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Sample records for 32nd international electric

  1. 32nd International Symposium on Microscale Separations and Bioanalysis (MSB 2016).

    PubMed

    Ramautar, Rawi

    2016-09-01

    32nd International Symposium on Microscale Separations and Bioanalysis, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Canada, 3-7 April 2016 The 32nd edition of the International Symposium on Microscale Separations and Bioanalysis (MSB) was held in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Canada, from 3 to 7 April 2016. This article outlines the aim and the main distinctive features of the MSB symposium. A selection of the scientific research presented at MSB 2016 is highlighted with a special focus on microscale separation developments in the fields of sample preparation, (glyco)proteomics and metabolomics.

  2. The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. 32nd Annual Report 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience/United States, Columbia, MD.

    After a general outline of the organization of the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience and a brief introduction to its functions and activities, this annual report contains the international report. This includes: the report of the General Secretary; a list of international visits and visitors; publicity…

  3. Selected Papers & Abstracts from the Annual International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education (32nd, Norfolk, Virginia, November 4-7, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nina S., Ed.; Galloway, Shayne, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to persist with providing members--and interested others--with the content of workshops from the 32nd Annual Conference held in Norfolk, the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) has decided to develop a hybrid publication that has materialized in two parts. Part I includes 11 papers: (1) Adventure Coaching (Doug Gray); (2)…

  4. 32nd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, S. W. (Compiler); Boesiger, Edward A. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 32nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium are reported. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) hosted the symposium that was held at the Hilton Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida on May 13-15, 1998. The symposium was cosponsored by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium Committee. During these days, 28 papers were presented. Topics included robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearing, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment.

  5. Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) Update, 2012, Presented at the 32nd Annual International Dosimetry and Records Symposium, June 2-6, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    2013-01-01

    A series of graphs gives data through the year 2012 for annual collective doses, collective dose per reactor, number of individuals with measurable doses both in total and per reactor, number of reactors, electricity generated, measurable doses per individual and per megawatt-year, and collective outage hours. Reactors considered include BWR, PWR, and LWR. Also, the total effective dose equivalent for the period 2010-2012 is tabulated for each nuclear power plant considered, and the change over 2009-2011.

  6. Proceedings of the 32nd international SAMPE symposium and exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.; Burg, M.; Kjoller, K.J.; Riel, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book compiles papers presented at a conference on the subject of advancement of materials and process engineering. Some of the topics discussed are: Effect of laser radiation on rapid processing of graphite-reinforced composites; fiber reinforced ceramic composites; thermal analysis for pultrusion process modelling; protective coatings for composite tubes in space applications; design, processing and manufacturing technology for advanced composites; and high-performance thermoplastic and thermosetting resins.

  7. BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOEDNER MONUMENT (32ND INDIANA, 1ST GERMAN MONUMENT), SECTION C, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF GERMAN TEXT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cave Hill National Cemetery, 701 Baxter Avenue, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. 78 FR 5242 - 32nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link... Federal Aviation Administration 32nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department...

  9. Abstracts from the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society Quebec City, April 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/or liability for any errors and/or omissions in any abstract as published.

  10. 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, H. J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings from the 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE 99), held June 7-11, 1999. This conference was attended by scientists and researchers from around the world. The subjects covered included natural and artificially initiated lightning, lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere (sprites and jets), lightning protection and safety, lightning detection techniques (ground, airborne, and space-based), storm physics, electric fields near and within thunderstorms, storm electrification, atmospheric ions and chemistry, shumann resonances, satellite observations of lightning, global electrical processes, fair weather electricity, and instrumentation.

  11. 32nd Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act," 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This is the 32nd Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2010. Section 664(d) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (P.L. 108-446), as reauthorized in 2004, requires that the Department of Education report annually on the progress made toward the provision of a free…

  12. International Instrumentation Symposium, 32nd, Seattle, WA, May 5-8, 1986, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The conference presents papers on blast, shock, and vibration instrumentation; wind tunnel instrumentation and controls; electrooptic and fiber optic instrumentation; special test facilities; reentry vehicle testing; and nondestructive test and acoustic test instrumentation. Other topic include real time systems, flight test and avionics instrumentation, data aquisition and analysis systems, thermal measurements, and advances in measurement technology. Particular attention is given to an automated fringe counting laser interferometer for low frequency vibration measurements, dynamic pressure measurements in pneumatic lines, optically interfaced sensor system for aerospace applications, the picobalance for single microparticle measurements, ellipsometric film thickness, nanometer wear measurement by ultrathin surface layer activation, a rugged electronic scanner designed for turbine test, failure mechanism characterization of platinum alloy, and the thick film strain gage.

  13. PREFACE: 32nd UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-fluid-dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The annual Conference of the ''Unione Italiana di Termofluidodinamica'' (UIT) aims to promote cooperation in the field of heat transfer and thermal sciences by bringing together scientists and engineers working in related areas. The 32nd UIT Conference was held in Pisa, from the 23rd to the 25th of June, 2014 in the buildings of the School of Engineering, just a few months after the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the first Institution of the School of Engineering at the University of Pisa. The response was very good, with more than 100 participants and 80 high-quality contributions from 208 authors on seven different heat transfer related topics: Heat transfer and efficiency in energy systems, environmental technologies, and buildings (25 papers); Micro and nano scale thermo-fluid dynamics (9 papers); Multi-phase fluid dynamics, heat transfer and interface phenomena (14 papers); Computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer (10 papers); Heat transfer in nuclear plants (8 papers); Natural, forced and mixed convection (10 papers) and Conduction and radiation (4 papers). To encourage the debate, the Conference Program scheduled 16 oral sessions (44 papers), three ample poster sessions (36 papers) and four invited lectures given by experts in the various fields both from Industry and from University. Keynote Lectures were given by Dr. Roberto Parri (ENEL, Italy), Prof. Peter Stephan (TU Darmstadt, Germany), Prof. Bruno Panella (Politecnico di Torino), and Prof. Sara Rainieri (Universit;aacute; di Parma). This special volume collects a selection of the scientific contributions discussed during this conference. A total of 46 contributions, two keynote lectures and 44 papers both from oral and poster sessions, have been selected for publication in this special issue, after a second accurate revision process. These works give a good overview of the state of the art of Italian research in the field of Heat Transfer related topics at the date. The editors of the

  14. The 32nd JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee and 1995 Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1; Joint Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 18 unclassified/unlimited papers which were presented at the 32nd Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee Meeting in conjunction with the Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee, the 22nd Exhaust Plume Technology Subcommittee, the 4th SPIRITS User Group Meeting and the Pennsylvania State University 7th Propulsion Engineering Research Center (PERC) Symposium held 23-27 October 1995 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. The JANNAF papers contained in this volume reviewed solid propellant thermal decomposition, combustion of nitramine ingredients and ignition/combustion of new energetic ingredients and nitramine propellants.

  15. Electric power management for the International Space Station experiment racks

    SciTech Connect

    Burcham, M.; Darty, M.A.; Thibodeau, P.E.; Coe, R.; Dunn, M.

    1995-12-31

    An intelligent, all solid state, electric power management system for International Space Station experiment racks is described. This power system is implemented via redundant internal microcomputers, controlling hybridized solid state power controllers in response to 1553B data bus commands. The solid state power controllers are programmable for current trip level and for normally-open or normally-closed operation.

  16. PREFACE: 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (and 32nd Russian Cosmic Ray Conference)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Meroshnichenko, L. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-02-01

    International Advisory Committee, I should like to thank those very many colleagues and friends with whom I have had the pleasure of working over the past 45 years. These thanks are extended to the present organizers. The organizers are very grateful to the Russian Foundation of Basic Research and to the Dynasty non-profit foundation for financial support. Arnold Wolfendale

  17. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  18. Electric Propulsion for International Space Station Reboost: A Fresh Look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Benson, Scott W.

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion has recently been revisited for reboost of space station due to its high fuel efficiency. This paper focuses upon the propulsion system and orbit analysis trades undertaken at the beginning of a study to show the relative performance of potential electric propulsion system. A code was developed to analyze continuous low thrust reboost of space station with various electric propulsion systems at various power levels. Analysis showed that a major portion of reboost of space station can be made using electric propulsion systems with 0.5 N of continuous thrust. 1.0 N of EP thrust can provide almost the entire reboost mission, Three electric propulsion systems at various total power levels were chosen for further investigation: N2H4 arcjets at 5 kW, xenon Hall at 10 kW, and xenon ion thrusters at 20 kW. They were chosen for their ability to reduce the internationally launched chemical reboost fuel by 50% or more.

  19. Assessment of internal conversion coefficients for anomalous electric dipole transitions.

    PubMed

    Gorozhankin, V M; Bé, M-M

    2008-01-01

    Sound quantitative knowledge of internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) is important when establishing decay schemes. ICCs are normally derived from efficiency tables and calculation, but for anomalous transitions and some electric dipole transitions (E1) in particular, theoretical values can differ considerably from the few available measured values. Experimentally measured ICCs and their ratios have been compiled, and these data have been used to propose a method based on the existence of measured ratios to determine the total ICC for such transitions. Comparisons have been made with the existing measured values, and good agreement was observed within the uncertainty limits.

  20. Detection and localization of internal haemorrhaging using electrical bioimpedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J.; Fenech, M.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical bioimpedance is an effective measuring tool to provide quick, non-invasive, real-time results which will be applied to the detection of internal haemorrhaging. Experiments were performed on female Fancy Rats weighing 333±44g, and 10mL of porcine blood was injected abdominally over 3 minutes. Data was collected using an 8×8 needle electrode array at 5 kHz, and 95 kHz and sent to the BioParHom Z-Flow. A strong correlation was found between the electrode paths crossing directly through the blood injection site, showing a decrease of about -0.17±0.1Ω/mL for the 5 kHz frequency. This correlation allows us to quickly detect internal haemorrhaging and also localize it with the current path set-up in the electrode array.

  1. Technical Communication: Perspectives for the Eighties, Part 1. Proceedings of the Technical Communications Sessions at the 32Nd Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathes, J. C. (Compiler); Pinelli, T. E. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding of the technical communication sessions at the 32nd annual meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication held in Dallas, Texas, March 26-28, 1981 are summarized. The proceeding suggest that technical communication has become an important subfield and is becoming an intrinsic part of many undergraduate curricula. Technical communication as a separate discipline, however, is relatively new. For that reason, proceedings that can make current research available as quickly as possible are suggested for preparation. The following topics were addressed: (1) a history and definition of technical writing, (2) the case method is technical communication (3) teaching technical writing (4) oral communication and rhetorical theory, and (5) new approaches in and practical applications of technical writing.

  2. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity are reported. Some of the topics covered include: lightning, lightning suppression, aerospace vehicles, aircraft safety, flight safety, aviation meteorology, thunderstorms, atmospheric electricity, warning systems, weather forecasting, electromagnetic coupling, electrical measurement, electrostatics, aircraft hazards, flight hazards, meteorological parameters, cloud (meteorology), ground effect, electric currents, lightning equipment, electric fields, measuring instruments, electrical grounding, and aircraft instruments.

  3. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  4. Adaptive Modeling of the International Space Station Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Justin Ray

    2007-01-01

    Software simulations provide NASA engineers the ability to experiment with spacecraft systems in a computer-imitated environment. Engineers currently develop software models that encapsulate spacecraft system behavior. These models can be inaccurate due to invalid assumptions, erroneous operation, or system evolution. Increasing accuracy requires manual calibration and domain-specific knowledge. This thesis presents a method for automatically learning system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques are applied to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). We also explore a knowledge fusion approach that uses traditional engineered EPS models to supplement the learned models. We observed that these engineered EPS models provide useful background knowledge to reduce predictive error spikes when confronted with making predictions in situations that are quite different from the training scenarios used when learning the model. Evaluations using ISS sensor data and existing EPS models demonstrate the success of the adaptive approach. Our experimental results show that adaptive modeling provides reductions in model error anywhere from 80% to 96% over these existing models. Final discussions include impending use of adaptive modeling technology for ISS mission operations and the need for adaptive modeling in future NASA lunar and Martian exploration.

  5. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ELECTRICITY DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three day workshop was held in October 2001 to discuss life cycle inventory data for electricity production. Electricity was selected as the topic for discussion since it features very prominently in the LCA results for most product life cycles, yet there is no consistency in h...

  6. Resistance and internal electric field in cloud-to-ground lightning channel

    SciTech Connect

    Cen, Jianyong; Yuan, Ping Xue, Simin; Wang, Xuejuan

    2015-02-02

    Cloud-to-ground lightning with six return strokes has been recorded by slitless spectrograph and the system of fast antenna and slow antenna. The physical parameters of the discharge channel have been obtained based on the combination of spectra and synchronous radiated electric field. The resistance and internal electric field of the channel are studied as the focus in this paper. The results show that the resistances per unit length of the lightning channel are in the order of 10{sup −2}–10{sup −1 }Ω/m and the internal electric field strengths are in the order of 10{sup 3 }V/m.

  7. International directory of electric utilities, 3rd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The book covers 162 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Latin America. It contains hundreds of names of key utility executives, utility addresses, plus telephone, fax, and telex numbers. Power plant construction plants, new T D facilities and lines, names of major plants plus their locations, capacity, fuels, type of generation, etc. are included. It also includes listing of international engineering consultants and key executives, translations of key technical terms, and maps showing key facilities for all countries.

  8. The effect of deregulation on internal control of agency conflict: Evidence from the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Craig G.

    I investigate how deregulation leads firms to modify their internal governance structures to help control owner-manager agency conflict. Specifically, I explore how electric utilities respond to wholesale-level deregulation during the ten years surrounding the 1992 Energy Policy Act. I apply factor analysis to observable governance variables that exhibit change among utilities relative to industrial firms, and show that a single common factor captures firms' reliance on internal governance structure to control owner-manager agency problems. I find that deregulating utilities reduce their reliance on internal governance relative to industrial firms. I also show that the negative relation between deregulation and electric utilities' relative reliance on internal governance structure is largely explained by increases in competition and takeover activity among utilities relative to industrial firms. I conclude that competition and takeover activity substitute for firms' relative reliance on internal control of agency conflict.

  9. Managing environmental issues during international electric power project development

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, H.W.

    1998-07-01

    Responsible international project developers most often view environmental matters with quite mixed emotions. Those with whom Dynalytics has worked would certainly never contemplate jeopardizing the health of anyone in the world. But while they want their projects realized, and are willing to implement reasonable requirements, they are often asked to do more than is appropriate, more than is technologically possible, and more than is financially possible. The paper discusses the following: who is in charge of environmental matters; whose environmental standards apply; the role of technology; accelerating timetables and reducing costs; documentation and applications; and post-construction requirements.

  10. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2005-11-29

    A coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transfonner. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive care of the coaxial cable. A plurality of bulbous pliant tabs on the coaxial cable connector mechanically engage the inside diameter of the coaxial cable thus grounding the transformer to the coaxial cable. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string.

  11. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2005-09-20

    A seal for a coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal seal for a coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transformer. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive core of the coaxial cable. The electrically insulating material also doubles as a seal to safegaurd against penetration of fluid, thus protecting against shorting out of the electrical connection. The seal is a multi-component seal, which is pre-compressed to a desired pressure rating. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string. The internal coaxial cable connector and its attendant seal can be used in a plurality of downhole tools, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  12. The test technology of electrical safety performances based on IEC international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Dong; Wang, Yanlin

    2008-10-01

    The test technology of electrical safety performance based on IEC international standards is put forward in the paper, including mainly four test parameters: leakage current, high-voltage withstand, insulation resistance and ground resistance. The definitions, the types, the testing purposes and methods of these parameters are also proposed. Based on the technology, we construct a system for data collection, processing and controlling with a PC, a high-performance microcomputer ADμC842 and a FPGA, and adopts a VI technology to develop an integrated testing system for electrical safety performance. The system can be applied to both the certification testing of products and quality control in manufacturing and provides an authenticating measure for the domestic electrical equipments to enter international markets.

  13. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  14. Internal Electric-Field-Lines Distribution in Cdznte Detectors Measured Using X-ray Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, C; Cui, Y; Hossain, A; Yang, G; Yao, H; James, R

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, < 5 mm, the electric field-lines tend to bend away from the side surfaces (i.e., a focusing effect). In thick detectors, > 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field.

  15. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  16. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  17. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications. PMID:27223463

  18. Internal Electric Field Behavior of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Radiation Detectors Under High Carrier Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Gul, R.; and James, R.B.

    2010-10-26

    The behavior of the internal electric-field of nuclear-radiation detectors substantially affects the detector's performance. We investigated the distribution of the internal field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors under high carrier injection. We noted the build-up of a space charge region near the cathode that produces a built-in field opposing the applied field. Its presence entails the collapse of the electric field in the rest of detector, other than the portion near the cathode. Such a space-charge region originates from serious hole-trapping in CZT. The device's operating temperature greatly affects the width of the space-charge region. With increasing temperature from 5 C to 35 C, its width expanded from about 1/6 to 1/2 of the total depth of the detector.

  19. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    . Structures down to sub-micrometer range and complex impedance measurements tools integrated at single chips are now affordable. Moreover, the introduction of alternative signals and data processing algorithms focuses on very fast and parallel electrical characterization which in turn pushes this technique to new applications and markets. Electrical impedance tomography today yields pictures in real time with a resolution that was impossible 10 years ago. The XVth International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance in conjunction with the XIVth Electrical Impedance Tomography ICEBI/EIT 2013 organized by the Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Measurement Techniques, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany, together with the EIT-group at the University of Göttingen, Germany, brings world leading scientists in these fields together. It is a platform to present the latest developments in instrumentation and signal processing but also points to new applications, especially in the field of biosensors and non-linear phenomena. Two Keynote lectures will extend the view of the participants above the mainstream of bio-impedance measurement. Friederich Kremer (University of Leipzig) delivers the plenary lecture on broad bandwidth dielectric spectroscopy. New achievements in the research of ligand gated ionic channels will be presented by Klaus Benndorf (University of Jena). Leading scientists in the field of bio-impedance measurement, such as, Sverre Grimnes, Orjan Martinsen, Andrea Robitzki, Richard Bayford, Jan Gimsa and Mart Min will give lectures for students but also more experienced scientists in a pre-conference tutorial which is a good opportunity to learn or refresh the basics. List of committees Conference Chair Dr Uwe Pliquett Professor Dieter Beckmann Institut für Bioprozess- und Analysenmesstechnik eV, Rosenhof, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany Technical Program Chair Maik Hiller Conventus Congressmanagement & Marketing GmbH, Carl-Pulfrich-Str. 1 - 07745 Jena Pre

  20. Internal Electric Field Investigations of a Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detector Using Synchrotron X-ray Mapping and Pockels Effect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; Cui, Y; Hossain, A; Yao, H; James, R

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) has remained a major focus of research due to its promising application as a room-temperature nuclear radiation detector material. Among the several parameters that substantially affect the detectors' performance, an important one is the distribution of the internal electric field. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) employed synchrotron x-ray microscale mapping and measurements of the Pockels effect to investigate the distribution of the internal electric field in a CZT strip detector. Direct evidence that dislocations can distort the internal electric field of the detector was obtained. Furthermore, it was found that 'star' defects in the CZT crystal, possibly ascribed to dislocation loop punching, cause charge trapping.

  1. Giant Enhancement of Internal Electric Field Boosting Bulk Charge Separation for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Cai, Lejuan; Shang, Jian; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-06-01

    Incorporating carbon into Bi3 O4 Cl enhances its internal electric field by 126 times, which induces a bulk charge separation efficiency (ηbulk ) of 80%. This ultrahigh ηbulk value presents a state-of-the-art result in tuning the bulk charge separation. The generated C-doped Bi3 O4 Cl has a noble-metal- and electron-scavenger-free water-oxidation ability under visible light, which is difficult to achieve with most existing photocatalysts.

  2. Electrostimulation of the magnetoplastic effect in LiF crystals by an "internal" electric field induced during indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galustashvili, M. V.; Driaev, D. G.; Akopov, F. Kh.; Tsakadze, S. D.

    2013-08-01

    Indented LiF crystals demonstrate a change in the length of the dislocation rosette rays during their exposure to jointly acting dc magnetic and electric fields. It is shown that magnetic field with induction B = 1 T causes the electrostimulation or electrosuppression depending on the magnitude and direction of the external electric field with respect to the "internal" electric field induced by the charge transfer due to dislocations moving during the indentation.

  3. The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

  4. PREFACE: 1st International Symposium on Electrical Arc and Thermal Plasmas in Africa (ISAPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Pascal; Koalaga, Zacharie

    2012-02-01

    Logos of the University of Ouagadougou, ISAPA and Universite Blaise Pascal Africa (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) is a continent where electrification is at a low level. However, the development of the electrical power sector is a prerequisite for the growth of other industrial activities, that is to say for the social and economic development of African countries. Consequently, a large number of electrification projects (rural electrification, interconnection of different country's grids) takes place in many countries. These projects need expertise and make Africa a continent of opportunity for companies in different domains for business and research: energy; energetic production, transmission, distribution and protection of electricity; the supply of cable; the construction, engineering and expertise in the field of solar and wind power. The first International Symposium on electrical Arc and thermal Plasma in Africa (ISAPA) was held for the first time in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso to progress and develop the research of new physical developments, technical breakthroughs, and ideas in the fields of electrical production and electrical applications. The ISAPA aims to encourage the advancement of the science and applications of electrical power transformation in Africa by bringing together specialists from many areas in Africa and the rest of the world. Such considerations have led us to define a Scientific Committee including representatives from many countries. This first meeting was an innovative opportunity for researchers and engineers from academic and industrial sectors to exchange views and knowledge. Both fundamental aspects such as thermal plasma, electrical arc, diagnostics and applied aspects as circuit breakers, ICP analyses, photovoltaic energy conversion and alternative energies, as well as space applications were covered. The Laboratory of Material and Environment (LAME) from Ouagadougou University and the Laboratory of Electric Arc and Thermal

  5. Internal electric fields and color shift in Cr3+-based gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Moreno, M.

    2012-06-01

    Seeking to better understand the origin of the different colors of emerald and ruby, both ab initio periodic and cluster calculations have been carried out. The calculations reproduce the interatomic distances measured for pure Be3Si6Al2O18 and Al2O3 as well as the Cr3+-O2- distances in emerald and ruby. The mean Cr3+-O2- distance for Be3Si6Al2O18:Cr3+ and Al2O3:Cr3+ is found to be practically equal to 1.97 Å, in agreement with recent experimental values. The present calculations confirm that the variations of optical properties due to Cr3+ impurities along the series of ionic oxides can be understood merely through the CrO69- unit but subject to the electric field due to the rest of the lattice ions. As a salient feature it is proved that changes in electronic density and covalency due to the internal field are not the cause of the color shift. Therefore, the red color of ruby is not due to the polarization of the electronic cloud around chromium as a result of the C3 local symmetry. The present study also demonstrates that the variation of the ligand field splitting parameter, 10Dq, induced by the internal electric field comes mainly from the contributions of first shells of ions around the CrO69- unit. As a consequence, 10Dq in emerald is not influenced by the internal field, as the contribution from Be2+ first neighbors is practically compensated by that of Si4+ second neighbors. In contrast, in ruby the t2g levels are shifted by the internal field 0.24 eV more than the eg ones, so explaining the color shift in this gemstone in comparison with emerald. This result is shown to arise partially from the asymmetric form of the internal electrostatic potential along the C3 axis in Al2O3.

