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Sample records for 325-m meteorological tower

  1. A primary study of the variations of vertical radiation with the Beijing 325-m Meteorological Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuesi; Hu, Bo; Liu, Guangren

    2005-03-01

    The Beijing 325-m Meteorological Tower (325MT) is used to observe the vertical variation of solar radiation. Results of the experiments indicate that the automatic radiation monitoring system, including a sun tracker and data collection system, works well and all the specifications meet WMO observation standards. The measurement data show that there is a significant radiation decrease from 320 m to the surface, where the difference is only about 30 W m-2 on light air-pollution days, while the maximum reaches about 110 W m-2 when heavy pollution appears near the ground. The global UV radiation decreases on heavy air-pollution days and under poor visibility conditions, and the difference between 300 m and 8 m is larger than on clear days.

  2. [Measurements of atmospheric boundary layer O3, NOx and CO in summer with Beijing 325 m meteorological tower].

    PubMed

    An, Junlin; Li, Xin; Wang, Yuesi; Shi, Liqing; Hu, Fei; Xu, Yongfu

    2003-11-01

    Based on the Beijing 325 m meteorological tower, O3, NOx and CO concentrations and meteorological parameters in urban atmospheric boundary layer were measured in July 2002. The variations of O3 concentration were remarkably different among the five levels. Contrasted with the higher levels, the daily variations were clear and the difference values between day and night were large in the lower levels. It was also found that the photochemistry reaction was an important source in boundary layer in daytime and precipitation process could arouse marked change of O3 concentration.

  3. Meteorological Towers Display for Windows NT

    1999-05-20

    The Towers Display Program provides a convenient means of graphically depicting current wind speed and direction from a network of meteorological monitoring stations. The program was designed primarily for emergency response applications and, therefore, plots observed wind directions as a transport direction, i.e., the direction toward which the wind would transport a release of an atmospheric contaminant. Tabular summaries of wind speed and direction as well as temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence measured atmore » each monitoring station can be displayed. The current implementation of the product at SRS displays data from eight Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System meteorological towers at SRS, meteorological stations established jointly by SRS/WSRC and the Augusta/Richmond County Emergency Management Agency in Augusta, GA, and National Weather Service stations in Augusta, GA. Wind speed and direction are plotted in a Beaufort scale format at the location of the station on a geographic map of the area. A GUI provides for easy specification of a desired date and time for the data to be displayed.« less

  4. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  5. Applications of Meteorological Tower Data at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) design and operation communities rely on meteorological information collected at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located near Cape Canaveral, Florida, to correctly apply the ambient environment to various tasks. The Natural Environments Branch/EV44, located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for providing its NASA customers with meteorological data using various climatological data sources including balloons, surface stations, aircraft, hindcast models, and meteorological towers. Of the many resources available within the KSC region, meteorological towers are preferred for near-surface applications because they record data at regular, frequent intervals over an extensive period of record at a single location. This paper discusses the uses of data measured at several different meteorological towers for a common period of record and how the data can be applied to various engineering decisions for the new Constellation Program Ares and Orion space vehicles.

  6. 4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2006-01-01

    The Atqasuk meteorology station (AMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point, and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH) probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower.

  8. BOREAS TF-3 NSA-OBS Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wofsy, Steven; Sutton, Doug; Goulden, Mike; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-3) team collected tower flux, surface meteorological, and soil temperature data at the BOREAS Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) site continuously from the March 1994 through October 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  9. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.; Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, C. G. G.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Cintra, B. B. L.; da Silva, N. F.; Dias, N. L.; Dias-Júnior, C. Q.; Ditas, F.; Ditz, R.; Godoi, A. F. L.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Heimann, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Könemann, T.; Krüger, M. L.; Lavric, J. V.; Manzi, A. O.; Lopes, A. P.; Martins, D. L.; Mikhailov, E. F.; Moran-Zuloaga, D.; Nelson, B. W.; Nölscher, A. C.; Santos Nogueira, D.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Quesada, C. A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ro, C.-U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Sá, L. D. A.; de Oliveira Sá, M.; Sales, C. B.; dos Santos, R. M. N.; Saturno, J.; Schöngart, J.; Sörgel, M.; de Souza, C. M.; de Souza, R. A. F.; Su, H.; Targhetta, N.; Tóta, J.; Trebs, I.; Trumbore, S.; van Eijck, A.; Walter, D.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Williams, J.; Winderlich, J.; Wittmann, F.; Wolff, S.; Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It has already been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the coming decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region, as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at five to eight different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are being made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include aerosol light scattering and absorption, fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical

  10. Surface Meteorological Station - ESRL Short Tower, Troutdale - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A diversity of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  11. Surface Meteorological Station - ESRL Short Tower, Wasco Airport - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A diversity of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  12. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.; Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, C. G. G.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Cintra, B. B. L.; da Silva, N. F.; Dias, N. L.; Dias-Júnior, C. Q.; Ditas, F.; Ditz, R.; Godoi, A. F. L.; Godoi, R. H. M.; Heimann, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Könemann, T.; Krüger, M. L.; Lavric, J. V.; Manzi, A. O.; Moran-Zuloaga, D.; Nölscher, A. C.; Santos Nogueira, D.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Pöhlker, C.; Pöschl, U.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ro, C.-U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Sá, L. D. A.; Sá, M. D. O.; Sales, C. B.; Santos, R. M. N. D.; Saturno, J.; Schöngart, J.; Sörgel, M.; de Souza, C. M.; de Souza, R. A. F.; Su, H.; Targhetta, N.; Tóta, J.; Trebs, I.; Trumbore, S.; van Eijck, A.; Walter, D.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Williams, J.; Winderlich, J.; Wittmann, F.; Wolff, S.; Yáñez-Serrano, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity). Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical composition, cloud

  13. 24 M meteorological tower data report period: January--December, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.; Egami, R.

    1997-08-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT.

  14. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Barrow (METTWR4H) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-04-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights (2m, 10m, 20m and 40m) on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at the base of the tower. Additionally, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer and an Ultrasonic wind speed sensor are located near the 2m level for comparison purposes.

  15. Comparison of Second Wind Triton Data with Meteorological Tower Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.

    2010-02-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In this study, we present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art SOund Detection And Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a high-quality tower measurement program. Second Wind Inc. (Somerville, MA, USA) provided NREL with more than six months of data from a measurement program conducted near an operating wind farm in western Texas.

  16. 24 m meteorological tower data report period: January through December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.B.; Egami, R.; Coulombe, W.; Crow, D.; Cristani, B.; Schmidt, S.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT. A previous report reported monitoring results for 1994. This report presents results of the monitoring for January--December, 1995, providing: a status of the measurement systems (including any quality assurance activities) during the report period and a summary of the meteorological conditions at the HAZMAT during the report period. The scope of the report is limited to summary data analyses and does not include extensive meteorological analysis. The tower was instrumented at 8 levels. Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were measured at all 8 levels. Relative humidity was measured at 3 levels. Solar and net radiation were measured at 2 meters above the ground. Barometric pressure was measured at the base of the tower and soil temperature was measured near the base of the tower.

  17. 24 m meteorological tower data report period: January through December, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.; Bowen, J.; Egami, R.; Coulombe, W.; Crow, D.; Cristani, B.; Schmidt, S.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It summarizes meteorological data collected at the 24 meter tower at the Nevada Test Site Hazardous Material Spill Center (HAZMAT) located at Frenchman Flat near Mercury, Nevada, approximately 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The tower was originally installed in July, 1993 to characterize baseline conditions for an EPA sponsored experimental research program at the HAZMAT. This report presents results of the monitoring for January--December, 1996, providing: a status of the measurement systems during the report period and a summary of the meteorological conditions at the HAZMAT during the report period. The scope of the report is limited to summary data analyses and does not include extensive meteorological analysis. The tower was instrumented at 8 levels. Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature were measured at all 8 levels. Relative humidity was measured at 3 levels. Solar and net radiation were measured at 2 meters above the ground. Barometric pressure was measured at the base of the tower and soil temperature was measured near the base of the tower.

  18. BOREAS TF-4 SSA-YJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Canopy Condition Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striegl, Robert; Wickland, Kimberly; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-4) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Young Jack Pine (SSA-YJP) site during the growing season of 1994. In addition, meteorological data were collected both above and within the canopy. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  19. Measurement of new particle formation at several altitudes on a 300 m meteorological observation tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Yum, S. S.; Kim, N.

    2014-12-01

    Since new particle formation (NPF) affects aerosol number size distribution and subsequently the newly formed particles can grow enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei, understanding NPF mechanism is crucially important as a step towards a better understanding of aerosol life cycle and its effects on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. However, not clearly understood are at what altitudes NPF actually occurs, what the spatial scale of NPF is, and what are the good meteorological conditions that lead to NPF. In this study, we analyze the data that will be obtained from a 300 m meteorological observation tower to have a better understanding of where NPF occurs and the meteorological conditions that lead to NPF. The tower is installed at the National Center for Intensive Observation of severe weather (NCIO) at a southern coastal rural town of Boseong, Korea (34.76N, 127.16E) and is equipped with measurement platforms at 11 altitudes. Aerosol number concentration and size distribution will be measured at 300 m and 10 m altitudes. A complementary aerosol number concentration measurement will also be made at an intermediate altitude. The basic meteorological variables (e.g., air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed) measured at each of the 11 measurement platform altitudes of the tower will be jointly collected. Comprehensive analysis of these continuous and vertically aligned measurement data will give us an opportunity to look at the details of NPF mechanism.

  20. A study of air-to-ground sound propagation using an instrumented meteorological tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, P. K.; Pappa, R. S.; Keefe, L. R.; Sutherland, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an exploratory NASA study, leading to a better understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the propagation of aircraft noise, are reported. The experimental program utilized a known sound source fixed atop an instrumented meteorological tower. The basic experimental scheme consisted of measuring the amplitude of sound radiated toward the ground along a line of microphones fixed to a tower guy wire. Experimental results show the feasibility of this approach in the acquisition of data indicating the variations encountered in the time-averaged and instantaneous amplitudes of propagated sound. The investigation included a consideration of ground reflections, a comparison of measured attenuations with predicted atmospheric absorption losses, and an evaluation of the amplitude fluctuations of recorded sound pressures.

  1. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Creation of NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate database of meteorological data is essential for designing any aerospace vehicle and for preparing launch commit criteria. Meteorological instrumentation were recently placed on the three Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B), which provide a unique meteorological dataset existing at the launch complex over an extensive altitude range. Data records of temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction are produced at 40, 78, 116, and 139 m at each tower. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) received an archive that consists of one-minute averaged measurements for the period of record of January 2011 - April 2015. However, before the received database could be used EV44 needed to remove any erroneous data from within the database through a comprehensive quality control (QC) process. The QC process applied to the LPS towers' meteorological data is similar to other QC processes developed by EV44, which were used in the creation of meteorological databases for other towers at KSC. The QC process utilized in this study has been modified specifically for use with the LPS tower database. The QC process first includes a check of each individual sensor. This check includes removing any unrealistic data and checking the temporal consistency of each variable. Next, data from all three sensors at each height are checked against each other, checked against climatology, and checked for sensors that erroneously report a constant value. Then, a vertical consistency check of each variable at each tower is completed. Last, the upwind sensor at each level is selected to minimize the influence of the towers and other structures at LC-39B on the measurements. The selection process for the upwind sensor implemented a study of tower-induced turbulence. This paper describes in detail the QC process, QC results, and the attributes of the LPS towers meteorological

  2. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Precipitation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Harold; Mickle, Robert; Staebler, Ralf; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected energy, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and momentum flux data above the canopy and in profiles through the canopy, along with meteorological data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area-Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site. Above-canopy measurements began in early February and ran through mid-September of 1994. Measurements were collected over a longer period of 1994 than most BOREAS flux sites. Daily precipitation data from several gauges were also collected. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  3. BOREAS TF-10 NSA-Fen Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Jelinski, Dennis E.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-10 team collected tower flux and meteorological data at two sites, a fen and a young jack pine forest, near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada, as part of BOREAS. A preliminary data set was assembled in August 1993 while field testing the instrument packages, and at both sites data were collected from 15-Aug to 31-Aug. The main experimental period was in 1994, when continuous data were collected from 08-Apr to 23-Sep at the fen site. A very limited experiment was run in the spring/ summer of 1995, when the fen site tower was operated from 08-Apr to 14-Jun in support of a hydrology experiment in an adjoining feeder basin. Upon examination of the 1994 data set, it became clear that the behavior of the heat, water, and carbon dioxide fluxes throughout the whole growing season was an important scientific question, and that the 1994 data record was not sufficiently long to capture the character of the seasonal behavior of the fluxes. Thus, the fen site was operated in 1996 in order to collect data from spring melt to autumn freeze-up. Data were collected from 29-Apr to 05-Nov at the fen site. All variables are presented as 30-minute averages. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  4. Regional scale modelling of meteorology and CO2 for the Cabauw tall tower, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolk, L. F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2009-06-01

    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with particular attention to the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled exchange of energy, moisture and CO2 showed that the surface fluxes in the domain strongly influenced the atmospheric properties. The majority of the variability in the afternoon CO2 mixing ratio in the middle of the domain was determined by biospheric and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes in the limited area domain (640×640 km). Variation of the surface CO2 fluxes, reflecting the uncertainty of the parameters in the CO2 flux model 5PM, resulted in a range of simulated atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios of about 12 ppm in the well-mixed boundary layer. Additionally, we identified an uncertainty in the surface energy fluxes. The spread caused by this uncertainty in the simulated atmospheric vertical mixing caused a CO2 transport error of 1.7 ppm. This is an important source of uncertainty and should be accounted for to avoid biased estimates of the CO2 mixing ratio, but does not overwhelm the signal in the CO2 mixing ratio due to the spread in CO2 surface fluxes.

  5. BOREAS TF-10 NSA-YJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Porometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaughey, J. Harry; Liblik, Laura; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-10 team collected tower flux and meteorological data at two sites, a fen and a young jack pine forest, near Thompson, Manitoba, Canada, as part of BOREAS. A preliminary data set was assembled in August 1993 while field testing the instrument packages, and at both sites data were collected from 15-Aug to 31-Aug. The main experimental period was in 1994, when continuous data were collected from the young jack pine site from 23-May to 20-Sep. Upon examination of the 1994 data set, it became clear that the behavior of the heat, water, and carbon dioxide fluxes throughout the whole growing season was an important scientific question, and that the 1994 data record was not sufficiently long to capture the character of the seasonal behavior of the fluxes. Thus, the young jack pine site was operated from 08-May to 07-Nov in 1996 in order to collect data from spring melt to autumn freeze-up. All variables are presented as 30-minute averages. Supporting data were also collected to describe the surface#s state and to provide the information, in association with the flux data, to build SVAT models. For the young jack pine site, these supporting data included stomatal conductance measurements. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  6. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Process of Creating the NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and the results of the quality control (QC) process of the meteorological data from the Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B) are documented in this paper. Meteorological data are used to design a launch vehicle, determine operational constraints, and to apply defined constraints on day-of-launch (DOL). In order to properly accomplish these tasks, a representative climatological database of meteorological records is needed because the database needs to represent the climate the vehicle will encounter. Numerous meteorological measurement towers exist at KSC; however, the engineering tasks need measurements at specific heights, some of which can only be provided by a few towers. Other than the LPS towers, Tower 313 is the only tower that provides observations up to 150 m. This tower is located approximately 3.5 km from LC-39B. In addition, data need to be QC'ed to remove erroneous reports that could pollute the results of an engineering analysis, mislead the development of operational constraints, or provide a false image of the atmosphere at the tower's location.

  7. BOREAS TF-5 SSA-OJP Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Vogel, Christoph; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux (BOREAS TF-5) team collected tower flux data at the BOREAS Southern Study Area Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) site through the growing season of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  8. BOREAS TF-1 SSA-OA Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Z.; Nesic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-1 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and momentum flux data above the canopy along with meteorological and soils data at the BOREAS SSA-OA site from mid-April to the end of the year for 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  9. BOREAS TF-7 SSA-OBS Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Pattey, Elizabeth; Desjardins, Raymond L.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-7 team collected meteorological data as well as energy, carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide flux data at the BOREAS SSA-OBS site. The data were collected from 24-May to 19-Sep-1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  10. Modelling regional scale surface fluxes, meteorology and CO2 mixing ratios for the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolk, L. F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2009-10-01

    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with emphasis on the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled exchange of energy, moisture and CO2 showed that the surface fluxes in the domain strongly influenced the atmospheric properties. The majority of the variability in the afternoon CO2 mixing ratio in the middle of the domain was determined by biospheric and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes in the limited area domain (640×640 km). Variation of the surface CO2 fluxes, reflecting the uncertainty of the parameters in the CO2 flux model 5PM, resulted in a range of simulated atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios of on average 11.7 ppm in the well-mixed boundary layer. Additionally, we found that observed surface energy fluxes and observed atmospheric temperature and moisture could not be reconciled with the simulations. Including this as an uncertainty in the simulation of surface energy fluxes changed simulated atmospheric vertical mixing and horizontal advection, leading to differences in simulated CO2 of on average 1.7 ppm. This is an important source of uncertainty and should be accounted for to avoid biased calculations of the CO2 mixing ratio, but it does not overwhelm the signal in the CO2 mixing ratio due to the uncertainty range of the surface CO2 fluxes.

  11. Comparison of Triton SODAR Data to Meteorological Tower Wind Measurement Data in Hebei Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuechun, Y.; Jixue, W.; Hongfang, W.; Guimin, L.; Bolin, Y.; Scott, G.; Elliott, D.; Kline, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the increased interest in remote sensing of wind information in recent years, it is important to determine the reliability and accuracy of new wind measurement technologies if they are to replace or supplement conventional tower-based measurements. In view of this, HydroChina Corporation and the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a comparative test near a wind farm in Hebei Province, China. We present the results of an analysis characterizing the measurement performance of a state-of-the-art Sound Detection and Ranging (sodar) device when compared to a traditional tower measurement program. NREL performed the initial analysis of a three-month period and sent the results to HydroChina. When another month of data became available, HydroChina and their consultant Beijing Millenium Engineering Software (MLN) repeated NREL's analysis on the complete data set, also adding sensitivity analysis for temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Section 6). This report presents the results of HydroChina's final analysis of the four-month period.

  12. ASCOT meteorological towers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.P.

    1991-09-01

    During the winter of 1991, LLNL participated in a series of field experiments near the Rocky Flats Plant south of Boulder, Colorado. These experiments were made in conjunction with the winter validation studies being managed by Rocky Flats personnel. This is a review of the tethersonde data taken during the period of January 28, 1991 through February 8, 1991.

  13. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  15. 1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MOBILE SERVICE TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  17. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  18. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  19. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  20. Ant Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlot, Nathan; Shinotsuka, Sho; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Ants walk via adhesive drops of fluid extruded by their feet. They also use these drops as mortar to build structures such as rafts, bridges and towers, each composed of thousands of ants linked together. We investigate experimentally the construction of triangular ant towers braced by hydrophobic walls. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between tower height and contact angle hysteresis of the wall. We rationalize tower height according to ant adhesion, and tower shape according to the constraints on a column of constant strength.

  1. Windmill tower

    SciTech Connect

    Schachle, C.; Schachle, E.C.; Schachle, J.R.; Schachle, P.J.

