described by the nonlocal hydrodynamic Drude model, which - in frequency domain - is given by a coupled system of equations for the electric field and an additional polarization current of the electron gas modeled analogous to a hydrodynamic flow. Recent attempt to simulate such nonlocal model using the finite difference time domain method encountered difficulties in dealing with the grad-div operator appearing in the governing equation of the hydrodynamic current. Therefore, in these studies the model has been simplified with the curl-free hydrodynamic current approximation; but this causes spurious resonances. In this paper we present a rigorous weak formulation in the Sobolev spaces H(curl) for the electric field and H(div) for the hydrodynamic current, which directly leads to a consistent discretization based on Nédélec's finite element spaces. Comparisons with the Mie theory results agree well. We also demonstrate the capability of the method to handle any arbitrary shaped scatterer.

  1. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  2. Design and characterization of high precision in-pixel discriminators for rolling shutter CMOS pixel sensors with full CMOS capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Hu-Guo, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Pham, H.; Hu, Y.

    2013-07-01

    In order to exploit the ability to integrate a charge collecting electrode with analog and digital processing circuitry down to the pixel level, a new type of CMOS pixel sensors with full CMOS capability is presented in this paper. The pixel array is read out based on a column-parallel read-out architecture, where each pixel incorporates a diode, a preamplifier with a double sampling circuitry and a discriminator to completely eliminate analog read-out bottlenecks. The sensor featuring a pixel array of 8 rows and 32 columns with a pixel pitch of 80 μm×16 μm was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The behavior of each pixel-level discriminator isolated from the diode and the preamplifier was studied. The experimental results indicate that all in-pixel discriminators which are fully operational can provide significant improvements in the read-out speed and the power consumption of CMOS pixel sensors.

  3. How Many Pixels Does It Take to Make a Good 4"×6" Print? Pixel Count Wars Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    Digital still cameras emerged following the introduction of the Sony Mavica analog prototype camera in 1981. These early cameras produced poor image quality and did not challenge film cameras for overall quality. By 1995 digital still cameras in expensive SLR formats had 6 mega-pixels and produced high quality images (with significant image processing). In 2005 significant improvement in image quality was apparent and lower prices for digital still cameras (DSCs) started a rapid decline in film usage and film camera sells. By 2010 film usage was mostly limited to professionals and the motion picture industry. The rise of DSCs was marked by a “pixel war” where the driving feature of the cameras was the pixel count where even moderate cost, ˜120, DSCs would have 14 mega-pixels. The improvement of CMOS technology pushed this trend of lower prices and higher pixel counts. Only the single lens reflex cameras had large sensors and large pixels. The drive for smaller pixels hurt the quality aspects of the final image (sharpness, noise, speed, and exposure latitude). Only today are camera manufactures starting to reverse their course and producing DSCs with larger sensors and pixels. This paper will explore why larger pixels and sensors are key to the future of DSCs.

  4. Pixel Stability in HST Advanced Camera for Surveys Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borncamp, David; Grogin, Norman A.; Bourque, Matthew; Ogaz, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Excess thermal energy present in a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) can result in additional electrical current that is propagated into individual pixels in an exposure. This excess signal from the CCD itself can be persistently existent through multiple exposures and can have an adverse effect on the detectors science performance unless properly flagged and corrected for. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take occasional long-exposure images with the camera shutter closed to map the location of these pixels. These images, generally referred to as “dark” images, allow for the measurement of the thermal-electron contamination present in each pixel of the CCD lattice. This "dark current" can then be subtracted from the science images by re-scaling the dark to the science exposure times. Pixels that have signal above a certain threshold are traditionally marked as “hot” and flagged in the data quality array. Many users will discard these pixels as being bad because of this extra current. However, these pixels may not be "bad" in the traditional sense that they cannot be reliably dark-subtracted. If these pixels are shown to be stable over an anneal period, the charge can be properly subtracted and the extra Poisson noise from this hot pixel’s dark current can be taken into account. Here we present the results of a pixel history study that analyzes every individual pixel of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) CCDs over time and allows pixels that were previously marked as bad to be brought back into the science image as a reliable pixel.

  5. High-dynamic-range pixel architectures for diagnostic medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Karim S.; Yin, Sherman; Nathan, Arokia; Rowlands, John A.

    2004-05-01

    One approach to increase pixel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in low noise digital fluoroscopy is to employ in-situ pixel amplification via current-mediated active pixel sensors (C-APS). Experiments reveal a reduction in readout noise and indicate that an a-Si C-APS, coupled together with an established X-ray detection technology such as amorphous selenium (a-Se), can meet the stringent requirements (of < 1000 noise electrons) for digital X-ray fluoroscopy. A challenge with the C-APS circuit is the presence of a small-signal input linearity constraint. While using such a pixel amplifier for real-time fluoroscopy (where the exposure level is small) is feasible, the voltage change at the amplifier input is much higher in chest radiography or mammography due to the larger X-ray exposure levels. The larger input voltage causes the C-APS output to be non-linear thus reducing the pixel dynamic range. In addition, the resulting larger pixel output current causes the external column amplifier to saturate further reducing the pixel dynamic range. In this research, we investigate two alternate amplified pixel architectures that exhibit higher dynamic range. The test pixels are designed and simulated using an a-Si TFT model implemented in Verilog-A and results indicate a linear performance, high dynamic range, and a programmable circuit gain via choice of supply voltage and sampling time. These high dynamic range pixel architectures have the potential to enable a large area, active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) to switch instantly between low exposure, fluoroscopic imaging and higher exposure radiographic imaging modes. Lastly, the high dynamic range pixel circuits are suitable for integration with on-panel multiplexers for both gate and data lines, which can further reduce circuit complexity.

  6. Novel integrated CMOS pixel structures for vertex detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bieser, Fred; Chen, Yandong; Gareus, Robin; Matis, Howard S.; Oldenburg, Markus; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans Georg; Wieman, Howard H.; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2003-10-29

    Novel CMOS active pixel structures for vertex detector applications have been designed and tested. The overriding goal of this work is to increase the signal to noise ratio of the sensors and readout circuits. A large-area native epitaxial silicon photogate was designed with the aim of increasing the charge collected per struck pixel and to reduce charge diffusion to neighboring pixels. The photogate then transfers the charge to a low capacitance readout node to maintain a high charge to voltage conversion gain. Two techniques for noise reduction are also presented. The first is a per-pixel kT/C noise reduction circuit that produces results similar to traditional correlated double sampling (CDS). It has the advantage of requiring only one read, as compared to two for CDS, and no external storage or subtraction is needed. The technique reduced input-referred temporal noise by a factor of 2.5, to 12.8 e{sup -}. Finally, a column-level active reset technique is explored that suppresses kT/C noise during pixel reset. In tests, noise was reduced by a factor of 7.6 times, to an estimated 5.1 e{sup -} input-referred noise. The technique also dramatically reduces fixed pattern (pedestal) noise, by up to a factor of 21 in our tests. The latter feature may possibly reduce pixel-by-pixel pedestal differences to levels low enough to permit sparse data scan without per-pixel offset corrections.

  7. Method for hyperspectral imagery exploitation and pixel spectral unmixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An efficiently hybrid approach to exploit hyperspectral imagery and unmix spectral pixels. This hybrid approach uses a genetic algorithm to solve the abundance vector for the first pixel of a hyperspectral image cube. This abundance vector is used as initial state in a robust filter to derive the abundance estimate for the next pixel. By using Kalman filter, the abundance estimate for a pixel can be obtained in one iteration procedure which is much fast than genetic algorithm. The output of the robust filter is fed to genetic algorithm again to derive accurate abundance estimate for the current pixel. The using of robust filter solution as starting point of the genetic algorithm speeds up the evolution of the genetic algorithm. After obtaining the accurate abundance estimate, the procedure goes to next pixel, and uses the output of genetic algorithm as the previous state estimate to derive abundance estimate for this pixel using robust filter. And again use the genetic algorithm to derive accurate abundance estimate efficiently based on the robust filter solution. This iteration continues until pixels in a hyperspectral image cube end.

  8. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  9. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  10. Estimation of proportions in mixed pixels through their region characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A region of mixed pixels can be characterized through the probability density function of proportions of classes in the pixels. Using information from the spectral vectors of a given set of pixels from the mixed pixel region, expressions are developed for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of probability density functions of proportions. The proportions of classes in the mixed pixels can then be estimated. If the mixed pixels contain objects of two classes, the computation can be reduced by transforming the spectral vectors using a transformation matrix that simultaneously diagonalizes the covariance matrices of the two classes. If the proportions of the classes of a set of mixed pixels from the region are given, then expressions are developed for obtaining the estmates of the parameters of the probability density function of the proportions of mixed pixels. Development of these expressions is based on the criterion of the minimum sum of squares of errors. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed agricultural multispectral imagery data are presented.

  11. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  12. Mobile NMR: Measuring Pixels, Images, and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluemich, Bernhard

    2007-03-01

    The vision of bringing nuclear magnetic resonance out of the lab to the doctor's office, the chemical reactor, or the manufacturing site is becoming reality with the development of mobile NMR. Pioneered for well logging in the oil industry, the concept has been explored for materials testing in a more systematic way since the introduction of the NMR-MOUSE. This is a small, one-sided access NMR sensor which acquires the information of one pixel from a particular spot of a large object. As the sensor explores the stray-fields of a permanent magnet and an rf coil, the magnetic fields are inhomogeneous and the sensitive volume is limited to the region, where both fields are orthogonal and the Larmor frequency lies within the excitation bandwidth. By shaping the magnet and the coil geometries, the shape of the sensitive volume can be tailored to a thin slice or a larger volume a certain distance away from the sensor surface. In the first case, there is a strong field gradient in the depth direction, and in the second case, a homogeneous sweet spot of the field profile is desired. The first case is suitable for measuring high-resolution depth profiles, while the second case is suitable for chemical shift resolved spectroscopy and volume imaging. The basic concepts of open and closed mobile NMR sensors will be discussed along with applications from testing polymer products, cultural heritage, medical tissue, and rock cores.

  13. Singlet mega-pixel resolution lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen-Hung; Lin, Hoang Yan; Chang, Horng

    2008-03-01

    There always exist some new challenges for lens designers to keep their old-line technology update. To minimize lens volume is one of the most notified examples. In this paper we designed a single thick lens, constructed by using one oblique (reflective) surface, apart from two conventional refractive surfaces, to bend the optical path of the optical system to achieve this goal. Detail design procedure, including system layout and lens performance diagrams, will be presented. Following the first order layout, we applied aspherical form to the two refractive surfaces in order to correct the spherical aberration up to an acceptable condition. Then, the reduced aberrations such as coma, astigmatism, field curvature and distortion can easily be corrected with some calculations related to spherical aberration as shown in the publication of H. H. Hopkins (1950). Plastic material is used in the design, because the aspherical surfaces can then be manufactured in a more cost effective way. The final specification of the design is: EFL is 4.6 mm, the F number is 2.8, the over all thickness of lens is 3.6 mm, its MTF is 0.3 at 227 lp/mm in center field and chief ray angle is less than 15 degrees. Lens data as well as optical performance curves are also presented in the paper. In conclusion we have successfully finished a mega-pixel resolution lens design and its overall thickness is compatible with the state of the art.

  14. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection by Graph Pixel Selection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Dandan; Wang, Qi

    2016-12-01

    Hyperspectral anomaly detection (AD) is an important problem in remote sensing field. It can make full use of the spectral differences to discover certain potential interesting regions without any target priors. Traditional Mahalanobis-distance-based anomaly detectors assume the background spectrum distribution conforms to a Gaussian distribution. However, this and other similar distributions may not be satisfied for the real hyperspectral images. Moreover, the background statistics are susceptible to contamination of anomaly targets which will lead to a high false-positive rate. To address these intrinsic problems, this paper proposes a novel AD method based on the graph theory. We first construct a vertex- and edge-weighted graph and then utilize a pixel selection process to locate the anomaly targets. Two contributions are claimed in this paper: 1) no background distributions are required which makes the method more adaptive and 2) both the vertex and edge weights are considered which enables a more accurate detection performance and better robustness to noise. Intensive experiments on the simulated and real hyperspectral images demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other benchmark competitors. In addition, the robustness of the proposed method has been validated by using various window sizes. This experimental result also demonstrates the valuable characteristic of less computational complexity and less parameter tuning for real applications.

  15. Detector apparatus having a hybrid pixel-waveform readout system

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2014-10-21

    A gamma ray detector apparatus comprises a solid state detector that includes a plurality of anode pixels and at least one cathode. The solid state detector is configured for receiving gamma rays during an interaction and inducing a signal in an anode pixel and in a cathode. An anode pixel readout circuit is coupled to the plurality of anode pixels and is configured to read out and process the induced signal in the anode pixel and provide triggering and addressing information. A waveform sampling circuit is coupled to the at least one cathode and configured to read out and process the induced signal in the cathode and determine energy of the interaction, timing of the interaction, and depth of interaction.

  16. Status of the CMS Phase I pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spannagel, S.

    2016-09-01

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  17. Research on ionospheric tomography based on variable pixel height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dunyong; Li, Peiqing; He, Jie; Hu, Wusheng; Li, Chaokui

    2016-05-01

    A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel height was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The method considers the height of each pixel as an unknown variable, which is retrieved during the inversion process together with the electron density values. In contrast to conventional computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT), which parameterizes the model with a fixed pixel height, the variable-pixel-height computerized ionospheric tomography (VHCIT) model applies a disturbance to the height of each pixel. In comparison with conventional CIT models, the VHCIT technique achieved superior results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of VHCIT was performed. According to the results of the statistical analysis of the average root mean square errors, the proposed model offers an improvement by 15% compared with conventional CIT models.

  18. Single photon counting pixel detectors for synchrotron radiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokawa, H.; Broennimann, Ch.; Eikenberry, E. F.; Henrich, B.; Kawase, M.; Kobas, M.; Kraft, P.; Sato, M.; Schmitt, B.; Suzuki, M.; Tanida, H.; Uruga, T.

    2010-11-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI an X-ray single photon counting pixel detector (PILATUS) based on the hybrid-pixel detector technology was developed in collaboration with SPring-8. The detection element is a 320 or 450 μm thick silicon sensor forming pixelated pn-diodes with a pitch of 172 μm×172 μm. An array of 2×8 custom CMOS readout chips are indium bump-bonded to the sensor, which leads to 33.5 mm×83.8 mm detective area. Each pixel contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, a single level discriminator and a 20 bit counter. This design realizes a high dynamic range, short readout time of less than 3 ms, a high framing rate of over 200 images per second and an excellent point-spread function. The maximum counting rate achieves more than 2×106 X-rays/s/pixel.

  19. Attenuating Stereo Pixel-Locking via Affine Window Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Andrew N.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2006-01-01

    For real-time stereo vision systems, the standard method for estimating sub-pixel stereo disparity given an initial integer disparity map involves fitting parabolas to a matching cost function aggregated over rectangular windows. This results in a phenomenon known as 'pixel-locking,' which produces artificially-peaked histograms of sub-pixel disparity. These peaks correspond to the introduction of erroneous ripples or waves in the 3D reconstruction of truly Rat surfaces. Since stereo vision is a common input modality for autonomous vehicles, these inaccuracies can pose a problem for safe, reliable navigation. This paper proposes a new method for sub-pixel stereo disparity estimation, based on ideas from Lucas-Kanade tracking and optical flow, which substantially reduces the pixel-locking effect. In addition, it has the ability to correct much larger initial disparity errors than previous approaches and is more general as it applies not only to the ground plane.

  20. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  1. Using an Active Pixel Sensor In A Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, Howard S.; Bieser, Fred; Chen, Yandong; Gareus, Robin; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Oldenburg, Markus; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, HansGeorg; Wieman, Howard H.; Wurzel, Samuel E.; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2004-04-22

    Research has shown that Active Pixel CMOS sensors can detect charged particles. We have been studying whether this process can be used in a collider environment. In particular, we studied the effect of radiation with 55 MeV protons. These results show that a fluence of about 2 x 10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2} reduces the signal by a factor of two while the noise increases by 25%. A measurement 6 months after exposure shows that the silicon lattice naturally repairs itself. Heating the silicon to 100 C reduced the shot noise and increased the collected charge. CMOS sensors have a reduced signal to noise ratio per pixel because charge diffuses to neighboring pixels. We have constructed a photogate to see if this structure can collect more charge per pixel. Results show that a photogate does collect charge in fewer pixels, but it takes about 15 ms to collect all of the electrons produced by a pulse of light.

  2. Attenuating Stereo Pixel-Locking via Affine Window Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Andrew N.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2006-01-01

    For real-time stereo vision systems, the standard method for estimating sub-pixel stereo disparity given an initial integer disparity map involves fitting parabolas to a matching cost function aggregated over rectangular windows. This results in a phenomenon known as 'pixel-locking,' which produces artificially-peaked histograms of sub-pixel disparity. These peaks correspond to the introduction of erroneous ripples or waves in the 3D reconstruction of truly Rat surfaces. Since stereo vision is a common input modality for autonomous vehicles, these inaccuracies can pose a problem for safe, reliable navigation. This paper proposes a new method for sub-pixel stereo disparity estimation, based on ideas from Lucas-Kanade tracking and optical flow, which substantially reduces the pixel-locking effect. In addition, it has the ability to correct much larger initial disparity errors than previous approaches and is more general as it applies not only to the ground plane.

  3. High-sensitivity 25-micron microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Asbrock, James F.; Lum, Nancy A.; Wyles, Jessica; Hewitt, C.; Kennedy, Adam; Van Lue, David; Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chin, Richard; Kostrzewa, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO) has achieved a significant technical breakthrough in uncooled FPAs by reducing the pixel size by a factor of two while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity. Raytheon has produced the first high-quality 320x240 microbolometer FPAs with 25 micrometers pitch pixels. The 320 x240 FPAs have a sensitivity that is comparable to microbolometer FPAs with 50 micrometers pixels. The average NETD value for these FPAs is about 35 mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. Good pixel operability and excellent image quality have been demonstrated. Pixel operability is greater than 99% on some FPAs, and uncorrected responsivity nonuniformity is less than 4% (sigma/mean). The microbolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. This state-of-the-art performance has been achieved as a result of an advanced micromachining fabrication process. The process allows maximization of both the thermal isolation and the optical fill-factor. The reduction in pixel size offers several potential benefits for IR systems. For a given system resolution (IFOV) requirement, the 25 micrometers pixels allow a factor of two reduction in both the focal length and aperture size of the sensor optics. The pixel size reduction facilitates a significant FPA cost reduction since the number of die printed on a wafer can be increased. The pixel size reduction has enabled the development of a large-format 640x480 FPA array. Raytheon has produced arrays with very good sensitivity, operability, and excellent image quality. These FPAs are applicable to wide-field-of-view, long range surveillance and targeting missions. Raytheon is also developing a high performance 160x128 FPA that is designed for applications where miniaturization and temperature invariance are required as well as low cost and low power.

  4. High-sensitivity (25-μm pitch) microbolometer FPAs and application development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Asbrock, James F.; Lum, Nancy A.; Kennedy, Adam; Wyles, Jessica; Hewitt, C.; Graham, Glen E.; Radford, William A.; Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chin, Richard; Kostrzewa, Thomas

    2001-10-01

    Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO) has achieved a significant technical breakthrough in uncooled FPAs by reducing the pixel size by a factor of two while maintaining state-of-the-art sensitivity. Raytheon has produced high-quality 320 X 240 microbolometer FPAs with 25 μm pitch pixels. The 320 X 240 FPAs have a sensitivity that is comparable to microbolometer FPAs with 50 micrometers pixels. The average NETD value for these FPAs is about 35 mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. Good pixel operability and excellent image quality have been demonstrated. Pixel operability is greater than 99% on some FPAs, and uncorrected responsivity nonuniformity is less than 4% (sigma/mean). The microbolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. This state-of-the-art performance has been achieved as a result of an advanced micromachining fabrication process. The process allows maximization of both the thermal isolation and the optical fill-factor. The reduction in pixel size offers several potential benefits for IR systems. For a given system resolution (IFOV) requirement, the 25 μm pixels allow a factor of two reduction in both the focal length and aperture size of the sensor optics. The pixel size reduction facilitates a significant FPA cost reduction since the number of die printed on a wafer can be increased. The pixel size reduction has enabled the development of a large-format 640 X 512 FPA array applicable to wide-field-of-view, long range surveillance and targeting missions, and a 160 X 128 array where applications for miniaturization and temperature invariance are required as well as low cost and low power.

  5. Analysis of Multipath Pixels in SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. W.; Wu, J. C.; Ding, X. L.; Zhang, L.; Hu, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings) and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivity)which determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  6. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S. C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 μm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption.

  7. Intra-pixel response of infrared detector arrays for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Tim; Baril, M. R.; Pazder, J.; Stilburn, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    The near-infrared instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope will use 5 micron cutoff HAWAII-2RG detector arrays. We have investigated the response of this type of detector at sub-pixel resolution to determine whether variations at this scale would affect the performance of the instruments. Using a simple experimental setup we were able to get measurements with a resolution of approximately 4 microns. We have measured an un-hybridized HAWAII-1RG multiplexer, a hybridized HAWAII-1RG device with a 5 micron cutoff HgCdTe detector layer, and a hybridized HAWAII-2RG device with a 5 micron cutoff substrate-removed HgCdTe detector layer. We found that the intra-pixel response functions of the hybrid devices are basically smooth and well behaved, and vary little from pixel to pixel. However, we did find numerous sub-pixel sized defects, notably some long straight thin features like scratches. We were not able to detect any significant variations with wavelength between 0.65 and 2.2 microns, but in the -1RG device there was a variation with temperature. When cooled from 80K to 40K, the pixel response became narrower, and some signal began to be lost at the edges of the pixel. We believe this reflects a reduction in charge diffusion at the lower temperature.

  8. Performance limits of a single photon counting pixel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmeissani, M.; Mikulec, B.

    2001-03-01

    X-ray imaging using hybrid pixel detectors in single photon counting mode is a relatively recent and exciting development. The photon counting mode implies that each pixel has a threshold in energy above which a hit is recorded. Sharing of charge between adjacent pixels would therefore lead to a loss of registered hits and for medical imaging applications to a higher patient dose. This explains why the demand for high spatial resolution and consequently small pixel sizes (<100 μm) motivates the Medipix2 collaboration to study the effects of charge sharing between pixels on system performance. Two different simulation codes are used to simulate the energy loss inside the detector and the charge transport towards the pixel electrodes. The largest contribution to the lateral spreading of charge comes from diffusion and can result in a considerable loss of detection efficiency in photon counting systems for small pixel sizes. The Medipix2 collaboration consists of groups from Barcelona, Cagliari, CEA/Leti DEIN, CERN, Freiburg, Glasgow, Mitthögskolan, Napoli, NIKHEF, MRC lab Cambridge, Pisa, Prague and Sassari.

  9. Pixel Analysis and Plasma Dynamics Characterized by Photospheric Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, A.; Chen, J.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Continued advances in solar observations have led to higher-resolution magnetograms and surface (photospheric) images, revealing bipolar magnetic features operating near the resolution limit during emerging flux events and other phenomena used to predict solar eruptions responsible for geomagnetic plasma disturbances. However, line of sight (LOS) magnetogram pixels only contain the net uncanceled magnetic flux, which is expected to increase for fixed regions as resolution limits improve. A pixel dynamics model utilizing Stokes I spectral profiles was previously-used to quantify changes in the Doppler shift, width, asymmetry, and tail flatness of Fe I lines at 6301.5 and 6302.5 Å and used pixel-by-pixel line profile fluctuations to characterize quiet and active regions on the Sun. We use this pixel dynamics model with circularly polarized photospheric data (e.g., SOLIS data) to estimate plasma dynamic properties at a sub-pixel level. The analysis can be extended to include the full Stokes parameters and study signatures of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties on sub-pixel scales.