  6. Internal Structure of Periglacial Landforms: Assessment using 3D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Adrian; Kneisel, Christof

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of internal heterogeneities within periglacial landforms (e.g. frost table topography or varying ice content) is in most cases not inferable from the surface. Hence, to develop an enhanced understanding of the interaction between surface and subsurface processes, it is necessary to analyse the internal structure of different periglacial landforms and landform elements. The assessment of the internal structure is provided by the application of three-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI). ERI is the technique of merging datum points from several parallel and perpendicular performed two-dimensional ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) measurements and inverting the data set with a 3D inversion algorithm (sometimes also referred to as quasi-3D ERT). The application of this method has proven to be a valuable tool for mapping the spatial extent of isolated permafrost bodies and associated subsurface conditions. In this contribution, we present results from four ERI measurements, carried out in summer 2014 at different investigation sites in the Swiss Alps: Three measurements were performed on pebbly rockglaciers of different size and topographical position and one measurement was performed on a solifluction slope. Each of the 3D survey grids consists of 17 to 32 single 2D ERT surveys (Dipol-Dipol or Wenner-Schlumberger array) and covers an area of between 6000 m² and 7000 m², depending on the specific survey grid set-up. The inversions of the data sets were performed using the two different inversion algorithms of the software products "RES3DINV" and "BERT" (Boundless Electrical Resistivity Tomography) for a comparative analysis and to further support the geomorphological interpretation of the geophysical models. Each of the resulting resistivity models shows strong small-scale spatial heterogeneities between the investigated landforms but also within landform elements. For the investigated rockglacier sites, these structures include

  7. Cogeneration of Electricity and Potable Water Using The International Reactor Innovative And Secure (IRIS) Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Binder, J.L.; Kostin, V.I.; Panov, Y.K.; Polunichev, V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Conti, D.; Alonso, G.

    2004-10-06

    The worldwide demand for potable water has been steadily growing and is projected to accelerate, driven by a continued population growth and industrialization of emerging countries. This growth is reflected in a recent market survey by the World Resources Institute, which shows a doubling in the installed capacity of seawater desalination plants every ten years. The production of desalinated water is energy intensive, requiring approximately 3-6 kWh/m3 of produced desalted water. At current U.S. water use rates, a dedicated 1000 MW power plant for every one million people would be required to meet our water needs with desalted water. Nuclear energy plants are attractive for large scale desalination application. The thermal energy produced in a nuclear plant can provide both electricity and desalted water without the production of greenhouse gases. A particularly attractive option for nuclear desalination is to couple a desalination plant with an advanced, modular, passively safe reactor design. The use of small-to-medium sized nuclear power plants allows for countries with smaller electrical grid needs and infrastructure to add new electrical and water capacity in more appropriate increments and allows countries to consider siting plants at a broader number of distributed locations. To meet these needs, a modified version of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant design has been developed for the cogeneration of electricity and desalted water. The modular, passively safe features of IRIS make it especially well adapted for this application. Furthermore, several design features of the IRIS reactor will ensure a safe and reliable source of energy and water even for countries with limited nuclear power experience and infrastructure. The IRIS-D design utilizes low-quality steam extracted from the low-pressure turbine to boil seawater in a multi-effect distillation desalination plant. The desalination plant is based on the horizontal

  8. Band gaps and internal electric fields in semipolar short period InN/GaN superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Gorczyca, I.; Skrobas, K.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2014-06-09

    The electronic structures and internal electric fields of semipolar short-period mInN/nGaN superlattices (SLs) have been calculated for several compositions (m, n). Two types of SL are considered, (112{sup ¯}2) and (202{sup ¯}1), corresponding to growth along the wurtzite s2 and s6 directions, respectively. The results are compared to similar calculations for polar SLs (grown in the c-direction) and nonpolar SLs (grown in the a- and m-directions). The calculated band gaps for the semipolar SLs lie between those calculated for the nonpolar and polar SLs: For s2-SLs they fall slightly below the band gaps of a-plane SLs, whereas for s6-SLs they are considerably smaller.

  9. Integration Assessment of Visiting Vehicle Induced Electrical Charging of the International Space Station Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Galofaro, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) undergoes electrical charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to positively biased, exposed conductors on solar arrays that collect electrical charges from the space plasma. Exposed solar array conductors predominately collect negatively charged electrons and thus drive the metal ISS structure electrical ground to a negative floating potential (FP) relative to plasma. This FP is variable in location and time as a result of local ionospheric conditions. ISS motion through Earth s magnetic field creates an addition inductive voltage up to 20 positive and negative volts across ISS structure depending on its attitude and location in orbit. ISS Visiting Vehicles (VVs), such as the planned Orion crew exploration vehicle, contribute to the ISS plasma charging processes. Upon physical contact with ISS, the current collection properties of VVs combine with ISS. This is an ISS integration concern as FP must be controlled to minimize arcing of ISS surfaces and ensure proper management of extra vehicular activity crewman shock hazards. This report is an assessment of ISS induced charging from docked Orion vehicles employing negatively grounded, 130 volt class, UltraFlex (ATK Space Systems) solar arrays. To assess plasma electron current collection characteristics, Orion solar cell test coupons were constructed and subjected to plasma chamber current collection measurements. During these tests, coupon solar cells were biased between 0 and 120 V while immersed in a simulated LEO plasma. Tests were performed using several different simulated LEO plasma densities and temperatures. These data and associated theoretical scaling of plasma properties, were combined in a numerical model which was integrated into the Boeing Plasma Interaction Model. It was found that the solar array design for Orion will not affect the ISS FP by more than about 2 V during worst case charging conditions. This assessment also motivated a trade study to determine

  10. Database Development for Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts for the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassil-Grimm, Andrew D.

    1997-01-01

    More effective electronic communication processes are needed to transfer contractor and international partner data into NASA and prime contractor baseline database systems. It is estimated that the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) parts database will contain up to one million parts each of which may require database capabilities for approximately one thousand bytes of data for each part. The resulting gigabyte database must provide easy access to users who will be preparing multiple analyses and reports in order to verify as-designed, as-built, launch, on-orbit, and return configurations for up to 45 missions associated with the construction of the ISSA. Additionally, Internet access to this data base is strongly indicated to allow multiple user access from clients located in many foreign countries. This summer's project involved familiarization and evaluation of the ISSA Electrical, Electronic, and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts data and the process of electronically managing these data. Particular attention was devoted to improving the interfaces among the many elements of the ISSA information system and its global customers and suppliers. Additionally, prototype queries were developed to facilitate the identification of data changes in the data base, verifications that the designs used only approved parts, and certifications that the flight hardware containing EEE parts was ready for flight. This project also resulted in specific recommendations to NASA for further development in the area of EEE parts database development and usage.

  11. Enhanced excitonic photoconductivity due to built-in internal electric field in TlGaSe{sub 2} layered semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Seyidov, MirHasan Yu. Suleymanov, Rauf A.; Şale, Yasin; Balaban, Ertan

    2014-12-07

    The strong enhancement, by several orders of magnitude, of the excitonic peak within the photoconductivity spectrum of TlGaSe{sub 2} semiconductor was observed. The samples were polarized in external dc electric field, which was applied prior to the measurements. Due to the accumulation of charges near the surface, an internal electric field was formed. Electron-hole pairs that were created after the absorption of light are fallen in and then separated by the built-in electric field, which prevents radiative recombination process.

  12. Helmholtz in Gilded-Age America: The International Electrical Congress of 1893 and the Relations of Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, David

    2010-01-01

    This essay recounts Hermann von Helmholtz's trip to represent Germany at the International Electrical Congress in Chicago in 1893 as well as his reception by various members of the American scientific, technological, and cultural elite in several other American cities. In doing so, it seeks to portray something of the vitality of the youthful and…

  13. Conceptions of High School Students Concerning the Internal Structure of Metals and Their Electric Conduction: Structure and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Posada, Jose Maria

    1997-01-01

    Explores common schemes used by Spanish 10-12th grade students in concrete and abstract contextual situations to explain the internal structure of metals, the causes of electric conduction of metals, and the nature of this current. Concludes that students' conceptions change progressively as they are exposed to additional relevant information in…

  14. Aims of the 3rd international course on the Law of Armed Conflict of the International Committee for Military Medicine.

    PubMed

    Baer, Hans-Ulrich; Gilgen, Peter

    2002-08-01

    The International Committee for Military Medicine (ICMM) decided at the 32nd Congress in Vienna in 1998 to give the Surgeon General of the Swiss Armed Forces the mandate to organize its international courses on the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC). The Swiss Federal Government fully honored and endorsed its obligation to organize these important international courses. It is in the continuing tradition of Switzerland, as a small neutral state, to support humanitarian help and all efforts to prevent war. As decided by the head of the government on April 3, 1998, the mandate of the LOAC Courses will be funded by the Swiss Confederation.

  15. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N.; Janolin, P.-E.; Yamada, T.

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180° and non-180° patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180° domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  16. Creating Polymer Hydrogel Microfibres with Internal Alignment via Electrical and Mechanical Stretching

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuming; Liu, Xi; Barreto-Ortiz, Sebastian F.; Yu, Yixuan; Ginn, Brian; DeSantis, Nicholas; Hutton, Daphne L; Grayson, Warren; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Korgel, Brian A.; Gerecht, Sharon; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels have been widely used for 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue regeneration due to their tunable biochemical and physicochemical properties as well as their high water content, which resembles the aqueous microenvironment of the natural extracellular matrix. While many properties of natural hydrogel matrices are modifiable, their intrinsic isotropic structure limits the control over cellular organization, which is critical to restore tissue function. Here we report a generic approach to incorporate alignment topography inside the hydrogel matrix using a combination of electrical and mechanical stretching. Hydrogel fibres with uniaxial alignment were prepared from aqueous solutions of natural polymers such as alginate, fibrin, gelatin, and hyaluronic acid under ambient conditions. The unique internal alignment feature drastically enhances the mechanical properties of the hydrogel microfibres. Furthermore, the facile, organic solvent-free processing conditions are amenable to the incorporation of live cells within the hydrogel fibre or on the fibre surface; both approaches effectively induce cellular alignment. This work demonstrates a versatile and scalable strategy to create aligned hydrogel microfibres from various natural polymers. PMID:24439410

  17. International Space Station Solar Array Wing On-Orbit Electrical Performance Degradation Measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Eric D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The port-side photovoltaic power module (P6) was activated on the International Space Station in December 2000. P6 provides electrical power to channels 2B and 4B to operate ISS power loads. A P6 is shown in the preceding photograph. This article highlights the work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center to calculate the on-orbit degradation of the P6 solar array wings (SAWs) using on-orbit data from December 2000 to February 2003. During early ISS operations, the 82 strings of photovoltaic cells that make up a SAW can provide much more power than is necessary to meet the demand. To deal with excess power, a sequential shunt unit successively shunts the current from the strings. This shunt current was the parameter chosen for the SAW performance degradation study for the following reasons: (1) it is based on a direct shunt current measurement in the sequential shunt unit, (2) the shunt current has a low temperature dependence that reduces the data correction error from using a computationally derived array temperature, and (3) the SSU shunt current is essentially the same as the SAW short-circuit current on a per-string basis.

  18. Electrical Performance of the International Space Station U.S. Photovoltaic Array During Bifacial Illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    With the first United States (U.S.) photovoltaic array (PVA) activated on International Space Station (ISS) in December 2000, on-orbit data can now be compared to analytical predictions. Due to ISS operational constraints, it is not always possible to point the front side of the arrays at the Sun. Thus, in many cases, sunlight directly illuminates the backside of the PVA as well as albedo illumination on either the front or the back. During this time, appreciable power is produced since the solar cells are mounted on a thin, solar transparent substrate. It is important to present accurate predictions for both front and backside power generation for mission planning, certification of flight readiness for a given mission, and on-orbit mission support. To provide a more detailed assessment of the ISS power production capability, the authors developed a PVA electrical performance model applicable to generalized bifacial illumination conditions. On-orbit PVA performance data were also collected and analyzed. This paper describes the ISS PVA performance model, and the methods used to reduce orbital performance data. Analyses were performed using SPACE. a NASA-GRC developed computer code for the ISS program office. Results showed a excellent comparison of on-orbit performance data and analytical results.

  19. Electric Field Penetration in Au/Nb:SrTiO3 Schottky Junctions Probed by Bias-Dependent Internal Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Hikita, Y.

    2011-08-15

    Electric field penetration into the metallic side of a Schottky junction is in principle a universal phenomenon, the magnitude of which increases with the semiconductor permittivity. Here, we quantitatively probe this effect using bias-dependent internal photoemission spectroscopy at the Schottky junction between a large dielectric permittivity semiconductor SrTiO{sub 3} and gold. A clear linear reduction of the barrier height with increasing interface electric field was observed, highlighting the importance of field penetration into the gold. The interfacial permittivity of SrTiO{sub 3} at the interface is reduced from the bulk value, reflecting intrinsic suppression at the interface.

  20. Supraclinoid internal carotid artery-inferior petrosal sinus arteriovenous fistula after high-voltage electrical burn injury.

    PubMed

    Krisht, Khaled M; Chamoun, Roukoz; Couldwell, William T

    2013-07-01

    High-voltage electrical burns can cause immediate and long-term neurological and cerebrovascular injuries. The authors present a 21-year-old man who developed an intracranial arteriovenous fistula secondary to high-voltage electrical injury. CT angiography demonstrated a left supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA)-inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) fistula. A subsequent angiogram revealed an irregularity of the cavernous and supraclinoid ICA with stenosis involving the supraclinoid segment and a fistulous connection between the ICA and IPS distal to the ophthalmic take-off and proximal to the anterior choroidal artery. The patient underwent a decompressive hemicraniectomy and clip-wrapping of his ICA pseudoaneurysm with successful obliteration of the fistulous connection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intracranial arteriovenous fistula secondary to an electrical burn injury.

  1. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  2. Effect of Self-generated Radial Electric Field on Internal Collapse induced by m=1 Kinetic Kink Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Taro; Tokuda, Shinji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Tomonori; Naitou, Hiroshi

    1998-11-01

    Effect of Self-generated Radial Electric Field on Internal Collapse induced by m=1 Kinetic Kink Mode Matsumoto Taro, Tokuda Shinji, Kishimoto Yasuaki, Takizuka Tomonori Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan and Naitou Hiroshi Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Japan The density gradient effect is taken into account in the gyro-kinetic nonlinear simulation of the kinetic m=1 internal kink mode in a cylindrical plasma. Even when the density gradient is not so large enough to change the process of the full reconnection, the process of the post-reconnection phase is changed considerably due to the self-generated radial electric field, i.e. m/n = 0/0 mode induced by the nonlinear interaction. The radial electric field grows to the same level as the 1/1 mode, and drives a ExB plasma rotation in the ion diamagnetic direction. The density and current distribution, and therefore q-min value after the full reconnection, are found to be significantly affected by the rotation.

  3. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Partricia; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  4. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics—An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Böttner, Harald; König, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolet, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Patricia; Sharp, Jeff W.; Lo, Jason; Kleinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo

    2013-04-01

    Recent research and development of high-temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential for converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air-conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, still needs to be improved from the current value of 1.0 to 1.5 to above 2.0 to be competitive with other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods, and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as a key component for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the Implementing Agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main foci in part I are the measurement of two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  5. Internal electric energy in a spherical particle illuminated with a plane wave or off-axis Gaussian beam.

    PubMed

    Khaled, E E; Hill, S C; Barber, P W

    1994-01-20

    The electric energy in a lossless or lossy spherical particle that is illuminated with a plane wave or a Gaussian beam is investigated. The analysis uses a combination of the plane-wave spectrum technique and the T-matrix method. Expressions for the electric energy in any mode as well as the total electric energy inside the particle are given. The amount of energy coupling into the particle for different beam illuminations is also investigated. The high-Q (low-order) resonant modes can dominate the electric energy inside a spherical particle many linewidths away from the resonance location, particularly if the beam is focused at the droplet edge or outside the droplet. If the sphere is lossy, low-order modes can still dominate the electric energy if the beam is focused far enough outside the sphere. As the absorption coefficient of the particle increases, the energy in a high-Q mode decreases much faster at the resonance frequency than it does at near or off-resonance frequencies. The effects of the absorption on the dominance of the internal fields by a high-Q mode decreases as the beam is shifted farther away from the particle. As the beam is shifted farther away from the particle the fraction of the incident energy coupled into the sphere at resonance first increases and then decreases. Although the coupled energy decreases as the beam is shifted farther from the sphere, most of that energy is in the lowest-order mode.

  6. Environmental impacts of varying electric vehicle user behaviours and comparisons to internal combustion engine vehicle usage - An Irish case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Peter; Morrissey, Patrick; O'Mahony, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the displacement of harmful emissions from internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) tailpipes to the sources of electricity generation used to charge electric vehicles (EV). The degree to which EVs can reduce the environmental impacts of road transportation is dependent on the fuel mix of electricity generation within a country and on the real-time charging behaviours of EV users since the fuel mix of electricity generation frequently changes. This paper analyses the varying environmental impacts of EVs based on contrasting user behaviours and compares them to the environmental impacts of ICEVs. Individual EV user profiles are developed which comprise real data emerging from charge events undertaken in Ireland, and information is gathered on the actual CO2 intensity of the electrical grid in real-time, allowing for the carbon intensity of every individual charge event to be determined using time and date information. The results show that the environmental impacts of EVs are highly influenced by the charging behaviours of individual users, and night-time charging was found to produce the largest environmental impact. EVs are shown to be a more environmentally friendly choice of vehicle than ICEVs under a wide majority of scenarios.

  7. Effect of internal electric field on InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Kada, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Aiko; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi

    2014-02-28

    We studied time-resolved carrier recombination in InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells. The electric field in a p-i-n diode structure spatially separates photoexcited carriers in QDs, strongly affecting the conversion efficiency of intermediate-band solar cells. The radiative decay lifetime is dramatically reduced in a strong electric field (193 kV/cm) by efficient recombination due to strong carrier localization in each QD and significant tunneling-assisted electron escape. Conversely, an electric field of the order of 10 kV/cm maintains electronic coupling in the stacked QDs and diminishes tunneling-assisted electron escape.

  8. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Electricity Usage in India’s Housing Sector

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    India offers a unique set of features for studying electricity use in the context of a developing country. First, it has a rapidly developing economy with high yearly growth rates in gross domestic product (GDP). Second, it has the second -largest population in the world and is likely to have the largest population in the future. Third, its electric system is maturing—with known difficulties (outages, shortages, issues with reliability and quality) that are characteristic of a developing country. This article focuses on electricity use in the residential sector of India and discusses key trends and provides an overview of available usage estimates from various sources. Indian households are an interesting environment where many of India’s unique features interact. The recent economic gains correlate with rising incomes and possible changes in living standards, which could affect electricity or other energy use within households. Additionally, the maturing electric system and large population in India both offer opportunities to study a range of interactions between electrification and electricity usage in a developing country.

  9. The Local Structure of Globalization. The Network Dynamics of Foreign Direct Investments in the International Electricity Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Johan; Lomi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of the network of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the international electricity industry during the period 1994-2003. We assume that the ties in the network of investment relations between countries are created and deleted in continuous time, according to a conditional Gibbs distribution. This assumption allows us to take simultaneously into account the aggregate predictions of the well-established gravity model of international trade as well as local dependencies between network ties connecting the countries in our sample. According to the modified version of the gravity model that we specify, the probability of observing an investment tie between two countries depends on the mass of the economies involved, their physical distance, and the tendency of the network to self-organize into local configurations of network ties. While the limiting distribution of the data generating process is an exponential random graph model, we do not assume the system to be in equilibrium. We find evidence of the effects of the standard gravity model of international trade on evolution of the global FDI network. However, we also provide evidence of significant dyadic and extra-dyadic dependencies between investment ties that are typically ignored in available research. We show that local dependencies between national electricity industries are sufficient for explaining global properties of the network of foreign direct investments. We also show, however, that network dependencies vary significantly over time giving rise to a time-heterogeneous localized process of network evolution.

  10. RD&D Cooperation for the Development of Fuel Cell, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles within the International Energy Agency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Telias, G.; Day, K.; Dietrich, P.

    2011-01-01

    Annex XIII on 'Fuel Cell Vehicles' of the Implementing Agreement Hybrid and Electric Vehicles of the International Energy Agency has been operating since 2006, complementing the ongoing activities on battery and hybrid electric vehicles within this group. This paper provides an overview of the Annex XIII final report for 2010, compiling an up-to-date, neutral, and comprehensive assessment of current trends in fuel cell vehicle technology and related policy. The technological description includes trends in system configuration as well as a review of the most relevant components including the fuel cell stack, batteries, and hydrogen storage. Results from fuel cell vehicle demonstration projects around the world and an overview of the successful implementation of fuel cells in specific transport niche markets will also be discussed. The final section of this report provides a detailed description of national research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts worldwide.

  11. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  12. Effect of Te Inclusions on Internal Electric Field of CdMnTe Gamma-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.S.; Bolotnikov, A.; Egarievwe, S.; Hossain, A.; Burger, A.; James, R.

    2009-08-02

    We studied two separate as-grown CdMnTe crystals by Infrared (IR) microscopy and Pockels effect imaging, and then developed an algorithm to analyze and visualize the electric field within the crystals’ bulk. In one of the two crystals the size and distribution of inclusions within the bulk promised to be more favorable in terms of efficiency as a detector crystal. However, the Te inclusions were arranged in characteristic ‘planes’. Pockels imaging revealed an accumulation of charges in the region of these planes. We demonstrated that the planes induced stress within the bulk of the crystal that accumulated charges, thereby causing non-uniformity of the internal electric field and degrading the detector’s performance.

  13. Histologic study of the internal organs of rats chronically exposed to a high-intensity electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Y.J.; Majeau-Chargois, D.; Lymangrover, J.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Hsieh, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 120-day exposure to a high-intensity (80 kV/m), 60-Hz electric field on histology of selected internal organs of Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. The organs examined were the pituitary, thymus, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, right and left adrenals, right and left kidneys, and right and left testes. Histological examination of 10-micron tissue sections from randomly selected animals revealed no specific evidence of histopathologic differences between field-exposed and sham-exposed animals at the light microscopic level.

  14. Divestitures in the electricity sector: conceptual issues and lessons from international experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Weigt, Hannes; Neumann, Anne; von Hirschhausen, Christian

    2009-04-15

    Competition policy is an important tool of governments to establish functioning markets, particularly in the scope of liberalizing the energy sector. An examination of horizontal divestitures in several markets suggests that in appropriate cases divestiture can enhance competition in the electricity sector. (author)

  15. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the conference are reported. The conference focussed on lightning protection, detection, and forecasting. The conference was divided into 26 sessions based on research in lightning, static electricity, modeling, and mapping. These sessions spanned the spectrum from basic science to engineering, concentrating on lightning prediction and detection and on safety for ground facilities, aircraft, and aerospace vehicles.