    1982-04-06

    A windmill tower supports a propeller and a platform that in turn supports a propeller feather control system and a generator system. The entire tower rotates at its base under changes in wind direction so the rotating propeller is constantly maintained upwind of the tower. The tower is a rigid structure that withstands cyclic thrust and torque loading sufficiently to reduce resonant vibrations of the tower as the propeller rotates under the influence of the wind. The resonant frequency of the tower can be higher than the passing frequency of the rotating propeller blades. The tower includes a pair of generally upright fore legs that converge upwardly toward a first apex on the propeller axis of rotation near the front of the platform immediately behind the propeller hub. A diagonal bracing strut extends downwardly from the first apex away from the plane of the fore legs and toward the rear of the tower. The bottoms of the fore legs and the diagonal bracing strut are rigidly interconnected by base plane truss members. A pair of upwardly converging aft legs extend diagonally upwardly from the bottoms of the fore legs toward a second apex aft of the first apex at the rear of the platform. At regular vertical intervals, stiffening trusses add rigidity to the main upright members of the tower structure. The natural frequency of the tower is raised by the fore legs and the diagonal bracing strut being interconnected in a rigid base plane truss. The diagonal bracing strut resists thrust loading on the tower, and the fore legs and aft legs resist torsional forces produced at the top of the tower.

  2. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  3. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  4. Radon data acquisition: An automated system for radon analysis of both ground air and tower air and for the simultaneous logging of meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, S.

    1990-10-01

    A system to acquire radon data was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to provide information about the effect of weather conditions on the release of radon gas from soils into air. One of the system criteria that drive other design considerations was the need for operation at remote sites where the availability of 120-volt AC power was problematic. As a consequence, all components were selected or designed to run on +12 and/or {minus}12 volts DC. PC-based laptop computers were used for all data acquisition because of their availability, their low power consumption, and the abundance of software written for this platform. The system is comprised of four major sub-systems that are linked by laptop computers: radon-monitor controller, HANDAR 540 data-capture platform, radon-detection units, and barometric pressure unit. Using this system, we successfully collected data at an LLNL field site during 1990. Data from meteorological sensors and radon-concentration profiles from both air and soil were acquired simultaneously and logged on MS-DOS computers for data reduction at a future time. This document describes the functions, hardware, firmware, and software of this system.

  5. Collapsible Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA needed a means of orbiting a large radio telescope antenna. Astro Research Corporation developed a new structure that was strong, lightweight, folded into a small storage space, and could be erected by rotation. Later they adapted it to commercial use. Today the "Astromast" tower consists of tubular aluminum alloy and stainless steel members that deploy into small three-sided bays, each made rigid by six diagonal cables. All joints are flexible to permit folding and unfolding. Tower packs into container 5% of its height, can be erected without tools and is reusable. Tower has won "Design of the Year" award from Machine Design. Variations include portable emergency bridges and commercial scaffolding.

  6. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  7. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  8. 76 FR 490 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... energy, converted into electrical energy by wind turbines, is widely pursued as a viable alternative. In order to determine if a site meets requirements to construct a wind turbine or wind farm, companies... represents a potential location for the installation of wind turbines. Requirements to file notice under...

  9. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... lighting METs. The comments recommended varied uses of red lights and white strobe lights. Some commenters... red lights are difficult to see during the day, and that the most acceptable lighting configuration... more power than red lights. While solar lights may be a possible option, the FAA has not studied...

  10. Rapunzel's Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depp, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature often inspires the author's lessons, and reading to her primary students motivates their participation. In this article, the author presents and describes her lesson which is based on the book "Falling for Rapunzel" by Leah Wilcox. Students created a fairy tale tower in this lesson, which took place over three class periods.…

  11. Titan Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern

  12. 8. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH SIDE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ON RIGHT. LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: A STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), METEOROLOGICAL TOWER, PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), AND SLC-3W MST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Plant Vogtle cooling tower studies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Steen, L.

    2000-01-26

    Intensive ground-based field studies of plumes from two large, natural-draft cooling towers were conducted in support of the MTI modeling effort. Panchromatic imagery, IR imagery, meteorological data, internal tower temperatures and plant power data were collected during the field studies. These data were used to evaluate plume simulations, plume radioactive transfer calculations and plume volume estimation algorithms used for power estimation. Results from six field studies indicate that a 3-D atmospheric model at sufficient spatial resolution can effectively simulate a cooling tower plume if the plume is of sufficient size and the ambient meteorology is known and steady. Small plumes and gusty wind conditions degrade the agreement between the simulated and observed plumes. Thermal radiance calculations based on the simulated plumes produced maximum IR temperatures (near tower exit) which were in good agreement with measured IR temperatures for the larger plumes. For the smaller plumes, the calculated IR temperature was lower than the measured temperature by several degrees. Variations in maximum IR plume temperature with decreasing power (one reactor was undergoing a shutdown process), were clearly observed in the IR imagery and seen in the simulations. These temperature changes agreed with those calculated from an overall tower energy and momentum balance. Plume volume estimates based on camcorder images at three look angles were typically 20--30 percent larger than the plume volumes derived from the simulations, although one estimate was twice the simulated volume. Volume overestimation is expected and will have to be accounted for to some degree if plume volume is to be a useful diagnostic quantity in power estimation. Volume estimation with MTI imagery will require a large, stable plume and two looks in the visible bands (5m GSD) along with a solar shadow.

  14. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  15. Motivational Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  16. Tower Mesonetwork Climatology and Interactive Display Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron and Spaceflight Meteorology Group use data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria, and issue and verify forecasts for ground operations. Systematic biases in these parameters could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification. Also, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. To address these concerns, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identified the geographical variation and significant tower biases. The mesoclimate is largely driven by the complex land-water interfaces across KSC/CCAFS. Towers with close proximity to water typically had much warmer nocturnal temperatures and higher wind speeds throughout the year. The strongest nocturnal wind speeds occurred from October to March whereas the strongest mean daytime wind speeds occurred from February to May. These results of this project can be viewed by forecasters through an interactive graphical user interface developed by the AMU. The web-based interface includes graphical and map displays of mean, standard deviation, bias, and data availability for any combination of towers, variables, months, hours, and wind directions.

  17. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  18. Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Mid Tower Elevation & Section, Typical Mid Tower Footing Section & Elevation, South Tower Section & Elevation, and North Tower Sections & Elevation - Cape Arago Light Station Footbridge, Gregory Point, Charleston, Coos County, OR

  19. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  20. Meteorology Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  1. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The AMU Team began four new tasks in this quarter: (1) began work to improve the AMU-developed tool that provides the launch weather officers information on peak wind speeds that helps them assess their launch commit criteria; (2) began updating lightning climatologies for airfields around central Florida. These climatologies help National Weather Service and Air Force forecasters determine the probability of lightning occurrence at these sites; (3) began a study for the 30th Weather Squadron at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California to determine if precursors can be found in weather observations to help the forecasters determine when they will get strong wind gusts in their northern towers; and (4) began work to update the AMU-developed severe weather tool with more data and possibly improve its performance using a new statistical technique. Include is a section of summaries and detail reporting on the quarterly tasks: (1) Peak Wind Tool for user Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (LCC), Phase IV, (2) Situational Lightning climatologies for Central Florida, Phase V, (3) Vandenberg AFB North Base Wind Study and (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS).

  3. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  4. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  5. Confusion at the Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  6. Leaning Tower of PESA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2009-01-01

    There is a certain similarity between the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA) and the leaning tower of Pisa. Both have a certain presence on the landscape: the tower has a commanding appearance on the Italian countryside while PESA has left its mark on the academic fabric of Australasia. Both are much loved: Pisa by visiting…

  7. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  8. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  9. View of Nevada rim towers from Arizona side. Left tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada rim towers from Arizona side. Left tower supports Circuit 6, middle tower supports Circuit 5, and right tower supports Circuits 4 and 15, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. Tower Camera Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Moudry, D

    2005-01-01

    The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN,EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-21 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. BOREAS TF-2 SSA-OA Tethersonde Meteorological and Ozone Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, A. James; Mickle, Robert E.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Tower Flux-2 (BOREAS TF-2) team collected meteorological and ozone measurements from instruments mounted below a tethered balloon. These data were collected at the Southern Study Area Old Aspen (SSA-OA) site to extend meteorological and ozone measurements made from the flux tower to heights of 300 m. The tethersonde operated during the fall of 1993 and the spring, summer, and fall of 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  14. Aquarius: Tower Rollback

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile service tower at NASA's Launch Complex-2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California is being moved away from the ULA Delta II rocket with the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft atop, in preparati...

  15. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  16. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Meteor-2 (second generation meteorological satellite) and an experimental satellite on which instruments are being tested and modified for the requirements of hydrometeorology and a determination of natural resources are presently operational in the U.S.S.R. Television devices with a 1-10 km terrain image resolution operating in the visible and infrared region are used to determine the space system, velocity and direction of cloud movements and provide information about the snow and ice cover, cyclones, storms, vortices in the atmosphere, and velocity and direction of wind. Images with a 50-1000 m resolution make possible geological and hydrological surveys, an evaluation of the state of vegetation and crops, detection of forest fires, determination of pollution of the atmosphere and sea and determination of optimal fishing regions in the ocean. Measurement of the intensity of atmospheric radiation in narrow infrared regions and very high frequencies allows remote evaluation of the temperature and humidity distribution in the vertical cross section of the Earth's atmosphere.

  17. LANL Meteorology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  18. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS THREE,FOUR, FIVE AND SIX IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. 26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. STATIC TEST TOWER CONTROL PANELS AT REAR OF TOWER UNDERNEATH SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, RIGHT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING AERIAL WIRE DESIGN WITH VERTICAL 'TOP HAT' WIRES IN CENTER. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  3. Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Wilson, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.

  4. THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE TOWER HOUSE, LOOKING WEST. The tower house provided a water tank on the second floor that gravity fed water to the Kineth house and farm buildings. The one-story addition to the west of the tower provided workshop space. The hog shed is seen on the left of the image and the concrete foundation of the upright silo is in the foreground on the right. - Kineth Farm, Tower House, 19162 State Route 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. Comparison of Savannah River Site`s meteorological databases

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    A five-year meteorological database from the 61-meter, H-Area tower for the period 1987--1991 was compared to an earlier database for the period 1982--1986. The amount of invalid data for the newer 87--91 database was one third that for the earlier database. The data recovery percentage for the last four years of the 87-91 database was well above 90%. Considerable effort was necessary to fill in for missing data periods for the newer database for the H-Area tower. Therefore, additional databases that have been prepared for the remaining SRS meteorological towers have had missing and erroneous data flagged, but not replaced. The F-Area tower`s database was used for cross-comparison purposes because of its proximity to H Area. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the H-Tower databases for 82-86 and 87-91. Statistical methods enable the use of probability statements to be made concerning the hypothesis of no differences between the distributions of the two time periods, assuming each database is a random sample from its respective distribution. This assumption is required for the statistical tests to be valid. A number of statistical comparisons can be made between the two data sets, even though the 82-86 database exist only as distributions of frequency and mean speed.

  7. The TALE Tower Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  8. Solar thermal power towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

  9. A Meso-Climatology Study of the High-Resolution Tower Network Over the Florida Spaceport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Bauman, William H., III

    2004-01-01

    Forecasters at the US Air Force 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use wind and temperature data from the tower network over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to evaluate Launch Commit Criteria and to issue and verify temperature and wind advisories, watches, and warnings for ground operations. The Spaceflight Meteorology Group at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX also uses these data when issuing forecasts for shuttle landings at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. Systematic biases in these parameters at any of the towers could adversely affect an analysis, forecast, or verification for all of these operations. In addition, substantial geographical variations in temperature and wind speed can occur under specific wind directions. Therefore, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU), operated by ENSCO Inc., was tasked to develop a monthly and hourly climatology of temperatures and winds from the tower network, and identify the geographical variation, tower biases, and the magnitude of those biases. This paper presents a sub-set of results from a nine-year climatology of the KSC/CCAFS tower network, highlighting the geographical variations based on location, month, times of day, and specific wind direction regime. Section 2 provides a description of the tower mesonetwork and instrumentation characteristics. Section 3 presents the methodology used to construct the tower climatology including QC methods and data processing. The results of the tower climatology are presented in Section 4 and Section 5 summarizes the paper.

  10. Evaporation Tower With Prill Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Tower more efficient than conventional evaporation equipment. Liquids such as milk and fruit juice concentrated by passing them through tiny nozzle to form droplets, then allowing droplets to fall through evacuated tower with cooled walls.

  11. Ivory Basements and Ivory Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    The metaphors of the ivory tower and ivory basement are used in this chapter to reflect how many women understand and experience the academy. The ivory tower signifies a place that is protected, a place of privilege and authority and a place removed from the outside world (and consequently the rigours of the market place). The ivory tower, by…

  12. Windmill tower shadow eliminator

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.J.

    1984-04-17

    In a wind driven propeller system an airfoil support for the shaft of a propeller having an even number of blades extends above and below the shaft a distance at least equal to the blade length and pivots with the propeller into the wind for substantially eliminating tower shadow effects on the propeller.

  13. Cell Towers and Songbirds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klosterman, Michelle; Mesa, Jennifer; Milton, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how our common addiction to cell phones was used to launch a discussion about their use, impacts on the environment, and connections to issues of civic concern. By encouraging middle school science students to adopt the perspectives of special-interest groups debating communication tower restrictions designed to protect…

  14. The Ivory Tower Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantler, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The corollary of the concept of the "ivory tower", as reflected in the writings of Plato and Newman amongst others, was, paradoxically, the vital importance of the university for wider society. Nevertheless from the mid-twentieth century, the esteem in which a "liberal" university education was held was diminished by rising…

  15. The Towers of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an investigation carried out with a group of able mathematics students who were studying at a level 1 year in advance of their peers. The purpose was to investigate the extension of usual three peg Towers of Hanoi to four pegs and attempt to find a rule that could be used to predict the minimum number of moves required to…

  16. Technical procedures for implementation of meteorology/air quality site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This report describes The Technical Procedures that will be used to monitor air quality and meteorology. Topics include: high-volume filter handling; operation, maintenance, and calibration of the 10-M meteorological and air quality system; processing data from the 10-M meteorological tower; processing data from the 60-M meteorological tower; processing total suspended particulate filters and data from the high-volume air samplers; operation maintenance, and calibration of the 60-M meteorological and air quality system; and auditing the air quality system. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Preliminary Design, Feasibility and Cost Evaluation of 1- to 15-Kilometer Height Steel Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanker, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Design and construction of tall towers is an on-going research program of NASA. The agency has already done preliminary review in this area and has determined that multi-kilometer height towers are technically and economically feasible. The proposed towers will provide high altitude launch platforms reaching above eighty percent of Earth's atmosphere and provide tremendous gains in the potential energy as well as substantial reduction in aerodynamic drag. NASA has also determined that a 15-KM tower will have many useful applications in: (i)Meteorology,(ii)Oceanography, (iii)Astronomy, (iv)High Altitude Launch, (v)Physics Drop Tower, (vi) Biosphere Research, (vii) Nanotechnology, (viii) Energy/Power, (ix)Broadband Wireless Technology, (x)Space Transportation and (xi)Space Tourism.

  18. Successfully troubleshoot distillation towers

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.F. ); Kunesh, J.G. ); Smith, V.C. )

    1993-03-01

    Distillation dominates separation services in the chemical process industries. With this widespread use, not surprisingly, operating problems are common. Because distillation columns frequently are limiting factors in plant capacity or product quality, correcting these problems usually is urgent. The paper describes the steps to be taken to start to correct problems on distillation towers: understand the ground rules, understand the people and procedures, and understand the plant. Then observe the actual operation, monitor the system, collect required data, and analyze the data. The paper discusses how to determine the problem area, broadening the search, focusing on the distillation tower and its internals, confirming the specific problem, extending the troubleshooting activities, and dealing with tougher problems.

  19. Utility avoids cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    After more than four years of often rancorous debate, New Jersey late last month approved a plan that permits the state`s largest utility to reclaim and restore Delaware Bay marshland instead of constructing a costly cooling tower for two nuclear power units. Environmental interests say they`ll appeal the wetlands proposal, calling it an {open_quotes}unproven experiment{close_quotes} that violates Clean Water Act provisions.

  20. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  1. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  2. Towers of hybrid mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  3. 2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, south sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  4. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  5. Cooling tower windage: a new aspect to environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F. G.; Park, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the several investigations provided quantitative estimates of windage from Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant cooling towers. Windage water deposited on the ground has the potential to reach nearby streams through runoff. Windage deposited on moisture depleted soils would not be significant. During winter months at Oak Ridge soils generally have a high moisture content such that windage deposition could be quickly transported as runoff. It is during this time that cooling towers are sometimes operated without fan-induced draft. Since windage water contains the same hexavalent chromium concentration (9 ppM) as the recirculating cooling water system, the runoff stream from the K-892J tower constitues a NPDES violation as an unpermitted discharge. As a long-term abatement strategy, concrete aprons were constructed along each side of new cooling towers at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The maximum distance of windage impact is wind dependent. If apron construction is envisioned as an abatement strategy at Oak Ridge, the maximum distance of impact can be inferred graphically from the several points where windage (fans off) and drift (fans on) loss curves intersect under the different meteorological conditions. Once the hexavalent chromium laden runoff stream reaches Poplar Creek, it is diluted well below the standards for drinking water and poses little potential for biological effects to aquatic systems.

  6. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Meteorological influences during MLOPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Merrill, J. T.; Mendonca, B. G.

    1992-06-01

    Meteorological data are presented and discussed for the period May 1 to June 4,1988, in support of the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX). Isentropic trajectories were computed to determine air mass origins. Meteorological observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory and radiosonde observations from HiIo, Hawaii, are used to analyze local influences on air mass composition.