  10. Monolithic pixel detectors with 0.2 μm FD-SOI pixel process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Arai, Yasuo; Chiba, Tadashi; Fujita, Yowichi; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke; Igarashi, Yasushi; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Kohriki, Takashi; Ohno, Morifumi; Ono, Yoshimasa; Shinoda, Naoyuki; Takeda, Ayaki; Tauchi, Kazuya; Tsuboyama, Toru; Tadokoro, Hirofumi; Unno, Yoshinobu; Yanagihara, Masashi

    2013-12-01

    Truly monolithic pixel detectors were fabricated with 0.2 μm SOI pixel process technology by collaborating with LAPIS Semiconductor Co., Ltd. for particle tracking experiment, X-ray imaging and medical applications. CMOS circuits were fabricated on a thin SOI layer and connected to diodes formed in the silicon handle wafer through the buried oxide layer. We can choose the handle wafer and therefore high-resistivity silicon is also available. Double SOI (D-SOI) wafers fabricated from Czochralski (CZ)-SOI wafers were newly obtained and successfully processed in 2012. The top SOI layers are used as electric circuits and the middle SOI layers used as a shield layer against the back-gate effect and cross-talk between sensors and CMOS circuits, and as an electrode to compensate for the total ionizing dose (TID) effect. In 2012, we developed two SOI detectors, INTPIX5 and INTPIX3g. A spatial resolution study was done with INTPIX5 and it showed excellent performance. The TID effect study with D-SOI INTPIX3g detectors was done and we confirmed improvement of TID tolerance in D-SOI sensors.

  11. Monolithic pixel detectors in silicon on insulator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bisello, Dario

    2013-05-06

    Silicon On Insulator (SOI) is becoming an attractive technology to fabricate monolithic pixel detectors. The possibility of using the depleted resistive substrate as a drift collection volume and to connect it by means of vias through the buried oxide to the pixel electronic makes this kind of approach interesting both for particle and photon detection. In this paper I report the results obtained in the development of monolithic pixel detectors in an SOI technology by a collaboration between groups from the University and INFN of Padova (Italy) and the LBNL and the SCIPP at UCSC (USA).

  12. Pixel detectors in 3D technologies for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, G.; Demarteau, M.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Shenai, A.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports on the current status of the development of International Linear Collider vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics. Initial testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second embodiment of the prototype data-pushed readout concept developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  13. Consequences of Mixed Pixels on Temperature Emissivity Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Foley, Michael G.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2007-02-01

    This report investigates the effect that a mixed pixel can have on temperature/emissivity seperation (i.e. temperature/emissivity estimation using long-wave infra-red data). Almost all temperature/emissivity estimation methods are based on a model that assumes both temperature and emissivity within the imaged pixel is homogeneous. A mixed pixel has heterogeneous temperature/emissivity and therefore does not satisfy the assumption. Needless to say, this heterogeneity causes biases in the estimates and this report quantifies the magnitude of the biases.

  14. Matching faces and expressions in pixelated and blurred photos.

    PubMed

    White, Murray; Li, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Matching the emotional expressions of pairs of face photos was slower with pixelated and blurred photos than with original, untransformed photos. Matching the identities of the same face pairs was unaffected by pixelation and blurring. Because pixelation and blurring degrade higher spatial frequencies carrying edge-based information that define feature shape more than lower frequencies carrying configural properties, these findings converge with findings for line drawings and negative photos in showing that expression and face recognition processes differ in their reliance on edge-based and configural information.

  15. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 {micro}m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 {micro}m{sup 2} pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  16. The role of pixel detectors in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiden, A.

    2016-12-01

    A number of new types of pixel detector systems have been pioneered in the last decade. These include new types of sensors as well as new electronics to allow much higher performance. At the same time new experiments are being planned or nearing completion covering a broad range of physics topics in flavour physics as well as large major upgrades at the LHC. These are planning to make use of the advances in pixel detectors in important ways. In this review both the pixel advances and how they enable the physics will be presented.

  17. Estimating pixel variances in the scenes of staring sensors

    DOEpatents

    Simonson, Katherine M [Cedar Crest, NM; Ma, Tian J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-24

    A technique for detecting changes in a scene perceived by a staring sensor is disclosed. The technique includes acquiring a reference image frame and a current image frame of a scene with the staring sensor. A raw difference frame is generated based upon differences between the reference image frame and the current image frame. Pixel error estimates are generated for each pixel in the raw difference frame based at least in part upon spatial error estimates related to spatial intensity gradients in the scene. The pixel error estimates are used to mitigate effects of camera jitter in the scene between the current image frame and the reference image frame.

  18. Status and Construction of the Belle II DEPFET pixel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütticke, Florian

    2014-06-01

    DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) active pixel detectors combine detection with a first amplification stage in a fully depleted detector, resulting in an superb signal-to-noise ratio even for thin sensors. Two layers of thin (75 micron) silicon DEPFET pixels will be used as the innermost vertex system, very close to the beam pipe in the Belle II detector at the SuperKEKB facility. The status of the 8 million DEPFET pixels detector, latest developments and current system tests will be discussed.

  19. Dual collection mode optical microscope with single-pixel detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we have developed a single-pixel optical microscope that provides both re ection and transmission images of the sample under test by attaching a diamond pixel layout DMD to a commercial inverted microscope. Our system performs simultaneous measurements of re ection and transmission modes. Besides, in contrast with a conventional system, in our single-element detection system both images belong, unequivocally, to the same plane of the sample. Furthermore, we have designed an algorithm to modify the shape of the projected patterns that improves the resolution and prevents the artifacts produced by the diamond pixel architecture.

  20. Monolithic pixel detectors in silicon on insulator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisello, Dario

    2013-05-01

    Silicon On Insulator (SOI) is becoming an attractive technology to fabricate monolithic pixel detectors. The possibility of using the depleted resistive substrate as a drift collection volume and to connect it by means of vias through the buried oxide to the pixel electronic makes this kind of approach interesting both for particle and photon detection. In this paper I report the results obtained in the development of monolithic pixel detectors in an SOI technology by a collaboration between groups from the University and INFN of Padova (Italy) and the LBNL and the SCIPP at UCSC (USA).

  1. A germanium hybrid pixel detector with 55μm pixel size and 65,000 channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennicard, D.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Sarajlic, M.; Smoljanin, S.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M. O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide high performance through a combination of direct detection, a relatively small pixel size, fast readout and sophisticated signal processing circuitry in each pixel. For X-ray detection above 20 keV, high-Z sensor layers rather than silicon are needed to achieve high quantum efficiency, but many high-Z materials such as GaAs and CdTe often suffer from poor material properties or nonuniformities. Germanium is available in large wafers of extremely high quality, making it an appealing option for high-performance hybrid pixel X-ray detectors, but suitable technologies for finely pixelating and bump-bonding germanium have not previously been available. A finely-pixelated germanium photodiode sensor with a 256 by 256 array of 55μm pixels has been produced. The sensor has an n-on-p structure, with 700μm thickness. Using a low-temperature indium bump process, this sensor has been bonded to the Medipix3RX photoncounting readout chip. Tests with the LAMBDA readout system have shown that the detector works successfully, with a high bond yield and higher image uniformity than comparable high-Z systems. During cooling, the system is functional around -80°C (with warmer temperatures resulting in excessive leakage current), with -100°C sufficient for good performance.

  2. Characterization of a three side abuttable CMOS pixel sensor with digital pixel and data compression for charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilloux, F.; Değerli, Y.; Flouzat, C.; Lachkar, M.; Monmarthe, E.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2016-02-01

    CMOS monolithic pixel sensor technology has been chosen to equip the new ALICE trackers for HL-LHC . PIXAM is the final prototype from an R&D program specific to the Muon Forward Tracker which intends to push significantly forward the performances of the mature rolling shutter architecture. By implementing a digital pixel allowing to readout of a group of rows in parallel, the PIXAM sensor increases the rolling shutter readout speed while keeping the same power consumption as that of analogue pixel sensors. This paper will describe shortly the ASIC architecture and will focus on the analogue and digital performances of the sensor, obtained from laboratory measurements.

  3. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinski, M.

    2017-07-01

    The innermost tracking device of the CMS experiment is a silicon pixel detector. It has to cope with high particle fluxes and radiation damage, and was built to withstand the LHC design luminosity of 1×1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity was already exceeded in 2016 and it is foreseen that it will increase further, potentially reaching two times the design value before 2018. Under such conditions the inefficiencies due to a limited readout bandwidth will increase by as much as 16% in the innermost layer. To maintain high tracking efficiency, the CMS collaboration has built a new pixel detector that was installed in March 2017. In this paper, the design of this so-called Phase-1 pixel detector is summarised, the production and the qualification of the pixel modules is described and the current status of the project is reported.

  4. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade-HFT Pixel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal; Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Sun Xiangming; Thomas, James H.; Wieman, Howard H.; Anderssen, Eric; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu, Chinh Q.

    2009-03-10

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  5. Active pixel sensors with substantially planarized color filtering elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor imaging system preferably having an active pixel sensor array compatible with a CMOS fabrication process. Color-filtering elements such as polymer filters and wavelength-converting phosphors can be integrated with the image sensor.

  6. A pixel read-out chip for the PILATUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, Ch.; Baur, R.; Eikenberry, E. F.; Kohout, S.; Lindner, M.; Schmitt, B.; Horisberger, R.

    2001-06-01

    For the protein crystallography beamlime of the Swiss Light Source (SLS), which will be operational in summer 2001, the PILATUS detector ( PIxe L Appara TUs for the SLS) is currently being built. The goal of the PILATUS project is a hybrid pixel system with a size of 40×40 cm 2 having 2000×2000 pixels. The detector will be operated in single photon counting mode for 12 keV X-rays. The prototype pixel read-out chip has a noise of 75 e- with sensor, a low threshold dispersion and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz/pixel. Due to the expected radiation dose in operation at the beamline, the chip is designed in radiation hard DMILL technology.

  7. Application of a hybrid pixel detector to powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Basolo, S; Bérar, J F; Boudet, N; Breugnon, P; Caillot, B; Clemens, J C; Delpierre, P; Dinkespiler, B; Hustache, S; Koudobine, I; Meessen, Ch; Menouni, M; Mouget, C; Palancher, H; Pangaud, P; Potheau, R; Vigeolas, E

    2007-01-01

    Results obtained using a hybrid pixel photon-counting detector in powder diffraction experiments are presented. The detector works at room temperature and its dynamic response ranges from 0.01 photons pixel(-1) s(-1) up to 10(6) photons pixel(-1) s(-1). The pixel sizes are 0.33 mm x 0.33 mm for a total area of 68 mm x 68 mm. On recording high-resolution diffraction patterns of powders, a reduction of the experimental time by more than a factor of 20 is obtained without loss of data quality. The example of an X-zeolite shows that such detectors can be used for very demanding anomalous experiments. In situ experiments of quenching liquid oxides show that frames of 0.01 s can be achieved for studying such processes.

  8. Bio-Inspired Asynchronous Pixel Event Tricolor Vision Sensor.

    PubMed

    Lenero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Bryn, D H; Hafliger, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    This article investigates the potential of the first ever prototype of a vision sensor that combines tricolor stacked photo diodes with the bio-inspired asynchronous pixel event communication protocol known as Address Event Representation (AER). The stacked photo diodes are implemented in a 22 × 22 pixel array in a standard STM 90 nm CMOS process. Dynamic range is larger than 60 dB and pixels fill factor is 28%. The pixels employ either simple pulse frequency modulation (PFM) or a Time-to-First-Spike (TFS) mode. A heuristic linear combination of the chip's inherent pseudo colors serves to approximate RGB color representation. Furthermore, the sensor outputs can be processed to represent the radiation in the near infrared (NIR) band without employing external filters, and to color-encode direction of motion due to an asymmetry in the update rates of the different diode layers.

  9. Improvement of Event Synchronization in the ATLAS Pixel Readout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Logan; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As the LHC continues in Run2, the B-Layer still uses the Atlas-SiROD Pixel readout system initially developed for Run 1. The higher luminosity occurring during Run 2 results in higher occupancy causing increased desynchronization errors in the Pixel Readout. In order to ensure lasting operation of the B-Layer until it is replaced after Run 3, changes were made to the firmware and software to add debug capabilities to identify when the errors are crossing certain thresholds and change the internal control logic accordingly. These features also allow for better debugging of the Event Counter Reset addition to the firmware. This talk will focus on the features implemented and measurements to demonstrate the positive impact on the Pixel DAQ system. A Pixel front-end chip emulator which can be used for readout system development beyond Run 3 will also be discussed. Presenter is Logan Adams, University of Washington.

  10. Pixel-by-pixel VIS/NIR and LIR sensor fusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Evan; Zhang, James S.; Song, Vivian W.; Chin, Ken P.; Hu, Gelbert

    2003-01-01

    Visible (VIS) camera (such as CCD) or Near Infrared (NIR) camera (such as low light level CCD or image intensifier) has high resolution and is easy to distinguish enemy and foe, but it cannot see through thin fog/cloud, heavy smoke/dust, foliage, camouflage, and darkness. The Long Infrared (LIR) imager can overcome above problems, but the resolution is too low and it cannot see the NIR aiming light from enemy. The best solution is to fuse the VIS/NIR and LIR sensors to overcome their shortcomings and take advantages of both sensors. In order to see the same target without parallax, the fusio system must have a common optical aperature. In this paper, three common optical apertures are designed: common reflective objective lens, common beam splitter, and common transmissive objective lens. The first one has very small field of view and the second one needs two heads, so the best choice is the third one, but we must find suitable optical materials and correct the color aberrations from 0.6 to 12 μ. It is a tough job. By choosing ZnSe as the first common piece of the objective lens and using glass for NIR and Ge (or IR glass) for LIR as rest pieces, we only need to and are able to correct the aberrations from 0.6 to 1.0 μ for NIR and from 8 to 12 μ for LIR. Finally, a common reflective objective lens and the common beam splitter are also successfully designed. Five application examples are given. In the digital signal processing, we use only one Altera chip. After inserting data, scaling the image size, and adjusting the signal level, the LIR will have the same format and same pixel number of the VIS/NIR, so real-time pixel-by-pixel sensor fusion is realized. The digital output can be used for further image processing and automatic target recognition, such as if we overlap the LIR image on the VIS/NIR image for missile guidance or rifle sight we don't need to worry about the time and the environment again. A gum-size wireless transmitter is also designed that is

  11. Per-pixel energy calibration of photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atharifard, A.; Healy, J. L.; Goulter, B. P.; Ramyar, M.; Vanden Broeke, L.; Walsh, M. F.; Onyema, C. C.; Panta, R. K.; Aamir, R.; Smithies, D. J.; Doesburg, R.; Anjomrouz, M.; Shamshad, M.; Bheesette, S.; Rajendran, K.; de Ruiter, N. J. A.; Knight, D.; Chernoglazov, A.; Mandalika, H.; Bell, S. T.; Bateman, C. J.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.

    2017-03-01

    Energy resolving performance of spectral CT systems is influenced by the accuracy of the detector's energy calibration. Global energy calibration maps a given threshold to the average energy response of all pixels of the detector. Variations arising from CMOS manufacturing processes and properties of the sensor cause different pixels to respond differently to photons of the same energy. Threshold dispersion adversely affects spectral imaging by degrading energy resolution, which contributes to blurring of the energy information. In this paper, we present a technique for per-pixel energy calibration of photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) that quantifies the energy response of individual pixels relative to the average response. This technique takes advantage of the measurements made by an equalized chip. It uses a known global energy map to quantify the effect of threshold dispersion on the energy response of the detector pixels across an energy range of interest. The proposed technique was assessed using a MARS scanner with an equalized Medipix3RX chip flip-bonded to 2 mm thick CdTe semiconductor crystal at a pitch of 110 μ m. Measurements were made of characteristic x-rays of a molybdenum foil. Results were compared between the case that the global calibration was used on its own and the case of using it in conjunction with our per-pixel calibration technique. The proposed technique quantified up to 1.87 keV error in energy response of 100 pixels of a selected region of interest (ROI). It made an improvement of 28.3% in average FWHM. The additional information provided by this per-pixel calibration technique can be used to improve spectral reconstruction.

  12. Measuring Pixel-Position Errors On CCD Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Shao, Mike; Gursel, Yekta; Yu, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Deviations of positions of pixels on charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector from nominal rectangular grid pattern measured by method in which coherent-light interference fringes used as reference pattern. Conceived for use in determining pixel-position errors in astrometric cameras flown aboard spacecraft. Also applied to determination of similar errors in (and calibration of) terrestrial CCD cameras used as position sensors; for example, position-measuring cameras that are parts of robotic systems.

  13. Offline calibrations and performance of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenegger, Urs; CMS Collaboration

    2011-09-01

    The CMS pixel detector, divided into barrel and endcap subdetectors, has 66 million pixels. We present the offline algorithms and results for the gain/pedestal and Lorentz angle calibrations. The determination of the optimal clock delay settings with initial data is described. The expected detector performance from Monte Carlo simulations is compared to the real performance in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions.

  14. A Chip and Pixel Qualification Methodology on Imaging Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Petkov, Mihail; Nguyen, Duc N.; Novak, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a qualification methodology on imaging sensors. In addition to overall chip reliability characterization based on sensor s overall figure of merit, such as Dark Rate, Linearity, Dark Current Non-Uniformity, Fixed Pattern Noise and Photon Response Non-Uniformity, a simulation technique is proposed and used to project pixel reliability. The projected pixel reliability is directly related to imaging quality and provides additional sensor reliability information and performance control.

  15. Pixel History for Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borncamp, D.; Grogin, N.; Bourque, M.; Ogaz, S.

    2017-06-01

    Excess thermal energy present in a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) can result in additional electrical current. This excess charge is trapped within the silicon lattice structure of the CCD electronics. It can persist through multiple exposures and have an adverse effect on science performance of the detectors unless properly flagged and corrected for. The traditional way to correct for this extra charge is to take occasional long-exposure images with the camera shutter closed. These images, generally referred to as "dark" images, allow for the measurement of the thermal-electron contamination present in each pixel of the CCD lattice. This so-called "dark current" can then be subtracted from the science images by re-scaling the dark to the corresponding exposure times. Pixels that have signal above a certain threshold are traditionally marked as "hot" and flagged in the data quality array. Many users will discard these because of the extra current. However, these pixels may not be unusable because of an unreliable dark subtraction; if we find these pixels to be stable over an anneal period, we can properly subtract the charge and the extra Poisson noise from this dark current will be propagated into the error arrays. Here we present the results of a pixel history study that analyzes every individual pixel of the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) CCDs over time and allows pixels that were previously flagged as unusable to be brought back into the science image as a reliable pixel.

  16. FPIX2, the BTeV pixel readout chip

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian et al.

    2003-12-10

    A radiation tolerant pixel readout chip, FPIX2, has been developed at Fermilab for use by BTeV. Some of the requirements of the BTeV pixel readout chip are reviewed and contrasted with requirements for similar devices in LHC experiments. A description of the FPIX2 is given, and results of initial tests of its performance are presented, as is a summary of measurements planned for the coming year.

  17. Small pixel CZT detector for hard X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew David; Cernik, Robert; Chen, Henry; Hansson, Conny; Iniewski, Kris; Jones, Lawrence L.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.

    2011-10-01

    A new small pixel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector has been developed for hard X-ray spectroscopy. The X-ray performance of four detectors is presented and the detectors are analysed in terms of the energy resolution of each pixel. The detectors were made from CZT crystals grown by the travelling heater method (THM) bonded to a 20×20 application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and data acquisition (DAQ) system. The detectors had an array of 20×20 pixels on a 250 μm pitch, with each pixel gold-stud bonded to an energy resolving circuit in the ASIC. The DAQ system digitised the ASIC output with 14 bit resolution, performing offset corrections and data storage to disc in real time at up to 40,000 frames per second. The detector geometry and ASIC design was optimised for X-ray spectroscopy up to 150 keV and made use of the small pixel effect to preferentially measure the electron signal. A 241Am source was used to measure the spectroscopic performance and uniformity of the detectors. The average energy resolution (FWHM at 59.54 keV) of each pixel ranged from 1.09±0.46 to 1.50±0.57 keV across the four detectors. The detectors showed good spectral performance and uniform response over almost all pixels in the 20×20 array. A large area 80×80 pixel detector will be built that will utilise the scalable design of the ASIC and the large areas of monolithic spectroscopic grade THM grown CZT that are now available. The large area detector will have the same performance as that demonstrated here.

  18. An adaptive regression method for infrared blind-pixel compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suting; Meng, Hao; Pei, Tao; Zhang, Yanyan

    2017-09-01

    Blind pixel compensation is an ill-posed inverse problem of infrared imaging systems and image restoration. The performance of a blind pixel compensation algorithm depends on the accuracy of estimation for the underlying true infrared images. We propose an adaptive regression method (ARM) for blind pixel compensation that integrates the multi-scale framework with a regression model. A blind-pixel is restored by exploiting the intra-scale properties through the nonparametric regressive estimation and the inter-scale characteristics via parametric regression for continuous learning. Combining the respective strengths of a parametric model and a nonparametric model, ARM establishes a set of multi-scale blind-pixel compensation method to correct the non-uniformity based on key frame extraction. Therefore, it is essentially different from the traditional frameworks for blind pixel compensation which are based on filtering and interpolation. Experimental results on some challenging cases of blind compensation show that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing methods by a significant margin in both isolated blind restoration and clustered blind restoration.

  19. Frequency distribution signatures and classification of within-object pixels

    PubMed Central

    Stow, Douglas A.; Toure, Sory I.; Lippitt, Christopher D.; Lippitt, Caitlin L.; Lee, Chung-rui

    2011-01-01

    The premise of geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) is that image objects are composed of aggregates of pixels that correspond to earth surface features of interest. Most commonly, image-derived objects (segments) or objects associated with predefined land units (e.g., agricultural fields) are classified using parametric statistical characteristics (e.g., mean and standard deviation) of the within-object pixels. The objective of this exploratory study was to examine the between- and within-class variability of frequency distributions of multispectral pixel values, and to evaluate a quantitative measure and classification rule that exploits the full pixel frequency distribution of within object pixels (i.e., histogram signatures) compared to simple parametric statistical characteristics. High spatial resolution Quickbird satellite multispectral data of Accra, Ghana were evaluated in the context of mapping land cover and land use and socioeconomic status. Results show that image objects associated with land cover and land use types can have characteristic, non-normal frequency distributions (histograms). Signatures of most image objects tended to match closely the training signature of a single class or sub-class. Curve matching approaches to classifying multi-pixel frequency distributions were found to be slightly more effective than standard statistical classifiers based on a nearest neighbor classifier. PMID:22408575

  20. Techniques for precise energy calibration of particle pixel detectors.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, M; Campbell-Ricketts, T; Bahadori, A; Empl, A

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate techniques to improve the accuracy of the energy calibration of Timepix pixel detectors, used for the measurement of energetic particles. The typical signal from such particles spreads among many pixels due to charge sharing effects. As a consequence, the deposited energy in each pixel cannot be reconstructed unless the detector is calibrated, limiting the usability of such signals for calibration. To avoid this shortcoming, we calibrate using low energy X-rays. However, charge sharing effects still occur, resulting in part of the energy being deposited in adjacent pixels and possibly lost. This systematic error in the calibration process results in an error of about 5% in the energy measurements of calibrated devices. We use FLUKA simulations to assess the magnitude of charge sharing effects, allowing a corrected energy calibration to be performed on several Timepix pixel detectors and resulting in substantial improvement in energy deposition measurements. Next, we address shortcomings in calibration associated with the huge range (from kiloelectron-volts to megaelectron-volts) of energy deposited per pixel which result in a nonlinear energy response over the full range. We introduce a new method to characterize the non-linear response of the Timepix detectors at high input energies. We demonstrate improvement using a broad range of particle types and energies, showing that the new method reduces the energy measurement errors, in some cases by more than 90%.

  1. Challenges of small-pixel infrared detectors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.; Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.

    2016-04-01

    In the last two decades, several new concepts for improving the performance of infrared detectors have been proposed. These new concepts particularly address the drive towards the so-called high operating temperature focal plane arrays (FPAs), aiming to increase detector operating temperatures, and as a consequence reduce the cost of infrared systems. In imaging systems with the above megapixel formats, pixel dimension plays a crucial role in determining critical system attributes such as system size, weight and power consumption (SWaP). The advent of smaller pixels has also resulted in the superior spatial and temperature resolution of these systems. Optimum pixel dimensions are limited by diffraction effects from the aperture, and are in turn wavelength-dependent. In this paper, the key challenges in realizing optimum pixel dimensions in FPA design including dark current, pixel hybridization, pixel delineation, and unit cell readout capacity are outlined to achieve a sufficiently adequate modulation transfer function for the ultra-small pitches involved. Both photon and thermal detectors have been considered. Concerning infrared photon detectors, the trade-offs between two types of competing technology—HgCdTe material systems and III-V materials (mainly barrier detectors)—have been investigated.