  16. International Programme Review, Electrical Engineering. [Report of the] IPR-EE Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroeijenstijn, A. I.; And Others

    This report presents details from an examination of the curricula and diplomas of the Electrical Engineering departments of several major European technical universities (in the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium). The examination, a process involving department representatives of the various schools who came together to…

  17. Development of an Arduino-based electrical impedance tomography system with application to dam internal erosion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Matteo; Ferdos, Farzad; Losito, Gabriella; Solari, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a technique for the imaging of the electrical properties of conductive materials. In EIT, the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity or electrical conductivity within a domain is reconstructed using measurements made with electrodes placed at the boundaries of the domain. Data acquisition is typically made by applying an electrical current to the object under investigation using a set of electrodes, and measuring the developed voltage between the other electrodes. The tomographic image is then obtained using an inversion algorithm. This work describes the implementation of a simple and low cost 3D EIT measurement system suitable for laboratory-scale studies. The system was specifically developed for the time-lapse imaging of soil samples subjected to erosion processes during laboratory tests. The tests reproduce the process of internal erosion of soil particles by water flow within a granular media; this process is one of the most common causes of failure of earthen levees and embankment dams. The measurements needed strict requirements of speed and accuracy due to the varying time scale and magnitude of these processes. The developed EIT system consists of a PC which controls I/O cards (multiplexers) through the Arduino micro-controller, an external current generator, a digital acquisition device (DAQ), a power supply and the electrodes. The ease of programming of the Arduino interface greatly helped the implementation of custom acquisition software, increasing the overall flexibility of the system and the creation of specific acquisition schemes and configurations. The system works with a multi-electrode configuration of up to 48 channels but it was designed to be upgraded to an arbitrary large number of electrodes by connecting additional multiplexer cards (> 96 electrodes). The acquisition was optimized for multi-channel measurements so that the overall time of acquisition is dramatically reduced compared to

  18. Further efforts to limit lunar internal temperatures from electrical conductivity determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    A representative set of 18 electrical conductivity profiles consistent with lunar transfer function data in the 0.00001 to 0.001 Hz range is generated by means of a Monte Carlo procedure. Laboratory electrical conductivity vs temperature data extrapolated to lower and higher temperatures are used to convert the 18 profiles into temperature profiles for a series of radially homogeneous olivine-pyroxene mixtures ranging from 100% olivine to 100% aluminous orthopyroxene. The former yields selenotherms approaching the Ringwood-Essene solidus at depths near 500 km, while additions of the latter in concentrations greater than 15-30 vol% leads to cooler selenotherms which approach the solidus only at depths greater than about 1000 km. On the basis of independent geophysical constraints, the profile envelopes for compositions containing more than 15-30 vol% aluminous orthopyroxene are considered to be the most probable.

  19. Does More international transmission capacity increase competition in the Belgian electricity market?

    SciTech Connect

    Kuepper, Gerd; Delarue, Erik; Delvaux, Bram; Meeus, Leonardo; Bekaert, David; Willems, Bert; Proost, Stef; D'haeseleer, William; Deketelaere, Kurt; Belmans, Ronnie

    2009-01-15

    From a national market perspective, taking transmission capacity into account reduces current concentration measures, although they remain fairly high even after substantial capacity increases. From an international perspective, a more efficient use of current transmission capacity by coupling regional markets can increase competition. That suggests it may not be appropriate to assess market concentration using national market shares. (author)

  20. Investigation of the Internal Electric Field in Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors Using the Pockels Effect and the Analysis of Charge Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groza, Michael; Krawczynski, Henic; Garson, Alfred, III; Martin, Jerrad W.; Lee, Kuen; Li, Qiang; Beilicke, Matthias; Cui, Yunlong; Buliga, Vladimir; Guo, Mingsheng; Coca, Constantine; Burger, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    The Pockels electro-optic effect can be used to investigate the internal electric field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) single crystals that are used to fabricate room temperature x and gamma radiation detectors. An agreement is found between the electric field mapping obtained from Pockels effect images and the measurements of charge transients generated by alpha particles. The Pockels effect images of a CZT detector along two mutually perpendicular directions are used to optimize the detector response in a dual anode configuration, a device in which the symmetry of the internal electric field with respect to the anode strips is of critical importance. The Pockels effect is also used to map the electric field in a CZT detector with dual anodes and an attempt is made to find a correlation with the simulated electric potential in such detectors. Finally, the stress-induced birefringence effects seen in the Pockels images are presented and discussed.

  1. Investigation of the internal electric field in cadmium zinc telluride detectors using the Pockels effect and the analysis of charge transients

    SciTech Connect

    Groza, Michael; Cui Yunlong; Buliga, Vladimir; Guo, Mingsheng; Coca, Constantine; Burger, Arnold; Krawczynski, Henric; Garson, Alfred III; Martin, Jerrad W.; Lee, Kuen; Li Qiang; Beilicke, Matthias

    2010-01-15

    The Pockels electro-optic effect can be used to investigate the internal electric field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) single crystals that are used to fabricate room temperature x and gamma radiation detectors. An agreement is found between the electric field mapping obtained from Pockels effect images and the measurements of charge transients generated by alpha particles. The Pockels effect images of a CZT detector along two mutually perpendicular directions are used to optimize the detector response in a dual anode configuration, a device in which the symmetry of the internal electric field with respect to the anode strips is of critical importance. The Pockels effect is also used to map the electric field in a CZT detector with dual anodes and an attempt is made to find a correlation with the simulated electric potential in such detectors. Finally, the stress-induced birefringence effects seen in the Pockels images are presented and discussed.

  2. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  3. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Jaquelin; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Arent, Douglas J.

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  4. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  5. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  6. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  7. Carrier-density-wave transport and local internal electric field measurements in biased metal-oxide-semiconductor n-Si devices using contactless laser photo-carrier radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Pawlak, Micha; Shaughnessy, Derrick

    2004-11-01

    Laser infrared photo-carrier radiometry was used with an n-type Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diode and with a Si-SiO2 structure with a transparent electrode and under external bias. Application of three-dimensional PCR theory yielded values of the minority carrier (hole) transport properties in the presence of the thus created local internal electric field at fixed frequencies. Furthermore, the internal electric field at fixed applied voltage was calculated. Under the combination of increased temperature and voltage, the sub-interface position of the carrier-density-wave centroid was found to depend on a trade-off between increased recombination lifetime and decreased ambipolar (conductivity) mobility. The ability of PCR to measure local internal electric fields by combining applied bias sweeps and frequency scans appears to pave the way towards the contactless reconstruction of depth profiles of these fields in active devices.

  8. Effects of the internal structure of spheroidal divalent ions on the charge density profiles of the electric double layer.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Armenta, José Guadalupe; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Bohinc, Klemen; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2012-12-14

    In this work, the effects of the internal structure of charge for ions are analyzed by means of Monte Carlo simulations within a modified primitive model of electric double layer with spheroidal ions. The simulation results are compared to those obtained from a generalized Poisson-Boltzmann theory, where the separation of the charges within the spheroidal ions is considered. The spheroidal divalent ions have finite dimensions and two identical unitary charges separated by a distance of one diameter. Two structurally equivalent but oppositely charged ionic species are considered: coions and counterions. In the simulation, the number of particles is not fixed and the grand canonical ensemble is employed to reach the thermodynamic equilibrium. Meanwhile, the variational theory is applied to the analytical density functional. The fixed separation between charges within the spheroidal ions causes the orientational ordering of the spheroidal ions (with quadrupolar charge distributions) leading to very different charge distributions than those of the regular divalent ions from the primitive model of electrolyte. The internal structure of ions could be dramatically relevant for the modelling of large molecules, which are known to posses complex charge distributions. PMID:23249020

  9. Direct measurement of internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes under electrical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude

    2011-01-01

    A method is presented for the direct measurement of the internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs), based on the ratio of the measured external quantum efficiency and the calculated light extraction efficiency. The external quantum efficiency is measured from a single facet of the device in a simple, well-defined geometry, for which the light extraction efficiency can be calculated with good accuracy. In the proposed method, all LED facets are coated with highly absorbing material which suppresses any light that is not directly emitted into a small aperture on the top facet of the LED. We present a full wave optical model for a multilayer LED structure, from which we derive and validate an approximate model to easily calculate the extraction efficiency through the top facet of the LED. Because a current spreading electrode, often metallic, is required for uniform injection, we show that its impact on the extraction efficiency can be simply modeled through a separate transmission function calculated from the complex index of refraction of the electrode material. The various assumptions made to justify the direct emission model through a single facet (absence of photon backscatter, no photon recycling, simplified device layer model) are discussed and evaluated. The model is applied to a specific GaNLED structure.

  10. Extending the Relaxed-State Principle to Allowing for Internal Transport Barriers: Implications of Electric Currents Networking in a Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    1998-11-01

    An algorithm for calculating the equilibrium, "relaxed state" profiles in a tokamak is suggested which is based on a qualitative extension [1] of recently formulated concept [2] of a long-living filamentation of electric currents and their networking, from the case of dense Z-pinches (and other inertially confined plasmas) to the case of magnetically confined plasmas. The approach [1] allows to (i) give alternative explanation to the success of Taylor's principle [3] (relaxation to a minimum magnetic energy state under condition of the conserved magnetic helicity), (ii) indicate the most self-consistent extension, among several suggested approaches, of the concept [3] to the case of non-force-free equilibria (i.e. with finite pressure, plasma flows), and (iii) naturally include the presence of the strongest internal transport barriers (at low-order rational q surfaces) to minimization procedure. [1] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Preprint Kurchatov Institute, IAE-6095/6, 1998. [2] Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., Laser and Particle Beams, 16(3) 1998 (to be published). [3] Taylor J.B., Rev.Mod.Phys., 58 (1986) 741.

  11. Dependence on the incident light power of the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell according to bright photoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sang Jun

    2016-07-01

    Bright photoreflectance (BPR) spectroscopy at room temperature is used to examine the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell for their dependence on the incident light power. Electric fields are observed at 30 µW and 100 µW of incident light. With increasing power, the strengths of the two electric fields are reduced due to the photovoltage effect. The electric field observed at 30 µW is assigned to the p-i interface, which is close to the surface. The other electric field is due to the i-n interface because the incident light penetrates deeper as the light power is increased. The electric field strength of 35.6 kV/cm at the p-i interface is lower than that of 42.9 kV/cm at the i-n interface at 500 µW of light power because the photovoltage effect is proportional to the number of photo-generated carriers, which is reduced as the distance from the surface increases. When the incident light power is similar to the excitation beam power, the electric fields at the p-i interface are saturated.

  12. Conversations about electricity and the future: Findings of an international seminar and lessons from a year of surprises

    SciTech Connect

    Rossin, A.D.; Fowler, K.

    1991-06-01

    In January 1990 thirty-two experts from twelve countries convened for a five-day working Seminar on the Berkeley Campus of the University of California to discuss electricity supply and demand. The participants brought with them deep and diverse backgrounds in energy issues. A major concern of the First 1990 Group on Electricity was the potential impact of electricity shortages on the environment, just at a time of growing awareness of environmental deterioration. These concerns extend from local problems to nations, regions and global impacts. Indeed, because of the importance of electricity in our lives, potential electric power shortages already foreseeable in this decade could overwhelm public concern for the environment, unless critical, long-leadtime measures are taken very soon. The First 1990 Group on Electricity's Findings and Conclusions, the thinking that led to them, and the impact of events in the intervening year form the content of this book.

  13. Internal electrical and strain fields influence on the electrical tunability of epitaxial Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdzevicius, S.; Mackeviciute, R.; Ivanov, M.; Fraygola, B.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N.; Banys, J.

    2016-03-01

    Perpetual demand for higher transfer speed and ever increasing miniaturization of radio and microwave telecommunication devices demands new materials with high electrical tunability. We have investigated built in electrical and strain fields' influence on the electrical tunability in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film hetero-system grown by pulsed laser deposition technique. We observed the built in electrical field by local piezo-force microscopy (as deflected hysteresis loops) and macroscopic impedance analysis (as asymmetric tunability curves), with the calculated 88 kV/cm built in field at room temperature. Negative -1.4% misfit strain (due to clamping by the substrate) enhanced ferroelectric phase transition temperature in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 thin film by more than 300 K. Built in fields do not deteriorate functional film properties—dielectric permittivity and tunability are comparable to the best to date values observed in Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films.

  14. The Rotational Spectra, Structure, Internal Dynamics, and Electric Dipole Moment of the Argon-Ketene van der Waals Complex.

    PubMed

    Gillies, C. W.; Gillies, J. Z.; Amadon, S. J.; Suenram, R. D.; Lovas, F. J.; Warner, H.; Malloy, R.

    2001-06-01

    Pulsed-beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy was used to observe and assign the rotational spectra of the argon-ketene van der Waals complex. Tunneling of the hydrogen or deuterium atoms splits the a- and b-type rotational transitions of H(2)CCO-Ar, H(2)(13)CCO-Ar, H(2)C(13)CO-Ar, and D(2)CCO-Ar into two states. This internal motion appears to be quenched for HDCCO-Ar where only one state is observed. The spectra of all isotopomers were satisfactorily fit to a Watson asymmetric top Hamiltonian which gave A=10 447.9248(10) MHz, B=1918.0138(16) MHz, C=1606.7642(15) MHz, Delta(J)=16.0856(70) kHz, Delta(JK)=274.779(64) kHz, Delta(K)=-152.24(23) kHz, delta(J)=2.5313(18) kHz, delta(K)=209.85(82) kHz, and h(K)=1.562(64) kHz for the A(1) state of H(2)CCO-Ar. Electric dipole moment measurements determined &mgr;(a)=0.417(10)x10(-30) C m [0.125(3) D] and &mgr;(b)=4.566(7)x10(-30) C m [1.369(2) D] along the a and b principal axes of the A(1) state of the normal isotopomer. A least squares fit of principal moments of inertia, I(a) and I(c), of H(2)CCO-Ar, H(2)(13)CCO-Ar, and H(2)C(13)CO-Ar for the A(1) states give the argon-ketene center of mass separation, R(cm)=3.5868(3) Å, and the angle between the line connecting argon with the center of mass of ketene and the C=C=O axis, θ(cm)=96.4 degrees (2). The spectral data are consistent with a planar geometry with the argon atom tilted toward the carbonyl carbon of ketene by 6.4 degrees from a T-shaped configuration. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects.

    PubMed

    VanGordon, James A; Kovaleski, Scott D; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B; Dale, Gregory E

    2014-02-01

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model

  16. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects

    SciTech Connect

    VanGordon, James A.; Kovaleski, Scott D. Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B.; Dale, Gregory E.

    2014-02-15

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model

  17. The relation between temperature distribution for lung RFA and electromagnetic wave frequency dependence of electrical conductivity with changing a lung's internal air volumes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Nozomu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Lu, Xiaowei; Isobe, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency ablation (RFA) for lung cancer has increasingly been used over the past few years because it is a minimally invasive treatment. As a feature of RFA for lung cancer, lung contains air during operation. Air is low thermal and electrical conductivity. Therefore, RFA for this cancer has the advantage that only the cancer is coagulated, and it is difficult for operators to control the precise formation of coagulation lesion. In order to overcome this limitation, we previously proposed a model-based robotic ablation system using finite element method. Creating an accurate thermo physical model and constructing thermal control method were a challenging problem because the thermal properties of the organ are complex. In this study, we measured electromagnetic wave frequency dependence of lung's electrical conductivity that was based on lung's internal air volumes dependence with in vitro experiment. In addition, we validated the electromagnetic wave frequency dependence of lung's electrical conductivity using temperature distribution simulator. From the results of this study, it is confirmed that the electromagnetic wave frequency dependence of lung's electrical conductivity effects on heat generation of RFA.

  18. Electric avenues

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.; Chang, A.

    1994-12-31

    Highly efficient electric drive technology developed originally for defense applications is being applied to the development of all electric shuttle buses for the San Jose International Airport. An innovative opportunity charging system using induction chargers will be incorporated to extend operation hours. The project, if successful, is expected to reduce pollution at the airport and generate jobs for displaced defense workers.

  19. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  20. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction over B4C/C3N4 with internal electric field under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Lei; Du, Quanchao; Wang, Zhiyong; Ma, Shuguo; Yu, Miao

    2016-02-15

    Boron carbide/graphitic carbon nitride (B4C/g-C3N4) p-n hetero-junction photocatalyst with an internal electric field was synthesized by a facile solvent evaporation method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), etc. Photocatalytic activity of the composite B4C/g-C3N4 loaded with Pt co-catalyst was evaluated using CO2 conversion to CH4 with H2 as the hydrogen source and reductant under visible light irradiation. The coupling of p-type B4C with n-type g-C3N4 significantly improved the performance of photocatalytic CO2 reduction; with the optimum B4C mass fraction of 1/6, the composite photocatalyst showed approximately 6 and 8 times higher CH4 generation rate than g-C3N4 and B4C, respectively. The enhancement was attributed to efficient photo-excited electron/hole separation due to the formation of internal electric field at the p-B4C/n-C3N4 interface. PMID:26609927

  1. Application of electrical resistivity tomography for investigating the internal structure of a translational landslide and characterizing its groundwater circulation (Kualiangzi landslide, Southwest China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Chengpeng; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Ran, Jiaxin; Lv, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a widely used tool in near surface geophysical surveys for the investigation of various geological and engineering problems, including landslides. In this study, the internal structure of the southern region of the Kualiangzi landslide, which is located in Sichuan province, China, was investigated using four ERT profiles, drill cores, and inclinometer data. The characteristics of the groundwater circulation were evaluated from variations in electrical resistivity and groundwater level. The results showed that the sliding surface corresponds to a deep zone with low resistivity and that the sliding material consists of clay, gravelly soil, and weathered sandstone and mudstone. The thickness of the sliding material is 50 m in the main tension trough and decreases to several meters in the direction of sliding. The dip angle of the sliding surface that has low resistivity is generally consistent with that of the bedrock. The groundwater level in the tension trough and in the middle transitional part from hill-country to flat terrain was highest in the landslide. The groundwater level close to the toe front of the landslide was the lowest. The groundwater is recharged by the precipitation and generally drains to the toe front by seasonal springs along the sliding surface. The rapid increment of the groundwater level in the tension trough kept pace with that of the displacement rate after intense rainfall. The improved understanding of internal structure and groundwater recirculation is beneficial for the analysis of the mechanisms of translational landslides and their hazard prevention.

  2. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction over B4C/C3N4 with internal electric field under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Lei; Du, Quanchao; Wang, Zhiyong; Ma, Shuguo; Yu, Miao

    2016-02-15

    Boron carbide/graphitic carbon nitride (B4C/g-C3N4) p-n hetero-junction photocatalyst with an internal electric field was synthesized by a facile solvent evaporation method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), etc. Photocatalytic activity of the composite B4C/g-C3N4 loaded with Pt co-catalyst was evaluated using CO2 conversion to CH4 with H2 as the hydrogen source and reductant under visible light irradiation. The coupling of p-type B4C with n-type g-C3N4 significantly improved the performance of photocatalytic CO2 reduction; with the optimum B4C mass fraction of 1/6, the composite photocatalyst showed approximately 6 and 8 times higher CH4 generation rate than g-C3N4 and B4C, respectively. The enhancement was attributed to efficient photo-excited electron/hole separation due to the formation of internal electric field at the p-B4C/n-C3N4 interface.

  3. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  4. Market mature 1998 hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again re-evaluated the potential of the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to the high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon (HC) fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort was highlighted finally, in 1997, at the 57th Frankfurt Motor Show, the Audi Duo parallel type hybrid was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. Also at the 1997 32nd Tokyo Motor Show, the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) Prius was released for the domestic market as a 1998 model vehicle. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these two 1998 model year production hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the major manufacturers have turned to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to the key EV issues of limited range and heating/air conditioning; and, two, the focus is now on introducing hybrid EV for test marketing domestically.

  5. Influence of internal electric fields on band gaps in short period GaN/GaAlN and InGaN/GaN polar superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Gorczyca, I. Skrobas, K.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2015-08-21

    The electronic structures of short period mGaN/nGa{sub y}Al{sub 1−y}N and mIn{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}N/nGaN superlattices grown along the wurtzite c axis have been calculated for different alloy compositions y and various small numbers m of well- and n of barrier-monolayers. The general trends in gap behavior can, to a large extent, be related to the strength of the internal electric field, E, in the GaN and InGaN quantum wells. In the GaN/GaAlN superlattices, E reaches 4 MV/cm, while in the InGaN/GaN superlattices, values as high as E ≈ 6.5 MV/cm are found. The strong electric fields are caused by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, the latter contribution dominating in InGaN/GaN superlattices. The influence of different arrangements of In atoms (indium clustering) on the band gap values in InGaN/GaN superlattices is examined.

  6. Internal configuration and electric potential in planar negatively charged lipid head group region in contact with ionic solution.

    PubMed

    Lebar, Alenka Maček; Velikonja, Aljaž; Kramar, Peter; Iglič, Aleš

    2016-10-01

    The lipid bilayer composed of negatively charged lipid 1-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS) in contact with an aqueous solution of monovalent salt ions was studied theoretically by using the mean-field modified Langevin-Poisson-Boltzmann (MLPB) model. The MLPB results were tested by using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. In the MLPB model the charge distribution of POPS head groups is theoretically described by the negatively charged surface which accounts for negatively charged phosphate groups, while the positively charged amino groups and negatively charged carboxylate groups are assumed to be fixed on the rod-like structures with rotational degree of freedom. The spatial variation of relative permittivity, which is not considered in the well-known Gouy-Chapman (GC) model or in MD simulations, is thoroughly derived within a strict statistical mechanical approach. Therefore, the spatial dependence and magnitude of electric potential within the lipid head group region and its close vicinity are considerably different in the MLPB model from the GC model. The influence of the bulk salt concentration and temperature on the number density profiles of counter-ions and co-ions in the lipid head group region and aqueous solution along with the probability density function for the lipid head group orientation angle was compared and found to be in qualitative agreement in the MLPB and MD models. PMID:27209203

  7. Investigation of Power Requirements for Ice Prevention and Cyclical De-Icing of Inlet Guide Vanes with Internal Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Blatz, Robert E.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the electric power requirements necessary for ice protection of inlet guide vanes by continuous heating and by cyclical de-icing. Data are presented to show the effect of ambient-air temperature, liquid-water content, air velocity, heat-on period, and cycle times on the power requirements for these two methods of ice protection. The results showed that for a hypothetical engine using 28 inlet guide vanes under similar icing conditions, cyclical de-icing can provide a total power saving as high as 79 percent over that required for continuous heating. Heat-on periods in the order of 10 seconds with a cycle ratio of about 1:7 resulted in the best over-all performance with respect to total power requirements and aerodynamic losses during the heat-off period. Power requirements reported herein may be reduced by as much as 25 percent by achieving a more uniform surface-temperature distribution. A parameter in terms of engine mass flow, vane size, vane surface temperature, and the icing conditions ahead of the inlet guide vanes.was developed by which an extension of the experimental data to icing conditions and inlet guide vanes, other than those investigated was possible.