  8. You're a What?: Tower Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilorio, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the role and functions of a tower technician. A tower technician climbs up the face of telecommunications towers to remove, install, test, maintain, and repair a variety of equipment--from antennas to light bulbs. Tower technicians also build shelters and radiofrequency shields for electronic equipment, lay…

  9. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  10. The Physics of Shot Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: "How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height…

  11. Development of solar tower observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  12. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental constraints and

  13. Lasting Impressions in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities integrating science and art education in which students examine slides of impressionist paintings or photographs of meteorological phenomena to determine the weather conditions depicted and to make and defend weather predictions. Includes a reproducible worksheet. (MDH)

  14. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  15. Deployable tensegrity towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaud, Jean-Paul

    The design of a complete tensegrity system involves the analysis of static equilibria, the mechanical properties of the configuration, the deployment of the structure, and the regulation and dynamics of the system. This dissertation will explore these steps for two different types of structures. The first structure is the traditional Snelson Tower, where struts are disjointed, and is referred to as a Class 1 tensegrity. The second structure of interest is referred to as a Class 2 structure, where two struts come in contact at a joint. The first part of the thesis involves the dynamics of these tensegrity structures. Two complete nonlinear formulations for the dynamics of tensegrity systems are derived. In addition, a general formulation for the statics for an arbitrary tensegrity structure resulted from one of the dynamic formulations and is presented with symmetric and nonsymmetric tensegrity configurations. The second part of the thesis involves statics. The analysis of static equilibria and the implementation of this analysis into an open loop control law that will deploy the tensegrity structures along an equilibrium manifold are derived. The analysis of small stable tensegrity units allow for a modular design, where a collection of these units can be assembled into a larger structure that obeys the same control laws for deployment concepts. In addition, a loaded structure is analyzed to determine the optimal number of units required to obtain a minimal mass configuration. The third part of the thesis involves laboratory hardware that demonstrates the practical use of the methodology presented. A Class 2 symmetric structure is constructed, deployed, and stowed using the analysis from part two. In addition, the static equilibria of a Class 1 structure is computed to obtain nonsymmetric reconfigurations. The final part of the thesis involves the attenuation of white noise disturbances acting on nodes of both structures. The structures are simulated using linear

  16. Climate and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  17. Meteorology for public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, Kornelija; Rasol, Dubravka; Milković, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Meteorological and Hydrological Service in Croatia (MHSC) is, as a public service, open to and concentrated on public. The organization of visits to the MHSC for groups started in 1986. The GLOBE program in Croatia started in 1995 and after that interest for the group tours at the MHSC has increased. The majority of visitors are school and kindergarten children, students and groups of teachers. For each group tour we try to prepare the content that is suitable for the age and interest of a group. Majority of groups prefer to visit the meteorological station where they can see meteorological instruments and learn how they work. It is organized as a little workshop, where visitors can ask questions and discuss with a guide not only about the meteorological measurements but also about weather and climate phenomena they are interested in. Undoubtedly the highlight of a visit is the forecaster's room where visitors can talk to the forecasters (whom they can also see giving a weather forecast on the national TV station) and learn how weather forecasts are made. Sometimes we offer to visitors to make some meteorological experiments but that is still not in a regular program of the group tours due to the lack of performing space. Therefore we give them the instructions for making instruments and simulations of meteorological phenomena from household items. Visits guides are meteorologists with profound experience in the popularization of science.

  18. Towers for Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, V. J.; Narayanan, S. P.; Ganapathy, C.

    2010-06-01

    Increasing energy demand coupled with pollution free production of energy has found a viable solution in wind energy. Land based windmills have been utilized for power generation for more than two thousand years. In modern times wind generated power has become popular in many countries. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to tap the energy from wind over the oceans and convert to electric energy. The advantages of offshore wind turbines as compared to land are that offshore winds flow at higher speed than onshore winds and the more available space. In some land based settings, for better efficiency, turbines are separated as much as 10 rotor diameters from each other. In offshore applications where only two wind directions are likely to predominate, the distances between the turbines arranged in a line can be shortened to as little as two or four rotor diameters. Today, more than a dozen offshore European wind facilities with turbine ratings of 450 kw to 3.6 MW exist offshore in very shallow waters of 5 to 12 m. Compared to onshore wind turbines, offshore wind turbines are bigger and the tower height in offshore are in the range of 60 to 80 m. The water depths in oceans where offshore turbines can be located are within 30 m. However as the distance from land increases, the costs of building and maintaining the turbines and transmitting the power back to shore also increase sharply. The objective of this paper is to review the parameters of design for the maximum efficiency of offshore wind turbines and to develop types offshore towers to support the wind turbines. The methodology of design of offshore towers to support the wind turbine would be given and the environmental loads for the design of the towers would be calculated for specific cases. The marine corrosion on the towers and the methods to control the corrosion also would be briefly presented. As the wind speeds tend to increase with distance from the shore, turbines build father

  19. View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 12, second from left tower supports Circuit 11, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second from right tower supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 8, view west - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  20. View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Arizona rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuit 3, second tower from left supports Circuit 12, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second tower from right supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 8, view southeast - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  2. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  3. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  4. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  5. 30 CFR 57.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tower guards. 57.10006 Section 57.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  6. 30 CFR 56.10006 - Tower guards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tower guards. 56.10006 Section 56.10006 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10006 Tower guards. Towers shall be suitably protected from swaying buckets....

  7. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  8. Transport and Meteorological Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Legg, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are twofold. First, to provide real-time meteorological satellite guidance to airborne field missions for NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program, the Global Tropospheric Experiment, and the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. Extensive meteorological satellite datasets were provided for use by the mission scientist and by the science team. These same data were then archived for postdeployment data analysis by the science team. Second, to provide scientific analysis of the data from the airborne field missions supported. The results of these analyses were made public through peer-reviewed publications.

  9. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  10. Little meteorological workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poler Čanić, K. Å.; Rasol, D.

    2010-09-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is a project the main goal of which is promotion and popularisation of meteorology in Croatia. The project has been taking place at the Science Festival in Zagreb since 2007 where the audience includes the general public. Since 2009 the project has been introduced as an extracurricular school activity in some primary schools where the main audience are children and teachers. Here, the methods used in the LMWs will be presented. Furthermore, the evaluation results of the LMWs that were held in schools will be shown.

  11. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  12. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  13. Meteorology: Project Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    This document on meteorology is one of a four-volume series of Project Earth Science that includes exemplary hands-on science and reading materials for use in the classroom. This book is divided into three sections: activities, readings, and appendix. The activities are constructed around three basic concept divisions. First, students investigate…

  14. The shape of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Joseph

    2002-02-01

    The distinctive shape of the Eiffel Tower is based on simple physics and is designed so that the maximum torque created by the wind is balanced by the torque due to the Tower's weight. We use this idea to generate an equation for the shape of the Tower. The solution depends only on the width of the base and the maximum wind pressure. We parametrize the wind pressure and reproduce the shape of the Tower. We also discuss some of the Tower's interesting history and characteristics.

  15. Meteorological Observations for Renewable Energy Applications at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Alai, M; Myers, K

    2011-10-26

    In early October 2010, two Laser and Detection Ranging (LIDAR) units (LIDAR-96 and LIDAR-97), a 3 m tall flux tower, and a 3 m tall meteorological tower were installed in the northern section of Site 300 (Figure 1) as a first step in development of a renewable energy testbed facility. This section of the SMS project is aimed at supporting that effort with continuous maintenance of atmospheric monitoring instruments capable of measuring vertical profiles of wind speed and wind direction at heights encountered by future wind power turbines. In addition, fluxes of energy are monitored to estimate atmospheric mixing and its effects on wind flow properties at turbine rotor disk heights. Together, these measurements are critical for providing an accurate wind resource characterization and for validating LLNL atmospheric prediction codes for future renewable energy projects at Site 300. Accurate, high-resolution meteorological measurements of wind flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and surface-atmosphere energy exchange are required for understanding the properties and quality of available wind power at Site 300. Wind speeds at heights found in a typical wind turbine rotor disk ({approx} 40-140 m) are driven by the synergistic impacts of atmospheric stability, orography, and land-surface characteristics on the mean wind flow in the PBL and related turbulence structures. This section of the report details the maintenance and labor required in FY11 to optimize the meteorological instruments and ensure high accuracy of their measurements. A detailed look at the observations from FY11 is also presented. This portion of the project met the following milestones: Milestone 1: successful maintenance and data collection of LIDAR and flux tower instruments; Milestone 2: successful installation of solar power for the LIDAR units; and Milestone 3: successful implementation of remote data transmission for the LIDAR units.

  16. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  17. Survey: National Meteorological Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Meteorological Center (NMC) is comprised of three operational divisions (Development, Automation, and Forecast) and an Administrative Division. The Development Division develops and implements mathematical models for forecasting the weather. The Automation Division provides the software and processing services to accommodate the models used in daily forecasts. The Forecasting Division applies a combination of numerical and manual techniques to produce analyses and prognoses up to 120 hr into the future. This guidance material is combined with severe storm information from the National Hurricane Center and the National Severe Storms Forecasting Center to develop locally tailored forecasts by the Weather Service Forecast Offices and, in turn, by the local Weather Service Offices. A very general flow of this information is shown. A more detailed illustration of data flow into, within, and from the NMC is given. The interrelations are depicted between the various meteorological organizations and activities.

  18. Ozone Treatment For Cooling Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwelder, Rick; Baldwin, Leroy V.; Feeney, Ellen S.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents results of study of cooling tower in which water treated with ozone instead of usual chemical agents. Bacteria and scale reduced without pollution and at low cost. Operating and maintenance costs with treatment about 30 percent of those of treatment by other chemicals. Corrosion rates no greater than with other chemicals. Advantage of ozone, even though poisonous, quickly detected by smell in very low concentrations.

  19. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  20. Meteorological Annual Report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1998-12-17

    An analysis of meteorological data collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 shows that overall weather conditions for the year were relatively cool and wet. The average temperature for 1997 was 63.7 degree F which is about 1 degree F below the annual average for the 30-year period 1968-97. June 1997 had the lowest average temperature of any June in the 34 years for which temperature records are available at SRS ; moreover, the average temperature for the summer months (June, July, and August) was the third lowest for any summer on record. Conversely, the average temperature for March 1997 was the highest for any March in the 34-year record. Temperature extremes for 1997 ranged from a minimum of 18.6 degree F on January 18 to a maximum of 99.1 degree F on August 15.Wet weather during the last three months of the year was due to the development of a strong El Nino event (NOAA, 1998). Total rainfall for December 1997, 10.19 inches, was the highest for a December in the 46 year period of record for precipitation. Monthly rainfall was above average each month except March, May, and August. The greatest 24-hour rainfall during the year was 2.82 inches on December 24. Daily rainfall in excess of 2 inches occurred on April 28, June 28, and September 25. No snow was recorded.The annual average wind speed at the Central Climatology meteorology tower near N Area was 5.8 mph which is very nearly equal to the average wind speed at that station for the 7-year period 1991-97. The 1997 data also showed a slightly higher frequency of west to northwest winds and a slightly lower frequency of northeast winds than was observed in the 5-year period 1992-96. A winter storm which developed over the Mid-Atlantic States March 30-31 produced the most notable period of sustained strong winds. Daily and 15-minute average wind speeds of 15.3 miles per hour (mph) and 25.1 mph, respectively, were recorded at Central Climatology.Monthly average relative humidity for the year was lowest

  1. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  2. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This Quarter's Highlights incllude: completion of the second phase of verifying the performance of the MesoNAM weather model at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). (1) The data was delivered to the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the final report was distributed (2) Staff completed modifying and updating lightning c1imatologies for KSC/CCAFS and other airfields around central Florida. We delivered the tool to the National Weather Service in Melbourne and 45 WS and distributed the final report (3) Staff completed modifying the AMU peak wind tool by analyzing wind tower data to determine peak wind behavior during times of onshore and offshore flow. This was delivered the to the 45 WS and distributed the final report.

  3. 'Towers in the Tempest' Computer Animation Submission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirah, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The following describes a computer animation that has been submitted to the ACM/SIGGRAPH 2008 computer graphics conference: 'Towers in the Tempest' clearly communicates recent scientific research into how hurricanes intensify. This intensification can be caused by a phenomenon called a 'hot tower.' For the first time, research meteorologists have run complex atmospheric simulations at a very fine temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Combining this simulation data with satellite observations enables detailed study of 'hot towers.' The science of 'hot towers' is described using: satellite observation data, conceptual illustrations, and a volumetric atmospheric simulation data. The movie starts by showing a 'hot tower' observed by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft's three dimensional precipitation radar data of Hurricane Bonnie. Next, the dynamics of a hurricane and the formation of 'hot towers' are briefly explained using conceptual illustrations. Finally, volumetric cloud, wind, and vorticity data from a supercomputer simulation of Hurricane Bonnie are shown using volume techniques such as ray marching.

  4. 1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower/keeper's house and abandoned light tower, view northwest, south southeast and east northeast sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  5. 2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Abandoned light tower and keeper's house/light tower, view southeast, north northwest and west southwest sides - Matinicus Rock Light Station, Matinicus Island, on Matinicus Rock, Matinicus, Knox County, ME

  6. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  7. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  8. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  9. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Ross, J. D.; Soloman, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6 micro b level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer.

  11. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  12. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  13. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  14. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. Wind turbine tower for storing hydrogen and energy

    DOEpatents

    Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2008-12-30

    A wind turbine tower assembly for storing compressed gas such as hydrogen. The tower assembly includes a wind turbine having a rotor, a generator driven by the rotor, and a nacelle housing the generator. The tower assembly includes a foundation and a tubular tower with one end mounted to the foundation and another end attached to the nacelle. The tower includes an in-tower storage configured for storing a pressurized gas and defined at least in part by inner surfaces of the tower wall. In one embodiment, the tower wall is steel and has a circular cross section. The in-tower storage may be defined by first and second end caps welded to the inner surface of the tower wall or by an end cap near the top of the tower and by a sealing element attached to the tower wall adjacent the foundation, with the sealing element abutting the foundation.

  16. View second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 10 and right tower supports Circuit 11, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  17. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM BELOW, SHOWING VALVE TOWER TO RIGHT. VIEW FACING NORTH - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 157. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    157. Copy of Louis Rosenberg Etching (original in the Tower City Development Office) TERMINAL TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL FRAMEWORK OF THE SOUTHWEST WING, VIEW WEST TO EAST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Photograph taken from Nevada side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 8, second from left tower supports Circuit 9, middle tower supports Circuit 10, second from right tower supports Circuit 11, and right tower supports Circuit 12, view southeast. - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  20. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent.

  1. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  2. Performance specification for control tower display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleva, Denise L.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    2003-09-01

    Personnel in airport control towers monitor and direct the takeoff of outgoing aircraft, landing of incoming aircraft and all movements of aircraft on the ground. Although the primary source of information for the Local Controller, Assistant Local Controller and the Ground Controller is the real world viewed through the windows of the control tower, electronic displays are also used to provide situation awareness. Due to the criticality of the work to be performed by the controllers and the rather unique environment of the air traffic control tower, display hardware standards, which have been developed for general use, are not directly applicable. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested assistance of Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate in producing a document which can be adopted as a Tower Display Standard usable by display engineers, human factors practitioners and system integrators. Particular emphasis was placed on human factors issues applicable to the control tower environment and controller task demands.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  4. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. C.; Turner, J.

    1997-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the climatology and meteorology of Antarctica. The first section of the book reviews the methods by which we can observe the Antarctic atmosphere and presents a synthesis of climatological measurements. In the second section, the authors consider the processes that maintain the observed climate, from large-scale atmospheric circulation to small-scale processes. The final section reviews our current knowledge of the variability of Antarctic climate and the possible effects of "greenhouse" warming. The authors stress links among the Antarctic atmosphere, other elements of the Antarctic climate system (oceans, sea ice and ice sheets), and the global climate system. This volume will be of greatest interest to meteorologists and climatologists with a specialized interest in Antarctica, but it will also appeal to researchers in Antarctic glaciology, oceanography and biology. Graduates and undergraduates studying physical geography, and the earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences will find much useful background material in the book.

  5. Bracknell Meteorological Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Colin R.

    1988-01-01

    The Bracknell (U.K.) Meteorological Office runs a global weather model twice a day, providing the following data: surface and radiosonde; aircraft reports; and satellite soundings and wind. A human forecast is made every six hours. The model runs on a 150 km grid with 15 levels, and takes about four minutes on a Cyber-205. The standard output from the global products are wind, temperature, height, tropopause, and maximum wind. Various experiments have been conducted to see if short-range forecasters could improve on the upper-wind forecasts over the numerical model; the numerical model remains of paramount importance. Small-scale models are being run in the U.S. and the U.K. A fine-mesh model covers Europe and the Atlantic. A mesoscale model is under development. A great deal of verification work is done to see how good the models are.

  6. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is dedicated for landing onto the Mars surface with the purpose to carry on the monitoring of Mars atmosphere condition at a landing point during one Martian year. MML is supposed to become the basic element of a global net of meteorological mini stations and will permit to observe the dynamics of Martian atmosphere parameters changes during a long time duration. The main scientific tasks of MML are as follows: -study of vertical structure of Mars atmosphere during MML descending; -meteorological observations on Mars surface during one Martian year. One of the essential factor influencing to the lander design is descent trajectory design. During the preliminary phase of development five (5) options of MML were considered. In our opinion, these variants provide the accomplishment of the above-mentioned tasks with a high effectiveness. Joined into the first group, variants with parachute system and with Inflatable Air Brakes+Inflatable Airbag are similar in arranging of pre-landing braking stage and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. The usage of additional Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in the second variant does not affect the procedure of braking - decreasing of velocity by the moment of touching the surface due to decreasing of ballistic parameter Px. A distinctive feature of MML development variants of other three concepts is the presence of Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in their configurations (IBU is rigidly joined with landing module up to the moment of its touching the surface). Besides, in variant with the tore-shaped IBU it acts as a shock- absorbing unit. In two options, Inflatable Braking Shock-Absorbing Unit (IBSAU) (or IBU) releases the surface module after its landing at the moment of IBSAU (or IBU) elastic recoil. Variants of this concept are equal in terms of mass (approximately 15 kg). For variants of concepts with IBU the landing velocity is up to50-70 m/s. Stations of last three options are

  7. The meteorology of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1992-01-01

    Current knowledge of Titan's meteorology is reviewed, including diagnostic inferences of the large scale wind field and prognostic studies of thermal and momentum balances. Titan's winds were largely inferred from temperature maps whose spatial coverage is incomplete. The inferred winds are cyclostrophic, approximately 75 m/s in the upper stratosphere. The direction of the winds is ambiguous from the temperature data, but arguments based on the spin up of a planetary atmosphere from an initial state of rest strongly suggest that Titan's winds blow predominantly in the direction of the planetary rotation. Stratospheric temperatures exhibit a north-south asymmetry, suggesting that seasonal variations are controlled by a dynamical inertia associated with the need to transport angular momentum as well as heat. A consideration of the global angular momentum balance indicates that the zonally averaged winds near the surface are approximately 0.3 m/s.

  8. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  9. CITE 3 meteorological highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Bachmeier, A. Scott; Anderson, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorological highlights from the third NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) are presented. During August and September 1989, research flights were conducted from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, and included airborne sampling of air masses over adjacent regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Isentropic backward trajectory calculations, wind vector/streamline fields, rawinsonde data, and GOES and METEOSAT satellite imagery are utilized to examine the meteorological conditions for each flight and to determine the transport paths of the sampled air masses. Some aspects of the chemical signatures of the sampled air are also discussed. During the series of flights based at Wallops Island, Virginia, the flow into the experiment area was governed primarily by the position of the North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone. The large-scale tropospheric circulation switched from primarily a marine flow during flights 1-4, to a predominantly offshore mid-latitude continental flow during flights 5-10. During these later flights, the regional influences of large eastern U.S. cities along with vertical mixing by typical summertime convective activity strongly influenced the chemical characteristics of the sampled air. During the series of flights based at Natal, Brazil, the dominant synoptic feature was the South Atlantic subtropical anticyclone which generally transported air across the tropical Atlantic toward eastern Brazil. Pronounced subsidence and a well-defined trade wind inversion often characterized the lower and middle troposphere over the Natal region. Some high-altitude recirculation of air from South America was observed, as was cross-equatorial transport which had come from northern Africa. Biomass burning plumes were observed on segments of all of the flights, the source region being the central and southern savannah regions of Africa.

  10. Nineteenth century Parisian smoke variations inferred from Eiffel Tower atmospheric electrical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Aplin, K. L.