  2. Techniques for precise energy calibration of particle pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, M.; Campbell-Ricketts, T.; Bahadori, A.; Empl, A.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate techniques to improve the accuracy of the energy calibration of Timepix pixel detectors, used for the measurement of energetic particles. The typical signal from such particles spreads among many pixels due to charge sharing effects. As a consequence, the deposited energy in each pixel cannot be reconstructed unless the detector is calibrated, limiting the usability of such signals for calibration. To avoid this shortcoming, we calibrate using low energy X-rays. However, charge sharing effects still occur, resulting in part of the energy being deposited in adjacent pixels and possibly lost. This systematic error in the calibration process results in an error of about 5% in the energy measurements of calibrated devices. We use FLUKA simulations to assess the magnitude of charge sharing effects, allowing a corrected energy calibration to be performed on several Timepix pixel detectors and resulting in substantial improvement in energy deposition measurements. Next, we address shortcomings in calibration associated with the huge range (from kiloelectron-volts to megaelectron-volts) of energy deposited per pixel which result in a nonlinear energy response over the full range. We introduce a new method to characterize the non-linear response of the Timepix detectors at high input energies. We demonstrate improvement using a broad range of particle types and energies, showing that the new method reduces the energy measurement errors, in some cases by more than 90%.

  3. High-voltage pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perić, I.; Kreidl, C.; Fischer, P.; Bompard, F.; Breugnon, P.; Clemens, J.-C.; Fougeron, D.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Barbero, M.; Feigl, S.; Capeans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Muenstermann, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; La Rosa, A.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Backhaus, M.; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, H.; Hemperek, T.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Quadt, A.; Weingarten, J.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Rieger, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.

    2014-11-01

    The high-voltage (HV-) CMOS pixel sensors offer several good properties: a fast charge collection by drift, the possibility to implement relatively complex CMOS in-pixel electronics and the compatibility with commercial processes. The sensor element is a deep n-well diode in a p-type substrate. The n-well contains CMOS pixel electronics. The main charge collection mechanism is drift in a shallow, high field region, which leads to a fast charge collection and a high radiation tolerance. We are currently evaluating the use of the high-voltage detectors implemented in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology for the high-luminosity ATLAS upgrade. Our approach is replacing the existing pixel and strip sensors with the CMOS sensors while keeping the presently used readout ASICs. By intelligence we mean the ability of the sensor to recognize a particle hit and generate the address information. In this way we could benefit from the advantages of the HV sensor technology such as lower cost, lower mass, lower operating voltage, smaller pitch, smaller clusters at high incidence angles. Additionally we expect to achieve a radiation hardness necessary for ATLAS upgrade. In order to test the concept, we have designed two HV-CMOS prototypes that can be readout in two ways: using pixel and strip readout chips. In the case of the pixel readout, the connection between HV-CMOS sensor and the readout ASIC can be established capacitively.

  4. Accelerating sub-pixel marker segmentation using GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Holger

    2009-02-01

    Sub-pixel accurate marker segmentation is an important task for many computer vision systems. The 3D-positions of markers are used in control loops to determine the position of machine tools or robot end-effectors. Accurate segmentation of the marker position in the image plane is crucial for accurate reconstruction. Many subpixel segmentation algorithms are computationally intensive, especially when the number of markers increases. Modern graphics hardware with its massively parallel architecture provides a powerful tool for many image segmentation tasks. Especially, the time consuming sub-pixel refinement steps in marker segmentation can benefit from the recent progress. This article presents an implementation of a sub-pixel marker segmentation framework using the GPU to accelerate the processing time. The image segmentation chain consists of two stages. The first is a pre-processing stage which segments the initial position of the marker with pixel accuracy, the second stage refines the initial marker position to sub-pixel accuracy. Both stages are implemented as shader programs on the GPU. The flexible architecture allows it to combine different pre-processing and sub-pixel refinement algorithms. Experimental results show that significant speed-up can be achieved compared to CPU implementations, especially when the number of markers increases.

  5. Error-free demodulation of pixelated carrier frequency interferograms.

    PubMed

    Servin, M; Estrada, J C

    2010-08-16

    Recently, pixelated spatial carrier interferograms have been used in optical metrology and are an industry standard nowadays. The main feature of these interferometers is that each pixel over the video camera may be phase-modulated by any (however fixed) desired angle within [0,2pi] radians. The phase at each pixel is shifted without cross-talking from their immediate neighborhoods. This has opened new possibilities for experimental spatial wavefront modulation not dreamed before, because we are no longer constrained to introduce a spatial-carrier using a tilted plane. Any useful mathematical model to phase-modulate the testing wavefront in a pixel-wise basis can be used. However we are nowadays faced with the problem that these pixelated interferograms have not been correctly demodulated to obtain an error-free (exact) wavefront estimation. The purpose of this paper is to offer the general theory that allows one to demodulate, in an exact way, pixelated spatial-carrier interferograms modulated by any thinkable two-dimensional phase carrier.

  6. Fault tolerant photodiode and photogate active pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Cory; Chapman, Glenn H.; La Haye, Michelle L.; Djaja, Sunjaya; Cheung, Desmond Y. H.; Lin, Henry; Loo, Edward; Audet, Yves R.

    2005-03-01

    As the pixel counts of digital imagers increase, the challenge of maintaining high yields and ensuring reliability over an imager"s lifetime increases. A fault tolerant active pixel sensor (APS) has been designed to meet this need by splitting an APS in half and operating both halves in parallel. The fault tolerant APS will perform normally in the no defect case and will produce approximately half the output for single defects. Thus, the entire signal can be recovered by multiplying the output by two. Since pixels containing multiple defects are rare, this design can correct for most defects allowing for higher production yields. Fault tolerant photodiode and photogate APS" were fabricated in 0.18-micron technology. Testing showed that the photodiode APS could correct for optically induced and electrically induced faults, within experimental error. The photogate APS was only tested for optically induced defects and also corrects for defects within experimental error. Further testing showed that the sensitivity of fault tolerant pixels was approximately 2-3 times more sensitive than the normal pixels. HSpice simulations of the fault tolerant APS circuit did not show increased sensitivity, however an equivalent normal APS circuit with twice width readout and row transistors was 1.90 times more sensitive than a normal pixel.

  7. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  8. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor Integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  9. Enhancing head and helmet-mounted displays using a virtual pixel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kading, Benjamin; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Head and helmet-mounted displays utilize pixels to display a digitized approximation of the real world. These displays must have a higher pixel density (as compared to a monitor or projected image) to create the same level of perceived resolution. This paper proposes a virtual pixel technology which incorporates a virtual pixel creation function. Each physical pixel's configuration is based on the virtual pixels that it contributes to, allowing lower pixel density display hardware to produce the approximation of a higher pixel density. The paper provides an overview of the proposed technology and how it is applicable to head/helmet-mounted displays and considerations related thereto.

  10. Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Cull, Christy; Tyrrell, Brian M.; D'Onofrio, Richard; Bolstad, Andrew; Lin, Joseph; Little, Jeffrey W.; Blackwell, Megan; Renzi, Matthew; Kelly, Mike

    2014-07-01

    Smart pixel imaging with computational-imaging arrays (SPICA) transfers image plane coding typically realized in the optical architecture to the digital domain of the focal plane array, thereby minimizing signal-to-noise losses associated with static filters or apertures and inherent diffraction concerns. MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing digitalpixel focal plane array (DFPA) devices for many years. In this work, we leverage legacy designs modified with new features to realize a computational imaging array (CIA) with advanced pixel-processing capabilities. We briefly review the use of DFPAs for on-chip background removal and image plane filtering. We focus on two digital readout integrated circuits (DROICS) as CIAs for two-dimensional (2D) transient target tracking and three-dimensional (3D) transient target estimation using per-pixel coded-apertures or flutter shutters. This paper describes two DROICs - a SWIR pixelprocessing imager (SWIR-PPI) and a Visible CIA (VISCIA). SWIR-PPI is a DROIC with a 1 kHz global frame rate with a maximum per-pixel shuttering rate of 100 MHz, such that each pixel can be modulated by a time-varying, pseudorandom, and duo-binary signal (+1,-1,0). Combining per-pixel time-domain coding and processing enables 3D (x,y,t) target estimation with limited loss of spatial resolution. We evaluate structured and pseudo-random encoding strategies and employ linear inversion and non-linear inversion using total-variation minimization to estimate a 3D data cube from a single 2D temporally-encoded measurement. The VISCIA DROIC, while low-resolution, has a 6 kHz global frame rate and simultaneously encodes eight periodic or aperiodic transient target signatures at a maximum rate of 50 MHz using eight 8-bit counters. By transferring pixel-based image plane coding to the DROIC and utilizing sophisticated processing, our CIAs enable on-chip temporal super-resolution.

  11. VeloPix: the pixel ASIC for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; De Gaspari, M.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Wyllie, K.; Gromov, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full readout at 40 MHz, with the data fed directly to the software triggering algorithms. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight hybrid pixel detector operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front-end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb readout requirements and the 55 × 55 μm VELO pixel dimensions. The chip is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s, resulting in a required output bandwidth of more than 16 Gbit/s. The occupancy across the chip is also very non-uniform, and the radiation levels reach an integrated 400 Mrad over the lifetime of the detector.VeloPix is a binary pixel readout chip with a data driven readout, designed in 130 nm CMOS technology. The pixels are combined into groups of 2 × 4 super pixels, enabling a shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combined address and time stamp information. The pixel hits are combined with other simultaneous hits in the same super pixel, time stamped, and immediately driven off-chip. The analog front-end must be sufficiently fast to accurately time stamp the data, with a small enough dead time to minimize data loss in the most occupied regions of the chip. The data is driven off chip with a custom designed high speed serialiser. The current status of the ASIC design, the chip architecture and the simulations will be described.

  12. CMOS in-pixel optical pulse frequency modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Nicolaas E.; du Plessis, M.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper covers the design of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) pixel readout circuit with a built-in frequency conversion feature. The pixel contains a CMOS photo sensor along with all signal-to-frequency conversion circuitry. An 8×8 array of these pixels is also designed. Current imaging arrays often use analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and digital signal processing (DSP) techniques that are off-chip1. The frequency modulation technique investigated in this paper is preferred over other ADC techniques due to its smaller size, and the possibility of a higher dynamic range. Careful considerations are made regarding the size of the components of the pixel, as various characteristics of CMOS devices are limited by decreasing the scale of the components2. The methodology used was the CMOS design cycle for integrated circuit design. All components of the pixel were designed from first principles to meet necessary requirements of a small pixel size (30×30 μm2) and an output resolution greater than that of an 8-bit ADC. For the photodetector, an n+-p+/p-substrate diode was designed with a parasitic capacitance of 3 fF. The analog front-end stage was designed around a Schmitt trigger circuit. The photo current is integrated on an integration capacitor of 200 fF, which is reset when the Schmitt trigger output voltage exceeds a preset threshold. The circuit schematic and layout were designed using Cadence Virtuoso and the process used was the AMS CMOS 350 nm process using a power supply of 5V. The simulation results were confirmed to comply with specifications, and the layout passed all verification checks. The dynamic range achieved is 58.828 dB per pixel, with the output frequencies ranging from 12.341kHz to 10.783 MHz. It is also confirmed that the output frequency has a linear relationship to the photocurrent generated by the photodiode.

  13. Pixel Analysis of Photospheric Spectral Data. I. Plasma Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, Anthony P.; Chen, James; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2016-11-01

    Recent observations of the photosphere using high spatial and temporal resolution show small dynamic features at or below the current resolving limits. A new pixel dynamics method has been developed to analyze spectral profiles and quantify changes in line displacement, width, asymmetry, and peakedness of photospheric absorption lines. The algorithm evaluates variations of line profile properties in each pixel and determines the statistics of such fluctuations averaged over all pixels in a given region. The method has been used to derive statistical characteristics of pixel fluctuations in observed quiet-Sun regions, an active region with no eruption, and an active region with an ongoing eruption. Using Stokes I images from the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope on 2012 March 13, variations in line width and peakedness of Fe i 6301.5 Å are shown to have a distinct spatial and temporal relationship with an M7.9 X-ray flare in NOAA 11429. This relationship is observed as stationary and contiguous patches of pixels adjacent to a sunspot exhibiting intense flattening in the line profile and line-center displacement as the X-ray flare approaches peak intensity, which is not present in area scans of the non-eruptive active region. The analysis of pixel dynamics allows one to extract quantitative information on differences in plasma dynamics on sub-pixel scales in these photospheric regions. The analysis can be extended to include the Stokes parameters and study signatures of vector components of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties.

  14. Effect of Pixel’s Spatial Characteristics on Recognition of Isolated Pixelized Chinese Character

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yaowei

    2015-01-01

    The influence of pixel’s spatial characteristics on recognition of isolated Chinese character was investigated using simulated prosthestic vision. The accuracy of Chinese character recognition with 4 kinds of pixel number (6*6, 8*8, 10*10, and 12*12 pixel array) and 3 kinds of pixel shape (Square, Dot and Gaussian) and different pixel spacing were tested through head-mounted display (HMD). A captured image of Chinese characters in font style of Hei were pixelized with Square, Dot and Gaussian pixel. Results showed that pixel number was the most important factor which could affect the recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Chartars and the accuracy of recognition increased with the addition of pixel number. 10*10 pixel array could provide enough information for people to recognize an isolated Chinese character. At low resolution (6*6 and 8*8 pixel array), there were little difference of recognition accuracy between different pixel shape and different pixel spacing. While as for high resolution (10*10 and 12*12 pixel array), the fluctuation of pixel shape and pixel spacing could not affect the performance of recognition of isolated pixelized Chinese Character. PMID:26628934

  15. DRS uncooled VOx infrared detector development and production status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Hess, Cory

    2010-04-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past decade on uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) technology development and production capacity at DRS as well as other domestic and overseas suppliers. This resulted in the proliferation of uncooled IR detectors in commercial and military markets. The uncooled detectors are widely used in firefighting, surveillance, industrial process monitoring, machine vision, and medical applications. In the military arena, uncooled detectors are fielded among diverse systems such as weapon sights, driver enhancement viewers, helmet-mounted sights, airborne and ground surveillance sensors including UAVs and robot vehicles. Pixel dimensions have continually decreased with an increase in pixel performance. This paper presents an overview of the DRS 25- and 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled VOx detector technology development and production status. The DRS uncooled FPA products include 320x240 and 640x480 arrays while the larger 1024x768 17-micron pitch array is at engineering prototype quantities. Current production of the 25-micron pitch 320x240 and 640x480 arrays exceeds 5,000 units per month, supporting U.S. military systems such as Army thermal weapon sights (TWS) and driver vision enhancers (DVE). Next generation systems are moving towards the 17-micron pixel pitch detectors. Advancement in small pixel technology has enabled the 17-micron pitch detectors performance to surpass their 25-micron pitch counterparts. To meet future production demand of the 17-micron pitch UFPAs, DRS has made significant investment in production infrastructure to upgrade its tools. These investments include a new DUV stepper, coater, and plasma etcher plus improvements in its manufacturing techniques to enhance yield. These advanced tools reduce the minimum line width in production below 0.35μm and are now being used to manufacture the 17-micron 320x240 and 640x480 arrays. To further technology development, DRS continues to engage in R&D activities

  16. Bad pixel replacement based on spatial statistics for IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-long; Zhang, Wei; Cong, Ming-yu; Cao, Yi-ming; Bao, Wen-zhuo

    2010-10-01

    IR focal plane arrays typically contain bad pixels. Bad pixels have to be corrected because those can significantly impair the performance of target-detection algorithms. On the other hand, particularly as an aid to visual interpretation, it is desirable to replace the bad pixels. IR image contains spatial information and is correlative in spatial domain. In spatial statistics the semivariogram is an important function that relates semivariance to sampling lag. This function can characterize the spatial dependence of each point on its neighbor and provide a concise and unbiased description of the scale and pattern of spatial variability. One of the main reasons for deriving semivariogram is to use it in the process of estimation. Kriging is an interpolation and estimation technique that considers both the distance and the degree of variation between known data points when estimating values in unknown areas. In this paper a new technique based on spatial statistics is developed for bad pixel replacement. The main objective of the technique is to replace bad pixels through Kriging estimation. Theory analysis and experiments show that the method is reasonable and efficient.

  17. Super pixel density based clustering automatic image classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingxing; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Tianxu

    2015-12-01

    The image classification is an important means of image segmentation and data mining, how to achieve rapid automated image classification has been the focus of research. In this paper, based on the super pixel density of cluster centers algorithm for automatic image classification and identify outlier. The use of the image pixel location coordinates and gray value computing density and distance, to achieve automatic image classification and outlier extraction. Due to the increased pixel dramatically increase the computational complexity, consider the method of ultra-pixel image preprocessing, divided into a small number of super-pixel sub-blocks after the density and distance calculations, while the design of a normalized density and distance discrimination law, to achieve automatic classification and clustering center selection, whereby the image automatically classify and identify outlier. After a lot of experiments, our method does not require human intervention, can automatically categorize images computing speed than the density clustering algorithm, the image can be effectively automated classification and outlier extraction.

  18. Pixel-feature hybrid fusion for PET/CT images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang-Ming; Nortmann, Charles A

    2011-02-01

    Color blending is a popular display method for functional and anatomic image fusion. The underlay image is typically displayed in grayscale, and the overlay image is displayed in pseudo colors. This pixel-level fusion provides too much information for reviewers to analyze quickly and effectively and clutters the display. To improve the fusion image reviewing speed and reduce the information clutter, a pixel-feature hybrid fusion method is proposed and tested for PET/CT images. Segments of the colormap are selectively masked to have a few discrete colors, and pixels displayed in the masked colors are made transparent. The colormap thus creates a false contouring effect on overlay images and allows the underlay to show through to give contours an anatomic context. The PET standardized uptake value (SUV) is used to control where colormap segments are masked. Examples show that SUV features can be extracted and blended with CT image instantaneously for viewing and diagnosis, and the non-feature part of the PET image is transparent. The proposed pixel-feature hybrid fusion highlights PET SUV features on CT images and reduces display clutters. It is easy to implement and can be used as complementarily to existing pixel-level fusion methods.

  19. Multiport solid-state imager characterization at variable pixel rates

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.A.; Turko, B.T.

    1993-08-01

    The imaging performance of an 8-port Full Frame Transfer Charge Coupled Device (FFT CCD) as a function of several parameters including pixel clock rate is presented. The device, model CCD- 13, manufactured by English Electric Valve (EEV) is a 512 {times} 512 pixel array designed with four individual programmable bidirectional serial registers and eight output amplifiers permitting simultaneous readout of eight segments (128 horizontal {times} 256 vertical pixels) of the array. The imager was evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High-Speed Solid-State Imager Test Station at true pixel rates as high as 50 MHz for effective imager pixel rates approaching 400 MHz from multiporting. Key response characteristics measured include absolute responsivity, Charge-Transfer-Efficiency (CTE), dynamic range, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and electronic and optical crosstalk among the eight video channels. Preliminary test results and data obtained from the CCD-13 will be presented and the versatility/capabilities of the test station will be reviewed.

  20. Application of pixel array detectors at x-ray synchrotrons.

    SciTech Connect

    Miceli, N.; X-Ray Science Division

    2009-03-01

    Pixel array detectors have only recently been seriously used at x-ray synchrotrons. We describe the application of a digital pixel array detector (Pilatus100k) to a variety of synchrotron experiments at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The Pilatus100k was developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). It has been commercialized by a PSI spinoff (Dectrics Ltd.) This is the first commercially available pixel array detector for x-ray synchrotron applications. The APS synchrotron provides tunable x-ray pulses with duration of {approx}80 ps and a repetition period of 153 ns (24-bunch mode). The Pilatus100k is a direct detection x-ray detector where each 172 micron pixel counts individual x-ray pulses above a lower threshold. It consists of {approx}100k pixels each of which is capable of single-photon counting (>3 keV) at count rates up to {approx}1 MHz. In addition, the Pilatus100k is an electronically gateable detector. We present data showing that the Pilatus100k is capable of isolating a single x-ray bunch at the APS in 24 bunch mode. We will also present a variety of different experiments exploiting the unique capabilities of the Pilatus100k.

  1. Software Implementation for the Characterization of Silicon Pixel Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kyle; Eusebi, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    Pixel and Silicon-strip detectors are now a fundamental component for the detection, identification, and characterization of particles in nuclear and particle physics. They are used for beam diagnostics, for measurements of energy lost by electrons, for full-energy measurements of alphas and protons and heavy nuclei. The pixel and strip detectors are usually the most complex, sensitive, and expensive system in multi-million dollar detectors such as the ones in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven. This poster describes the development of a characterization station for pixel and strip detectors in clean room at Texas A&M University. As a first step we describe the quantities to be measured for a full characterization of the pixel sensor, the identification of the needed electronic circuitry and the logic behind the control and readout of the system as a whole. The second stage shows the analysis of the obtained results from a set of next-generation radiation-hard pixel sensors. REU student from Florida A&M University.

  2. Visual mining business service using pixel bar charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Casati, Fabio

    2004-06-01

    Basic bar charts have been commonly available, but they only show highly aggregated data. Finding the valuable information hidden in the data is essential to the success of business. We describe a new visualization technique called pixel bar charts, which are derived from regular bar charts. The basic idea of a pixel bar chart is to present all data values directly instead of aggregating them into a few data values. Pixel bar charts provide data distribution and exceptions besides aggregated data. The approach is to represent each data item (e.g. a business transaction) by a single pixel in the bar chart. The attribute of each data item is encoded into the pixel color and can be accessed and drilled down to the detail information as needed. Different color mappings are used to represent multiple attributes. This technique has been prototyped in three business service applications-Business Operation Analysis, Sales Analysis, and Service Level Agreement Analysis at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. Our applications show the wide applicability and usefulness of this new idea.

  3. Fabrication and performance of mercuric iodide pixellated detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Lodewijk; Bastian, Lloyd F.; Zhang, Feng; Lenos, Howard; Capote, M. Albert

    2007-09-01

    The radiation detection efficiency and spectral resolution of mercuric iodide detectors can be improved significantly by increasing the volume of the detectors and by using a pixellated anode structure. Detector bodies with a thickness of nominally 10 mm and an active area of approximately 14 mm x 14 mm have been used for these experiments. The detectors were cut from single crystals grown by the physical vapor transport method. The cut surfaces were polished and etched using a string saw and potassium iodide solutions. The Palladium contacts were deposited by magnetron sputtering through stainless steel masks. The cathode contact is continuous; the anode contacts consist of an array of 11 x 11 pixels surrounded by a guard ring. The resistance between a pixel and its surrounding contacts should be larger than 0.25 Gohm. The detector is mounted on a substrate that makes it possible to connect the anode pixels to an ASIC, and is conditioned so that it is stable for all pixels at a bias of -3000 Volts. Under these conditions the spectral resolution for Cs-137 gamma rays (662 keV) is approximately 5% FWHM. When depth sensing correction methods are applied, the resolution improves to about 2% FWHM or better. It is expected that the performance of the devices can be improved by the careful selection of crystal parts that are free of structural defects. Details of the fabrication technologies will be described. The effects of material inhomogeneities and transport properties of the charge carriers will be discussed.

  4. The pixel tracking telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Simon; Lei, CM; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Prosser, Alan; Rivera, Ryan; Terzo, Stefano; Turqueti, Marcos; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vigani, Luigi; Dinardo, Mauro E.

    2016-03-01

    An all silicon pixel telescope has been assembled and used at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) since 2009 to provide precise tracking information for different test beam experiments with a wide range of Detectors Under Test (DUTs) requiring high resolution measurement of the track impact point. The telescope is based on CMS pixel modules left over from the CMS forward pixel production. Eight planes are arranged to achieve a resolution of less than 8 μm on the 120 GeV proton beam transverse coordinate at the DUT position. In order to achieve such resolution with 100 × 150 μm2 pixel cells, the planes were tilted to 25 degrees to maximize charge sharing between pixels. Crucial for obtaining this performance is the alignment software, called Monicelli, specifically designed and optimized for this system. This paper will describe the telescope hardware, the data acquisition system and the alignment software constituting this particle tracking system for test beam users.