  8. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  9. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  10. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  11. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Inada, Tomohisa; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut’s musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system’s orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut’s musculoskeletal atrophy. Methods HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR). 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks) were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance), MRI (muscle volume), and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass). Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force) and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference). Results The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm) changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule) of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts) of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle) mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR

  12. Influence of internal electric fields on bonding and properties of impurities in insulators: Mn2+ in LiBaF3 and normal perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueba, A.; García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    2008-08-01

    Although in LiBaF3:Mn2+ the impurity replaces Li+ thus forming octahedral MnF64- units the experimental hyperfine and anisotropic superhyperfine constants and the energies of d-d optical transitions do not fit into the pattern observed for Mn2+ -doped normal perovskite lattices. Seeking to look into this relevant issue first-principles calculations in the framework of the density-functional theory have been carried out for MnF64- complexes embedded in both KMgF3 and LiBaF3 host lattices which display normal and inverted perovskite structures respectively. The present calculations lead to a value of the equilibrium Mn2+-F- distance, RI , which is the same for both host lattices within 0.015Å . Despite this fact and in agreement with experimental data the calculated values of both the anisotropic superhyperfine constant, Ap , and the cubic-field splitting parameter, 10Dq, for LiBaF3:Mn2+ are found to be higher than those for KMgF3:Mn2+ while Racah parameters are a bit higher for the latter case. All these results, and also the 3% reduction undergone by the hyperfine constant on passing from KMgF3:Mn2+ to LiBaF3:Mn2+ are shown to be connected with a parallel increase in the covalency. These surprising results, which cannot be ascribed to a different RI value, are shown to arise from the internal electric field, ER , due to all lattice ions lying outside the MnF64- complex. Although, according to symmetry, ER is null at Mn2+ site this is shown to be not true in the neighborhood of ligands for the LiBaF3 host lattice. The quite different shape of ER in normal and inverted perovskite lattices is shown to be already understood considering only the first two shells surrounding the MnF64- complex. The present results demonstrate that the traditional ligand field theory fails to understand the changes undergone by optical and magnetic parameters of a complex when a host lattice is replaced by another one which is not isomorphous. The relevance of present conclusions for

  13. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  14. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  15. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  16. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  17. Radius fracture from an electrical injury involving an electric guitar.

    PubMed

    Pappano, Dante

    2010-03-01

    Electrical injury ranges widely from simple shock and mild burns to more extensive superficial injury, internal injury, and mortality. Bony fracture from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contraction is a rare but recognized injury. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who suffered a minor burn and radius fracture related to an electrical injury involving his electric guitar. An interesting pattern is emerging from available case reports of similar injuries.

  18. Electricity market module: Electricity capacity planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe modifications to the Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule (ECP) for the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. It describes revisions to enhance the representation of planned maintenance, incorporate technological improvements in operating efficiencies, revise the algorithm for determining international firm power imports, and include risk premiums for new plant construction.

  19. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  20. High efficiency electricity production in the sugar industry of the future: The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research Project (>6MW{sub e})

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is presently starting up a 100 tpd bagasse Renugas{reg_sign} gasifier which was developed under license from the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). For thousands of years, mankind has used biomass for energy, burning it first in campfires. In more modem times, combustion boiler systems were developed such as those fueled by coal. Through inefficient, these systems answered an increasing need for energy brought on by the industrial revolution. Yesterday`s systems are being replaced with more efficient methods of energy conversion and extraction. Recognizing the untapped potential for biomass power to provide clean and efficient energy, the U.S. Department of Energy established the National Biomass Power Program in 1991. The State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism is collaborating in this national program to complement the development of its own sustainable resource program. As a key player in this program, PICHTR will design, construct, and operate a biomass gasification facility that will be the centerpiece of the nation`s biomass gasification technology.

  1. Internal static electric and magnetic field at the copper cite in a single crystal of the electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 -y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guoqing; Zamborszky, F.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Greene, R. L.; Clark, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    We report 63 ,65Cu -NMR spectroscopy and Knight shift measurements on a single crystal of the electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr1.85Ce0.15CuO4 -y with an applied magnetic field (H ) up to 26.42 T. A very small NQR frequency is obtained with the observation of the spectrum, which shows an extremely wide continuous distribution of it that becomes significantly narrower below 20 K at H ∥c where the superconductivity is completely suppressed, indicating a significant change in the charge distribution at the Cu site, while the corresponding change at H ⊥c is negligible when the superconductivity is present or not fully suppressed. The Knight shift and central linewidth are proportional to the applied magnetic field with a high anisotropy. We find that the magnitude of the internal static magnetic field at the copper is dominated by the anisotropic Cu2 + 3 d orbital contributions, while its weak temperature dependence is mainly determined by the isotropic contact hyperfine coupling to the paramagnetic Pr3 + spins, which also gives rise to the full distribution of the internal static magnetic field at the copper for H ⊥c . This internal static electric and magnetic field environment at the copper is very different from that in the hole-doped cuprates, and may provide new insight into the understanding of high-Tc superconductivity. Other experimental techniques are needed to verify whether the observed significant narrowing of the charge distribution at the Cu site with H ∥c is caused by the charge ordering [E. H. da Silva Neto et al., Science (to be published, 2014)] or a new type of charge modulation.

  2. Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Perpendicular Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Perpendicular telescoping electrode used to perform electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of internal passage through previously inaccessible depth of metal workpiece. More specifically, used to make internal passage perpendicular to passage entering from outer surface.

  3. International Coalition for GeoInformatics" (iGeoInfo): Its origins, purpose, and future direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, R.

    2005-12-01

    The International Coalition for GeoInformatics" (iGeoInfo.org) was formed as an outgrowth of an inaugural workshop (attended by 35 scientists and 20 representatives of European, North American and Chinese funding organizations) held to launch a global forum on sedimentary geology and paleobiology at the 32nd International Geological Congress in Florence, Italy. A subsequent special session on geoinformatics was held at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) meeting in Vienna in April of 2005. iGeoInfo was founded to help build an international community that works together to promote data acquisition and sharing, to optimize IT concepts, to advance and advocate for geoinformatics in general, and to formulate a more coordinated approach to international funding agencies. What are the challenges confronting iGeoInfo and other internationally directed geoinformatics organizations? The main ones are the political, cultural, organizational, and technical diversity of the global science community that must be addressed to achieve a truly global cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences. Thus, the international communities must work together for the development, management and deployment of these data and products. A key point is that no single group or institution can do all of this in terms of physical or intellectual capacity. Furthermore, this is by nature a real community effort - real in the sense that a very large proportion of the community will be actively involved. With everything in place, GeoInformatics through iGeoInfo can become an engine to help drive the next generation of science.

  4. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.30-1 Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture...

  5. Southwest Park & Recreation Training Institute 1987 Proceedings (32nd, Kingston, Oklahoma, February 1-4, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Dept. of Park Administration and Landscape Architecture.

    In the first section of this report, summaries are presented of the papers delivered at the General Session of the meeting of the Southwest Park and Recreation Training Institute. The topics were: (1) Risk Aspect of Parks and Recreation; (2) All You Need To Know about Boards and Commissions, but Were Afraid To Ask; (3) Leadership and…

  6. ANNUAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONFERENCE AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY (32ND, NEW YORK CITY, NOVEMBER 5, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WASSERMAN, MARVIN

    THE MAJOR PART OF THIS CONFERENCE REPORT DEVELOPS THE CONFERENCE THEME, "INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING," AS PRESENTED BY THE PRINCIPAL SPEAKER, JOHN B. CARROLL. HIS PAPER TREATS RATE OF LEARNING, SPECIALIZED TRAITS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE APTITUDE (PHONETIC CODING ABILITY, GRAMMATICAL SENSITIVITY, ROTE LEARNING ABILITY, INDUCTIVE…

  7. Longitudinal vortex control - Techniques and applications (The 32nd Lanchester Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of vortex control applications and current techniques for the control of longitudinal vortices produced by bodies, leading edges, tips and intersections. Vortex control has up till now been performed by many approaches in an empirical fashion, assisted by the essentially inviscid nature of much of longitudinal vortex behavior. Attention is given to Reynolds number sensitivities, vortex breakdown and interactions, vortex control on highly swept wings, and vortex control in juncture flows.

  8. Adult Education Research Annual Conference Proceedings (32nd, Norman, Oklahoma, May 30-June 2, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenbach, Michael, Comp.

    Papers in this volume include: "Retirement Learning" (Adair); "Effect of Literacy on Personal Income" (Blunt); "Popular Discourse Concerning Women and AIDS" (Boshier); "John Steinbeck's Learning Project" (Brockett); "Faculty Careers of Professors of Adult Education" (Caffarella); "Racism in Canada" (Carriere); "Perspectives on Program Planning in…

  9. H.R. 959: A Bill to amend the Internal Code of 1986 to clarify the conservation expenditures by electric and gas utilities are deductible for the year in which paid or incurred. Introduced in the of House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 959, A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to clarify that conservation expenditures by electric and gas utilities are deductible for the year in which paid or incurred. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, February 15, 1995.

  10. Preschool Children's Conceptions about the Electric Current and the Functioning of Electric Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonidou, Christina; Kakana, Domna-Mika

    2000-01-01

    Examined 5- and 6-year-olds' ideas about the functioning of common electrical appliances and properties of electric current. Found that children represented current in a static way, thinking it was included in the appliance, and confounded electric current and water flow, believing external electricity was different from internal. They were…

  11. Internal split field generator

    DOEpatents

    Thundat; ,Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  12. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  13. Electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, R.L.

    1993-07-09

    This article is devoted entirely to the subject of electric cars. Some of the topics covered are alternate fuels in relation to development of electric cars, the impact of zero-emission laws, the range and performance of electric cars, historical aspects, legislative incentives, and battery technology.

  14. Cyclic AMP modulates electrical signaling in a weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    McAnelly, L; Silva, A; Zakon, H H

    2003-04-01

    Many species of electric fish show diurnal or socially elicited variation in electric organ discharge amplitude. In Sternopygus macrurus, activation of protein kinase A by 8-bromo-cAMP increases electrocyte sodium current magnitude. To determine whether the behavioral plasticity in electric organ discharge amplitude is controlled by electrocyte biophysical properties, we examined whether the effects of phosphorylation on ion currents in the electric organ translate directly into electric organ discharge changes. We injected the electric organ of restrained fish with 8-bromo-cAMP and monitored the electric organ discharge. The effect of protein kinase A activation on electrocyte action potentials was examined in isolated electric organ using two-electrode current clamp. Electric organ discharge and action potential amplitude and pulse duration increased in response to 8-bromo-cAMP. Pulse and action potential duration both increased by about 25%. However, the increase in electric organ discharge amplitude (approximately 400%) was several-fold greater than the action potential amplitude increase (approximately 40%). Resting membrane resistance decreased in electrocytes exposed to 8-bromo-cAMP. We propose that in the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the electric organ a moderate increase in action potential amplitude combined with a decrease in internal resistance produces a greater voltage drop across the external resistance (the water around the fish), accounting for the large increase in the externally recorded electric organ discharge.

  15. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Crosby, John, IV; Haycock, Ken; Oh, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following international reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Trends and Issues in Library and Information Services in Canada, 1998. (AEF)

  16. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  17. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  18. Influence of Internal Electric Field on the Recombination Dynamics of Localized Excitons in an InGaN Double-Quantum-Well Laser Diode Wafer Operated at 450 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, Takeyoshi; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.; Aoyama, Toyomi; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Ahmet, Parhat; Azuhata, Takashi; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Sota, Takayuki; Nagahama, Shin-ichi; Mukai, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    Optical and structural properties of an InGaN double-quantum-well (DQW) laser diode (LD) wafer that lased at 450 nm were investigated to discuss an enormous impact of a polarization-induced electric field on the recombination dynamics in InGaN quantum structures. The quantum-well (QW) structure was shown to have the well thickness as thin as approximately 1 nm and InN molar fraction x of approximately 14%. The gross effective electric field in the QW (FQW) was estimated to be 490 kV/cm from the Franz-Keldysh oscillation (FKO) period in the electroreflectance (ER) spectrum, implying that an internal piezoelectric field (Fpiz) of approximately 1.4 MV/cm was cancelled by the pn junction built-in field (Fbi) and Coulomb screening due to carriers in the DQW. The magnitude of FQW can be further weakened by applying reverse bias (VR) on the junction; the decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime at low temperature measured under VR was explained to be due to a recovery of electron-hole wavefunction overlap for small VR (|VR|<4 V), and due mainly to the tunneling escape of carriers through the barriers for larger VR. By applying an appropriate VR smaller than 4 V, electron-hole wavefunction overlap, which had been separated vertically along the c-axis due to quantum-confined Stark effect, could be partially recovered, and then the time-resolved PL signals exhibited a less-pronounced stretched exponential decay, giving a scaling parameter (β) of 0.85 and effective in-plane localization depth (E0) of 40-50 meV for the spontaneous emission. These values were closer to those of much homogeneous QWs compared to those reported previously for InGaN QWs having similar InN molar fractions. The use of very thin QWs is considered to bring easier Coulomb screening of FQW and population inversion under high excitation conditions.

  19. Deregulation of electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zaccour, G.

    1998-07-01

    This volume is a collection of fourteen, mainly applied, economic papers examining electric utility deregulation in many parts of the world. These papers were presented at the International Workshop on Deregulation of Electric Utilities held in Montreal, Canada in September 1997. As the title suggests, these papers cover a broad range of topics. Despite the book's scattershot approach, a small subset of contributors asks a fundamental question: Is the industry sufficiently deregulated? This book succeeds in providing some concrete and well-analyzed examples that examine this important question.

  20. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  1. Electrical stator

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  2. Electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  3. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  4. Electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Dilliner, Jennifer L.; Baker, Thomas M.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2006-11-21

    An electrical connector includes a female component having one or more receptacles, a first test receptacle, and a second test receptacle. The electrical connector also includes a male component having one or more terminals configured to engage the one or more receptacles, a first test pin configured to engage the first test receptacle, and a second test pin configured to engage the second test receptacle. The first test receptacle is electrically connected to the second test receptacle, and at least one of the first test pin and the second test pin is shorter in length than the one or more terminals.

  5. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  7. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... wiring Flashing of electric arcs from high-voltage power lines Lightning Machinery or occupational-related exposures Young ... a passenger in a vehicle struck by a power line, remain in it until help arrives unless ...

  8. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  9. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  10. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  11. International Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  12. Effects Of Environmental Electrical Charges On Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Handbook presents information on three kinds of disruptive effects of environmental electrical charges upon operations of electronic circuits and other sensitive equipment in spacecraft. Addresses surface and internal charging and discharging, single-event upsets, and related design issues.

  13. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  14. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  15. Electric vehicles; Getting the lead out

    SciTech Connect

    Siuru, B.

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that substantial differences can be seen in the latest crop of electric vehicles and the group that preceded it. First, the new electric cars wear the logos of the major automobile companies. They are also purpose-built, that is, they were designed to be powered by electricity. Most earlier vehicles had internal combustion engines that were replaced by batteries and electric motors. Purpose-built vehicles do not suffer from the problems that often occur when internal combustion engines are converted to electric propulsion. Most of the new electric cars are quite small; they are intended for urban commuting rather than cross-country touring or cargo hauling. Even so, they are more than basic transportation modules. Most perform decently, at least for urban travel, and incorporate conveniences and creature comforts expected in upscale automobiles.

  16. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  17. Electrical and Electronics Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Electrical and Electronics Technical Team’s (EETT's) mission is to enable cost-effective, smaller, lighter, and efficient power electronics and electric motors for electric traction drive systems (ETDSs) while maintaining performance of internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles. The EETT also identifies technology gaps, establishes R&D targets, develops a roadmap to achieve technical targets and goals, and evaluates the R&D progress toward meeting the established R&D targets and goals.

  18. London International Youth Science Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  19. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  20. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Stowe, Jennifer L.; Haycock, Ken; Dodd, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Presents three reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Canadian library trends, focusing on information technology and access to information and rights and examining provincial libraries and library education. (PEN)

  1. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  2. International energy annual, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  3. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  4. Electricity unplugged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  5. Electric Car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  6. International energy outlook 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  7. Electrical apparatus lockout device

    DOEpatents

    Gonzales, Rick

    1999-01-01

    A simple lockout device for electrical equipment equipped with recessed power blades is described. The device comprises a face-plate (12) having a threaded member (14) attached thereto and apertures suitable for accommodating the power blades of a piece of electrical equipment, an elastomeric nose (16) abutting the face-plate having a hole for passage of the threaded member therethrough and power blade apertures in registration with those of the face-plate, a block (20) having a recess (34) in its forward face for receiving at least a portion of the hose, a hole therein for receiving the threaded member and an integral extension (26) extending from its rear face. A thumb screw (22) suitable for turning with the hands and having internal threads suitable for engaging the threaded member attached to the face-plate is inserted into a passage in the integral extension to engage the threaded member in such a fashion that when the device is inserted over the recessed power blades of a piece of electrical equipment and the thumb screw (22) tightened, the elastomeric nose (16) is compressed between the face-plate (12) and the block (20) forcing it to expand laterally thereby securing the device in the recess and precluding the accidental or intentional energization of the piece of equipment by attachment of a power cord to the recessed power blades. Means are provided in the interval extension and the thumb screw for the attachment of a locking device (46) which will satisfy OSHA standards.

  8. Internal shim

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Blizinski, Theodore W.

    2003-05-13

    An internal shim used to accurately measure spaces in conjunction with a standard small probe has a shim top and a chassis. The internal shim is adjustably fixed within the space to be measured using grippers that emerge from the chassis and which are controlled by an arm pivotably attached to the shim top. A standard small probe passes through the shim along guides on the chassis and measures the distance between the exterior of the chassis and the boundary. By summing the measurements on each side of the chassis and the width of the chassis, the dimension of the space can be determined to within 0.001 inches.

  9. The Ampere and Electrical Standards

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, Randolph E.; Cage, Marvin E.; Tang, Yi-hua; Jeffery, Anne-Marie; Kinard, Joseph R.; Dziuba, Ronald F.; Oldham, Nile M.; Williams, Edwin R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some of the major contributions to metrology and physics made by the NIST Electricity Division, which has existed since 1901. It was one of the six original divisions of the National Bureau of Standards. The Electricity Division provides dc and low-frequency calibrations for industrial, scientific, and research organizations, and conducts research on topics related to electrical metrology and fundamental constants. The early work of the Electricity Division staff included the development of precision standards, such as Rosa and Thomas standard resistors and the ac-dc thermal converter. Research contributions helped define the early international system of measurement units and bring about the transition to absolute units based on fundamental principles and physical and dimensional measurements. NIST research has helped to develop and refine electrical standards using the quantum Hall effect and the Josephson effect, which are both based on quantum physics. Four projects covering a number of voltage and impedance measurements are described in detail. Several other areas of current research at NIST are described, including the use of the Internet for international compatibility in metrology, determination of the fine-structure and Planck constants, and construction of the electronic kilogram. PMID:27500018

  10. The Ampere and Electrical Standards.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, R E; Cage, M E; Tang, Y H; Jeffery, A M; Kinard, J R; Dziuba, R F; Oldham, N M; Williams, E R

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some of the major contributions to metrology and physics made by the NIST Electricity Division, which has existed since 1901. It was one of the six original divisions of the National Bureau of Standards. The Electricity Division provides dc and low-frequency calibrations for industrial, scientific, and research organizations, and conducts research on topics related to electrical metrology and fundamental constants. The early work of the Electricity Division staff included the development of precision standards, such as Rosa and Thomas standard resistors and the ac-dc thermal converter. Research contributions helped define the early international system of measurement units and bring about the transition to absolute units based on fundamental principles and physical and dimensional measurements. NIST research has helped to develop and refine electrical standards using the quantum Hall effect and the Josephson effect, which are both based on quantum physics. Four projects covering a number of voltage and impedance measurements are described in detail. Several other areas of current research at NIST are described, including the use of the Internet for international compatibility in metrology, determination of the fine-structure and Planck constants, and construction of the electronic kilogram. PMID:27500018

  11. Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  12. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  13. International Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three reports discuss the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; the Frankfurt Book Fair, focusing on electronics; and Canadian library trends, including resource sharing, technology projects, information policy, censorship, services for persons with disabilities, construction projects, and library education and…

  14. International Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Donald A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with a conceptual introduction to economic specialization, exports and imports, and the importance of international trade. Four instructional units follow this introduction, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit called "Traders and Travelers," which involves young students in five activities that illustrate our…

  15. Solar Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  16. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  17. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  18. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, R.

    1993-06-22

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  19. Designing competitive electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, H.P.; Huntington, H.

    1998-07-01

    This volume of papers, originally presented at Stanford in March 1997 in a conference sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, examines several questions about the restructuring and deregulation of electricity markets. Its stated goal is to present guiding principles for evaluating proposals to restructure the US electric power industry. While a collection of essays is perhaps not the best place to lay out guiding principles, the volume does contain a great deal of learning about restructuring. The first essay is a reprint of Paul Joskow's excellent article in the ``Journal of Economic Perspectives''. An essay by William Hogan on the debate between zonal and locational pricing is next. Paul Kleindorfer lists the various governance schemes which other countries that have restructured have used to govern system operation, access to the market for power, and transmission ownership and pricing. One difficulty with the book, as well as the debate in the US, is that it fails to draw adequately upon the international experience. Shmuel Oren lays out the potential areas over which an ISO could have authority. The chapter by Stephen Rassenti and Vernon Smith that bilateral trading should never be allowed, implying that a mandatory pool should be established. A reduction in regulation may increase the incentives for technological innovation. Martin Baughman suggests a number of ways by which costs of transmitting and storing electricity may be reduced. Robert Wilson returns to the volume with a chapter on institutional design. To end the volume, Hung-Po Chao and Stephen Peck present an extension of their earlier work in the ``Journal of Regulatory Economics'' showing how markets for transmission rights would work in a transmission grid of three points.

  20. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 12.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the international ultraviolet explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation test program was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. The 20 cells were manufactured for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cells are from a lot of 175 cells procured for the International Ultraviolet Explorer project. Due to a change in requirements, the project selected to use 6.0 ampere-hour cells. Therefore, the remaining cells of this lot have been placed in storage at GSFC for use on a future GSFC project. All the cells are rated at 12.0 ampere-hours and contain double ceramic seals. Test limits specify those values in which a cell is to be terminated from a particular charge or discharge. Requirements are referred to as normally expected values based on past performance of aerospace nickel cadmium cells with demonstrated life characteristics.

  1. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  2. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  3. Healthcare international.