    Atmospheric electrical measurements provide proxy data from which historic smoke pollution levels can be determined. This approach is applied to infer autumnal Parisian smoke levels in the 1890s, based on atmospheric electric potential measurements made at the surface and the summit of the Eiffel Tower (48.7°N, 2.4°E). A theoretical model of the development of the autumn convective boundary layer is used to determine when local pollution effects dominated the Eiffel Tower potential measurements. The diurnal variation of the Eiffel Tower potential showed a single oscillation, but it differs from the standard oceanic air potential gradient (PG) variations during the period 09-17 UT, when the model indicates that the Eiffel Tower summit should be within the boundary layer. Outside these hours, the potential changes closely follow the clean air PG variation: this finding is used to calibrate the Eiffel Tower measurements. The surface smoke pollution concentration found during the morning maximum was 60±30 μg m -3, substantially lower than the values previously inferred for Kew in 1863. A vertical smoke profile was also derived using a combination of the atmospheric electrical data and boundary layer meteorology theory. Midday smoke concentration decreased with height from 60 μg m -3 at the surface to 15 μg m -3 at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The 19th century PG measurements in both polluted and clean Parisian air present a unique resource for European air pollution and atmospheric composition studies, and early evidence of the global atmospheric electrical circuit.

  11. Assessing the environmental health relevance of cooling towers--a systematic review of legionellosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Walser, Sandra M; Gerstner, Doris G; Brenner, Bernhard; Höller, Christiane; Liebl, Bernhard; Herr, Caroline E W

    2014-03-01

    Bioaerosols from cooling towers are often suspected to cause community-acquired legionellosis outbreaks. Although Legionella infections can mostly be assigned to the emission sources, uncertainty exists about the release and distribution into the air, the occurrence of the respirable virulent form and the level of the infective concentration. Our study aimed to evaluate studies on legionellosis outbreaks attributed to cooling towers published within the last 11 years by means of a systematic review of the literature. 19 legionellosis outbreaks were identified affecting 12 countries. Recurring events were observed in Spain and Great Britain. In total, 1609 confirmed cases of legionellosis and a case-fatality rate of approximately 6% were reported. Duration of outbreaks was 65 days on average. For diagnosis the urinary antigen test was mainly used. Age, smoking, male sex and underlying diseases (diabetes, immunodeficiency) could be confirmed as risk factors. Smoking and underlying diseases were the most frequent risk factors associated with legionellosis in 11 and 10 of the 19 studies, respectively. The meteorological conditions varied strongly. Several studies reported a temporal association of outbreaks with inadequate maintenance of the cooling systems. A match of clinical and environmental isolates by serotyping and/or molecular subtyping could be confirmed in 84% of outbreaks. Legionella-contaminated cooling towers as environmental trigger, in particular in the neighbourhood of susceptible individuals, can cause severe health problems and even death. To prevent and control Legionella contamination of cooling towers, maintenance actions should focus on low-emission cleaning procedures of cooling towers combined with control measurements of water and air samples. Procedures allowing rapid detection and risk assessment in the case of outbreaks are essential for adequate public health measures. Systematic registration of cooling towers will facilitate the

  12. FINAL REPORT: EDDY-COVARIANCE FLUX TOWER AND TRACER TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PROPOSAL: FROM TOWER TO PIXEL: INTEGRATION OF PATCH-SIZE NEE USING EXPERIMENTAL MODELING FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    LEWIN,K.F.; NAGY, J.; WATSON, T.B.

    2007-09-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.

  13. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  14. Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

  15. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  16. Analysis of 2011 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, F J

    2012-02-27

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, NY and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, NY are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates these facilities. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by KAPL to process the on-site data for the calendar year 2011. The purpose of this document is to: (1) summarize the procedures used in the preparation/analysis of the 2011 meteorological data; and (2) document adherence of these procedures to the guidance set forth in 'Meteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications', EPA document - EPA-454/R-99-005 (EPA-454). This document outlines the steps in analyzing and processing meteorological data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations facilities into a format that is compatible with the steady state dispersion model CAP88. This process is based on guidance from the EPA regarding the preparation of meteorological data for use in regulatory dispersion models. The analysis steps outlined in this document can be easily adapted to process data sets covering time period other than one year. The procedures will need to be modified should the guidance in EPA-454 be updated or revised.

  17. Blasting response of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlyck, Lachlan; Hayes, Kieran; Caetano, Ryan; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    A finite element model of the Eiffel Tower was constructed using Strand7 software. The model replicates the existing tower, with dimensions justified through the use of original design drawings. A static and dynamic analysis was conducted to determine the actions of the tower under permanent, imposed and wind loadings, as well as under blast pressure loads and earthquake loads due to an explosion. It was observed that the tower utilises the full axial capacity of individual members by acting as a `truss of trusses'. As such, permanent and imposed loads are efficiently transferred to the primary columns through compression, while wind loads induce tensile forces in the windward legs and compressive forces in the leeward. Under blast loading, the tower experienced both ground vibrations and blast pressures. Ground vibrations induced a negligibly small earthquake loading into the structure which was ignored in subsequent analyses. The blast pressure was significant, and a dynamic analysis of this revealed that further research is required into the damping qualities of the structure due to soil and mechanical properties. In the worst case scenario, the blast was assumed to completely destroy several members in the adjacent leg. Despite this weakened condition, it was observed that the tower would still be able to sustain static loads, at least for enough time for occupant evacuation. Further, an optimised design revealed the structure was structurally sound under a 46% reduction of the metal tower's mass.

  18. Geology of Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Charles Sherwood

    1956-01-01

    Devils Tower is a steep-sided mass of igneous rock that rises above the surrounding hills and the valley of the Belle Fourche River in Crook County, Wyo. It is composed of a crystalline rock, classified as phonolite porphyry, that when fresh is gray but which weathers to green or brown. Vertical joints divide the rock mass into polygonal columns that extend from just above the base to the top of the Tower. The hills in the vicinity and at the base of the Tower are composed of red, yellow, green, or gray sedimentary rocks that consist of sandstone, shale, or gypsum. These rocks, in aggregate about 400 feet thick, include, from oldest to youngest, the upper part of the Spearfish formation, of Triassic age, the Gypsum Spring formation, of Middle Jurassic age, and the Sundance formation, of Late Jurassic age. The Sundance formation consists of the Stockade Beaver shale member, the Hulett sandstone member, the Lak member, and the Redwater shale member. The formations have been only slightly deformed by faulting and folding. Within 2,000 to 3.000 feet of the Tower, the strata for the most part dip at 3 deg - 5 deg towards the Tower. Beyond this distance, they dip at 2 deg - 5 deg from the Tower. The Tower is believed to have been formed by the intrusion of magma into the sedimentary rocks, and the shape of the igneous mass formed by the cooled magma is believed to have been essentially the same as the Tower today. Devils Tower owes its impressiveness to its resistance to erosion as compared with the surrounding sedimentary rocks, and to the contrast of the somber color of the igneous column to the brightly colored bands of sedimentary rocks.

  19. Four-planet meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All planets with atmospheres have common characteristics which are helpful in understanding weather and climate on earth. Of the terrestrial planets, Mars displays the most earth-like characteristics. The feedback mechanism of the Martian Great Dust Storms may control climate on a global scale and shows some parallels to the water cycle on the earth. Venus, on the other hand, has atmosphere motions and characteristics far different from those of earth but appears to be valuable for comparative meteorology and it seems to be a simple weather machine due to absence of axial tilt. A completely gaseous Jupiter also can help because its atmosphere, driven by internal heat, flows round-and-round, showing the same general patterns for years at a time. Results of studying extraterrestrial atmospheres are most important for understanding earth's multi-year weather cycles such as the droughts in the American West every 22 years or effects of the Little Ice Age (1450-1915) on agriculture in the North Hemisphere.

  20. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  1. A comment on towers for windmills. [structural and economic criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budgen, H. P.

    1973-01-01

    Design considerations for windmill tower structures include the effects of normal wind forces on the rotor and on the tower. Circular tabular or masonry towers present a relatively simple aerodynamic solution. Economic factors establish the tubular tower as superior for small and medium sized windmills. Concrete and standard concrete block designs are cheaper than refabricated steel structures that have to be freighted.

  2. View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 8, middle tower supports Circuit 9, and right tower supports Circuit 10, view northwest - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Nevada rim towers from top of power plant. Left tower supports Circuits 7 and 14, middle tower supports Circuit 6, and right tower supports Circuit 5, view west - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. 17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF THE TOP OF THE TOWER SHOWING BASE OF TOWER MAST AND WOOD DECKING ON SIGNAL TOWER ROOF. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 5. View of south tower, facing northnortheast from south bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of south tower, facing north-northeast from south bank of the Columbia River. Center tower and north tower in background, lower right. - Pasco-Kennewick Transmission Line, Columbia River Crossing Towers, Columbia Drive & Gum Street, Kennewick, Benton County, WA

  6. Meteorological satellites: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.

  7. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  8. Using ozone to treat cooling tower water

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, L.

    1995-07-01

    Ozone is a controversial but promising alternative to chemicals for treating water in cooling towers. A powerful disinfectant, ozone can prevent biofouling of heat exchange surfaces, and may mitigate scale and corrosion. Ozone treatment of cooling towers can cut costs for energy, water, sewage, and regulatory compliance. Ozone treatment is an electrotechnology, but ozone equipment represents only a small electric load. Although ozone has provided excellent results in some cooling tower applications, its effectiveness has not been proven conclusively. Less than 1,000 cooling towers use ozone water treatment in the United States. Acceptance of this technology is increasing, however, as indicated by its use by such large firms as IBM, AT and T, DuPont, and Xerox, and by its adoption by some chemical water treatment suppliers. The energy efficiency implications of ozone treatment are being researched. Southern California Edison found that in some systems, ozone treatment improved chiller efficiency up to 20 percent due to cleaner heat exchange surfaces.

  9. Another Look at the Tower of Hanoi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwarger, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of sequences, geometric progressions and permutations, the author investigates some interesting and unusual questions concerning the number of moves required by each disc in solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. (JT)

  10. Ozone inhibits corrosion in cooling towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, K. R.; Howe, R. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available corona discharge ozone generator, fitted onto industrial cooling tower, significantly reduces formation of scales (calcium carbonate) and corrosion. System also controls growth of algae and other microorganisms. Modification lowers cost and improves life of cooling system.

  11. An economical solution to cooling tower drift

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, G.C.; Lamkin, V.K.; Seich, M.

    1987-01-01

    Most processes one encounters in the refining and petrochemical industries require the rejection of waste heat. The most economical and effective means of accomplishing this is through the use of cooling towers. Heat is transferred by convection and evaporation (mass transfer) by the direct contact of the atmospheric air and water. This results in a major environmental concern of cooling towers - DRIFT, which is discussed in this paper.

  12. Rock Creek Tower Painting Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1988-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) built a 500-kV line across Rock Creek, a Class I trout stream about 20 miles east of Missoula, MT. Two 190-foot towers rise on either side of the Rock Creek valley, and the line between is suspended 600 feet over the valley floor. The crossing poses a hazard to passing airplanes and disrupts the natural landscape. The area where the line crosses Rock Creek is prized for its scenic beauty. In response to public demand that BPA protect the visual beauty of this area, BPA painted the towers gray to blend them best in with their natural surroundings. The issue now is to decide between either two gray towers or two orange-and-white towers. The underlying need is to resolve the conflict of pilot safety against scenic intrusion. The proposed action is to paint the gray tower aeronautical orange and white. Alternatives are to paint the orange-and-white tower back to its original gray; or leave the dilemma unresolved (the ''no-action'' alternative). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Stripping of phenols in model cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.D.; Moe, T.A.; Wentz, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cooling towers are used to remove waste heat from unit operations in chemical processing plants. Using cooling towers for wastewater treatment and disposal through internal recycling has become an important alternative because of stricter wastewater discharge standards, the expense of specialized wastewater treatment systems and the limited availability and cost of water in arid regions. Designs for synfuels plants must address the problem of wastewater disposal. Alternative systems under consideration usually include zero discharge designs that incorporate evaporative cooling towers in the system. The mechanisms for contaminant removal in cooling towers are biological oxidation, stripping and chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation is generally considered undesirable because of losses in heat transfer efficiency. Predicting whether stripping or biological oxidation will be the primary removal mechanism for phenolic compounds from coal conversion wastewaters used as makeup in cooling towers does not appear to be possible based on the results of these tests. The tests do indicate that the biological oxidation of phenol is possible in forced draft cooling towers.

  14. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  15. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  16. BOREAS Derived Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Twine, Tracy; Rinker, Donald; Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the BOREAS science teams identified the need for a continuous surface meteorological and radiation data set to support flux and surface process modeling efforts. This data set contains actual, substituted, and interpolated 15-minute meteorological and radiation data compiled from several surface measurements sites over the BOREAS SSA and NSA. Temporally, the data cover 01-Jan-1994 to 31-Dec-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  17. Application of a semi-spectral cloud water parameterization to cooling tower plumes simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzereau, Emmanuel; Musson Genon, Luc; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2008-10-01

    In order to simulate the plume produced by large natural draft cooling towers, a semi-spectral warm cloud parameterization has been implemented in an anelastic and non-hydrostatic 3D micro-scale meteorological code. The model results are compared to observations from a detailed field experiment carried out in 1980 at Bugey (location of an electrical nuclear power plant in the Rhône valley in East Central France) including airborne dynamical and microphysical measurements. Although we observe a slight overestimation of the liquid-water content, the results are satisfactory for all the 15 different cases simulated, which include different meteorological conditions ranging from low wind speed and convective conditions in clear sky to high wind and very cloudy. Such parameterization, which includes semi-spectral determination for droplet spectra, seems to be promising to describe plume interaction with atmosphere especially for aerosols and cloud droplets.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William Henry; Crawford, Winifred C.; Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Watson, Leela R.; Huddleston, Lisa L.; Decker, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's LSP and other programs at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) use wind forecasts issued by the 30th Operational Support Squadron (30 OSS) to determine if they need to limit activities or protect property such as a launch vehicle due to the occurrence of warning level winds at VAFB in California. The 30 OSS tasked the AMU to provide a wind forecasting capability to improve wind warning forecasts and enhance the safety of their customers' operations. This would allow 30 OSS forecasters to evaluate pressure gradient thresholds between pairs of regional observing stations to help determine the onset and duration of warning category winds. Development of such a tool will require that solid relationships exist between wind speed and the pressure gradient of one or more station pairs. As part of this task, the AMU will also create a statistical climatology of meteorological observations from the VAFB wind towers.

  19. BOREAS TGB-4 NSA-BVP Tower Flux and Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roulet, Nigel T.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-4) team measured the exchange of heat, water, and CO2 between a boreal forest beaver pond and the atmosphere in the Northern Study Area (NSA) for the ice-free period of BOREAS. The data cover the period of 28-May to 18-Sep-1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  20. BOREAS TF-8 NSA-OJP Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Moore, Kathleen E.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-8 team collected energy, CO2, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS NSA-OJP site during the growing season of 1994 and most of the year for 1996. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  1. BOREAS TF-9 SSA-OBS Tower Flux, Meteorological, and Soil Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Huemmrich, Karl (Editor); Massheder, Jonathan M.; Moncrieff, John B.; Rayment, Mark B.; Jarvis, Paul G.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-9 team collected energy, carbon dioxide, and water vapor flux data at the BOREAS SSA-OBS site during the growing season of 1994 and most of the year for 1996. From the winter of 1995 to 1996, soil temperature data were also collected and provided. The data are available in tabular ASCII files.

  2. Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. A.; Hugues-Salas, O.; Savini, B.; Keogh, W.

    2016-09-01

    The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods.

  3. Reviews and Syntheses: optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over 2 decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. The organizing framework used here is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of the sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. I conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to

  4. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  5. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  6. The Drop Tower Bremen -An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Könemann, Thorben; Rath, Hans J.

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University of Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of ZARM`s drop tower began. Since its inau-guration in September 1990, the eye-catching Drop Tower Bremen with a height of 146m and its characteristic glass roof has become twice a landmark on the campus of the University of Bremen and the emblem of the technology park Bremen. As such an outstanding symbol of space science in Bremen the drop tower provides an european unique facility for experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness with residual gravitational accelerations in the microgravity regime. The period of maximum 4.74s of each freely falling experiment at the Drop Tower Bremen is only limited by the height of the drop tower vacuum tube, which was fully manufactured of steal and enclosed by an outer concrete shell. Thus, the pure free fall height of each microgravity drop experiment is approximately 110m. By using the later in-stalled catapult system established in 2004 ZARM`s short-term microgravity laboratory is able to nearly double the time of free fall. This world-wide inimitable capsule catapult system meets scientists` demand of extending the period of weightlessness. During the catapult operation the experiment capsule performs a vertical parabolic flight within the drop tower vacuum tube. In this way the time of microgravity can be extended to slightly over 9s. Either in the drop or in the catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility are the same, generally up to 3 times per day. In comparison to orbital platforms the ground-based laboratory Drop Tower Bremen represents an economic alternative with a permanent access to weightlessness on earth. Moreover, the exceptional high quality of weightlessness in order of 1e-6 g (in the frequency range below 100

  7. Tilts of the Master Equatorial Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrom, H. G., Jr.; Gawronski, W.; Girdner, D.; Noskoff, E.; Sommerville, J. N.

    2000-07-01

    At the center of the DSS-14 antenna, a tower reaches to the focal point of the antenna dish. The master equatorial (ME) instrument is located at the top of the tower. This instrument precisely (with an accuracy that exceeds that of the antenna) follows the commanded trajectory. Through the optical coupling, the antenna focal point follows the ME. One factor of the antenna pointing precision is the movement of the ME base, i.e., the top of the tower. For this reason, measurements of the ME tower tilts have been taken in order to quantify the tilts, to determine possible causes of the tilting, and to update the antenna pointing budget. They were conducted under three antenna operating modes: during tracking, slewing, and antenna stowing. The measurements indicate that the ME tower tilts introduce significant pointing errors that exceed the required 32-GHz (Ka-band) pointing precision (estimated as 0.8 mdeg for a 0.1-dB gain loss). Four different sources of tilt were identified and require verification.

  8. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. PMID:23937212

  9. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  10. Simple model of a cooling tower plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Cizek; Jiri, Nozicka

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the possibilities in the area of modeling of the so called cooling tower plume emergent at operating evaporating cooling systems. As opposed to recent publication, this text focuses on the possibilities of a simplified analytic description of the whole problem where this description shall - in the future - form the base of a calculation algorithms enabling to simulate the efficiency of systems reducing this cooling tower plume. The procedure is based on the application of basic formula for the calculation of the velocity and concentration fields in the area above the cooling tower. These calculation is then used to determine the form and the total volume of the plume. Although this approach does not offer more exact results, it can provide a basic understanding of the impact of individual quantities relating to this problem.

  11. New Particle Formation Above a Loblolly Pine Forest at a New Tower Site in Central Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joerger, V.; O'Halloran, T. L.; Barr, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results investigating the environmental controls on new particle formation events at a new research site in central Virginia. The Sweet Briar College Land-Atmosphere Research Station (SBC-LARS) became operational in July, 2014 and features a 37-meter tower within a ~30 year-old loblolly pine plantation that is surrounded by mixed deciduous forest at the eastern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The tower supports meteorological instruments at three different heights (2, 26, and 37 meters) and two air sampling inlets located above the canopy. The inlets draw air samples into a climate-controlled shed where precursor gas concentrations (ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides) are determined by gas analyzers. Aerosol size distributions between 10 and 470 nm are measured every 3 minutes by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). For this study, aerosol size distributions from July through November 2014 were analyzed along with HYSPLIT backwards trajectories, meteorological measurements, gas concentrations, and the condensational sink, to investigate controls on new particle formation. This station and corresponding dataset will contribute to a better understanding of the contribution of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to aerosol formation in the southeastern United States.