  5. 12 mega-pixel, 1,000 fps visible camera with a nanowatt A/D converter at each pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William

    2005-08-01

    A large format, area array, digital visible light camera was developed based on A/D conversion at each pixel. Production CMOS technology was used in the development of a monolithic front side illuminated photo diode pixel. Each pixel includes a one loop MOSAD, (Multiplexed Oversample A/D) converter, photo diode, and buffered output to support a very large array format operating at high frame rates. MOSAD is a modification of the delta sigma approach to A/D conversion. The 12 megapixel sensor consists of a 4,000X3,000 pixel array capable of up to 1,000 frames per second sample rate. To approximately fit a 35 millimeter optics format, a pixel size of 8.5 μm was selected. There are no operational amplifiers required at the pixel to perform the A/D function, thus allowing a high fill factor. With this pixel size, a 48% fill factor and 38% photo diode area was achieved. A single process run was completed yielding five 8 inch wafers each containing 27 camera die. The single poly, three metal AMIS 0.35 μm CMOS process was used in the fabrication process. Selected die were directly mounted on a specially designed carrier daughter board. Camera support electronics were designed and fabricated to allow sampling of the camera output using commercial standard Camera Link interfacing. Off the shelf 35 Millimeter optics was used to validate imaging capabilities of the sensor. Tests show that the first iteration sensor chip design works to the fundamental requirements and can image.

  6. Method and apparatus of high dynamic range image sensor with individual pixel reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A wide dynamic range image sensor provides individual pixel reset to vary the integration time of individual pixels. The integration time of each pixel is controlled by column and row reset control signals which activate a logical reset transistor only when both signals coincide for a given pixel.

  7. Silicon pixel detector prototyping in SOI CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Roma; Bugiel, Szymon; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, Piotr; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2016-12-01

    The Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS is one of the most advanced and promising technology for monolithic pixel detectors design. The insulator layer that is implemented inside the silicon crystal allows to integrate sensors matrix and readout electronic on a single wafer. Moreover, the separation of electronic and substrate increases also the SOI circuits performance. The parasitic capacitances to substrate are significantly reduced, so the electronic systems are faster and consume much less power. The authors of this presentation are the members of international SOIPIX collaboration, that is developing SOI pixel detectors in 200 nm Lapis Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage SOI CMOS. This work shows a set of advantages of SOI technology and presents possibilities for pixel detector design SOI CMOS. In particular, the preliminary results of a Cracow chip are presented.

  8. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Y.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Miyoshi, T.; Turala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e-. The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e-. The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  9. Planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade: beam tests results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, J.; Altenheiner, S.; Beimforde, M.; Benoit, M.; Bomben, M.; Calderini, G.; Gallrapp, C.; George, M.; Gibson, S.; Grinstein, S.; Janoska, Z.; Jentzsch, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Kishida, T.; La Rosa, A.; Libov, V.; Macchiolo, A.; Marchiori, G.; Muenstermann, D.; Nagai, R.; Piacquadio, G.; Ristic, B.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rummler, A.; Takubo, Y.; Troska, G.; Tsiskaridtze, S.; Tsurin, I.; Unno, Y.; Weigell, P.; Wittig, T.

    2012-10-01

    The performance of planar silicon pixel sensors, in development for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades, has been examined in a series of beam tests at the CERN SPS facilities since 2009. Salient results are reported on the key parameters, including the spatial resolution, the charge collection and the charge sharing between adjacent cells, for different bulk materials and sensor geometries. Measurements are presented for n+-in-n pixel sensors irradiated with a range of fluences and for p-type silicon sensors with various layouts from different vendors. All tested sensors were connected via bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. The tests reveal that both n-type and p-type planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after the lifetime fluence expected at the HL-LHC.

  10. Simulation of Caliste-SO single pixel response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barylak, J.; Barylak, A.; Mrozek, T.; Podgórski, P.; Steślicki, M.; Ścisłowski, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a method for determining the pixel response using Geant4 package. The response is calculated for cadmium telluride sensor of Caliste-SO detector. Caliste-SO will be used in STIX instrument on board Solar Orbiter, which is M-class mission of the ESA's program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. Solar Orbiter is to be launched in October 2018. STIX instrument will provide imaging spectroscopy of solar hard X-ray emissions (4 - 150 keV) using a Fourier-imaging technique. Response of pixels in pixelized Caliste-SO detector vary between each other due to different sizes and locations. This can influence the scientific data obtained from STIX. Additionally, in the simulation we considered detector effects, like: hole tailing, damage layer, Fano and electronic noise.

  11. Leakage current measurements of a pixelated polycrystalline CVD diamond detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, R. M.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Cunnigham, L.; Stehl, C.; Berderman, E.; Rahim, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond has several desirable features when used as a material for radiation detection. With the invention of synthetic growth techniques, it has become feasible to look at developing diamond radiation detectors with reasonable surface areas. Polycrystalline diamond has been grown using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique by the University of Augsburg and detector structures fabricated at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre (JWNC) in the University of Glasgow in order to produce pixelated detector arrays. The anode and cathode contacts are realised by depositing gold to produce ohmic contacts. Measurements of I-V characteristics were performed to study the material uniformity. The bias voltage is stepped from -1000V to 1000V to investigate the variation of leakage current from pixel to pixel. Bulk leakage current is measured to be less than 1nA.

  12. Wire Bond Encapsulation for the CMS Forward Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, Sam; CMS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Phase 1 upgrade of the pixel tracker for the CMS experiment will require the assembly of approximately 1000 modules consisting of pixel sensors bump bonded to readout chips. Electrical connections between the custom readout chips and support ASIC's that constitute the front-end of the pixel data acquisition system are made via wire bonds to a thin printed circuit board. Part of the assembly process carried out at Purdue University includes the partial encapsulation of the wire bonds for mechanical protection, prevention of electrolytic corrosion, and to damp oscillations due to Lorentz forces from transient current pulses in large magnetic fields. We present the details of the robotic assembly process which allows the deposition of the viscous encapsulant compound with 100 micron precision.

  13. Calculation of overlapping pixels for optical-butting focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fuqiang; Chang, Junlei; Chu, Bei; Li, Na

    2016-10-01

    The resolution and observing width of optical remote sensing camera can be enhanced by increasing the detector length of focal plane. Optical butting is used to increase the imaging length owing to its simple structure, low cost and the simultaneously-imaging detectors. But butting process is influenced by many factors, which result in imaging gaps, so overlapping pixels between adjacent detectors is the key. In this paper, the factors causing imaging gap are analyzed, and calculation of overlapping pixel number is given out based on the analysis. Firstly an optical-butting focal plane system is built on optical imaging principles. Then the factors causing imaging gap are listed and analyzed, under the consideration of telecentric and non-telecentric optical system. Based on the imaging gap analysis, a formula for overlapping pixel number calculation is obtained, with the MTF assurance in vignetting districts resulted from optical butting. Finally a calculation example of a camera is given.

  14. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of CMS 3D pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Alagoz, E.; Krzywda, A.; Arndt, K.; Shipsey, I.; Bolla, G.; Hinton, N.; Kok, A.; Hansen, T.-E.; Summanwar, A.; Brom, J. M.; Boscardin, M.; Chramowicz, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Dinardo, M.; Godshalk, A.; Jones, M.; Krohn, M. D.; Kumar, A.; Lei, C. M.; Mendicino, R.; Moroni, L.; Perera, L.; Povoli, M.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Solano, A.; Obertino, M. M.; Kwan, S.; Uplegger, L.; Vigani, L.; Wagner, S.

    2014-07-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements of CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations from different vendors. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties of silicon sensors, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  15. Virus based Full Colour Pixels using a Microheater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Geun; Kim, Kyujung; Ha, Sung-Hun; Song, Hyerin; Yu, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Chuntae; Kim, Jong-Man; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking natural structures has been received considerable attentions, and there have been a few practical advances. Tremendous efforts based on a self-assembly technique have been contributed to the development of the novel photonic structures which are mimicking nature’s inventions. We emulate the photonic structures from an origin of colour generation of mammalian skins and avian skin/feathers using M13 phage. The structures can be generated a full range of RGB colours that can be sensitively switched by temperature and substrate materials. Consequently, we developed an M13 phage-based temperature-dependent actively controllable colour pixels platform on a microheater chip. Given the simplicity of the fabrication process, the low voltage requirements and cycling stability, the virus colour pixels enable us to substitute for conventional colour pixels for the development of various implantable, wearable and flexible devices in future. PMID:26334322

  16. Visual mining geo-related data using pixel bar charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Keim, Daniel A.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Wright, Peter; Schneidewind, Joern

    2005-03-01

    A common approach to analyze geo-related data is using bar charts or x-y plots. They are intuitive and easy to use. But important information often gets lost. In this paper, we introduce a new interactive visualization technique called Geo Pixel Bar Charts, which combines the advantages of Pixel Bar Charts and interactive maps. This technique allows analysts to visualize large amounts of spatial data without aggregation and shows the geographical regions corresponding to the spatial data attribute at the same time. In this paper, we apply Geo Pixel Bar Charts to visually mining sales transactions and Internet usage from different locations. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of this technique for providing data distribution and exceptions from the map.

  17. Calibration analysis software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel Detector scans and analyses is called calibration console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new FE-I4 chips, required an update of the console architecture. It now handles scans and scan analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed calibration analysis software will be presented, together with some preliminary results.

  18. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Katja

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two discs per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1 m2. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run 1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1 ·1034cm-2s-1 . It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to 16%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  19. Acousto-optic imaging with a smart-pixels sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjean, K.; Contreras, K.; Laudereau, J.-B.; Tinet, E.; Ettori, D.; Ramaz, F.; Tualle, J.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Acousto-optic imaging (AOI) is an emerging technique in the field of biomedical optics which combines the optical contrast allowed by diffuse optical tomography with the resolution of ultrasound (US) imaging. In this work we report the implementation, for that purpose, of a CMOS smart-pixels sensor dedicated to the real-time analysis of speckle patterns. We implemented a highly sensitive lock-in detection in each pixel in order to extract the tagged photons after an appropriate in-pixel post-processing. With this system we can acquire images in scattering samples with a spatial resolution in the 2mm range, with an integration time compatible with the dynamic of living biological tissue.

  20. HEXITEC ASIC—a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20×20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  1. Virus based Full Colour Pixels using a Microheater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Geun; Kim, Kyujung; Ha, Sung-Hun; Song, Hyerin; Yu, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Chuntae; Kim, Jong-Man; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Mimicking natural structures has been received considerable attentions, and there have been a few practical advances. Tremendous efforts based on a self-assembly technique have been contributed to the development of the novel photonic structures which are mimicking nature’s inventions. We emulate the photonic structures from an origin of colour generation of mammalian skins and avian skin/feathers using M13 phage. The structures can be generated a full range of RGB colours that can be sensitively switched by temperature and substrate materials. Consequently, we developed an M13 phage-based temperature-dependent actively controllable colour pixels platform on a microheater chip. Given the simplicity of the fabrication process, the low voltage requirements and cycling stability, the virus colour pixels enable us to substitute for conventional colour pixels for the development of various implantable, wearable and flexible devices in future.

  2. Classification of multispectral image data by the Binary Diamond neural network and by nonparametric, pixel-by-pixel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salu, Yehuda; Tilton, James

    1993-01-01

    The classification of multispectral image data obtained from satellites has become an important tool for generating ground cover maps. This study deals with the application of nonparametric pixel-by-pixel classification methods in the classification of pixels, based on their multispectral data. A new neural network, the Binary Diamond, is introduced, and its performance is compared with a nearest neighbor algorithm and a back-propagation network. The Binary Diamond is a multilayer, feed-forward neural network, which learns from examples in unsupervised, 'one-shot' mode. It recruits its neurons according to the actual training set, as it learns. The comparisons of the algorithms were done by using a realistic data base, consisting of approximately 90,000 Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper pixels. The Binary Diamond and the nearest neighbor performances were close, with some advantages to the Binary Diamond. The performance of the back-propagation network lagged behind. An efficient nearest neighbor algorithm, the binned nearest neighbor, is described. Ways for improving the performances, such as merging categories, and analyzing nonboundary pixels, are addressed and evaluated.

  3. Characterizing pixel and point patterns with a hyperuniformity disorder length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieco, A. T.; Dreyfus, R.; Durian, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce the concept of a "hyperuniformity disorder length" h that controls the variance of volume fraction fluctuations for randomly placed windows of fixed size. In particular, fluctuations are determined by the average number of particles within a distance h from the boundary of the window. We first compute special expectations and bounds in d dimensions, and then illustrate the range of behavior of h versus window size L by analyzing several different types of simulated two-dimensional pixel patterns—where particle positions are stored as a binary digital image in which pixels have value zero if empty and one if they contain a particle. The first are random binomial patterns, where pixels are randomly flipped from zero to one with probability equal to area fraction. These have long-ranged density fluctuations, and simulations confirm the exact result h =L /2 . Next we consider vacancy patterns, where a fraction f of particles on a lattice are randomly removed. These also display long-range density fluctuations, but with h =(L /2 )(f /d ) for small f , and h =L /2 for f →1 . And finally, for a hyperuniform system with no long-range density fluctuations, we consider "Einstein patterns," where each particle is independently displaced from a lattice site by a Gaussian-distributed amount. For these, at large L ,h approaches a constant equal to about half the root-mean-square displacement in each dimension. Then we turn to gray-scale pixel patterns that represent simulated arrangements of polydisperse particles, where the volume of a particle is encoded in the value of its central pixel. And we discuss the continuum limit of point patterns, where pixel size vanishes. In general, we thus propose to quantify particle configurations not just by the scaling of the density fluctuation spectrum but rather by the real-space spectrum of h (L ) versus L . We call this approach "hyperuniformity disorder length spectroscopy".

  4. Pixel Detectors For Diffraction Experiments At The Swiss Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Huelsen, G.; Eikenberry, E.F.; Schmitt, B.; Schulze-Briese, C.; Tomizaki, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Willmott, P.; Patterson, B.; Broennimann, Ch.; Horisberger, R.; Toyokawa, H.; Borchert, G. L.

    2004-05-12

    The PILATUS detector (Pixel Apparatus for the SLS) is a large, quantum-limited area X-ray detector for protein crystallography which is currently under construction. Its basic units are modules with 16 CMOS chips bump-bonded to a large, continuously sensitive silicon sensor with 157x366 pixels of 217x217 {mu}m2, leading to an active area of 34x80 mm2. With a counting circuit in each pixel, X-rays are detected in single photon counting mode, leading to excellent, noise-free data. The main properties of the detector are an energy range of 6 to 30 keV, no back-ground due to leakage current or readout-noise, fast read-out time of 6.7 ms, a rate/pixel >104/s and a PSF of one pixel. PILATUS detectors are installed at the SLS X06SA protein crystallography beamline, and at both the surface diffraction (SD) station and the radiography and tomography (XTM) station of beamline X04SA. The detectors are operated at room temperature and thus are very easy to use. Experiments benefit from the ability to detect very weak diffraction spots with high precision. At the SD station and at the XTM station, which is equipped with a Bragg magnifier, diffraction, radiography and tomography experiments showed promising results. At beamline X06SA, a three-module array (1120x157 pixels) with a readout time of 6.7 ms was tested. This system was used to collect fine phi-sliced protein crystal data in continuous sample rotation mode in which the crystal was continuously rotated with a slow angular velocity of 0.04 deg./s without any shutter operation. Exposure time per frame ranged from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the crystal. These initial experiments show the potential of this method.

  5. Pixel Detectors For Diffraction Experiments At The Swiss Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hülsen, G.; Eikenberry, E. F.; Horisberger, R.; Schmitt, B.; Schulze-Briese, C.; Tomizaki, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Stampanoni, M.; Borchert, G. L.; Willmott, P.; Patterson, B.; Brönnimann, Ch.

    2004-05-01

    The PILATUS detector (Pixel Apparatus for the SLS) is a large, quantum-limited area X-ray detector for protein crystallography which is currently under construction. Its basic units are modules with 16 CMOS chips bump-bonded to a large, continuously sensitive silicon sensor with 157×366 pixels of 217×217 μm2, leading to an active area of 34×80 mm2. With a counting circuit in each pixel, X-rays are detected in single photon counting mode, leading to excellent, noise-free data. The main properties of the detector are an energy range of 6 to 30 keV, no back-ground due to leakage current or readout-noise, fast read-out time of 6.7 ms, a rate/pixel >104/s and a PSF of one pixel. PILATUS detectors are installed at the SLS X06SA protein crystallography beamline, and at both the surface diffraction (SD) station and the radiography and tomography (XTM) station of beamline X04SA. The detectors are operated at room temperature and thus are very easy to use. Experiments benefit from the ability to detect very weak diffraction spots with high precision. At the SD station and at the XTM station, which is equipped with a Bragg magnifier, diffraction, radiography and tomography experiments showed promising results. At beamline X06SA, a three-module array (1120×157 pixels) with a readout time of 6.7 ms was tested. This system was used to collect fine phi-sliced protein crystal data in continuous sample rotation mode in which the crystal was continuously rotated with a slow angular velocity of 0.04 °/s without any shutter operation. Exposure time per frame ranged from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the crystal. These initial experiments show the potential of this method.

  6. Imaging by photon counting with 256x256 pixel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlustos, Lukas; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik H. M.; Llopart, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Using 0.25µm standard CMOS we have developed 2-D semiconductor matrix detectors with sophisticated functionality integrated inside each pixel of a hybrid sensor module. One of these sensor modules is a matrix of 256x256 square 55µm pixels intended for X-ray imaging. This device is called 'Medipix2' and features a fast amplifier and two-level discrimination for signals between 1000 and 100000 equivalent electrons, with overall signal noise ~150 e- rms. Signal polarity and comparator thresholds are programmable. A maximum count rate of nearly 1 MHz per pixel can be achieved, which corresponds to an average flux of 3x10exp10 photons per cm2. The selected signals can be accumulated in each pixel in a 13-bit register. The serial readout takes 5-10 ms. A parallel readout of ~300 µs could also be used. Housekeeping functions such as local dark current compensation, test pulse generation, silencing of noisy pixels and threshold tuning in each pixel contribute to the homogeneous response over a large sensor area. The sensor material can be adapted to the energy of the X-rays. Best results have been obtained with high-resistivity silicon detectors, but also CdTe and GaAs detectors have been used. The lowest detectable X-ray energy was about 4 keV. Background measurements have been made, as well as measurements of the uniformity of imaging by photon counting. Very low photon count rates are feasible and noise-free at room temperature. The readout matrix can be used also with visible photons if an energy or charge intensifier structure is interposed such as a gaseous amplification layer or a microchannel plate or acceleration field in vacuum.

  7. Accuracy of the Independent Pixel Approximation at Absorbing Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchak, Alexander; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Davis, Anthony; Wiscombe, Warren; Cahalan, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In order to correctly interpret shortwave cloud radiation measured by satellites and ground-based radiometers, or by two aircraft flying above and below clouds, we need to better understand interactions between inhomogeneous clouds and solar radiation. The discrepancies between shortwave absorption inferred from measurements and predicted by models, between cloud optical depths estimated from satellites and ground measurements, between single scattering albedo retrieved from in situ radiation measurements and computed from measured droplet size distribution, among others, are strongly affected by cloud horizontal inhomogeneity. Net horizontal photon transport (i. e., horizontal fluxes) are a direct consequence of the inhomoqeneity in cloud structure. Horizontal fluxes and their effect on the accuracy of the pixel-by-pixel one-dimensional (1 D) radiative transfer calculations has recently undergone close scrutiny for conservative scattering. However, the properties and magnitude of horizontal fluxes in absorbing wavelengths are still poorly understood. As far as we are aware, only Ackerman and Cox and Titov discussed correlations between horizontal fluxes at absorbing wavelengths, though these were far from comprehensive. This paper partly fills this gap. We discuss here of whether the accuracy of the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA), a 1 D radiative transfer approximation for each pixel, is a better model for multiple scattering at conservative or at absorbing wavelengths. Issues addressed here are: (1) dependence of net horizontal fluxes on single scattering albedo; (2) connection between pixel-by-pixel accuracy of the IPA and horizontal fluxes and (3) radiative smoothing and horizontal fluxes at absorbing wavelengths. In contrast to the traditional understanding of IPA, we study IPA accuracies not only for reflectance but also for transmittance and absorptance at both conservative and absorbing wavelengths. In spite of the apparent similarity between the

  8. Extreme charge-trapping by pixels in Hubble's ACS/WFC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryon, Jenna E.; Grogin, Norman A.; ACS Team

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the properties of sink pixels in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) detector. These pixels likely contain extra charge traps and therefore appear anomalously low in images with relatively high backgrounds. We identify sink pixels in the average short (0.5-second) dark image from each monthly anneal cycle, which, since January 2015, have been post-flashed to a background of about 60 e-. Sink pixels can affect the pixels immediately above and below them in the same column, resulting in high downstream pixels and low trails of upstream pixels. We determine typical trail lengths for sink pixels of different depths at various background levels. We create a reference image, one for each anneal cycle since January 2015, that will be used by CALACS to flag sink pixels and the adjacent affected pixels in science images.

  9. Geometry simulation and physics with the CMS forward pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, N.

    2008-06-01

    The Forward Pixel Detector of CMS is an integral part of the Tracking system, which will play a key role in addressing the full physics potential of the collected data. It has a very complex geometry that encompasses multilayer structure of its detector modules. This presentation describes the development of geometry simulation for the Forward Pixel Detector. A new geometry package has been developed, which uses the detector description database (DDD) interface for the XML (eXtensive Markup Language) to GEANT simulation. This is necessary for digitization and GEANT4 reconstruction software for tracking. The expected physics performance is also discussed.

  10. Characterisation of individual pixel efficiency in the PILATUS II sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, A.; O'Keefe, G. J.; Sobott, B. A.; Kirby, N. M.; Rassool, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    Synchrotron applications such as protein crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) demand precise knowledge of detector pixel efficiency for data corrections. Current techniques used to determine detector efficiency are only applicable for the specific set-up for which the calibration is performed. Here the effect of comparator thresholding on pixel efficiency for PILATUS is presented for standard amplifier and shaper gain settings, allowing users to make necessary corrections to their intensity data for various threshold settings without requiring repeated empirical calibrations. A three-dimensional TCAD simulation of the sensor is also presented and is used to confirm the experimental result.

  11. Mapping Pixel Windows To Vectors For Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    1996-01-01

    Mapping performed by matrices of transistor switches. Arrays of transistor switches devised for use in forming simultaneous connections from square subarray (window) of n x n pixels within electronic imaging device containing np x np array of pixels to linear array of n(sup2) input terminals of electronic neural network or other parallel-processing circuit. Method helps to realize potential for rapidity in parallel processing for such applications as enhancement of images and recognition of patterns. In providing simultaneous connections, overcomes timing bottleneck or older multiplexing, serial-switching, and sample-and-hold methods.

  12. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  13. Highly Reflective Multi-stable Electrofluidic Display Pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu

    Electronic papers (E-papers) refer to the displays that mimic the appearance of printed papers, but still owning the features of conventional electronic displays, such as the abilities of browsing websites and playing videos. The motivation of creating paper-like displays is inspired by the truths that reading on a paper caused least eye fatigue due to the paper's reflective and light diffusive nature, and, unlike the existing commercial displays, there is no cost of any form of energy for sustaining the displayed image. To achieve the equivalent visual effect of a paper print, an ideal E-paper has to be a highly reflective with good contrast ratio and full-color capability. To sustain the image with zero power consumption, the display pixels need to be bistable, which means the "on" and "off" states are both lowest energy states. Pixel can change its state only when sufficient external energy is given. There are many emerging technologies competing to demonstrate the first ideal E-paper device. However, none is able to achieve satisfactory visual effect, bistability and video speed at the same time. Challenges come from either the inherent physical/chemical properties or the fabrication process. Electrofluidic display is one of the most promising E-paper technologies. It has successfully demonstrated high reflectivity, brilliant color and video speed operation by moving colored pigment dispersion between visible and invisible places with electrowetting force. However, the pixel design did not allow the image bistability. Presented in this dissertation are the multi-stable electrofluidic display pixels that are able to sustain grayscale levels without any power consumption, while keeping the favorable features of the previous generation electrofluidic display. The pixel design, fabrication method using multiple layer dry film photoresist lamination, and physical/optical characterizations are discussed in details. Based on the pixel structure, the preliminary

  14. Pixel multichip module design for a high energy physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Guilherme Cardoso et al.

    2003-11-05

    At Fermilab, a pixel detector multichip module is being developed for the BTeV experiment. The module is composed of three layers. The lowest layer is formed by the readout integrated circuits (ICs). The back of the ICs is in thermal contact with the supporting structure, while the top is flip-chip bump-bonded to the pixel sensor. A low mass flex-circuit interconnect is glued on the top of this assembly, and the readout IC pads are wire-bounded to the circuit. This paper presents recent results on the development of a multichip module prototype and summarizes its performance characteristics.

  15. Development of a high density pixel multichip module at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Sergio Zimmermann et al.