    PubMed

    Hensley, S; Jaklevic, M C; Rauber, C; Weissenstein, E; Moore, J D; Shinkman, R; Pallarito, K; Katzman, C N; Hallam, K; Morrissey, J

    1998-11-01

    How people are treated when they need medical care depends on where in the world they are. In deciding which tools of the medical trade are used to treat disease and when they're used, location is paramount. A country's social policy, healthcare payment systems and cultural factors bear heavily on the utilization of medical technology. The cover story kicks off the magazine's third international healthcare section. PMID:10186352

  4. Rotary International.

    PubMed

    Young, Janis

    2008-01-01

    Rotary International is the oldest United States service organization and one of the largest volunteer groups in the world. There are hundreds of educational, health, and humanitarian activities, almost all of which are conducted locally in order to ensure that Rotary clubs meet the needs of the communities they serve. Club membership requires regular active participation and offers Rotarians multiple opportunities for involvement. PMID:18551844

  5. International cooperation.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    As the most densely populated country in the world, China actively conducts international exchanges and cooperation. It takes every opportunity to publicize its family planning policies and practices during international forums. Moreover, the country's State Family Planning Commission has been collaborating with the United Nations Population Fund in implementing health and family planning programs. This program covers public awareness campaigns, technical services, sex education for the youth, and social marketing. For years, China has also been cooperating with WHO in the area of family planning and reproductive health, and has established partnership with the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning. In addition, the State Family Planning Commission has worked with the Public Media Center of the US as well as with the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation in introducing "contraceptive methods by informed choice" and "male participation in family planning" in the rural areas of the country. China has also worked closely with many other developing countries on population issues. In October 1998, China collaborated with the Partners in Population and Development for a reporting mission that was attended by journalists from 11 countries.

  6. [Internal migration].

    PubMed

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  7. American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference. Proceedings (32nd, St. Louis, Missouri, April 9-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittgrund, Karen P., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the reports of almost 100 speeches, panel discussions, and workshops. The papers were presented on a variety of issues, including marketing research ethics, lifeline banking, information and the consumer, financial management, evaluating consumer education literature, consuming units around the world, the consumer and…

  8. Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute, 32nd, California State University, Sacramento, June 6, 7, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, F.H.; Thinh, N.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on heat transfer and fluid mechanics encompasses heat transfer measurement, fluid flow, aerospace propulsion systems, research in building energy use, wind turbines, and computer modeling of blood flow, turbulent boundary layers, and vortex-shedding flow meters. Specific issues addressed include liquid crystal techniques in experimental heat transfer, temperature measurements in a turbulent boundary layer, the effect of suction on the Falkner-Skan flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, buoyancy-opposing mixed convection in an inclined tube, a theory of frost formation, and the similarities between flow across tube bundles and flow through porous media. Other issues include computational studies of a reverse-flow circular combustor, the numerical simulation of shrouded propellers, acoustic-hydraulic interaction in a liquid jet, and a comparative study of single- and double-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbines.

  9. The Importance of Internal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gerst, Kacy; Moore, Randy A., Schaefer, Richard

    2015-02-10

    The story of an ARPA-E awardee doesn’t necessarily end when ARPA-E funding runs out. Two ARPA-E awardees—Eagle Picher Technologies and Baldor Electric Company—have developed technologies to the point where internal stakeholders of their respective companies committed additional funds to help these technologies achieve success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Kacy Gerst and interviews with technologists at Eagle Picher and Baldor, who each tell the story of how they achieved buy-in from their internal leadership to further develop their ARPA-E-funded technologies.

  10. Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Wadley, P; Howells, B; Železný, J; Andrews, C; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S; Martin, S Y; Wagner, T; Wunderlich, J; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Kuneš, J; Chauhan, J S; Grzybowski, M J; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T

    2016-02-01

    Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 10(6) ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics. PMID:26841431

  11. Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Wadley, P; Howells, B; Železný, J; Andrews, C; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S; Martin, S Y; Wagner, T; Wunderlich, J; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Kuneš, J; Chauhan, J S; Grzybowski, M J; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T

    2016-02-01

    Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 10(6) ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.

  12. Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, P.; Howells, B.; Železný, J.; Andrews, C.; Hills, V.; Campion, R. P.; Novák, V.; Olejník, K.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Martin, S. Y.; Wagner, T.; Wunderlich, J.; Freimuth, F.; Mokrousov, Y.; Kuneš, J.; Chauhan, J. S.; Grzybowski, M. J.; Rushforth, A. W.; Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.

    2016-02-01

    Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 106 ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.

  13. Internal combustion engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.E.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine control system apparatus. It comprises: carburetor venturi means flowing basic combustion air and having a induced fuel flow in the basic combustion air; carburetor by pass throttle valve means having a biased open position and causing and trimming the flow of supplementary combustion air parallel to and then into the basic combustion air for mixing; engine throttle valve means regulating the flow of a mixture of the supplementary combustion air and the basic combustion air with induced fuel flow for engine combustion; Separate electrical step motor means connected to the carburetor by-pass throttle valve means and to the engine throttle valve means; and pre-programmed microprocessor means connected to each of the electrical stepmotor means. The microprocessor means controlling one of the electrical stepmotor means and the trim positioning of the carburetor by-pass throttle valve means in response to sensed engine speed and sensed engine manifold pressure or throttle position conditions.

  14. Operating internationally

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    When Enron Power Corp. took over a 28 MW power facility at the former US Naval base in Subic Bay, the Philippines, the company was required to employ 139 people to run the plant. This large labor force was necessary not because of the plant's operational needs, but because of local labor practices and unemployment pressures. Independent power companies have become all too familiar with the high cost and complexity of developing projects in emerging international markets. Some of the most significant issues involve taxation, unfamiliar legal systems, changing regulations, and foreign investment restrictions. In addition, questions about currency exchange, national credit worthiness, and political stability add to the difficulty of international development. However, one of the most daunting challenges centers not on development, but on long-term operations and maintenance (O M). A key concern is finding qualified labor. Most developers and O M companies agree that local people should run the plant, with the top person, or persons, thoroughly trained in the developer's company philosophy.

  15. Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the atmosphere.

  16. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  17. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S F; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  18. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data on international energy indicators were tabulated and graphically represented. The following data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio.

  19. Consumer's electric car

    SciTech Connect

    Wakefield, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Offers fascinating details about electric cars, how they work, their construction, their power sources and complete information on future prospects. Topics include: design of electric vehicles - present and future; efficiency comparisons of electric and gasoline cars; electric car battery and charging systems; alternate motors and controls; troubleshooting an electric car; and other propulsion energies. 88 figures.

  20. 1985 international symposium on geothermal energy: international volume

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on geothermal electric power and discusses direct uses of geothermal energy. Country update reports are provided and international cooperation reports include topics such as: selected titles for a basic geothermal library, the role of the United Nations in the field of geothermal resources exploration in developing countries, and geothermal training at the International Institute for Geothermal research. International invited papers in this volume include: Hot Dry Rock--A European Perspective; A Summary of Modeling Studies of the East Okkaria Geothermal Field, Kenya; and The Latest Development of the Los Asufres Geothermal Field in Mexico. General papers are presented from Europe, the Western Pacific, Africa, North America, India, China, and Southeast Asia.

  1. Electrical Properties of Hydrous Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumonier, M.; Sifre, D.; Gaillard, F.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles strongly affect physical and chemical properties of magmas which are major vectors of mass and heat transfer in the Earth's. In subduction zones, hydrated melts prevail during the entire course of differentiation from basalts, andesites, dacites to rhyolites. Several electrical surveys obtained by magneto telluric investigations are currently deployed at subduction zones. The electrical conductivity of hydrous melts is however poorly constrained: so far only three studies have experimentally addressed this topic. Here, we show in situ electrical impedance of natural dacites, andesites (from Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia) and basaltic magmas obtained with a 4-wire set up in a piston cylinder and internally heated pressure vessel. The range of temperature (500 to 1300°C), pressure (0.3 to 2 Gpa), and the various water contents and crystal fractions covers the respective ranges occurring at natural conditions. First results show that the conductivity increases with the temperature, the melt fraction, and a slightly decreases with the pressure and the crystal fraction. The compilation of these results with previous studies (rhyolitic, phonolitic and basaltic compositions) will lead to a general model of the electrical properties of magmas. Such a model will help in (i) interpreting the electrical signature of natural magmas and (ii) constraining their conditions (chemical composition, temperature, pressure, water content, melt fraction) from the source to the storage location.

  2. Column internals

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    In the fields of distillation, absorption, stripping and extraction, theory and technology go hand in hand. The thermodynamic principles of phase equilibrium and the concepts of mass transfer and fluid flow are of primary importance in all of these operations. The engineer must understand these phenomena to select equipment effectively. This article discusses the latest in commercial technology in column internals for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid contacting. The principles of operation are explained vis-a-vis the characteristics of the applications in which they are used. The focus is on moderate-to-large columns for refining and chemical applications. Guidelines for selecting the most appropriate type of device are presented, and examples of typical applications are described.

  3. International energy outlook 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  4. 75 FR 6369 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Aquilon Power Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Aquilon Power Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer using international...

  5. Electric vehicles: Likely consequences of US and other nations` programs and policies

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Kwai-Cheung

    1994-12-30

    This report examines international electric vehicle development and commercialization programs. The study encompassed a review of current barriers to widespread electric vehicle implementation, field visits in seven nations and the United States to examine electric vehicle programs and policies, and analyses of electric vehicle effects on economics, energy, and the environment.

  6. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  7. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  8. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  9. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  10. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and Reference Prices for Calendar Year... in determining the availability of the credit for renewable electricity production, refined...

  11. Characterization of internal boundary layer capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H. D.; Payne, D. A.

    1980-05-01

    Internal boundary layer capacitors were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy and by microscale electrical measurements. Data are given for the chemical and physical characteristics of the individual grains and boundaries, and their associated electric and dielectric properties. Segregated internal boundary layers were identified with resistivities of 10/sup 12/-10/sup 13/ ..cap omega..-cm. Bulk apparent dielectric constants were 10,000-60,000. A model is proposed to explain the dielectric behavior in terms of an equivalent n-c-i-c-n representation of ceramic microstructure, which is substantiated by capacitance-voltage analysis.

  12. Concentric-annulus electrical capacitance tomography sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiamin; Li, Yi; Wang, Haigang; Ge, Ruihuan; Yang, Wuqiang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the unique shape (concentric-annulus) electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensors. This is motivated by the desire to improve the contrast and spatial resolution of the images reconstructed using ECT sensors with internal-external electrodes (IEEs). Both numerical simulation and experimental study were carried out with the goal of providing an improved understanding of the configuration of IEE sensors, the internal shield and the measurement strategies. Simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results. Using the linear back projection algorithm, the IEE sensor with 12 external electrodes and 4 internal electrodes with the external-opposite-internal measurement strategy can reconstruct high-quality images. In experimental studies, the internal shield may reduce the quality of capacitance measured from the internal electrodes.

  13. (Energy and electricity supply and demand)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1990-10-09

    At the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), representing eleven international agencies which are sponsoring the 1991 Helsinki Symposium on Electricity and the Environment, I traveled to Brussels to participate in the second meeting of one of four advisory groups established to prepare for the Symposium. At the meeting, I was involved in a review of a draft issue paper being prepared for the Symposium and of the Symposium program.

  14. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  15. International Education for Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moebius, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Describes an international trade education program offered by Waukesha (WI) County Technical College. The program includes international business principles, international marketing, cultural awareness, business Spanish, international documentation, transportation, and finance. (JOW)

  16. Overview of electrochemical power sources for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.

    1999-02-12

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles are being developed and commercialized around the world at a rate never before seen. These efforts are driven by the prospect of vehicles with lower emissions and higher fuel efficiencies. The widespread adaptation of such vehicles promises a cleaner environment and a reduction in the rate of accumulation of greenhouse gases, Critical to the success of this technology is the use of electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells, which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy more efficiently and quietly than internal combustion engines. This overview will concentrate on the work being conducted in the US to develop advanced propulsion systems for the electric and hybrid vehicles, This work is spearheaded by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) for electric vehicles and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicle (PNGV) for hybrid-electric vehicles, both of which can be read about on the world wide web (www.uscar.tom). As is commonly known, electric vehicles rely strictly on batteries as their source of power. Hybrid-electric vehicles, however, have a dual source of power. An internal combustion engine or eventually a fuel cell supplies the vehicle with power at a relatively constant rate. A battery pack (much smaller than a typical electric-vehicle battery pack) provides the vehicle with its fast transient power requirements such as during acceleration. This hybrid arrangement maximizes vehicle fuel efficiency. Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles will also be able to convert the vehicle's change in momentum during braking into electrical energy and store it in its battery pack (instead of lose the energy as heat). This process, known as regenerative braking, will add to the vehicle's fuel efficiency in an urban environment.

  17. THOR Electric Field Instrument - EFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Bale, Stuart D.; Bonnell, John W.; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Phal, Yamuna; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Soucek, Jan; Vaivads, Andris; Åhlen, Lennart

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) will measure the vector electric field from 0 to 200 kHz. EFI consists of two sets of sensors: Spin-plane Double Probes (EFI-SDP) providing high sensitivity DC electric field in the spacecraft spin plane (2D), and the High-Frequency Antenna (EFI-HFA) providing 3D electric field at frequencies above ~1 kHz. EFI-SDP consists of 4 biased spherical probes extended on 50 m long wire booms, 90 degrees apart in the spin plane, giving a 100 m baseline for each of the two spin-plane electric field components. EFI-HFA consists of 6 x 1.25 m long monopoles, forming 3 dipolar antennas crossed at 90 degrees to each other. In addition to the sensors, EFI contains HFA and SDP pre-amplifiers, as well as bias electronics boards (BEBs) hosted in the man electronics box of the Field and Wave processor (FWP). As THOR spacecraft has a sun-pointing spin axis, EFI-SDP measures the electric field in the plane approximately orthogonal to the sun using long wire booms. The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces errors due to wake effects and asymmetric photoelectron clouds, enabling the highly accurate in comparison to earlier missions ±0.1 mV/m near-DC electric field measurements. Interferometry using the electric field probes can be used to infer wavelengths and scale sizes at the smallest scales in the plasma. EFI also measures the floating potential of the satellite, which can be used to estimate the plasma density at very high time resolution (up to a few hundred Hz). The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces changes in the illuminated area, and hence the associated spin-dependent errors. In combination with densities derived from the observed plasma frequency emission line, EFI monitors the plasma density from DC to a few hundred Hz. EFI measurements characterize electric field and density variations associated with kinetic scale plasma

  18. Electricity in the Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampath, S.; Kumar, V. Sasi

    1991-01-01

    The theory of the atmospheric electric circuit and a discussion of the fair-weather electrical are presented. The ion concentration, mobility, conductivity, and electric field altitudinal profiles are explained. An outline of the electrical processes inside thunderstorms along with a description of the lightning strike are included. (Author)

  19. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... 400) including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 13857, 03-01-2013). The...; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production);...

  20. Science off the Sphere: Space Soundwaves II- Electric Didgeridoo

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit uses the station's vacuum cleaner and a shirt to make an electric Didgeridoo to test the behavior of non-newtonian fluids in the weigh...

  1. Effects of Radial Electric Fields on ICRF Waves

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. Phillips; J.C. Hosea; M. Ono; J.R. Wilson

    2001-06-18

    Equilibrium considerations infer that large localized radial electric fields are associated with internal transport barrier structures in tokamaks and other toroidal magnetic confinement configurations. In this paper, the effects of an equilibrium electric field on fast magnetosonic wave propagation are considered in the context of a cold plasma model.

  2. The changing face of international power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, I.

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  3. International energy annual 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-23

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and area of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and coal in selected countries. (VC)

  4. An international computer protocol standard is essential

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the need for the development of an international communication protocol to avoid building or buying customized interfaces or gateways in order to connect two separate vendor's devices to the same computer. The article discuss the need for standards and details one electric cooperative's experience in converting their automated mapping and facilities management system to EPRI sponsored Utility Communications Architecture.

  5. Battery Council International 107th convention

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contain papers which were presented at the 1995 Battery Council International Meeting. Topics include forecast reports for industrial batteries, Asia, Europe, and Latin America, electric vehicles, failure modes of batteries removed from service, and a 1994 battery shipment review and five year forecast.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  7. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  8. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of the…

  9. The Importance of Internal Development

    ScienceCinema

    Gerst, Kacy; Moore, Randy A., Schaefer, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The story of an ARPA-E awardee doesn’t necessarily end when ARPA-E funding runs out. Two ARPA-E awardees—Eagle Picher Technologies and Baldor Electric Company—have developed technologies to the point where internal stakeholders of their respective companies committed additional funds to help these technologies achieve success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Kacy Gerst and interviews with technologists at Eagle Picher and Baldor, who each tell the story of how they achieved buy-in from their internal leadership to further develop their ARPA-E-funded technologies.

  10. Transition in Internally Heated Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, Yuji; Yanagisawa, Takatoshi

    2005-11-01

    Natural convection induced by internal heat generation in a shallow fluid layer was investigated experimentally. Internal heat generation was realized by passing electric current through ionic liquid. Kalliroscope flakes and thermo-chromic liquid crystal were utilized to clarify a transition of the convection with respect to the Rayleigh number, RI. Visualized flow pattern at higher Rayleigh number show two types of deformed cell shape, double cell structure, which has a small cell in a large cell, and spoke like cell structure, where descending flow neat the center of a cell spread like a spoke. Visualized temperature field was converted to temperature field in order to investigate the transition quantitatively. Variation of horizontal temperature fluctuation with respect to RI may show critical Rayleigh number for the transition.

  11. Flex-gear electrical power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an alternative way of transferring electricity across a continuously rotating joint, with little wear and the potential for low electrical noise. The problems with wires, slip rings, electromagnetic couplings, and recently invented roll-rings are discussed. Flex-gears, an improvement of roll-rings, are described. An entire class of flexgear devices is developed. Finally, the preferred flex-gear device is optimized for maximum electrical contact and analyzed for average mechanical power loss and maximum stress. For a device diameter of six inches, the preferred device is predicted to have a total electrical contact area of 0.066 square inches. In the preferred device, a small amount of internal sliding produces a 0.003 inch-pound torque that resists the motion of the device.

  12. Can (electric-magnetic) duality be gauged?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2011-02-15

    There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: Can duality be gauged? The only known and battle-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turning on the coupling by deforming the Abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-Abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  16. Improved universal electrical connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Universal electrical connector for use with various types of electric cable, inserts, and pin styles is described. Connector may be used over variety of environmental conditions. Details of construction are discussed. Illustrations of connector are included.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  18. Electromechanically generating electricity with a gapped-graphene electric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressen, Donald; Golovchenko, Jene

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and operation of a gapped-graphene electric generator (G-GEG) device. The G-GEG generates electricity from the mechanical oscillation of droplets of electrolytes and ionic liquids. The spontaneous adsorption of ionic species on graphene charges opposing electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) on each half of the device. Modulating the area of contact between the droplet and graphene leads to adsorption/desorption of ions, effectively charging/discharging each EDLC and generating a current. The flow of current supports a potential difference across the G-GEG due to the device's internal impedance. Both the magnitude and polarity of the induced current and voltage show a strong dependence on the type of ionic species used, suggesting that certain ions interact more strongly with graphene than others. We find that a simple model circuit consisting of an AC current source in series with a resistor and a time-varying capacitor accurately predicts the device's dynamic behavior. Additionally, we discuss the effect of graphene's intrinsic quantum capacitance on the G-GEG's performance and speculate on the utility of the device in the context of energy harvesting.

  19. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  20. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  1. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  2. Electricity Serves Our Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Features a color poster entitled "Electricity Serves Our Community" and describes how the poster can be used to help teach about energy, electricity concepts, and types of electrical generation. Explains how teachers can obtain other resources such as posters, lesson plans, and kits from the National Energy Foundation. (PR)

  3. Electric Vehicle Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  4. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  6. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  7. Foundations of the International System of Units (SI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the events leading to the creation of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). Discusses how the units have been represented by their standards, and investigates how the original metric system evolved into the International System of Units (SI), focusing on the meter, second, kilogram, and electrical units. (SK)

  8. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  9. International Space Station technology demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

  10. The model electric restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.J.; Oatman, P.A. ); Claar, C.N. )

    1989-12-01

    Restaurants are the most intensive users of energy of all types of commercial buildings. As a result, they have some of the highest energy costs. New and existing restaurants are important customers to electric utilities. Many opportunities exist to use electricity to improve restaurant energy performance. This report discusses a project in which computer simulations were used to investigate restaurant energy subsystem performance and to assess the potential for electric equipment to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak demand improve load factors, and reduce energy cost in new all-electric restaurants. The project investigated typical restaurant designs for all-electric and gas/electric facilities and compared them to high efficiency electric options in all-electric restaurants. This analysis determined which investiments in high-efficiency electric equipment are attractive for restaurant operators. Improved equipment for food preparation, heating and cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and lighting subsystem was studied in cafeteria, full menu, fast food, and pizza restaurants in Atlanta, Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Phoenix. In addition to the actual rate structures, four synthetic rate structures were used to calculate energy costs, so that the results can be applied to other locations. The results indicate that high efficiency and improved all-electric equipment have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption, peak demand, and operating costs in almost all restaurants in all locations. The all-electric restaurants, with a combination of improved equipment, also offer the customer a competitive choice in fuels in most locations. 12 refs., 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  11. The internal dynamics of international migration systems.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, B

    1996-04-01

    "In this paper I provide a conceptualization of international migration networks, which can be used to identify and integrate the internal components of migration systems, and formalize the relationships in an analytic model of the internal network dynamic. With the use of the operationalized model, and microlevel and macrolevel data for guestworkers in Germany during the period 1970 to 1989, we can empirically test the relative influence of internal network variables versus external forces on the attraction of immigrants over time. The empirical results suggest that--as the system matures--network variables have an increasing impact on the attraction of immigrants, while the impact of economic factors declines. The research is concluded with a series of simulations that further highlight the internal dynamic of international migration systems."

  12. Plant electrical memory.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap.

  13. Economics of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, G.

    2015-08-01

    The following text is an introduction into the economic theory of electricity supply and demand. The basic approach of economics has to reflect the physical peculiarities of electric power that is based on the directed movement of electrons from the minus pole to the plus pole of a voltage source. The regular grid supply of electricity is characterized by a largely constant frequency and voltage. Thus, from a physical point of view electricity is a homogeneous product. But from an economic point of view, electricity is not homogeneous. Wholesale electricity prices show significant fluctuations over time and between regions, because this product is not storable (in relevant quantities) and there may be bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids. The associated non-homogeneity is the starting point of the economic analysis of electricity markets.

  14. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  15. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  16. Impact of electric cars on national energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, P. D.

    1980-02-01

    Energy utilization of electric vehicles is discussed in terms of energy efficiency in comparison to internal combustion engine automobiles, starting from oil or coal as the prime energy source. It is found that although an electric car does not save primary energy resources, it can transfer some of the transportation fuel needs from petroleum to coal, nuclear, or hydropower. With reference to the impact of electric vehicles on reduction of petroleum consumption, it is shown that the dependence of the United States on foreign oil can be reduced much more quickly and at much lower cost by converting electric utility boilers from oil to coal.