  12. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. |

    1995-02-01

    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  13. NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC): M2 Tower; Boulder, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jager, D.; Andreas, A.

    1996-09-24

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado, is a world-class research facility managed by NREL for the U.S. Department of Energy. NWTC researchers work with members of the wind energy industry to advance wind power technologies that lower the cost of wind energy through research and development of state-of-the-art wind turbine designs. NREL's Measurement and Instrument Data Center provides data from NWTC's M2 tower which are derived from instruments mounted on or near an 82 meter (270 foot) meteorological tower located at the western edge of the NWTC site and about 11 km (7 miles) west of Broomfield, and approximately 8 km (5 miles) south of Boulder, Colorado. The data represent the mean value of readings taken every two seconds and averaged over one minute. The wind speed and direction are measured at six heights on the tower and air temperature is measured at three heights. The dew point temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, totalized liquid precipitation, and global solar radiation are also available.

  14. Stability and Turbulence in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer: A Comparison of Remote Sensing and Tower Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, K.; Lundquist, J. K.; Aitken, M.; Kalina, E. A.; Marshall, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    When monitoring winds and atmospheric stability for wind energy applications, remote sensing instruments present some advantages to in-situ instrumentation such as larger vertical extent, in some cases easy installation and maintenance, measurements of vertical humidity profiles throughout the boundary layer, and no restrictions on prevailing wind directions. In this study, we compare remote sensing devices, Windcube lidar and microwave radiometer, to meteorological in-situ tower measurements to demonstrate the accuracy of these measurements and to assess the utility of the remote sensing instruments in overcoming tower limitations. We compare temperature and wind observations, as well as calculations of Brunt-Vaisala frequency and Richardson numbers for the instrument deployment period in May-June 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The study reveals that a lidar and radiometer measure wind and temperature with the same accuracy as tower instruments, while also providing advantages for monitoring stability and turbulence. We demonstrate that the atmospheric stability is determined more accurately when the liquid-water mixing ratio derived from the vertical humidity profile is considered under moist-adiabatic conditions.

  15. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Dinardo, S.; Henderson, J. M.; Lindaas, J.; Lin, J. C.; Luus, K. A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wolter, S.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large (~ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM/WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. CO2 signals at the tower are larger than predicted, with significant respiration occurring in the fall that is not captured by PolarVPRM. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find emissions persist during some wintertime periods, augmenting those

  16. Lessons learned from the Lena guyed tower

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, L.D.; Maus, L.D.

    1984-10-01

    The design, fabrication, and installation of the Lena guyed tower required the development of new offshore technology in several areas. Lessons learned from this experience include an understanding of the consequences of major design decisions and insight into the interactive behavior of the structural components. The guyed tower is now a proven deepwater production platform concept for the Gulf of Mexico and is also judged to be applicable for a wide range of water depths and deck loads in the North Sea and other areas of the world.

  17. The new Drop Tower catapult system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kampen, Peter; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Rath, Hans J.

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) was founded in 1985 as an institute of the University Bremen, which focuses on research on gravitational and space-related phenomena. In 1988, the construction of the "Drop Tower" began. Since then, the eye-catching tower with a height of 146 m and its characteristic glass roof has become the emblem of the technology centre in Bremen. The Drop Tower Bremen provides a facility for experiments under conditions of weightlessness. Items are considered weightless, when they are in "free fall", i.e. moving without propulsion within the gravity field of the earth. The height of the tower limits the simple "free fall" experiment period to max. 4.74 s. With the inauguration of the catapult system in December 2004, the ZARM is entering a new dimension. This world novelty will meet scientists' demands of extending the experiment period up to 9.5 s. Since turning the first sod on May 3rd, 1988, the later installation of the catapult system has been taken into account by building the necessary chamber under the tower. The catapult system is located in a chamber 10 m below the base of the tower. This chamber is almost completely occupied by 12 huge pressure tanks. These tanks are placed around the elongation of the vacuum chamber of the drop tube. In its centre there is the pneumatic piston that accelerates the drop capsule by the pressure difference between the vacuum inside the drop tube and the pressure inside the tanks. The acceleration level is adjusted by means of a servo hydraulic breaking system controlling the piston velocity. After only a quarter of a second the drop capsule achieves its lift-off speed of 175 km/h. With this exact speed, the capsule will rise up to the top of the tower and afterwards fall down again into the deceleration unit which has been moved under the drop tube in the meantime. The scientific advantages of the doubled experiment time are obvious: during almost 10 s of high

  18. Analysis of 2014 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Aluzzi, Fernando J.

    2015-02-25

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by KAPL to process the on-site data for the calendar year 2014.

  19. Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; DAlimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water radiometry caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.

  20. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north northeast side of tower, northeast and northwest sides of keeper's house - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  1. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north northeast, southwest and southeast sides of house, northwest and southwest sides of tower - Wood Island Light Station, East end of Wood Island, at mouth of Soo River, Biddeford Pool, York County, ME

  2. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  3. 2. Slacking Tower south side, view to the northnortheast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Slacking Tower south side, view to the north-northeast. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Slacking Tower, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  4. Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block one and southeast guard tower, looking from the central guard tower, facing southeast (note view also includes cell block ten (left) and cell block nine (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 1. General view of crossing gate tower, taken in 1916 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of crossing gate tower, taken in 1916 (courtesy of Erie Railroad Company) (photocopy) - Erie Railway, Crossing Gate Tower, West side of Lincoln Street, 100 feet South of Concord Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  6. 39. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SW at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SW at tower cornice, main cable and stay cables. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  7. 54. Angled view looking up at Brooklyn Tower showing juncture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Angled view looking up at Brooklyn Tower showing juncture of deck superstructure with the tower and diagonal cables. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  8. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of tower - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  9. 2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, keeper's house and shed, view south southwest, northwest and northeast sides of tower, east and north sides of keeper's house and shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  10. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  12. TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, WEST ELEVATION, SHOWING CONNECTION PIPES FOR TURNOUTS 22 (FOREGROUND) AND 24. NOTE “LAZY JACK” TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR IN FOREGROUND. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  13. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  14. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  15. TOWER S389, MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. Naval Magazine Lualualei, West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER S389, MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. TOWER 450 WITH POLE. Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER 450 WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER INTERIOR. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WATER TOWER: VIEW SHOWS BUILDING #626 AND PORTION OF QUADRANGLE - Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Depot, Water-Watch Tower, Grayson Street & New Braunfels Avenue, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  19. S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    S316, GUARD TOWER ON KOLEKOLE PASS RD. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Off Dent Road & on Kolekole Road near north boundary of installation, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER S389, WITH POLE. MAGAZINES IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Guard-Watch Tower Type, Near A Avenue between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Ninth Street & D Avenue intersection, & F Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel compass ring in the tower. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 27. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSEUP VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL AT REAR OF TOWER UNDER SHED ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. 1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house and light tower, view northwest, south and east sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of light tower - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  4. 3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View looking E from top of World Trade Tower with World Trade Tower parapet in foreground. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  5. INTERIOR OF SA WETSIDE BUILDING. TOP OF CARBONATION TOWERS (SOLVAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SA WETSIDE BUILDING. TOP OF CARBONATION TOWERS (SOLVAY TOWERS) PROBABLY SAME LEVEL AS NY-300-D-6 BUT OPPOSITE VIEW. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  6. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF TOWER ND SIGNAL BRIDGE No. 6 AND DWARF SIGNAL IN FOREGROUND - South Station Tower No. 1 & Interlocking System, Dewey Square, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    APPROACH BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE, AS SEEN FROM ENTRY. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. View of the southwest guard tower, cell blocks seven and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the southwest guard tower, cell blocks seven and eight, administration building west tower, and Fairmount Avenue, looking from the administration building facing west - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing thirty-acre irrigated field - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Weather Tower, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. Control tower northwest corner of building 29. View southward shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Control tower northwest corner of building 29. View southward shows tower and stairway built onto door outrigger structure. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Hangars, Roe Street, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  11. 5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing southeast - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  12. View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, TOWERS 16 and 17 in the distance, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  13. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail of tower foundation with lightning transfer wire, southeast corner - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  15. Meteorological determinants of growing season onset in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, B.; Denning, S.; Baker, I. T.; Hanan, N. P.

    2012-12-01

    The exchange of the trace gases between the land and atmosphere is highly influenced by vegetation. Therefore, the representation of phenological properties in global carbon models plays a key role in understanding and predicting the global carbon cycle. Phenological parameters such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (fPAR) are often calculated or estimated based on remote sensing measurements, which can be biased by clouds, aerosols, or snow. Alternatively, we can prognose vegetation phenology through the use of models that predict vegetation status based on meteorological conditions. Here our goal is to provide better understanding of carbon dynamics as a function of phenological parameters and their dependence on meteorological forcing and also in the future we plan to estimate these parameters using data assimilation methodology. We evaluate phenological characteristics and their influence on carbon dynamics at Kruger National Park grassland site. Modeled carbon flux, as a function of prognosed phenological state is confronted with data from flux tower. By re-evaluating and better adjusting specific contributors to the growth season index (GSI) equation, we develop better understanding for prognostic phenology. These differences in phenology are reflected in modeled fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon.

  16. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  17. Monitoring water stress in Mediterranean semi-natural vegetation with satellite and meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A.; Maselli, F.; Chiesi, M.; Genesio, L.; Vaccari, F.; Seufert, G.; Gilabert, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    In arid and semi-arid environments, the characterization of the inter-annual variations of the light use efficiency ɛ due to water stress still relies mostly on meteorological data. Thus the GPP estimation based on procedures exclusively driven by remote sensing data has not found yet a widespread use. In this work, the potential to characterize the water stress in semi-natural vegetation of three spectral indices (NDWI, SIWSI and NDI7) - from MODIS broad spectral bands - has been analyzed in comparison to a meteorological factor (Cws). The study comprises 70 sites (belonging to 7 different ecosystems) uniformly distributed over Tuscany, and three eddy covariance tower sites. An operational methodology, which combines meteorological and MODIS data, to characterize the inter-annual variations of ɛ due to summer water stress is proposed. Its main advantage is that it relies on existing series of meteorological data characterizing each site and allows calculating a typical Cws profile that can be “updated” (Cws*) for the actual conditions using MODIS spectral indices. The results confirm that the modified Cws* can be used as a proxy of water stress that does not require concurrent information on meteorological data.

  18. Economic benefits of meteorological services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freebairn, John W.; Zillman, John W.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing need for more rigorous and more broadly based determination of the economic value of meteorological services as an aid to decision-making on the appropriate level of funding to be committed to their provision at the national level. This paper develops an overall framework for assessment of the economic value of meteorological services based on the recognition that most national meteorological infrastructure and services possess the non rival properties of public goods. Given this overall framework for determination of both total and marginal benefits, four main methodologies appropriate for use in valuation studies - market prices, normative or prescriptive decision-making models, descriptive behavioural response studies and contingent valuation studies - are outlined and their strengths and limitations described. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations and the need for a much more comprehensive set of studies for the various application sectors, it is clear that the actual and potential benefits to individuals, firms, industry sectors and national economies from state-of-the-art meteorological and related services are substantial and that, at this stage, they are inadequately recognised and insufficiently exploited in many countries.

  19. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  20. The WACMOS-ET project - Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.; Jiménez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Jung, M.; Hirschi, M.; Ershadi, A.; Martens, B.; McCabe, M. F.; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wood, E. F.; Fernández-Prieto, D.

    2015-10-01

    The WACMOS-ET project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005-2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run 4 established ET algorithms: the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman-Monteith algorithm from the MODIS evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in-situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers was used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed across several time scales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement to the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. An extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs re-sampled to a common grid to facilitate global estimates) confirmed the original findings.

  1. The WACMOS-ET project - Part 1: Tower-scale evaluation of four remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.; Jiménez, C.; Miralles, D. G.; Jung, M.; Hirschi, M.; Ershadi, A.; Martens, B.; McCabe, M. F.; Fisher, J. B.; Mu, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wood, E. F.; Fernández-Prieto, D.

    2016-02-01

    The WAter Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy - EvapoTranspiration (WACMOS-ET) project has compiled a forcing data set covering the period 2005-2007 that aims to maximize the exploitation of European Earth Observations data sets for evapotranspiration (ET) estimation. The data set was used to run four established ET algorithms: the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model (PT-JPL), the Penman-Monteith algorithm from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) evaporation product (PM-MOD), the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). In addition, in situ meteorological data from 24 FLUXNET towers were used to force the models, with results from both forcing sets compared to tower-based flux observations. Model performance was assessed on several timescales using both sub-daily and daily forcings. The PT-JPL model and GLEAM provide the best performance for both satellite- and tower-based forcing as well as for the considered temporal resolutions. Simulations using the PM-MOD were mostly underestimated, while the SEBS performance was characterized by a systematic overestimation. In general, all four algorithms produce the best results in wet and moderately wet climate regimes. In dry regimes, the correlation and the absolute agreement with the reference tower ET observations were consistently lower. While ET derived with in situ forcing data agrees best with the tower measurements (R2 = 0.67), the agreement of the satellite-based ET estimates is only marginally lower (R2 = 0.58). Results also show similar model performance at daily and sub-daily (3-hourly) resolutions. Overall, our validation experiments against in situ measurements indicate that there is no single best-performing algorithm across all biome and forcing types. An extension of the evaluation to a larger selection of 85 towers (model inputs resampled to a common grid to facilitate global estimates) confirmed the original

  2. Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Utility Towers, Insulator Detail, Front Elevation, Side Elevation, Elevation, Double Pole Tower, Single Pole Tower - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  3. 1. Slacking Tower north side, view to the southsouthwest. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Slacking Tower north side, view to the south-southwest. The tower was used for dredging the river downstream of the powerhouse. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Slacking Tower, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  4. 8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE EAST BASE CONNECTION OF ANTENNA TOWER S-111 FACING NORTHEAST. BUILDING 1 AND ANTENNA TOWER S-110 IN THE BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Lualualei Radio Transmitter, Edison & Tower Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest Service Generic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card. OMB Number: 0596-0222. Expiration Date...

  6. 38. View from top of Brooklyn Tower showing man walking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View from top of Brooklyn Tower showing man walking up main cable, stay cables radiating from top of tower and tower cornice. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  7. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  8. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  9. View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second bank of circuit towers on Arizona side of canyon. Left tower supports Circuit 10 and right tower supports Circuit 11, view north - Hoover Dam, Circuits 1-15, U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR WITH TOWERS FIVE AND SIX IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE TWO INTACT CABLES RUNNING ALONG TOP OF THE TOWERS ARE FIXED. WHILE THE MOVING CABLE IS LYING SLACK ON THE GROUND. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. 3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from former light tower to Cape Elizabeth Light Tower, view northeast, southwest side of Cape Elizabeth Tower - Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Near Two Lights State Park at end of Two Lights Road, off State Highway 77, Cape Elizabeth, Cumberland County, ME

  12. CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE PAD AND SUSPENSION BRIDGE TOWERS FOR CABLES FORMERLY SUPPORTING THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE PORTION OF VALVE TOWER FOOT BRIDGE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Ku Tree Reservoir, Valve Tower Foot Bridge, Kalakoa Stream, East Range, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. The Legacy of the Texas Tower Sniper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates the incident that happened at the University of Texas to the tragedy that took place at Virginia Tech. On August 1, 1966, Charles Joseph Whitman ascended the University of Texas Tower, in Austin, and in 96 minutes fired 150 high-powered rounds of ammunition down upon an unsuspecting university family. The…

  14. The Tower and Glass Marbles Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Richard T.; Hailey, David; Rothenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Catseye Marble company tests the strength of its marbles by dropping them from various levels of their office tower, to find the highest floor from which a marble will not break. We find the smallest number of drops required and from which floor each drop should be made. We also find out how these answers change if a restriction is placed on…

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment must not be exceeded. (c) Signs. The size and location of signs installed on tower cranes must be in accordance with manufacturer specifications. Where... must approve in writing the size and location of any signs. (d) Safety devices. (1) Section...

  16. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following brakes, which must automatically set in the event of pressure loss or power failure, are required: (A) A hoist brake on all hoists. (B) Swing brake. (C) Trolley brake. (D) Rail travel brake. (viii...) Hoist drum lower limiting device. Tower cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011 must be equipped...

  18. Tower Power: Producing Fuels from Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, M. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the use of power tower technologies for the production of synthetic fuels. This process overcomes the limitations of other processes by using a solar furnace to drive endothermic fuel producing reactions and the resulting fuels serve as a medium for storing solar energy. (BT)

  19. Balsa Tower Walls Brave "Big Buster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2008-01-01

    Like many technology teachers, the author, a technology education teacher at Arthur Hill High School in Saginaw, Michigan, tries to stretch his budget by "milking" each student activity for maximum benefit. In the technology department, they use balsa wood towers to teach the basics of structural engineering. To get the most from their materials,…

  20. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  1. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  3. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  4. Temperature-compensated meteorological barometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2000-04-01

    Meteorological measurements of surface pressure to better than 1 mbar are routinely required in surface pressures of typically 1000 mbar, and detecting small pressure changes is important for forecasting. An inexpensive pressure sensor provides the basis of a barometer suitable for such general meteorological use. Signal-conditioning circuitry has been added to allow typical surface sea-level pressure variations to be resolved to 0.1 mbar using a ±5 V 12-bit analog to digital system. The sensor excitation voltage is shown to track the sensor's temperature closely, and this is extracted to provide a temperature-compensation signal. When combined with a nonlinearity correction system and a digital display, this gives a portable barometer capable of reading to ±0.5 mbar (over the range of 930-1020 mbar) for temperatures between 0 and 25 °C. The final display reading includes the temperature compensation by using a panel meter in ratio mode.

  5. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  6. Software For Processing Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Mary L.

    1992-01-01

    GEMPAK general meterological software includes programs to analyze and display surface, upper-air, or gridded data, including outputs of mathematical models. Includes capabilities to derive meteorological parameters to perform vertical interpolations to different coordinate systems, and to compute extensive set of gridded diagnostic quantities. Graphics/transformation subsystem, GEMPLT, provides capability to display output in variety of map projections or overlaid on satellite imagery. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  7. Metrology for meteorology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, Andrea; Bellagarda, Simone; Bertiglia, Fabio; Coppa, Graziano; Lopardo, Giuseppina; Roggero, Guido; Sanna, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    For a few years now, a fruitful collaboration has been growing between the metrology and meteorology communities. The main need expressed by top level Institutions was for the availability of robust data for environmental and meteorological studies and for the benefit of the present and future generations of climatologists. This was translated by the metrology community into two key objectives centred on traceability and uncertainty. Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) are continuously recorded by a multitude of different sensors on satellites, balloon radiosondes, aircraft, surface weather stations, buoys, and deep sea devices; all of them working in different operating environments and affected by different influence quantities. This complex system, as a whole, requires dedicated calibration techniques and methods to guarantee fully documented traceability and measurements uncertainty evaluation, thus ensuring complete comparability of measurement results. The inclusion of measurement uncertainty in historical and future data series represents a fundamental step towards greater public confidence in evaluations of climate change. EURAMET, the European association of national institute of metrology is funding several joint research projects on those topics and is launching a task group of experts, formed by both metrologists and members of environmental, meteorological Institutions and climatologists. One of those projects, "MeteoMet" (www.meteomet.org), started in 2011 and re-funded in 2014, stands out since it hits both targets: improve the traceability of an increasing number of ECVs and promote the involvement of stakeholders in support of their needs. This mission leads to a novel vision: a permanent cooperation between metrology and meteorology based on new and existing institutions and infrastructures.