    2001-09-11

    At Fermilab, a pixel detector multichip module is being developed for the BTeV experiment. The module is composed of three layers. The lowest layer is formed by the readout integrated circuits (ICs). The back of the ICs is in thermal contact with the supporting structure, while the top is flip-chip bump-bonded to the pixel sensor. A low mass flex-circuit interconnect is glued on the top of this assembly, and the readout IC pads are wire-bounded to the circuit. This paper presents recent results on the development of a multichip module prototype and summarizes its performance characteristics.

  16. The BTeV pixel and microstrip detector

    SciTech Connect

    Simon W Kwan

    2003-06-04

    The BTeV pixel detector is one of the most crucial elements in the BTeV experiment. While the pixel detector is technically challenging, we have made great progress towards identifying viable solutions for individual components of the system. The forward silicon tracker is based on more mature technology and its design has benefited from the experience of other experiments. Nevertheless, we have started an R&D program on the forward silicon tracker and first results are expected some time next year.

  17. Pixel resolution control in numerical reconstruction of digital holography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingfeng; Kim, Myung K

    2006-04-01

    A new method for resolution control in numerical reconstruction of digital holography is proposed. The wave field on a tilted or vertical plane can be reconstructed without being subject to the minimum object-to-hologram distance requirement, and the pixel resolution can be easily controlled by adjusting the position of a transitional plane. The proposed method solves the problem of pixel resolution control for small object-to-hologram distances and is especially useful for multicolor, multiwavelength digital holography and metrological applications. Experimental results are presented to verify the idea.

  18. SLHC upgrade plans for the ATLAS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šícho, Petr

    2009-08-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is an 80 million channels silicon tracking system designed to detect charged tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. An upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector is presently being considered, enabling to cope with higher luminosity at Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC). The increased luminosity leads to extremely high radiation doses in the innermost region of the ATLAS tracker. Options considered for a new detector are discussed, as well as some important R&D activities, such as investigations towards novel detector geometries and novel processes.

  19. Tomography for SST-1 tokamak with pixel method

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Asim Kumar; Anand, Arun; Rao, C.V.S.

    2005-06-15

    A soft x-ray tomography code by pixel method has been prepared and tested with simulated data for the five array and seven array system of the SST-1 tokamak. A relatively small number of detectors have been used to obtain a partial view of the highly noncircular plasma in a poloidal plane produced in a machine of limited access like SST-1 by optimizing the pixel size and array positions. Tomographic inversions are done using linear regularization, minimum Fisher information and maximum entropy methods. Singular value decomposition method has been used for the identification of magnetohydrodynamic modes by analyzing inversion results.

  20. Mapping Pixel Windows To Vectors For Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    1996-01-01

    Mapping performed by matrices of transistor switches. Arrays of transistor switches devised for use in forming simultaneous connections from square subarray (window) of n x n pixels within electronic imaging device containing np x np array of pixels to linear array of n(sup2) input terminals of electronic neural network or other parallel-processing circuit. Method helps to realize potential for rapidity in parallel processing for such applications as enhancement of images and recognition of patterns. In providing simultaneous connections, overcomes timing bottleneck or older multiplexing, serial-switching, and sample-and-hold methods.

  1. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M.

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  2. Modelling and 3D optimisation of CdTe pixels detector array geometry - Extension to small pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbiehl, A.; Hage-Ali, M.; Fougeres, P.; Koebel, J. M.; Regal, R.; Rit, C.; Ayoub, M.; Siffert, P.

    2001-08-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe pixel detectors offer great interest for many applications, especially for medical and industrial imaging. Up to now, the material, generally, used and investigated for pixel arrays was CZT (Hamel et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43 (3) (1996) 1422; Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1) (1995) 156; Bennett et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 392 (1997) 260; Eskin et al., J. Appl. Phys. 85 (2) (1999) 647; Brunett et al., J. Appl. Phys. 86 (7) (1999) 3926; Luke, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380 (1996) 232), but cadmium telluride can also be an appropriate choice, as shown here. However, we clearly demonstrate here that the optimal pixel configuration is highly dependent on the electrical transport properties of the material. Depending on the field of primary interest, either energy resolution or counting rate efficiency in the photopeak, the geometry for each case has to be optimised. For that purpose, we have developed a calculation of the signal induced onto the pixel. Two distinct parts are used: after showing our approach for the weighting potential calculation, we present our results performed by a "pseudo-Monte Carlo" simulation. Results are supported by a few experimental comparisons. We argue about the optimum sizes with clarifying the problems caused by too small and too large pixel sizes. The study field is chosen to be vast, i.e. pixel size to detector thickness ratios ( W/ L) of 1/8-1, and detector thickness of 1.0-8.0 mm. In addition, several electrical transport properties are used. Since efficiency is often of primary interest, thick detectors could be very attractive, which are shown to be really feasible even on CdTe.

  3. Impact of defective pixels in AMLCDs on the perception of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimpe, Tom; Sneyders, Yuri

    2006-03-01

    With LCD displays, each pixel has its own individual transistor that controls the transmittance of that pixel. Occasionally, these individual transistors will short or alternatively malfunction, resulting in a defective pixel that always shows the same brightness. With ever increasing resolution of displays the number of defect pixels per display increases accordingly. State of the art processes are capable of producing displays with no more than one faulty transistor out of 3 million. A five Mega Pixel medical LCD panel contains 15 million individual sub pixels (3 sub pixels per pixel), each having an individual transistor. This means that a five Mega Pixel display on average will have 5 failing pixels. This paper investigates the visibility of defective pixels and analyzes the possible impact of defective pixels on the perception of medical images. JND simulations were done to study the effect of defective pixels on medical images. Our results indicate that defective LCD pixels can mask subtle features in medical images in an unexpectedly broad area around the defect and therefore may reduce the quality of diagnosis for specific high-demanding areas such as mammography. As a second contribution an innovative solution is proposed. A specialized image processing algorithm can make defective pixels completely invisible and moreover can also recover the information of the defect so that the radiologist perceives the medical image correctly. This correction algorithm has been validated with both JND simulations and psycho visual tests.

  4. CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeys, W.

    2014-11-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon are only now starting to make their way into high energy physics. Two major requirements are radiation tolerance and low power consumption. For the most extreme radiation levels, signal charge has to be collected by drift from a depletion layer onto a designated collection electrode without losing the signal charge elsewhere in the in-pixel circuit. Low power consumption requires an optimization of Q/C, the ratio of the collected signal charge over the input capacitance [1]. Some solutions to combine sufficient Q/C and collection by drift require exotic fabrication steps. More conventional solutions up to now require a simple in-pixel readout circuit. Both high voltage CMOS technologies and Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technologies with high resistivity epitaxial layers offer high voltage diodes. The choice between the two is not fundamental but more a question of how much depletion can be reached and also of availability and cost. This paper tries to give an overview.

  5. Use of silicon pixel detectors in double electron capture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, P.; Stekl, I.; Shitov, Yu A.; Mamedov, F.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Jose, J. M.; Cermak, J.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Loaiza, P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel experimental approach to search for double electron capture (EC/EC) is discussed in this article. R&D for a new generation EC/EC spectrometer based on silicon pixel detectors (SPDs) has been conducted since 2009 for an upgrade of the TGV experiment. SPDs built on Timepix technology with a spectroscopic readout from each individual pixel are an effective tool to detect the 2νEC/EC signature of the two low energy X-rays hitting two separate pixels. The ability of SPDs to indentify α/β/γ particles and localize them precisely leads to effective background discrimination and thus considerable improvement of the signal-to-background ratio (S/B). A multi-SPD system, called a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT), is planned based on the experimental approach of the TGV calorimeter which measures thin foils of enriched EC/EC-isotope sandwiched between HPGe detectors working in coincidence mode. The sources of SPD internal background have been identified by measuring SPD radiopurity with a low-background HPGe detector as well as by long-term SPD background runs in the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France), and results of these studies are presented.

  6. Pixel Analysis and Plasma Dynamics Characterized by Photospheric Spectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, Anthony P.; Chen, James; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent observations of the photosphere using high spatial and temporal resolutions show small dynamic features at the resolving limit during emerging flux events. However, line-of-sight (LOS) magnetogram pixels only contain the net uncanceled magnetic flux, which is expected to increase for fixed regions as resolution limits improve. A new pixel dynamics method uses spectrographic images to characterize photospheric absorption line profiles by variations in line displacement, width, asymmetry, and peakedness and is applied to quiet-sun regions, active regions with no eruption, and an active region with an ongoing eruption. Using Stokes I images from SOLIS/VSM on 2012 March 13, variations in line width and peakedness of Fe I 6301.5 Å are shown to have a strong spatial and temporal relationship with an M7.9 X-ray flare originating from NOAA 11429. This relationship is observed as a flattening in the line profile as the X-ray flare approaches peak intensity and was not present in area scans of a non-eruptive active region on 2011 April 14. These results are used to estimate dynamic plasma properties on sub-pixel scales and provide both spatial and temporal information of sub-pixel activity at the photosphere. The analysis can be extended to include the full Stokes parameters and study signatures of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties.

  7. Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance.

    PubMed

    Boinagrov, David; Lei, Xin; Goetz, Georges; Kamins, Theodore I; Mathieson, Keith; Galambos, Ludwig; Harris, James S; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic conversion of pulsed light into pulsed electric current enables optically-activated neural stimulation with miniature wireless implants. In photovoltaic retinal prostheses, patterns of near-infrared light projected from video goggles onto subretinal arrays of photovoltaic pixels are converted into patterns of current to stimulate the inner retinal neurons. We describe a model of these devices and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic circuits, including the electrode-electrolyte interface. Characteristics of the electrodes measured in saline with various voltages, pulse durations, and polarities were modeled as voltage-dependent capacitances and Faradaic resistances. The resulting mathematical model of the circuit yielded dynamics of the electric current generated by the photovoltaic pixels illuminated by pulsed light. Voltages measured in saline with a pipette electrode above the pixel closely matched results of the model. Using the circuit model, our pixel design was optimized for maximum charge injection under various lighting conditions and for different stimulation thresholds. To speed discharge of the electrodes between the pulses of light, a shunt resistor was introduced and optimized for high frequency stimulation.

  8. High responsivity CMOS imager pixel implemented in SOI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, X.; Wrigley, C.; Yang, G.; Pain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Availability of mature sub-micron CMOS technology and the advent of the new low noise active pixel sensor (APS) concept have enabled the development of low power, miniature, single-chip, CMOS digital imagers in the decade of the 1990's.

  9. Optimization of Focusing by Strip and Pixel Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G J; White, D A; Thompson, C A

    2005-06-30

    Professor Kevin Webb and students at Purdue University have demonstrated the design of conducting strip and pixel arrays for focusing electromagnetic waves [1, 2]. Their key point was to design structures to focus waves in the near field using full wave modeling and optimization methods for design. Their designs included arrays of conducting strips optimized with a downhill search algorithm and arrays of conducting and dielectric pixels optimized with the iterative direct binary search method. They used a finite element code for modeling. This report documents our attempts to duplicate and verify their results. We have modeled 2D conducting strips and both conducting and dielectric pixel arrays with moment method and FDTD codes to compare with Webb's results. New designs for strip arrays were developed with optimization by the downhill simplex method with simulated annealing. Strip arrays were optimized to focus an incident plane wave at a point or at two separated points and to switch between focusing points with a change in frequency. We also tried putting a line current source at the focus point for the plane wave to see how it would work as a directive antenna. We have not tried optimizing the conducting or dielectric pixel arrays, but modeled the structures designed by Webb with the moment method and FDTD to compare with the Purdue results.

  10. Diamond pixel modules and the ATLAS beam conditions monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, D.; Pernegger, Heinz; RD42 Collaboration; ATLAS Diamond Pixel Upgrade Collaboration; ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor Collaborations

    2011-02-01

    Chemical vapor deposition diamonds are considered among possible sensor materials for the next pixel upgrade in ATLAS. Full size diamond pixel modules have been constructed to the specification of the ATLAS Pixel Detector using poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors to develop the production techniques required for industrial production. Those modules were tested in the lab and testbeam. Additionally we will present results of diamond pixel modules using single-crystal diamonds and results of proton irradiations up to 1.8 ×10 16 protons/cm 2. The ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) main purpose is to protect the experiments silicon tracker from beam incidents. In total 16 1×1 cm2 500 μm thick diamond pCVD sensors are used in eight positions around the LHC interaction point. They perform time difference measurements with sub nanosecond resolution to distinguish between particles from a collision and spray particles from a beam incident; an abundance of the latter can lead the BCM to provoke an abort of LHC beam. The BCM diamond detector modules, their readout system and the algorithms used to detect beam incidents are described. Results of the BCM operation with circulating LHC beams and its commissioning with first LHC collisions are reported.

  11. Self-adjusting threshold mechanism for pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Timon; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Readout chips of hybrid pixel detectors use a low power amplifier and threshold discrimination to process charge deposited in semiconductor sensors. Due to transistor mismatch each pixel circuit needs to be calibrated individually to achieve response uniformity. Traditionally this is addressed by programmable threshold trimming in each pixel, but requires robustness against radiation effects, temperature, and time. In this paper a self-adjusting threshold mechanism is presented, which corrects the threshold for both spatial inequality and time variation and maintains a constant response. It exploits the electrical noise as relative measure for the threshold and automatically adjust the threshold of each pixel to always achieve a uniform frequency of noise hits. A digital implementation of the method in the form of an up/down counter and combinatorial logic filter is presented. The behavior of this circuit has been simulated to evaluate its performance and compare it to traditional calibration results. The simulation results show that this mechanism can perform equally well, but eliminates instability over time and is immune to single event upsets.

  12. Gauss-Legendre Sky Pixelization (glesp) for CMB Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, A. G.; Naselsky, P. D.; Verkhodanov, O. V.; Novikov, D. I.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Novikov, I. D.; Christensen, P. R.; Chiang, L.-Y.

    A new scheme of sky pixelization is developed for CMB maps. The scheme is based on the Gauss-Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map. A corresponding code has been implemented and comparison with other methods has been done.

  13. Electron imaging with Medipix2 hybrid pixel detector.

    PubMed

    McMullan, G; Cattermole, D M; Chen, S; Henderson, R; Llopart, X; Summerfield, C; Tlustos, L; Faruqi, A R

    2007-01-01

    The electron imaging performance of Medipix2 is described. Medipix2 is a hybrid pixel detector composed of two layers. It has a sensor layer and a layer of readout electronics, in which each 55 microm x 55 microm pixel has upper and lower energy discrimination and MHz rate counting. The sensor layer consists of a 300 microm slab of pixellated monolithic silicon and this is bonded to the readout chip. Experimental measurement of the detective quantum efficiency, DQE(0) at 120 keV shows that it can reach approximately 85% independent of electron exposure, since the detector has zero noise, and the DQE(Nyquist) can reach approximately 35% of that expected for a perfect detector (4/pi(2)). Experimental measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) at Nyquist resolution for 120 keV electrons using a 60 keV lower energy threshold, yields a value that is 50% of that expected for a perfect detector (2/pi). Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks and energy deposited in adjacent pixels have been performed and used to calculate expected values for the MTF and DQE as a function of the threshold energy. The good agreement between theory and experiment allows suggestions for further improvements to be made with confidence. The present detector is already very useful for experiments that require a high DQE at very low doses.

  14. Thin Film on CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for Space Applications.

    PubMed

    Schulze Spuentrup, Jan Dirk; Burghartz, Joachim N; Graf, Heinz-Gerd; Harendt, Christine; Hutter, Franz; Nicke, Markus; Schmidt, Uwe; Schubert, Markus; Sterzel, Juergen

    2008-10-13

    A 664 x 664 element Active Pixel image Sensor (APS) with integrated analog signal processing, full frame synchronous shutter and random access for applications in star sensors is presented and discussed. A thick vertical diode array in Thin Film on CMOS (TFC) technology is explored to achieve radiation hardness and maximum fill factor.

  15. Sub-pixel localization of highways in AVIRIS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salu, Yehuda

    1995-01-01

    Roads and highways show up clearly in many bands of AVIRIS images. A typical lane in the U.S. is 12 feet wide, and the total width of a four lane highway, including 18 feet of paved shoulders, is 19.8 m. Such a highway will cover only a portion of any 20x20 m AVIRIS pixel that it traverses. The other portion of these pixels wil be usually covered by vegetation. An interesting problem is to precisely determine the location of a highway within the AVIRIS pixels that it traverses. This information may be used for alignment and spatial calibration of AVIRIS images. Also, since the reflection properties of highway surfaces do not change with time, and they can be determined once and for all, such information can be of help in calculating and filtering out the atmospheric noise that contaminates AVIRIS measurements. The purpose of this report is to describe a method for sub-pixel localization of highways.

  16. Advancement in 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Skidmore, George; Howard, Christopher; Clarke, Elwood; Han, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides an update of 17 micron pixel pitch uncooled microbolometer development at DRS. Since the introduction of 17 micron pitch 640x480 focal plane arrays (FPAs) in 2006, significant progress has been made in sensor performance and manufacturing processes. The FPAs are now in initial production with an FPA noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), detector thermal time constant, and pixel operability equivalent or better than that of the current 25 micron pixel pitch production FPAs. NETD improvement was achieved without compromising detector thermal response or thermal time constant by simultaneous reduction in bolometer heat capacity and thermal conductance. In addition, the DRS unique "umbrella" microbolometer cavities were optically tuned to optimize detector radiation absorption for specific spectral band applications. The 17 micron pixel pitch FPAs are currently being considered for the next generation soldier systems such as thermal weapon sights (TWS), vehicle driver vision enhancers (DVE), digitally fused enhanced night vision goggles (DENVG) and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) surveillance sensors, because of overall thermal imaging system size, weight and power advantages.

  17. Metamaterial-based single pixel imaging system (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Willie; Watts, Claire M.; Nadell, Christian; Montoya, John A.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Single pixel cameras are useful imaging devices where it is difficult or infeasible to fashion focal plan arrays. For example in the Far Infrared (FIR) it is difficult to perform imaging by conventional detector arrays, owing to the cost and size of such an array. The typical single pixel camera uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) - placed in the conjugate image plane - and is used to sample various portions of the image. The spatially modulated light emerging from the SLM is then sent to a single detector where the light is condensed with suitable optics for detection. Conventional SLMs are either based on liquid crystals or digital mirror devices. As such these devices are limited in modulation speeds of order 30 kHz. Further there is little control over the type of light that is modulated. We present metamaterial based spatial light modulators which provide the ability to digitally encode images - with various measurement matrix coefficients - thus permitting high speed and fidelity imaging capability. In particular we use the Hadamard matrix and related S-matrix to encode images for single pixel imaging. Metamaterials thus permit imaging in regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum where conventional SLMs are not available. Additionally, metamaterials offer several salient features that are not available with commercial SLMs. For example, metamaterials may be used to enable hyperspectral, polarimetric, and phase sensitive imaging. We present the theory and experimental results of single pixel imaging with digital metamaterials in the far infrared and highlight the future of this exciting field.

  18. Spectral Information Retrieval for Sub-Pixel Building Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avbelj, J.

    2012-07-01

    Building extraction from imagery has been an active research area for decades. However, the precise building detection from hyperspectral (HSI) images solely is a less often addressed research question due to the low spatial resolution of data. The building boundaries are usually represented by spectrally mixed pixels, and classical edge detector algorithms fail to detect borders with sufficient completeness. The idea of the proposed method is to use fraction of materials in mixed pixels to derive weights for adjusting building boundaries. The building regions are detected using seeded region growing and merging in a HSI image; for the initial seed point selection the digital surface model (DSM) is used. Prior to region growing, the seeds are statistically tested for outliers on the basis of their spectral characteristics. Then, the border pixels of building regions are compared in spectrum to the seed points by calculating spectral dissimilarity. From this spectral dissimilarity the weights for weighted and constrained least squares (LS) adjustment are derived. We used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) for spectral similarity measure, but the proposed boundary estimation method could benefit from soft classification or spectral unmixing results. The method was tested on a HSI image with spatial resolution of 4 m, and buildings of rectangular shape. The importance of constraints to the relations between building parts, e.g. perpendicularity is shown on example with a building with inner yards. The adjusted building boundaries are compared to the laser DSM, and have a relative accuracy of boundaries 1/4 of a pixel.

  19. Fourier transform demodulation of pixelated phase-masked interferograms.

    PubMed

    Servin, M; Estrada, J C; Medina, O

    2010-07-19

    Recently a new type of spatial phase shifting interferometer was proposed that uses a phase-mask over the camera's pixels. This new interferometer allows one to phase modulate each pixel independently by setting the angle of a linear polarizer built in contact over the camera's CCD. In this way neighbor pixels may have any desired (however fixed) phase shift without cross taking. The standard manufacturing of these interferometers uses a 2x2 array with phase-shifts of 0, pi/2, pi, and 3 pi/2 radians. This 2x2 array is tiled all over the video camera's CCD. In this paper we propose a new way to phase demodulate these phase-masked interferograms using the squeezing phase-shifting technique. A notable advantage of this squeezing technique is that it allows one the use of Fourier interferometry wiping out the detuning error that most phase shifting algorithms suffers. Finally we suggest the use of an alternative phase-mask to phase modulate the camera's pixels using a linear spatial carrier along a given axis.

  20. Harmonics rejection in pixelated interferograms using spatio-temporal demodulation.

    PubMed

    Padilla, J M; Servin, M; Estrada, J C

    2011-09-26

    Pixelated phase-mask interferograms have become an industry standard in spatial phase-shifting interferometry. These pixelated interferograms allow full wavefront encoding using a single interferogram. This allows the study of fast dynamic events in hostile mechanical environments. Recently an error-free demodulation method for ideal pixelated interferograms was proposed. However, non-ideal conditions in interferometry may arise due to non-linear response of the CCD camera, multiple light paths in the interferometer, etc. These conditions generate non-sinusoidal fringes containing harmonics which degrade the phase estimation. Here we show that two-dimensional Fourier demodulation of pixelated interferograms rejects most harmonics except the complex ones at {-3(rd), +5(th), -7(th), +9(th), -11(th),…}. We propose temporal phase-shifting to remove these remaining harmonics. In particular, a 2-step phase-shifting algorithm is used to eliminate the -3(rd) and +5(th) complex harmonics, while a 3-step one is used to remove the -3(rd), +5<(th), -7(th) and +9(th) complex harmonics.

  1. Detection and compensation of bad pixel for CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Youqing; Yu, Shengsheng; Zhou, Jingli; Fang, Zuyuan

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the occurring reason and features of bad pixels in CMOS image sensor. Detect and compensate algorithms have also bee introduced. Experimental result show that the algorithms are efficiently when they are applied on CH5001 produced by Chrontel Inc.

  2. Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The pixel tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is the innermost sub-detector, located close to the collision point, and is used for reconstruction of the tracks and vertices of charged particles. The present pixel detector was designed to work efficiently with the maximum instantaneous luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm‑2 s‑1. In 2017 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to deliver a peak luminosity reaching up to 2 × 1034 cm‑2 s‑1, increasing the mean number of primary vertices to 50. Due to the radiation damage and significant data losses due to high occupancy in the readout chip of the pixel detector, the present system must be replaced by a new one in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 in order to maintain the excellent tracking and other physics performances. The main new features of the upgraded pixel detector are a ultra-light mechanical design with four barrel layers and three end-cap disks, digital readout chip with higher rate capability and a new cooling system. In this document, we discuss the motivations for the upgrade, the design, and technological choices made, the status of the construction of the new detector and the future plans for the installation and commissioning.

  3. The pixel tracking telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Kwan, Simon; Lei, CM; Menasce, Dario; ...

    2016-03-01

    An all silicon pixel telescope has been assembled and used at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) since 2009 to provide precise tracking information for different test beam experiments with a wide range of Detectors Under Test (DUTs) requiring high resolution measurement of the track impact point. The telescope is based on CMS pixel modules left over from the CMS forward pixel production. Eight planes are arranged to achieve a resolution of less than 8 μm on the 120 GeV proton beam transverse coordinate at the DUT position. In order to achieve such resolution with 100 × 150 μm2 pixelmore » cells, the planes were tilted to 25 degrees to maximize charge sharing between pixels. Crucial for obtaining this performance is the alignment software, called Monicelli, specifically designed and optimized for this system. This paper will describe the telescope hardware, the data acquisition system and the alignment software constituting this particle tracking system for test beam users.« less

  4. The NUC and blind pixel eliminating in the DTDI application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiao Feng; Chen, Fan Sheng; Pan, Sheng Da; Gong, Xue Yi; Dong, Yu Cui

    2013-12-01

    AS infrared CMOS Digital TDI (Time Delay and integrate) has a simple structure, excellent performance and flexible operation, it has been used in more and more applications. Because of the limitation of the Production process level, the plane array of the infrared detector has a large NU (non-uniformity) and a certain blind pixel rate. Both of the two will raise the noise and lead to the TDI works not very well. In this paper, for the impact of the system performance, the most important elements are analyzed, which are the NU of the optical system, the NU of the Plane array and the blind pixel in the Plane array. Here a reasonable algorithm which considers the background removal and the linear response model of the infrared detector is used to do the NUC (Non-uniformity correction) process, when the infrared detector array is used as a Digital TDI. In order to eliminate the impact of the blind pixel, the concept of surplus pixel method is introduced in, through the method, the SNR (signal to noise ratio) can be improved and the spatial and temporal resolution will not be changed. Finally we use a MWIR (Medium Ware Infrared) detector to do the experiment and the result proves the effectiveness of the method.