  17. Theme: International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of seven articles focusing on international agricultural education. Topics discussed include (1) international curriculum development, (2) programs for rural youth, (3) experiential training in international agriculture, (4) university/high school global exchange, (5) international development, and (5) the Association of International…

  18. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  19. CNQX and AMPA inhibit electrical synaptic transmission: a potential interaction between electrical and glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical synapses play an important role in signaling between neurons and the synaptic connections between many neurons possess both electrical and chemical components. Although modulation of electrical synapses is frequently observed, the cellular processes that mediate such changes have not been studied as thoroughly as plasticity in chemical synapses. In the leech (Hirudo sp), the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited transmission at the rectifying electrical synapse of a mixed glutamatergic/electrical synaptic connection. This CNQX-mediated inhibition of the electrical synapse was blocked by concanavalin A (Con A) and dynamin inhibitory peptide (DIP), both of which are known to inhibit endocytosis of neurotransmitter receptors. CNQX-mediated inhibition was also blocked by pep2-SVKI (SVKI), a synthetic peptide that prevents internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor. AMPA itself also inhibited electrical synaptic transmission and this AMPA-mediated inhibition was partially blocked by Con A, DIP and SVKI. Low frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) in both the electrical and chemical components of these synapses and this LTD was blocked by SVKI. GYKI 52466, a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, did not affect the electrical EPSP, although it did block the chemical component of these synapses. CNQX did not affect non-rectifying electrical synapses in two different pairs of neurons. These results suggest an interaction between AMPA-type glutamate receptors and the gap junction proteins that mediate electrical synaptic transmission. This putative interaction between glutamate receptors and gap junction proteins represents a novel mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic transmission. PMID:18601913

  20. Numerical modelling errors in electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Hamid; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2007-07-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive technique that aims to reconstruct images of internal impedance values of a volume of interest, based on measurements taken on the external boundary. Since most reconstruction algorithms rely on model-based approximations, it is important to ensure numerical accuracy for the model being used. This work demonstrates and highlights the importance of accurate modelling in terms of model discretization (meshing) and shows that although the predicted boundary data from a forward model may be within an accepted error, the calculated internal field, which is often used for image reconstruction, may contain errors, based on the mesh quality that will result in image artefacts.

  1. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  2. Integrated electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Ackler, Harold D.

    2005-05-24

    An electrical connector is formed from a sheet of electrically conductive material that lies in between the two layers of nonconducting material that comprise the casing of an electrical chip. The connector is electrically connected to an electrical element embedded within the chip. An opening in the sheet is concentrically aligned with a pair of larger holes respectively bored through the nonconducting layers. The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. However, the sheet is composed flexible material so that the opening adapts to the diameter of the pin when the pin is inserted therethrough. The periphery of the opening applies force to the sides of the pin when the pin is inserted, and thus holds the pin within the opening and in contact with the sheet, by friction. The pin can be withdrawn from the connector by applying sufficient axial force.

  3. Electrical system architecture

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  4. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  5. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  6. Surface electrical properties experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Gene; Strangway, David; Annan, Peter; Baker, Richard G.; Bannister, Lawrence; Brown, Raymon; Cooper, William; Cubley, Dean; deBettencourt, Joseph; England, Anthony W.; Groener, John; Kong, Jin-Au; LaTorraca, Gerald; Meyer, James; Nanda, Ved; Redman, David; Rossiter, James; Tsang, Leung; Urner, Joseph; Watts, Raymond

    1973-01-01

    The surface electrical properties (SEP) experiment was used to explore the subsurface material of the Apollo 17 landing site by means of electromagnetic radiation. The experiment was designed to detect electrical layering, discrete scattering bodies, and the possible presence of water. From the analysis of the data, it was expected that values of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of lunar material in situ would be obtained.

  7. Essays on electricity theft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Keva Ullanda

    Electricity theft is a relatively unknown crime with high economic costs. In this dissertation, I try to identify the factors that motivate persons to steal electricity. First, I use a panel dataset of 97 countries spanning the five year period 2003--2007 to estimate a model that describes the effect of the unemployment rate, GDP per capita, male population and urbanization on theft, robbery and homicide rates. The results are consistent with previous empirical work on crime and economic opportunity. The second and main contribution of this paper is to estimate the same model using distribution loss as a proxy for electricity theft. The results show that the unemployment rate, a key explanatory economic factor for crime, cannot explain variation in electricity theft, although there is some evidence, albeit weak, supporting correlation in rich countries. Therefore, policies that target the reduction of property crime through a reduction in unemployment will have no effect on electricity theft. The third contribution relates to the role that political institutions play in the incentives to steal electricity. After control for socioeconomic factors, I find that there is no relationship between political governance indicators and electricity theft. In the second and third chapters, I compare the United States, a high income, low electricity theft country with Jamaica, a middle income, high electricity theft country. The effect of unemployment on electricity theft mirrors the results found in the first chapter. In the United States, electricity theft is affected by changes in economic conditions but in Jamaica, it is not. These results suggest that the state of institutions plays a role in how social norms are determined. Poor countries will be more likely than rich countries to have weak institutions with social norms that encourage electricity theft.

  8. The earth's electrical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lighting, cloud and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind.

  9. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  10. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  11. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  12. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  13. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOEpatents

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  14. Electric vehicle's electricity consumption on a road with different slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Li, M.; Lin, Y.; Tang, T. Q.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model and an electricity consumption model to study the effects of the road's slope on the electric vehicle's electricity consumption. The numerical results show that each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's tilt angle and decreases with the downhill's tilt angle. In addition, each electric vehicle's electricity consumption increases with the uphill's (downhill's) length under a certain tilt angle.

  15. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  19. Polymers that Conduct Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Edward

    1983-01-01

    Although polymers are regarded as electrical insulators, it was discovered that they can be made to conduct electricity. This discovery has opened vast new practical and theoretical areas for exploration by physicists and chemists. Research studies with these conducting polymers and charge-transfer salts as well as possible applications are…

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  1. Electrical Work in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Business and Finance Branch.

    Most buildings rely on electricity for lighting, power, signals, and other communications. Electric energy is also used for heating and year-round thermal conditioning of spaces. Its ease of transmission, simple control and measurement, and relative safety make it a useful source of energy. This publication is intended to provide those persons…

  2. Electricity and Its Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with the use of electricity. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss consumer uses of electricity and understand increased usage and problems relating to needs for production expansion. Some topics covered are major…

  3. Electric Power Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold.

  4. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  5. Electrical Networks: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, S.; Youssef, M.; Scoglio, C.

    A world without electricity is beyond our imagination. Starting from the prehistoric times, man has made much progress in every walk of life. We have become accustomed to getting everything at the flick of a switch, touch of a button, or turn of a knob. While we have become so used to enjoying the benefits of electricity, it is not easy to imagine how electricity travels from its source to our homes and offices. It sometimes has to cover large distances through a complex network of transmission lines and power substations to provide us the facilities and entertainment that we take for granted. This network which transports electricity from the source to the consumers is called the electrical network. The electrical network is a collective term for different components such as transformers, transmission lines, substations, and different stages and sub-networks devoted to generation, transmission, and distribution. Sometimes, there may be sub-transmission and secondary distribution networks too. A simple schematic of an electric network is shown in Fig. 8.1. In the past decade, analysis of the electrical power system as a complex network has been an evolving and challenging topic of research.

  6. Basic Electricity. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    A primarily illustrated introduction to the basics of electricity is presented in this guide, the first of a set of four designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work. This guide is intended for the first-year student and provides mostly diagrams with accompanying defintions/information in three units, each covering one of…

  7. Problem Solving in Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

    Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

  8. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  9. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  10. Atoms to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to meet the national energy demand. Major topic areas discussed include: the role of nuclear power; the role of electricity; generating electricity with the…

  11. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  12. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  13. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  14. Electric Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having an annular discharge chamber housing an anode having a large surface area. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, a second electric propulsion thruster may be disposed in a cylindrical space disposed within an interior of the annulus.

  15. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  16. Static and Current Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Murtha, Kathy T.

    This is a copy of the script for the electrical relationships unit in an auto-tutorial physical science course for non-science majors, offered at the University of Maine at Orono. The unit includes 15 simple experiments designed to allow the student to discover various fundamental electrical relationships. The student has the option of reading the…

  17. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  19. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  20. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  1. Improving Internal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  2. Fishbone and internal kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, H.; Park, W.; Monticello, D.; Izzo, R.; White, R.; McGuire, K.; Manickam, J.; Goldston, R.

    1983-07-01

    The internal-kink mode, combined with neutral-beam heating and beam losses, appears to be responsible for the fishbone soft x-ray oscillations in PDX. Nonlinear simulations of both ideal and resistive kinks are presented and shown to be consistent with experimental observations. The internal kink may also be important in low-beta internal disruptions.

  3. Children and International Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Childhood Education International, Washington, DC.

    Developed as a plan of action in international education for teachers and students, this portfolio emphasizes the importance of developing a knowledge and appreciation of others, the acquaintance of resources for planning experiences of international understanding, and the participation in international programs to encourage an understanding of…

  4. Atmospheric Electricity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delory, G.; Farrell, W.

    2011-10-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is one compelling example in our solar system that should possess active electrical processes, where dust storms are known to occur on local, regional, and global scales. Laboratory experiments and simulations all indicate that these events are expected to generate substantial quasi-static electric fields via triboelectric (i.e., frictional) charging, perhaps up to the breakdown potential of the Martian atmosphere. However current observations of potential electrical activity on Mars from both ground-based and orbital platforms have yielded conflicting results. If present, significant atmospheric electricity could be an important source of atmospheric chemistry on Mars, and thus impact our understanding of the evolution of the atmosphere and its past or present astrobiological potential. Here we review the current state of understanding regarding atmospheric electricity on Mars, and discuss its implications pending the results of future measurements.

  5. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  6. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  7. A control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles based on extremum seeking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinçmen, Erkin; Aksun Güvenç, Bilin

    2012-02-01

    An energy management control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle based on the extremum-seeking method for splitting torque between the internal combustion engine and electric motor is proposed in this paper. The control strategy has two levels of operation: the upper and lower levels. The upper level decision-making controller chooses the vehicle operation mode such as the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, use of only the electric motor, use of only the internal combustion engine, or regenerative braking. In the simultaneous use of the internal combustion engine and electric motor, the optimum energy distribution between these two sources of energy is determined via the extremum-seeking algorithm that searches for maximum drivetrain efficiency. A dynamic programming solution is also obtained and used to form a benchmark for performance evaluation of the proposed method based on extremum seeking. Detailed simulations using a realistic model are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  8. Experimental study of the microbial fuel cell internal resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pei-Yuan; Liu, Zhong-Liang

    The internal resistance, including activation loss internal resistance (AIR), ohmic loss internal resistance (OIR) and concentration loss internal resistance (CIR), is an important parameter that determines the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The experimental investigations were completed to estimate the contributions of these three components to the internal resistance. The internal resistance is found to vary with electric current, although it is almost a constant for the current is within a certain region. The largest component of the internal resistance is CIR except for small currents. The AIR decreases quickly for small current and reduces its decreasing rate as the current increases and approaches to a constant. The OIR is constant over the whole current range. The experiments also disclose that increasing the limiting current and reducing the concentration loss are both important for improving the MFC performance.

  9. Galileo internal electrostatic discharge program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, P. L.; Plamp, G. H.; Robinson, P. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft which will orbit Jupiter in 1988 will encounter a very harsh environment of energetic electrons. These electrons will have sufficient energy to penetrate the spacecraft shielding, consequently depositing charges in the dielectric insulating materials or ungrounded conductors. The resulting electric field could exceed the breakdown strength of the insulating materials, producing discharges. The transients produced from these Internal Electrostatic Discharges (IESD) could, depending on their relative location, be coupled to nearby cables and circuits. These transients could change the state of logic circuits or degrade or even damage spacecraft components, consequently disrupting the operation of subsystems and systems of the Galileo spacecraft during its expected mission life. An extensive testing program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the potential threats associated with these IESD events. Data obtained from these tests were used to define design guidelines.

  10. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  11. Neurology and international organizations.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  12. Electricity comes to rural communities through solar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Because of the difficulty and cost of providing electric service to rural areas of developing countries, nearly two billion people still lack access to electricity. In the Dominican Republic, an exciting project using solar technology offers a practical approach to rural electrification, and promises a brighter future for many communities around the world. Since 1984, Enersol Associates Inc., a non-profit international development organization based in Latin America, has used solar technology and local resources to bring power and light to rural communities in the Dominican countryside that are beyond the existing electricity-distribution networks. Enersol provides technical training and business-development assistance to establish small local enterprises that supply and service solar-electric systems in rural communities. To make the systems affordable, Enersol establishes locally managed revolving loan funds which extend credit for system purchases. These funds provide an ongoing source of system financing, ensuring a sustainable, solar-based rural-electrification process. With proper training, local personnel can quickly acquire the skills needed to assemble, install, and maintain solar-electric systems. By combining technical training and small enterprise development with locally managed loan funds, this approach makes solar systems both available and affordable.

  13. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  14. Electricity from biogas

    SciTech Connect

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-12-31

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially {open_quotes}free{close_quotes} fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as {open_quotes}controlled landfilling{close_quotes}. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills.

  15. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  16. NASA electric propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Major portions of the NASA electric propulsion technology program have attained the level of maturity required to achieve near-term technology readiness for flight missions for primary and auxiliary propulsion application. Advanced electric propulsion program elements addressing less immediate requirements are in more exploratory stages. This paper will discuss the NASA electric propulsion technology program including - planetary and earth orbit raising applications, attitude control and stationkeeping of geosynchronous satellites, and the research support program. Objectives, requirements, and hardware status are presented for each program.

  17. Electrical futures past.

    PubMed

    Gooday, Graeme J N

    2005-12-01

    Futurist writing about technology emerged in the late 19th century at the same time as new kinds of electrical technology were making utopian futures seem practically attainable. Electrical writers and novelists alike thus borrowed from the popular "science" fiction of Jules Verne, Edward Bellamy and others to try to create self-fulfilling prophecies of a future in which electrical gadgets and machines met all major practical needs of civilization. To the extent that many parts of our world are populated by the hardware that they forecast, they succeeded in their goal.

  18. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  20. Modeling Longitude Dependence of Stormtime Low-Latitude Prompt-Penetration Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiro, R. W.; Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R. A.; Toffoletto, F.

    2011-12-01

    Transient large-scale electric fields of magnetospheric origin, known as prompt penetration electric fields, can strongly affect low-latitude ionospheric dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. We present results from a study of computed prompt penetration electric fields associated with rising solar cycle storms using a reformulated version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM), generalized to include arbitrary internal geomagnetic field. In this study we assume an IGRF internal magnetic field and an event-driven storm-time Tsyganenko external field to investigate longitude and By effects on the resulting pattern of low-latitude electric field penetration during periods of modest magnetic storms.

  1. Micromagnetic structure of the domain wall with Bloch lines in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borich, M. A.; Tankeev, A. P.; Smagin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The micromagnetic structure of the domain wall (DW) with periodically distributed horizontal Bloch lines in a ferromagnetic film in an external electric field has been studied. The effect of the electric field on the internal DW micromagnetic structure is caused by inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling. Possible scenarios of the DW internal structure transformations implemented with varying the electric fields strength have been analyzed in detail. For each scenario, static characteristics of the system, such as the energy, DW profile, DW effective thickness, and electric polarization have been calculated.

  2. Electrical Researches of Henry Cavendish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerk Maxwell, James; Cavendish, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; Account of Cavendish's writings on electricity; 1. First published papers on electricity; 2. Preliminary propositions; 3. Appendix; 4. Thoughts concerning electricity; 5. Account of the experiments; 6. Second published paper on electricity; 7. Experiments in 1771; 8. Experiments in 1772; 9. Index to electrical experiments, 1773; 10. Measures; 11. Experiments with the artificial torpedo; 12. Resistance to electricity; 13. Calibration of tubes; 14. Resistance of copper wire; 15. Result; 16. Results; Notes by the editor; Index.

  3. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  4. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Northrup, M. Allen

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  5. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  6. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  7. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  8. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Calle

    2000-11-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  9. Home Electrical Safety Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... wall, baseboard, etc) with nails or wire staples ? YES: Remove any nails and/or staples and replace damaged cords. ... shock (other than one from static electricity) from any appliance? YES: Do not touch the appliance until it has ...

  10. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  11. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  12. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  13. Electric flight systems, overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on electric flight systems are presented. Fuel consumption, the power plant assembly, flight control technology, electromechanical actuator systems and components of possible power systems are surveyed.

  14. Electric-hydraulic car

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.W.; Greene, H.

    1993-07-27

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having a chassis and at least one drive wheel, the propulsion system including in combination: a constant speed power source comprising an alternating current electric motor operated at a constant speed corresponding to its optimum performance; a source of energy comprising a storage battery and an inverter connected to the electric motor for operating the electric motor of the constant speed power source; a hydraulic fluid system including a main hydraulic pump coupled with the electric motor of the constant speed power source and driven thereby; at least one hydraulic drive motor coupled with the hydraulic pump for receiving fluid flow therefrom; and means for varying the fluid flow through the main hydraulic pump to vary the speed of operation of the hydraulic drive motor.

  15. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  16. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  18. Electrically charged targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  19. Electrical breakdown of nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiong; Sun, Hongyu; Dai, Sheng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    Instantaneous electrical breakdown measurements of GaN and Ag nanowires are performed by an in situ transmission electron microscopy method. Our results directly reveal the mechanism that typical thermally heated semiconductor nanowires break at the midpoint, while metallic nanowires breakdown near the two ends due to the stress induced by electromigration. The different breakdown mechanisms for the nanowires are caused by the different thermal and electrical properties of the materials.

  20. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOEpatents

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  1. Electric battery research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-16

    Electric-battery research programs are receiving less funding, and efforts have been made to phase out the still-unsuccessful effort to produce a commercially viable automotive battery. Lead-acid and nickel-iron batteries are top contenders for commercial applications, but a short life span continues to limit their usefulness. Until electric cars can compete (when gasoline approaches $2.50 a gallon) the market does not look hopeful. (DCK)

  2. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  3. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, J. M.; Harrison, R.; Poland, A.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Rabin, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882-83 and 1932-33, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. The IGY involved about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, from pole to pole to obtain simultaneous, global observations on Earth and in space. There had never been anything like it before. The fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year will occur in 2007. We propose to organize an international program of scientific collaboration for this time period called the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). Like it predecessors, the IHY will focus on fundamental global questions of Earth science.

  4. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. Fifty years later, the world s space science community will again come together for international programs of scientific collaboration: the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY), and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007. This time, research will extend out into the Heliosphere to focus on solar-terrestrial-planetary interactions. The ambitious plans for the IHY, eGY and IPY incorporate the activities of scientists in 191 nations, as well as the IGY Gold Historical Preservation initiative, plus a series of coordinated campaigns involving more than 100 instruments and models, education and public outreach programs, a developing nations instrument development program, and opportunities for supported research worldwide. The presentation will focus on the efforts and operations which will make these activities possible.

  5. More on duel purpose solar-electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. F.

    Rationale for such plants is reviewed and plant elements are listed. Dual purpose solar-electric plants would generate both electricity and hydrogen gas for conversion to ammonia or methanol or direct use as a fuel of unsurpassed specific power and cleanliness. By-product oxygen would also be sold to owners of hydrogen age equipment. Evolved gasses at high pressure could be fired in compressorless gas turbines, boilerless steam-turbines or fuel-cell-inverter hydrogen-electric power drives of high thermal efficiency as well as in conventional internal combustion engines.

  6. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  7. International environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a survey of the global international movement for protection of the human environment. It describes the expanding dimensions of international environmental policy, clarifies that policy's present status, and provides a record of events of continuing historical significance. The author calls attention to the need for international agreements and proposals for such vital global environmental issues as climate change, disintegration of the stratospheric ozone layer, and long-range trans-boundary air pollution.

  8. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  9. Ethics of international collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, KP; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Education and research together are vital components of academic institutions and globalization has improved health care education and research in numerous ways, one of which is multinational/transnational research/international collaboration. Usually academic institutions of high-income countries and institutions in low-income countries participate in collaboration. These collaborative research are guided by international ethics codes proposed by the international ethics committee to avoid stringent follow/unethical practices. PMID:25709946

  10. A conjugate thermo-electric model for a composite medium.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Oscar; Godínez, Francisco A; Beltrán, Alberto; García, Armando; Zenit, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transmission signals have been used for decades to characterize the internal structure of composite materials. We theoretically analyze the transmission of an electrical signal through a composite material which consists of two phases with different chemical compositions. We assume that the temperature of the biphasic system increases as a result of Joule heating and its electrical resistivity varies linearly with temperature; this last consideration leads to simultaneously study the electrical and thermal effects. We propose a nonlinear conjugate thermo-electric model, which is solved numerically to obtain the current density and temperature profiles for each phase. We study the effect of frequency, resistivities and thermal conductivities on the current density and temperature. We validate the prediction of the model with comparisons with experimental data obtained from rock characterization tests. PMID:24867618

  11. A conjugate thermo-electric model for a composite medium.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Oscar; Godínez, Francisco A; Beltrán, Alberto; García, Armando; Zenit, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transmission signals have been used for decades to characterize the internal structure of composite materials. We theoretically analyze the transmission of an electrical signal through a composite material which consists of two phases with different chemical compositions. We assume that the temperature of the biphasic system increases as a result of Joule heating and its electrical resistivity varies linearly with temperature; this last consideration leads to simultaneously study the electrical and thermal effects. We propose a nonlinear conjugate thermo-electric model, which is solved numerically to obtain the current density and temperature profiles for each phase. We study the effect of frequency, resistivities and thermal conductivities on the current density and temperature. We validate the prediction of the model with comparisons with experimental data obtained from rock characterization tests.

  12. A Conjugate Thermo-Electric Model for a Composite Medium

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Oscar; Godínez, Francisco A.; Beltrán, Alberto; García, Armando; Zenit, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Electrical transmission signals have been used for decades to characterize the internal structure of composite materials. We theoretically analyze the transmission of an electrical signal through a composite material which consists of two phases with different chemical compositions. We assume that the temperature of the biphasic system increases as a result of Joule heating and its electrical resistivity varies linearly with temperature; this last consideration leads to simultaneously study the electrical and thermal effects. We propose a nonlinear conjugate thermo-electric model, which is solved numerically to obtain the current density and temperature profiles for each phase. We study the effect of frequency, resistivities and thermal conductivities on the current density and temperature. We validate the prediction of the model with comparisons with experimental data obtained from rock characterization tests. PMID:24867618

  13. A review of electric propulsion systems and mission applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondra, R.; Nock, K.; Jones, R.

    1984-01-01

    The satisfaction of growing demands for access to space resources will require new developments related to advanced propulsion and power technologies. A key technology in this context is concerned with the utilization of electric propulsion. A brief review of the current state of development of electric propulsion systems on an international basis is provided, taking into account advances in the USSR, the U.S., Japan, West Germany, China and Brazil. The present investigation, however, is mainly concerned with the U.S. program. The three basic types of electric thrusters are considered along with the intrinsic differences between chemical and electric propulsion, the resistojet, the augmented hydrazine thruster, the arcjet, the ion auxiliary propulsion system flight test, the pulsed plasma thruster, magnetoplasmadynamic propulsion, a pulsed inductive thruster, and rail accelerators. Attention is also given to the applications of electric propulsion.