  8. Space Shuttle Pad Exposure Period Meteorological Parameters STS-1 Through STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overbey, B. G.; Roberts, B. C.

    2005-01-01

    During the 113 missions of the Space Transportation System (STS) to date, the Space Shuttle fleet has been exposed to the elements on the launch pad for approx. 4,195 days. The Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center archives atmospheric environments to which the Space Shuttle vehicles are exposed. This Technical Memorandum (TM) provides a summary of the historical record of the meteorological conditions encountered by the Space Shuttle fleet during the pad exposure period. Parameters included in this TM are temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, sea level pressure, and precipitation. Extremes for each of these parameters for each mission are also summarized. Sources for the data include meteorological towers and hourly surface observations. Data are provided from the first launch of the STS in 1981 through the launch of STS-107 in 2003.

  9. Seasonal and interannual variations in boreal Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using atmospheric measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Dinardo, S. J.; Miller, J. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lindaas, J.; Luus, K. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Commane, R.; Tans, P. P.; Henderson, J.; Wolter, S.; Newberger, T.; Lin, J. C.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are expected to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate in the coming decades. Because the daytime lower atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large (~500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of CO2 and CH4 mole fractions is a promising method for the detection of change throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use greenhouse gas measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability over several years. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PVPRM), to infer fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated mole fractions agree remarkably well with tower observations, indicating that the model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are largely correct. CO2 flux signals at the tower are larger than predicted by the model, however, with significant respiration occurring in the fall that is not captured by the model. Using the same WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are lower than those estimated by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska, with emissions persisting during some wintertime periods, augmenting those observed during the summer and fall. The presence of significant fall and winter CO2 and CH4 fluxes underscores the need for year-round in situ

  10. Improving the spatial representativeness and temporal consistency of tower-based eddy-covariance flux measurements using environmental response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Metzger, S.; Kljun, N.; Taylor, J. R.; Desai, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements are suited to continuously monitor the exchange of heat, water vapor, CO2 and other surface fluxes above selected sites. However, these results represent only the immediate surrounding of a measurement location, unless all areas around the flux tower are biophysically identical. This is hardly the case for research sites in somewhat heterogeneous and structured terrain, as typical for most EC measurement locations. For remote sensing and numerical model applications, it is desirable to improve the spatial representativeness of tower flux measurements. The objective of this study is to provide a consistent flux time-series for a selected region, rather than for a spatio-temporally variable patch of surface close to the measurement location. Environmental response functions (ERFs) are capable of explicitly relating flux observations (responses) to meteorological forcing and biophysical surface properties (drivers). However, thus far ERF have been developed with and utilized for aircraft-based measurements in the spatial domain (Metzger et al., 2013). The present study explores the potential for applying ERF to ';rectify' the spatial representativeness of tower-based EC measurements to pre-defined regions. The underlying principle is to extract the relationship between biophysical drivers and ecological responses from measurements in the time-domain under varying environmental conditions. Provided sufficiently good calibration, the resulting ERF can then be used for extrapolating the surface-atmosphere exchange into areas adjacent to the immediate airshed of the tower measurement. The subsequent steps of the ERF methodology are: (i) time-frequency decomposition of 10Hz tower EC data, providing high temporal resolution of the flux observations without neglecting long-wavelength contributions, (ii) quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation, (iii

  11. Candidate wind-turbine-generator site summarized meteorological data for December 1976-December 1981. [Program WIND listed

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    Summarized hourly meteorological data for 16 of the original 17 candidate and wind turbine generator sites collected during the period from December 1976 through December 1981 are presented. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and provide data that could be considered representative of long-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and a topographic map showing the location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for long-term average wind energy production at each site.

  12. Investigating Alaskan methane and carbon dioxide fluxes using measurements from the CARVE tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, John B.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Commane, Roisin; Dinardo, Steven; Henderson, John M.; Lindaas, Jacob; Lin, John C.; Luus, Kristina A.; Newberger, Tim; Tans, Pieter; Wofsy, Steven C.; Wolter, Sonja; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-04-01

    Northern high-latitude carbon sources and sinks, including those resulting from degrading permafrost, are thought to be sensitive to the rapidly warming climate. Because the near-surface atmosphere integrates surface fluxes over large ( ˜ 500-1000 km) scales, atmospheric monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions in the daytime mixed layer is a promising method for detecting change in the carbon cycle throughout boreal Alaska. Here we use CO2 and CH4 measurements from a NOAA tower 17 km north of Fairbanks, AK, established as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), to investigate regional fluxes of CO2 and CH4 for 2012-2014. CARVE was designed to use aircraft and surface observations to better understand and quantify the sensitivity of Alaskan carbon fluxes to climate variability. We use high-resolution meteorological fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (hereafter, WRF-STILT), along with the Polar Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (PolarVPRM), to investigate fluxes of CO2 in boreal Alaska using the tower observations, which are sensitive to large areas of central Alaska. We show that simulated PolarVPRM-WRF-STILT CO2 mole fractions show remarkably good agreement with tower observations, suggesting that the WRF-STILT model represents the meteorology of the region quite well, and that the PolarVPRM flux magnitudes and spatial distribution are generally consistent with CO2 mole fractions observed at the CARVE tower. One exception to this good agreement is that during the fall of all 3 years, PolarVPRM cannot reproduce the observed CO2 respiration. Using the WRF-STILT model, we find that average CH4 fluxes in boreal Alaska are somewhat lower than flux estimates by Chang et al. (2014) over all of Alaska for May-September 2012; we also find that enhancements appear to persist during some wintertime

  13. Kaluza-Klein towers on general manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Levin, Janna; Zukowski, Claire

    2014-04-01

    A higher dimensional universe with compactified extra dimensions admits a four-dimensional description consisting of an infinite Kaluza-Klein tower of fields. We revisit the problem of describing the free part of the complete Kaluza-Klein tower of gauge fields, p forms, gravity, and flux compactifications. In contrast to previous studies, we work with a generic internal manifold of any dimension, completely at the level of the action, in a gauge-invariant formulation and without resorting to the equations of motion or analysis of propagators. We demonstrate that the physical fields and Stückelberg fields are naturally described by ingredients of the Hodge decomposition and its analog for symmetric tensors. The spectrum of states and stability conditions, in terms of the eigenvalues of various Laplacians on the internal manifold, is easily read from the action.

  14. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  15. Dynamic analysis of the Milad Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Edwin; Ford, Mitchell; Coelho, Darren; Lawler, Lachlan; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Tahmasebinia, Faham

    2016-08-01

    This report involves the modelling of the Milad Tower using the finite element analysis program Strand7. A dynamic analysis was performed on the structure in order to understand the deflections and stresses as a result of earthquake and wind loading. In particular, Linear Static as well as Natural Frequency and Spectral Response solvers were used to determine the behaviour of the structure under loading. The findings of the report highlight that the structure was modelled accurately with the outputs representing realistic values. The report suggests that the design of the beams, columns, slabs and all structural members was sufficient enough to support the tower during maximum loading cases. The governing load case was earthquake loading.

  16. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOEpatents

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  17. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  18. Aspects of cooling tower biocides and protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Ashburn, R.J.; Ting, R.S.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work has shown that certain cooling tower amoebae and ciliated protozoa are resistant to several cooling tower biocides, even at the manufacturer`s recommended dosages. For the present study, an Acunthumoeba species was isolated from a cooling tower in Australia. Suspensions of the trophozoites (feeding stages) were exposed to isothiazolones. Cysts were tested separately. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) for trophozoites was between 31-62 ppm of the biocide product, which is slightly less than the MLC for an amoebae species from the United States; and cyst forms were twofold more resistant than those of the US species, with a MLC of 62,500 ppm. A ciliate and an amoeba species were also exposed to bromochlorodimethylhydantoin. The MLC for the ciliate species was 1 ppm of the biocide product, and the MLC was 30--40 ppm for the amoeba trophozoites. Since amoebae can expel vesicles containing live Legionella, experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure of Acunthamoebu polyphugu to biocides influenced release of such potentially infectious particles. Vesicle release was not inhibited by any of the three biocides: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), isothiazolones, and a thiocarbamate compound. These results suggest that amoebae from various sources are resistant to recommended levels of biocides, and the amoebae may continue to release potentially infectious vesicles in the presence of biocides.

  19. Legionella spp. in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Negron-Alvira, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C. )

    1988-10-01

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, P.R., were assayed for various Legionella spp. and serogroups by using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured for each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species; its density reached 10{sup 5} cells per ml, which is within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (acridine orange direct count) were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems and that, without continuous biocide treatment, they may reach densities that present a health risk.

  20. Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

  1. Droplet size of cooling tower fog.

    PubMed

    Rothman, T; Ledbetter, J O

    1975-01-01

    Fog from cooling towers causes problems of visibility and icing along roadways adjacent to the towers; moreover, the visible plume from the towers offers difficulty in that it is equated by much of the public with air pollution. It is desirable to know the size of the fog droplets in order to plan abatement procedures and to determine the airborne lifetimes of such fogs. The methodology involved capturing the droplets on slides coated with a vaseline-mineral oil mixture, making photomicrographs of the droplets, counting and sizing the droplets into eight droplet diameter increments; namely less than 5 mum, 5-10 mum, 10-20 mum, 20-40 mum, 40-60 mum, 60-80 mum, 80-100 mum, and greater than 100 mum. The resulting distribution was similar to that for natural fogs and clouds; i.e., it was bi-modal, the first mode at less than 5 mum containing the vast majority of the droplets, and the second at 20-40 mum. This study agrees with others that the size distribution of a fog in a saturated environment is continuously changing, with the smaller droplets tending to evaporate and the larger ones tending to grow, thus shifting the second mode toward larger sizes.

  2. Water-conserving cooling tower treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathie, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Water conservation in cooling towers and evaporative coolers can finally become a reality. Also, fouled closed hot and chilled water systems can be restored to near original efficiency using the same technology. The barrier limiting the traditional water treatment industry from serious involvement in water conservation is the lack of a really good chemical to control scale. Poor scale inhibitors are the reason for a heavy bleed. Minerals concentrated by evaporation is wasted to the sewer while low solids make-up water fills the tower. Water conservation is important because of the increasing usable water shortage, the cost to add infrastructure to deliver increasing amounts of water to accommodate growth and the limitations imposed on disposal to the sewer. Now, due to innovations in chemical treatment, users of cooling towers and evaporative coolers can conserve water. In this presentation the author assumes the audience has some knowledge of traditional water treatment. Except for a few general references to establish common understanding, the author confines his remarks to discussing an advanced technology developed by DIAS, Inc., and the economics of its use.

  3. Legionella spp. in Puerto Rico cooling towers.

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Alvíra, A; Pérez-Suarez, I; Hazen, T C

    1988-01-01

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, P.R., were assayed for various Legionella spp. and serogroups by using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured for each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1 to 6, L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species; its density reached 10(5) cells per ml, which is within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (acridine orange direct count) were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems and that, without continuous biocide treatment, they may reach densities that present a health risk. PMID:3202625

  4. Website for popularization of meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, K.; Rasol, D.

    2012-04-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is an educational project that has started in 2007 at the Science Festival in Zagreb, Croatia. In 2009 began a new phase of the project which was introduction of the LMW as an extracurricular school activity for pupils. To reach more users the authors of the LMW published a booklet of experiments which were conducted at the workshops in schools. Furthermore, a website (www.malameteo.com) that shows how to make those experiments was developed. The website has some more educational information as well. Here, the content of the website will be presented.

  5. User's Guide for MetView: A Meteorological Display and Assessment Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Allwine, K Jerry; Burk, Kenneth W.

    2000-09-27

    MetView Version 2.0 is an easy-to-use model for accessing, viewing, and analyzing meteorological data. MetView provides both graphical and numerical displays of data. It can accommodate data from an extensive meteorological monitoring network that includes near-surface monitoring locations, instrumented towers, sodars, and meteorologist observations. MetView is used operationally for both routine, emergency response, and research applications at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. At the Site's Emergency Operations Center, MetView aids in the access, visualization, and interpretation of real-time meteorological data. Historical data can also be accessed and displayed. Emergency response personnel at the Emergency Operations Center use MetView products in the formulation of protective action recommendations and other decisions. In the initial stage of an emergency, MetView can be operated using a very simple, five-step procedure. This first-responder procedure allows non-technical staff to rapidly generate meteorological products and disseminate key information. After first-responder information products are produced, the Emergency Operations Center's technical staff can conduct more sophisticated analyses using the model. This may include examining the vertical variation in winds, assessing recent changes in atmospheric conditions, evaluating atmospheric mixing rates, and forecasting changes in meteorological conditions. This user's guide provides easy-to-follow instructions for both first-responder and routine operation of the model. Examples, with explanations, are provided for each type of MetView output display. Information is provided on the naming convention, format, and contents of each type of meteorological data file used by the model area. This user's guide serves as a ready reference for experienced MetView users and a training manual for new users.

  6. Applications of ISES for meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are summarized from an initial assessment of the potential real-time meteorological requirements for the data from Eos systems. Eos research scientists associated with facility instruments, investigator instruments, and interdisciplinary groups with data related to meteorological support were contacted, along with those from the normal operational user and technique development groups. Two types of activities indicated the greatest need for real-time Eos data: technology transfer groups (e.g., NOAA's Forecasting System Laboratory and the DOD development laboratories), and field testing groups with airborne operations. A special concern was expressed by several non-U.S. participants who desire a direct downlink to be sure of rapid receipt of the data for their area of interest. Several potential experiments or demonstrations are recommended for ISES which include support for hurricane/typhoon forecasting, space shuttle reentry, severe weather forecasting (using microphysical cloud classification techniques), field testing, and quick reaction of instrumented aircraft to measure such events as polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic eruptions.

  7. 10. Photocopy of photograph of tower as constructed at Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph of tower as constructed at Cape Henlopen, Delaware, September 1926 (original photograph in National Archives and Records Service, Still Pictures Branch, RG 26, 26-LG-22-A), photographer G.W. Hitchens, September 10, 1926. "New Tower. Camera Station West 100 ft." - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  8. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  9. Vortex-augmented cooling tower-windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, Jr., John E.

    1985-01-01

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passages to provide power as a by-product.

  10. 37. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. THIS VIEW SHOWS TWO MAJOR CHANGES TO THE STATIC TEST TOWER: THE ADDITION OF THE NASA LOGO TO THE FACADE AND THE ADDITION OF THE UPPER STAGES TO THE JUPITER MISSILE IN THE WEST POSITION ON THE TOWER TO REPRESENT THE JUNO II CONFIGURATION. 1961, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U. S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3 - 100 km Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Theory and computations are provided for building inflatable space towers up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism, scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth's surface, weather and upper atmosphere, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. The towers can be built using present technology. The towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the Earth's surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanisms in case of damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  12. Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of tower space; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. 93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF DOG EAR AND TRUSS (BRACKET) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 8. STATIC TEST TOWER NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STATIC TEST TOWER - NORTHWEST ELEVATION FROM THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-08

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  16. Detail of towers at southwest corner; camera facing northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of towers at southwest corner; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Wards, Cedar Avenue, eat side between Fourteenth Avenue & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. View of commissary, central guard tower, and cell block five, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of commissary, central guard tower, and cell block five, looking from the chapel stairs, facing southeast - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Convective Cloud Towers and Precipitation Initiation, Frequency and Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vant-hull, B.; Mahani, S. E.; Autones, F.; Rabin, R.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    : Geosynchronous satellite retrieval of precipitation is desirable because it would provide continuous observation throughout most of the globe in regions where radar data is not available. In the current work the distribution of precipitation rates is examined as a function of cloud tower area and cloud top temperature. A thunderstorm tracking algorithm developed at Meteo-France is used to track cumulus towers that are matched up with radar data at 5 minute 1 km resolution. It is found that roughly half of the precipitation occurs in the cloud mass that surrounds the towers, and when a tower is first detected the precipitation is already in progress 50% of the time. The average density of precipitation per area is greater as the towers become smaller and colder, yet the averaged shape of the precipitation intensity distribution is remarkably constant in all convective situations with cloud tops warmer than 220 K. This suggests that on average all convective precipitation events look the same, unaffected by the higher frequency of occurrence per area inside the convective towers. Only once the cloud tops are colder than 220 K does the precipitation intensity distribution become weighted towards higher instantaneous intensities. Radar precipitation shown in shades of green to blue, lightning in orange; black diamonds are coldest points in each tower. Ratio of number of pixels of given precipitation inside versus outside the convective towers, for various average cloud top temperatures. A flat plot indicates the distribution of rainfall inside and outside the towers has the same shape.

  19. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  20. Proceedings of the International Meteorological Satellite Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    International Meteorological Satellite Workshop, November 13-22, 1961, presented the results of the meteorological satellite program of the United States and the possibilities for the future, so that-- the weather services of other nations may acquire a working knowledge of meteorological satellite data for assistance in their future analysis programs both in research and in daily synoptic application and guidance in their national observational support efforts; the world meteorological community may become more familiar with the TIROS program.; and the present activity may be put in proper perspective relative to future operational programs.

  1. Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The construction of water-powered astronomical instruments was a long tradition of instrument making that started in the second century AD with Zhang Heng's water-powered celestial globe. The technology reached a peak when, in the eleventh century, Su Song and his team constructed the Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower which combined the armillary sphere, the celestial globe, and the time-keeping mechanism into a large automatic structure. Su Song's instrument contained a mechanism for controlling the water-powered movements of its wheels that amounts to an "escapement mechanism" for a mechanical clock. A new reconstruction of the mechanism is introduced in this chapter.

  2. 6. VIEW OF ANTENNA TOWER S111 FACING NORTHWEST. COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF ANTENNA TOWER S-111 FACING NORTHWEST. COMMUNICATIONS CONTROL LINK BUILDING (BLDG NO. 205) LOCATED JUST INFONT OF THE TOWER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Lualualei Radio Transmitter, Edison & Tower Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Impact of assimilation of meso-scale tower data on simulations of weather over the Himalayan region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakesh, V.; Goswami, P.

    2010-09-01

    A continuing difficulty in improving numerical forecast at smaller spatial scales relates to the fact that input observational information is limited and inaccurate, especially in data sparse areas like oceans, deserts and regions of complex topography. The accuracy of analysis from numerical models over mountainous region is further degraded by relatively more error over high altitude in case of satellite observations. Use of surface observations, preferably from a meso-scale network is expected significantly improve simulations over region of complex topography. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has established a series of meteorological towers over the mountainous terrain over the Himalayan region which provides meteorological observations at 3 levels every half hour on a regular basis. In this study we have made use of these observations for studying the impact of assimilation of local data on short-range forecasts. We have used the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the three dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation scheme. The National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analysis is used for providing model initial and boundary condition. Assimilation experiments were conducted for selected rainy and non-rainy events for different months. A comparative analysis of control simulations (no assimilation) and assimilation experiments (with assimilation of tower observation) shows significant improvement in model predicted fields especially in wind speed and rainfall.