  5. Overview of the BTeV Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A Appel

    2002-12-10

    BTeV is a new Fermilab beauty and charm experiment designed to operate in the CZero region of the Tevatron collider. Critical to the success of BTeV is its pixel detector. The unique features of this pixel detector include its proximity to the beam, its operation with a beam crossing time of 132 ns, and the need for the detector information to be read out quickly enough to be used for the lowest level trigger. This talk presents an overview of the pixel detector design, giving the motivations for the technical choices made. The status of the current R&D on detector components is also reviewed. Additional Pixel 2002 talks on the BTeV pixel detector are given by Dave Christian[1], Mayling Wong[2], and Sergio Zimmermann[3]. Table 1 gives a selection of pixel detector parameters for the ALICE, ATLAS, BTeV, and CMS experiments. Comparing the progression of this table, which I have been updating for the last several years, has shown a convergence of specifications. Nevertheless, significant differences endure. The BTeV data-driven readout, horizontal and vertical position resolution better than 9 {micro}m with the {+-} 300 mr forward acceptance, and positioning in vacuum and as close as 6 mm from the circulating beams remain unique. These features are driven by the physics goals of the BTeV experiment. Table 2 demonstrates that the vertex trigger performance made possible by these features is requisite for a very large fraction of the B meson decay physics which is so central to the motivation for BTeV. For most of the physics quantities of interest listed in the table, the vertex trigger is essential. The performance of the BTeV pixel detector may be summarized by looking at particular physics examples; e.g., the B{sub s} meson decay B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} K{sup +}. For that decay, studies using GEANT3 simulations provide quantitative measures of performance. For example, the separation between the B{sub s} decay point and the primary proton

  6. Remote Sensing Classification Uncertainty: Validating Probabilistic Pixel Level Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettas, Michail; Cornford, Dan; Bastin, Lucy; Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    There already exists an extensive literature on classification of remotely sensed imagery, and indeed classification more widely, that considers a wide range of probabilistic and non-probabilistic classification methodologies. Although for many probabilistic classification methodologies posterior class probabilities are produced per pixel (observation) these are often not communicated at the pixel level, and typically not validated at the pixel level. Most often the probabilistic classification in converted into a hard classification (of the most probable class) and the accuracy of the resulting classification is reported in terms of a global confusion matrix, or some score derived from this. For applications where classification accuracy is spatially variable and where pixel level estimates of uncertainty can be meaningfully exploited in workflows that propagate uncertainty validating and communicating the pixel level uncertainty opens opportunities for more refined and accountable modelling. In this work we describe our recent work applying and validation of a range of probabilistic classifiers. Using a multi-temporal Landsat data set of the Ebro Delta in Catalonia, which has been carefully radiometrically and geometrically corrected, we present a range of Bayesian classifiers from simple Bayesian linear discriminant analysis to a complex variational Gaussian process based classifier. Field study derived labelled data, classified into 8 classes, which primarily consider land use and the degree of flooding in what is a rice growing region, are used to train the pixel level classifiers. Our focus is not so much on the classification accuracy, but rather the validation of the probabilistic classification made by all methods. We present a range of validation plots and scores, many of which are used for probabilistic weather forecast verification, but are new to remote sensing classification including of course the standard measures of misclassification, but also

  7. Sub-pixel Area Calculation Methods for Estimating Irrigated Areas.

    PubMed

    Thenkabailc, Prasad S; Biradar, Chandrashekar M; Noojipady, Praveen; Cai, Xueliang; Dheeravath, Venkateswarlu; Li, Yuanjie; Velpuri, Manohar; Gumma, Muralikrishna; Pandey, Suraj

    2007-10-31

    The goal of this paper was to develop and demonstrate practical methods forcomputing sub-pixel areas (SPAs) from coarse-resolution satellite sensor data. Themethods were tested and verified using: (a) global irrigated area map (GIAM) at 10-kmresolution based, primarily, on AVHRR data, and (b) irrigated area map for India at 500-mbased, primarily, on MODIS data. The sub-pixel irrigated areas (SPIAs) from coarse-resolution satellite sensor data were estimated by multiplying the full pixel irrigated areas(FPIAs) with irrigated area fractions (IAFs). Three methods were presented for IAFcomputation: (a) Google Earth Estimate (IAF-GEE); (b) High resolution imagery (IAF-HRI); and (c) Sub-pixel de-composition technique (IAF-SPDT). The IAF-GEE involvedthe use of "zoom-in-views" of sub-meter to 4-meter very high resolution imagery (VHRI)from Google Earth and helped determine total area available for irrigation (TAAI) or netirrigated areas that does not consider intensity or seasonality of irrigation. The IAF-HRI isa well known method that uses finer-resolution data to determine SPAs of the coarser-resolution imagery. The IAF-SPDT is a unique and innovative method wherein SPAs aredetermined based on the precise location of every pixel of a class in 2-dimensionalbrightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) feature-space plot of red band versus near-infraredband spectral reflectivity. The SPIAs computed using IAF-SPDT for the GIAM was within2 % of the SPIA computed using well known IAF-HRI. Further the fractions from the 2 methods were significantly correlated. The IAF-HRI and IAF-SPDT help to determine annualized or gross irrigated areas (AIA) that does consider intensity or seasonality (e.g., sum of areas from season 1, season 2, and continuous year-round crops). The national census based irrigated areas for the top 40 irrigated nations (which covers about 90% of global irrigation) was significantly better related (and had lesser uncertainties and errors) when compared to SPIAs than

  8. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  9. Minimum Variance Approaches to Ultrasound Pixel-Based Beamforming.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia Q; Prager, Richard W

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the principles underlying minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming in order to integrate it into a pixel-based algorithm. There is a challenge posed by the low echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) when calculating beamformer contributions at pixels far away from the beam centreline. Together with the well-known scarcity of samples for covariance matrix estimation, this reduces the beamformer performance and degrades the image quality. To address this challenge, we implement the MVDR algorithm in two different ways. First, we develop the conventional minimum variance pixel-based (MVPB) beamformer that performs the MVDR after the pixel-based superposition step. This involves a combination of methods in the literature, extended over multiple transmits to increase the eSNR. Then we propose the coherent MVPB beamformer, where the MVDR is applied to data within individual transmits. Based on pressure field analysis, we develop new algorithms to improve the data alignment and matrix estimation, and hence overcome the low-eSNR issue. The methods are demonstrated on data acquired with an ultrasound open platform. The results show the coherent MVPB beamformer substantially outperforms the conventional MVPB in a series of experiments, including phantom and in vivo studies. Compared to the unified pixel-based beamformer, the newest delay-and-sum algorithm in [1], the coherent MVPB performs well on regions that conform to the diffuse scattering assumptions on which the minimum variance principles are based. It produces less good results for parts of the image that are dominated by specular reflections.

  10. Single-pixel optical imaging with compressed reference intensity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    Ghost imaging with single-pixel bucket detector has attracted more and more current attention due to its marked physical characteristics. However, in ghost imaging, a large number of reference intensity patterns are usually required for object reconstruction, hence many applications based on ghost imaging (such as tomography and optical security) may be tedious since heavy storage or transmission is requested. In this paper, we report that the compressed reference intensity patterns can be used for object recovery in computational ghost imaging (with single-pixel bucket detector), and object verification can be further conducted. Only a small portion (such as 2.0% pixels) of each reference intensity pattern is used for object reconstruction, and the recovered object is verified by using nonlinear correlation algorithm. Since statistical characteristic and speckle averaging property are inherent in ghost imaging, sidelobes or multiple peaks can be effectively suppressed or eliminated in the nonlinear correlation outputs when random pixel positions are selected from each reference intensity pattern. Since pixel positions can be randomly selected from each 2D reference intensity pattern (such as total measurements of 20000), a large key space and high flexibility can be generated when the proposed method is applied for authenticationbased cryptography. When compressive sensing is used to recover the object with a small number of measurements, the proposed strategy could still be feasible through further compressing the recorded data (i.e., reference intensity patterns) followed by object verification. It is expected that the proposed method not only compresses the recorded data and facilitates the storage or transmission, but also can build up novel capability (i.e., classical or quantum information verification) for ghost imaging.

  11. Dependent video coding using a tree representation of pixel dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Luca; Valenzise, Giuseppe; Ortega, Antonio; Tubaro, Stefano

    2011-09-01

    Motion-compensated prediction induces a chain of coding dependencies between pixels in video. In principle, an optimal selection of encoding parameters (motion vectors, quantization parameters, coding modes) should take into account the whole temporal horizon of a GOP. However, in practical coding schemes, these choices are made on a frame-by-frame basis, thus with a possible loss of performance. In this paper we describe a tree-based model for pixelwise coding dependencies: each pixel in a frame is the child of a pixel in a previous reference frame. We show that some tree structures are more favorable than others from a rate-distortion perspective, e.g., because they entail a large descendance of pixels which are well predicted from a common ancestor. In those cases, a higher quality has to be assigned to pixels at the top of such trees. We promote the creation of these structures by adding a special discount term to the conventional Lagrangian cost adopted at the encoder. The proposed model can be implemented through a double-pass encoding procedure. Specifically, we devise heuristic cost functions to drive the selection of quantization parameters and of motion vectors, which can be readily implemented into a state-of-the-art H.264/AVC encoder. Our experiments demonstrate that coding efficiency is improved for video sequences with low motion, while there are no apparent gains for more complex motion. We argue that this is due to both the presence of complex encoder features not captured by the model, and to the complexity of the source to be encoded.

  12. Microlens performance limits in sub-2mum pixel CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yijie; Fesenmaier, Christian C; Catrysse, Peter B

    2010-03-15

    CMOS image sensors with smaller pixels are expected to enable digital imaging systems with better resolution. When pixel size scales below 2 mum, however, diffraction affects the optical performance of the pixel and its microlens, in particular. We present a first-principles electromagnetic analysis of microlens behavior during the lateral scaling of CMOS image sensor pixels. We establish for a three-metal-layer pixel that diffraction prevents the microlens from acting as a focusing element when pixels become smaller than 1.4 microm. This severely degrades performance for on and off-axis pixels in red, green and blue color channels. We predict that one-metal-layer or backside-illuminated pixels are required to extend the functionality of microlenses beyond the 1.4 microm pixel node.

  13. Land cover mapping at sub-pixel scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makido, Yasuyo Kato

    One of the biggest drawbacks of land cover mapping from remotely sensed images relates to spatial resolution, which determines the level of spatial details depicted in an image. Fine spatial resolution images from satellite sensors such as IKONOS and QuickBird are now available. However, these images are not suitable for large-area studies, since a single image is very small and therefore it is costly for large area studies. Much research has focused on attempting to extract land cover types at sub-pixel scale, and little research has been conducted concerning the spatial allocation of land cover types within a pixel. This study is devoted to the development of new algorithms for predicting land cover distribution using remote sensory imagery at sub-pixel level. The "pixel-swapping" optimization algorithm, which was proposed by Atkinson for predicting sub-pixel land cover distribution, is investigated in this study. Two limitations of this method, the arbitrary spatial range value and the arbitrary exponential model of spatial autocorrelation, are assessed. Various weighting functions, as alternatives to the exponential model, are evaluated in order to derive the optimum weighting function. Two different simulation models were employed to develop spatially autocorrelated binary class maps. In all tested models, Gaussian, Exponential, and IDW, the pixel swapping method improved classification accuracy compared with the initial random allocation of sub-pixels. However the results suggested that equal weight could be used to increase accuracy and sub-pixel spatial autocorrelation instead of using these more complex models of spatial structure. New algorithms for modeling the spatial distribution of multiple land cover classes at sub-pixel scales are developed and evaluated. Three methods are examined: sequential categorical swapping, simultaneous categorical swapping, and simulated annealing. These three methods are applied to classified Landsat ETM+ data that has

  14. A novel CMOS sensor with in-pixel auto-zeroed discrimination for charged particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.

    2014-05-01

    With the aim of developing fast and granular Monolithic Active Pixels Sensors (MAPS) as new charged particle tracking detectors for high energy physics experiments, a new rolling shutter binary pixel architecture concept (RSBPix) with in-pixel correlated double sampling, amplification and discrimination is presented. The discriminator features auto-zeroing in order to compensate process-related transistor mismatches. In order to validate the pixel, a first monolithic CMOS sensor prototype, including a pixel array of 96 × 64 pixels, has been designed and fabricated in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. Results of laboratory tests are presented.

  15. High throughput optoelectronic smart pixel systems using diffractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Hao

    1999-12-01

    Recent developments in digital video, multimedia technology and data networks have greatly increased the demand for high bandwidth communication channels and high throughput data processing. Electronics is particularly suited for switching, amplification and logic functions, while optics is more suitable for interconnections and communications with lower energy and crosstalk. In this research, we present the design, testing, integration and demonstration of several optoelectronic smart pixel devices and system architectures. These systems integrate electronic switching/processing capability with parallel optical interconnections to provide high throughput network communication and pipeline data processing. The Smart Pixel Array Cellular Logic processor (SPARCL) is designed in 0.8 m m CMOS and hybrid integrated with Multiple-Quantum-Well (MQW) devices for pipeline image processing. The Smart Pixel Network Interface (SAPIENT) is designed in 0.6 m m GaAs and monolithically integrated with LEDs to implement a highly parallel optical interconnection network. The Translucent Smart Pixel Array (TRANSPAR) design is implemented in two different versions. The first version, TRANSPAR-MQW, is designed in 0.5 m m CMOS and flip-chip integrated with MQW devices to provide 2-D pipeline processing and translucent networking using the Carrier- Sense-MultipleAccess/Collision-Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol. The other version, TRANSPAR-VM, is designed in 1.2 m m CMOS and discretely integrated with VCSEL-MSM (Vertical-Cavity-Surface- Emitting-Laser and Metal-Semiconductor-Metal detectors) chips and driver/receiver chips on a printed circuit board. The TRANSPAR-VM provides an option of using the token ring network protocol in addition to the embedded functions of TRANSPAR-MQW. These optoelectronic smart pixel systems also require micro-optics devices to provide high resolution, high quality optical interconnections and external source arrays. In this research, we describe an innovative

  16. Efficient defect pixel cluster detection and correction for Bayer CFA image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajbakhsh, Touraj

    2011-01-01

    Image sensor arrays may have defect pixels, either originating from manufacturing or being developed over the lifetime of the image sensor array. Continuous defect pixel detection and correction performing during camera runtime is desirable. On-the-fly detection and correction is challenging since edges and high-frequency image content might get identified as defect pixel regions and intact pixels become corrupted during defect pixel replacement. We propose a table-based detection and correction method which by and by fills the non-volatile table during normal camera operation. In this work we model defect pixels and pixel clusters to be stuck to fixed values or at least fixed to a narrow value range whereas the local neighborhood of these pixels indicate a normal behavior. The idea is to temporally observe the value ranges of small group of pixels (e.g. 4x4 pixel blocks) and to decide about their defective condition depending on their variability with respect to their neighbor pixels. Our method is computationally efficient, requires no frame buffer, requires modest memory, and therefore is appropriate to operate in line-buffer based image signal processing (ISP) systems. Our results indicate high reliability in terms of detection rates and robustness against high-frequency image content. As part of the defect pixel replacement system we also propose a simple and efficient defect pixel correction method based on the mean of medians operating on the Bayer CFA image domain.

  17. Current progress on pixel level packaging for uncooled IRFPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, G.; Rabaud, W.; Yon, J.-J.; Carle, L.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Becker, Sébastien; Hamelin, Antoine; Arnaud, A.

    2012-06-01

    Vacuum packaging is definitely a major cost driver for uncooled IRFPA and a technological breakthrough is still expected to comply with the very low cost infrared camera market. To address this key issue, CEA-LETI is developing a Pixel Level Packaging (PLP) technology which basically consists in capping each pixel under vacuum in the direct continuation of the wafer level bolometer process. Previous CEA-LETI works have yet shown the feasibility of PLP based microbolometers that exhibit the required thermal insulation and vacuum achievement. CEA-LETI is still pushing the technology which has been now applied for the first time on a CMOS readout circuit. The paper will report on the recent progress obtained on PLP technology with particular emphasis on the optical efficiency of the PLP arrangement compared to the traditional microbolometer packaging. Results including optical performances, aging studies and compatibility with CMOS readout circuit are extensively presented.

  18. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigas, M.; Cabruja, E.; Lozano, M.

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  19. Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan

    2013-01-01

    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia. PMID:23959239

  20. Sub-pixel resolution with the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI).

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Max Louis; Smith, Jody Lynn; Nandy, Prabal

    2003-06-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Satellite (MTI) has been used to test a sub-pixel sampling technique in an effort to obtain higher spatial frequency imagery than that of its original design. The MTI instrument is of particular interest because of its infrared detectors. In this spectral region, the detector size is traditionally the limiting factor in determining the satellite's ground sampling distance (GSD). Additionally, many over-sampling techniques require flexible command and control of the sensor and spacecraft. The MTI sensor is well suited for this task, as it is the only imaging system on the MTI satellite bus. In this super-sampling technique, MTI is maneuvered such that the data are collected at sub-pixel intervals on the ground. The data are then processed using a deconvolution algorithm using in-scene measured point spread functions (PSF) to produce an image with synthetically-boosted GSD.

  1. Compressive holography with a single-pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Pere; Durán, Vicente; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Andrés, Pedro; Climent, Vicent; Lancis, Jesús

    2013-07-15

    This Letter develops a framework for digital holography at optical wavelengths by merging phase-shifting interferometry with single-pixel optical imaging based on compressive sensing. The field diffracted by an input object is sampled by Hadamard patterns with a liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The concept of a single-pixel camera is then adapted to perform interferometric imaging of the sampled diffraction pattern by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Phase-shifting techniques together with the application of a backward light propagation algorithm allow the complex amplitude of the object under scrutiny to be resolved. A proof-of-concept experiment evaluating the phase distribution of an ophthalmic lens with compressive phase-shifting holography is provided.

  2. MEDEA: a real time imaging pipeline for pixel lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovane, Gerardo; Capozziello, Salvatore; Longo, Giuseppe

    2003-05-01

    Pixel lensing is a technique used to search for baryonic components of dark matter (MACHOs) and allows detection of microlensing events even when the target galaxies are not resolved into individual stars. Potentially, it has the advantage of providing higher statistics than other methods but, unfortunately, traditional approaches to pixel lensing are very demanding in terms of computing time. We present the new, user friendly, tool MEDEA (Microlensing Experiment Data-Analysis Software for Events with Amplification). The package can be used either in a fully automatic or semi-automatic mode and can perform an on-line identification of events by means of a two level trigger and a quasi-on-line data analysis. The package will find application in the exploration of large databases as well as in the exploitation of specifically tailored future surveys.

  3. Using Trained Pixel Classifiers to Select Images of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, D.; Wagstaff, K.; Castano, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a machine-learning-based approach to ranking images based on learned priorities. Unlike previous methods for image evaluation, which typically assess the value of each image based on the presence of predetermined specific features, this method involves using two levels of machine-learning classifiers: one level is used to classify each pixel as belonging to one of a group of rather generic classes, and another level is used to rank the images based on these pixel classifications, given some example rankings from a scientist as a guide. Initial results indicate that the technique works well, producing new rankings that match the scientist's rankings significantly better than would be expected by chance. The method is demonstrated for a set of images collected by a Mars field-test rover.

  4. CMS Pixel Detector design for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliore, E.

    2016-12-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity to about 7.5×1034cm-2s-1 in 2028, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity scenario, HL-LHC, will present new challenges in higher data rates and increased radiation. In order to maintain its physics reach the CMS collaboration has undertaken a preparation program of the detector known as Phase-2 upgrade. The CMS Phase-2 Pixel upgrade will require a high bandwidth readout system and high radiation tolerance for sensors and on-detector ASICs. Several technologies for the upgrade sensors are being studied. Serial powering schemes are under consideration to accommodate significant constraints on the system. These prospective designs, as well as new layout geometries that include very forward pixel discs, will be presented together with performance estimation.

  5. Skin segmentation using color pixel classification: analysis and comparison.

    PubMed

    Phung, Son Lam; Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam; Chai, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of three important issues of the color pixel classification approach to skin segmentation: color representation, color quantization, and classification algorithm. Our analysis of several representative color spaces using the Bayesian classifier with the histogram technique shows that skin segmentation based on color pixel classification is largely unaffected by the choice of the color space. However, segmentation performance degrades when only chrominance channels are used in classification. Furthermore, we find that color quantization can be as low as 64 bins per channel, although higher histogram sizes give better segmentation performance. The Bayesian classifier with the histogram technique and the multilayer perceptron classifier are found to perform better compared to other tested classifiers, including three piecewise linear classifiers, three unimodal Gaussian classifiers, and a Gaussian mixture classifier.

  6. Image pixel device using integrated organic electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swathi, K.; Narayan, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    We report a solution processed, monolithically integrated device similar to an imaging pixel element used in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based cameras. This integrated pixel essentially consists of a pair of organic photodiode (OPD) and organic field effect transistor (OFET). The signal generated by the light responsive OPD drives the OFET to different output states to quantify the light intensity. The prerequisite of a low operating voltage OFET (<2 V) was achieved using a bottom-gate, top-contact OFET consisting of a high mobility polymer semiconductor and a self-assembled hybrid dielectric layer. A bulk heterojunction blend was used as the photo-active layer in the OPD along with suitable buffer layers for charge extraction. The material parameters were optimized to realize a suitable structure which clearly demonstrated the interplay of the OPD and OFET operations, thereby forming a roadmap for all-organic CMOS arrays.

  7. The Hybrid Pixel Single Photon Counting Detector XPAD

    SciTech Connect

    Hustache-Ottini, S.; Bordessoule, M.; Medjoubi, K.; Berar, J.-F.; Boudet, N.; Caillot, B.

    2007-01-19

    The XPAD detector is a 2D X-ray imager based on hybrid pixel technology, gathering 38400 pixels on a surface of 68*68 mm2. It is a photon counting detector, with low noise, wide dynamic range and high speed read out, which make it particularly suitable for third generation synchrotron applications, such as diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering or macro-molecular crystallography, but also for small animal imaging. High resolution powder diffraction data and in situ scattering data of crystallization of liquid oxides are presented to illustrate the properties of this detector, resulting in a significant gain in data acquisition time and a capability to follow fast kinetics in real time experiments. The characteristics of the future generation of XPAD detector, which will be available in 2007, are also presented.

  8. New SOFRADIR 10μm pixel pitch infrared products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefoul, X.; Pere-Laperne, N.; Augey, T.; Rubaldo, L.; Aufranc, Sébastien; Decaens, G.; Ricard, N.; Mazaleyrat, E.; Billon-Lanfrey, D.; Gravrand, Olivier; Bisotto, Sylvette

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in miniaturization of IR imaging technology have led to a growing market for mini thermal-imaging sensors. In that respect, Sofradir development on smaller pixel pitch has made much more compact products available to the users. When this competitive advantage is mixed with smaller coolers, made possible by HOT technology, we achieved valuable reductions in the size, weight and power of the overall package. At the same time, we are moving towards a global offer based on digital interfaces that provides our customers simplifications at the IR system design process while freeing up more space. This paper discusses recent developments on hot and small pixel pitch technologies as well as efforts made on compact packaging solution developed by SOFRADIR in collaboration with CEA-LETI.

  9. Pixel detector system development at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-10-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors consisting of an array of silicon photodiodes bump-bonded to CMOS read-out chips provide high signal-to-noise ratio and high dynamic range compared to CCD-based detectors and Image Plates. These detector features are important for SAXS experiments where a wide range of intensities are present in the images. For time resolved SAXS experiments, high frame rates are compulsory. The latest CMOS read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX collaboration provides high frame rate and continuous acquisition mode. A read-out system for an array of MEDIPIX3 sensors is under development at Diamond Light Source. This system will support a full resolution frame rate of 1 kHz at a pixel counter depth of 12-bit and a frame rate of 30 kHz at a counter depth of 1 bit. Details concerning system design and MEDIPIX sensors characterization are presented.

  10. Measurement results of DIPIX pixel sensor developed in SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammed Imran; Arai, Yasuo; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, Piotr; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Turala, Michal

    2013-08-01

    The development of integration type pixel detectors presents interest for physics communities because it brings optimization of design, simplicity of production-which means smaller cost, and reduction of detector material budget. During the last decade a lot of research and development activities took place in the field of CMOS Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology resulting in improvement in wafer size, wafer resistivity and MIM capacitance. Several ideas have been tested successfully and are gradually entering into the application phase. Some of the novel concepts exploring SOI technology are pursued at KEK; several prototypes of dual mode integration type pixel (DIPIX) have been recently produced and described. This report presents initial test results of some of the prototypes including tests obtained with the infrared laser beams and Americium (Am-241) source. The Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) of 86 e - has been measured. The measured performance demonstrates that SOI technology is a feasible choice for future applications.

  11. Pixel extraction based integral imaging with controllable viewing direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chao-Chao; Deng, Huan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2012-09-01

    We propose pixel extraction based integral imaging with a controllable viewing direction. The proposed integral imaging can provide viewers three-dimensional (3D) images in a very small viewing angle. The viewing angle and the viewing direction of the reconstructed 3D images are controlled by the pixels extracted from an elemental image array. Theoretical analysis and a 3D display experiment of the viewing direction controllable integral imaging are carried out. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theory. A 3D display based on the integral imaging can protect the viewer’s privacy and has huge potential for a television to show multiple 3D programs at the same time.

  12. Distance measurement based on pixel variation of CCD images.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chen-Chien; Lu, Ming-Chih; Wang, Wei-Yen; Lu, Yin-Yu

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a distance measurement method based on pixel number variation of CCD images by referencing to two arbitrarily designated points in the image frames. By establishing a relationship between the displacement of the camera movement along the photographing direction and the difference in pixel count between reference points in the images, the distance from an object can be calculated via the proposed method. To integrate the measuring functions into digital cameras, a circuit design implementing the proposed measuring system in selecting reference points, measuring distance, and displaying measurement results on CCD panel of the digital camera is proposed in this paper. In comparison to pattern recognition or image analysis methods, the proposed measuring approach is simple and straightforward for practical implementation into digital cameras. To validate the performance of the proposed method, measurement results using the proposed method and ultrasonic rangefinders are also presented in this paper.

  13. Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M.; Sun, X.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2009-01-14

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.

  14. Secured Medical Images - a Chaotic Pixel Scrambling Approach.

    PubMed

    Parvees, M Y Mohamed; Samath, J Abdul; Bose, B Parameswaran

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a cryptosystem is proposed to encrypt 16-bit monochrome DICOM image using enhanced chaotic economic map. A new enhanced chaotic economic map (ECEM) is designed from the chaotic economic map which has better bifurcation nature and positive Lyapunov exponent values. In order to improve the sternness of the encryption algorithm, the enhanced chaotic map is employed to generate the pixel permutation, masking, and swapping sequences. The substitution operation is introduced in-between the standard permutation and diffusion operations. The robustness of the proposed image encryption algorithm is measured by various analyses such as histogram, key sensitivity, key space, number of pixel change rate (NPCR), unified average change intensity (UACI), information entropy and correlation coefficient. The results of the security analyses are compared with existing algorithms to validate that the proposed algorithm is better in terms of larger key space to resist brute force attacks and other common attacks on encryption.

  15. Digital pixel sensor array with logarithmic delta-sigma architecture.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan

    2013-08-16

    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia.

  16. Ionogram trace enhancement based on image pixel connectedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongguang; Ji, Guangrong; Zheng, Haiyong; Zhao, Zhenwei; He, Shaohong

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel idea for ionogram trace enhancement to obtain the "clean" ionogram with real ionospheric echo signals, which is very important for further ionogram interpretation and scaling manually or automatically. Two methods based on ionogram trace pixel connectedness are adopted: max filter and connected components labeling. The experiments show that both methods are feasible and effective, and parameter selection and time complexity of the two methods are analyzed.

  17. Automated detection of BB pixel clusters in digital fluoroscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Paul S.; Johnson, Roger H.

    1998-09-01

    Small ball bearings (BBs) are often used to characterize and correct for geometric distortion of x-ray image intensifiers. For quantitative applications the number of BBs required for accurate distortion correction is prohibitively large for manual detection. A method to automatically determine the BB coordinates is described. The technique consists of image segmentation, pixel coalescing and centroid calculation. The dependence of calculated BB coordinates on segmentation threshold was also evaluated and found to be within the uncertainty of measurement.

  18. Performance studies of Micro Pixel Chamber for the ATLAS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komai, H.; Ochi, A.; Homma, Y.; Edo, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2013-03-01

    The Micro Pixel Chamber (μ-PIC) is being developed as a muon chamber of the ATLAS experiment in an HL-LHC environment. In the ATLAS muon system, a high flux of fast neutron background causes instability operation of the detectors. We performed neutron irradiation tests with μ-PIC to optimize the operation gas and detector structure. In addition, we studied neutron interactions with the detector, in order to understand the effect of fast neutrons.

  19. Planar slim-edge pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenheiner, S.; Goessling, C.; Jentzsch, J.; Klingenberg, R.; Lapsien, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T.

    2012-02-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN is a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost tracking detector of ATLAS and requires a sufficient level of hermeticity to achieve superb track reconstruction performance. The current planar n-type pixel sensors feature a pixel matrix of n+-implantations which is (on the opposite p-side) surrounded by so-called guard rings to reduce the high voltage stepwise towards the cutting edge and an additional safety margin. Because of the inactive region around the active area, the sensor modules have been shingled on top of each other's edge which limits the thermal performance and adds complexity in the present detector. The first upgrade phase of the ATLAS pixel detector will consist of the insertable b-layer (IBL), an additional b-layer which will be inserted into the present detector in 2013. Several changes in the sensor design with respect to the existing detector had to be applied to comply with the IBL's specifications and are described in detail. A key issue for the ATLAS upgrades is a flat arrangement of the sensors. To maintain the required level of hermeticity in the detector, the inactive sensor edges have to be reduced to minimize the dead space between the adjacent detector modules. Unirradiated and irradiated sensors with the IBL design have been operated in test beams to study the efficiency performance in the sensor edge region and it was found that the inactive edge width could be reduced from 1100 μm to less than 250 μm.

  20. A CMOS In-Pixel CTIA High Sensitivity Fluorescence Imager

    PubMed Central

    Murari, Kartikeya; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Thakor, Nitish; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, charge coupled device (CCD) based image sensors have held sway over the field of biomedical imaging. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based imagers so far lack sensitivity leading to poor low-light imaging. Certain applications including our work on animal-mountable systems for imaging in awake and unrestrained rodents require the high sensitivity and image quality of CCDs and the low power consumption, flexibility and compactness of CMOS imagers. We present a 132×124 high sensitivity imager array with a 20.1 μm pixel pitch fabricated in a standard 0.5 μ CMOS process. The chip incorporates n-well/p-sub photodiodes, capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) based in-pixel amplification, pixel scanners and delta differencing circuits. The 5-transistor all-nMOS pixel interfaces with peripheral pMOS transistors for column-parallel CTIA. At 70 fps, the array has a minimum detectable signal of 4 nW/cm2 at a wavelength of 450 nm while consuming 718 μA from a 3.3 V supply. Peak signal to noise ratio (SNR) was 44 dB at an incident intensity of 1 μW/cm2. Implementing 4×4 binning allowed the frame rate to be increased to 675 fps. Alternately, sensitivity could be increased to detect about 0.8 nW/cm2 while maintaining 70 fps. The chip was used to image single cell fluorescence at 28 fps with an average SNR of 32 dB. For comparison, a cooled CCD camera imaged the same cell at 20 fps with an average SNR of 33.2 dB under the same illumination while consuming over a watt. PMID:23136624

  1. Characterization of indium and solder bump bonding for pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk Cihangir and Simon Kwan

    2000-09-28

    A review of different bump-bonding processes used for pixel detectors is given. A large scale test on daisy-chained components from two vendors has been carried out at Fermilab to characterize the yield of these processes. The vendors are Advanced Interconnect Technology Ltd. (AIT) of Hong Kong and MCNC in North Carolina, US. The results from this test are presented and technical challenges encountered are discussed.

  2. Sub-pixel spatial resolution wavefront phase imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip (Inventor); Mooney, James T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A phase imaging method for an optical wavefront acquires a plurality of phase images of the optical wavefront using a phase imager. Each phase image is unique and is shifted with respect to another of the phase images by a known/controlled amount that is less than the size of the phase imager's pixels. The phase images are then combined to generate a single high-spatial resolution phase image of the optical wavefront.

  3. Influence of pixel geometry on the 1/f noise coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Généreux, Francis; Paultre, Jacques-Edmond; Tremblay, Bruno; Provençal, Francis; Alain, Christine

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the 1/f noise coefficient as a function of pixel geometry for microbolometer structures. Structures with various VOx widths, electrode gaps, electrode widths and via hole sizes were fabricated and characterized. The experimental results show that the 1/f noise coefficient is adversely affected by current non uniformity, in agreement with model predictions. Design parameters that significantly impact current non uniformity are identified and approaches to minimize their importance are proposed.

  4. Validity Assessment of Pixel Linear Spectral Mixing Through Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasheri, M. R.; Dehnavi, S.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of the data collected by hyperspectral imaging systems, it is important to discuss the physics behind the scene radiance field incident on the imaging system. A dominant effect in hyperspectral remote sensing is the mixing of radiant energies contributed from different materials present in a given pixel. The basic assumption of mixture modelling is that within a given scene, the surface is covered by a small number of distinct materials that have relatively constant spectral properties. It is most common to assume that the radiance reflected by different materials in a pixel can spectrally combine in a linear additive manner to produce the pixel radiance/reflectance, even when that might not be the case e.g. where the mixing process leads to nonlinear combinations of the radiance and where the linear assumption fails to hold. This can occur where there is significant relative three-dimensional structure within a given pixel. Without detailed knowledge of the dimensional structure, it can be very difficult to correctly ``un-mix'' the contributions of the various materials. This work aims to evaluate the correctness of the linear assumption in the mixture modelling using some laboratory measurements. Study was conducted using some sheets made of cellulose materials of different colours in 400-800 nm spectral range. Experimental results have shown that a correction term must be applied to the gains and offsets in the linear model. The obtained results can be extended to satellite sensors that acquire images in the above mentioned spectral range.

  5. Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Koniczek, Martin; Zhao, Qihua; Li, Yixin; Street, Robert A.; Lu, Jeng-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) employing a 2D matrix of a-Si addressing TFTs have become ubiquitous in many x-ray imaging applications due to their numerous advantages. However, under conditions of low exposures and∕or high spatial resolution, their signal-to-noise performance is constrained by the modest system gain relative to the electronic additive noise. In this article, a strategy for overcoming this limitation through the incorporation of in-pixel amplification circuits, referred to as active pixel (AP) architectures, using polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is reported. Compared to a-Si, poly-Si offers substantially higher mobilities, enabling higher TFT currents and the possibility of sophisticated AP designs based on both n- and p-channel TFTs. Three prototype indirect detection arrays employing poly-Si TFTs and a continuous a-Si photodiode structure were characterized. The prototypes consist of an array (PSI-1) that employs a pixel architecture with a single TFT, as well as two arrays (PSI-2 and PSI-3) that employ AP architectures based on three and five TFTs, respectively. While PSI-1 serves as a reference with a design similar to that of conventional AMFPI arrays, PSI-2 and PSI-3 incorporate additional in-pixel amplification circuitry. Compared to PSI-1, results of x-ray sensitivity demonstrate signal gains of ∼10.7 and 20.9 for PSI-2 and PSI-3, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with design expectations, demonstrating that poly-Si AP circuits can be tailored to provide a desired level of signal gain. PSI-2 exhibits the same high levels of charge trapping as those observed for PSI-1 and other conventional arrays employing a continuous photodiode structure. For PSI-3, charge trapping was found to be significantly lower and largely independent of the bias voltage applied across the photodiode. MTF results indicate that the use of a continuous photodiode structure in PSI-1, PSI-2, and PSI-3 results in optical fill

  6. Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E; Koniczek, Martin; Zhao, Qihua; Li, Yixin; Street, Robert A; Lu, Jeng-Ping

    2009-07-01

    Active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) employing a 2D matrix of a-Si addressing TFTs have become ubiquitous in many x-ray imaging applications due to their numerous advantages. However, under conditions of low exposures and/or high spatial resolution, their signal-to-noise performance is constrained by the modest system gain relative to the electronic additive noise. In this article, a strategy for overcoming this limitation through the incorporation of in-pixel amplification circuits, referred to as active pixel (AP) architectures, using polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is reported. Compared to a-Si, poly-Si offers substantially higher mobilities, enabling higher TFT currents and the possibility of sophisticated AP designs based on both n- and p-channel TFTs. Three prototype indirect detection arrays employing poly-Si TFTs and a continuous a-Si photodiode structure were characterized. The prototypes consist of an array (PSI-1) that employs a pixel architecture with a single TFT, as well as two arrays (PSI-2 and PSI-3) that employ AP architectures based on three and five TFTs, respectively. While PSI-1 serves as a reference with a design similar to that of conventional AMFPI arrays, PSI-2 and PSI-3 incorporate additional in-pixel amplification circuitry. Compared to PSI-1, results of x-ray sensitivity demonstrate signal gains of approximately 10.7 and 20.9 for PSI-2 and PSI-3, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with design expectations, demonstrating that poly-Si AP circuits can be tailored to provide a desired level of signal gain. PSI-2 exhibits the same high levels of charge trapping as those observed for PSI-1 and other conventional arrays employing a continuous photodiode structure. For PSI-3, charge trapping was found to be significantly lower and largely independent of the bias voltage applied across the photodiode. MTF results indicate that the use of a continuous photodiode structure in PSI-1, PSI-2, and PSI-3 results in

  7. Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Koniczek, Martin; Zhao Qihua; Li Yixin; Street, Robert A.; Lu Jengping

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) employing a 2D matrix of a-Si addressing TFTs have become ubiquitous in many x-ray imaging applications due to their numerous advantages. However, under conditions of low exposures and/or high spatial resolution, their signal-to-noise performance is constrained by the modest system gain relative to the electronic additive noise. In this article, a strategy for overcoming this limitation through the incorporation of in-pixel amplification circuits, referred to as active pixel (AP) architectures, using polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is reported. Compared to a-Si, poly-Si offers substantially higher mobilities, enabling higher TFT currents and the possibility of sophisticated AP designs based on both n- and p-channel TFTs. Three prototype indirect detection arrays employing poly-Si TFTs and a continuous a-Si photodiode structure were characterized. The prototypes consist of an array (PSI-1) that employs a pixel architecture with a single TFT, as well as two arrays (PSI-2 and PSI-3) that employ AP architectures based on three and five TFTs, respectively. While PSI-1 serves as a reference with a design similar to that of conventional AMFPI arrays, PSI-2 and PSI-3 incorporate additional in-pixel amplification circuitry. Compared to PSI-1, results of x-ray sensitivity demonstrate signal gains of {approx}10.7 and 20.9 for PSI-2 and PSI-3, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with design expectations, demonstrating that poly-Si AP circuits can be tailored to provide a desired level of signal gain. PSI-2 exhibits the same high levels of charge trapping as those observed for PSI-1 and other conventional arrays employing a continuous photodiode structure. For PSI-3, charge trapping was found to be significantly lower and largely independent of the bias voltage applied across the photodiode. MTF results indicate that the use of a continuous photodiode structure in PSI-1, PSI-2, and PSI-3 results in optical

  8. Simulation of charge transport in pixelated CdTe

    PubMed Central

    Kolstein, M.; Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated semiconductor technology for nuclear medicine applications to achieve an improved image reconstruction without efficiency loss. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). The design is based on the use of a pixelated CdTe Schottky detector to have optimal energy and spatial resolution. An individual read-out channel is dedicated for each detector voxel of size 1 × 1 × 2 mm3 using an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which the VIP project has designed, developed and is currently evaluating experimentally. The behaviour of the signal charge carriers in CdTe should be well understood because it has an impact on the performance of the readout channels. For this purpose the Finite Element Method (FEM) Multiphysics COMSOL software package has been used to simulate the behaviour of signal charge carriers in CdTe and extract values for the expected charge sharing depending on the impact point and bias voltage. The results on charge sharing obtained with COMSOL are combined with GAMOS, a Geant based particle tracking Monte Carlo software package, to get a full evaluation of the amount of charge sharing in pixelated CdTe for different gamma impact points. PMID:25729404

  9. Simulation of charge transport in pixelated CdTe.

    PubMed

    Kolstein, M; Ariño, G; Chmeissani, M; De Lorenzo, G

    2014-12-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated semiconductor technology for nuclear medicine applications to achieve an improved image reconstruction without efficiency loss. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 10(6)). The design is based on the use of a pixelated CdTe Schottky detector to have optimal energy and spatial resolution. An individual read-out channel is dedicated for each detector voxel of size 1 × 1 × 2 mm(3) using an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which the VIP project has designed, developed and is currently evaluating experimentally. The behaviour of the signal charge carriers in CdTe should be well understood because it has an impact on the performance of the readout channels. For this purpose the Finite Element Method (FEM) Multiphysics COMSOL software package has been used to simulate the behaviour of signal charge carriers in CdTe and extract values for the expected charge sharing depending on the impact point and bias voltage. The results on charge sharing obtained with COMSOL are combined with GAMOS, a Geant based particle tracking Monte Carlo software package, to get a full evaluation of the amount of charge sharing in pixelated CdTe for different gamma impact points.

  10. Spectroscopic and imaging capabilities of a pixellated photon counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendolia, S. R.; Bisogni, M. G.; Bottigli, U.; Delogu, P.; Dipasquale, G.; Fantacci, M. E.; Marchi, A.; Marzulli, V. M.; Oliva, P.; Palmiero, R.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Stumbo, S.; Zucca, S.

    2001-06-01

    We are studying the performance of various thickness GaAs pixel detectors bump-bonded to a dedicated photon counting chip (PCC) for medical imaging applications in different energy ranges. In this work we present the experimental results obtained with a 600 μm thick pixel matrix (64×64 square pixels, 170 μm side) in the 60-140 keV energy range to evaluate the possible use of such a system in the nuclear medicine field. In particular, we have measured the spectroscopic properties of the detector (charge collection efficiency, energy resolution and detection efficiency) and evaluated the discrimination capability of the electronics. Then we have measured the imaging properties of the whole system in terms of Point Spread Function and using a home made thyroid phantom. We present also a comparison with a traditional gamma camera and an evaluation, made by both experimental measurements and software simulations, of the imaging characteristics related to the use of a collimation system.

  11. Physics benchmarks for the Belle II pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Gioi, L.

    2015-03-01

    SuperKEKB, the massive upgrade of the asymmetric electron positron collider KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, aims at an integrated luminosity in excess of 50 ab-1. It will deliver an instantaneous luminosity of 8 ṡ 1035 cm-2s-1, which is 40 times higher than the world record set by KEKB. At this high luminosity, a large increase of the background relative to the previous KEKB machine is expected. This and the more demanding physics rate ask for an entirely new tracking system. The expected increase of background would in fact create an unacceptable high occupancy for a silicon strip detector, making an efficient tracks reconstruction and vertexing impossible. The solution for Belle II is a pixel detector which intrinsically provides three dimensional space points. The new two layers silicon pixel vertex detector, based on DEPFET technology, will be mounted directly on the beam pipe. It will provide an accurate measurement of the tracks position in order to precisely reconstruct the decay vertex of the short living particles.In this paper we will discuss the physics performance of the Belle II pixel vertex detector which will be essential for the precise measurement of the CP parameters in various B and D decay modes.

  12. The phase II ATLAS Pixel upgrade: the Inner Tracker (ITk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flick, T.

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ITk (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. Several layout options are being investigated. All of these include a barrel part and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. All structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. Different designs of planar, 3D, and CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. While the RD53 Collaboration is developing the new readout chip, the pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system. A readout speed of up to 5 Gbit/s per data link (FE-chip) will be needed in the innermost layers going down to 640 Mbit/s for the outermost. This paper presents an overview of the different components of the ITk and the current status of the developments.

  13. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired.

  14. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of 3D CMS pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, Mayur; Krzwyda, Alex; Alagoz, Enver; Bortoletto, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Future generations of colliders, like High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will deliver much higher radiation doses to the particle detectors, specifically those closer to the beam line. Inner tracker detectors will be the most affected part, causing increased occupancy and radiation damage to Silicon detectors. Planar Silicon sensors have not shown enough radiation hardness for the innermost layers where the radiation doses can reach values around 10^16 neq/cm^2. As a possible replacement of planar pixel sensors, 3D Silicon technology is under consideration as they show higher radiation hardness, and efficiencies comparable to planar sensors. Several 3D CMS pixel designs were fabricated at FBK, CNM, and SINTEF. They were bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip and characterized in the laboratory using radioactive source (Sr90), and at Fermilab MTEST beam test facility. Sensors were also irradiated with 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos National Lab to study post-irradiation behavior. In addition, several diodes and test structures from FBK were studied before and after irradiation. We report the laboratory and testbeam measurement results for the irradiated 3D devices.

  15. Simulation of charge transport in pixelated CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolstein, M.; Ariño, G.; Chmeissani, M.; De Lorenzo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated semiconductor technology for nuclear medicine applications to achieve an improved image reconstruction without efficiency loss. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). The design is based on the use of a pixelated CdTe Schottky detector to have optimal energy and spatial resolution. An individual read-out channel is dedicated for each detector voxel of size 1 × 1 × 2 mm3 using an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which the VIP project has designed, developed and is currently evaluating experimentally. The behaviour of the signal charge carriers in CdTe should be well understood because it has an impact on the performance of the readout channels. For this purpose the Finite Element Method (FEM) Multiphysics COMSOL software package has been used to simulate the behaviour of signal charge carriers in CdTe and extract values for the expected charge sharing depending on the impact point and bias voltage. The results on charge sharing obtained with COMSOL are combined with GAMOS, a Geant based particle tracking Monte Carlo software package, to get a full evaluation of the amount of charge sharing in pixelated CdTe for different gamma impact points.

  16. Pixel super-resolution in digital in-line holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Feng, Shaodong; Wu, Jigang

    2016-10-01

    We report a new holographic microscope using pixel super-resolution algorithm. In our method, a sequence of low resolution images are acquired by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor in digital inline holography system and the resolution is limited by the sensor pixel size. Then the super-resolution algorithm is applied to the low resolution images to get the image with much higher resolution that beyond the Nyquist criteria. We perform both numerical simulation and experiments to demonstrate our method with US Air Force Target used as the sample. The sample is randomly moved in the sample plane and a set of holograms are captured by the camera in inline holographic system. We use two methods to reconstruct the sample image. In the first method, super-resolution algorithm is applied with the low resolution holograms to get the high resolution hologram. Then the high resolution hologram is reconstructed using auto-focusing algorithm to get the high resolution sample image. In the second method, the raw holograms are directly reconstructed to get a set of low resolution sample images, then the super-resolution algorithm is applied to get the high resolution sample image. We observed that the above mentioned two methods can get similar results in both numerical stimulation and experiments. We believe that the combination of pixel super-resolution algorithm and digital in-line holography can be very useful to implement a compact low-cost microscope with high resolution.

  17. Demosaiced pixel super-resolution for multiplexed holographic color imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yibo; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize a holographic color image, one can sequentially take three holograms at different wavelengths, e.g., at red (R), green (G) and blue (B) parts of the spectrum, and digitally merge them. To speed up the imaging process by a factor of three, a Bayer color sensor-chip can also be used to demultiplex three wavelengths that simultaneously illuminate the sample and digitally retrieve individual set of holograms using the known transmission spectra of the Bayer color filters. However, because the pixels of different channels (R, G, B) on a Bayer color sensor are not at the same physical location, conventional demosaicing techniques generate color artifacts in holographic imaging using simultaneous multi-wavelength illumination. Here we demonstrate that pixel super-resolution can be merged into the color de-multiplexing process to significantly suppress the artifacts in wavelength-multiplexed holographic color imaging. This new approach, termed Demosaiced Pixel Super-Resolution (D-PSR), generates color images that are similar in performance to sequential illumination at three wavelengths, and therefore improves the speed of holographic color imaging by 3-fold. D-PSR method is broadly applicable to holographic microscopy applications, where high-resolution imaging and multi-wavelength illumination are desired. PMID:27353242

  18. Sub pixel location identification using super resolved multilooking CHRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahithi, V. S.; Agrawal, S.