  14. Electric vehicle test report Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Vehicles were characterized for the state of the art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed.

  15. International Comparisions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    International Comparisions Database (Web, free access)   The International Comparisons Database (ICDB) serves the U.S. and the Inter-American System of Metrology (SIM) with information based on Appendices B (International Comparisons), C (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and D (List of Participating Countries) of the Comit� International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The official source of the data is The BIPM key comparison database. The ICDB provides access to results of comparisons of measurements and standards organized by the consultative committees of the CIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations.

  16. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  17. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  18. 78 FR 75332 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Electrical Steel from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 78 FR... International Trade Administration Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China... investigation on grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES) from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\...

  19. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  20. The international lithosphere program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinn, Edward A.

    The International Lithosphere Program is a new international interdisciplinary research program in the solid earth sciences that has been established by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) at the joint request of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). Its goal is a better understanding of the development of the earth, particularly those aspects upon which human society depends for its well-being.The International Lithosphere Program (ILP) is a natural sequel to a series of international cooperative projects in the geosciences that began with the International Geophysical Year in 1957-58 and continued with the Upper Mantle Project in the 1960's and the International Geodynamics Project (IGP) in the 1970's. In 1977, IUGG and IUGS established an inter-union task group to consider the possibility of a successor to the IGP for the 1980's. The task group, under cochairmen Carl Kisslinger (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado), foreign secretary of the American Geophysical Union, and J. Henning Illies (Geophysical Institute, University of Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany), invited suggestions and comments from the two unions and the national committees in the member countries. Their report, which was completed late in 1978, proposed a new project on the dynamics, origin, and evolution of the lithosphere. This proposal was approved by the IUGS Executive Committee in December 1979 and by the IUGS Council in June 1980. An inter-union steering committee, established in 1979 under the joint chairmanship of Kisslinger and Illies, developed the organizational framework and constitution of the new program. These were approved by resolution of the ICSU Governing Board in September 1980, and the Inter-Union Commission on the Lithosphere (ICL) was established to implement the program. National members of ICSU were urged to establish

  1. Measurements of middle-atmosphere electric fields and associated electrical conductivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, L. C.; Croskey, C. L.; Mitchell, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple antenna for measuring the vertical electric field in the 'middle atmosphere' has been flown on a number of rocket-launched parachute-borne payloads. The data from the first nine such flights, launched under a variety of geophysical conditions, are presented, along with electrical conductivities measured simultaneously. The data include indications of layered peaks of several volts per meter in the mesospheric field at high and low latitudes in situations of relatively low conductivity. During an auroral 'REP' event the electric field reversed direction in the lower stratosphere, accompanied by a substantial enhancement in conductivity. The data generally do not confirm speculations based only on the extension of the thunderstorm circuit from below or the mapping of ionospheric and magnetospheric fields from above, but seem to require, in addition, internal generation processes in the middle atmosphere.

  2. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  3. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  4. International Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Richard F.

    In response to global changes and a growing focus on international affairs, Foothill and De Anza Colleges have developed a number of international education programs. Since their beginnings, both colleges have hosted full-time students from other countries under the F-1 Visa Program. Another program, Campus Abroad, is a partnership arrangement…

  5. International Education (Working Paper).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruson, Edward S.

    The history, objectives, and funding patterns for international education are discussed. Attention is directed toward the language and area study centers of the U.S. Office of Education, undergraduate/graduate and scholarly exchange programs, and the support of advanced research in international studies. The main source of funds for language and…

  6. Discipline and Internalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Martin L.

    1994-01-01

    Although Grusec and Goodnow make interesting suggestions concerning discipline variables that may affect internalization, their ideas are not integrated into a theory, and their definition of internalization is limited because parent-child similarity may result from children's attributing their values to parents. A theory linking discipline and…

  7. Teaching International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, James M.

    The accelerated pace of society suggests that social education be clearly formulated from a conceptual golobal framework, recognizing the oneness of earth and man's sharing of a common fate, and that the curriculum be designed from a point of view toward improving international understanding. Effective approaches in international relations…

  8. BWR internal cracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.E. Jr.; Lund, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    The regulatory issues associated with cracking of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals is being addressed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and is the subject of a voluntary industry initiative. The lessons learned from this effort will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals cracking issues.

  9. Internal Evaluation, Historically Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathison, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzes the growth and nature of internal evaluation from the 1960s to the present and suggests that internal evaluation has been on the increase because of its perceived importance. Although the 1960s were characterized by a rich intellectual development of evaluation theory and practice, the fiscal conservatism of the 1980s ushered…

  10. International. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Dee Anna, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on international issues from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "The Management of Technological Change within Faculties in International American Schools" (Martine Audeoud); (2) "Going Global: Using a Website Development Project To Teach Technology…

  11. Alberta's International Education Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Learning and Teaching Resources Branch.

    Globalization is driving rapid change in knowledge, skills, and innovation. The economic well-being of future generations of Albertans depends on investment in education today to ensure that the knowledge and skills acquired continues to be in demand in international communities. International student recruitment in both the basic education and…

  12. The International Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Jeanne Marcum, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Looks at the missions and goals of the International Assembly of the National Council of Teachers of English, a global multicultural network promoting communication and cooperation for international exchange of teaching practices, literature, literacy, curriculum development, and research in English. Suggests some criteria to look at when…

  13. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  14. Electrical capacitance clearanceometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, Norbert J. (Inventor); Hornbeck, Charles E. (Inventor); Young, Joseph C. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A hot gas turbine engine capacitive probe clearanceometer is employed to measure the clearance gap or distance between blade tips on a rotor wheel and its confining casing under operating conditions. A braze sealed tip of the probe carries a capacitor electrode which is electrically connected to an electrical inductor within the probe which is inserted into a turbine casing to position its electrode at the inner surface of the casing. Electrical power is supplied through a voltage controlled variable frequency oscillator having a tuned circuit in which the probe is a component. The oscillator signal is modulated by a change in electrical capacitance between the probe electrode and a passing blade tip surface while an automatic feedback correction circuit corrects oscillator signal drift. A change in distance between a blade tip and the probe electrode is a change in capacitance therebetween which frequency modulates the oscillator signal. The modulated oscillator signal which is then processed through a phase detector and related circuitry to provide an electrical signal is proportional to the clearance gap.

  15. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  16. The model electric restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, D.J.; Oatman, P.A. ); Claar, C.N. )

    1990-12-01

    Starting in December 1987, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern California Edison (SCE) initiated a project with the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) to study the energy performance of restaurants. Penn State formed the Restaurant Subsystems Technology (REST) project team to conduct the Model Restaurant Project. For the first phase of the project, the REST team was charged with the responsibility of identifying and investigating electric technologies to improve energy efficiency and to reduce peak demand in new restaurants. Energy and economic analyses were performed to determine whether these electric technologies are competitive with existing technologies in gas/electric restaurants and whether they are improvements to current technologies in all-electric restaurants. Technologies for heating and cooling, lighting, sanitation, food preparation, ventilation, and refrigeration were studied. This report contains detailed monthly information about the restaurants that were simulated. The results are presented on a monthly basis so the reader can study performance during all seasons. However, this second volume is not a stand alone'' document. To fully understand the information presented here, the reader must have a copy of Volume 1 and be familiar with the terminology used to describe the various restaurants and the process used to analyze the buildings.

  17. Solar electric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warfield, G.

    Subjects discussed in connection with solar electricity are related to solar radiation fundamentals, wind electric conversion and utilization, the basic theory of solar cells, photovoltaic materials, photovoltaic technology, components of solar thermal electric systems, solar thermal power plants, and integrated solar thermal electric complexes. The solar technology development in the Arab world is also examined, taking into account the horizon of solar energy in the Arab countries, solar energy activities at the Scientific Research Council in Iraq, solar energy activities at the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan, the solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, application of solar energy in Libya, prospects of solar energy for Egypt, solar energy programs in Qatar, performance characteristics of a 350 kW photovoltaic power system for Saudi Arabian villages, nonconventional energy in Syria, wind and solar energies in Sudan, solar electric research and development program in Tunisia, and solar energy research and utilization in Yemen Arab Republic. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  18. Cancer from internal emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of {sup 226}Ra or medical injections of {sup 224}Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes.

  19. An Education in Electrical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching electrical safety guidelines in the process of teaching the concepts related to electricity. Discusses household current; electrical insulation; and examples of electrical safety in the home related to appliances, the bathroom, the yard and the neighborhood. (10 references) (MDH)

  20. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  2. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. [Polish regulations on maximum admissible intensities for electric and magnetic frequencies of 60 Hz and the European Union recommendations for electrical power engineering].

    PubMed

    Groszko, Marian

    2003-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields of 50 Hz from electric power devices affect not only workers, but also the general population, as these devices are also located in populated areas, hence the duality of regulations on maximum admissible intensities. This paper presents these regulations and discusses in detail the changes of 2001. Based on the Polish regulations, hygienic evaluation of electric power devices has been attempted. The Polish regulations on the 50 Hz electromagnetic fields were compared with relevant international regulations of CENELEC and the European Union recommendations. Our maximum admissible intensities have been found to conform with the international standards.

  4. Galena Electric Power A Situational Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Chaney; Stephen G. Colt; Ronald A. Johnson; Richard W. Wiles; Gregory J. White

    2008-12-31

    The purpose of the investigation is to compare the economics of various electrical power generation options for the City of Galena. Options were assessed over a 30-year project period, beginning in 2010, and the final results were compared on the basis of residential customer electric rates ($/kWh). Galena's electric utility currently generates power using internal combustion diesel engines and generator sets. Nearby, there is an exposed coal seam, which might provide fuel for a power plant. Contributions to the energy mix might come from solar, municipal solid waste, or wood. The City has also been approached by Toshiba, Inc., as a demonstration site for a small (Model 4S) nuclear reactor power plant. The Yukon River is possibly a site for in-river turbines for hydroelectric power. This report summarizes the comparative economics of various energy supply options. This report covers: (1) thermal and electric load profiles for Galena; (2) technologies and resources available to meet or exceed those loads; (3) uses for any extra power produced by these options; (4) environmental and permitting issues and then; and (5) the overall economics of each of the primary energy options.

  5. International Symposium on Karst Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, William

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) joined the Hacettepe University of Ankara, Turkey, in sponsoring the International Symposium on Karst Water Resources. The other sponsors of the symposium were the Karst Water Resources Research Center Project of Hacettepe University and the United Nations Development Program through the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, in addition to the following government organizations of Turkey: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, State Hydraulic, Works (DSI), General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) and Geological Engineering Department of the Engineering Faculty and Karst Hydrogeology Research Group (KRG) at the Hacettepe University Earth Sciences Application and Research Center. Cooperating organizations included the Turkish National Committee of the International Hydrological Program, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the International Water Resources Association (IWRA). The symposium was divided into two parts: a paper presentation session held at the new Turkish National Library in Ankara during July 7-12, 1985, and a field trip from Ankara through Konya and Antalya to Izmir during July 13-18. The symposium chairman was Gultekin Gunay of the Hydrogeological Engineering Department of Ankara's Hacettepe University, and the cochairman was A. Ivan Johnson, a water resources consultant from Denver, Colo., and editor of WaterWatch. Scientists from 27 countries were represented among the 200 or so participants in attendance.

  6. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  7. Simple Electric Vehicle Simulation

    1993-07-29

    SIMPLEV2.0 is an electric vehicle simulation code which can be used with any IBM compatible personal computer. This general purpose simulation program is useful for performing parametric studies of electric and series hybrid electric vehicle performance on user input driving cycles.. The program is run interactively and guides the user through all of the necessary inputs. Driveline components and the traction battery are described and defined by ASCII files which may be customized by themore » user. Scaling of these components is also possible. Detailed simulation results are plotted on the PC monitor and may also be printed on a printer attached to the PC.« less

  8. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  9. Electrically silent magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, B J; Wikswo, J P

    1986-01-01

    There has been a significant controversy over the past decade regarding the relative information content of bioelectric and biomagnetic signals. In this paper we present a new, theoretical example of an electrically-silent magnetic field, based on a bidomain model of a cylindrical strand of tissue generalized to include off-diagonal components in the conductivity tensors. The physical interpretation of the off-diagonal components is explained, and analytic expressions for the electrical potential and the magnetic field are found. These expressions show that information not obtainable from electrical potential measurements can be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field in systems with conductivity tensors more complicated than those previously examined. PMID:3779008

  10. Electric power emergency handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Labadie, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Emergency Electric Power Administration's Emergency Operations Handbook is designed to provide guidance to the EEPA organization. It defines responsibilities and describes actions performed by the government and electric utilities in planning for, and in operations during, national emergencies. The EEPA Handbook is reissued periodically to describe organizational changes, to assign new duties and responsibilities, and to clarify the responsibilities of the government to direct and coordinate the operations of the electric utility industry under emergencies declared by the President. This Handbook is consistent with the assumptions, policies, and procedures contained in the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness. Claimancy and restoration, communications and warning, and effects of nuclear weapons are subjects covered in the appendices.

  11. Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.

  12. Study on temperature distribution effect on internal charging by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Internal charging (or deep dielectric charging) is a great threaten to spacecraft. Dielectric conductivity is an important parameter for internal charging and it is sensitive to temperature. Considering the exposed dielectric outside a spacecraft may experience a relatively large temperature range, temperature effect can't be ignored in internal charging assessment. We can see some reporters on techniques of computer simulation of internal charging, but the temperature effect has not been taken into accounts. In this paper, we realize the internal charging simulation with consideration of temperature distribution inside the dielectric. Geant4 is used for charge transportation, and a numerical method is proposed for solving the current reservation equation. The conductivity dependences on temperature, radiation dose rate and intense electric field are considered. Compared to the case of uniform temperature, the internal charging with temperature distribution is more complicated. Results show that temperature distribution can cause electric field distortion within the dielectric. This distortion refers to locally considerable enlargement of electric field. It usually corresponds to the peak electric field which is critical for dielectric breakdown judgment. The peak electric field can emerge inside the dielectric, or appear on the boundary. This improvement of internal charging simulation is beneficial for the assessment of internal charging under multiple factors.

  13. Positive fractional linear electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorek, Tadeusz

    2013-10-01

    The positive fractional linear systems and electrical circuits are addressed. New classes of fractional asymptotically stable and unstable electrical circuits are introduced. The Caputo and Riemann-Liouville definitions of fractional derivatives are used to analysis of the positive electrical circuits composed of resistors, capacitors, coils and voltage (current) sources. The positive fractional electrical and specially unstable different types electrical circuits are analyzed. Some open problems are formulated.

  14. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  15. Electrical Percolation Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of “electrical percolation”. In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a “gate” and SEB as an “actuator”, it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create “Biological Central Processing Units (CPUs)” with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously. PMID:24041756

  16. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  17. Internal resonance for nonlinear vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, D. X.; Leadenham, S.; Erturk, A.

    2015-11-01

    The transformation of waste vibration energy into low-power electricity has been heavily researched over the last decade to enable self-sustained wireless electronic components. Monostable and bistable nonlinear oscillators have been explored by several research groups in an effort to enhance the frequency bandwidth of operation. Linear two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) configurations as well as the combination of a nonlinear single-DOF harvester with a linear oscillator to constitute a nonlinear 2-DOF harvester have also been explored to develop broadband energy harvesters. In the present work, the concept of nonlinear internal resonance in a continuous frame structure is explored for broadband energy harvesting. The L-shaped beam-mass structure with quadratic nonlinearity was formerly studied in the nonlinear dynamics literature to demonstrate modal energy exchange and the saturation phenomenon when carefully tuned for two-to-one internal resonance. In the current effort, piezoelectric coupling and an electrical load are introduced, and electromechanical equations of the L-shaped energy harvester are employed to explore primary resonance behaviors around the first and the second linear natural frequencies for bandwidth enhancement. Simulations using approximate analytical frequency response equations as well as numerical solutions reveal significant bandwidth enhancement as compared to a typical linear 2-DOF counterpart. Vibration and voltage responses are explored, and the effects of various system parameters on the overall dynamics of the internal resonance-based energy harvesting system are reported.

  18. Design considerations in an efficient electric motorcycle

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed-Nour, H.I.; Quigley, J.W.; Das, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents the design procedure and experimental evaluation of an economical electric motorcycle. A commercial motorcycle, powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE), has been converted to run an on a dc electric motor fed by batteries. A theoretical model has been developed and applied for predicting the motorcycle performance. After conversion, the motorcycle was thoroughly tested on surface streets as well as on highways. The performance results obtained from these road tests have been compared with those predicted based on the theoretical model and a strong correlation was found. Other energy conversion schemes may be used to convert existing ICE based transportation systems to battery based transportation systems that will meet zero emission standards.

  19. Valve operating mechanism for internal combustion and like-valved engines

    SciTech Connect

    Moloney, P.J.

    1986-06-10

    A valve operating mechanism is described for an internal combustion engine comprising of a piezo-electric actuating device arranged to drive an engine valve opening directly into a combustion chamber by the expansion of the piezo-electric actuating device such that expansion of the piezo-electric actuating device provides the sole motive force for opening the valve and control means to control an electrical feed to the piezo-electric actuating device in accordance with parameters of engine operation fed to it.

  20. Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  3. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Without doubt, the electrical signaling is costly, and the possible co-existence of such type of signals and photosynthesis in plant cell is discussed. PMID:21558815

  4. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  5. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  6. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  8. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  9. Solar electric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, G.

    1984-01-01

    Electricity from solar sources is the subject. The state-of-the-art of photovoltaics, wind energy and solar thermal electric systems is presented and also a broad range of solar energy activities throughout the Arab world is covered. Contents, abridged: Solar radiation fundamentals. Basic theory solar cells. Solar thermal power plants. Solar energy activities at the scientific research council in Iraq. Solar energy program at Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Prospects of solar energy for Egypt. Non-conventional energy in Syria. Wind and solar energies in Sudan. Index.

  10. Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Ashok; Coutts, Timothy J.; Luther, Joachim

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology is a promising new means for the direct conversion of thermal to electric energy. Its potential applications range from military power, to space propulsion, to commercial products for market niches in auxiliary power sources, co-generation of electricity and heat, and high temperature waste heat utilization. The papers in this conference volume are divided into broad sections based on topic as follows: (a) systems and modeling on the performance of the latest TPV systems and current modeling efforts (b) emitter and filter technologies on optical cavity spectral control for energy recuperation, (c) photovoltaic device technologies based on antimony and InGaAs based cell designs.

  11. Electric versus hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This volume records the proceedings of a conference organised by the Engineering Manufacturing Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include high performance position control - a review of the current state of developments; hydrostatic drives - present and future; electric drives - present and future trends; electrical and hydraulic drives for heavy industrial robots; the development of an electro-mechanical tilt system for the advanced passenger train; industrial hydraulic ring mains - effective or efficient. the comparison of performance of servo feed-drive systems; overhead crane drives; the future of d.c. servodrives; the choice of actuator for military systems; linear electro-hydraulic actuators; and actuation for industrial robots.

  12. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  13. Wave Motion Electric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, E. F.; Winkler, R. J.

    1983-12-27

    Set out herein is an electrical generator conformed for installation in a buoy, the generator comprising an inverted pendulum having two windings formed at the free end thereof and aligned to articulate between two end stops each provided with a magnetic circuit. As the loops thus pass through the magnetic circuit, electrical current is induced which may be rectified through a full way rectifier to charge up a storage battery. The buoy itself may be ballasted to have its fundamental resonance at more than double the wave frequency with the result that during each passing of a wave at least two induction cycles occur.

  14. Radio-frequency and microwave energies, magnetic and electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelson, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of radio frequency, including microwave, radiation are considered. Effects on body temperature, the eye, reproductive systems, internal organs, blood cells, the cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system are included. Generalized effects of electric and magnetic fields are also discussed. Experimentation with animals and clinical studies on humans are cited, and possible mechanisms of the effects observed are suggested.

  15. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  16. The internationalization of the American electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R.W.

    1990-08-02

    This article discusses the need for the electric utility to prepare to take advantage of international business opportunities. Also discussed are areas which utilities need to consider. These are strategic planning; foreign financing of utility-related projects; acquisitions, joint ventures, original equipment manufacturers' arrangements, and direct investment; nonutility generation; nuclear safety and management practices; power plant construction; and investment in foreign utilities.

  17. Waves: Internal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Oceanic internal tides are internal waves with tidal periodicities. They are ubiquitous throughout the ocean, although generally more pronounced near large bathymetric features such as mid-ocean ridges and continental slopes. The internal vertical displacements associated with these waves can be extraordinarily large. Near some shelf breaks where the surface tides are strong, internal displacements (e.g., of an isothermal surface) can exceed 200 meters. Displacements of 10 meters in the open ocean are not uncommon. The associated current velocities are usually comparable to or larger than the currents of the surface tide. On continental shelves internal tides can occasionally generate packets of internal solitons, which are detectable in remote sensing imagery. Other common nonlinear features are generation of higher harmonics (e.g., 6-hr waves) and wave breaking. Internal tides are known to be an important energy source for mixing of shelf waters. Recent research suggests that they may also be a significant energy source for deep-ocean mixing.

  18. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  19. Internal tide oceanic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  20. Electricity and the environment: Building partnerships through technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, K.E.; Torrens, I.

    1995-12-01

    The vision for electricity in the world today transcends its role as just an energy medium and focuses on its ability to furnish ever greater productivity of labor, capital and primary energy resources. Its efficiency and precision, through innovative technology, have become essential assets for resolving the interrelated economic, environmental and energy security issues facing the world. As a result, electricity has become a major differentiating factor in the global economy. For example, the fraction of all primary energy converted to electricity is typically used as a rough indication of regional prosperity. This index reflects the importance of electricity in both creating and harvesting technological innovation. Electricity`s advantages in focusing and amplifying physical power during the first century are being complemented in the second by its even greater advantages for focusing and amplifying the power of knowledge. As its importance grows, electricity will likely expand in the next half-century to provide over half the world`s energy demands while providing the means for the most effective conservation of natural resources. Collaborative R&D organizations such as EPRI are acting as new catalysts and partners to transfer technology on a world-wide basis. With respect to Central and Eastern Europe, this effort focuses on new, more cost-effective innovations for the generation and delivery of electricity because obsolete and inefficient technology is contrary to our mutual interest in achieving efficient and sustainable economic development. EPRI stands ready to assist in this international endeavor.

  1. Diagnostic criteria for mass lesions differentiating in electrical impedance mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Karpov; M, Korotkova

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the diagnostic criteria for differentiating volumetric lesions in the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography. The research was carried out utilizing the electrical impedance computer mammograph llMEIK v.5.6gg®, which enables to acquire images of 3-D conductivity distribution layers within mamma's tissues up to 5 cm depth. The weighted reciprocal projection method was employed to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. The results of 3,710 electrical impedance examinations were analyzed. The analysis of a volumetric lesion included assessment of its shape, contour, internal electrical structure and changes of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, mammary gland status was evaluated with the help of comparative and age-related electrical conductivity curves. The diagnostic chart is provided. Each criterion is measured in points. Using the numerical score for evaluation of mass and non-volumetric lesions within the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography allowed comparing this information to BI-RADS categories developed by American College of Radiology experts. The article is illustrated with electrical impedance mammograms and tables.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  3. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaspy, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  4. An electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the relationships between the macro and micro variables of traffic flow to develop an electricity consumption model for electric vehicular flow. We use the proposed model to study the quantitative relationships between the electricity consumption/total power and speed/density under uniform flow, and the electricity consumptions during the evolution processes of shock, rarefaction wave and small perturbation. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can perfectly describe the electricity consumption for electric vehicular flow, which shows that the proposed model is reasonable.

  5. 1985 Nuclear Science Symposium, 32nd, and 1985 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems, 17th, San Francisco, CA, October 23-25, 1985, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference ranges over topics in high energy physics instrumentation, detectors, nuclear medical applications, health physics and environmental monitoring, reactor instrumentation, nuclear spacecraft instrumentation, the 'Fastbus' data acquisition system, circuits and systems for nuclear research facilities, and the development status of nuclear power systems. Specific attention is given to CCD high precision detectors, a drift chamber preamplifier, a Cerenkov ring imaging detector, novel scintillation glasses and scintillating fibers, a modular multidrift vertex detector, radial wire drift chambers, liquid argon polarimeters, a multianode photomultiplier, the reliability of planar silicon detectors, the design and manufacture of wedge and strip anodes, ultrafast triode photodetectors, photomultiplier tubes, a barium fluoride plastic scintillator, a fine grained neutron hodoscope, the stability of low leakage silicon photodiodes for crystal calorimeters, and X-ray proportional counters. Also considered are positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Geiger-Muller detectors, nuclear plant safeguards, a 32-bit Fastbus computer, an advanced light water reactor, and nuclear plant maintenance.

  6. Annual report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (32nd).administative report including Technical Report nos. 834 to 862

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    Report includes the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics letter of submittal to the President, summaries of the committee's activities and research accomplished, bibliographies, and financial report.

  7. Association of Small Computer Users in Education: Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference (32nd, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 13-17, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    Topics addressed by papers in this proceedings include: World Wide Web-based collaborative learning; using Microsoft Outlook Web access to provide e-mail service on public access computers; helping faculty use technology; installing and maintaining an Internet Service Provider; the role of the Web in enhancing learning; current and future trends…

  8. The Thesaurus in Action: Background Information for a Thesaurus Workshop at the Annual Convention of the American Society for Information Science (32nd, San Francisco, California, October 1969.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Parmely C.; And Others

    Five facets of background information are intended to be helpful to persons interested in the construction and use of a thesaurus, in the sense of a standardized language for communication with and between information storage and retrieval systems. Based on the Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms (TEST) as an example: (1) the thesaurus…

  9. Commission of Professors of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (32nd, Washington, D.C., October 19-21, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of Professors of Adult Education.

    These proceedings contain presentations and other materials from a conference that focused on the past, present, and future of graduate study in adult education. They begin with the first General Session, a dialogue consisting of reflections on the genesis of graduate study in adult education in North America by Cyril Houle, Malcolm Knowles, and…

  10. Adult Education Development and the NAEP. Report of the All India Adult Education Conference (32nd, Amritsar, India, October 7-9, 1979). Series No. 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Adult Education Association, New Delhi.

    This publication contains the proceedings of a conference held to discuss adult education and the National Adult Education Programme (NAEP) in India. Four major addresses are included in the booklet, along with references to other speeches, group discussion reports, resolutions, and recommendations. Inaugurating the conference, Shri J.J. Kidwai…

  11. Education: A Moral Enterprise. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the South Atlantic Philosophy of Education Society (32nd, Durham, North Carolina, October 16-17, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craver, Samuel M., Ed.

    The following papers were presented at this meeting: (1) "The Moral Import of the Concept of Education" (Robert D. Heslep) Response: J. Gordon Chamberlin; (2) "Religion and Public Education: Formulating a Rational Legacy" (William F. Losito) Response: James W. Garrison; (3) "Using Scientific Logic To Reconcile Theism and Secular Humanism as…

  12. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (32nd, Louisville, KY, 2009). Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    For the thirty-second year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the national AECT Convention in Louisville, Kentucky. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  13. Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

  14. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  15. An Internal Coaxil Cable Seal System

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-23

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable more specifically an internal seal system placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including flexible rigid rings and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable. The current invention is adapted to seal the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. During oil and gas exploration, a drill string can see a range of pressures and temperatures thus resulting in multiple combinations of temperature and pressure and increasing the difficulty of creating a robust seal for all combinations. The seal system can be used in a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  16. Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical method originally developed within the mining industry where it has been used for decades to explore for and characterize subsurface mineral deposits. It is one of the oldest geophysical methods with the first documented usag...

  17. Introduction to Electrical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.; Balabanian, Norman

    This text (in mimeographed form) was developed under contract with the United States Office of Education and is intended as material of a first course in the electrical engineering sequence. Introductory concepts such as charge, fields, potential difference, current, and some of the basic physical laws are presented in Chapter I. Subsequent…

  18. Diesel Mechanics: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William; And Others

    This publication is the second in a series of three texts for a diesel mechanics curriculum. Its purpose is to teach the concepts related to electricity and circuitry in a diesel trade. The text contains nine units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of these basic components: unit and specific (performance) objectives, suggested…

  19. Electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, K W

    1997-11-01

    This article describes a laboratory technique of achieving the highest degree of passive fit of an implant-retained restoration using electric discharge machining (EDM). This process can save time by eliminating the need for conventional soldering procedures, increase the longevity of the restoration, and when used along with the clinical technique of fabricating a verification index, eliminate the clinical try-in phase.

  20. Magnets and Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a kit designed as a leisure time activity for teenagers and adults who have had little previous experience of magnetism and electricity. The kit may be useful for homework, small group work, or as a training course for nonscientist science teachers. (PR)

  1. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  2. Solar Electricity for Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  3. Electrifying Inquiry: Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Susan; Barnett, Jessica; Webster, Lois

    2005-01-01

    An activity involving parallel electrical circuits was modified to incorporate an open inquiry approach. Both the original and revised versions of the activity were tested in the middle school classroom. We present a comparison of the two versions of the activity in terms of facilitating learning and engaging students' interests.

  4. The Electric Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This book is intended as an introduction to the television program, "The Electric Company," designed to help teach reading to children in grades 2-4 who are experiencing difficulty. Contents include: Sidney P. Marland, Jr.'s preface, "A Significant New Teaching Tool"; Joan Ganz Cooney's "Television and the Teaching of Reading"; and Barbara…

  5. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  6. Electric-car simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Slusser, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    PARAMET, interactive simulation program for parametric studies of electric vehicles, guides user through simulation by menu and series of prompts for input parameters. Program considers aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, linear and rotational acceleration, and road gradient as forces acting on vehicle.

  7. Electric Guitar and Violin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    Almost all the instruments described in this book have their origins in historical cultures dating back over many centuries. In contrast, the electric guitar and violin are clearly twentieth-century innovations. They are products of the electronics age following invention of the rectifying thermionic valve (tube) by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904, the amplifying triode valve (tube) by Lee de Forest in 1907, and the vacuum-filled amplifying valve (tube) by Irving Langmuir in 1915. By 1916, such valves were already being used in radio receivers, and important advances were being made in microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker design. This, and the increasingly wide distribution of mains electricity in the 1920s, provided the technology and infrastructure for the development of the electric guitar and violin and their lower-pitched relations - the bass guitar, viola, cello, and string-bass. Although we focus here on the electric guitar and violin, almost everything discussed in this chapter is also relevant to their lower-pitched relations.

  8. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  9. Making Electricity with Fruit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispezio, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how electrochemical cells exploit reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions to produce electric current. Presents an activity using a paper clip, copper wire, an apple, and a voltmeter where students can measure the voltage from an apple cell. Describes variables that can be changed to assess the impact on the voltage produced. (PR)

  10. Electrical Maintenance Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 30 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of electrical maintenance technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  11. Atoms to Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to meet the national energy demand. Major topic areas discussed include: (1) "The Role of Nuclear Power"; (2) "The Role of Electricity"; (3) Generating Electricity…

  12. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  13. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  14. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  15. Basic Electricity. Part 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide, fourth in a set of four, includes three units: Unit X--Splicing Wires, covering thirteen lessons (removing insulation, pigtail splice, Western Union splice, tap splice, extension cord splice, connecting wires to a terminal screw, underwriter's knot, three-wire ground…

  16. Experimenting with Electric Trains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wick, D. P.; Ramsdell, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment can be performed to characterize the relationship between applied voltage and velocity (steady state and transient) for an electric toy train. The results can be used by teams of students to solve a series of challenges in which they attempt to predict the performance of a particular train. Some sample challenges might include…

  17. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  18. Electricity Portfolio Simulation Model

    2005-09-01

    Stakeholders often have competing interests when selecting or planning new power plants. The purpose of developing this preliminary Electricity Portfolio Simulation Model (EPSim) is to provide a first cut, dynamic methodology and approach to this problem, that can subsequently be refined and validated, that may help energy planners, policy makers, and energy students better understand the tradeoffs associated with competing electricity portfolios. EPSim allows the user to explore competing electricity portfolios annually from 2002 tomore » 2025 in terms of five different criteria: cost, environmental impacts, energy dependence, health and safety, and sustainability. Four additional criteria (infrastructure vulnerability, service limitations, policy needs and science and technology needs) may be added in future versions of the model. Using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach, users or groups of users apply weights to each of the criteria. The default energy assumptions of the model mimic Department of Energy’s (DOE) electricity portfolio to 2025 (EIA, 2005). At any time, the user can compare alternative portfolios to this reference case portfolio.« less

  19. Lightweight Electrical Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Hollow plastic spheres expanded and fused together. Hollow, gasfilled plastic spheres piled in mold. Heating in vacuum softens and expands spheres, forcing them together into nearly regular hexagonal close packing. Foam used as lightweight, electrically insulating material in place of solid ceramic, glass, or polymer. Padding to protect against mechanical shocks another application for such dense, regular foam.

  20. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  1. The Electric Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheils, James

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

  2. Implantable electrical device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A fully implantable and self contained device is disclosed composed of a flexible electrode array for surrounding damaged nerves and a signal generator for driving the electrode array with periodic electrical impulses of nanoampere magnitude to induce regeneration of the damaged nerves.

  3. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  4. High pressure electrical insulated feed thru connector

    DOEpatents

    Oeschger, Joseph E.; Berkeland, James E.

    1979-11-13

    A feed-thru type hermetic electrical connector including at least one connector pin feeding through an insulator block within the metallic body of the connector shell. A compression stop arrangement coaxially disposed about the insulator body is brazed to the shell, and the shoulder on the insulator block bears against this top in a compression mode, the high pressure or internal connector being at the opposite end of the shell. Seals between the pin and an internal bore at the high pressure end of the insulator block and between the insulator block and the metallic shell at the high pressure end are hermetically brazed in place, the first of these also functioning to transfer the axial compressive load without permitting appreciable shear action between the pin and insulator block.

  5. International Perspectives on Fieldcourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairn, Karen; Higgitt, David; Vanneste, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Considers the context of internationalism for the enhancement of fieldwork practices. Discusses whether fieldcourses are valuable experiences. Addresses specific issues affecting internationalisation of fieldcourses, such as financial considerations, sharing courses (staff and resources), overseas fieldtrips and expeditions, safety, and student…

  6. The Internal Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  7. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  9. Globalisation of international health.

    PubMed

    Walt, G

    1998-02-01

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  11. International Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulat, Y. G-M.

    1988-01-01

    One in a series of bibliographies of articles in international higher education journals lists items on a variety of administrative, financial, faculty, student, curricular, and related issues. Articles on specific geographic regions are categorized separately. (MSE)

  12. Geoscientists for international development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastings, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Professional societies are usually concerned with the advancement of scientific knowledge, but a relative newcomer to the international scene has a different focus - geoscience development in the Third World. David Hastings, a member of AGID, explains.

  13. (International meetings on ecology)

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

    1990-09-25

    the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  15. Criteria for internal auditing.

    PubMed

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  16. The international uranium market

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, T.

    1984-01-01

    Shortages, glut, political manipulation and worries about security have all marked the international trade in uranium. In this book, the director of the International Energy Studies Program of the MIT Energy Laboratory sorts out these factors, looks closely at the position of a number of countries, and speculates on the future of a market in which supply will exceed demand, costs will vary widely, and governments will continue to be directly involved for as far ahead as anyone can see.

  17. Detection of temperature distribution via recovering electrical conductivity in MREIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In Oh, Tong; Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Woo Chul; Chauhan, Munish; In Kwon, Oh; Woo, Eung Je

    2013-04-01

    In radiofrequency (RF) ablation or hyperthermia, internal temperature measurements and tissue property imaging are important to control their outputs and assess the treatment effect. Recently, magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), as a non-invasive imaging method of internal conductivity distribution using an MR scanner, has been developed. Its reconstruction algorithm uses measured magnetic flux density induced by injected currents. The MREIT technique has the potential to visualize electrical conductivity of tissue with high spatial resolution and measure relative conductivity variation according to the internal temperature change based on the fact that the electrical conductivity of biological tissues is sensitive to the internal temperature distribution. In this paper, we propose a method to provide a non-invasive alternative to monitor the internal temperature distribution by recovering the electrical conductivity distribution using the MREIT technique. To validate the proposed method, we design a phantom with saline solution and a thin transparency film in a form of a hollow cylinder with holes to create anomalies with different electrical and thermal conductivities controlled by morphological structure. We first prove the temperature maps with respect to spatial and time resolution by solving the thermal conductivity partial differential equation with the real phantom experimental environment. The measured magnetic flux density and the reconstructed conductivity distributions using the phantom experiments were compared to the simulated temperature distribution. The relative temperature variation of two testing objects with respect to the background saline was determined by the relative conductivity contrast ratio (rCCR,%). The relation between the temperature and conductivity measurements using MREIT was approximately linear with better accuracy than 0.22 °C.

  18. Detection of temperature distribution via recovering electrical conductivity in MREIT.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Woo Chul; Chauhan, Munish; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2013-04-21

    In radiofrequency (RF) ablation or hyperthermia, internal temperature measurements and tissue property imaging are important to control their outputs and assess the treatment effect. Recently, magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), as a non-invasive imaging method of internal conductivity distribution using an MR scanner, has been developed. Its reconstruction algorithm uses measured magnetic flux density induced by injected currents. The MREIT technique has the potential to visualize electrical conductivity of tissue with high spatial resolution and measure relative conductivity variation according to the internal temperature change based on the fact that the electrical conductivity of biological tissues is sensitive to the internal temperature distribution. In this paper, we propose a method to provide a non-invasive alternative to monitor the internal temperature distribution by recovering the electrical conductivity distribution using the MREIT technique. To validate the proposed method, we design a phantom with saline solution and a thin transparency film in a form of a hollow cylinder with holes to create anomalies with different electrical and thermal conductivities controlled by morphological structure. We first prove the temperature maps with respect to spatial and time resolution by solving the thermal conductivity partial differential equation with the real phantom experimental environment. The measured magnetic flux density and the reconstructed conductivity distributions using the phantom experiments were compared to the simulated temperature distribution. The relative temperature variation of two testing objects with respect to the background saline was determined by the relative conductivity contrast ratio (rCCR,%). The relation between the temperature and conductivity measurements using MREIT was approximately linear with better accuracy than 0.22 °C.

  19. Detection of temperature distribution via recovering electrical conductivity in MREIT.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Woo Chul; Chauhan, Munish; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2013-04-21

    In radiofrequency (RF) ablation or hyperthermia, internal temperature measurements and tissue property imaging are important to control their outputs and assess the treatment effect. Recently, magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), as a non-invasive imaging method of internal conductivity distribution using an MR scanner, has been developed. Its reconstruction algorithm uses measured magnetic flux density induced by injected currents. The MREIT technique has the potential to visualize electrical conductivity of tissue with high spatial resolution and measure relative conductivity variation according to the internal temperature change based on the fact that the electrical conductivity of biological tissues is sensitive to the internal temperature distribution. In this paper, we propose a method to provide a non-invasive alternative to monitor the internal temperature distribution by recovering the electrical conductivity distribution using the MREIT technique. To validate the proposed method, we design a phantom with saline solution and a thin transparency film in a form of a hollow cylinder with holes to create anomalies with different electrical and thermal conductivities controlled by morphological structure. We first prove the temperature maps with respect to spatial and time resolution by solving the thermal conductivity partial differential equation with the real phantom experimental environment. The measured magnetic flux density and the reconstructed conductivity distributions using the phantom experiments were compared to the simulated temperature distribution. The relative temperature variation of two testing objects with respect to the background saline was determined by the relative conductivity contrast ratio (rCCR,%). The relation between the temperature and conductivity measurements using MREIT was approximately linear with better accuracy than 0.22 °C. PMID:23552880

  20. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  1. System for removing lubricating oil from an internal combustion engine oil pan

    SciTech Connect

    Sendak, R.M.

    1992-09-22

    This patent describes a portable system for removing lubricating oil from an internal combustion engine oil pan through an associated dip stick tube. It comprises: an electric pump adapted to be driven by means connected to the electric pump and including means first and second conduit means connected to the pump, a flexible hand siphon vacuum pump in the second conduit means downstream of the pump, a 12 volt electric drive motor, and switch means.

  2. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Contrasting students' understanding of electric field and electric force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Alejandro; Zavala, Genaro

    2013-01-01

    Students may have greater difficulties in understanding electric interactions because they have less day to day experience with them than with mechanics. There may also be differences in understanding of different electric concepts like electric force and field. This study presents the results of students' responses to two sequences of superposition principle isomorphic questions in which the only difference was that in one of the sequences, the electric force was used and in the other, the electric field. We administered one of the sequences to 249 students at a large private Mexican university after covering electrostatics in an Electricity and Magnetism class. The students' answers, reasoning and drawings were analyzed. We found that students who took the force sequence were better able to correctly answer the questions using the superposition principle than those students with the field sequence. The analysis of the students' reasoning and drawings helped us to examine their understanding of electric field and the use of electric field lines.

  4. The creation of a global electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    DePinto, D.; Anderson, A.

    1998-07-01

    The global embrace of market-based economics has led to significant growth and prosperity resulting in increased needs for electricity. The burgeoning demand for energy has created requirements for capital investment at time when the state-owned energy companies cannot provide it. Governments, busy trying to find ways to manage already inflated debt burdens, have little capacity for funding the capital needed to expand energy production. In these strategic industries, governments are beginning to embrace the principles of free market capitalism and private ownership, recognizing the significant benefits to be realized: reduced national deficits, a more efficient energy sector, access to foreign capital, greater internal capital generation, and more energy to fuel economic growth. This is driving the governments to embrace privatization and is creating a market for the sale of electric utilities. On the other side of this equation are the fast developing global electric companies that are prepared to expand in both developing and developed countries through significant acquisitions of either companies or strategic assets. This scenario is further enhanced as the Independent Power Developers chase projects from Brazil to China and bring competition to the development of new generation. Never before has there been such a movement to the complete transformation of the energy industry. Countries on every continent are exploring how they can reform and restructure the energy sector. The analysis will address: Global transformation sweeping the various regions of the world; Impact on developers and the strategy required for success; Global electric companies and their impact on the transformation process; and Future of the electric power industry: Will it bring the world closer together?

  5. The electrical response of plants under radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Xi, Wenze; Feng, David J. Y.; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2014-05-01

    Plant electricity was discovered about 100 years ago. Until recent two decades, researchers started to notice that the electricity play a key role for plant's communications and defense. Recently, we have demonstrated a wound-generated electrical signal, up to a few hundred mV, can be produced and propagate through the whole plant. As plants defense reactions the wound signal will activate genes and induce subsequent molecular biology responses. In this study, we further investigate the electrical response of plants when they are under nuclear radiation. We discovered nuclear radiation could produce internal voltage gradient in living trees, resulting in measureable voltage and current signals. The results was measured by attaching one of electrodes to a lower branch, close to the roots and attaching the other one to an upper branch. During irradiating, trees were set up at 1-meter far from a NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi). It will produce a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h, corresponding to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h by assuming the tissue is primarily water content. Once the radioactive source is pulled up from a shielded container below the tree, the system potential starts to drop and in about 6-7 hours it drops down to -220mV, eventually stabilizing at around -250mV after 10 hours of radiation. We have further observed plant electricity changes caused by x-ray, gamma-ray, and beta-ray radiations. After the sources were removed, the terminal voltage recovered and eventually returned to the original value.

  6. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T.

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  7. Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    The Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference was held on August 19-21, 1987, at the Mauna Lani Bay Hotel located on the Kohala Coast of the Island of Hawaii. The meeting was cosponsored by the Aerospace Industries Association o f America, AGU, the American Institute o f Aeronautics and Astronautics, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communications Engineering, the Japanese Rocket Society, the Planetary Society, and the U.S./ISY Association and was hosted by the University of Hawaii. It was attended by more than 140 people drawn from the scientific communities and space agencies of eight countries, together with representatives from a number of international organizations.

  8. International Energy Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  9. All-Electric Concepts for Architecture. NECA Electrical Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Electrical Contractors Association, Washington, DC.

    In this monograph dealing with the suitability of electrically powered systems to emerging architectural trends, emphasis is upon the relationship of mechanical systems to overall building design. Topics discussed are--(1) All Electric Systems are Right for the Times, (2) Electric Systems Enlarge Freedom of Design, (3) Approaching the Question:…

  10. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  11. Internal charge behaviour of nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. Keith; Fothergill, John C.

    2004-05-01

    The incorporation of 23 nm titanium dioxide nanoparticles into an epoxy matrix to form a nanocomposite structure is described. It is shown that the use of nanometric particles results in a substantial change in the behaviour of the composite, which can be traced to the mitigation of internal charge when a comparison is made with conventional TiO2 fillers. A variety of diagnostic techniques (including dielectric spectroscopy, electroluminescence, thermally stimulated current and photoluminescence) have been used to augment pulsed electro-acoustic space charge measurement to provide a basis for understanding the underlying physics of the phenomenon. It would appear that, when the size of the inclusions becomes small enough, they act cooperatively with the host structure and cease to exhibit interfacial properties, leading to Maxwell-Wagner polarization. It is postulated that the particles are surrounded by high charge concentrations in the Gouy-Chapman-Stern layer. Since nanoparticles have very high specific areas, these regions allow limited charge percolation through nano-filled dielectrics. The practical consequences of this have also been explored in terms of the electric strength exhibited. It would appear that there was a window in which real advantages accrue from the nano-formulated material. An optimum loading of about 10% (by weight) is indicated.

  12. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ... sturdy, dry, nonmetallic object that won't conduct electricity. Move the child as little as possible because ...

  13. How Do You Picture Electricity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)

  14. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  15. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  16. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  17. Electrically driven optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-06-22

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors.

  18. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  19. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  20. Photovoltaics and electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

    1981-12-01

    The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.