  4. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  5. Solar energy collection by the tower system

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, T.; Takemoto, M.

    1981-01-01

    Solar energy collecting tests were carried out under Japan's Sunshine Project, as part of the solar thermal electric power system. The total mirror area of the heliostats was increased by a factor of three to 300 sq m, making the dimensional ratio between the tower height and field diameter equivalent to that of the pilot plant, as well as achieving a similar heat flux magnitude as the pilot plant. The absorbing efficiency of the No. 4 receiver was studied and proven to be inferior to the No. 7 receiver, with its improved wind shield cavity, reducing reflection losses at higher wind velocities. The difference in convection heat losses between the two receivers in the solar energy collecting apparatus did not, however, directly correspond to the difference between them measured in the pilot plant. Thus, a heat loss test was applied to the No. 7 receiver, and fluctuations in the measured values of absorbing efficiencies were shown to be due to fluctuations of convection heat loss. Future plans include the design of external receivers suitable for low towers, with a lighter weight and a greater compactness for minimum heat loss potential.

  6. Development of the LSST raft tower modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, P.; Kotov, I.; Takacs, P. Z.; Frank, J. S.; Plate, S.; Van Berg, R.; Newcomer, M.; Antilogus, P.; Lebbolo, Hervé; Tocut, V.; Juramy, C.; Doherty, P.; Felt, N.

    2012-07-01

    The science focal plane of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is made up of 21 modules designated "raft towers". Each raft tower module (RTM) is an autonomous, fully-testable and serviceable 144 Mpixel imager consisting of nine highly-segmented CCDs with complete readout electronics chain. To minimize noise and obscuration the RTM is housed in a compact enclosure fully contained within the camera cryostat. The RTM is required to meet strict performance goals for image plane flatness, readout speed, noise, and power dissipation. Key components include the 4K × 4K fully-depleted CCDs with 16 outputs each, ceramic CCD support structure, and ASIC electronics for video processing and clock/bias generation. In addition to CCD signal handling, the RTM electronics also includes monitoring for temperature, voltage, and current, makeup heater control, ASIC configuration and readback, powerdown modes, and specialized diagnostic outputs. Digitized data are transmitted out of the camera cryostat over a single 3Gb/s serial link.

  7. Aviation meteorology: Today and the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    A representative of the Air Weather Service, USAF addressed the workshop and gave an assessment of the present state of aviation meteorology and a prognosis of the future. Three categories of meteorological support to aviation systems are considered and discussed; (1) terminal weather; (2) the winds for flight planning; and (3) en route flight hazards.

  8. Teaching a Course on Meteorological Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    A meteorological instruments course that provided undergraduate geography students the opportunity to use and/or observe meteorological equipment while also preparing for possible internships with the National Weather Service is evaluated and suggestions for improving it in the future are offered. The paper first provides a general course…

  9. Meteorological needs of the aviation community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the important meteorological needs of the aviation community and to recommend research in those areas judged most beneficial. The study was valuable in that it provided a comprehensive list of suspected meteorological deficiencies and ideas for research programs relative to these deficiencies. The list and ideas were generated from contacts with various pilots, air traffic controllers, and meteorologists.

  10. 7. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST PHOTO TOWER. CLOSED WINDOW ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF EAST PHOTO TOWER. CLOSED WINDOW ON WEST SIDE; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX ON EAST SIDE OF PHOTO TOWER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 13. View of Truss tower and pivot pier locking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Truss tower and pivot pier locking east. When the draw is open, the two arms of the truss act as cantilevers supported by the truss tower. A counterweight in the shorter of the bridge keeps the span in proper balance. - Center Street Swing Bridge, Southwest of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. 5. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view south, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view south, northeast side and northwest front of tower, northeast side of house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  13. 6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, northwest front and southwest side of tower, southwest side of house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  14. 3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Bell house, light tower and keeper's house, view west, southeast side and northeast front of bell house, southeast sides of tower and keeper's house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  15. 4. Keeper's house and light tower, view northeast, southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Keeper's house and light tower, view northeast, southwest side of house, northwest front and southwest side of tower - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  16. 2. Light tower and oil house, view west, southeast and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and oil house, view west, southeast and northeast sides of tower and south side of oil house - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  17. Cross-flow versus counterflow air-stripping towers

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.C.; Marinas, B.J.

    1997-07-01

    Mass-transfer and pressure-drop packing performance correlations are used together with tower design equations and detailed cost models to compare the effectiveness of cross-flow and counterflow air stripping towers over a wide range of contaminant volatility. Cross-flow towers are shown to offer a significant economic advantage over counterflow towers when stripping low volatility organic contaminants primarily due to savings in energy costs. These savings increase as contaminant volatility decreases and as water flow rate increases. A further advantage of the cross-flow configuration is that it extends the feasible operating range for air stripping as cross-flow towers can accommodate higher air-to-water flow ratios than conventional counterflow towers. Finally it is shown that the optimized least-cost design for both counterflow and cross-flow towers varies with Henry`s law constant, water flow rate, and percent removal, but that the optimum is virtually insensitive to other cost and operating variables. This greatly simplifies the tower design procedure.

  18. Legionella species isolated from cooling towers in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Ngeow, Y F; Tan, C H; Lim, S Y

    1992-03-01

    Three building complexes in Kuala Lumpur were surveyed for the presence of legionellae in cooling towers. The organisms were grown from 12 out of 46 samples of water collected from 30 towers. L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 7 were the commonest serogroups isolated. None belonged to the Pontiac subgroup of L. pneumophila serogroup 1.

  19. Cell block three and northeast guard tower (center), looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block three and northeast guard tower (center), looking from the central guard tower, facing northeast (note view also includes the baseball field (left), and cell blocks fourteen and eleven (right)) - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, HIGH ENCLOSED METAL OBSERVATION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, HIGH ENCLOSED METAL OBSERVATION TOWER LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 1800 FEET SOUTH OF TRACK. Looking southeast - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Observation Tower, South of west end of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of conning tower atop the submarine. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the submarine offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Within compound, from Guard Tower (Building 5762), looking southwest, Technical Equipment Building (Building 5760) to left, Microwave Tower (associated with Building 5769) and Civil Engineering Storage Building (Building 5766) to left - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  3. 1. Keeper's house, small boathouse, and light tower, view east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, small boathouse, and light tower, view east, west and south sides of keeper's house, west side of boathouse and tower - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  4. 47 CFR 5.109 - Antenna and tower requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna and tower requirements. 5.109 Section 5... BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.109 Antenna and tower requirements. (a) Applicants with fixed stations that use antennas that exceed 6 meters in height above the ground level...

  5. 47 CFR 5.109 - Antenna and tower requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna and tower requirements. 5.109 Section 5... BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.109 Antenna and tower requirements. (a) Applicants with fixed stations that use antennas that exceed 6 meters in height above the ground level...

  6. 47 CFR 5.109 - Antenna and tower requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna and tower requirements. 5.109 Section 5... BROADCAST) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.109 Antenna and tower requirements. (a) Applicants with fixed stations that use antennas that exceed 6 meters in height above the ground level...

  7. 9. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, ALONG CENTERLINE FROM SOUTH CANTILEVER TOWER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, ALONG CENTERLINE FROM SOUTH CANTILEVER TOWER. Note emergency bracing installed beneath collapsed tower, and crumpled vertical members at right and left. - Smith River Bridge, CA State Highway 199 Spanning Smith River, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  8. 36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER No. 1 AND TWO GAS COOLING TOWER SERVICE WATER PUMPS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Keeper's house, light tower and oil house, view north, south and east sides of keeper's house, south side of tower and oil house - Owl's Head Light Station, Off State Highway 73 just east of Rockland on Owl's Head Bay, Owls Head, Knox County, ME

  10. 18. Upstream face of arches, concrete placing tower is at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Upstream face of arches, concrete placing tower is at far right. Tower at center was used to convey material. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge, looking north west. Showing rope connectors and welding cut from tower removal. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, NORTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, NORTHEAST SIDE AND SOUTHEAST FRONT OF TOWER AND ORIGINAL LIGHTHOUSE - Mispillion Lighthouse, Beacon Tower, South bank of Mispillion River at it confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  13. 25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas pipes between coke ovens and compressor building XX), coal conveyor to pulverizer building on right, water tank to left of quench tower. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  14. 84. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM THE EAST. ALSO SHOWS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INDIAN HOUSE TOWER, FROM THE EAST. ALSO SHOWS THE BALCONY AND ARCADE OF THE WEST WING. THE TOWER WAS ADDED IN 1916. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-10. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. 10. View east from northwest (port) elevator tower to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View east from northwest (port) elevator tower to northeast (starboard) elevator tower. Muzzle of deck torpedo tube projects from wall at lower right. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. 32. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER WHILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER WHILE A JUPITER MISSILE IS BEING POSITIONED ONTO THE TEST TOWER. DATE AND PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

  18. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  19. 34. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. MODIFICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER. MODIFICATIONS TO THE EAST SIDE OF THE TOWER ARE NEARING COMPLETION. NOTE THAT THE HORIZON HAS BEEN MODIFIED TO DISGUISE THE LOCATION. 1959, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view northwest, south and east sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  1. 2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west and north sides of barn, northwest side of light tower, and west northwest and north northeast sides of keeper's house - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  2. 2. Shed, railroad, light tower and boathouse, view south southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Shed, railroad, light tower and boathouse, view south southwest, northeast and northwest sides of shed, northeast side of tower, east and north sides of boathouse - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  3. 3. Railroad viaduct, keeper's house, light tower and shed, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Railroad viaduct, keeper's house, light tower and shed, view west, southeast side of viaduct, southeast and northeast sides of keeper's house, tower and shed - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  4. 1. Shed, railroad, keeper's house, light tower and boathouse, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shed, railroad, keeper's house, light tower and boathouse, view southwest, northeast side of shed, keeper's house and tower, east and north sides of boathouse - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  5. 2. Fog signal house and light tower, view west southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Fog signal house and light tower, view west southwest, southeast and northeast sides of signal house, east and north sides of tower - Libby Island Light Station, At southern tip of Libby Island at entrance to Machias Bay, Machiasport, Washington County, ME

  6. 7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Keeper's house, fog signal house and light tower, view north northeast, west and south sides of keeper's house and tower, southwest and southeast sides of fog signal house - West Quoddy Head Light Station, At eastern tip of West Quaddy Head, Lubec, Washington County, ME

  7. 1. Light tower and fog signal house, view south southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower and fog signal house, view south southeast, east and north sides of tower, northeast and northwest sides of signal house - Libby Island Light Station, At southern tip of Libby Island at entrance to Machias Bay, Machiasport, Washington County, ME

  8. OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP RAVINE,LOOKING SOUTH FROM BREAK OVER TOWER LOCATION. A SINGLE ORE BUCKET HANGS FROM THE CABLE AT CENTER. DEATH VALLEY'S FLOOR IS IN THE DISTANCE (TOP). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. Main photoautotrophic components of biofilms in natural draft cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Tomáš; Čapek, Petr; Böhmová, Petra

    2016-05-01

    While photoautotrophic organisms are an important component of biofilms that live in certain regions of natural draft cooling towers, little is known about these communities. We therefore examined 18 towers at nine sites to identify the general patterns of community assembly in three distinct tower parts, and we examined how community structures differ depending on geography. We also compared the newly acquired data with previously published data. The bottom sections of draft cooling towers are mainly settled by large filamentous algae, primarily Cladophora glomerata. The central portions of towers host a small amount of planktic algae biomass originating in the cooling water. The upper fourths of towers are colonized by biofilms primarily dominated by cyanobacteria, e.g., members of the genera Gloeocapsa and Scytonema. A total of 41 taxa of phototrophic microorganisms were identified. Species composition of the upper fourth of all towers was significantly affected by cardinal position. There was different species composition at positions facing north compared to positions facing south. West- and east-facing positions were transitory and highly similar to each other in terms of species composition. Biofilms contribute to the degradation of paint coatings inside towers. PMID:26508444

  10. 4. North elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower showing structure built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. North elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower showing structure built into slope of railroad right-of-way. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  11. 13. Photocopy of circa 18751880 photograph. Original in Tower Grove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of circa 1875-1880 photograph. Original in Tower Grove Park 'Entrance' file. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM ACROSS MAGNOLIA AVENUE, SHOWING, BEYOND NORTH GATE, ROOF OF GREENHOUSE (LEFT CENTER), CRENELATED STORAGE STRUCTURE (CENTER), AND ROOF OF 1863 GATEHOUSE DEMOLISHED IN 1913 (RIGHT CENTER) - Tower Grove Park, Superintendent's House, 4255 Arsenal Street, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  12. 9. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TRI-SECTION SLIDING ENTRANCE DOORWAY (RIGHT FOREGROUND), AND RAIL TRACKS IN FLOORING ENTERING THE STRUCTURE FROM THE SWITCHING YARD - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

  13. 15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  14. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  15. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  16. PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents are made of redwood. Camera facing southwest toward north side of Cooling Tower. Siding is corrugated asbestos concrete. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: June 6, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3463 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note condition of slates on tower skirt roof, missing section of gutter at left side of skirt roof, missing window panes; note also knee braces carried on masonry ancons; view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  18. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  19. Sculpting sandcastles grain by grain: Self-assembled sand towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F.; Moreau, F.; Vandewalle, N.; Dorbolo, S.

    2012-11-01

    We study the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a wet sand bed. When the liquid content of the bed exceeds a threshold value W, the impacting grains have a nonzero probability to stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The trapped grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow towers. The growth velocity is determined by the surface liquid content which decreases exponentially as the tower height augments. This self-assembly mechanism (only observed in the funicular and capillary regimes) could theoretically last while the capillary rise of water is possible; however, the structure collapses before reaching this limit. The collapse occurs when the weight of the tower surpasses the cohesive stress at its base. The cohesive stress increases as the liquid content of the bed is reduced. Consequently, the highest towers are found just above W.

  20. Bacterial aerosols produced from a cooling tower using wastewater effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.P.; Garbett, M.; Rees, H.B.; Lewis, B.G.

    1980-03-01

    A cooling tower, which receives make-up water from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was studied. Wastewater effluent was super-chlorinated, then treated with lime and a commercial coagulant to remove phosphates, calcium, magnesium, and suspended solids before it was pumped into the cooling tower. The chlorination and coagulation described above were used to reduce deposition of scale and slime on the power plant condenser surfaces. Bacterial counts were made of the cooling tower basin waters and of the aerosols exiting the cooling tower vents. It was dicovered that 39% of bacteria exiting the cooling tower vents were of the genus Pseudomonas. A few pathogenic microbes were also found to be present in the aerosolized particles but their numbers were so low that they were considered insignificant.

  1. Remote monitoring and nondestructive evaluation of wind turbine towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Ke, Ying-Tzu; Shih, Yi-Ru

    2014-03-01

    Wind turbine towers are in need of condition monitoring so as to lower the cost of unexpected maintenance. Wind loading from turbulence and gusts can cause damage in horizontal axis wind turbines even the supporting towers. Monitoring of wind turbines in service using embedded data sensor arrays usually is not targeted at the turbine-tower interaction from the perspective of structural dynamics. In this study the remote monitoring of the tower supporting a horizontal-axis wind turbine was attempted using a microwave interferometer. The dominant frequency of one tower was found to be decreased by more than 20% in 16 months. Numerical modeling using spectral finite elements is in progress and should provide further information regarding frequency shift due to stiffness variation and added mass. Expected outcome will contribute to remote monitoring procedures and nondestructive evaluation techniques for local wind turbine structures during operation.

  2. An objective meteorological classification scheme designed to elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper was to utilize a two-stage clustering approach as part of an objective meteorological classification scheme designed to elucidate ozone`s (O{sub 3}) dependence on meteorology. When applied to ten years (1981-1990) of meteorological data for Birmingham, Alabama, the classification scheme identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes. Because of the critical impact meteorological conditions have on the formation, transport and deposition of ozone, the seven homogenous meterological clusters exhibited significantly different concentrations characteristics.

  3. Compression of spectral meteorological imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miettinen, Kristo

    1993-01-01

    Data compression is essential to current low-earth-orbit spectral sensors with global coverage, e.g., meteorological sensors. Such sensors routinely produce in excess of 30 Gb of data per orbit (over 4 Mb/s for about 110 min) while typically limited to less than 10 Gb of downlink capacity per orbit (15 minutes at 10 Mb/s). Astro-Space Division develops spaceborne compression systems for compression ratios from as little as three to as much as twenty-to-one for high-fidelity reconstructions. Current hardware production and development at Astro-Space Division focuses on discrete cosine transform (DCT) systems implemented with the GE PFFT chip, a 32x32 2D-DCT engine. Spectral relations in the data are exploited through block mean extraction followed by orthonormal transformation. The transformation produces blocks with spatial correlation that are suitable for further compression with any block-oriented spatial compression system, e.g., Astro-Space Division's Laplacian modeler and analytic encoder of DCT coefficients.

  4. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  5. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S. R.; Hirsch, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  6. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-11

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  7. PORFIDO on the NEMO Phase 2 tower

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaffoni, Orlando; Cordelli, Marco; Habel, Roberto; Martini, Agnese; Trasatti, Luciano

    2014-11-18

    We have designed and built an underwater measurement system, PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) to gather oceanographic data from the Optical Modules of a neutrino telescope with a minimum of disturbance to the main installation. PORFIDO is composed of a sensor glued to the outside of an Optical Module, in contact with seawater, and of a reader placed inside the sphere, facing the sensor. Data are transmitted to the reader through the glass by RFID and to shore in real time for periods of years. The sensor gathers power from the radio frequency, thus eliminating the need for batteries or connectors through the glass. We have deployed four PORFIDO probes measuring temperatures with the NEMO-KM3Net-Italy Phase 2 tower in april 2013. The four probes are operative and are transmitting temperature data from 3500 m depth.

  8. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  9. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  10. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  11. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  12. Optimization of class 2 tensegrity towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masic, Milenko; Skelton, Robert E.

    2004-07-01

    This paper concerns the optimal mass-to-stiffness ratio design of class-2 tensegrity towers. For different loading scenarios, the procedure seeks the topology and geometry of the structure that yields an optimal design satisfying common constraints. The domain of feasible tensegrity geometries is defined by imposing tensegrity equilibrium conditions on both unloaded and loaded structure. Remaining constraints include strength constraints for all elements of the structure and buckling constraints for bars. The symmetry of the design is imposed by restricting the domain of geometric variables and element parameters. The static response of the structure is computed by using a nonlinear large displacement model. The problem is cast in the form of a nonlinear program. The influence of material parameters on the optimal shape of the structure is investigated.