    2014-11-01

    CHRIS /Proba is a multiviewing hyperspectral sensor that monitors the earth in five different zenith angles +55°, +36°, nadir, -36° and -55° with a spatial resolution of 17 m and within a spectral range of 400-1050 nm in mode 3. These multiviewing images are suitable for constructing a super resolved high resolution image that can reveal the mixed pixel of the hyperspectral image. In the present work, an attempt is made to find the location of various features constituted within the 17m mixed pixel of the CHRIS image using various super resolution reconstruction techniques. Four different super resolution reconstruction techniques namely interpolation, iterative back projection, projection on to convex sets (POCS) and robust super resolution were tried on the -36, nadir and +36 images to construct a super resolved high resolution 5.6 m image. The results of super resolution reconstruction were compared with the scaled nadir image and bicubic convoluted image for comparision of the spatial and spectral property preservance. A support vector machine classification of the best super resolved high resolution image was performed to analyse the location of the sub pixel features. Validation of the obtained results was performed using the spectral unmixing fraction images and the 5.6 m classified LISS IV image.

  19. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II-, as the anode array. Topmetal-II- is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 μm technology. Each Topmetal-II- sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 μm2. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 μm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  20. A CMOS active pixel sensor for retinal stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prydderch, Mark L.; French, Marcus J.; Mathieson, Keith; Adams, Christopher; Gunning, Deborah; Laudanski, Jonathan; Morrison, James D.; Moodie, Alan R.; Sinclair, James

    2006-02-01

    Degenerative photoreceptor diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the most common causes of blindness in the western world. A potential cure is to use a microelectronic retinal prosthesis to provide electrical stimulation to the remaining healthy retinal cells. We describe a prototype CMOS Active Pixel Sensor capable of detecting a visual scene and translating it into a train of electrical pulses for stimulation of the retina. The sensor consists of a 10 x 10 array of 100 micron square pixels fabricated on a 0.35 micron CMOS process. Light incident upon each pixel is converted into output current pulse trains with a frequency related to the light intensity. These outputs are connected to a biocompatible microelectrode array for contact to the retinal cells. The flexible design allows experimentation with signal amplitudes and frequencies in order to determine the most appropriate stimulus for the retina. Neural processing in the retina can be studied by using the sensor in conjunction with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programmed to behave as a neural network. The sensor has been integrated into a test system designed for studying retinal response. We present the most recent results obtained from this sensor.

  1. ATLAS pixel detector design for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, B.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector is called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended η-range: at least to |η|<3.2, and likely up to 0|η|<4.. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into `extended' and `inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will also be discussed.

  2. First results from electrical qualification measurements on DEPFET pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Petra; Andricek, Ladislav; Lauf, Thomas; Lechner, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Reiffers, Jonas; Richter, Rainer; Schaller, Gerhard; Schnecke, Martina; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Stefanescu, Alexander; Strüder, Lothar; Treis, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    We report on the first results from a new setup for electrical qualification measurements of DEPFET pixel detector matrices. In order to measure the transistor properties of all pixels, the DEPFET device is placed into a benchtest setup and electrically contacted via a probecard. Using a switch matrix, each pixel of the detector array can be addressed individually for characterization. These measurements facilitate to pre-select the best DEPFET matrices as detector device prior to the mounting of the matrix and allow to investigate topics like the homogeneity of transistor parameters on device, wafer and batch level in order to learn about the stability and reproducibility of the production process. Especially with regard to the detector development for the IXO Wide Field Imager (WFI), this yield learning will be an important tool. The first electrical qualification measurements with this setup were done on DEPFET macropixel detector flight hardware, which will form the FPAs of the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (MIXS) on board of the 5th ESA cornerstone mission BepiColombo. The DEPFET array consists of 64×64 macropixel for which the transfer, output and clear characteristics were measured.

  3. Spatial Pileup Considerations for Pixellated Gamma -ray Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Furenlid, L.R.; Clarkson, E.; Marks, D.G.; Barrett, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution solid-state detectors being developed for gamma-ray applications benefit from having pixel dimensions substantially smaller than detector slab thickness. This leads to an enhanced possibility of charge partially spreading to neighboring pixels as a result of diffusion (and secondary photon emission) transverse to the drift direction. An undesirable consequence is the effective magnification of the event “size“ and the spatial overlap issues which result when two photons are absorbed in close proximity within the integration time of the detector/readout system. In this work, we develop the general statistics of spatial pileup in imaging systems and apply the results to detectors we are developing based on pixellated cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) and a multiplexing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readout. We consider the limitations imposed on total count rate capacity and explore in detail the consequences for the LISTMODE data-acquisition strategy. Algorithms are proposed for identifying and, where possible, resolving overlapping events by maximum-likelihood estimation. The efficacy and noise tolerance of these algorithms will be tested with a combination of simulated and experimental data in future work. PMID:26568675

  4. Construction of the Phase I Forward Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neylon, Ashton; Bartek, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. The original CMS detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1 . The LHC has already started to exceed this luminosity causing the CMS pixel detector to see a dynamic inefficiency caused by data losses due to buffer overflows. For this reason the CMS Collaboration has been building an upgraded pixel detector which is scheduled for installation during an extended year end technical stop during winter 2016/2017. The phase 1 upgrade includes four barrel layers and three forward disks, providing robust tracking and vertexing for LHC luminosities up to 2 x 1034 cm-2s-1 . The upgrade incorporates new readout chips, front-end electronics, DC-DC powering, and dual-phase CO2 cooling to achieve performance exceeding that of the present detector with a lower material budget. This contribution will review the design and technology choices of the Phase I detector and discuss the status of the detector. The challenges and difficulties encountered during the construction will also be presented, as well as the lessons learned for future upgrades. National Science Foundation.

  5. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  6. [Study on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel character of aquatic plants and water].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tian-lin; Zhao, Yun-sheng; Liang, Ren-feng; Zhang, Xia

    2012-02-01

    A study on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel of aquatic plants and water was given by using a orthogonal experimental design with three factors and two levels. The results of F test suggest that for the single factors, the band and the area ratio of mixed-pixel on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel of the reflection effects are particularly significant, however, the detector angle had no significant effect under these experimental conditions; For the interaction, the band and the area ratio of mixed-pixel, the detector and the area ratio of mixed-pixel, the effects of these two interactions on the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel are also particularly significant, This study did quantitative analysis of the factors affecting the reflected and hyperspectral mixed-pixel character and their interaction, and provided a new method for the indepth study of mixed-pixel.

  7. Precise motion compensation based on weighted sub-pixel image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guangliang

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposed a sub-pixel image correlation algorithm that can get more Precise result, its principle is apply the distribute of relativity peak to get weighted multi-pixel comprehensive of location. Image correlation be as to calculates the greyscale relativity of image template and matching image, the relativity of correspond location where match best with template will be most high, and in its neighbour range, the relativity will be still keep high too. We used these pixel in this local area of calculated match point to get sub-pixel accuracy, the relativity of every pixel be used as its weight for participate the sub-pixel calculation. The sub-pixel location is more accuracy than the integer one, we applied this method to perform background compensation in processing the target detecting for video image sequence. At the end of this paper, some experiment data be proposed, it proved this sub-pixel image correlation can obtain better result.

  8. Hexagonal Pixels and Indexing Scheme for Binary Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for resampling binaryimage data from a rectangular grid to a regular hexagonal grid and an associated tree-structured pixel-indexing scheme keyed to the level of resolution have been devised. This scheme could be utilized in conjunction with appropriate image-data-processing algorithms to enable automated retrieval and/or recognition of images. For some purposes, this scheme is superior to a prior scheme that relies on rectangular pixels: one example of such a purpose is recognition of fingerprints, which can be approximated more closely by use of line segments along hexagonal axes than by line segments along rectangular axes. This scheme could also be combined with algorithms for query-image-based retrieval of images via the Internet. A binary image on a rectangular grid is generated by raster scanning or by sampling on a stationary grid of rectangular pixels. In either case, each pixel (each cell in the rectangular grid) is denoted as either bright or dark, depending on whether the light level in the pixel is above or below a prescribed threshold. The binary data on such an image are stored in a matrix form that lends itself readily to searches of line segments aligned with either or both of the perpendicular coordinate axes. The first step in resampling onto a regular hexagonal grid is to make the resolution of the hexagonal grid fine enough to capture all the binaryimage detail from the rectangular grid. In practice, this amounts to choosing a hexagonal-cell width equal to or less than a third of the rectangular- cell width. Once the data have been resampled onto the hexagonal grid, the image can readily be checked for line segments aligned with the hexagonal coordinate axes, which typically lie at angles of 30deg, 90deg, and 150deg with respect to say, the horizontal rectangular coordinate axis. Optionally, one can then rotate the rectangular image by 90deg, then again sample onto the hexagonal grid and check for line segments at angles of 0deg, 60deg

  9. Method of fabrication of display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.

    1999-01-01

    Display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors are fabricated on plastic substrates for use in active matrix displays, such as flat panel displays. The process for forming the pixels involves a prior method for forming individual silicon thin film transistors on low-temperature plastic substrates. Low-temperature substrates are generally considered as being incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 200.degree. C. The pixel formation process results in a complete pixel and active matrix pixel array. A pixel (or picture element) in an active matrix display consists of a silicon thin film transistor (TFT) and a large electrode, which may control a liquid crystal light valve, an emissive material (such as a light emitting diode or LED), or some other light emitting or attenuating material. The pixels can be connected in arrays wherein rows of pixels contain common gate electrodes and columns of pixels contain common drain electrodes. The source electrode of each pixel TFT is connected to its pixel electrode, and is electrically isolated from every other circuit element in the pixel array.

  10. Pixel parallel localized driver design for a 128 x 256 pixel array 3D 1Gfps image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Dao, V. T. S.; Etoh, T. G.; Charbon, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a 3D 1Gfps BSI image sensor is proposed, where 128 × 256 pixels are located in the top-tier chip and a 32 × 32 localized driver array in the bottom-tier chip. Pixels are designed with Multiple Collection Gates (MCG), which collects photons selectively with different collection gates being active at intervals of 1ns to achieve 1Gfps. For the drivers, a global PLL is designed, which consists of a ring oscillator with 6-stage current starved differential inverters, achieving a wide frequency tuning range from 40MHz to 360MHz (20ps rms jitter). The drivers are the replicas of the ring oscillator that operates within a PLL. Together with level shifters and XNOR gates, continuous 3.3V pulses are generated with desired pulse width, which is 1/12 of the PLL clock period. The driver array is activated by a START signal, which propagates through a highly balanced clock tree, to activate all the pixels at the same time with virtually negligible skew.

  11. Development of a super B-factory monolithic active pixel detector—the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, G.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Fang, F.; Hazumi, M.; Igarashi, A.; Iwaida, S.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.

    2005-04-01

    Over the last few years great progress has been made in the technological development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) such that upgrades to existing vertex detectors using this technology are now actively being considered. Future vertex detection at an upgraded KEK-B factory, already the highest luminosity collider in the world, will require a detector technology capable of withstanding the increased track densities and larger radiation exposures. Near the beam pipe the current silicon strip detectors have projected occupancies in excess of 100%. Deep sub-micron MAPS look very promising to address this problem. In the context of an upgrade to the Belle vertex detector, the major obstacles to realizing such a device have been concerns about radiation hardness and readout speed. Two prototypes implemented in the TSMC 0.35 μm process have been developed to address these issues. Denoted the Continuous Acquisition Pixel, or CAP, the two variants of this architecture are distinguished in that CAP2 includes an 8-deep sampling pipeline within each 22.5 μm 2 pixel. Preliminary test results and remaining R&D issues are presented.

  12. WE-G-204-03: Photon-Counting Hexagonal Pixel Array CdTe Detector: Optimal Resampling to Square Pixels

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, S; Vedantham, S; Karellas, A; Bellazzini, R; Spandre, G; Brez, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display of acquired images. In this work, the presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting CdTe detector for region-of-interest fluoroscopy was measured and the optimal square pixel size for resampling was determined. Methods: A 0.65mm thick CdTe Schottky sensor capable of concurrently acquiring up to 3 energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include ≥10 KeV photons. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 microns resulting in pixel spacing of 60 and 51.96 microns along the two orthogonal directions. Images of a tungsten edge test device acquired under IEC RQA5 conditions were double Hough transformed to identify the edge and numerically differentiated. The presampling MTF was determined from the finely sampled line spread function that accounted for the hexagonal sampling. The optimal square pixel size was determined in two ways; the square pixel size for which the aperture function evaluated at the Nyquist frequencies along the two orthogonal directions matched that from the hexagonal pixel aperture functions, and the square pixel size for which the mean absolute difference between the square and hexagonal aperture functions was minimized over all frequencies up to the Nyquist limit. Results: Evaluation of the aperture functions over the entire frequency range resulted in square pixel size of 53 microns with less than 2% difference from the hexagonal pixel. Evaluation of the aperture functions at Nyquist frequencies alone resulted in 54 microns square pixels. For the photon-counting CdTe detector and after resampling to 53 microns square pixels using quadratic interpolation, the presampling MTF at Nyquist frequency of 9.434 cycles/mm along the two directions were 0.501 and 0.507. Conclusion: Hexagonal pixel array photon-counting CdTe detector after resampling to square pixels

  13. Sub-pixel calibration for Weak Lensing and Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Michael

    We have recently developed and demonstrated a new method of sub-pixel detector calibration that offers orders of magnitude improvement in astrometry with CCD focal planes. Using this technique we have demonstrated centroiding of images to 1e 5 lambda/D in laboratory conditions. Our method allows reconstructing the true optical point spread function (PSF) of a telescope from pixelated stellar images. Although this technique was originally developed for centroiding of images across a large focal plane, it can also be applied to weak lensing program on WFIRST. We use a laser metrology technique to measure geometric imperfections in the focal plane array from pixel placement errors to non-uniform quantum efficiency (QE) within every pixel. With precise sub-pixel calibration one can use dithered images (e.g., a 2×2 dither) to derive Nyquist-sampled image of stars. The WFIRST telescope has a large 0.28 sq.deg field of view (FOV) with theoretical PSF varying considerably over that FOV. However, even at high galactic latitude there will be over 1,000 stars brighter than 16 mag and, with Nyquist-sampled images, it should be possible to calculate the spatially varying PSF at 1,000 locations in the focal plane. With knowledge of the optical PSF and sub-pixel calibration of the detector, one can remove biases in the shapes of galaxies introduced by the spatially varying PSF. The technique of sub-pixel calibration has so far only been demonstrated in with visible CCD detectors and applied to achieve ultra-precise image centroiding. The purpose of this proposal is to extend the technique of removing biases in the shape of galaxies due to pixilation and spatially varying PSF and to extend the calibration of visible detectors to NIR detectors. The new technique could be used to enable 4 10 microarcsecond (μas) astrometry within the 0.28 sq.deg FOV of the WFIRST telescope. Using the upcoming Gaia catalogue accurate to ~10 μas, we will be able to stitch the HgCdTe arrays on

  14. Extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byoung-Soo; Bae, Myunghan; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jimin; Oh, Chang-Woo; Chang, Seunghyuk; Park, JongHo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2017-02-01

    A 3dimensional (3D) imaging is an important area which can be applied to face detection, gesture recognition, and 3D reconstruction. In this paper, extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique is presented. An active pixel sensor (APS) with in-pixel aperture has been developed for this purpose. In the conventional camera systems using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, an aperture is located behind the camera lens. However, in our proposed camera system, the aperture implemented by metal layer of CMOS process is located on the White (W) pixel which means a pixel without any color filter on top of the pixel. 4 types of pixels including Red (R), Green (G), Blue (B), and White (W) pixels were used for pixel aperture technique. The RGB pixels produce a defocused image with blur, while W pixels produce a focused image. The focused image is used as a reference image to extract the depth information for 3D imaging. This image can be compared with the defocused image from RGB pixels. Therefore, depth information can be extracted by comparing defocused image with focused image using the depth from defocus (DFD) method. Size of the pixel for 4-tr APS is 2.8 μm × 2.8 μm and the pixel structure was designed and simulated based on 0.11 μm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process. Optical performances of the pixel aperture technique were evaluated using optical simulation with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and electrical performances were evaluated using TCAD.

  15. Comparison of a pixelated semiconductor detector and a non-pixelated scintillation detector in pinhole SPECT system for small animal study.

    PubMed

    Iida, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Koichi

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate a pixelated semiconductor detector and non-pixelated scintillation detector in a pinhole SPECT system for small animal imaging. We assumed two pixelated CdTe semiconductor detectors (a monolithic type and a modular type) and two non-pixelated NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors (a conventional type and a large detector field type). For the monolithic semiconductor detector we assumed that the size of a pixel was 1.0 × 1.0 mm², the thickness 1 mm, and an effective detector field 128 × 128 mm². For the modular-type semiconductor detector we assumed that the size of a pixel was 2.5 × 2.5 mm², the thickness 5 mm, and an effective detector field 320 × 320 mm². For the two scintillation detectors we assumed that the size of a pixel was 1.4 × 1.4 mm² and the intrinsic spatial resolution 4.0 mm FWHM, and the thickness 9 mm. For the conventional scintillation detector we assumed that the effective detector field was 179.2 × 179.2 mm², and for the large field scintillation detector 358.2 × 358.2 mm² and the magnification factor two. In the simulation we used a pinhole collimator with a pinhole size of 0.3 mm. We reconstructed SPECT images of hot-rod and cold-channel phantoms with projection data calculated with a Monte Carlo method assuming a fixed data acquisition time, and evaluated the image quality with respect to contrast and spatial resolution. In addition, we calculated the scatter fraction to compare the amount of scattered photons between the pixelated and non-pixelated detectors. The image quality of the modular-type pixelated detector was similar to that of the non-pixelated detector operated with a twofold magnified data acquisition. The scattered photons and the parallax effect in the pixelated detector were small and similar to those in the non-pixelated detector. The performance of a modular-type pixelated semiconductor detector was almost the same as that of a non-pixelated scintillation detector with a magnified

  16. CMOS Hybrid Pixel Detectors for Scientific, Industrial and Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broennimann, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Crystallography is the principal technique for determining macromolecular structures at atomic resolution and uses advantageously the high intensity of 3rd generation synchrotron X-ray sources . Macromolecular crystallography experiments benefit from excellent beamline equipment, recent software advances and modern X-ray detectors. However, the latter do not take full advantage of the brightness of modern synchrotron sources. CMOS Hybrid pixel array detectors, originally developed for high energy physics experiments, meet these requirements. X-rays are recorded in single photon counting mode and data thus are stored digitally at the earliest possible stage. This architecture leads to several advantages over current detectors: No detector noise is added to the signal. Readout time is reduced to a few milliseconds. The counting rates are matched to beam intensities at protein crystallography beamlines at 3rd generation synchrotrons. The detector is not sensitive to X-rays during readout; therefore no mechanical shutter is required. The detector has a very sharp point spread function (PSF) of one pixel, which allows better resolution of adjacent reflections. Low energy X-rays can be suppressed by the comparator At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland the first and largest array based on this technology was constructed: The Pilatus 6M detector. The detector covers an area of 43.1 x 44.8 cm2 , has 6 million pixels and is read out noise free in 3.7 ms. Since June 2007 the detector is in routine operation at the beamline 6S of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The company DETCRIS Ltd, has licensed the technology from PSI and is commercially offering the PILATUS detectors. Examples of the wide application range of the detectors will be shown.

  17. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage < 50 V and breakdown voltage >150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (<20% for X-ray photon energy >10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  18. Optical differentiation wavefront sensor based on binary pixelated transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J.; Travinsky, A.; Ding, G.; Dorrer, C.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution wavefront sensors are used in a wide range of applications. The Shack-Hartmann sensor is the industry standard and mostly used for this kind of analysis. However, with this sensor the analysis can only be performed for narrowband radiation, the recoverable curvature of the wavefront slopes is also restricted by the size of a single lens in the microlens array. The high-resolution Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (>128×128) is also significantly expensive. The optical differentiation wavefront sensor, on the other hand, consists of only simple and therefore inexpensive components, offers greater signal to noise ratio, allows for high-resolution analysis of wavefront curvature, and is potentially capable of performing broadband measurements. When a transmission mask with linear attenuation along a spatial direction modulates the far field of an optical wave, the spatial wavefront slope along that direction can be recovered from the fluence in the near field after modulation. With two orthogonal measurements one can recover the complete wavefront of the optical wave. In this study the characteristics of such a wavefront sensor are investigated when the linear transmission modulation is implemented with a pixelated binary filter. Such a filter can be produced as a gray-scale quasi-continuous transmission pattern constructed using arrays of small (e.g., 10-micron) transparent or opaque pixels and therefore it can simply be fabricated by conventional lithography techniques. Simulations demonstrate the potential ability of such a pixelated filter to match the performance of a filter with continuously varying transmission, while offering the advantage of better transmission control and reduction of fabrication costs.

  19. Single-pixel camera with one graphene photodetector.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongxin; Wang, Wenxue; Wang, Yuechao; Yang, Wenguang; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-01-11

    Consumer cameras in the megapixel range are ubiquitous, but the improvement of them is hindered by the poor performance and high cost of traditional photodetectors. Graphene, a two-dimensional micro-/nano-material, recently has exhibited exceptional properties as a sensing element in a photodetector over traditional materials. However, it is difficult to fabricate a large-scale array of graphene photodetectors to replace the traditional photodetector array. To take full advantage of the unique characteristics of the graphene photodetector, in this study we integrated a graphene photodetector in a single-pixel camera based on compressive sensing. To begin with, we introduced a method called laser scribing for fabrication the graphene. It produces the graphene components in arbitrary patterns more quickly without photoresist contamination as do traditional methods. Next, we proposed a system for calibrating the optoelectrical properties of micro/nano photodetectors based on a digital micromirror device (DMD), which changes the light intensity by controlling the number of individual micromirrors positioned at + 12°. The calibration sensitivity is driven by the sum of all micromirrors of the DMD and can be as high as 10(-5)A/W. Finally, the single-pixel camera integrated with one graphene photodetector was used to recover a static image to demonstrate the feasibility of the single-pixel imaging system with the graphene photodetector. A high-resolution image can be recovered with the camera at a sampling rate much less than Nyquist rate. The study was the first demonstration for ever record of a macroscopic camera with a graphene photodetector. The camera has the potential for high-speed and high-resolution imaging at much less cost than traditional megapixel cameras.

  20. Thin hybrid pixel assembly with backside compensation layer on ROIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; McMullen, T.; Cunningham, L.; Ashby, J.; Doherty, F.; Gray, C.; Pares, G.; Vignoud, L.; Kholti, B.; Vahanen, S.

    2017-01-01

    The entire ATLAS inner tracking system will be replaced for operation at the HL-LHC . This will include a significantly larger pixel detector of approximately 15 m2. For this project, it is critical to reduce the mass of the hybrid pixel modules and this requires thinning both the sensor and readout chips to about 150 micrometres each. The thinning of the silicon chips leads to low bump yield for SnAg bumps due to bad co-planarity of the two chips at the solder reflow stage creating dead zones within the pixel array. In the case of the ATLAS FEI4 pixel readout chip thinned to 100 micrometres, the chip is concave, with the front side in compression, with a bow of +100 micrometres at room temperature which varies to a bow of -175 micrometres at the SnAg solder reflow temperature, caused by the CTE mismatch between the materials in the CMOS stack and the silicon substrate. A new wafer level process to address the issue of low bump yield be controlling the chip bow has been developed. A back-side dielectric and metal stack of SiN and Al:Si has been deposited on the readout chip wafer to dynamically compensate the stress of the front side stack. In keeping with a 3D process the materials used are compatible with Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology with a TSV last approach which is under development for this chip. It is demonstrated that the amplitude of the correction can be manipulated by the deposition conditions and thickness of the SiN/Al:Si stack. The bow magnitude over the temperature range for the best sample to date is reduced by almost a factor of 4 and the sign of the bow (shape of the die) remains constant. Further development of the backside deposition conditions is on-going with the target of close to zero bow at the solder reflow temperature and a minimal bow magnitude throughout the temperature range. Assemblies produced from FEI4 readout wafers thinned to 100 micrometres with the backside compensation layer have been made for the first time and