  13. Can eddy covariance flux magnitudes and uncertainties be explained by surface heterogeneity? - A combined multi-tower - hyperspectral remote sensing approach in a Mediterranean Savanna ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Migliavacca, M.; Perez-Priego, O.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Moreno, G.; Pacheco Labrador, J.; Martin Isabel, M. P.; Reichstein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies in recent literature focus on uncertainty estimates of turbulent fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance method. The knowledge of the uncertainties is important for the interpretation of results, but also for model-data-integration where uncertainties of input parameters play an important role for parameter estimations. The estimates of uncertainties rely either on time series analysis or on comparisons between collocated towers or comparisons in time under similar bio-meteorological conditions. We will present a unique data set from 3 collocated EC towers (distance of 500 - 600 m) at the long-term EC site 'Majadas del Tietar', Spain. The site is a Savanna type ecosystem with oak trees and grass in the understory. Cattle are grazing the area from autumn to early summer. The combination of EC data and hyperspectral remote sensing data from aircraft flight with the CASI system allows to associate flux differences to differences in the spectral properties of the surface within the footprints. The drawback is that maps of VI can only be used as long as the vegetation (structure or phenology) is not changing. But not only vegetation indices (VI), also differences of the full spectra will be used to determine differences of footprint areas. First results show correlations between flux differences and differences of VI within the footprint areas. This indicates that multi-tower approaches and paired observations from one tower (if the footprint area is not identical) may overestimate the uncertainty of eddy covariance measurements.

  14. An interactive meteorological display and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, M. L.; Petersen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The GEMPAK system, a general meteorological software package being developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to support mesoscale meteorological research programs, is described. The primary purpose of the system is to provide analysis support and data integration techniques for conventional and satellite derived data sets. Current capabilities of the system range from data listing and editing to interactive objective analysis procedures and coordinate transformations. Output graphics use a graphics subroutine package designed to support meteorological plotting functions. A flexible diagnostics package is currently under development.

  15. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  16. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  17. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  18. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  19. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A.; Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  20. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g., Shenk et al. [2] and Black [3], [4]). Stereoscopy from geosynchronous satellites was proposed by Shenk [5] and Bristor and Pichel [6] in 1974 which allowed Minzner et al. [7] to demonstrate the first quantitative cloud height analysis. In 1978 Bryson [8] and desJardins [9] independently developed digital processing techniques to remap stereo images which made possible precision height measurement and spectacular display of stereograms (Hasler et al. [10], and Hasler [11]). In 1980 the Japanese Geosynchronous Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. GOES-West satellite were synchronized to obtain stereo over the central Pacific as described by Fujita and Dodge [12] and in this paper. Recently the authors have remapped images from a Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) to the coordinate system of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbiter (GEO) and obtained stereoscopic cloud height measurements which promise to have quality comparable to previous all GEO stereo. It has also been determined that the north-south imaging scan rate of some GEOs can be slowed or reversed. Therefore the feasibility of obtaining stereoscopic observations world wide from combinations of operational GEO and LEO satellites has been demonstrated. Stereoscopy from satellites has many advantages over infrared techniques for the observation of cloud structure because it depends only on basic geometric relationships. Digital remapping of GEO and LEO satellite images is imperative for precision stereo height measurement and high quality displays because of the curvature of the earth and the large angular separation of the

  1. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  2. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted. PMID:23456373

  3. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  4. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  5. Concept for a next-generation drop tower system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich; Gierse, Andreas; Greif, Andreas; Lutz, Torsten; Mawn, Simon; Siemer, Jan; Eigenbrod, Christian; von Kampen, Peter; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2015-03-01

    The concept for a next-generation drop tower system is presented that is motivated by the scientific demand for much higher experiment repetition. This demand resulted in repetition rates of over 100 experiments per day which exceed the current capabilities of operating drop towers by far. High experiment repetition rates can for instance be realized through the novel application of a guided electro-magnetic linear drive system in a fully automatic drop tower operation. Such a new kind of drop tower system combines beneficial technologies of different free fall systems like freely falling drop capsules, capsule-in-capsule systems, and the vertical parabola method as already utilized in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system. This proposed next-generation drop tower system named GraviTower Bremen does not only enable experiments with an outstanding microgravity quality (10-6 g, where g is the Earth's gravitational acceleration) and a duration of 6 s but also novel experiments under partial gravity conditions (0.1 g to 0.4 g) matching those of Moon or Mars with durations of up to 8.5 s. Due to its linear drive system the GraviTower allows the same very low initial acceleration and following deceleration loads onto the experiment. These can be selected according to the experiment's needs with only 1.5 g or 4 g. The engine power of the linear drive system allows also large payload dimensions and masses. The features and capabilities of the proposed GraviTower Bremen combine all advantages of current drop towers and represent the next technological step forward in ground-based research under space conditions.

  6. Visual Features Involving Motion Seen from Airport Control Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Liston, Dorion

    2010-01-01

    Visual motion cues are used by tower controllers to support both visual and anticipated separation. Some of these cues are tabulated as part of the overall set of visual features used in towers to separate aircraft. An initial analyses of one motion cue, landing deceleration, is provided as a basis for evaluating how controllers detect and use it for spacing aircraft on or near the surface. Understanding cues like it will help determine if they can be safely used in a remote/virtual tower in which their presentation may be visually degraded.

  7. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  8. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  9. Building designed granular towers one drop at a time.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Julien; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2011-11-11

    A dense granular suspension dripping on an imbibing surface is observed to give rise to slender mechanically stable structures that we call granular towers. Successive drops of grain-liquid mixtures are shown to solidify rapidly upon contact with a liquid absorbing substrate. A balance of excess liquid flux and drainage rate is found to capture the typical growth and height of the towers. The tower width is captured by the Weber number, which gives the relative importance of inertia and capillary forces. Various symmetric, smooth, corrugated, zigzag, and chiral structures are observed by varying the impact velocity and the flux rate from droplet to jetting regime.

  10. PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest into north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest into north side of Tower. Five horizontal layers of splash bars constitute fill decks, which will break up falling water into droplets, promoting evaporative cooling. Louvered faces, through which air enters tower, are on east and west sides. Louvers have been installed. Support framework for one of two venturi-shaped fan stacks (or "vents") is in center top. Orifices in hot basins (not in view) will distribute water over fill. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: May 15, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3032 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Effects of transmission towers on orchards and vineyards

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    Electric power transmission towers can pose problems for the farm operator in terms of the loss of productive area and interference with the movement of machinery. A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of transmission facilities on orchard and vineyard operations in Ontario, Canada. Economic losses to peach and grape crops were determined. Time loss varied greatly depending on the specific operation and tower location. Economic effects of transmission towers varied widely depending on location and orientation, and whether or not equipment can pass through the base area.

  12. Comments on satellite meteorology from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of the use of geostationary satellites in meteorology are given. Studies of the rate of change of cumulus clouds and cloud systems and wind parameter determination from cloud motions are reviewed. Computer processed imagery products are also discussed.

  13. Surface Meteorological Instruments for TWP (SMET) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2009-01-01

    The TWP Surface Meteorology station (SMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall amount.

  14. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  15. CloudSat and CALIPSO Help Meteorology

    NASA Video Gallery

    The study of meteorology presents significant challenges to scientists. One of the most challenging aspects is the inherent complexity of weather coupled with its high rate of change. In the case o...

  16. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  17. Interim report on the meteorological database

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives.

  18. 77 FR 75978 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of utility scale wind towers (wind towers... investigation is the Wind Tower Trade Coalition.\\2\\ The respondents in this investigation are: CS Wind China...

  19. 47 CFR 1.30004 - Notice of tower construction or modification near AM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of tower construction or modification....30004 Notice of tower construction or modification near AM stations. (a) Proponents of proposed tower construction or significant modification to an existing tower near an AM station that are subject to...

  20. Meteorological database for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    A meteorological database has been developed to aid in the prediction of indoor radon concentrations in the United States. The database contains predicted typical monthly meteorological statistics at the county level derived from hourly meteorological data from 208 (234 for precipitation) geographically distinct monitoring stations. Interpolation and extrapolation techniques were used to predict statistics for counties not containing a meteorological monitoring site. The LBNL database includes statistics for meteorological variables including dry-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, hours of precipitation, precipitation, and derived infiltration degree-days. The database consists of individual files of derived statistics for each weather variable and is potentially useful for indoor radon modeling as well as for other purposes. Each file contains data values for all 12 months and an aggregation of the 12 months up to a yearly statistic for all county centroids. A test was conducted to assess the quality of interpolated values. Examples showing the use of the database for mapping infiltration degree-days and an application of the database to a statistical correlation analysis attempting to find meteorological factors influencing indoor radon levels in the United States is discussed.

  1. 13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX BELOW WINDOW - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 36 CFR 7.30 - Devils Tower National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Climbing. Registration with a park ranger is required prior to any climbing above the talus slopes on Devils Tower. The registrant is also required to sign in immediately upon completion of a climb in...

  3. 36 CFR 7.30 - Devils Tower National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Climbing. Registration with a park ranger is required prior to any climbing above the talus slopes on Devils Tower. The registrant is also required to sign in immediately upon completion of a climb in...

  4. 36 CFR 7.30 - Devils Tower National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Climbing. Registration with a park ranger is required prior to any climbing above the talus slopes on Devils Tower. The registrant is also required to sign in immediately upon completion of a climb in...

  5. 36 CFR 7.30 - Devils Tower National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Climbing. Registration with a park ranger is required prior to any climbing above the talus slopes on Devils Tower. The registrant is also required to sign in immediately upon completion of a climb in...

  6. 36 CFR 7.30 - Devils Tower National Monument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Climbing. Registration with a park ranger is required prior to any climbing above the talus slopes on Devils Tower. The registrant is also required to sign in immediately upon completion of a climb in...

  7. Ends of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ends of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, showing the separation between them. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 60. SOUTH PLANT STACKS AND TOWERS. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. SOUTH PLANT STACKS AND TOWERS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Four Blade Semaphore Tower. Groton, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. 2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower and keeper's house, view southwest, north sides - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  11. 1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Keeper's house, light tower and bell house, view northeast, northwest and southwest sides - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  12. 7. Light tower, interior from first landing in southeast corner, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Light tower, interior from first landing in southeast corner, looking northwest - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  13. 3. Light tower, view southeast, southwest and northwest sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view southeast, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  14. 4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast Goat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, interior from entrance, looking southeast - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  15. 5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Shed, keeper's house, boathouse, light tower and oil house, view southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  16. 1. Light tower, oil house close by, boathouse and keeper's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Light tower, oil house close by, boathouse and keeper's house, view northwest, south or southeast sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  17. 11. EAST ELEVATION OF STATIC TEST TOWER LOOKING DOWN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EAST ELEVATION OF STATIC TEST TOWER LOOKING DOWN THE FLAME TRENCH AND INTO THE FLAME DEFLECTOR. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. 14. MILL NO. 1, STAIRCASE UNDER WATER TANK IN TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MILL NO. 1, STAIRCASE UNDER WATER TANK IN TOWER, WHICH LEADS DOWN TO ATTIC LEVEL. SUPPORT BEAM FOR TANK IS AT TOP OF PICTURE. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  19. 15. STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW LOOKING DOWN AND OUT TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW LOOKING DOWN AND OUT TOWARDS THE EAST FROM THE OVERHEAD CRANE LOFT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. ROOF, A view looking north from the stair tower roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ROOF, A view looking north from the stair tower roof at the external piping - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  1. 38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING COMPLETE SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD ON FRONT WALL - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING DETAIL OF SWITCH LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. OBLIQUE VIEW, INTERIOR, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  7. 24. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW IN COAL TOWER No. 1 OF THE LEVERS THAT MANIPULATE THE COAL BUCKETS, LOOKING OVER THE BOOM - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  8. 44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS LINKING SWITCH LEVERS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST BANK RAILROAD CONTROL TOWER SHOWING INTERLOCKING SWITCHING LEVER CONTROL PANEL. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  11. 16. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION TOWERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSMISSION TOWERS ON WEST END OF BRADFORD ISLAND; BRADFORD SLOUGH DOWNSTREAM FROM POWERHOUSE #1 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. Potassium-Argon Age of Devils Tower, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Bassett, W A

    1961-10-27

    Devils Tower consists of columnar phonolite porphyry which contains large phenocrysts of orthoclase. Potassiumargon determinations on the orthoclase indicate an age of 40.5 million years +/- 4 percent. This is consistent with the geologically accepted Tertiary age. PMID:17807346

  13. 2. Left side of Zinc Plant, from packless Cooling Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Left side of Zinc Plant, from packless Cooling Tower to midpoint of Cell Room, with majority of Upper Plant in view. View is to the east. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  14. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  15. 16. SOUTH SIDE OF STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER IN OPERABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SOUTH SIDE OF STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER IN OPERABLE CONDITION, WITH STACKS OF ORIGINAL BOILERS IN BACKGROUND. June 10, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING QUENCH TOWER, WITH QUENCH IN PROGRESS, WILPUTTE BATTERY, COAL PRE-HEATING UNIT, INCLINE CONVEYOR AND BATHHOUSE. - Alabama By-Products Company, Coke Plant, Highway 79 (Pinson Valley Parkway), Tarrant City, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 7. Tower Building interior. First view of plant behind offices ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Tower Building interior. First view of plant behind offices Equipment and double iron steps to 2nd floor. Beer parties were also held here. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  18. 8. Mispillion Lighthouse, View into Tower Lantern Mispillion Lighthouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Mispillion Lighthouse, View into Tower Lantern - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  19. 9. Mispillion Lighthouse, Tower Lantern Floor Hatch Mispillion Lighthouse, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Mispillion Lighthouse, Tower Lantern Floor Hatch - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  20. Detail view of Spanish tower on south facade of #157 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Spanish tower on south facade of #157 - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mental Health Buildings, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. VIEW OUT WINDOW OF CONTROL ROOM IN THE TOWER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OUT WINDOW OF CONTROL ROOM IN THE TOWER OF BUILDING 1, FACING SOUTH, WITH PIER 9 VISIBLE - Roosevelt Base, Administration & Brig Building, Bounded by Nevada & Colorado Streets, Reeves & Richardson Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 34. VIEW LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST AT THE MAIN TOWER OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST AT THE MAIN TOWER OF THE BLENHEIM HOTEL WITH THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL IN THE BACKGROUND - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  4. 55. TOP OF STEEL TOWER WITH ELI WINDMILL LOCATED ABOUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. TOP OF STEEL TOWER WITH ELI WINDMILL LOCATED ABOUT 6-8 MILES SOUTH OF NEBRASKA CITY AT EAST SIDE OF NEBRASKA HIGHWAY 75. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  5. 56. DETAIL OF BASE OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. DETAIL OF BASE OF STEEL WINDMILL TOWER WITH CAST IRON HAND PUMP OVER WELL HEAD ON HIGHWAY L44 IN IOWA JUST EAST OF NEBRASKA CITY, NEBRASKA. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  6. 53. GENERAL VIEW OF ELI WINDMILL ON STEEL TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. GENERAL VIEW OF ELI WINDMILL ON STEEL TOWER AT GEORGE STUCKENOLZ FARM ABOUT 6 MILES SOUTH OF NEBRASKA CITY WEST OF NEBRASKA HIGHWAY 75. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  7. NASA Spots "Hot Towers" in Intensifying Tropical Storm Frank

    NASA Video Gallery

    "Hot towers" (orange) were visible in this animated flyby of data from the Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM satellite. On July 21, the GPM Core satellite measured rainfall rates of o...

  8. 39. LOOKING SOUTH AT GAS COOLING TOWERS No. 1 (ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. LOOKING SOUTH AT GAS COOLING TOWERS No. 1 (ON RIGHT) AND No. 2, WITH DORR-OLIVER THICKENER IN FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 40. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT GAS COOLING TOWERS No. 1 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT GAS COOLING TOWERS No. 1 AND No. 2, WITH DORR-OLIVER THICKENER IN FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 4. Light tower, view southeast, north and west sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, view southeast, north and west sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  11. 5. Light tower, newel post and stairs, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower, newel post and stairs, looking east - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  12. DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BASE OF CAST IRON TOWER SHOWING THE FABRICATING MARK OF STARBUCK IRON WORKS, TROY, NY - Bidwell Bar Suspension Bridge & Stone Toll House, Near Lake Oroville (moved from fork of Feather River), Oroville, Butte County, CA

  13. 38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER DURING A FIRING OF A SATURN I BOOSTER. FEBRUARY 1961, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 4. EAST ELEVATION. TOWER, OF REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION, WAS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST ELEVATION. TOWER, OF REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION, WAS BUILT IN 1944 TO SPEED UP THE FUELING OF LOCOMOTIVE TENDERS DURING WARTIME. - Collinwood Railroad Yard Coal Tipple, Between East 146th Street & East 152nd Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. 14. Hell Gate Bridge south abutment tower. Queens, Queens Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Hell Gate Bridge south abutment tower. Queens, Queens Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.29. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  16. 32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  17. 13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  18. 1. Detail of south bell tower and storefront on sixunit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Detail of south bell tower and storefront on six-unit building and east end of ten-unit building, facing northwest. - Mission Motel, Six & Ten-Unit Buildings, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. Detail of tower and entry doors on north elevation; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tower and entry doors on north elevation; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Interior detail of stairway in tower; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of stairway in tower; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. Oregon Inlet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKOUT TOWER DETAILS, SHEET 5 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  2. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  3. 38. Saga Interlocking Tower. Greens Farms, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Saga Interlocking Tower. Greens Farms, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 47.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 91. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 105.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 92. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 105.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 93. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 105.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 94. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. Old Saybrook Mechanical Interlocking Tower. Old Saybrook, Middlesex Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 105.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 37. Saga Interlocking Tower. Greens Farms, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Saga Interlocking Tower. Greens Farms, Fairfield Co., CT. Sec. 9108, MP 47.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 43. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SE towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. View from top of Brooklyn Tower looking SE towards Brooklyn showing approach span suspension system and approach roads. Jet Lowe, photograher, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  10. 28. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower framed by Watchtower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower framed by Watchtower Building and underside of pedestrain bridge. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  11. 27. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower from rooftop of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower from rooftop of Watchtower Building in Brooklyn. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  12. VIEW OF BROOKLYN TOWER EMERGING BEHIND NINETEENTH CENTURY COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BROOKLYN TOWER EMERGING BEHIND NINETEENTH CENTURY COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS ON THE CORNER OF FRONT STREET AND CAMDEN PLAZA - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  13. 24. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower showing approach span. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower showing approach span. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  14. 41. View inside Brooklyn Tower looking at two center cables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. View inside Brooklyn Tower looking at two center cables extending out of masonry openings. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1983. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  15. 40. View inside Brooklyn Tower looking at castiron saddles for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. View inside Brooklyn Tower looking at cast-iron saddles for two center cables. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  16. 30. Aerial view looking SE at Brooklyn Tower and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Aerial view looking SE at Brooklyn Tower and the intersection of Water Street and Camden Plaza. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  17. 44. VIEW THROUGH UPPER PORTION OF EAST TOWER ARCH, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW THROUGH UPPER PORTION OF EAST TOWER ARCH, LOOKING WEST AT ROADWAY AND SUSPENSION CABLES. - Wheeling Suspension Bridge, Spanning East channel of Ohio River at U.S. Route 40, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  18. 7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. 26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT AS TEMPORARY TRUSS REINFORCEMENT (NOTE STEEL STRUCTURES ATOP TIMBER BRACING) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NEPTUNE'S LOCKER AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA