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Sample records for 32p por mudas

  1. Treatment of malignant pericardial effusion with 32P-colloid

    PubMed Central

    Dempke, W; Firusian, N

    1999-01-01

    Malignant pericardial effusion is usually treated only when signs of cardiac tamponade develop. Several methods of treatment have been reported with an overall response rate of approximately 75%. Since our initial study using intrapericardial 32P-colloid instillation as a treatment modality for pericardial effusion demonstrated a significant higher response rate, this study was conducted to further evaluate the efficacy of intrapericardial 32P-colloid in terms of response rates and duration of remissions. Intrapericardial instillation of 185–370 MBq (5–10 mCi) 32P-colloid in 36 patients with malignant pericardial effusion resulted in a complete remission rate of 94.5% (34 patients) whereas two patients did not respond to treatment due to a foudroyant formation of pericardial fluid. The median duration time was 8 months. No side-effects were observed. These results suggest that intrapericardial instillation of 32P-colloid is a simple, reliable and safe treatment strategy for patients with malignant pericardial effusions. Therefore, since further evidence is provided that 32P-colloid is significantly more effective than external radiation or non-radioactive sclerosing agents, this treatment modality should be considered for the management of malignant pericardial effusion. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471044

  2. [Diagnosis of uveitis with fractional doses of 32-P radionuclide].

    PubMed

    Shambra, V V; Panfilova, G V

    1989-01-01

    For determination of the presence and activity of inflammation in the vascular coat of the eye as well as of the stopping of the disease, the authors propose to use radionuclide 32-P in a form of fractional doses in contradistinction to a single administration of a conventional dose. A common dose of the preparation is divided into four equal parts. At first, 1/4 of the dose is administered. One hour later, comparative external radiometry of the patient and the healthy eye is made. If there is seen no clear difference in intensity of accumulation, the second dose is administered. One hour later, repeated examination is made. After receiving clear data, further administration of the preparation is stopped. Administration of fractional doses suggests a decrease of ray load on the patient's organism, economy of the preparation without lowering the authenticity of examination.

  3. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with sup 32 P nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with {sup 32}P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law.

  4. Determination of the 32P activity in angioplastic balloons by LSC.

    PubMed

    Günther, E

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the 32P activity in angioplastic balloons involves two problems: the extraction of 32P, which is covered with plastic foils, and the determination of the 33P impurity. At PTB the active balloons are destroyed by combustion in an oxygen stream. The active phosphorus is extracted quantitatively from the tube. The activities of 32P and 33P are determined by measurements performed over a period of one month or more by a subsequent data fit.

  5. Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

  6. A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate.

    PubMed

    Parra, F

    1982-09-01

    A rapid and simple enzymic method is described for the synthesis of [(32)P]phosphoenolpyruvate from [(32)P]P(i), with a reproducible yield of 74%. The final product was shown to be a good substrate for pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40).

  7. A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Francisco

    1982-01-01

    A rapid and simple enzymic method is described for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate from [32P]Pi, with a reproducible yield of 74%. The final product was shown to be a good substrate for pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40). ImagesFig. 1. PMID:7150238

  8. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  9. Recalculation of data on 32P activity induced in sulfur in Hiroshima.

    PubMed

    Hamada, T

    1991-03-01

    Historical data for 32P activity induced in sulfur by fast neutrons have been corrected for decay with a recent half-life value of 32P and recalculated with an experimentally determined efficiency ratio of the electroscope for beta rays from 32P and natural uranium used as a standard. Most samples would have been pure enough so that no correction for the weight of sulfur has been made. The possibility of interference with 32P activity measurements due to induced activity of other elements in the samples could also be excluded. The revised data show little difference from the original ones except for one sample which contained much impurity. Uncertainty of the data was also discussed.

  10. 32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen--DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Reddy, M V; Randerath, K

    1982-01-01

    A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the liver of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions, but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 10(7)-10(8) normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen--DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies.

  11. The analysis of DNA adducts: The transition from 32P-postlabeling to mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Klaene, Joshua J.; Sharma, Vaneet K.; Glick, James; Vouros, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The technique of 32P-postlabeling, which was introduced in 1982 for the analysis of DNA adducts, has long been the method of choice for in vivo studies because of its high sensitivity as it requires only <10 μg DNA to achieve the detection of 1 adduct in 1010 normal bases. 32P-postlabeling has therefore been utilized in numerous human and animal studies of DNA adduct formation. Like all techniques 32P-postlabeling does have several disadvantages including the use of radioactive phosphorus, lack of internal standards, and perhaps most significantly does not provide any structural information for positive identification of unknown adducts, a shortcoming that could significantly hamper progress in the field. Structural methods have since been developed to allow for positive identification of DNA adducts, but to this day, the same level of sensitivity and low sample requirements provided by 32P-postlabeling have not been matched. In this mini review we will discuss the 32P-postlabeling method and chronicle the transition to mass spectrometry via the hyphenation of gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and ultimately liquid chromatography which, some 30 years later, is only just starting to approach the sensitivity and low sample requirements of 32P-postlabeling. This paper focuses on the detection of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts, with no mention of oxidative damage or small alkylating agents. This is because the 32P-postlabeling assay is most compatible with bulky DNA adducts. This will also allow a more comprehensive focus on a subject that has been our particular interest since 1990. PMID:22960573

  12. Laboratory and field studies with /sup 32/P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

    SciTech Connect

    Smittle, B.J.; Focks, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with /sup 32/P by feeding fourth-stage larvae /sup 32/P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The /sup 32/P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population.

  13. Absorption and elimination kinetics of 32P malathion in the hen.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P K; Paul, B S; Ehrnebo, M

    1977-01-01

    A method for the separation of urine and faeces in the hen was developed and the biological fate of 32P malathion, following a single oral dose of 262.40 mg/kg body weight was studied. The results suggested that the compound was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; significant quantities being detected in the plasma and whole blood 1/2 hr after ingestion. Total 32P was eliminated in the urine by apparent first order kinetics with an average half-life of 5.7 hrs. The cumulative urinary and faecal data revealed that 93% of the 32P is excreted via the urine within 48 hrs, thus indicating that the compound is almost completely absorbed. It is therefore concluded that accumulation in the system is unlikely.

  14. Validation and verification of the ICRP biokinetic model of 32P: the criticality accident at Tokai-Mura, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Takeda, H; Nishimura, Y; Yukawa, M; Watanabe, Y; Ishigure, N; Kouno, F; Kuroda, N; Akashi, M

    2003-01-01

    Regrettably, a criticality accident occurred at a uranium conversion facility in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, Japan, on 30 September 1999. Radioactivities of 32P in urine, blood and bone samples of the victims, who were severely exposed to neutrons, were measured. 32P was induced in their whole bodies at the moment of the first nuclear release by the reaction 31P (n, gamma) 32P and 32S (n, p) 32P. A realistic biokinetic model was assumed, as the exchange of 32P between the extracellular fluid compartment and the soft tissue compartment occurs only through the intracellular compartment, and the model was used for preliminary calculations. Some acute excretion of 32P, caused by decomposition or elution of tissues which occurred at the time of the accident, may have happened in the victims' bodies in the first few days. The working hypotheses in the present work should initiate renewed discussion of 32P biokinetics.

  15. A method for the 32P labeling of peptides or peptide nucleic acid oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Nielsen, P. E.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach to the radioactive labeling of peptides and PNA oligomers is described. It is based on the conjugation of a deoxynucleoside 3'-phosphate with the terminal amine of the substrate, followed by phosphorylation of the 5'-hydroxyl group of the nucleotide using T4 polynucleotide kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP.

  16. A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-[alpha-32P]triphosphate on a preparative scale.

    PubMed

    Martin, B R; Voorheis, H P

    1977-03-01

    A simple, rapid and inexpensive method is described for the enzymic synthesis of [alpha-32P]ATP from [32P]Pi on a preparative scale with an overall yield of 53%. The final product contained all of the detectable radioactivity (less than 99.9%) in the alpha position and has been shown to behave identically with commerically availabe [alpha-32P]ATP during the synthesis of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in the reaction catalysed by adenylate cyclase.

  17. Estimates of intakes and internal doses from ingestion of {sup 32}P at MIT and NIH

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Toohey, R.E.

    1996-06-01

    A researcher at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) became internally contaminated with {sup 32}P, probably due to an intentional act. The incident occurred on or about 14 August 1995. Subsequent measurement of activity in urine and a single whole body count were used to estimate the individual`s intake, with the assumption of ingestion as the route of intake. Two separate Sets of urine data were analyzed-one supplied by MIT and one from independent analyses of urine samples conducted at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); the former data set contained 35 samples, the latter 49. In addition, the results of 35 whole body counts, provided by MIT from a chair-type counter calibrated for 32p, were used to obtain a separate estimate of intake. The kinetic model for 32P proposed in ICRP Publication 30 and implemented in NUREG/CR-4884 was used to interpret the data. The data were analyzed using both the weighted and unweighted least squares techniques. All of the intake estimates were in very good agreement with each other, ranging from 18-22 MBq. Based on the dose model in ICRP 30, this would indicate a committed effective dose equivalent of 38-46 mSv. The incident was helpful in assessing the value of the least squares techniques in determining estimates of intake and dose. The ICRP model tended to slightly overestimate the whole body retention data and underestimate the urinary excretion at later times. Further results obtained by visual best fit and development of an individual-specific kinetic and dose model will also be discussed. This incident was quite similar to another case of ingestion of 32p that occurred at the National Institute of Health (NIH) on 28 June 1995. Dose assessment for the NIH case will also be presented if the data are available for public release.

  18. Colloidal chromic phosphate /sup 32/P synovectomy in antigen-induced arthritis in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Howson, M.P.; Shepard, N.L.; Mitchell, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    Radioisotopes have been employed in the therapy of chronic arthritis, in particular, rheumatoid arthritis for many years. A variety of isotopes have been popularized, and in the last ten years a colloidal solution of radioactive chromic phosphate /sup 32/P has been in use apparently with equivalent efficacy to others such as /sup 169/erbium, /sup 90/yttrium, and /sup 165/dysprosium. No controlled studies on this modality have been reported and few animal studies were found. The efficacy of therapeutic doses of /sup 32/P as a medical synovectomy and its effect on rabbit joints with antigen-induced arthritis were observed in 62 arthritic knee joints in 31 adult rabbits treated on one side with 0.1 microCi of /sup 32/P, the opposite serving as control. The animals were observed over a period of 11 months and examined by histologic and biochemical means. The synovium showed no evidence of radiation necrosis in treated joints. Cartilage of treated and control joints showed similar changes consistent with chronic arthritis, persistent synovitis, progressive chondrocyte degeneration, and decreased matrix metachromasia. The radiosynovectomy had neither removed synovium nor protected the cartilage. Its efficacy in humans is therefore questionable.

  19. Dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, Carla C.; Moralles, Mauricio; Sene, Frank F.; Martinelli, Jose R.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from {sup 32}P-loaded glass microspheres and also from {sup 90}Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

  20. Preparation of (32)P-end-labeled DNA fragments for performing DNA-binding experiments.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael F; Peterson, Craig L; Smale, Stephen T

    2013-05-01

    The generation of a uniquely (32)P-end-labeled DNA fragment is essential for DNA-binding experiments such as DNase I footprinting and ethylation interference. We describe here a protocol for end-labeling a restriction fragment. For a plasmid DNA bearing a region containing the binding site of interest, cleaving with a single restriction endonuclease generates a 5' overhang containing a phosphate. This is generally necessary for both common forms of fragment end-labeling: phosphorylation with polynucleotide kinase and "filling in the end" with DNA polymerases (e.g., Klenow fragment). For the phosphorylation reaction, as described here, the phosphate is removed with calf intestinal phosphatase or bacterial alkaline phosphatase, and the resulting free 5'-OH is phosphorylated with polynucleotide kinase and [γ-(32)P]ATP. This generates a plasmid labeled at each end with γ-(32)P. The molar amount of plasmid DNA must be below the amount of ATP added to the reaction and the ATP must be of sufficiently high specific activity to generate a fragment labeled to the extent necessary for many DNA-binding experiments. To generate a uniquely end-labeled DNA fragment, the labeled plasmid is heat-treated to inactivate any remaining kinase and recleaved with a second endonuclease, releasing a short DNA fragment and a longer vector fragment. The DNA fragment is purified from the labeled vector on a 5%-8% native polyacrylamide gel. The preparation and labeling of DNA restriction fragments typically takes 1-2 d.

  1. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, M. A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  2. Radial {sup 32}P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, M.A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as {sup 32}P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the {sup 32}P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the {sup 32}P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  3. Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal /sup 32/P uptake at various times of injection

    SciTech Connect

    Breneman, W.R.; Zeller, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid /sup 32/P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased.

  4. Formation of DNA adducts from oil-derived products analyzed by 32P-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Akkineni, L K; Zeisig, M; Baranczewski, P; Ekström, L G; Möller, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of DNA adducts and to compare DNA adduct levels and patterns in petroleum vacuum distillates, coal tar distillate, bitumen fume condensates, and related substances that have a wide range of boiling temperatures. An in vitro assay was used for DNA adduct analysis with human and rat S-9 liver extract metabolic activation followed by 32P-postlabeling and 32P-high-performance liquid chromatography (32p-HPLC). For petroleum distillates originating from one crude oil there was a correlation between in vitro DNA adduct formation and mutagenic index, which showed an increase with a distillation temperature of 250 degrees C and a peak around a distillation point of approximately 400 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the genotoxicity (DNA adducts and mutagenicity) rapidly declined to very low levels. Different petroleum products showed a more than 100-fold range in DNA adduct formation, with severely hydrotreated base oil and bitumen fume condensates being lowest. Coal tar distillates showed ten times higher levels of DNA adduct formation than the most potent petroleum distillate. A clustered DNA adduct pattern was seen over a wide distillation range after metabolic activation with liver extracts of rat or human origin. These clusters were eluted in a region where alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons could be expected. The DNA adduct patterns were similar for base oil and bitumen fume condensates, whereas coal tar distillates had a wider retention time range of the DNA adducts formed. Reference substances were tested in the same in vitro assay. Two- and three-ringed nonalkylated aromatics were rather low in genotoxicity, but some of the three- to four-ringed alkylated aromatics were very potent inducers of DNA adducts. Compounds with an amino functional group showed a 270-fold higher level of DNA adduct formation than the same structures with a nitro functional group. The most potent DNA adduct inducers of the 16

  5. 32P-postlabelling of diastereomeric 7-alkylguanine adducts of butadiene monoepoxide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Vodicka, P; Koivisto, P; Peltonen, K; Hemminki, K

    1996-06-01

    The reaction of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (BMO) with deoxyguanosine-3'-monophosphate (3'-dGMP) resulted in the formation of two pairs of diastereomeric 7-alkyl-3'-dGMP derivatives corresponding to two isomers C¿-1 and C¿-2. The T4 polynucleotide kinase-mediated phosphorylation with [gamma-32P]-ATP showed preferential labelling of diastereo- mers of the C¿-1 isomer. The diastereomers 1 and 2 of the C¿-1 isomer had labelling efficiencies of 42%. However, the labelling efficiencies of diastereomers 3 and 4 of the C¿-2 isomer were 11 and 10%, respectively. The 32P-postlabelling of BMO-modified DNA yielded four isomers in the ratio of 4:4:1:1 with overall recoveries being 14%. The two isomers had a half-life of 270 min (C¿-1 isomer) and 300 min (C¿-2 isomer) which is in accordance with the stability predicted by other similar adduct experiments. The molecular modelling experiments showed more pronounced restricted rotation of butadiene residue in C¿-2 isomers due to steric interaction between butadiene residue at N-7 and O(6) atom of guanine than in C¿-1 isomer. The butadiene residue also leads to steric overcrowding at 3'-phosphate in C¿-2 isomer which probably restricts the access to the active site of T4 polynucleotide kinase.

  6. Evaluation of Isotope 32P Method to Mark Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chongxing; Shi, Guihong; Zhao, Yuqiang; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Huaiju; Liu, Hongmei; Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Gong, Maoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to develop a marking technique as an internal marker to mark post blood meal mosquitoes by using stable phosphate isotope 32P and determine the optimal concentration of it. Methods: An isotonic physiological saline solution, containing different concentration of radioactive isotope 32P-labeled disodium phosphate (Na2H32PO4) was injected into rabbits via the jugular vein in the laboratory. Emerged Cx. pipiens were marked after feeding on rabbit. At the same time, the labeled conditions of emerged Cx. pipiens were also measured by placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside. Results: According to the label condition of Cx. pipiens after taking blood and the effect of different dosage Na2H32PO4 on rabbit health, the optimal concentration of radioactive isotope was determined, that is, 0.1211 mCi/kg. By placing feces of No. 6 rabbit into containers with mosquito larvae and pupae inside, the emerged mosquitoes were also labeled. Therefore, feeding mosquitoes on the animal injected with radioactive Na2H32PO4 was more practical for detecting and tracing mosquitoes. Conclusion: The method was less time-consuming, more sensitive and safer. This marking method will facilitate post-bloodmeal studies of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects. PMID:27308279

  7. (32)P colloid radiosynovectomy in treatment of chronic haemophilic synovitis: Iran experience.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M J; Asadollahi, S; Farzan, M; Shahriaran, S; Aghili, M; Izadyar, S; Lak, M

    2007-03-01

    Repeated intra-articular bleeding with subsequent development of chronic synovitis and cartilage changes, leading to haemophilic arthropathy, is one the most debilitating problems in haemophilic patients. Radiosynovectomy is a familiar therapeutic choice in management of chronic synovitis in haemophilia. We report the treatments results of synoviorthesis with (32)P chromic phosphate with emphasis on clinical aspects. Between 2002 and 2006 we performed 66 procedures in 53 patients. Seven patients were excluded. The remaining 46 patients were followed for an average of 31 months. The mean age of patients at the time of injection was 15.9 years (range: 6-28). There were three repeat injections. According to Fernandez-pallazi and Cavilgia clinical classification (Table 1) [23], nine joints were Stage II and 46 were Stage III. In latest follow-up, 77% of patients reported at least a 50% decrease in bleeding frequency after treatment (P < 0.0001). The need for antihaemophilic factor consumption dropped by about 74% postradiosynovectomy (P < 0.0001). In most of the injected joints, the range of motion remained stable or improved. A trend was found for the number of haemarthrosis to increase after a period of considerable improvement. Synoviorthesis using (32)P effectively reduces the intra-articular bleeding rate and factor concentrate use. Durability of the response seems to be unpredictable, perhaps attributable to the late intervention. An early radiosynovectomy might be more helpful in terms of stability of response to treatment.

  8. Incorporation of 32P and 14C into Photosynthetic Products of Ankistrodesmus braunii as Affected by X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, W. D.; Gimmler, H.; Simonis, W.

    1967-01-01

    The incorporation of 32P and 14C into organic compounds by Ankistrodesmus is strongly inhibited by X-rays. In the same phosphorylated compounds 32P-incorporation apparently is more severely inhibited by X-rays than the 14C-labelling. The 32P-incorporation into organic compounds is more strongly inhibited than 32P-labelling of inorganic phosphate in the cell. The inhibition of 32P-incorporation into a number of compounds is strikingly uniform. It is concluded that the inhibition of 32P-incorporation and of 14C-incorporation into phosphorylated compounds in vivo is due to an uncoupling by X-rays of photophosphorylation as in vitro. The difference in X-ray sensitivity of 14C- and 32P-incorporation into one organic phosphorous compound is attributed to a dual action of X-rays on 32P-incorporation in organic compounds (both via the uncoupling of photophosphorylation) and only a single effect on 14C-incorporation and 32P-labelling of inorganic phosphate. The effect of X-rays on 14C-incorporation into organic compounds included inhibition in most cases but also stimulation as in the case of glycolic acid. These differences may be due to interference in the intercellular regulations following the application of X-rays. The inhibition of 14C-incorporation in many cases exhibits different behaviour at low (<200 krad) and high doses. These changes are discussed on the assumption that at the lower doses X-rays cause uncoupling of photophosphorylation and at the higher doses an additional inhibition of electron transport. PMID:16656516

  9. Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of (32)P chromic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, Mark W; Olch, Arthur

    2010-10-07

    Intracavitary injections of (32)P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous (32)P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V(30)) for 340 MBq (32)P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V(30) relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V(30) of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V(30) stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm(2). Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

  10. Phosphorus use efficiency by cotton measured through 32P isotope technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcante, N. C.; Muraoka, T.; Camacho, M. A.; César, F. R. C. F.; Bruno, I. P.

    2012-04-01

    Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production in the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), which is naturally poor in this nutrient. Most of the P applied by fertilizer in Cerrado soils are converted into low solubility forms and can not be easily absorbed by plants. This occurs for characteristics of adsorption, conditioned by the predominance of low pH and aluminum and iron oxides in the clay fraction. The development of genotypes and cultivars with greater capacity to grow up in soils with low P availability ('phosphorus efficiency') is interesting to improve the agriculture in these areas in a sustainable way. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the main product for the fibers used nationally and globally in the textile chain. This study aim was to evaluate the efficiency of absorption and utilization of P by cotton cultivars/genotypes grown in Cerrado soil by the isotopic dilution technique. The soil classified as Ultisols, was labeled with the radioisotope 32P.The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design factorial 2 x 17. Factors were considered two levels of P (insufficient = 20 mg kg-1 and sufficient = 120 mg kg-1) and 17 genetic materials of cotton recommended for Cerrado region. Phosphorus levels influenced significantly the shoots dry matter production, the P content and accumulation, the 32P specific activity, the L value and L value less seed cotton P by cultivars and genotypes. The hierarchical clustering analysis used to verify the similarities between the cultivars and genotypes of cotton, classified them into internally homogeneous groups and heterogeneous between different groups. Cultivars FMT 523, FM 910 and CNPA GO 2043 were the most responsive to phosphate fertilizer in sufficient level of P, while the genotype Barbadense 01 and cultivars FM 966LL, IPR Jataí, BRS Aroeira and BRS Buriti were most efficient absorbing P in soils with insufficient level.

  11. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  12. Effects of intraarticular 32P colloid in the treatment of hemophilic synovitis of the knee: A short term clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Qiang; Han, Shao-Qin; Yuan, Zhen; He, Ye-Teng; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic synovitis is a consequence of recurrent intraarticular hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia. Eventually, synovitis leads to degeneration of the articular cartilage, with serious consequences that impact the quality-of-life in hemophiliacs. The aim of our study was to investigate the short term clinical effects of intraarticular injection of the radionuclide preparation32P colloid (32P-labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension) on recurrent intraarticular hemorrhages in patients with hemophilic synovitis of the knee. Materials and Methods: Patients who met the inclusion criteria (n = 22) were enrolled in an open-label study between October 2011 and September 2012.32P colloid was injected into the knee joint and patients were followed up over 6 months after treatment. Hemorrhage frequency, visual analog scale pain score, hospital for special surgery knee score, knee circumference, upper knee circumference, knee diameter, and knee range of motion (ROM) were compared before and after treatment with intraarticular32P colloid injection. Results: In 24 knees evaluated in 22 participating patients, there was a significant reduction in the number of hemorrhages after32P colloid treatment, along with significant pain relief. However, there were no statistically significant changes in the degree of joint swelling, degree of muscle atrophy and knee ROM between the pre and post treatment evaluations. Conclusion: The frequency of joint hemorrhage in patients with hemophilic knee synovitis can be significantly reduced and local symptoms can be improved in the short term by intraarticular injection of32P colloid. PMID:26955177

  13. Hair 32P measurement for body dose mapping in non-fatal exposures to fast neutrons.

    PubMed

    Mianji, Fereidoun A; Jafari, Sheyda; Zaryouni, Saiedeh; Hajizadeh, Bardia

    2015-03-01

    Dosimetry bioassay methods are the backbone of a personal dosimetry in criticality accidents. Although methods like hair dosimetry and the use of activation foils (e.g., (32)S) have been employed for decades, capabilities of different techniques, effects of hair type and neutron spectrum on the dose response, sensitivity and uncertainties of different techniques, etc., need more investigations. For this reason, the use of the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction and hair samples for estimating non-fatal doses from fast neutrons was studied. The experiments were carried out with the hair samples attached on a RANDO phantom in a Cf-252 neutron field, in the dose range of about 0.05-1.15 Gy. In addition, the adequate post-accident preparation for hair samples including optimum conditioning and timing were investigated. Experimental results prove the good sensitivity and merit of the method for neutron quantification in the mentioned dose range for which other bioassay methods are of poor resolution and sensitivity. A rough estimation of the dose-response curve for Iranian hair was also derived.

  14. 32P-postlabeling assay for the quantification of the major platinum-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Pluim, D; Maliepaard, M; van Waardenburg, R C; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H

    1999-11-01

    To allow more sensitive, selective, and routine analyses of platinum(Pt)-GG and -AG intrastrand cross-links we have significantly improved our quantitative (32)P-postlabeling assay (M. J. P. Welters et al. Carcinogenesis 18, 1767-1774, 1997). Instead of off-line scintillation counting we introduced an on-line flow radioisotope detector into the HPLC system. Furthermore, the isolation protocol for the adducts was significantly modified and optimized to reduce interfering background peaks that prevented quantification of low levels of the cisplatin-DNA adducts in white blood cells obtained from patients. Reduction of background signals was obtained by boiling the samples, followed by phenol/chloroform/isoamylethanol extraction after the DNA digestion step. The labeling efficiency for the adducts was increased by 40% by using Na-formate instead of NH(4)-formate for elution of the adducts from the strong cation-exchange columns. Finally, a calibration curve and quality controls were implemented. The labeling efficiencies were not different between the dinucleotides. The between- and within-run precision for the Pt-GG and Pt-AG adducts measured at the lower limit of quantification of 87 and 53 amol/microg DNA, respectively, was less than 20% CV. The adducts were stable in DNA stored for a 2-month time period at -80 degrees C. The assay is now routinely used for high-precision analyses of patient and cell line samples containing very low adduct levels. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Synoviorthesis with colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, G.E.; Girard, M.; Lamarre, C.; Jutras, M.; Danais, S.; Guay, J.P.; Belanger, R.D.

    1985-11-01

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be done.

  16. [32P]2-iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate ([32P]MRS2500), a novel radioligand for quantification of native P2Y1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Dayle; Ohno, Michihiro; Nicholas, Robert A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Harden, T Kendall

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the P2Y family of nucleotide-activated G-protein-coupled receptors has been compromised by the lack of selective high-affinity, high-specific-radioactivity radioligands. We have pursued quantification of the P2Y1 receptor through the development of a series of selective P2Y1 receptor antagonists. Recently, we synthesized 2-iodo-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2′-deoxyadenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate (MRS2500), a selective, competitive antagonist that exhibits a Ki of 0.8 nM in competition-binding assays with [3H]MRS2279. A 3′-monophosphate precursor molecule, MRS2608, was radiolabeled at the 5′ position with 32P using polynucleotide kinase and [γ32P]ATP to yield [32P]MRS2500. [32P]MRS2500 bound selectively to Sf9 insect cell membranes expressing the human P2Y1 receptor (Sf9-P2Y1), but did not detectably bind membranes expressing other P2Y receptors. P2Y1 receptor binding to [32P]MRS2500 was saturable with a KD of 1.2 nM. Agonists and antagonists of the P2Y1 receptor inhibited [32P]MRS2500 binding in Sf9-P2Y1 membranes with values in agreement with those observed in functional assays of the P2Y1 receptor. A high-affinity binding site for [32P]MRS2500 (KD=0.33 nM) was identified in rat brain, which exhibited the pharmacological selectivity of the P2Y1 receptor. Distribution of this binding site varied among rat tissues, with the highest amount of binding appearing in lung, liver, and brain. Among brain regions, distribution of the [32P]MRS2500 binding site varied by six-fold, with the highest and lowest amounts of sites detected in cerebellum and cortex, respectively. Taken together, these data illustrate the synthesis and characterization of a novel P2Y1 receptor radioligand and its utility for examining P2Y1 receptor expression in native mammalian tissues. PMID:16299552

  17. 32P-incorporation PCR for the detection of rearrangements at the TCR-gamma locus.

    PubMed

    Short, M A; Evans, P A; Shiach, C R; Jack, A; Richards, S; Morgan, G J

    1996-03-01

    We have adapted and developed a PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-based technique for the T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma chain gene, which has subsequently been used for routine diagnosis. Variable-region oligonucleotide primers were chosen from subgroups I and II, and the joining region primer was from the J2 segment. The primers were used to perform a 32P-incorporation PCR, and the products were then separated on an 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel. In our hands, this technique is more reliable than cold methods, when separation is performed on either agarose or nondenaturing polyacrylamide. The radioactive technique was used to look at 102 T-cell proliferations, of which eight of eight T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 24 of 34 T-non-Hodgkin's leukemia (NHL), and 35 of 60 large granular lymphocyte (LGL) expansions were clonal. Of 122 B-cell proliferations investigated, including 72 cases of B-cell lineage ALL, 36 demonstrated a T-cell rearrangement (33 ALLs and three myelomas). Samples from nonlymphoid tumors were tested and produced a normal distribution ladder of PCR products after autoradiography, a pattern also observed with antenatal and preoperative patients. The radiolabel-incorporation method detected an abnormal pattern of a ladder with prominent dark bands in 29 of 122 B-cell and 27 of 102 T-cell cases and in 0 of 49 of the nonlymphoid and normal samples. The abnormal banding patterns obtained in a proportion of the B- and T-cell cases was not readily discernible by nondenaturing-acrylamide or agarose-separation methods.

  18. Phosphorous retention in a remediated stream - evaluation of a 32P tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riml, Joakim; Morén, Ida; Wörman, Anders

    2017-04-01

    The increased attention to surface water quality problems together with the revealed importance of the stream water -hyporheic zone system for solute retention has highlighted the potential for surface water systems to mitigate solute export to downstream recipients. As a consequence, the number of stream restoration projects during the last decades has increased significantly. However, to be able to design remediation measures as well as to assess the effectiveness of implemented measures, quantitative knowledge of the hydrodynamic (substance independent) and the biogeochemical processes (substance dependent) retaining the solute along the transport pathway is needed. In this work, we present the findings from a simultaneous injection of tritiated water (3H20) and phosphate (32PO4-) with the overall aim to evaluate the effectiveness of remediation actions implemented along a 6 km stretch of a small agricultural stream in Sweden. In contrast to many other tracer tests where different types of proxy substances are used, a key advantage of the study is the use of the substance of environmental interest (in this case phosphorous), which enhances the significance of the results. In addition, the unique radioactive signal from the injected tracer allowed us to distinguish the added phosphorous from other diffuse sources of phosphorous from the surrounding landscape. By using a physically based transport model to evaluate the tracer breakthrough curves at a number of subsequent sampling stations, we were able to contrast the response of different stream reaches both with respect to hydrodynamic and biogeochemical retention. In particular, we found a substantial importance of vegetation on the retention of 32P, when comparing established reaches with dense in-stream vegetation with newly implemented reaches where vegetation was completely absent.

  19. Recoveries of DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the 32P-postlabelling assay.

    PubMed

    Segerbäck, D; Vodicka, P

    1993-12-01

    The 32P-postlabelling assay for analysis of DNA adducts of chemical carcinogens has been applied in a large number of experimental animal and human studies. Most human studies have dealt with occupational and environmental exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The postlabelling assay does not allow direct chemical identification, and most studies with this method have not been performed in a quantitative way. Very little is therefore known about the identity and absolute levels of adducts, which are important contributors to the process of risk identification and quantitation. In the present study it was, therefore, decided to test some parameters suspected to affect recoveries of adducts in the phosphorylation step of the assay. For this purpose 12 different PAHs were reacted individually and in a mixture with DNA in the presence of a rat liver S9 metabolizing system. Different concentrations of ATP, calcium chloride and polynucleotide kinase were tested using the nuclease P1 enhancement. We found that each factor contributed to adduct recovery and that optimal conditions could be defined. Diluting the modified DNA samples up to 1000 times had little influence on the recoveries of adducts. Comparing the nuclease P1 and the butanol extraction procedures for adduct purification showed that both methods gave similar patterns and levels of major adducts. The absolute recoveries in postlabelling, based on 3H-binding of radiolabelled compounds, were for most of the tested compounds relatively low. The fact that the nuclease P1 and the butanol extraction procedures gave similar recoveries points towards common factor(s) involved in the reduction of the recovered adduct levels. Based on the observed recoveries the conclusion can be drawn that when postlabelling related adducts in human samples the true total adduct levels can be considerably underestimated, even if optimal conditions are used.

  20. Ion-implantation and characterization of 32P-radioactive platinum coils for endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Philippe; Raymond, Jean; Roorda, Sjoerd

    2006-01-01

    We produced and measured over 800 32P-ion-implanted coils for pre-clinical and clinical studies. Platinum coils are intravascular implants most frequently used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. This less invasive endovascular approach is safer than conventional surgery, but a frequent drawback is the recurrence of the aneurysm, associated with recanalization, a phenomenon that can be inhibited by the local application of beta radiation. Total coil activities, uniformity, reproducibility and 32P binding to platinum were determined and found to be adequate for this application.

  1. TSH stimulates 32P-labeling of thyroid nuclear HMG 14, a protein associated with actively transcribed chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.; Palmer, R.J.; Spaulding, S.W.

    1982-04-01

    Thyroid slices were incubated with 32P with or without TSH. 32P-labeling of acid-soluble nuclear proteins was then examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. We found that TSH enhanced the labeling of the high mobility group protein HMG 14, a protein that is preferentially associated with actively transcribed chromatin. This observation suggests that changes in HMG 14 phosphorylation may be involved in mediating TSH-induced effects on the structure and function of active chromatin.

  2. Simulation of a 32P Sourcewire and a 90Sr/90Y Sourcetrain Using MCNP4b and EGS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovic, M.; Cremers, F.; Albers, D.; Schmidt, R.

    The two simulated sources, the 32P sourcewire and the 90Sr/90Y sourcetrain, are parts of catheter-based systems developed for vascular brachytherapy. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a widely accepted therapy for symptomatic coronary disease, but within the first 6 months often restenosis occur. The intracoronary brachytherapy is a new method to help avoiding restenosis [1].

  3. Dosimetric comparison of {sup 90}Y, {sup 32}P, and {sup 186}Re radiocolloids in craniopharyngioma treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Karimi, Elham; Hosseini, S. Hamed

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: In the radionuclide treatment of some forms of brain tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, the selection of the appropriate radionuclide for therapy is a key element in treatment planning. The aim was to study the influence by considering the beta-emitter radionuclide dose rate in an intracranial cyst. Methods: Dosimetry was performed using the MCNP4C radiation transport code. Analytical dosimetry was additionally performed using the Loevinger and the Berger formulas in the MATLAB software. Each result was compared under identical conditions. The advantages and disadvantages of using {sup 90}Y versus {sup 32}P and {sup 186}Re were investigated. Results: The dose rate at the inner surface of the cyst wall was estimated to be 400 mGy/h for a 1 MBq/ml concentration of {sup 90}Y. Under identical conditions of treatment, the corresponding dose rates were 300 mGy/h for {sup 32}P and 160 mGy/h for {sup 186}Re. For a well-defined cyst radius and identical wall thickness, higher dose rates resulted for {sup 90}Y. Conclusions: To achieve the same radiological burden, the required amount of physical activity of injectable solution is lower for {sup 32}P. This is found to be a consequence of both the radionuclide physical half-life and the pattern of energy deposition from the emitted radiation. According to the half-life and dose-rate results, {sup 90}Y would be a good substitute for {sup 32}P.

  4. Patient-specific dosimetry for intracavitary 32P-chromic phosphate colloid therapy of cystic brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Denis-Bacelar, Ana M; Romanchikova, Marina; Chittenden, Sarah; Saran, Frank H; Mandeville, Henry; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D

    2013-10-01

    (32)P-chromic phosphate colloid treatments of astrocytoma and craniopharyngioma cystic brain tumours in paediatric patients are conventionally based on a sphere model under the assumption of uniform uptake. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of the absorbed dose delivered by (32)P on a patient-specific basis and to evaluate the accuracy with which this can be predicted from a pretherapy administration of (99m)Tc-Sn colloid. Three patients were treated with (32)P-chromic phosphate colloid following (99m)Tc-Sn colloid administrations. Convolution dosimetry was performed using pretherapy and posttherapy sequential SPECT imaging, and verified with EGSnrc Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Mean absorbed doses to the cyst wall and dose-volume histograms were also calculated and compared with those obtained by the sphere model approach. Highly nonuniform uptake distributions of both the (99m)Tc and (32)P colloids were observed and characterized by dose-volume histograms to the cyst wall. Mean absorbed doses delivered to the cyst wall, obtained with the convolution method, were on average 21 % (SD 18 %) and 50 % (SD 30 %) lower than those predicted by the (99m)Tc distribution and the uniform assumption of the sphere model, respectively. Absorbed doses delivered to the cyst wall by (32)P are more accurately predicted from image-based patient-specific convolution dosimetry than from simple sphere models. These results indicate the necessity to perform personalized treatment planning and verification for intracavitary irradiation of cystic brain tumours treated with radiocolloids. Patient-specific dosimetry can be used to guide the frequency and levels of repeated administrations and would facilitate data collection and comparison to support the multicentre trials necessary to progress this therapy.

  5. Determination of surface dose rate of indigenous (32)P patch brachytherapy source by experimental and Monte Carlo methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Srinivasan, P; Sharma, S D; Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Bakshi, A K; Dash, Ashutosh; Babu, D A R; Sharma, D N

    2015-09-01

    Isotope production and Application Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center developed (32)P patch sources for treatment of superficial tumors. Surface dose rate of a newly developed (32)P patch source of nominal diameter 25 mm was measured experimentally using standard extrapolation ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT film. Monte Carlo model of the (32)P patch source along with the extrapolation chamber was also developed to estimate the surface dose rates from these sources. The surface dose rates to tissue (cGy/min) measured using extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films are 82.03±4.18 (k=2) and 79.13±2.53 (k=2) respectively. The two values of the surface dose rates measured using the two independent experimental methods are in good agreement to each other within a variation of 3.5%. The surface dose rate to tissue (cGy/min) estimated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code works out to be 77.78±1.16 (k=2). The maximum deviation between the surface dose rates to tissue obtained by Monte Carlo and the extrapolation chamber method is 5.2% whereas the difference between the surface dose rates obtained by radiochromic film measurement and the Monte Carlo simulation is 1.7%. The three values of the surface dose rates of the (32)P patch source obtained by three independent methods are in good agreement to one another within the uncertainties associated with their measurements and calculation. This work has demonstrated that MCNP based electron transport simulations are accurate enough for determining the dosimetry parameters of the indigenously developed (32)P patch sources for contact brachytherapy applications.

  6. Synoviorthesis with 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate in rheumatoid arthritis--clinical, histopathologic and arthrographic changes.

    PubMed

    Onetti, C M; Gutiérrez, E; Hliba, E; Aguirre, C R

    1982-01-01

    Synoviorthesis was performed in 217 joints from 111 patients suffering from different stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate was employed, with an average dose from 6 mCi for large joints (knees) to 0.3 mCi for small peripheral joints such as average dose from 6 mCi for large joints (knees) to 0.3 mCi for small peripheral joints such as the MCP or PIP joints. Satisfactory clinical results were observed in 84% of the cases and no significant side effects resulted after a follow-up period from 1 to 10 years. Striking effects after treatment were observed through histopathological studies (light and electron microscopy) and the use of contrast arthrography. We concluded that radioactive synovectomy with 32P-chromate is a very useful method for the local treatment of RA.

  7. Marrow toxicity of 33P-versus 32P-orthophosphate: implications for therapy of bone pain and bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Goddu, S M; Bishayee, A; Bouchet, L G; Bolch, W E; Rao, D V; Howell, R W

    2000-05-01

    Several bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, such as 32P-orthophosphate, 89Sr-chloride, 186Re-1,1 hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP), and 153Sm-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), have been used to treat bone pain. The major limiting factor with this modality is bone marrow toxicity, which arises from the penetrating nature of the high-energy beta particles emitted by the radionuclides. It has been hypothesized that marrow toxicity can be reduced while maintaining therapeutic efficacy by using radionuclides that emit short-range beta particles or conversion electrons. In view of the significant clinical experience with 32P-orthophosphate, and the similarity in pain relief afforded by 32P-orthophosphate and 89Sr-chloride, this hypothesis is examined in this study using 32P- and 33P-orthophosphate in a mouse femur model. Survival of granulocyte macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFCs) in femoral marrow was used as a biologic dosimeter for bone marrow. 32P- and 33P-orthophosphate were administered intravenously, and GM-CFC survival was determined as a function of time after injection and, at the nadir, as a function of injected activity. The kinetics of radioactivity in the marrow, muscle, and femoral bone were also determined. The biologic dosimeter was calibrated by assessing GM-CFC survival at its nadir after chronic irradiation of Swiss Webster mice with exponentially decreasing dose rates of gamma rays (relative biologic effectiveness equivalent to that of beta particles) from a low-dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Dose-rate decrease half-times (Td) (time required for 137Cs gamma ray dose rate to decrease by one half) of 62, 255, and 425 h and infinity were used to simulate the dose rate patterns delivered by the radiopharmaceuticals as dictated by their effective clearance half-times from the mouse femurs. These data were used to experimentally determine the mean absorbed dose to the femoral marrow per unit injected activity. Finally, a

  8. Detection of human cytomegalovirus by slot-blot hybridization assay employing oligo-primed /sup 32/P-labelled probe

    SciTech Connect

    Agha, S.A.; Coleman, J.C.; Selwyn, S.; Mahmound, L.A.; Abd-Elaal, A.M.; Archard, L.C.

    1988-12-01

    A /sup 32/P-labelled Hind III-0 DNA fragment (nine Kilobases; Kb) from human cytomegalovirus AD-169 (HCMV) was used in slot-blot hybridization assay for the detection of HCMV in clinical samples. The results obtained with DNA hybridization assay (DNA HA) were compared with virus isolation using conventional tube cell culture (CTC) and centrifugation vial culture (CVC), immunofluorescence (IF), and complement fixation test (CFT). Of 15 CTC-positive samples, 13 were positive with DNA HA (sensitivity 86.7%). Also, 14 additional samples were DNA HA-positive but CTC-negative. CVC and/or IF confirmed the diagnosis in nine of 14; the remaining five samples were from three patients who showed fourfold rising antibody titre by CFT. Although DNA HA using /sup 32/P-labelled probes is relatively cumbersome and expensive, it is a valuable test for quantitation of viral shedding in patients with HCMV infections who may benefit from antiviral therapy.

  9. Determination of natural 32P and 33P in rainwater, marine particles and plankton by low-level beta counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waser, N. A.; Fleer, A. P.; Hammar, T. R.; Buesseler, K. O.; Bacon, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    Methods were developed for determining the natural levels of 32P and 33P in samples of rainwater, marine particulate matter and plankton. Preconcentration from rainwater consists of the extraction of radiophosphorus on alumina. Filtration of large volumes of seawater is required to obtain sufficient quantities of suspended particulate matter. The radiochemical scheme, which consists of a series of precipitations and a column separation, results in a pure source containing the two beta emitters. The activities of 32P and 33P in the source are determined separately by an external absorber method on low-level beta counters. The yields are monitored by the addition of stable phosphate in rainwater samples and by the natural levels of stable phosphate in marine particulate matter and plankton. The methods allow the specific activities and the activity ratio to be determined with a 10% precision.

  10. Biologic dosimetry of bone marrow: induction of micronuclei in reticulocytes after exposure to 32P and 90Y.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, M; Goddu, S M; Rao, D V; Howell, R W

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow is the dose-limiting organ in targeted radionuclide therapy. Hence, determination of the absorbed dose to bone marrow from incorporated radionuclides is a critical element in treatment planning. This study investigated the potential of the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood reticulocytes (MnRETs) as an in vivo biologic dosimeter for bone marrow. After intravenous administration of 32P-orthophosphate or 90Y-citrate in Swiss Webster mice, DNA damage induced in bone marrow erythroblastoid cells was measured by subsequent scoring of MnRETs in peripheral blood. The response to exponentially decreasing dose rates was calibrated by irradiating animals with external 137Cs-gamma-rays. The gamma-ray dose rate was decreased exponentially, with the dose-rate decrease half-time corresponding to the effective clearance half-time (Te) of the radioactivity from the femoral bone (Te = 64 h for 90Y-citrate and Te = 255 h for 32P-orthophosphate). The maximum MnRETs frequency occurred on the second and third day after injection of 90Y-citrate and 32P-orthophosphate, respectively. The same pattern was observed for exponentially decreasing dose rates of 137Cs-gamma-rays. For each type of exposure, the maximum MnRETs frequency increased in a dose-dependent manner. Using the calibrated dosimeter, the initial dose rates to the marrow per unit of injected activity were 0.0020 cGy/h/kBq and 0.0026 cGy/h/kBq for 32P-orthophosphate and 90Y-citrate, respectively. Micronuclei in peripheral blood reticulocytes can be used as a noninvasive biologic dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose rate and absorbed dose to bone marrow from incorporated radionuclides.

  11. (32)P measurment of urine samples and internal dose assessment for radiation workers in life science laboratories.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S; Pak, M-J; Park, S; Yoo, J; Ha, W-H; Jang, H-K; Kim, J K

    2014-12-01

    (32)P measurements of urine samples and internal dose assessments were conducted for workers in life science laboratories. A procedure for sample pre-treatment was established and validation was performed to exclude interference and to detect (32)P levels accurately. The detection conditions for Cherenkov radiation were evaluated and the accuracy of Cherenkov radiation measurements validated. The analytical and measurement procedures were applied to urine samples collected from 11 workers from life sciences laboratories. The results of the measurements generally indicated very low background radiation levels, but daily urine samples from two workers were above the minimum detectable activity. The (32)P concentrations for two of the workers were 29.3  ±  10.4 Bq•d(-1) and 24.1  ±  11.8 Bq•d(-1), respectively, at intake levels of 4.12 kBq and 2.61 kBq. The effective doses for these two workers were 4.6 μSv and 2.9 μSv. Overall, the results indicate very low levels of radioactivity, except for cases related to specific working conditions.

  12. Bioevaluation study of 32P-CP-PLLA particle brachytherapy in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu ping; Yang, Min; Pan, Dong hui; Wang, Li zhen; Liu, Lu; Huang, Peilin; Shao, Guoqiang

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapy effects of intratumoral administration of (32)P-CP-PLLA particles in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model. 16 rabbits with tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups. 4 rabbits served as untreated controls, and others received intratumoral administration of (32)P-CP-PLLA particles with CT guidance. The total radioactivities in treated groups were as follows: a low activity was 93 MBq (n=4) (group 1), a medium activity was 185 MBq (n=4) (group 2) and a high activity was 370 MBq (n=4) (group 3). Brachytherapy treated VX2 tumors underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT at 0 day, 3 day, 7 day and 14 day postinjection. In control group, (18)F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without any treatment. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images were performed at 14 days after intratumoral brachytherapy in treated groups. After Bremsstrahlung SPECT and last (18)F-FDG PET/CT imagings, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological examination. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images study indicated that there was no leakage of (32)P out of the injection site at 14 days after treatment. Compared with the control, the tumor volumes in treated groups significantly decreased, and (32)P-CP-PLLA particle produced a reduction in maximum or mean SUV of VX2 tumor (p<0.05). The percentage changes in maximum and mean SUV gradually decreased in group 1 and group 2 from day 3 to day 14 (p<0.05). A transient increase in (18)F-FDG accumulation at group 3 occurred due to the inflammatory reaction elements. Activity dependence was seen in HE and PCNA staining after 14 days treatment among three treated groups (p<0.05). Our data suggested that (32)P-CP-PLLA particle localized on the injecting sites. This novel brachytherapy device efficiently suppressed the growth of the VX2 tumors implanted in the rabbit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two methods that facilitate autoradiography of small /sup 32/P-labeled DNA fragments following electrophoresis in agarose gels

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerill, P.N.

    1988-02-01

    Two methods which permit detection by autoradiography of small /sup 32/P-labeled DNA fragments resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis are described. Agarose gel electrophoresis poses problems for autoradiography as (i) the gels are normally too thick to allow autoradiography without being dried first, and (ii) fragments of DNA of 1000 bp or less in length are readily lost during drying. In this study DNA fragments as small as 121 bp have been retained in agarose gels upon drying. This has been achieved by either (i) first fixing the DNA with the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, or (ii) drying the agarose gels onto Zeta-Probe charge-modified membranes.

  14. Multiple DNA adducts in lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers determined by sup 32 P-postlabeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, G.D.; Thompson, C.L.; Walker, M.P.; Gallagher, J.E.; Lucier, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Identification of DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes could serve as a means of monitoring human exposure to potential genotoxic agents. In the study, DNA from peripheral lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers was examined for adducts by the P1 nuclease {sup 32}P-post-labeling technique. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) maps from both groups revealed multiple DNA adducts which ranged from no adducts for one individual to six adducts for a different individual. The total DNA adduct concentrations were approximately one adduct in 10 to the seventh-10 to the eighth power normal nucleotides. Comparison of the adduct TLC profiles revealed individual variation in both pattern and level of DNA adducts. The type and amount of adduct was not influenced by smoking history and remained unchanged in four out of six subjects who were resampled after a one month interval. One adduct detected in lymphocyte DNA co-migrated on TLC with an adduct derived by in vitro incubation of lymphocytes with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The 3H-nucloside values were consistent with values obtained by {sup 32}P-postlabeling of the same sample (correlation coefficient of 0.88). No relationship was apparent between the capacity of lymphocytes to form a (3H)-B(a)P-derived adduct in vitro and the concentration of the adduct, or total adducts present in untreated lymphocytes.

  15. Factors affecting phosphate uptake by Aerobacter aerogenes in a system relating cell numbers to 32P uptake.

    PubMed

    White, L A; MacLeod, R A

    1971-03-01

    The uptake of phosphate, from media limited in this ion, by resting cells of Aerobacter aerogenes has been investigated and shown to be dependent upon several factors. An incubation medium composed of 10(-2)m K(+), 5 x 10(-3)m Mg(2+), 1 mg of glucose per ml, and 1 muCi of (32)PO(4) (3-) per ml, buffered at pH 6.55 with 0.05 mN-2-hydroxyethyl-piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), was found to stimulate optimum accumulation of (32)P-orthophosphate. The temperature of incubation, incubation time, the concentration of unlabeled orthophosphate, as well as arsenate, and several metabolic inhibitors were found to affect the accumulation. The labeled cells were collected on a membrane filter, which had been previously boiled in glass-distilled water, for measurement of the radioactivity accumulated. Under optimum conditions, as few as 20,000 cells were capable of accumulating detectable amounts of (32)P-orthophosphate in 1 hr of incubation.

  16. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L.

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  17. Increased brain radioactivity by intranasal 32P-labeled siRNA dendriplexes within in situ-forming mucoadhesive gels

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ana Paula; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Romero, Eder Lilia; Morilla, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecules taken up by olfactory and trigeminal nerve neurons directly access the brain by the nose-to-brain pathway. In situ-forming mucoadhesive gels would increase the residence time of intranasal material, favoring the nose-to-brain delivery. In this first approach, brain radioactivity after intranasal administration of 32P-small interference RNA (siRNA) complexed with poly(amidoamine) G7 dendrimers (siRNA dendriplexes) within in situ-forming mucoadhesive gels, was determined. Materials 32P-siRNA dendriplexes were incorporated into in situ-forming mucoadhesive gels prepared by blending thermosensitive poloxamer (23% w/w) with mucoadhesive chitosan (1% w/w, PxChi) or carbopol (0.25% w/w, PxBCP). Rheological properties, radiolabel release profile, and local toxicity in rat nasal mucosa were determined. The best-suited formulation was intranasally administered to rats, and blood absorption and brain distribution of radioactivity were measured. Results The gelation temperature of both formulations was 23°C. The PxChi liquid showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior of high consistency and difficult manipulation, and the gel retained 100% of radiolabel after 150 minutes. The PxCBP liquid showed a Newtonian behavior of low viscosity and easy manipulation, while in the gel phase showed apparent viscosity similar to that of the mucus but higher than that of aqueous solution. The gel released 35% of radiolabel and the released material showed silencing activity in vitro. Three intranasal doses of dendriplexes in PxCBP gel did not damage the rat nasal mucosa. A combination of 32P-siRNA complexation with dendrimers, incorporation of the dendriplexes into PxCBP gel, and administration of two intranasal doses was necessary to achieve higher brain radioactivity than that achieved by intravenous dendriplexes or intranasal naked siRNA. Conclusion The increased radioactivity within the olfactory bulb suggested that the combination above mentioned favored the

  18. On the origins and development of the (32)P-postlabelling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David H

    2013-06-28

    The (32)P-postlabelling method for the analysis of carcinogen-DNA adducts originated 30years ago from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and was the work of a team comprised of Kurt and Erica Randerath, Ramesh Gupta and Vijay Reddy. With subsequent modifications and developments, it has become a highly sensitive and versatile method for the detection of DNA adducts that has been applied in a wide range of human, animal and in vitro studies. These include monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens, investigating genotoxicity of chemicals, elucidating pathways of metabolic activation of carcinogens, mechanistic studies of DNA repair, analysing the genotoxicity of complex mixtures and in ecotoxicology studies. Its use has been instrumental in providing new clues to the aetiology of some cancers and in identifying a new human carcinogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by 32P-postlabeling.

    PubMed

    Randerath, E; Zhou, G D; Donnelly, K C; Safe, S H; Randerath, K

    1996-01-01

    Numerous wood preserving waste (WPW) sites in the United States pose genotoxic hazards. WPWs consist of complex mixtures containing toxic, including genotoxic, compounds which are derived from the preservatives coal tar creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) and other polychlorinated aromatics. The genotoxicity of WPW extracts, which has not been tested in mammals, cannot be evaluated on the basis of data for individual components because of possible compound interactions. Therefore, whole extracts need to be assayed. 32P-postlabeling represents a powerful tool to determine DNA adduct formation by complex genotoxic mixtures, such as cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and coke oven and foundry emissions in experimental animals and humans. In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with 32P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10(6) DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10(7) or 1.2 x 10(7) DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the 32P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7 beta, 8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha, 10 alpha-epoxy-7, 8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N2 of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the

  20. Development of samarium [32P] phosphate colloid for radiosynoviorthesis applications: preparation, biological and preliminary clinical studies experience.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, G; Sachdev, Satbir S; Umamaheswari, S; Sivaprasad, N; Bhatia, Manohar H; Chaudhari, Pradip R; Solav, Srikant V

    2007-12-01

    A new therapeutic radio colloid for radiosynoviorthesis (RS) applications is reported. The method of preparation involves the reaction of SmCl3 carrier with carrier added [32P]H3PO4 in the presence of gelatin. The pure colloid was recovered by dialysis purification leading to radiochemical yield of around 90%. The radiochemical purity of the pure colloid formulated in isotonic saline was over 98%, for the usage period of 14 days, as assessed by paper chromatography. Ninety percent of colloid particles were in the size of 1-10 microm as evident from the laser diffraction particle size analysis, ideally suitable for the intended end use. Animal studies revealed complete retention of the radio colloid in the rabbit knee joint. The results of clinical trials in humans are satisfactory and encouraging, satisfactory retention of the colloid in the knee joint and negligible leakage into the systemic circulation.

  1. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P. |; El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G.; Viel, G.

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. /sup 32/P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: nuclease P/sub 1/-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.V.; Randerath, K.

    1987-12-01

    Exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of DNA adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. A /sup 32/P-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-DNA lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ nucleotides has been described previously. In the standard procedure, DNA is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are /sup 32/P-labeled at their 5'-hydroxyl groups by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed (/sup 32/P) phosphate transfer from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. /sup 32/P-labeled derivatives are resolved by TLC, detected by autoradiography, and quantitated by counting. This assay has been recently utilized for the determination and partial characterization of DNA adducts formed in somatic and reproductive tissues of rats given the clinically used anticancer drug, mitomycin C. The drug exhibits similar levels of covalent binding to DNA in most tissues. Further studies have revealed that adducted nucleotides are primarily guanine derivatives that are resistant to 3'-dephosphorylation by Penicillium citrinum nuclease P/sub 1/. The latter observation has been utilized to enhance the /sup 32/P-assay's sensitivity to 1 adduct in 10/sup 10/ nucleotides for a 10-..mu..g DNA sample by postincubation of DNA digests with nuclease P/sup 1/ before /sup 32/P-labeling. The new assay has also shown utility in the analysis of very low levels of age- and tissue-related DNA modifications, which might arise from dietary or endogenous compounds, in untreated rats and humans.

  3. Post-Dilatation Intravascular Brachytherapy Trials on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits Using {sup 32}P-Phosphate Solutions in Angioplasty Balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Walichiewicz, Piotr Wilczek, Krzysztof; Petelenz, Barbara; Jachec, Wojciech; Jochem, Jerzy; Tomasik, Andrzej; Bilski, Pawel; Gaca, Pawel; Banaszczuk, Joanna; Ihnatowicz, Jerzy; Wodniecki, Jan

    2004-01-15

    Response of peripheral arteries to post-dilatation intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) using {sup 32}P liquid sources was studied in a rabbit model. The applied sources were angioplasty balloons filled with aqueous solutions of Na{sub 2}H{sup 32}PO{sub 4}, NaCl and iodinated contrast. Dose distribution was calibrated by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The uncertainty of in vitro determinations of the activity-dose dependence was {+-} 15-30%. The animal experiments were performed on rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. The {sup 32}P sources were introduced into a randomly chosen (left or right) iliac artery, immediately after balloon injury. Due to the low specific activity of the applied sources, the estimated 7-49 Gy doses on the internal artery surface required 30-100 min irradiations. A symmetric, balloon-occluded but non-irradiated artery of the same animal served as control. Radiation effects were evaluated by comparing the thicknesses of various components of irradiated versus untreated artery walls of each animal. The treatment was well tolerated by the animals. The effects of various dose ranges could be distinguished although differences in individual biological reactions were large. Only the 49 Gy dose at 'zero' distance (16 Gy at 1.0 mm from the balloon surface) reduced hypertrophy in every active layer of the artery wall. The cross-sectional intimal thicknesses after 7, 12, 38 and 49 Gy doses were 0.277, 0.219, 0.357 and 0.196 mm{sup 2} respectively, versus 0.114, 0.155, 0.421 and 0.256 mm{sup 2} in controls (p < 0.05). The lowest radiation dose on the intima induced the opposite effect. Edge intimal hyperplasia was not avoided, which agrees with other reports. The edge restenosis and the variability of individual response to identical treatment conditions must be considered as limitations of the post-dilatation IVBT method. Only application of highest irradiation doses was effective. The irradiation dose should be planned and calculated for

  4. DNA adducts induced by the potential human carcinogen cyclopenta[cd]pyrene using [sup 32]P-postlabeling

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) is a widespread polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. CPP is of interest for its prevalence in such notable sources of human exposure to environmental pollution as automotive/diesel engine exhaust emissions. As DNA adduct formation represents an integral phase in the chemical carcinogenesis process, the following studies were undertaken to determine: (1) the utility [sup 32]P-postlabeling for detecting CPP-DNA adducts; (2) the potency and efficacy of CPP to induce DNA adducts in vivo; and (3) the identity of the ultimate mutagenic intermediate(s) of CPP in vivo. CPP-3,4-epoxide has been suggested as the ultimate mutagenic form of CPP. This epoxide was reacted with DNA and deoxynucleotide induced with those formed by CPP and the base-specificity of those adducts. CPP-3,4-epoxide induced at least four major and three minor DNA adducts at the level of deoxyguanosine. All adducts were similar to those formed by CPP in pilot in vivo studies; therefore the ability of CPP to induce adducts was further evaluated. CPP produced up to four major and seven minor adducts in the rat. CPP-DNA adducts were highest in the lung followed by the heart, WBCs, and liver. CPP was also found to induce adducts in vivo across a five orders of magnitude dosing range i.e. 1 [mu]g/kg-50 mg/kg. CPP adducts induced in vitro were found to increase in the presence of epoxide hydrolase inhibitors suggesting their epoxide origin. This prompted evaluation of the similarity of adducts induced by CPP in vivo with those produced by CPP-3,4-epoxide in vitro. Cochromatographic studies revealed that all four major and at least five of the minor adducts induced by CPP were formed by reaction of CPP-3,4-epoxide with deoxyguanosine; one adduct was clearly oxyadenosine derived. Finally, [sup 32]P-postlabeling was used to detect CPP-adducts in assays with potential for human application.

  5. Demonstration of paternal inheritance of plastids in Picea (Pinaceae). [Hybridization of cloned, sup 32 -P labeled, petunia cpDNA

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, M.

    1988-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was purified from Picea glauca, P. pungens, P. engelmannii, and P. omorika, and was digested with several restriction endonucleases. Interspecific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of cpDNA were identified. The RFLPs were identified as cpDNA by the hybridization of cloned, {sup 32}-P labeled, petunia cpDNA to the polymorphic bands, and by the lack of hybridization of a cloned and labeled mtDNA probe from maize. Chloroplast DNA RFLPs that showed no intraspecific variation when examined across the natural range for each species, were used as markers to follow the inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids. The inheritance of plastids was determined for F{sub 1}-hybrids from reciprocal crosses of P. glauca and P. pungens, P. glauca and P. omorika, and F{sub 1}-hybrids of P. engelmannii x pungens. All 31 F{sub 1}-hybrids examined showed the cpDNA genotypes of the pollen parent, or the paternal species.

  6. In vitro incorporation of label from (. gamma. /sup 32/P) ATP into isocitrate lyase of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, F.; Reeves, H.C.

    1986-05-01

    A partially purified sonic extract of an E. coli mutant, constitutive for the glyoxylate by-pass enzymes, was incubated with (..gamma../sup 32/P) ATP in 50 mM MOPS buffer at pH 7.5 containing 2 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 10 mM MgCl/sub 2/ and 10% glycerol at room temperature for 1 h. Incubation was continued for another hour following the addition of unlabeled ATP. The assay was terminated by the addition of 10 mM EDTA. The assay mixture was then analyzed, by several electrophoretic techniques and subsequent autoradiography, to determine which of the proteins in the extract had incorporated label. Isoelectric focusing was performed at pH 3-10 and pH 4-4.5. Specific enzyme staining of IEF gels revealed that active isocitrate lyase (ICL) co-migrated with a protein band which also was radioactive. Immuno blots of these IEF gels, using antibody raised in rabbits against ICL, also demonstrated incorporation of label. SDS-PAGE autoradiograms displayed a labeled protein which co-migrated with purified E. coli ICL, which has a subunit M/sub r/ of 48,000. The mixture was also analyzed by 2-D PAGE which further demonstrated that a labeled protein and authentic purified ICl co-migrate.

  7. A [32P]-NAD+-based method to identify and quantitate long residence time enoyl-ACP reductase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weixuan; Neckles, Carla; Chang, Andrew; Bommineni, Gopal Reddy; Spagnuolo, Lauren; Zhang, Zhuo; Liu, Nina; Lai, Christina; Truglio, James; Tonge, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The classical methods for quantifying drug-target residence time (tR) use loss or regain of enzyme activity in progress curve kinetic assays. However, such methods become imprecise at very long residence times, mitigating the use of alternative strategies. Using the NAD(P)H-dependent FabI enoyl-ACP reductase as a model system, we developed a Penefsky column-based method for direct measurement of tR, where the off-rate of the drug was determined with radiolabeled [adenylate-32P] NAD(P+) cofactor. Twenty-three FabI inhibitors were analyzed and a mathematical model was used to estimate limits to the tR values of each inhibitor based on percent drug-target complex recovery following gel filtration. In general, this method showed good agreement with the classical steady state kinetic methods for compounds with tR values of 10-100 min. In addition, we were able to identify seven long tR inhibitors (100-1500 min) and to accurately determine their tR values. The method was then used to measure tR as a function of temperature, an analysis not previously possible using the standard kinetic approach due to decreased NAD(P)H stability at elevated temperatures. In general, a 4-fold difference in tR was observed when the temperature was increased from 25 °C to 37 °C . PMID:25684450

  8. Use of 8-azidoguanosine 5'-(gamma-/sup 32/P)triphosphate as a probe of the guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding protein subunits in bovine rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Kohnken, R.E.; Mc Connell, D.G.

    1985-07-02

    In an in vitro incubation, 8-azidoguanosine 5'-(gamma-/sup 32/P)triphosphate ( (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP) labeled bleached rhodopsin independent of ultraviolet light. Characterization of this labeling indicated that rhodopsin was phosphorylated with (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP as a phosphate donor. At low concentrations, ATP increased this labeling activity 5-fold. In the same incubation, (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP also labeled G alpha (Mr 40 000). This labeling was ultraviolet light dependent. G beta (Mr 35 000) was also labeled dependent for the most part upon ultraviolet light, but a smaller component of labeling appeared to result from phosphorylation. Differential labeling of G alpha and G beta was found to vary intricately with experimental conditions, especially prebleaching of rhodopsin, tonicity of the medium, and the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Affinity labeling of G alpha and G beta by (gamma-/sup 32/P)-8-azido-GTP in competition with ATP or GTP was kinetically complex, consistent with possible multiple binding sites for GTP on both subunits. Independent evidence for two or more binding sites on G alpha has been offered by other laboratories, and recently, at least one binding site on G beta and its analogues among the N proteins of adenylate cyclases has been identified.

  9. [32P]orthophosphate and [35S]methionine label separate pools of neurofilaments with markedly different axonal transport kinetics in mouse retinal ganglion cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R A; Lewis, S E; Mercken, M; Sihag, R K

    1994-11-01

    Newly synthesized neurofilament proteins become highly phosphorylated within axons. Within 2 days after intravitreously injecting normal adult mice with [32P]orthophosphate, we observed that neurofilaments along the entire length of optic axons were radiolabeled by a soluble 32P-carrier that was axonally transported faster than neurofilaments. 32P-incorporation into neurofilament proteins synthesized at the time of injection was comparatively low and minimally influenced the labeling pattern along axons. 32P-incorporation into axonal neurofilaments was considerably higher in the middle region of the optic axons. This characteristic non-uniform distribution of radiolabel remained nearly unchanged for at least 22 days. During this interval, less than 10% of the total 32P-labeled neurofilaments redistributed from the optic nerve to the optic tract. By contrast, newly synthesized neurofilaments were selectively pulse-labeled in ganglion cell bodies by intravitreous injection of [35S]methionine and about 60% of this pool translocated by slow axoplasmic transport to the optic tract during the same time interval. These findings indicate that the steady-state or resident pool of neurofilaments in axons is not identical to the newly synthesized neurofilament pool, the major portion of which moves at the slowest rate of axoplasmic transport. Taken together with earlier studies, these results support the idea that, depending in part on their phosphorylation state, transported neurofilaments can interact for short or very long periods with a stationary but dynamic neurofilament lattice in axons.

  10. Determination of 32P in urine for early estimation of the neutron exposure level for three victims of the JCO criticality accident.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kouno, Fuyuki; Kuroda, Noriko; Kim, Hee Sun; Yukawa, Masae

    2002-03-01

    In the criticality accident which occurred on 30 September 1999 at a uranium conversion facility in Tokai-mura, Japan, three workers were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation. Preliminary estimations of doses from blood properties and 24Na concentration in blood were 16-20, 6-10 and 1-4 gamma-ray gray-equivalent (gammaGyEq) respectively for the three workers. For apparent dose estimation, neutron-induced radionuclides in biological materials such as blood, hair and urine were measured. Accordingly, we detected 32p in urine samples. The concentration ratios of 32P in the urine for the three workers showed a similar tendency to those of 24Na in blood. This result indicated that the radioactivity of 32P in urine could be used to estimate the neutron exposure level.

  11. Preliminary Assessment on Autecological Studies of Beardless Barb, Cyclocheilichthys apogon (Valenciennes, 1842) from Muda Reservoir of Kedah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, Nor Aziella Mohd; Zain, Khaironizam Md

    2016-01-01

    Like many other countries, reservoirs in Malaysia are primarily built for various functions such as hydroelectric power generation, drinking water supply, flood mitigation and irrigation for agricultural purposes. Artisanal fisheries activities were also performed in these reservoirs. The freshwater fish are a requisite source of protein for the rural population. Consequently, the fish resources in reservoirs should be carefully maintained at sustainable level. Present study elucidates the preliminary assessment on autecological studies of beardless barb, Cyclocheilichthys apogon as a model of fish biota in Muda Reservoir. This research investigates the growth pattern of C. apogon using length-weight relationship and their condition factor. A total of 307 specimens were captured using cast net for six consecutive months from March 2014 until August 2014. The growth coefficient (b) from the length-weight equation (W = aLb) for male and female of C. apogon were 3.150 and 3.185, respectively, indicating positive allometric growth. The condition factor values of male and female of C. apogon were 1.023 ± 0.111 and 1.026 ± 0.100, respectively, suggesting that C. apogon is in good condition in Muda Reservoir. The paucity of research on the autecological study in the Muda Reservoir contributes to the main reason of performing this research. The findings will serve as baseline information of this species in Muda Reservoir, as well as for comparative study in the future. PMID:27965742

  12. Detection of bulky endogenous oxidative DNA lesions derived from 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine by 32P-postlabeling assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guo-Dong; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2015-01-01

    8,5’-Cyclopurine-2’-deoxynucleotides represent a class of oxidative DNA lesions that are specifically repaired by nucleotide excision repair but not by base excision repair or direct enzymatic reversion. 32P-postlabeling assay is an ultrasensitive method that has been extensively used for the detection of carcinogen-DNA adducts in laboratory animal and epidemiological studies. This assay under modified chromatographic conditions is also a suitable and sensitive method for the detection of 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (cA). After enzymatic digestion of DNA, and enrichment of the oxidative products from the DNA digest, four dinucleotides containing cA, i.e. Ap-cAp, Cp-cAp, Gp-cAp, and Tp-cAp, are 5’-labeled with 32P-orthophosphate form [γ-32P]ATP mediated by polynucleotide kinase (PNK). The 32P-labeled cA products are separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified by Instant Imager or by a scintillation counter. The assay only requires 1–10 µg of DNA sample and is capable of detecting cA lesions as low as 1 in 1010 normal nucleotides. PMID:26344223

  13. Lethal modifications of DNA via the transmutation of 32P and 33P incorporated in the genome of the S13 bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Cols, P; Apelgot, S; Guille, E

    1988-01-01

    When circular single-stranded DNA of phage S13 is labelled with 32P or 33P, the transmutations very efficiently bring about a loss of phage infectiousness (efficiency = 1 for 32P and 0.73 for 33P). For both radionuclides, the lethal efficiencies as well as the lethal events are different. In the case of 32P, the lethal event is the loss of the circular integrity of the DNA molecule, occurring as a consequence of a systematic single strand-break caused by each 32P decay (100%). Conversely, in the case of 33P, the lethal events are either a single strand-break (40%) or a local stereochemical modification (33%). The same primary event, the substitution at each 33P decay of a phosphate by a sulfate molecule, leads to one of these lethal events in relation to the decay site. Moreover, neither the phage adsorption nor its genome injection into bacteria depends on the physical state of the genome, and thus lethality is revealed at only the genetic level.

  14. Safety evaluation of 32P-chromic phosphate-poly L lactic acid particles interstitially implanted into livers of Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Huang, Peilin; Nie, Qi; Qi, Benzhong; Wu, Qinghua; Gao, Hailin; Yang, Zexuan; Chen, Daming

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and toxicity of biodegradable (32)P-chromic phosphate-poly L lactic acid ((32)P-CP-PLLA) particles interstitially implanted into Beagle dog livers. Eighteen healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=3), and were treated with drugs of different formulations or doses, as well as controls. At different time points after surgery, the experimental dogs were weighed. Detection of indicators of blood chemistry and liver fibrosis, SPECT bremsstrahlung imaging, computed tomography, histological examination, continuous blood measurement, and counting of urine and fecal radioactivity were performed for these dogs. SPECT imaging showed that after implantation of radioactive particles into livers, radioactivity continuously accumulated in the implanted sites, while no radioactivity imaging was found in the nonimplantation sites. The mean absorbance doses in the implantation sites were 89.8-178.7 Gy. Local spherical lesions were observed in tissues. The average effective half-life time of (32)P-CP-PLLA was 11.8 days. Within 4 weeks after surgery, slight or moderate swelling and degradation of liver cells were detected, while in 8 weeks after surgery, they are normal. For the blood chemistry, liver fibrosis, and other indicators, no significant differences were found between the control groups and particle implantation groups (F=1.378, p=0.232). (32)P-CP-PLLA particles have advantages including good targeting, immobile, being degradable in vivo, easy to be protected, and so on. It is suitable for treating solid tumors with blood supply. (32)P-CP-PLLA particles are a kind of safe, novel, radioactive implantation drug.

  15. Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and /sup 32/P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, F.Y.; Rani, C.S.; Field, J.B.

    1989-03-01

    Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or (1-14C)glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition.

  16. Ticks (Ixodidae) and other ectoparasites in Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mariana, A; Zuraidawati, Z; Ho, T M; Kulaimi, B Mohd; Saleh, I; Shukor, M N; Shahrul-Anuar, M S

    2008-05-01

    A survey of ticks and other ectoparasites was carried out during a national biodiversity scientific expedition at Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia from 23-29 March 2003. A total of 161 animals comprising 20 species of birds, 16 species of bats, six species of non-volant small mammals and 12 species of reptiles were examined for ticks and other ectoparasites. From these animals, nine species in five genera of ticks, 10 species in two families of Mesostigmatid mites and five species of chiggers were collected. Three of the ectoparasitic species found, Dermacentor auratus, Ixodes granulatus and Leptotrombidium deliense are of known public health importance. This survey produced the first list of ticks and other ectoparasites in the forest reserve and the third study of ectoparasites in Kedah. Fourteen species of these ectoparasites are new locality records.

  17. [The influence of CO2 and pH on (32)P-labelling of polyphosphates and organic phosphates in Ankistrodesmus braunii in the light].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, W R

    1971-03-01

    The effect of CO2 on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphates and acid-soluble organic phosphates is studied in synchronously grown cultures of the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, using trichloroacetic acid treatment and acid hydrolysis for the fractionation of the phosphorus compounds.Three per cent CO2 in nitrogen causes an inhibition of the labelling of polyphosphates but a marked increase of (32)P in organic phosphates, whereas oxygen (CO2-free air) produces the reverse effect. Polyphosphates and ATP are the fractions most stimulated by O2, while stable organic phosphates show the strongest inhibition. Labelling of nucleic acids is relatively indifferent to both oxygen and CO2. Three per cent CO2 in air causes the same distribution of (32)P-labelling as 3 per cent CO2 in N2. (32)P-labelling is strongly dependent on the pH of the medium. In the absence of CO2, polyphosphate labelling is highest in the acidic range, whereas organic phosphates and ATP show optimum labelling and the highest percentage of the total (32)P in the alkaline pH range. The effect of CO2 is strongest between pH 5 and 6, that of oxygen between pH 8 and 9. Apparently the pH of the medium exerts a considerable influence upon the phosphate metabolism inside the cells.Increasing concentration of CO2 lead to the same change of (32)P-labelling in nitrogen as in air and to saturation at about 1 per cent CO2 under the conditions used. The curves are in good agreement with those of O2-evolution at increasing concentrations of CO2, but they show completely different rates.Young cells respond to CO2 and O2 differently from cells in the photosynthetically most active stage. In young cells both gasses are less effective.The effect of CO2 is explained by a strong increase in noncyclic photophosphorylation which can proceed only slowly in N2. ATP-consumption connected with high rates of CO2-fixation may be the reason for the low rates of (32)P-labelling in the polyphosphate fraction when CO2 is present

  18. CARS spectroscopy of the NaH2 collision complex: the nature of the Na(32 P)H2 exciplex — ab initio calculations and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivie-Riedle, R.; Hering, P.; Kompa, K. L.

    1990-12-01

    CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering) has been used to analyze the rovibronic state distribution of H2 after collision with Na(32 P). New lines, which do not correspond to H2 lines are observed in the CARS spectrum. The experiments point to the formation of a complex of Na(32 P)H2 in A 2 B 2 symmetry. Ab initio calculations of the A 2 B 2 potential were performed. On this surface the vibrational spectra of the exciplex are evaluated. The observed lines can be attributed to vibrational transitions in the complex, in which combinational modes are involved. The connection of experimental and theoretical results indicates that a collisionally stabilized exciplex molecule is formed during the quenching process.

  19. Comparative analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in fish from polluted and unpolluted areas by the sup 32 P-postlabeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsungyun Liu; Shuling Cheng; Chinwen Chi ); Tzuuhuei Ueng; Yunefang Ueng )

    1991-11-01

    The {sup 32}P-postlabeling technique, developed by Randerath and his colleagues, is a highly sensitive assay to detect the damaged DNA as DNA-carcinogen adduct. Consequently, measurement of this DNA carcinogen adduct concentrations in target tissues of organisms may provide a key biologic end-point of exposure to environmental carcinogens. In this study the authors analyze the hepatic DNA from a bottom-feeding fish, tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), sampled from the down stream Damsui River where fish are exposed to high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment and from the upstream Fe-Tsui reservoir where the water has been used as the source of drinking water for Taipei Metropolitan area. In doing so, they will be able to determine whether this {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of hepatic DNA from the bottom-feeding tilapia can be used to monitor large molecule aromatic carcinogens in the environment.

  20. [Uptake and phosphorylation of exogenous substrates in Ankistrodesmus braunii : II. Effect of glycolic acid upon the incorporation of (32)P-labelled phosphate in dark and in light].

    PubMed

    Lysek, G; Simonis, W

    1968-12-01

    The findings of JACOBI (1959) that glycolate enhances the uptake and the incorporation of (32)P-labelled orthophosphate were re-investigated. In contrast to the findings of JACOBI we found that glycolic acid has no effect at concentrations between 10(-3) and 10(-7)M. The effect reported by JACOBI was seen only when instead of glycolic acid Na-glycolate was used in the experiments, as it was done by JACOBI. Further experiments showed that the enhancement of (32)P-incorporation is due only to the Na(+)-ions and not to glycolic acid. In addition it was found that up to pH 4,3 no glycolic acid is resorbed from the medium by cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii.

  1. Determination of the ATP Affinity of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase by Competitive Inhibition of [γ-(32)P]TNP-8N3-ATP Photolabeling.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Johannes D; McIntosh, David B; Woolley, David G; Andersen, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    The photoactivation of aryl azides is commonly employed as a means to covalently attach cross-linking and labeling reagents to proteins, facilitated by the high reactivity of the resultant aryl nitrenes with amino groups present in the protein side chains. We have developed a simple and reliable assay for the determination of the ATP binding affinity of native or recombinant sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, taking advantage of the specific photolabeling of Lys(492) in the Ca(2+)-ATPase by [γ-(32)P]2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-8-azido-adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([γ-(32)P]TNP-8N3-ATP) and the competitive inhibition by ATP of the photolabeling reaction. The method allows determination of the ATP affinity of Ca(2+)-ATPase mutants expressed in mammalian cell culture in amounts too minute for conventional equilibrium binding studies. Here, we describe the synthesis and purification of the [γ-(32)P]TNP-8N3-ATP photolabel, as well as its application in ATP affinity measurements.

  2. Mapping of the pyrophosphate binding sites of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase by photolabelling with azidonitrophenyl [alpha-32P]pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Garin, J; Vinçon, M; Gagnon, J; Vignais, P

    1995-02-14

    4-Azido-2-nitrophenyl [alpha-32P]pyrophosphate (azido-[alpha-32P]PPi) mimics ADP and PPi by some of its binding properties when assayed in the absence of photoirradiation with mitochondrial F1-ATPase. Upon photoirradiation, both alpha- and beta-subunits of F1-ATPase were covalently labelled. Following chemical and enzymatic cleavages of each of the two photolabelled subunits, peptides containing the covalently bound radioactivity were separated by HPLC and identified by amino acid sequencing. Bound azido-[alpha-32P]PPi was found to be concentrated in two distant sequences of the alpha-subunit, namely Asp194-Thr221 and Lys386-Met437, and in a single sequence of the beta-subunit Glu294-Met358 with most of the photoprobe bound to beta-Tyr-311 and beta-Tyr-345. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which the pyrophosphate binding sites of F1 are located in regions of the alpha- and beta-subunits exposed at the interface between the two subunits and correspond to non-catalytic and catalytic adenine nucleotide binding sites, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of the biotinylated (Blugene) vs sup 32 P-labeled cDNA probes of beta-glucocerebrosidase: Relative sensitivities in genomic and other systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strasberg, P. )

    1989-07-01

    The sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use of biotinylated (Blugene) and {sup 32}P cDNA probes have been compared, the probe being the cDNA for beta-glucocerebrosidase. With the Blugene kit I could detect 2 pg of biotinylated DNA on dot blots. However, under conditions of hybridization, the lower limit of detection for unlabeled cDNA (transblotted onto nitrocellulose) by its labeled counterpart was 5000-fold smaller (10 pg vs 50 ng) for the isotopically labeled probe. {sup 32}P- and Blugene-probes hybridized detectably with 0.5 and 10 micrograms, respectively, of transblotted EcoR 1-digested genomic DNA, making the radioactive method 20 times as sensitive. However, color development was complete within 30 min to 3 h, whereas radioautoradiography required 12 h to one week. Blugene was also safer, easy to use, and effective under appropriate conditions. The {sup 32}P method is expensive, hazardous, time-consuming, and technically difficult. This nonisotopic procedure represents a desirable improvement in biotechnology.

  4. Development of a 32P-postlabelling method for the analysis of 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-monophosphate and DNA adducts of methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Vaca, C E; Fang, J L; Conradi, M; Hou, S M

    1994-09-01

    A 32P-postlabelling assay was developed for the analysis of adducts arising from the reaction of 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-monophosphate with the 1,2-dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal, a major mutagen in several foodstuffs, in particular, instant and brewed coffee. The 32P-postlabelling reaction was optimized by testing various parameters such as the kinetics of phosphorylation by T4 polynucleotide kinase, substrate concentration-dependent labelling efficiency and the concentration of the various ingredients of the phosphorylation reaction. The sensitivity to the 3'-monophosphate dephosphorylation activity of nuclease P1 was also studied. Four isomeric reaction products were separated by HPLC, structurally characterized and identified as 3-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentafuranosyl)-6,7-dihydro-6,7-dihydro xy-6- methylimidazo[2,3-b]purine-9(8H)one. The same adducts could be detected from calf thymus DNA that had been reacted in vitro with methylglyoxal. DNA adducts were isolated after enzymatic digestion to mononucleotides followed by nuclease P1 digestion of normal nucleotides. The total level of methylglyoxal-DNA adducts obtained was 5.7 +/- 1.7 (n = 15) adducts/10(6) nucleotides. The 32P-postlabelling method was further validated by the detection of adducts of methylglyoxal in DNA from freshly isolated and stimulated human lymphocytes exposed in vitro. The concentrations of the adducts detected in these samples were 8.2 +/- 0.9 (n = 3) adducts/10(7) nucleotides and 1.5 +/- 0.1 (n = 3) adducts/10(6) nucleotides after treatment with 1.5 and 3.0 mM methylglyoxal respectively.

  5. /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites.

  6. Study of heavy metal levels among farmers of Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Abdul Razak, Nur Ezzazulianie; Othman, Mohd Sham; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Mohammad, Nihayah; Abd Hamid, Zariyantey; Harun, Zaliha; Kamarulzaman, Firdaus; Abdullah, Rozaini

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals, particularly cadmium, lead, and arsenic, constitute a significant potential threat to human health. This study was conducted to determine the levels of cadmium, lead, and arsenic in nail samples from farmers at Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA), Kedah, Malaysia, and evaluate factors that can contribute to their accumulations. A total of 116 farmers participated in this study. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze concentration of heavy metals in the nail samples and questionnaires were given to participants to get demographic, health status, and their agricultural activities data. In this paper, the level of heavy metals was within the normal range and varies according to demographic factors. We found that there were significant correlations between working period with level of lead and arsenic (r=0.315 and r=0.242, resp., P<0.01) and age with lead level (r=0.175, P<0.05). Our findings suggested that agricultural activities could contribute to the accumulation of heavy metals in farmers. Hence, the control of environmental levels of and human exposure to these metals to prevent adverse health effects is still an important public health issue.

  7. Study of Heavy Metal Levels among Farmers of Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Abdul Razak, Nur Ezzazulianie; Othman, Mohd Sham; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Mohammad, Nihayah; Abd Hamid, Zariyantey; Harun, Zaliha; Kamarulzaman, Firdaus; Abdullah, Rozaini

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals, particularly cadmium, lead, and arsenic, constitute a significant potential threat to human health. This study was conducted to determine the levels of cadmium, lead, and arsenic in nail samples from farmers at Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA), Kedah, Malaysia, and evaluate factors that can contribute to their accumulations. A total of 116 farmers participated in this study. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze concentration of heavy metals in the nail samples and questionnaires were given to participants to get demographic, health status, and their agricultural activities data. In this paper, the level of heavy metals was within the normal range and varies according to demographic factors. We found that there were significant correlations between working period with level of lead and arsenic (r = 0.315 and r = 0.242, resp., P < 0.01) and age with lead level (r = 0.175, P < 0.05). Our findings suggested that agricultural activities could contribute to the accumulation of heavy metals in farmers. Hence, the control of environmental levels of and human exposure to these metals to prevent adverse health effects is still an important public health issue. PMID:22536276

  8. Detection of calmodulin-binding proteins using a 32P-labeled GST-calmodulin fusion protein and a novel renaturation protocol.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R; Wei, Y; Berchtold, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify calmodulin-binding proteins in cellular extracts and tissue homogenates and to analyze purified calmodulin target proteins, overlay procedures using 125I-calmodulin or, more recently, nonradioactive biotinylated calmodulin have been widely used. Here we describe a rapid, alternative method for detecting calmodulin-binding proteins with a 32P-labeled calmodulin probe generated as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein. We used a modified pGEX-2TK vector, which contains the flag epitope and the consensus sequence R-R-A-S, that can be phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. The fusion protein is easily purified from bacterial bysates by affinity chromatography using glutathione-Sepharose 4B beads. Phosphorylation of GST-calmodulin is performed directly on the beads and, after elution with reduced glutathione, the labeled calmodulin probe can be used for overlay experiments. We also describe a rapid renaturation protocol that enhances the signal for some but not all calmodulin-binding proteins and is used after the proteins have been transferred to nitrocellulose filters. Furthermore, we have compared the specificity and sensitivity of the 32P-labeled GST-calmodulin overlay with those of 125I-calmodulin and biotinylated calmodulin, clearly indicating that our newly developed protocol is a suitable alternative to conventionally used calmodulin overlay procedures.

  9. Detection of the acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adduct by a quantitative 32P-postlabeling/solid-phase extraction/HPLC method: blocking its artifact formation with glutathione.

    PubMed

    Emami, Armaghan; Dyba, Marcin; Cheema, Amrita K; Pan, Jishen; Nath, Raghu G; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2008-03-01

    Acrolein (Acr), a hazardous air pollutant, reacts readily with deoxyguanosine (dG) in DNA to produce cyclic 1, N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts (Acr-dG). Studies demonstrate that these adducts are detected in vivo and may play a role in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In the study described here, a quantitative 32P-postlabeling/solid-phase extraction/HPLC method was developed by optimizing the solid-phase extraction and the 32P-postlabeling conditions for analysis of Acr-dG in DNA samples with a detection limit of 0.1 fmol. It was found that Acr-dG can form as an artifact during the assay. Evidence obtained from mass spectrometry indicates that the Acr in water used in the assay is a likely source of artifact formation of Acr-dG. The formation of Acr-dG as an artifact can be effectively blocked by adding glutathione (GSH) to the DNA sample to be analyzed. In addition, Acr-dG was detected as a contaminant in the commercial dG and dT 3'-monophosphate samples. Finally, this method was used to detect Acr-dG in calf thymus and human colon HT29 cell DNA with an excellent linear quantitative relationship.

  10. 32P-postlabeling analysis of adducts formed between DNA and safrole 2',3'-epoxide: absence of adduct formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qato, M K; Guenthner, T M

    1995-01-01

    We have used the 32P-postlabeling technique to examine the binding of safrole 2',3'-oxide to DNA. At least 8 covalent adducts are formed when calf thymus DNA is incubated with this oxygenated metabolite of safrole in vitro. However, no corresponding adducts are formed with liver DNA when whole animals are exposed to safrole 2',3'-oxide, or safrole itself. Although safrole 2',3'-oxide is readily formed in vivo, and is sufficiently reactive to covalently bind to DNA, it is probably not a factor in the in vivo genotoxicity of safrole. We also demonstrate that adducts with similar mobility to the major safrole 2',3'-oxide-DNA adduct are formed in vitro between safrole 2',3'-oxide and deoxyguanosine, and also between its chemical analogs allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide or estragole 2',3'-oxide and DNA.

  11. sup 32 P-postlabeling detection of radiation-induced DNA damage: Identification and estimation of thymine glycols and phosphoglycolate termini

    SciTech Connect

    Weinfeld, M.; Soderlind, K.J.M. )

    1991-01-29

    A {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay has been developed that permits detection of several radiogenic base and sugar lesions of DNA at the femtomole level. The technique is based on the inability of DNase I and snake venom phosphodiesterase to cleave the internucleotide phosphodiester bond immediately 5{prime} to the site of damage so that complete digestion of irradiated DNA with these nucleases and alkaline phosphatase yields lesion-bearing dinucleoside monophosphates. Because these fragments contain an unmodified nucleoside at the 5{prime}-end of each molecule, they can be readily phosphorylated by T4 polynucleotide kinase and ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase HPLC. The authors observed a linear induction of total damage in DNA irradiated with 5-50 Gy. Virtually no damage was detected when the DNA was irradiated in solution containing 1 M DMSO, implicating hydroxyl radicals in the formation of these lesions. Evidence for the presence of thymine glycols and phosphoglycolate groups came from (1) a comparison of the radiation-induced products with those produced by OsO{sub 4} and KMnO{sub 4} and (2) incubation of irradiated DNA with Escherichia coli endonuclease 3 and exonuclease 3 before analysis by the postlabeling procedure. This confirmed by comigration of the radiogenic products with chemically synthesized markers. The identity of the 5{prime}-nucleotide of each isolated compound was obtained by nuclease P1 digestion. This analysis of nearest-neighbor bases to thymine glycols and phosphoglycolates indicated a nonrandom interaction between radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals and DNA.

  12. 32P-post-labelling of 7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine in white blood cells of workers occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Plna, K; Osterman-Golkar, S; Nogradi, E; Segerbäck, D

    2000-02-01

    Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a simple 3-carbon epoxide of industrial importance. It has been shown to be genotoxic in several systems and carcinogenic in experimental animals. The aim of the present investigation was to study DNA adducts of ECH as a biomarker of occupational exposure to this chemical. 7-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine (7-CHP-guanine) was analysed in DNA from white blood cells using an anion exchange-based adduct enrichment protocol of the (32)P-post-labelling/HPLC-based assay. Blood samples were collected from seven workers handling ECH (exposed), nine workers not handling ECH but normally present in the premises where this chemical is used (potentially exposed) and 13 office and factory workers from locations in the plant where ECH is not handled (controls). 7-CHP-guanine was detected in five of the seven workers exposed to ECH (1.6-7.1 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides) and in two of the nine workers potentially exposed to ECH (0.8-1.5 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides). This adduct was not detected in any of the 13 controls. The difference in adduct levels between exposed workers and controls was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.001), as was the difference between exposed workers and potentially exposed workers (P = 0.017). The recovery of 7-CHP-guanine in the (32)P-post-labelling assay was on average 48 +/- 7%, which is considerably higher than previously reported for other 7-alkylguanines. The method used had a limit of detection of approximately 0.4 mol adduct/10(9) mol nucleotides using 20 microg DNA. This study shows for the first time ECH-induced DNA adducts in humans and suggests that 7-CHP-guanine may be used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to ECH.

  13. Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development by Inoculation of Soil with Phosphate-Solubilizing Rhizobacteria To Improve Rock Phosphate Bioavailability ((sup32)P) and Nutrient Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Toro, M.; Azcon, R.; Barea, J.

    1997-01-01

    The interactive effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant use of soil P sources of low bioavailability (endogenous or added as rock phosphate [RP] material) was evaluated by using soil microcosms which integrated (sup32)P isotopic dilution techniques. The microbial inocula consisted of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and two phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates: Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus subtilis. These rhizobacteria behaved as "mycorrhiza helper bacteria" promoting establishment of both the indigenous and the introduced AM endophytes despite a gradual decrease in bacterial population size, which dropped from 10(sup7) at planting to 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) of dry rhizosphere soil at harvest. Dual inoculation with G. intraradices and B. subtilis significantly increased biomass and N and P accumulation in plant tissues. Regardless of the rhizobacterium strain and of the addition of RP, AM plants displayed lower specific activity ((sup32)P/(sup31)P) than their comparable controls, suggesting that the plants used P sources not available in their absence. The inoculated rhizobacteria may have released phosphate ions ((sup31)P), either from the added RP or from the less-available indigenous P sources, which were effectively taken up by the external AM mycelium. Soluble Ca deficiency in the test soil may have benefited P solubilization. At least 75% of the P in dually inoculated plants derived from the added RP. It appears that these mycorrhizosphere interactions between bacterial and fungal plant associates contributed to the biogeochemical P cycling, thus promoting a sustainable nutrient supply to plants. PMID:16535730

  14. Post-stenting Intravascular Brachytherapy Trials on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits Using 32P Liquid Sources: Implications for Prevention of In-Stent Restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Walichiewicz, Piotr; Petelenz, Barbara; Jachec, Wojciech; Jochem, Jerzy; Tomasik, Andrzej; Bilski, Pawel; Snietura, Miroslaw; Wodniecki, Jan

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: Liquid sources of radiation delivered in angioplasty balloons may be a convenient self-centering device used for prevention of in-stent restenosis. To test the effectiveness of this method an intravascular brachytherapy study was performed using 32P liquid sources in an animal model. Methods: The radial dose distribution around angioplasty balloons filled with solutions of Na2H32PO4 was calibrated by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The animal experiments were performed in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. The balloons containing 32P were introduced into iliac arteries immediately after stent implantation. Estimated 7-49 Gy doses required 30-100 minirradiations. Radiation effects were evaluated by comparing the thickness of various components of the artery wall. Results:Doses of 7, 12, 16 or 49 Gy on the internal artery surface required 30-100 min of irradiation. The dose of 49 Gy at 'zero' distance corresponding to 16 Gy at 1.0 mm from the balloon surface reduced hypertrophy in every layer of the arterial wall: in the intima the cross-sectional areas were 0.13 versus 0.91 mm2, in the media were 0.5 versus 0.46 mm2 and in the adventitia were 0.04 versus 0.3 mm2 (p <0.05). A dose of 7 Gyat the balloon surface produced adverse irradiation effects: the intimal area of the artery was 2.087 versus 0.857 mm2, the medial area was 0.59 versus 0.282 mm2 and the adventitial area was 0.033 versus 0.209 mm2 in treated and control arteries, respectively.Conclusion: Application of a 49 Gy irradiation dose to the internal arterial surface effectively prevented in-stentrestenosis.

  15. Examination of microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed in vitro activation of o-phenylphenol to DNA binding metabolite(s) by 32P-postlabeling technique.

    PubMed

    Pathak, D N; Roy, D

    1992-09-01

    It has been previously reported that the reactive metabolites phenylsemiquinone and phenylbenzoquinone are generated during microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed redox cycling of o-phenylphenol (OPP). However, covalent modification of DNA by OPP-reactive metabolites has yet not been demonstrated. In the present study we have investigated the covalent binding in DNA by OPP-reactive metabolites using 32P-postlabeling. Analysis of adducts by 32P-postlabeling in products of chemical reaction of DNA with phenylbenzoquinone revealed four major and several minor adducts. The chemical reaction of deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate with phenylbenzoquinone also showed four major adducts. The chromatographic mobility of major adducts of deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate-phenylbenzoquinone was identical to that of major adducts of DNA-phenylbenzoquinone. The major adducts are demonstrated to be stable. The total covalent binding in deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate by phenylbenzoquinone (686,000-687,000 amol/nmol nucleotide) was higher than that observed in DNA (26,500-28,000 amol/nmol nucleotides). Reaction of DNA with OPP or a hydroxylated metabolite of OPP, phenylhydroquinone, in the presence of microsomes and NADPH or cumene hydroperoxide showed four major adducts. Adduct formation in DNA by OPP or phenylhydroquinone in the presence of the microsomal activation system was drastically decreased by known inhibitors of cytochrome P450. The chromatographic mobility of major adducts in DNA by OPP or phenylhydroquinone in the presence of microsomal activation system matched with those major adducts observed in deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate or DNA reacted with pure phenylbenzoquinone. These data demonstrate that OPP or phenylhydroquinone, a hydroxylated metabolite of OPP, is able to bind covalently to DNA in the presence of a microsomal cytochrome P450 activation system. Phenylbenzoquinone is one of the DNA-binding metabolite(s) of OPP. It is concluded that OPP is genotoxic in an in vitro system and

  16. A novel approach to brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma using a phosphorous{sup 32} ({sup 32}P) brachytherapy delivery device-a first-in-man study

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Anthony Soon-Whatt; Chung, Alexander Yaw-Fui; Lo, Richard Houa-Gong; Lau, T.-N.; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Chng, May; Satchithanantham, Somanesan; Loong, Susan Li-Er; Ng, David Chee-Eng; Lim, Beng-Choo; Connor, Stephen; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe . E-mail: gsupc@singnet.com.sg

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: While potentially very useful, percutaneously delivered brachytherapy of inoperable intra-abdominal solid tumors faces significant technical challenges. This first-in-man study is designed to determine the safety profile and therapeutic efficacy of a novel phosphorous ({sup 32}P) brachytherapy device (BrachySil) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients received single percutaneous and transperitoneal implantations of BrachySil under local anesthesia directly into liver tumors under ultrasound or computed tomographic guidance, at an activity level of 4 MBq/cc of tumor. Toxicity was assessed by the nature, incidence, and severity of adverse events (Common Toxicity Criteria scores) and by hematology and clinical chemistry parameters. Target tumor response was assessed with computed tomographic scans at 12 and 24 weeks postimplantation using World Health Organization criteria. Results: Implantations were successfully carried out in 8 patients (13-74 MBq, mean 40 MBq per tumor) awake and under local anesthesia. Six of the 8 patients reported 19 adverse events, but no serious events were attributable to the study device. Changes in hematology and clinical chemistry were similarly minimal and reflected progressive underlying hepatic disease. All targeted tumors were responding at 12 weeks, with complete response (100% regression) in three lesions. At the end of the study, there were two complete responses, two partial responses, three stable diseases, and one progressive disease. Conclusion: Percutaneous implantation of this novel {sup 32}P brachytherapy device into hepatocellular carcinoma is safe and well tolerated. A significant degree of antitumor efficacy was demonstrated at this low dose that warrants further investigation.

  17. [The effect of oxygen on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphates and organic phosphates in Ankistrodesmus braunii in the light].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, W R

    1970-09-01

    Short time incorporation of (32)P was carried out with synchronised algae (young cells) depleted of phosphate. For the separation and determination of the acid-insoluble phosphate fractions of the cells an improved fractionation procedure was applied. In order to exclude competition by carbon dioxide all experiments were done in the absence of CO2.Compared with nitrogen, CO2-free air produces an increase in the labelling of phosphorylated compounds in the light. In strong white light, at high pH, air effects a remarkable increase of (32)P in the acid-insoluble phosphate (P u), mainly in inorganic polyphosphates (P ul), whereas the total phosphate uptake remains almost unchanged. The increase in labelling of acid-insoluble phosphate is, therefore, accompanied by a substantial decrease in the labelling of acid-soluble compounds (P l). In weak white light or in far-red light, at low pH even in strong white or red light, an increase of phosphate uptake and an increased labelling of the acid-stable organic acid-soluble fraction (P os) is observed instead. The effect of oxygen increases somewhat with increasing light intensity up to light saturation, and it increases markedly with increasing oxygen concentration.An essential contribution by oxidative phosphorylation to this oxygen effect can be ruled out on account of its much higher sensitivity to oxygen. Pseudocyclic photophosphorylation is also not regarded as the main force because of its higher oxygen affinity. Occurrence of photorespiration has not been clearly established so far in related algae (Chlorella), and its use for phosphorylation is unknown. A better, although not complete explanation is given by comparing the oxygen effect with the well-known inhibition of photosynthesis by oxygen (Warburg effect), which leads to an increase in glycolate formation and a simultaneous decrease in the pool sizes of carbon reduction cycle intermediates, even in the absence of CO2. Since the photophosphorylation process, as

  18. 32P-post-labelling analysis of DNA adducts formed in the upper gastrointestinal tissue of mice fed bracken extract or bracken spores.

    PubMed Central

    Povey, A. C.; Potter, D.; O'Connor, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    Bracken toxicity to both domestic and laboratory animals is well established and tumours are formed when rodents are treated with either bracken extracts or bracken spores. In this study we have administered bracken spores and extract to mice in order to investigate whether such exposure leads to the formation of DNA adducts. DNA, isolated from the upper gastrointestinal tract and liver, was digested to 3'-nucleotides. Adducts were extracted with butanol, 32P-post-labelled, separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and visualised and quantified using storage-phosphor technology. A cluster of adducts was clearly seen in the DNA of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but not liver, 5 and 24 h after treatment with bracken extract or bracken spores. These adducts were not observed in DNA extracted from vehicle-treated animals. Whereas, after 5 h adduct levels in extract and spore-treated animals were similar, after 24 h adduct levels in the extract-treated animals had diminished by > 75%, but levels in spore-treated animals remained similar to those found after 5 h. This suggests that the DNA-reactive compounds were being released slowly from the spores, even though the spores had been sonicated before administration. Adducts were also quantified after the addition of an internal standard (deoxyinosine 3'-monophosphate) by comparing the amount of label incorporated into the adducts with that found in a known amount of the internal standard. Adduct levels using this internal standard approach were similar to those found by direct measurement of radioactivity incorporated into the adduct, indicating that the labelling of adducts was quantitative. We have tried, unsuccessfully, to synthesise ptaquiloside, the principal carcinogenic component present within bracken. However, similar patterns of adducts were observed when two other compounds, (1-(4-chlorophenyl sulphonyl)-l-cyclopropane carbonitrile and 3-cyclopropylindeno [1,2-c] pyrazol-4-(O-methyl)oxime), which both

  19. The structure of the human intron-containing S8 ribosomal protein gene and determination of its chromosomal location at 1p32-p32. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.; Fried, M. )

    1993-01-01

    The intron-containing gene encoding human ribosomal protein SS (RPS8) has been cloned and characterized, and its chromosomal position determined. Using a PCR-based cloning strategy, we have isolated the intron-containing gene in the presence of its many processed pseudogenes and determined the DNA sequence of the entire gene and its upstream and downstream flanking regions. The human RPS8 gene is 3161 bp in length and comprises six exons. Despite lacking a consensus TATA box, primer extension analysis indicates that the start of transcription is precisely located at a C residue within an 11-bp oligopyrimidine tract. The first exon, which contains the ATG start codon, is just 27 bp in length. The DNA sequence 5[prime] to the RPS8 gene and within the first exon and intron shows several features of a CpG island. A combination of Southern blotting, PCR, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses has enabled the chromosomal location of the human RPSS gene to be determined as lp32-p34.1. 51 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Stereoselective release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-deoxyadenosine adducts from DNA by the 32P postlabeling and deoxyribonuclease I/snake venom phosphodiesterase digestion methods

    SciTech Connect

    Cheh, A.M.; Yagi, H.; Jerina, D.M. )

    1990-11-01

    The restricted ability of deoxyribonuclease I/snake venom phosphodiesterase digestion to liberate deoxyadenosine (dA) nucleotide adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from DNA, first observed by Dipple and Pigott with the bay-region diol epoxide adducts of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, has been observed with the dA adducts of benz(a)anthracene and benzo(c)phenanthrene diol epoxides. The micrococcal nuclease/spleen phosphodiesterase digestion used in the original 32P postlabeling procedure developed by Randerath to determine DNA adducts also failed to liberate dA nucleotide adducts quantitatively. Thus either method can potentially lead to an underestimation of the extent to which dA has been modified in DNA. The two digestion procedures exhibit systematic and mostly opposite stereoselectivity in the pattern of which dA adducts are resistant to digestion, which suggest that these adducts may have preferred orientations within modified DNA that are determined by whether they have the R or S configuration at C-1, the point of attachment between the exocyclic amino group of dA and the hydrocarbon; this in turn is dictated by the configuration about the precursor benzylic epoxide carbon and the cis versus trans nature of epoxide opening during adduct formation.

  1. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Gairola, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals.

  2. Assignment of the muscle-eye-brain disease gene to 1p32-p34 by linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Cormand, B; Avela, K; Pihko, H; Santavuori, P; Talim, B; Topaloglu, H; de la Chapelle, A; Lehesjoki, A E

    1999-01-01

    Muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB) is an autosomal recessive disease of unknown etiology characterized by severe mental retardation, ocular abnormalities, congenital muscular dystrophy, and a polymicrogyria-pachygyria-type neuronal migration disorder of the brain. A similar combination of muscle and brain involvement is also seen in Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Whereas the gene underlying FCMD has been mapped and cloned, the genetic location of the WWS gene is still unknown. Here we report the assignment of the MEB gene to chromosome 1p32-p34 by linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping in eight families with 12 affected individuals. After a genomewide search for linkage in four affected sib pairs had pinpointed the assignment to 1p, the MEB locus was more precisely assigned to a 9-cM interval flanked by markers D1S200 proximally and D1S211 distally. Multipoint linkage analysis gave a maximum LOD score of 6.17 at locus D1S2677. These findings provide a starting point for the positional cloning of the disease gene, which may play an important role in muscle function and brain development. It also provides an opportunity to test other congenital muscular dystrophy phenotypes, in particular WWS, for linkage to the same locus. PMID:9915951

  3. Sonographic genital ambiguity in a fetus due to a mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(qter-p11.32::p11.32-qter) karyotype.

    PubMed

    Marcus-Soekarman, D; Hamers, G; Mulder, A L M; Offermans, Jeanne; Offermans, Jos; Engelen, J; van Lent-Albrechts, J C M; Robben, S G F; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S; Wolffenbuttel, K P; Looijenga, L H J; Oosterhuis, J W; Schrander-Stumpel, C; Nijhuis, J

    2005-04-01

    Nowadays, improved ultrasound techniques enable the detection of more subtle congenital abnormalities at an earlier stage of fetal development. Current cytogenetic techniques can characterize a chromosomal abnormality in greater detail. These advancements in both diagnostic possibilities have helped to answer many questions but have also created new issues and dilemmas in counselling. This is illustrated by this case report of a 35-year-old woman, who presented at the end of the second trimester of her first pregnancy. Sonographic examination indicated an abnormal external genital in a male fetus. A differential diagnosis of hypospadia was made. During follow-up, an amniocentesis was performed, and this showed a 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(qter-p11.32::p11.32-qter) karyotype as the cause of the sonographic findings. Cytogenetic characterization of the isodicentric Y chromosome and pre- and post-natal findings in the child are reported. Cases with a similar karyotype reported in the literature are reviewed.

  4. {sup 32}P Brachytherapy Conformal Source Model RIC-100 for High-Dose-Rate Treatment of Superficial Disease: Monte Carlo Calculations, Diode Measurements, and Clinical Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Gil'ad N.; Munro, John J.; Kirov, Assen; Losasso, Thomas; Yamada, Yoshiya; Williamson, Matthew; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Zaider, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: A novel {sup 32}P brachytherapy source has been in use at our institution intraoperatively for temporary radiation therapy of the spinal dura and other localized tumors. We describe the dosimetry and clinical implementation of the source. Methods and Materials: Dosimetric evaluation for the source was done with a complete set of MCNP5 Monte Carlo calculations preceding clinical implementation. In addition, the depth dose curve and dose rate were measured by use of an electron field diode to verify the Monte Carlo calculations. Calibration procedures using the diode in a custom-designed phantom to provide an absolute dose calibration and to check dose uniformity across the source area for each source before treatment were established. Results: Good agreement was established between the Monte Carlo calculations and diode measurements. Quality assurance measurements results are provided for about 100 sources used to date. Clinical source calibrations were usually within 10% of manufacturer specifications. Procedures for safe handling of the source are described. Discussion: Clinical considerations for using the source are discussed.

  5. /sup 32/P-postlabeling assay in mice of transplacental DNA damage induced by the environmental carcinogens safrole, 4-aminobiphenyl, and benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.J.; Disher, R.M.; Reddy, M.V.; Randerath, K.

    1986-06-01

    Transplacental exposure of fetuses to carcinogens is known to induce tumors in the offspring, often with a high incidence and short latency. While covalent adduction of DNA appears to be essential for tumor initiation, little is known about the binding of carcinogens to the DNA of fetal tissues. A sensitive /sup 32/P-postlabeling method enabled us to study the binding of the environmental carcinogens safrole (600 mumol/kg p.o.), 4-aminobiphenyl (800 mumol/kg), and benzo(a)pyrene (200 mumol/kg) to the DNA of various maternal and fetal tissues after administration of test carcinogens to pregnant ICR mice on day 18 of gestation. The results show that these carcinogens bound to the DNA of maternal and fetal liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain, intestine, skin, maternal uterus, and placenta, with organ-specific quantitative and qualitative differences. It was possible for the first time to analyze DNA adduct patterns in minute amounts of tissue, for example those available from fetal heart. The covalent binding index 24 h after safrole treatment was estimated for the different organs and ranged from 0.1 to 247 and 0.1 to 5.8 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. Covalent binding index values of 0.2 to 13 and 0.1 to 0.3 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively, were found for 4-aminobiphenyl. Benzo(a)pyrene treatment yielded covalent binding index values of 0.6 to 6.5 and 0.3 to 0.7 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. In both maternal and fetal tissues, safrole exhibited preferential binding to liver DNA. 4-Aminobiphenyl bound preferentially to DNA of maternal liver and kidney but showed no preference among fetal tissues. Benzo(a)pyrene exhibited weak tissue preference in both maternal and fetal organs.

  6. Identification of an interstitial 18p11.32-p11.31 duplication including the EMILIN2 gene in a family with porokeratosis of Mibelli.

    PubMed

    Occella, Corrado; Bleidl, Dario; Nozza, Paolo; Mascelli, Samantha; Raso, Alessandro; Gimelli, Giorgio; Gimelli, Stefania; Tassano, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a rare disease of epidermal keratinization characterized by the histopathological feature of the cornoid lamella, a column of tightly fitted parakeratocytic cells, whose etiology is still unclear. Porokeratosis of Mibelli is a subtype of porokeratosis presenting a single plaque or a small number of plaques of variable size located unilaterally on limbs. It frequently appears in childhood and occurs with a higher incidence in males. Cytogenetic analyses were performed in all members of the family on lesioned and uninvolved skin. An array-CGH analysis was also performed utilizing the Human Genome CGH Microarray Kit G3 400 with 5.3 KB overall median probe spacing. Gene expression was performed on skin fibroblasts. In this study, we describe a Caucasian healthy 4-year-old child and his father showing features of porokeratosis of Mibelli. Array-CGH analysis revealed an interstitial 429.5 Kb duplication of chromosome 18p11.32-p11.3 containing four genes, namely: SMCHD1, EMILIN2, LPIN2, and MYOM1 both in patient and his father. EMILIN2 resulted overexpressed on skin fibroblasts. Also other members of this family, without evident signs of porokeratosis, carried the same duplication. Among these genes, we focused our attention on elastin microfibril interfacer 2 (EMILIN2) gene. Apoptosis plays a fundamental role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis, balancing keratinocytes proliferation, and forming the stratum corneum. EMILIN2 is known to trigger the apoptosis of different cell lines negatively affecting cell survival. It is expressed in the skin. We could speculate that the duplication and overexpression of EMILIN2 cause an abnormal apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes and alter the process of keratinization, even if other epigenetic and genetic factors could also be involved. Our results could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of porokeratosis of Mibelli.

  7. Identification of an Interstitial 18p11.32-p11.31 Duplication Including the EMILIN2 Gene in a Family with Porokeratosis of Mibelli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Porokeratosis is a rare disease of epidermal keratinization characterized by the histopathological feature of the cornoid lamella, a column of tightly fitted parakeratocytic cells, whose etiology is still unclear. Porokeratosis of Mibelli is a subtype of porokeratosis presenting a single plaque or a small number of plaques of variable size located unilaterally on limbs. It frequently appears in childhood and occurs with a higher incidence in males. Cytogenetic analyses were performed in all members of the family on lesioned and uninvolved skin. An array-CGH analysis was also performed utilizing the Human Genome CGH Microarray Kit G3 400 with 5.3 KB overall median probe spacing. Gene expression was performed on skin fibroblasts. In this study, we describe a Caucasian healthy 4-year-old child and his father showing features of porokeratosis of Mibelli. Array-CGH analysis revealed an interstitial 429.5 Kb duplication of chromosome 18p11.32-p11.3 containing four genes, namely: SMCHD1, EMILIN2, LPIN2, and MYOM1 both in patient and his father. EMILIN2 resulted overexpressed on skin fibroblasts. Also other members of this family, without evident signs of porokeratosis, carried the same duplication. Among these genes, we focused our attention on elastin microfibril interfacer 2 (EMILIN2) gene. Apoptosis plays a fundamental role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis, balancing keratinocytes proliferation, and forming the stratum corneum. EMILIN2 is known to trigger the apoptosis of different cell lines negatively affecting cell survival. It is expressed in the skin. We could speculate that the duplication and overexpression of EMILIN2 cause an abnormal apoptosis of epidermal keratinocytes and alter the process of keratinization, even if other epigenetic and genetic factors could also be involved. Our results could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of porokeratosis of Mibelli. PMID:23593459

  8. Traditional healers and laypeople: a qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique).

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Piero; Morganti, Michela; Mancini, Matteo; Signorini, Maria Adele

    2011-11-18

    Through this study, relevant information was gathered on the knowledge about medicinal remedies in some rural communities of Muda (central Mozambique). The use of 198 different medicinal plants has been recorded and a significant number of medicinal species and uses new for Africa and particularly for Mozambique has been detected. Our investigation appears to be the first comparing knowledge about medicinal plants between laypeople and traditional healers and also between the two kinds of healers (curandeiros and profetas). Ethnobotanical data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 67 informants: 9 curandeiros (traditional healers believed to be guided by spirits), 12 profetas (independent Pentecostal churches "prophets" healing both souls and bodies) and 46 untrained lay villagers. Data were entered in a data base and processed, also by means of suitable quantitative indexes. A total of 546 citations were recorded for 198 different ethnospecies (i.e. basic ethno-taxonomical units). The species with the highest cultural value (estimated with Cultural Importance index) resulted to be Ximenia caffra (CI=0.224), Zanha golungensis (CI=0.194) Vernonia colorata (CI=0.149) and Ozoroa reticulata and Holarrhena pubescens (both with CI=0.134). Eight out of the 162 identified plants mentioned by the informants were not previously recorded as medicinal plants in Africa: Cissus bathyrhakodes, Clematis viridiflora, Combretum goetzei, Dioscorea cochleari-apiculata, Grewia pachycalyx, Indigofera antunesiana, Ipomoea consimilis, Tricliceras longipedunculatum. More than half of the species reported by our informants and already known as medicinal in Africa resulted to be newly documented for Mozambique. Comparing the mean number of species known by each informant group, statistically significant differences were observed both between curandeiros and laypeople and between profetas and laypeople. No significant differences emerged instead between curandeiros and

  9. 2-Azido-( sup 32 P)NAD+, a photoactivatable probe for G-protein structure: Evidence for holotransducin oligomers in which the ADP-ribosylated carboxyl terminus of alpha interacts with both alpha and gamma subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, R.R.; Dhanasekaran, N.; Johnson, G.L.; Ruoho, A.E. )

    1990-05-01

    A radioactive and photoactivatable derivative of NAD+, 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)NAD+, has been synthesized and used with pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate Cys347 of the alpha subunit (alpha T) of GT, the retinal guanine nucleotide-binding protein. ADP-ribosylation of alpha T followed by light activation of the azide moiety of 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose produced four crosslinked species involving the alpha and gamma subunits of the GT heterotrimer: an alpha trimer (alpha-alpha-alpha), and alpha-alpha-gamma crosslink, an alpha dimer (alpha-alpha), and an alpha-gamma crosslink. The alpha trimer, alpha-alpha-gamma complex, alpha dimer, and alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with alpha T antibodies. The alpha-alpha-gamma and the alpha-gamma complexes were immunoreactive with antisera recognizing gamma subunits. No evidence was found for crosslinking of alpha T to beta T subunits. Hydrolysis of the thioglycosidic bond between Cys347 and 2-azido-(adenylate-32P)ADP-ribose using mercuric acetate resulted in the transfer of radiolabel from Cys347 of alpha T in the crosslinked oligomers to alpha monomers, indicative of intermolecular photocrosslinking, and to gamma monomers, indicative of either intermolecular crosslinked complexes (between heterotrimers) or intramolecular crosslinked complexes (within the heterotrimer). These results demonstrate that GT exists as an oligomer and that ADP-ribosylated Cys347, which is four residues from the alpha T-carboxyl terminus, is oriented toward and in close proximity to the gamma subunit.

  10. Adjuvant treatment for early epithelial ovarian cancer: results of two randomised clinical trials comparing cisplatin to no further treatment or chromic phosphate (32P). G.I.C.O.G.: Gruppo Interregionale Collaborativo in Ginecologia Oncologica.

    PubMed

    Bolis, G; Colombo, N; Pecorelli, S; Torri, V; Marsoni, S; Bonazzi, C; Chiari, S; Favalli, G; Mangili, G; Presti, M

    1995-11-01

    From 1983 to 1990, 271 consecutive patients with stage I ovarian cancer entered two randomised trials, aimed at assessing the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after radical surgery in early stages of ovarian cancer. Trial I compared cisplatin (50 mg/m2 with repeated courses every 28 days for 6 cycles) to no further therapy in F.I.G.O. stage Ia & b Grade II-III patients; trial II compared cisplatin (same dose and schedule) to 32P in Iaii & bii and Ic patients. Both studies were multicentric and centrally randomized. Treatment was allocated by phone and stratified by center. All patients satisfying major eligibility criteria (histological and grade, no previous neoplasms) were analysed according to treatment allocated by randomisation. With a median observation time of 76 months, cisplatin significantly reduced the relapse rate by 65% (HR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.14-0.89, p = 0.028; Cox Model) in trial I and 61% (HR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19-0.77, p = 0.007; Cox Model) in trial II. Survival was not significantly different (trial I - Kaplan-Meier overall 5-year survival: cisplatin = 88%, control = 82%, HR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.44-2.98; p = 0.773; Cox Model); trial II - overall 5-year survival: cisplatin = 81%, 32P = 79%, HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.37-1.43; p = 0.354; Cox model). In both studies the risk of dying after relapse increased for patients originally randomized to the cisplatin arms: in trial I, 6 of 7 patients in the cisplatin relapsed arm and died of tumor compared with 8 of 14 patients in the control arm. In trial II 11 of 12 patients on cisplatin, and 18 of 26 on 32P succumbed to tumor recurrence. Adjuvant cisplatin treatment in early ovarian cancer significantly prevents relapse in comparison to 32P in stage IC patients or to no immediate treatment in earlier stage women. The impact of cisplatin adjuvant treatment on survival remains, however, unclear.

  11. Contamination of rice field water with sulfonylurea and phenoxy herbicides in the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, B S; Prayitno, S; Tayeb, M A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential risk of herbicide contamination (2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2,4-D), 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), metsulfuron, bensulfuron, and pyrazosulfuron) in the rice fields of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. The study included two areas with different irrigation water sources namely non-recycled (N-RCL) and recycled (RCL) water. Periodic water sampling was carried out from the drainage canals during the planting period of the wet season 2006/2007 and dry season 2007. The HPLC-UV was used to detect herbicide residues in the water samples collected from the rice fields. The results showed that the concentration of sulfonylurea herbicides such as bensulfuron and metsulfuron in the rice field was 0.55 and 0.51 μg/L, respectively. The potential risk of contamination depended on the actual dosage of each herbicide applied by farmers to their rice fields. The potential risk of water pollution by the five herbicides studied in the area with RCL water tended to be more widespread compared to the area with N-RCL water due to surface water runoff with higher levels of weedicides to the surrounding areas. During the two seasons, 50-73% of the water samples collected from the area receiving RCL water contained the five herbicides studied at concentrations of more than 0.05 μg/L, and this percentage was higher than that from the areas receiving N-RCL water (45-69%). During the wet season, the overall total mean concentration of the eight herbicides found in the samples collected from the area with RCL water (6.27 μg/L) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that from the area receiving N-RCL water (2.39 μg/L). Meanwhile, during the dry season, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the herbicide concentrations between the areas receiving RCL (6.16 μg/L) and N-RCL water (7.43 μg/L) water.

  12. N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosoureas covalently bound to nonionic and monocationic lexitropsin dipeptides. Synthesis, DNA affinity binding characteristics, and reactions with sup 32 P-end-labeled DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Church, K.M.; Wurdeman, R.L.; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Faxian; Gold, B. )

    1990-07-24

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of compounds that contain an N-alkyl-N-nitrosourea functionality linked to DNA minor groove binding bi- and tripeptides (lexitropsins or information-reading peptides) based on methylpyrrole-2-carboxamide subunits are described. The lexitropsins (lex) synthesized have either a 3-(dimethylamino)propyl or propyl substituent on the carboxyl terminus. The preferred DNA affinity binding sequences of these compounds were footprinted in {sup 32}P-end-labeled restriction fragments with methidiumpropyl-EDTA{center dot}Fe(II), and in common with other structural analogues, e.g., distamycin and netropsin, these nitrosoureas recognize A-T-rich runs. The affinity binding of the compound with the dimethylamino terminus, which is ionized at near-neutral pH, appeared stronger than that observed for the neutral dipeptide. The sequence specificity for DNA alkylation by (2-chloroethyl)nitrosourea-lex dipeptides (Cl-ENU-lex), with neutral and charged carboxyl termini, using {sup 32}P-end-labeled restriction fragments, was determined by the conversion of the adducted sites into single-strand breaks by sequential heating at neutral pH and exposure to base. The DNA cleavage sites were visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Linking the Cl-ENU moiety to minor groove binders is a viable strategy to qualitatively and quantitatively control the delivery and release of the ultimate DNA alkylating agent in a sequence-dependent fashion.

  13. Distribution of /sup 32/P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-12-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of /sup 32/P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of /sup 32/P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed.

  14. Analysis of the metabolic turnover of the individual phosphate groups of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Validation of novel analytical techniques by using 32P-labelled lipids from erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, P T; Michell, R H; Kirk, C J

    1984-01-01

    We have developed methods that yield estimates of the 32P content of each of the individual phosphate groups of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, thus extending the information available from studies of the labelling of these lipids in intact cells or membrane preparations. The analyses are undertaken with the deacylated lipids. Assay of the 5-phosphate of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is achieved by the use, under conditions of first-order kinetics, of a 5-phosphate-specific phosphomonoesterase present in isolated erythrocyte membranes [Downes, Mussat & Michell (1982) Biochem. J. 203, 169-177]. Assay of the 4-phosphate of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and of the total monoester phosphate content (4-phosphate plus 5-phosphate) of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate employs alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestine. The radioactivity of the 1-phosphate is that remaining as organic phosphate after exhaustive alkaline phosphatase treatment. The methodology has been validated by using lipids from human erythrocytes: these contain no 32P in their 1-phosphate. These methods should be of substantial value in studies of the many cells that show rapid hormonal perturbations of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate metabolism. PMID:6326746

  15. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  16. Bis(trifluoromethyl)phosphinous acid (CF3)2P-O-H: an example of a thermally stable phosphinous acid--synthesis, gas-phase structure, and rotational isomers.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Berthold; Garcia, Placido; Willner, Helge; Oberhammer, Heinz

    2006-04-24

    The bis(trifluoromethyl)phosphinous acid, (CF3)2P-O-H, is the only known example of a thermally stable phosphinous acid. Although this compound has been known since 1960, little is known about the chemistry of this extraordinary compound; this might be due to the tedious, and in some part risky, synthesis that was originally published. An improved, simple, and safe synthesis that is based on the treatment of the easily accessible (CF3)2PNEt2, with at least three equivalents of p-toluene sulfonic acid, is presented. The reaction results in a complete conversion to the phosphinous acid, which is isolated in almost 90 % yield. The compound exists in an equilibrium of two P--OH rotational isomers, a fact which is supported by quantum chemical calculations. The relative enthalpy difference of 6.4 kJ mol(-1), calculated at the B3PW91/6-311G(3d,p) level, is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 5.9 kJ mol(-1), which was determined from the temperature dependence of the nu(OH) bands of the two rotational isomers. The complete experimental vibrational spectra of both rotamers, their predicted vibrational spectra obtained by using quantum chemical calculations, and an attempt at photoinduced isomerization of matrix-isolated (CF3)2POH is presented. The experimental structure, obtained from an electron-diffraction study in the gas phase, is reproduced very well by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods.

  17. Comparative DNA binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and some of its metabolites in mouse epidermis in vivo as revealed by the 32P-postlabeling technique.

    PubMed

    Schoepe, K B; Friesel, H; Schurdak, M E; Randerath, K; Hecker, E

    1986-04-01

    The binding of some mouse skin metabolites and related derivatives of the tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was investigated by 32P-postlabeling analysis after its topical administration. DMBA and trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxy-DMBA (DMBA-3,4-dihydrodiol) both led to the formation of four DNA adducts, which showed a very similar pattern of spots on thin-layer chromatograms. With trans-8,9-dihydro-8,9-dihydroxy-7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-8,9-dihydrodiol) one major adduct was obtained which was chromatographically indistinguishable from one of the DMBA adducts. In contrast, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-OHM-12-MBA) gave rise to two major adducts which were separable from DMBA adducts. 3-hydroxy-7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (3-OH-DMBA) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-7,12-epoxide (DMBA-O2) did not lead to detectable amounts of adducts. Quantitative determination of DNA binding showed that an initiating dose (i = 100 nmol) of DMBA yielded approximately 12 adducts/10(7) normal nucleotides. Adduct formation with the same dose of DMBA-3,4-dihydrodiol was 7-8 times higher. At a 4-fold higher dose level, DMBA-8,9-dihydrodiol exhibited a 3- to 6-times weaker binding and 7-OHM-12-MBA a slightly stronger binding than DMBA. Chromatography of the DMBA and DMBA-3,4-dihydrodiol adducts with a solvent containing borate showed a decreased mobility of two out of four adducts in each case. These adducts were also sensitive to oxidation by periodate. The results suggest that two DMBA adducts carried vicinal cis-hydroxyl groups and thus were probably derived from the anti-3,4-dihydrodiol-1,2-oxide(s) of DMBA. The other two adducts were probably derived from the syn-stereoisomer(s). When the DNA-modifying capabilities and initiating activities of the more prominent mouse-skin metabolites are considered in relation to DMBA, DMBA-3,4-dihydrodiol is postulated to be a proximate and DMBA-3,4-dihydrodiol-1,2-oxide(s) to be ultimate

  18. Patients' blood pressure control and doctors' adherence to hypertension clinical practice guideline in managing patients at health clinics in Kuala Muda district, Kedah.

    PubMed

    Teoh, S H; Razlina, A R; Norwati, D; Siti Suhaila, M Y

    2017-02-01

    blood pressure (bP) control among Malaysian is poor and doctor's adherence to clinical practice guideline (cPG) has been a well-known factor that may improve it. this study was designed to evaluate patients' bP control, doctors' adherence to the latest hypertension cPG and their association. Factors associated with bP control and cPG adherence was also examined. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kuala Muda district's health clinics. 331 medical records were selected using stratified random sampling and standard proforma was used for data collection. the latest edition of the Malaysian cPG on hypertension was employed to define related variables. A total of 160 patients (48.3%) had controlled bP and it was significantly associated with patients' age (adjusted Odds ratio, aOr= 1.03, 95% cI: 1.004, 1.05, p= 0.016) and systolic bP at presentation (aOr= 0.95, 95% cI: 0.93, 0.96, p< 0.001). About 60.7% of the medical records showed doctor's good level of cPG adherence. this adherence has significant association with presence of chronic kidney disease (aOr= 0.51, 95% cI: 0.31, 0.85, p= 0.007) and cardiovascular disease (aOr= 2.68, 95% cI: 1.04, 6.95, p= 0.030) in the patients and physicians' treatment intensification (aOr= 2.00, 95% cI: 1.26, 3.19, p= 0.009). However, no association was found between bP control and cPG adherence. Hypertension control in this study was poor and the prevalence of physicians with good level of cPG adherence was slightly above average. these findings are important for relevant stakeholders to strategise an action plan to improve hypertension management outcome.

  19. A method to accurately quantitate intensities of (32)P-DNA bands when multiple bands appear in a single lane of a gel is used to study dNTP insertion opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-dG adduct by Sulfolobus DNA polymerases Dpo4 and Dbh.

    PubMed

    Sholder, Gabriel; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitating relative (32)P-band intensity in gels is desired, e.g., to study primer-extension kinetics of DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Following imaging, multiple (32)P-bands are often present in lanes. Though individual bands appear by eye to be simple and well-resolved, scanning reveals they are actually skewed-Gaussian in shape and neighboring bands are overlapping, which complicates quantitation, because slower migrating bands often have considerable contributions from the trailing edges of faster migrating bands. A method is described to accurately quantitate adjacent (32)P-bands, which relies on having a standard: a simple skewed-Gaussian curve from an analogous pure, single-component band (e.g., primer alone). This single-component scan/curve is superimposed on its corresponding band in an experimentally determined scan/curve containing multiple bands (e.g., generated in a primer-extension reaction); intensity exceeding the single-component scan/curve is attributed to other components (e.g., insertion products). Relative areas/intensities are determined via pixel analysis, from which relative molarity of components is computed. Common software is used. Commonly used alternative methods (e.g., drawing boxes around bands) are shown to be less accurate. Our method was used to study kinetics of dNTP primer-extension opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-N(2)-dG-adduct with four DNAPs, including Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Dbh. Vmax/Km is similar for correct dCTP insertion with Dpo4 and Dbh. Compared to Dpo4, Dbh misinsertion is slower for dATP (∼20-fold), dGTP (∼110-fold) and dTTP (∼6-fold), due to decreases in Vmax. These findings provide support that Dbh is in the same Y-Family DNAP class as eukaryotic DNAP κ and bacterial DNAP IV, which accurately bypass N(2)-dG adducts, as well as establish the scan-method described herein as an accurate method to quantitate relative intensity of overlapping bands in a single lane, whether generated

  20. Adsorption of the cis-[Pt(NH3)2(P2O7)](2-) (phosphaplatin) on hydroxyapatite nanocrystals as a smart way to selectively release activated cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2] (cisplatin) in tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Michele; De Castro, Federica; Romano, Alessandro; Migoni, Danilo; Piccinni, Barbara; Verri, Tiziano; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2016-04-01

    The relevant adsorption of cis-[Pt(NH3)2(P2O7)](2-) (phosphaplatin) on hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHAP) was observed and studied in water suspension. Phosphaplatin cytotoxicity, which is very low for HeLa, MCF-7 and HS-5 cell lines could be enhanced, reaching that of cisplatin, by interaction with solid nHAP. This effect stems from nHAP ability to catalyze the phosphaplatin hydrolysis, producing the same hydrolytic species responsible for cisplatin antitumor activity.

  1. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  3. Mitochondria with impaired phosphate transport: 32P uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, G R; Orr, J L

    1976-02-01

    Rat liver mitochondria which have been exposed to 0.15 M NaC1 at 35 degrees C for 15 min subsequently take up 32Pi from an external medium only to about 5% of the extent of uptake by control mitochondria. The volume into which 32Pi distributes in a pellet of such "aged" mitochondia is less than that available to 3H2O but is greater than that available to [3H]sucrose. Mitochondria treated in this manner cannot therefore accumulate Pi although limited penetration of the inner membrane can occur. These results confirm earlier findings by indirect methods (Williams, G. R. & Orr, J. L.: Dynamics of energy-transducing membranes (Ernster, L., Estabrook, R. W. & Slater, E. C., eds), Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 497-508 (1974).

  4. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  5. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  7. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  8. Hydrogen-atom transfer in reactions of organic radicals with [Co(II)(por)]* (por = porphyrinato) and in subsequent addition of [Co(H)(por)] to olefins.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Bas; Dzik, Wojciech I; Li, Shan; Wayland, Bradford B

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for hydrogen-atom transfer from the cyanoisopropyl radical (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) (yielding [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))(CN); por = porphyrinato) and the insertion of vinyl acetate (CH(2)=CHOAc) into the Co-H bond of [Co(H)(por)] (giving [Co(III){CH(OAc)CH(3)}(por)]) were investigated by DFT calculations. The results are compared with experimental data. These reactions are relevant to catalytic chain transfer (CCT) in radical polymerization of olefins mediated by [Co(II)(por)](*), the formation and homolysis of organo-cobalt complexes that mediate living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, and cobalt-mediated hydrogenation of olefins. Hydrogen transfer from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) proceeds via a single transition state that has structural features resembling the products [Co(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. The separated radicals approach to form a close-contact radical pair and then pass through the transition state for hydrogen-atom transfer to form [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. This process provides a very low overall barrier for the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction (DeltaG(double dagger) = +3.8 kcal mol(-1)). The reverse reaction corresponding to the addition of [Co(H)(por)] to CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN has a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +8.9 kcal mol(-1)) as well. Insertion of vinyl acetate into the Co-H bond of [Co(III)(H)(por)] also proceeds over a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +11.4 kcal mol(-1)) hydrogen-transfer step from [Co(III)(H)(por)] to a carbon atom of the alkene to produce a close-contact radical pair. Dissociation of the radical pair, reorientation, and radical-radical coupling to form an organo-cobalt complex are the culminating steps in the net insertion of an olefin into the Co-H bond. The computed energies obtained for the hydrogen-atom transfer reactions from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) and from [Co(H)(por)] to olefins, as well as the organo-cobalt bond homolysis

  9. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  10. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  11. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  12. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Metabolism and excretion of 32P-aminophon in lactating cattle].

    PubMed

    Dedek, W; Grahl, R; Schwarz, H

    1978-01-01

    P-labelled aminophon, 0,0-di-u-butyl- (1-n-butylaminocyclohexyl) -phosphonate, an agricultural defoliant and siccant, was applied orally in oily solution to lactating cows, 5-6 mg/kg bodymass, resp. The halflifes of degradation in blood serum in vitro are 95 min, of the extractable metabolites in blood, milk and urine 17-20 h. The 0-and 0, N-dealkylcompound of aminophon were found as the preferred metabolites.

  14. Materials Data on Bi32P10Pb3O76 (SG:5) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Detection of Sulfur Mustard-Induced DNA Damage by a 32P-Postlabeling Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    of the method depends on developing separation techniques which allow the adduct to be measured in the presence of much higher concentrations of...2PIATP. | - CONCLUSIONS The 3 2P-postlabeling technique has been applied successfully to the detection of HETEG, the major adduct produced in DNA by...Pharmacology0. University of Massachusetts Medical School W orcester, MA 01655. ABSTRACT We have applied the 3 2 P-postlabeling technique to the detection of

  16. 'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(por)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas

    2010-08-11

    The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(por)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(por) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(por) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate.

  17. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development.

  18. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  19. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  20. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  1. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  2. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  3. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  4. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic POR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239

  5. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-12-16

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment.

  7. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Han

    2011-07-01

    To construct a fused expression vector of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, express the fusion protein in the prokaryotic system, and obtain a gene recombination protein, for the purpose of preparing the ground for further research on the pathopoiesis and immune protective response of PorB. A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequence of the PorB gene, and the PorB gene was amplified by PCR from the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29403 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-1 to generate pGEX-4T-PorB recombinants. The recombinant plasmid pGEX4T-PorB was transferred into competent cells E. coli BL21. After confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, the recombinant protein was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the PorB gene of 1 047 bp was amplified from Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and highly expressed in E. coli. The prokaryotic expression vector of pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and efficiently expressed in the prokaryotic system, which has provided a basis for further study on the biological activity of the PorB protein, as well as animal immune experiment and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and its application as a mucosal immune vaccine.

  8. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.

  9. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  10. Impact of POR*28 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Hesselink, Dennis A; Bouamar, Rachida; Budde, Klemens; de Fijter, Johannes W; De Meyer, Martine; Mourad, Michel; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2014-02-01

    The P450 oxidoreductase (POR)*28 variant allele has been associated with altered cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activities. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of calcineurin inhibitors and recent data show that POR*28 may explain part of the variability observed in tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the POR*28 allele on Tac and cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressive therapies. Kidney transplant recipients receiving either Tac (n = 184) or CsA (n = 174), participating in a prospective multicenter trial, were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3. CYP3A5 expressers that were carriers of at least 1 POR*28 allele had a 16.9% decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations when compared CYP3A5 expressers that carried the POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.03), indicating an increased CYP3A5 activity for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5, nonexpressers carrying 2 POR*28 alleles, a 24.1% (confidence interval95% = -39.4% to -4.9%; P = 0.02) decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations was observed for Tac, suggesting higher CYP3A4 activity. For CsA, POR*28/*28 patients not expressing CYP3A5 and not carrying the CYP3A4*22 decrease-of-function allele showed 15% lower CsA dose-adjusted predose concentrations (P = 0.01), indicating also increased CYP3A4 activity. In both cohorts (ie, Tac and CsA), the POR*28 allele was neither associated with the incidence of delayed graft function nor with biopsy-proven acute rejection. These results were further confirmed in 2 independent cohorts. Our results show that the POR*28 allele is associated with increased in vivo CYP3A5 activity for Tac in CYP3A5 expressers, whereas POR*28 homozygosity was associated with a significant higher CYP3A4 activity in CYP3A5 nonexpressers for both Tac and CsA.

  11. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  12. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  13. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  14. Effects of acetylcholine and other agents on /sup 32/P-prelabeled phosphoinositides and phosphatidate in crude synaptosomal preparations

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.L.

    1988-05-01

    Experimental conditions are described which permit effects of various agents on polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid (PA) to be evaluated simultaneously in crude nerve-ending preparations from rat brain. Acetylcholine (3-100 microM) or carbachol (30-1,000 microM) induced the hydrolysis of prelabeled polyphosphoinositides and, at the same time, stimulated the net label incorporated in phosphatidic acid. All muscarinic effects were blocked by atropine or pirenzepine. Non-muscarinic agonists (glutamate, adenosine, norepinephrine) stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in this preparation, but of these only norepinephrine affected phosphatidic acid turnover. A potentiation of acetylcholine-induced phosphoinositide turnover by KCl was observed, as well as an apparent selective inhibition of PIP2 hydrolysis by LiCl. Acetylcholine-stimulated turnover of PA was not necessarily coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

  15. Cosmogenic 32P and 33P in the Atmosphere and Oligotrophic Ocean and Applications to the Study of Phosphorus Cycling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Woods Hc’e Oceanographic Institution Joint Program. 3 Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any purpos of the United States Government. This...al., 1961). Also it has been shown that zooplankton have the ability to store P as fat in the males and in the reproductive system in the females... sargassum . I Table 4.4. Specific activities of 3 2 P and 3 3 P and activity ratio 3 3 p/ 2 p in plankton tows and suspended particulate (> 3 pmo

  16. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  17. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  18. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  19. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  20. Impact of POR*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2013-03-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The POR*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the POR*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4. To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3. In patients expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with POR*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, POR*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, POR*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism. Our data show that the POR*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.

  1. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  2. Hexacoordinate oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH3)(O2) react with NO to form only the nitrato analogs Fe(Por)(NH3)(η1-ONO2), even at ~100 K.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2010-12-07

    The oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH(3))(O(2)), prepared by sequential reactions of O(2) ((18)O(2)) and NH(3) with thin porous layers of Fe(II)(Por), react with NO ((15)NO) at 80-100 K to form only the low-spin nitrato complexes Fe(Por)(NH(3))(η(1)-ONO(2)), thus implying that peroxynitrite intermediates, if formed, must undergo very facile isomerization to the nitrato analog.

  3. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  4. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.

  5. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  6. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  7. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  8. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  9. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  10. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. Delayed diagnosis of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Koika, Vasiliki; Armeni, Anastasia K; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2016-04-01

    A 36-year old man, operated on for cryptorchidism at the age of 8 years, was referred to the Outpatient Clinic of Reproductive Endocrinology for investigation of infertility. Clinical examination revealed ambiguous genitalia: penis 4-5 cm, testicular volume 2-3 ml, hypospadias, hypertrophic foreskin and scrotum bifida. Mild hypertension was confirmed. No skeletal malformations were detected. Hormonal and electrolytic determinations as well as semen analysis were conducted. PCR of the coding regions of 17-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17) and of P450 oxidoreductase (POR) genes was also performed. Normal levels of electrolytes, low levels of androgens, high levels of gonadotropins and 17-hydroxyprogesterone as well as azoospermia were detected. Karyotype was shown to be 46,XY. Both hCG and ACTH stimulation significantly increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone with no increase in androgens. The diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450c17 and P450c21 deficiency due to mutations in the POR gene. Sequencing of the POR gene revealed: one deletion in exon 12 (Del 1696_1698delGTC >del531Valine) and one missense mutation in exon 7 (A259G) as well as two polymorphisms: rs1057868 (C/T A503V) and rs1057870 (G/A S572S) in exons 12 and 13, respectively. No nucleotide changes were detected in the 8 exons of P450c17. Molecular findings were consistent with the diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. Despite this severe deficiency, skeletal malformations simulating Antley-Bixler syndrome, which usually characterize the most severe forms, were not confirmed. This discrepancy could be attributed to the differential impact of a POR variant on each one of the P450 enzymes.

  13. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  14. A Lack of Significant Effect of POR*28 Allelic Variant on Tacrolimus Exposure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Vuillemin, Xavier; Etienne, Isabelle; Buchler, Mathias; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Choukroun, Gabriel; Colosio, Charlotte; Thierry, Antoine; Vigneau, Cécile; Moulin, Bruno; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Heng, Anne-Elizabeth; Subra, Jean-Francois; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie Anne; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    POR*28 is a recently newly described allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), which might be associated with an increased metabolic activity of P450 cytochromes (CYP) 3A5 and 3A4. Consequently, carriers of at least 1 allele of this polymorphism could require increased calcineurin inhibitors doses to reach the target residual concentrations (C0). The objective of this study was to test whether the allelic variant of POR, which is associated with an increased metabolic activity of CYP3A, impacts tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. We tested this hypothesis in a population of 229 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) from a large, multicenter, prospective and randomized study. We have analyzed the association between POR*28 genotype and the proportion of individuals reaching the target Tac residual concentration (Tac C0) 10 days after transplantation. We have also measured the association between POR*28 and the Tac C0, and adjusted Tac C0 (Tac C0/Tac dose) over time using generalized mixed linear models. Ten days after transplantation, there was no difference of frequencies of KTR within the target range of Tac C0 (C0 10-15 ng/mL) according to the POR*28 genotype (P = 0.8). The mean Tac C0 at day 10 in the POR*1/*1 group was 15.3 ± 9.7 ng/mL compared with 15.7 ± 7.8 ng/mL in the POR*1/*28 group and 14.2 ± 6.8 ng/mL, in the POR*28/*28 group, P = 0.8. The adjusted Tac C0 was not associated with POR*28 genotype over time (random effects model, P = 0.9). When restricted to KTR expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 genotype did not impact the proportion of individuals within the Tac C0 target range neither the adjusted Tac C0 (random effects model, P = 0.1). POR*28 does not significantly influence Tac pharmacokinetic parameters in a large cohort of KTR. This study does not confirm recent findings indicating that POR*28 carriers require more Tac to reach target C0.

  15. P450 oxidoreductase *28 (POR*28) and tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gijsen, Violette M G J; van Schaik, Ron H N; Soldin, Offie P; Soldin, Steven J; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2014-04-01

    Both age and CYP3A5 genotype are important determinants of tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In a recent study in adults, POR*28 was associated with increased dosing requirements early after transplant of CYP3A5-expressing kidney transplant recipients. The authors aimed to evaluate the additional contribution of POR*28 to early tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Retrospective data of 43 pediatric kidney transplant recipients up to 14 days posttransplant were evaluated on tacrolimus dose and tacrolimus predose blood concentrations. Recipient POR*28 and CYP3A5 genotype were determined. CYP3A5 expressers carrying at least 1 POR*28 allele had on average 18.3% lower tacrolimus predose concentrations and 20.2% lower concentration/dose ratios compared with CYP3A5 expressers with POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, tacrolimus disposition did not significantly differ between POR genotypes. In this small cohort of pediatric kidney transplant recipients, POR*28 genotype seems to explain part of the variability found in tacrolimus disposition, in addition to age and CYP3A5 genotype. This finding should be validated in a larger population, and it would be worthwhile to evaluate the clinical impact of this genotype.

  16. Two NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase (POR) Isoforms Play Distinct Roles in Environmental Adaptation in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Kim, Suk-Hwan; Song, Giha; Kim, Dami; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2017-12-01

    NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. To investigate whether the function of OsPORA can complement that of OsPORB, we constitutively overexpressed OsPORA in fgl mutant. In the 35S:OsPORA/fgl (termed OPAO) transgenic plants, the necrotic lesions of the mutant disappeared and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and proteins, as well as plastid structure, were recovered in developing leaves under natural long days in the paddy field and under short days in an artificially controlled growth room. Under constant light conditions, however, total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in the developing leaves of OPAO plants were lower than those of wild type. Moreover, the OPAO plants exhibited mild defects in mature leaves beginning at the early reproductive stage in the paddy field. The physiological function of OsPORB in response to constant light or during reproductive growth cannot be completely replaced by constitutive activity of OsPORA, although the biochemical functions of OsPORA and OsPORB are redundant. Therefore, we suggest that the two OsPORs have differentiated over the course of evolution, playing distinct roles in the adaptation of rice to the environment.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of POR, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of POR for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population.

  18. Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Guise, Christopher P; Wilson, William R

    2013-12-27

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

  19. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  20. Comparison of Serologic and Genetic porB-Based Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Consequences for Future Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Unemo, Magnus; Olcén, Per; Albert, Jan; Fredlund, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Due to temporal changes in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, a precise characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study genetic heterogeneity in the porB genes of N. gonorrhoeae was examined, and serovar determination was compared to porB gene sequencing. Among 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, phylogenetic analysis of the entire porB alleles (924 to 993 bp) identified 87 unique sequences. By analyzing only the four to six most heterogeneous porB gene regions (174 to 363 bp), 86 out of these 87 genetic variants were identified. Consequently, analysis of shorter highly variable regions of the porB gene generates high-level discriminatory ability as well as fast, objective, reproducible, and portable data for epidemiological characterization of N. gonorrhoeae. Regarding putative antigenic epitopes of PorB for Genetic Systems monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), some of the previous findings were confirmed, but new findings were also observed. For several of the MAbs, however, the precise amino acid residues of PorB critical for single-MAb reactivity were difficult to identify. In addition, repeated serovar determination of 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates revealed discrepancies for 34 isolates, mostly due to nonreproducible reactivity with single MAbs. Thus, the prospects of a genetic typing system with congruent translation of the serovar determination seem to be limited. In conclusion, analysis of short highly variable regions of the porB gene could form the basis for a fast molecular epidemiological tool for the examination of emergence and transmission of N. gonorrhoeae strains within the community. PMID:12958238

  1. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  2. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  3. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  4. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  5. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-05-01

    CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe(3+) and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe(3+) or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) or addition of 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). 5-ALA and Fe(3+) increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression.

  6. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  7. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  8. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  9. Interaction of nitrogen bases with iron-porphyrin nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Gulyan, Gurgen M; Ford, Peter C

    2007-08-20

    The reactions of the nitrogen Lewis bases (B) 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm), pyridine (Py), and NH3 as gases with sublimed layers containing the 5-coordinate nitrito iron(III)-porphyrinato complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1) are described (Por = meso-tetraphenyl-porphyrinato or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions). In situ FTIR and optical spectra are used to characterize the formation of the 6-coordinate nitro complexes formed by the reaction of 1 with B = 1-MeIm, Py, or NH3. These represent the first examples of 6-coordinate amino-nitro complexes with sterically unprotected iron-porphyrins. The interaction of ammonia with Fe(Por)(ONO) at 140 K initially led to the nitrito species Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-ONO), and this species isomerized to the nitro complexes Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-NO2) upon warming to 180 K. When the latter were warmed to room temperature under intense pumping, the initial nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) were restored. Assignments of vibrational frequencies for the coordinated nitro group in 6-coordinate iron-porphyrin complexes are given and confirmed using 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide to identify characteristic infrared bands. For M(Por)(B)(NO2) complexes (M = Fe or Co), an inverse correlation between the net charge transfer from the axial ligand B to the nitro group and the value of Deltanu = nua(NO2) - nus(NO2) is proposed. These observations are discussed in the context of growing interest in potential physiological roles of nitrite ion reactions with ferro- and ferri-heme proteins.

  10. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  11. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  12. Impact of PPARA and POR polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Malinowski, Damian; Dziewanowski, Krzysztof; Droździk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify genetic markers of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity within genes encoding for regulatory elements. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of polymorphism of PPARA and POR genes on tacrolimus (TAC) dose-adjusted trough concentration and risk of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). A total of 241 White kidney transplant patients were genotyped for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs1057868 (*28) in POR, rs4253728:G>A, and rs4823613:A>G in PPARA. No significant genotype-dependent differences in TAC dose-adjusted trough concentration were observed for either POR or PPARA variants. No significant differences in the incidence of NODAT were observed between patients stratified by PPARA and POR genotypes. The frequency of NODAT among PPARA rs4253728 AA homozygotes (42%) was higher compared with heterozygotes (22%) and GG homozygotes (19%), but the difference was not significant. Testing TAC-medicated renal transplant recipients for POR and PPARA variants seems to have limited clinical application.

  13. POR*28 SNP is associated with lipid response to atorvastatin in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Drogari, Euridiki; Ragia, Georgia; Mollaki, Vasiliki; Elens, Laure; Van Schaik, Ron H N; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G

    2014-12-01

    In children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) pharmacotherapy with statins is the cornerstone in the current regimen to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and premature coronary heart disease risk. There is, however, a great interindividual variation in response to therapy, partially attributed to genetic factors. The polymorphic enzyme POR transfers electrons from NADPH to CYP450 enzymes including CYP3A, which metabolize atorvastatin. POR*28 polymorphism is associated with increased CYP3A enzyme activity. We analyzed the association of POR*28 allele with response to atorvastatin. One hundred and five FH children and adolescents treated with atorvastatin at doses 10-40 mg were included in the study. Total cholesterol (TChol) and LDLc were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. POR*28 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay. CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G genotypes were also determined with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP methods. POR*28 carriers had significantly lower percent mean reduction of TChol (33.1% in *1/*1, 29.8% in *1/*28 and 25.9% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.045) and of LDLc (43.9% in *1/*1, 40.9% in *1/*28 and 30.8% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.013). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors, POR*28 genotypes, additionally to baseline cholesterol level, accounted for an estimated 8.3% and 7.3% of overall variability in % TChol and LDLc reduction (β: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.73-6.37; p = 0.001 and β: 5.08; 95% CI: 1.62-8.54; p = 0.004, respectively). CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G polymorphisms were not associated with lipid reductions and did not modify the effect of POR*28 on atorvastatin response. In children with FH, carriage of POR*28 allele is associated with reduced effect of atorvastatin on TChol and LDLc and therefore identifies FH children that may require higher atorvastatin doses to achieve full therapeutic benefits. Additional studies in

  14. Interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and lipid lowering response with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kan-kan; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-09-01

    The polymorphic enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme s, which metabolize atorvastatin. This suggests that variations in the CYP3A5 and POR genes may influence the response to statins. We aimed to investigate the association and interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by PCR with direct sequencing analysis for 179 hyperlipidaemic patients treated with atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after treatment. For the 179 patients (including 100 males), the variant allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 were 73.75 and 41.62 %, respectively. Among all patients, no significant association was found between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily for 4 weeks. Homozygotes for the POR*28 T allele showed a significantly lower mean concentration of LDL-C than homozygotes for the POR*28 C allele (POR*28 TT vs POR*28 CC: 2.46 ± 0.37 vs 2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P = 0.019) after treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg daily for 4 weeks. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, CYP3A5 non-expressors who were POR*28 wild-type homozygotes showed significantly higher mean TC and LDL-C levels than those who were POR*28 variant homozygotes, both at baseline (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 7.30 ± 0.73 vs 6.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L, P = 0.026; LDL-C: 3.88 ± 0.70 vs 3.47 ± 0.46 mmol/L, P = 0.009) and after atorvastatin treatment (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 6.03 ± 0.64 vs 5.69 ± 0.34 mmol/L, P = 0

  15. [Control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites with the program Recicla por tu bienestar in Merida, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.

  16. Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados por el Radiofisico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez

    Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, por lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta por medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC

  17. Mujeres felices por ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2003-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality among Latino women. Several behavioral factors such as early detection and dietary practices could help decrease morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this population. Unfortunately, there are few data regarding the efficacy of health-related interventions for young Latino women. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables is a randomized intervention project designed to assess breast cancer risk reduction behavior among Latino women ages 20-40 years. The primary objectives of the project were to determine whether an 8-month integrated dietary/breast health intervention could lead to a greater reduction in dietary fat, increase in dietary fiber, increase in the frequency and proficiency of breast self examination (BSE), and reduction in anxiety related to BSE compared to controls. Herein we describe the overall design of the project and present baseline characteristics of the 256 randomized women. Our results suggest that the average daily intake of dietary fat (percentage of total energy) was slightly below 30% (percentage of total energy) among the women randomized. While over half of these women reported that they practice BSE, and few reported anxiety related to BSE, less than 27% of women were proficient in the recommended BSE technique. There are few data on the dietary and breast health behaviors of young low-acculturated Latino women. This study documents the feasibility of recruiting, randomizing, and obtaining both baseline dietary and breast health data on this unique and underserved population.

  18. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  19. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  20. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  1. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  2. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  3. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-06-30

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer.

  4. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  5. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs.

  6. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  7. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  8. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  9. Thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin island (Republic of Tuva, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, Daria; Motenko, Rimma; Buldovich, Sergey; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Prosuncov, Kirill

    2010-05-01

    We investigated current permafrost state, thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin Island (Tere-Hol Lake, south-east part of Tuva republic, Russia). Rocks of the island are represented by dispersing grounds in permafrost state. The architectural monument Por-Bajin fortress (the middle of the VIII century) located at the island can be destructed due to thawing of frozen rocks resulted by water level rising in the surrounding Por-Bajin lake. Seasonally thawed layer on the island varies from 1.1 to 1.8 meters based on drilling observations from 13 drill holes the. Measured in the field the thermal conductivity indicates the low values in seasonally thawed layer (from 0.14 to 0.19 Wm-1K-1). Twenty most typical for the studied area frozen handsamples were collected from several holes in the depth interval from 1.5 to 10.15 meters. The humidity of sampled specimens varies from 13 to 270 percents and density varies from 1.21 to 2.17 g/cm3. Investigations of grain-size composition, thermal properties and liquid phase composition were undertaken using laboratory methods. The grain-size composition of Por-Bajin grounds varies from clays to gritstones and gravelites with clay-silt matrix. Phase composition of water in the frozen grounds was studied by contact and cryoscopic methods. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter). Based on obtained data computer model allowed to forecast the evolution of permafrost at the island and predict the destiny of Por-Bajin monument. This work was supported by grant from President of the Russian Federation NSh - 4078.2008.5

  10. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  11. The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua workers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua (spa) workers. We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP. For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR. Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  12. Response of phage T4 polynucleotide kinase toward dinucleotides containing apurinic sites: Design of a sup 32 P-postlabeling assay for apurinic sites in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Weinfeld, M.; Liuzzi, M.; Paterson, M.C. )

    1990-02-20

    The authors have examined the capacity of bacteriophage T4 polynucleotide kinase to phosphorylate the partially depurinated products of d-ApA, namely d-SpA and d-ApS (where S represents an apurinic deoxyribose group). It was observed that the enzyme acted only on the latter isomer. Since molecules of this type (d-NpS) are the sole apurinic site containing products resulting from the combined digestion of lightly depurinated DNA by snake venom phosphodiesterase and calf alkaline phosphatase they were able to devise a postlabeling assay for these biologically important DNA lesions. The method offers several advantages, including (a) elimination of the need for prelabeled DNA, (b) high (femtomole range) sensitivity, and (c) nearest-neighbor analysis of bases 5{prime} to apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. Using this assay, they obtained a value for the rate of depurination of form I pRSV neo plasmid DNA. The rate of depurination of poly(dA), treated in a similar fashion, was found to be {approximately}1 base per 10{sup 3} nucleotides per hour.

  13. Cloning of a New Gene/s in Chromosome 17p3.2-p13.1 that Control Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Sequence Detection System, December 11, 1997, updated 10/2001). B-III-i- Apoptosis assays. The cells were washed with cold Guava Nexin Buffer and stained...in a 50pl reaction volume with Guava Nexin PE and Guava Nexin 7-AAD. The stained cells were diluted to 500 [1l with cold Guava Nexin Buffer and...acquired on the Guava PC. Data was acquired on the using Guava PCA system using CytoSoft software. The cells were induced to undergo apoptosis by incubation

  14. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    PubMed

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  15. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  16. Sediment trace metal concentrations from the mudflats of Kuala Juru and Kuala Muda of Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Mat, I.; Maah, M.J. )

    1994-11-01

    About 4-5000 ha of the mudflats along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia are currently utilized for the semi-culture of the economically important marine bivalve, Anadara granosa. Therefore, information on the status of the trace metal pollution in the culture areas is of considerable value in the interest of public health when shellfish from this area are available for consumption. As an initial assessment of the degree of trace metal pollution in the sediments, an approach to analyze the non-residual (non-lattice held) trace metal concentrations should be of prime consideration rather than the total metal content in the sediments. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to restrict the comparison of the non- residual metal fraction to sediments having similar textural composition. For the above reasons, assorted acids are used to partially extract the non-residual trace metal fraction. The partial extraction of sediment-bound trace metals is not only providing information on the strength of association between metals and sediment compositions but also the potential availability of these metals to aquatic organisms. It has been shown that the bioavailability of trace metals to the aquatic biota is best related to the easily leachable, non-residual fraction rather than the total sediment bound trace metals. Therefore, it makes very little sense to consider the total metal content in the sediment to be bioavailable to cause damage to aquatic organisms or to the aquatic ecosystems. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tab.

  17. Carbonised red mud--a new water treatment product made from a waste material.

    PubMed

    Pulford, I D; Hargreaves, J S J; Ďurišová, J; Kramulova, B; Girard, C; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Rico, J L

    2012-06-15

    Proposals to use red mud, the waste produced by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore in the Bayer process, as a material for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated water are limited by its inherent alkalinity and variability. Attempts to lower its pH have been largely unreliable. However, an alternative strategy is carbonisation of red mud by catalytic hydrocarbon cracking, which results in a magnetic material of greater surface area. The efficacy of this material has been compared with that of the untreated parent red mud and acidified red mud for the sorption of CrO(4)(2-), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). Carbonised red mud does not remove CrO(4)(2-) from solution, but shows enhancement of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) removal. There is an approximate ten-fold increase in removal of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by carbonised red mud compared with acidified red mud. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  20. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  1. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  2. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  3. Polymorphisms of POR, SULT2A1 and HSD11B1 in children with premature adrenarche.

    PubMed

    Utriainen, Pauliina; Laakso, Saila; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2012-09-01

    Premature adrenarche (PA) refers to an earlier than normal increase in adrenocortical androgen production. The pathogenesis of PA remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms at P450 oxidoreductase (POR), steroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1), or 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) genes could contribute to the polygenic pathogenesis of PA. We performed a case-control study on the polymorphisms rs1057868 at POR, rs182420 at SULT2A1, and rs12086634 at HSD11B1. The study cohort comprised 73 prepubertal children with PA (defined by clinical signs) and 97 age- and gender-matched healthy controls from a Finnish Caucasian population. Genotype distributions and clinical and metabolic phenotypes were determined. The genotype distributions of the polymorphisms were similar between the study groups. No variant was associated with alterations in serum adrenal steroid concentrations. The minor C variant at SULT2A1 was associated with higher serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (T/T, n=64 vs T/C&C/C, n=33; mean 94 vs 116 nmol/L; P=.001) and a trend for lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/dehydroepiandrosterone ratios in the controls (P=.06), and with higher plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the PA subjects (T/T, n=42 vs T/C&C/C, n=31; 4.0 vs 4.6 mmol/L; P<.001). The minor G variant at HSD11B1 was associated with lower plasma triglyceride concentration in the controls (T/T, n=65 vs T/G&G/G, n=32; 0.61 vs 0.49 mmol/L; P=.013). Common polymorphisms at POR, SULT2A1 or HSD11B1 were not associated with PA in a Finnish Caucasian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  5. The POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-Xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-Ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Hong-Bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-Xi; Li, Jia-Li

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868-rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  6. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis porA gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis porA gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial.

  7. Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

  8. Monitoring shifts in the conformation equilibrium of the membrane protein cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) in nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-10-05

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm(2) patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction.

  9. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  10. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Pan, Li Qiang; Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  11. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  12. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  13. The genetic polymorphisms of POR*28 and CYP3A5*3 significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shuai-Bing; Xue, Ling; Ding, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Hua; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the influence of the polymorphism of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as well as other relevant genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1) on individual variability of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and perform population pharmacokinetic analysis of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations and clinical details were retrospectively collected from 83 renal recipients. CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, and ABCB1 C3435T were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 were genotyped by sequencing method. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM program. The significant influences of CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and POR*28 polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations (C0/D) were observed in 83 renal recipients. Subgroup analysis showed that POR*28 polymorphisms significantly decreased tacrolimus C0/D by 1.50 - 1.84-fold (p < 0.05) in patients who were CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1 carriers, n = 46), while similar results could not be obtained from CYP3A5 non-expressers (CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers, n = 37). Additionally, population pharmacokinetic analysis identified that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was the only covariant for the apparent clearance of tacrolimus (CL/F). The study demonstrated that the POR*28 C>T mutation could decrease the C0/D of tacrolimus in renal recipients who were CYP3A5 expressers. The population pharmacokinetic model showed that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was associated with the CL/F of tacrolimus which might provide references for personalized use of tacrolimus in clinic.

  14. Reactions of nitrogen oxides with the five-coordinate Fe(III)(porphyrin) nitrito intermediate Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Hakobyan, Manya E; Patterson, James C; Iretskii, Alexei; Ford, Peter C

    2007-03-28

    Detailed experimental studies are described for reactions of several nitrogen oxides with iron porphyrin models for heme/NxOy systems. It is shown by FTIR and optical spectroscopy and by isotope labeling experiments that reaction of small increments of NO2 with sublimed thin layers of the iron(II) complex Fe(Por) (Por = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TPP, or meso-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, TTP) leads to formation of the 5-coordinate nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1), which are fairly stable but very slowly decompose under vacuum giving mostly the corresponding nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(NO). Further reaction of 1 with new NO2 increments leads to formation of the nitrato complex Fe(Por)(eta2-O2NO) (2). The interaction of NO with 1 at low temperature involves ligand addition to give the nitrito-nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO)(NO) (3); however, these isomerize to the nitro-nitrosyl analogs Fe(Por)(eta1-NO2)(NO) (4) upon warming. Experiments with labeled nitrogen oxides argue for an intramolecular isomerization ("flipping") mechanism rather than one involving dissociation and rebinding of NO2. The Fe(III) centers in the 6-coordinate species 3 and 4 are low spin in contrast to 1, which appears to be high-spin, although DFT computations of the porphinato models Fe(P)(nitrite) suggest that the doublet nitro species and the quartet and sextet nitrito complexes are all relatively close in energy. The nitro-nitrosyl complex 4 is stable under an NO atmosphere but decomposes under intense pumping to give a mixture of the ferrous nitrosyl complex Fe(Por)(NO) and the ferric nitrito complex Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) indicating the competitive dissociation of NO and NO2. Hence, loss of NO from 4 is accompanied with nitro --> nitrito isomerization consistent with 1 being the more stable of the 5-coordinate NO2 complexes of iron porphyrins.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  16. Most but not all laboratories can detect the recently emerged Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA mutants - results from the QCMD 2013 N. gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme.

    PubMed

    Luijt, D; Di Lorenzo, C; van Loon, A M; Unemo, M

    2014-02-27

    We describe the results of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 Neisseria gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme that included an N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis porA gene which causes false-negative results in molecular diagnostic assays targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Enhanced awareness of the international transmission of such gonococcal strains is needed to avoid false-negative results in both in-house and commercial molecular diagnostic assays used in laboratories worldwide, but particularly in Europe.

  17. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  18. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  19. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  20. Avidity maturation following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine in UK infants.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Emma; Borrow, Ray; Goldblatt, David; Balmer, Paul; Dawson, Maureen; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth; Cartwright, Keith

    2002-06-07

    To date, there are no data assessing the utility of avidity indices as a surrogate marker for the induction of immunological memory following meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccination. We studied infants who had been immunized with three doses of a recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine at ages 2-4 months, together with a fourth dose at age 12-18 months. A control group had received a single dose of the same vaccine at age 12-18 months. As previously reported, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titres increased after each of the first three doses, with a significant increase observed from 6 months post third dose to 1 month post fourth dose. The geometric mean avidity indices (GMAI), against strain H44/76 OMVs, increased from 1 month post first dose to 1 month post third dose. Significant increases in GMAI were observed at 6 months post third dose and again following the fourth dose. At 32-42 months of age, though the SBA titres had returned to post first dose levels, the GMAI remained elevated. No increase in avidity was observed in the control group. Antibody avidity indices are useful laboratory markers for the priming of immunological memory following vaccination with meningococcal serogroup B OMV vaccines.

  1. Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil

    2006-02-15

    The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

  2. Examination of P-OR bridging bond orders in phosphate monoesters using (18)O isotope shifts in 31P NMR.

    PubMed

    Sorensen-Stowell, Kerensa; Hengge, Alvan C

    2005-06-10

    Evidence indicates that phosphate monoesters undergo hydrolysis by a loose transition state with extensive bond fission to the leaving group. It has been proposed that part of the high dependence of the rate on the leaving group pKa (betalg = -1.23) arises from weaker ester bonds in the reactants as the pKa of the leaving group decreases, on the basis of X-ray structures and calculations. In contrast, IR and Raman studies suggest that the leaving group has little effect on the length of the P-OR bridging bond in solution. To gather additional data on this issue, we have used (18)O isotopic shifts in 31P NMR to monitor the bond order of P-O bonds in a range of phosphate esters with different leaving groups. Using this technique, we have been able to evaluate whether significant changes are observed in the P-O bond orders for the bridging and nonbridging positions of methyl, ethyl, phenethyl, propargyl, phenyl, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate using [(16)O(18)O] labeled species in deuterium oxide. The results indicate that the bridging and nonbridging bond orders to phosphorus in phosphate monoesters are not significantly altered by differences in the pKa of the leaving group or by the counterion of the phosphate ester dianion.

  3. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  4. Interaction between variants in the CYP2C9 and POR genes and the risk of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia: A GoDARTS Study.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Donnelly, Louise A; Leese, Graham; Palmer, Colin N A; Pearson, Ewan R

    2017-06-28

    Data on the association of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms with sulfonylurea (SU)-induced hypoglycaemia (SH) are inconsistent. Recent studies showed that variants in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene could affect CYP2C9 activity. In this study, we explored the effects of POR*28 and combined CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes on SH and the efficacy of SU treatment in type 2 diabetes. A total of 1770 patients were included in the analysis of SU efficacy, assessed as the combined outcome of the HbA1c reduction and the prescribed SU daily dose. Sixty-nine patients with severe SH were compared with 311 control patients. The number of CYP2C9 deficient alleles was associated with nearly three-fold higher odds of hypoglycaemia (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.30-6.09; P = .009) and better response to SU treatment (β, -0.218; SE, 0.074; P = .003) only in patients carrying the POR*1/*1 genotype. Our results indicate that interaction between CYP2C9 and POR genes may be an important determinant of efficacy and severe adverse effects of SU treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  6. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  7. Recombinant PorA, the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni, provides heterologous protection in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anjum; Raghupathy, Raj; Albert, M John

    2010-11-01

    Immunity against Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing diarrhea, is largely serotype specific. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni, PorA, is a common antigen with the potential to provide broad protection. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused to PorA prepared from Campylobacter jejuni C31 (O:6,7) (GST-PorA) combined with a modified heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant and later orally challenged with C31 strain or three heterologous strains: 48 (O:19), 75 (O:3), and 111 (O:1,44). Protection from colonization with the challenge organism was studied by fecal screening daily for 9 days. Serum and intestinal lavage fluid antibodies against the vaccine and Sarkosyl-purified MOMP from C31 were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The vaccine produced robust antibody responses against both antigens in serum and secretion. Since strain C31 was a poor colonizer, homologous protection could not be studied. The protective efficacies of heterologous strains were 43% (for strain 48, P < 0.001), 29% (for strain 75, P < 0.005), and 42% (for strain 111, P < 0.001) for the 9-day period compared to control mice given phosphate-buffered saline. Thus, PorA provided appreciable protection against colonization with heterologous serotypes.

  8. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  9. The influence of CYP3A, PPARA, and POR genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ingrid; Bremer, Sara; Midtvedt, Karsten; Mohebi, Beata; Dahl, Miriam; Bergan, Stein; Åsberg, Anders; Christensen, Hege

    2014-06-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine (CsA) are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Several studies have demonstrated an association between the CYP3A5 genotype and Tac dose requirements. Recently, CYP3A4, PPARA, and POR gene variants have been shown to influence CYP3A metabolism. The present study investigated potential associations between CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*22, PPARA c.209- 1003G>A and c.208+3819A>G, and POR*28 alleles and dose-adjusted concentrations (C/D) of Tac and CsA in 177 renal transplant patients early post-transplant. All patients (n=177) were genotyped for CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, PPARA c.209-1003G>A, and PPARA c.208+3819A>G using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting curve analysis with allelespecific hybridization probes or PCR restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods. Drug concentrations and administered doses were retrospectively collected from patient charts at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway. One steady-state concentration was collected for each patient. We confirmed a significant impact of the CYP3A5*3 allele on Tac exposure. Patients with POR*28 and PPARA variant alleles demonstrated 15 % lower (P=0.04) and 19 % higher (P=0.01) Tac C0/D respectively. CsA C2/D was 53 % higher among CYP3A4*22 carriers (P=0.03). The results support the use of pre-transplant CYP3A5 genotyping to improve initial dosing of Tac, and suggest that Tac dosing may be further individualized by additional POR and PPARA genotyping. Furthermore, initial CsA dosing may be improved by pre-transplant CYP3A4*22 determination.

  10. Compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in POR gene: Antley-bixler syndrome phenotype in three sibling fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tzetis, Maria; Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Sofocleous, Christalena; Kosma, Konstantina; Mitrakos, Anastasios; Tzannatos, Christina; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sofia

    2016-07-01

    Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is an exceptionally rare craniosynostosis syndrome that can be accompanied by disordered steroidogenesis, and is mainly caused by mutations in the POR gene, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Here we report the prenatal and postmortem findings of three sibling fetuses with ABS as a result of compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in the POR gene. Prenatal ultrasound and postmortem examination were performed in three sibling fetuses with termination of pregnancy at 22, 23, and 17 weeks of gestation, respectively. Molecular analysis of fetus 2 and 3 included (a) bidirectional sequencing of exon 8 of the POR gene after amplification of the specific locus by polymerase chain reaction, to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and (b) high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) positive single nucleotide polymorphism array CGH (aCGH) analysis to detect copy number variants (CNVs), copy neutral areas of loss of heterozygosity and uniparental disomy. The diagnosis of ABS was suggested by the postmortem examination findings. The combination of the POR gene molecular analysis and aCGH revealed a compound heterozygous genotype of a maternal SNV (p.A287P) and a paternal CNV (NC_000007.13:g.(?_75608488)_(75615534_?)del). To the best of our knowledge, these sibling fetuses add to the few reported cases of ABS, caused by a combination of a SNV and a CNV in the POR gene. The detailed description of the pathologic and radiographic findings of second trimester fetuses affected with ABS adds novel knowledge concerning the early ABS phenotype, in lack of previous relevant reports. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:536-541, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  12. Results of Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2004-10-01

    Data are limited on the efficacy of health-focused interventions for young, low-acculturated Latino women. Because breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality in this population, combined interventions that address both early detection and dietary patterns could help reduce both morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this underserved population. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables was randomized intervention study designed to assess the efficacy of an 8-month combined dietary and breast health intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake as well as to increase the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination (BSE) and reduce anxiety related to BSE among Latinas. Blocked randomization in blocks of 6 was used to randomize 256 20- to 40-year-old Latinas to the intervention (n = 127) or control group (n = 129). The intervention group attended an 8-month multicomponent education program designed specifically for low-acculturated Latinas. The control group received mailed health education material on a schedule comparable to the intervention. A total of 195 women (76.2%) completed both the baseline and 8-month follow-up interviews. The intervention and control groups were similar on baseline sociodemographic characteristics. At the 8-month follow up, the intervention group reported lower dietary fat (P < .001) and higher fiber intake (p = .06); a higher proportion reported practicing BSE at the recommended interval (p < .001) and showed improved BSE proficiency (p < .001) compared to the control group. BSE-related anxiety was low for both groups at baseline, and no difference in reduction was observed. This project provides a successful model for achieving dietary change and improving breast health behavior in young, low-acculturated Latinas.

  13. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  14. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  15. IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants' sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Sadler, F; Borrow, R; Dawson, M; Fox, A; Cartwright, K

    2001-08-14

    The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The PorA outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different PorA OMPs (each representing a different serosubtype) has been evaluated in phase II trials with encouraging results. Little is known about the IgG subclass response to the various antigens contained within this vaccine. These responses are important due to the different half-lives and complement fixing abilities of these antibodies. In this study, immunoblotting was undertaken with infants' sera following either three or four doses of vaccine, and OMVs from six isogenic meningococcal strains differing only in their PorA serosubtype. Following either three or four doses of the vaccine, IgG(3) and IgG(1) subclass antibodies were induced to all six of the isogenic strains, although sera collected after four doses of vaccine showed stronger antibody levels. IgG(3) was found in more sera than IgG(1). For both sets of sera, the two isogenic strains expressing P1.5,2 and P1.5(c),10 induced stronger IgG subclass antibody responses than the other four meningococcal strains. The recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine stimulates both IgG(1) and IgG(3) subclass antibodies, the subclasses that are most effective in activating the complement system.

  16. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  17. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  18. [Optimization of tri-expression of human CYP3A4 with POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhangming; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Yingchun; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions of tri-expression of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells. The Sf 9 cells expressing CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 were cultured in shaker flasks. The optimized conditions, including the temperature and rotation speed, the culture volume, the amount of surfactant and the culture time were studied. The expressed products in microsomes were used to metabolize the testosterone and their metabolic activity was determined. When the temperature and rotation speed of the shaker were 27 degree and 90 r/min, the cell density and culture volume were 5X105 cells/ml and 80-120 ml per 250 ml shaker flasks, respectively. When Pluronic F-68 was 0.1% and the culture time was 72 h, the condition was most suitable for culture of Sf 9 cells and expression of targeted proteins. When the ratio of the volume of three added viruses was 1:1:1, the expression condition was optimal, under which the Km, Vmax, and CLint for testosterone metabolism were 119.6 μmol/L,0.52 μmol/(min*g protein) and 4.34 ml/(min*g protein), respectively. The conditions of tri-expressing of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 have been optimized in the study and the product CYP3A4 is obtained with higher metabolic activity.

  19. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  20. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  1. CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 genetic variants influence the required dose of tacrolimus in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lesche, Dorothea; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg; Setoud, Raschid; Oberhänsli, Markus; Carrel, Thierry; Fiedler, Georg M; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Mohacsi, Paul; Sistonen, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    After heart transplantation (HTx), the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of immunosuppressive drugs represents a major therapeutic challenge due to the narrow therapeutic window between over-immunosuppression causing toxicity and under-immunosuppression leading to graft rejection. Although genetic polymorphisms have been shown to influence pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressants, data in the context of HTx are scarce. We thus assessed the role of genetic variation in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, POR, NR1I2, and ABCB1 acting jointly in immunosuppressive drug pathways in tacrolimus (TAC) and ciclosporin (CSA) dose requirement in HTx recipients. Associations between 7 functional genetic variants and blood dose-adjusted trough (C0) concentrations of TAC and CSA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after HTx were evaluated in cohorts of 52 and 45 patients, respectively. Compared with CYP3A5 nonexpressors (*3/*3 genotype), CYP3A5 expressors (*1/*3 or *1/*1 genotype) required around 2.2- to 2.6-fold higher daily TAC doses to reach the targeted C0 concentration at all studied time points (P ≤ 0.003). Additionally, the POR*28 variant carriers showed higher dose-adjusted TAC-C0 concentrations at all time points resulting in significant differences at 3 (P = 0.025) and 6 months (P = 0.047) after HTx. No significant associations were observed between the genetic variants and the CSA dose requirement. The CYP3A5*3 variant has a major influence on the required TAC dose in HTx recipients, whereas the POR*28 may additionally contribute to the observed variability. These results support the importance of genetic markers in TAC dose optimization after HTx.

  2. Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, POR, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2013-12-01

    According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (POR) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the POR. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, POR, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency caused by R457H mutation in POR gene in Chinese: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-03-14

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare disease exhibiting a variety of clinical manifestations. It can be difficult to differentiate with other diseases such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). Nearly 100 cases of PORD have been reported worldwide. However, the genetic characters and clinical management are still unclear, especially in China. In this study, we report a 27-year-old female Chinese patient who first presented with amenorrhea and recurrence of large ovary cyst. She was misdiagnosed with PCOS and non-classical 21-OHD due to ovary cysts and elevated 17-hydroxy-progesterone. The patient's complaining of a mild difficulty of bending the metacarpophalangeal joints reminded us to consider PORD, which usually presents with skeletal deformities and sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of PORD was confirmed by genetic analyses, which showed the patient harboring a homozygous missense mutation in the POR gene (R457H) and her parents carrying the heterozygous mutation. The patient was treated with low-dose corticosteroids and estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy, and her ovarian cyst gradually reduced with regular menstruation in the follow-up. Moreover, the clinical and genetic characteristics of 104 previously reported PORD cases were also summarized and analyzed. PORD is a very rare disease which can be easily misdiagnosed in mild cases. Clinicians should keep in mind of this disease in patients with sexual dysfunction, especially combined with special skeletal deformities. Our data could provide a consciously understanding of this disease for clinic practicers. Low-dose corticosteroids combined with estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy will be effective in PORD patients with recurrence of large ovary cyst. The fact that the reported PORD patients in China carrying an identical variant R457H in POR gene also give us a viewpoint that R457H mutation in POR gene maybe

  4. Preclinical safety and immunogenicity evaluation of a nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Kaaijk, Patricia; van Straaten, Ineke; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Boot, Elmieke P J; Levels, Lonneke M A R; van Dijken, Harry H; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M

    2013-02-04

    An improved nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine was developed with intrinsic adjuvating activity due to presence of less-toxic (lpxL1) LPS. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of this next-generation NonaMen vaccine were evaluated following repeated vaccination in rabbits and mice. A repeated-dose toxicology study was performed in rabbits. Immunogenicity of next-generation NonaMen was evaluated by determining the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against meningococcal serogroup B strains containing several PorA subtypes. Release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), by the human monocytic cell line (MM6) was measured to estimate pyrogenic activity. No toxicologically relevant findings were noted in vaccinated rabbits receiving plain next-generation NonaMen. In agreement, next-generation NonaMen induced reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, released by human monocyte cell line. In both rabbits and mice, next-generation NonaMen induced high SBA titers against all tested MenB strains regardless of whether or not aluminium phosphate adjuvant is used. The data suggest that next-generation NonaMen is a safe vaccine with the potential to develop a broadly protective immune response and encourage the start of the first clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  6. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  7. A rare prenatal case with two de novo inversions and a translocation: 48, XX,t(9;12)(q32;p24.3), inv(11)(p15.1q25), inv(13)(q12.q22)

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, B.; Balaban, L.; Eldred, C.

    1994-09-01

    Ultrasound examination of a para 1, gravida 2, 26 y.o. showed severe hydrocephalus and polyhydramnios. Amniocentesis was performed at 27 weeks. High resolution chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype with a 9;12 translocation, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 11, and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 13. Parental chromosome studies were normal. The mother was not on medication prior to her pregnancy and there was no known exposure to radiation. Delivery was at 34 weeks gestation. The phenotype consisted of micrognathia, low set ears, hypertelorism, and hydrodcephaly. Review of the literature revealed a single report with multiple de novo aberrations consisting of a 6;14 translocation and a deleted 7. This was diagnosed in the child of a woman with systemic lupus erythematous treated with azathioprine. These types of abnormalities have been known to be induced by chemical and radiation exposure. High resolution banding combined with molecular studies presently improve our ability to detect subtle structural aberrations.

  8. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  9. Effect of CYP3A4*22, POR*28, and PPARA rs4253728 on sirolimus in vitro metabolism and trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Coste, Sandra; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have identified new candidate polymorphisms in the genes related to CYP3A activity or calcineurin inhibitor dose requirements in kidney transplant recipients. These genes and polymorphisms are CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4) (rs35599367-C>T; *22); POR [P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase] (rs1057868-C>T; *28); and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) (rs4253728-G>A). We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on sirolimus (SRL) in vitro hepatic metabolism, SRL trough concentrations (C0), and SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. The clinical study included 113 stable kidney transplant patients switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to SRL (SRL C0 measured at 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter). We investigated SRL metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes derived from individual donors (n = 31). Microsomes and patients were genotyped by use of Taqman® allelic discrimination assays. The effects of polymorphisms and covariates were studied using multilinear regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models or logistic regressions. In vitro, the CYP3A4*22 allele resulted in approximately 20% lower metabolic rates of SRL (P = 0.0411). No significant association was found between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, or PPARA genotypes and SRL dose, C0, or C0/dose in kidney transplant patients. POR*28 was associated with a minor but significant decrease in SRL log-transformed C0 [CT/TT vs CC, β = -0.15 (0.05); P = 0.0197] but this did not have any impact on the dose administered, which limited the relevance of the finding. After adjustment for nongenetic covariates and correction for false discovery finding, none of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested showed significant association with SRL adverse events. These recently described polymorphisms do not seem to substantially influence the pharmacokinetics of SRL or the occurrence of SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients.

  10. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-03-01

    The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking.

  11. Effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1 C3435T on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yan, Liang; Cao, Hui-Min; Wei, Lu-Man; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2015-09-01

    Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker that is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, significant individual variances in the disposition of nifedipine have been reported, and genetic factors are considered to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1-C3435T, and POR*28 genetic polymorphisms on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. 45 healthy Chinese volunteers enrolled in this study received a single oral dose of 90 mg nifedipine after providing written informed consent. Volunteers were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1-C3435T. The blood concentrations of nifedipine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. There were significant differences of AUC00-∞ and AUC0-48h in the different CYP3A5*3 genotype groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The CYP3A5*3 GG group and POR*28 CT/TT group were found to have lower AUC00-∞ and Cmax compared with the POR*28 CC group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the POR*28 CT/TT group was found to have longer t1/2 but lower Cmax than the CYP3A4*1G GG group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.002, respectively) as well as the CYP3A4*1G GG and the CYP3A5*3 GG group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared with the POR*28 CC group. No significant associations were found between CYP3A4*1G/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Both CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms are found to be associated with the difference in disposition of nifedipine; POR*28 is considered to have an impact on CYP3A4 activity.

  12. Unique combined penA/mtrR/porB mutations and NG-MAST strain types associated with ceftriaxone and cefixime MIC increases in a 'susceptible' Neisseria gonorrhoeae population.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S D; Starnino, S; Horsman, G B; Levett, P N; Dillon, J R

    2014-06-01

    To determine which mutations in penA, mtrR and porB are implicated in increasing minimum MICs of ceftriaxone and cefixime in a susceptible gonococcal population and to ascertain associations with gonococcal strain types (STs). One hundred and forty-six Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates formed two extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility groups: group 1 isolates with cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.0005-0.016 mg/L; and group 2 isolates with cefixime MICs of 0.03-0.125 mg/L (n = 24) and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.03-0.06 mg/L (n = 23). Mutation patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2; penA), multiple transfer resistance repressor (MtrR; mtrR) and porin B (PorB; porB) were ascertained by DNA sequence and bioinformatic analysis. STs were determined using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Most isolates carried PBP2 mutation pattern IX (D345a, F504L, A510V, A516G and P551L; 50/146, 34.2%), a G45D substitution in MtrR (37.7%) and a wild-type (WT) sequence for PorB (43.2%). Group 2 gonococcal isolates were significantly associated with: penA pattern IX; dual mutations in the promoter (A-) and DNA dimerization domain (H105Y) of MtrR; and G120K;A121D substitutions in PorB. There were 50 combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation patterns, with corresponding patterns I/WT/WT and IX/G45D/G120K;A121D predominating. Gonococci susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime were significantly associated with NG-MAST ST 25 (33/36; 92%) and the combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation pattern I/WT/WT. No combined mutation pattern or specific ST was associated with elevated ceftriaxone MICs. NG-MAST ST 3654 was significantly associated with the pattern IX/G45D/G120K;A121D and cefixime group 2 isolates. Specific single or combined mutation patterns in penA, mtrR and porB and specific STs were associated with differences in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  13. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  14. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  15. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  16. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  17. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance.

    PubMed

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-07-01

    A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h(-1) with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, β-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655

  20. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  1. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  2. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  3. Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang; Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1-3, days 6-8 and days 12-14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C 0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C 0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C 0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C 0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  4. Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change: La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres as an Expert on Colombian Abortion Law.

    PubMed

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina

    2017-06-01

    In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa's strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a "pedagogical effect" insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa's choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge.

  5. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  6. The P450 oxidoreductase (POR) rs2868177 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6*6 polymorphisms contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Chen; Liu, Fang-Qun; Yang, Li; Cheng, Lin; Dai, Hai-Ying; Tao, Ran; Cao, Shi-Peng; Wang, Di; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene were correlated with interindividual variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 activity. Thirty-six healthy volunteers who tested CYP2B6 and POR polymorphisms were enrolled in the study. CYP2B6 activity was measured by bupropion hydroxylation with LC/MS/MS. The ratio of hydroxybupropion versus bupropion (AUC_hyd/AUC_bup) in terms of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was used to represent the CYP2B6 activity. The volunteers carrying CYP2B6*1/*1 showed a significantly higher mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than those CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 variants (15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 9.25 ± 1.92, P = 0.008 and 15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 8.21 ± 1.74, P = 0.006, respectively). POR rs2868177 (6593 A > G) AA homozygotes showed a significantly lower mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than that of POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes or GG homozygotes (8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 12.15 ± 2.97, P = 0.005 and 8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 17.59 ± 3.25, P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes and GG homozygotes showed a significantly increased mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup than AA homozygotes in the CYP2B6*1/*1 and CYP2B6*6 carriers (16.40 ± 2.01 vs. 12.40 ± 1.45, P = 0.006 and 10.65 ± 1.47 vs. 6.54 ± 1.25, P = 0.004, respectively). Meanwhile, a strong correlation between the genetic variations (POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6) and AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup was found (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup among different POR *28 genotypes (P > 0.05). POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6 variants contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity, which may affect the disposition and interaction of other CYP2B6 substrate drugs.

  7. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  8. Combined effects of CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 single nucleotide polymorphisms on early concentration-controlled tacrolimus exposure in de-novo renal recipients.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Dirk R J; de Loor, Henriette; Naesens, Maarten; Coopmans, Tamara; de Jonge, Hylke

    2014-12-01

    In a cohort of 298 de-novo renal recipients treated with a standard tacrolimus loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg, the combined effects of the CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 genotypes on early tacrolimus exposure (C0), dose requirements, and achievement of the therapeutic target, C0, were examined. The incidence of clinical events (e.g. acute rejection, diabetes mellitus) was compared between genotypes. Fast metabolizers (CYP3A5*1/POR*28T carriers) had two-fold to three-fold higher tacrolimus dose requirements compared with slow metabolizers (CYP3A5*3/*3/CYP3A4*22 carriers) and needed significantly more time to achieve the target tacrolimus C0 of a minimum 10 ng/ml (3.3±1.7 vs. 1.34±0.75 days; P<0.0001). No differences in acute rejection incidence and time to first rejection were observed. Slow metabolizers more frequently had tacrolimus C0 above the target range early after transplantation (70 vs. 13% on day 3); however, this did not translate into a higher incidence of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus or graft dysfunction. Multivariate analyses identified the CYP3A5*1/POR*28/CYP3A4*22 genotype combination as the single strongest determinant of tacrolimus dose requirements throughout the first year, explaining between 24-40% of its variability, whereas recipient age, hematocrit, and delayed graft function were additional nongenetic determinants of tacrolimus dose. Combining the CYP3A5*1, POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 genotypes allows partial differentiation of early tacrolimus dose requirements and the time to reach therapeutic target concentrations after transplantation, but without obvious clinical implications. Larger prospective studies need to address the clinical relevance of early combined genotype-based tacrolimus dosing in de-novo renal recipients.

  9. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  10. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  11. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  12. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  13. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  14. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  15. Evaluating Por Nuestra Salud: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brenda; Gonzales, Gustavo; Kernan, William

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study evaluated the impact of a culturally consistent diabetes educational program, led by a Latino pastor, on Latino community diabetes knowledge levels. Latino adults were recruited from two churches serving Latino populations, one identified as intervention, the other as nonintervention. Both churches received the American Diabetes Association's booklets on diabetes education, "Four Steps to Control Your Diabetes for Life." The intervention group also received weekly reviews of the booklet's information from the church pastor, who was educated about diabetes by a Latino family nurse practitioner. Pre- and postintervention levels of diabetes knowledge were measured using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire. Mean changes in the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ-24) survey from pretest to posttest indicated a significant increase in knowledge in both groups. Only the grades for the participants from the pastor-led group, however, moved from failure in knowledge to high levels of passing. One hundred percent of intervention group participants reported having read the literature. This pilot study supports the feasibility of a local Latino pastor, as a culturally consistent diabetes educator, to increase Latino parishioner's knowledge of diabetes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  17. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray

    2009-11-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.

  18. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  20. Unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorin 2: identification of the [FeIV=O Por•]+ and [FeIV=O Por](Tyr38•) intermediates and their role(s) in substrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul; Berry, Robert E; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hongjun; Walker, F Ann; Ivancich, Anabella

    2010-10-19

    We have identified a novel enzymatic reaction for nitrophorin 2 (NP2), a heme protein previously characterized as a nitric oxide carrier in the saliva of the Rhodnius prolixus insect. NP2 exhibited levels of peroxidase activity comparable to those of the bifunctional peroxidases (KatGs), despite their heme pocket structural differences (heme ruffling, Tyr38 and Tyr85 in hydrogen bonding interactions with the propionates in NP2). The intermediates of the peroxidase-like reaction of NP2 were identified by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and electronic absorption spectroscopies. The EPR spectrum consistent with an [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was detected at pH <7. At pH ≥ 7, the change from a strong to a weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction for the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was accompanied by the subsequent formation of an [Fe(IV)=O Por](Tyr•) intermediate. Tyr38 was shown to be the unique naturally occurring radical site in NP2. The Y38F mutant stabilized the radical on the tyrosine in hydrogen-bonding interaction with the other heme propionate (Tyr85). Kinetic studies using stopped-flow electronic absorption spectrophotometry revealed that the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species reacts with histamine and norepinephrine in a peroxidase-like manner. Our findings demonstrate that NP2 has pH-dependent dual function: at the acidic pH of the insect saliva the protein behaves as a NO carrier, and, if exposed to the higher pH of the tissues and capillaries of the host, NP2 is able to bind histamine or it can efficiently inactivate norepinephrine through a peroxidase-like reaction, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, the unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of NP2 is concluded to be a key biological function.

  1. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  2. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  3. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  4. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  5. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  6. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  7. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  8. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use.

  9. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  10. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression.

    PubMed

    Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D

    2011-02-04

    This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  12. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  13. Evaluation of a 3year intervention to increase adoption of safer nursery crop production practices.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Larry J; Newenhouse, Astrid C; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a 3year intervention to increase awareness and adoption of eight more profitable nursery crop production practices that reduced certain traumatic and musculoskeletal injury hazards. We disseminated information to nursery managers across seven states using information channels they were known to rely on (e.g. trade publications, public events, university Extension, other managers). We evaluated rolling, independent, probability samples (n=1200) with mail questionnaires before the intervention and after each of 3 intervention years. We also evaluated samples (n=250) from a comparison group of New Zealand nursery managers. The intervention was associated with increased awareness of four of the eight practices among US managers after year 3 compared to their baseline: zippers (20 vs. 32%, p=0.000), stools (11 vs. 22%, p=0.001), pruners (29 vs. 40%, p=0.014), and tarps (24 vs. 33%, p=0.009). There were no changes in adoption. New Zealand manager awareness was increased for hoes after year 2 compared to their baseline (35 vs. 52%, p=0.010). A modest, regionwide information dissemination intervention was associated with increased awareness, but not adoption.

  14. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  15. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  16. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  17. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  18. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  20. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  1. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  2. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  3. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  4. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  5. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  6. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  7. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  8. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  9. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  10. Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity (PorGrow) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Ciok, J; Dolna, A; Oltarzewski, M

    2007-05-01

    To explore the perspectives of stakeholders towards a range of policy options to respond to obesity in Poland, a multi-criteria mapping method was used. During structured interviews, stakeholders were invited to appraise policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. They also provided relative weightings to their criteria, generating overall rankings of the policy options in relation to each other. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria deemed most important. There was most consensus in favour of options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at modifying the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity, modifying the supply and demand for food products, and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. There was broad consensus that to reverse the rising trend in the incidence of obesity, it will be necessary to implement a portfolio of measures, but options related to behaviour change through education are most highly regarded. It will also be necessary to invest in improved surveillance and monitoring of Polish dietary practices, levels of physical activity and obesity in terms of data on height, weight and body mass indexes.

  11. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  12. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  13. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  14. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  15. Mexico Visto Por Sus Ninos (Mexico as Seen by Her Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    "Mexico as Seen by Her Children," a book authored by Mexican children, and the educational project built around it is an example of bicultural cooperation between the Mexican and United States governments. (CJ)

  16. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  17. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  18. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  19. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  20. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  1. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  2. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  3. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  4. Intoxicação experimental por Niedenzuella stannea (Malpighiaceae) em ovinos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Niedenzuella stannea a sodium monofluoroacetate-containing plant cause of sudden death in cattle in southern Mato Grosso State. This study describes the toxicity and clinical and pathological findings of experimental poisoning by N. stannea in sheep. Fruits, mature leaves and young leaves of the pla...

  5. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  6. Por Nuestros Ojos: understanding social determinants of health through the eyes of youth.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Johanna Claire; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Williams, Lacey; Smith, Heather A; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J; Dulin, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social determinants underlying health disparities benefits from a mixed-methods, participatory research approach. Photovoice was used in a research project seeking to identify and validate existing data and models used to address socio-spatial determinants of health in at-risk neighborhoods. High-risk neighborhoods were identified using geospatial models of pre-identified social determinants of health. Students living within these neighborhoods were trained in Photovoice, and asked to take pictures of elements that influence their neighborhood's health and to create narratives explaining the photographs. Students took 300 photographs showing elements that they perceived affected community health. Negative factors included poor pedestrian access, inadequate property maintenance, pollution, and evidence of gangs, criminal activity, and vagrancy. Positive features included public service infrastructure and outdoor recreation. Photovoice data confirmed and contextualized the geospatial models while building community awareness and capacity. Photovoice can be a useful research tool for building community capacity and validating quantitative data describing social determinants of health.

  7. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  8. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  9. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  10. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  11. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  12. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  13. Phospholipase D catalyzes phospholipid metabolism in chemotactic peptide-stimulated HL-60 granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.K.; Siegel, M.I.; Egan, R.W.; Billah, M.M.

    1988-09-05

    There exists circumstantial evidence for activation of phospholipase D (PLD) in intact cells. However, because of the complexity of phospholipid remodeling processes, it is essential to distinguish PLD clearly from other phospholipases and phospholipid remodeling enzymes. Therefore, to establish unequivocally PLD activity in dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 granulocytes, to demonstrate the relative contribution of PLD to phospholipid turnover, and to validate the hypothesis that the formation of phosphatidylethanol is an expression of PLD-catalyzed transphosphatidylation, we have developed methodologies to label HL-60 granulocytes in 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-PC) with 32P without labeling cellular ATP. These methodologies involve (a) synthesis of alkyl-lysoPC containing 32P by a combination of enzymatic and chemical procedures and (b) incubation of HL-60 granulocytes with this alkyl-(32P) lysoPC which enters the cell and becomes acylated into membrane-associated alkyl-(32P)PC. Upon stimulation of these 32P-labeled cells with the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), alkyl-(32P)phosphatidic acid (alkyl-(32P)PA) is formed rapidly. Because, under these conditions, cellular ATP has not been labeled with 32P, alkyl-(32P)PA must be formed via PLD-catalyzed hydrolysis of alkyl-(32P)PC at the terminal phosphodiester bond. This result conclusively demonstrates fMLP-induced activation of PLD in HL-60 granulocytes. These 32P-labeled HL-60 granulocytes have also been stimulated in the presence of ethanol to produce alkyl-(32P)phosphatidylethanol (alkyl-(32P)PEt). Formation of alkyl-(32P)PEt parallels that of alkyl-(32P)PA with respect to time course, fMLP concentration, inhibition by a specific fMLP antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), and Ca2+ concentration.

  14. Commander Naval Air Forces (CNAF) Aircraft Operations Maintenance (AOM): An Examination of Effectiveness in Maintaining and Operating an Aging Aircraft Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    By eliminating waste (muda), quality is improved, production time is reduced, and cost is reduced. Lean "tools" include CPI ( kaizen ), "pull... motivated the NADEP to streamline overhead, improve work processes, reduce labor and material requirements, and implement other cost-saving initiatives in

  15. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  16. NADH:Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5 Can Act as Sole Electron Donors to Human Cytochrome P450 1A1-Mediated Oxidation and DNA Adduct Formation by Benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after activation by cytochrome P450 (P450). Here, we investigated whether NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) in the presence of cytochrome b5 can act as sole electron donor to human P450 1A1 during BaP oxidation and replace the canonical NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) system. We also studied the efficiencies of the coenzymes of these reductases, NADPH as a coenzyme of POR, and NADH as a coenzyme of CBR, to mediate BaP oxidation. Two systems containing human P450 1A1 were utilized: human recombinant P450 1A1 expressed with POR, CBR, epoxide hydrolase, and cytochrome b5 in Supersomes and human recombinant P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR and/or with CBR and cytochrome b5 in liposomes. BaP-9,10-dihydrodiol, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-9-ol, BaP-3-ol, a metabolite of unknown structure, and two BaP-DNA adducts were generated by the P450 1A1-Supersomes system, both in the presence of NADPH and in the presence of NADH. The major BaP-DNA adduct detected by 32P-postlabeling was characterized as 10-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BaP (assigned adduct 1), while the minor adduct is probably a guanine adduct derived from 9-hydroxy-BaP-4,5-epoxide (assigned adduct 2). BaP-3-ol as the major metabolite, BaP-9-ol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, an unknown metabolite, and adduct 2 were observed in the system using P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR plus NADPH. When P450 1A1 was reconstituted with CBR and cytochrome b5 plus NADH, BaP-3-ol was the predominant metabolite too, and an adduct 2 was also generated. Our results demonstrate that the NADH/cytochrome b5/CBR system can act as the sole electron donor both for the first and second reduction of P450 1A1 during the oxidation of BaP in vitro. They suggest that NADH-dependent CBR can replace NADPH-dependent POR in the P450 1A1-catalyzed metabolism of BaP. PMID:27404282

  17. NADH:Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5 Can Act as Sole Electron Donors to Human Cytochrome P450 1A1-Mediated Oxidation and DNA Adduct Formation by Benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Stiborová, Marie; Indra, Radek; Moserová, Michaela; Frei, Eva; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Kopka, Klaus; Philips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2016-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after activation by cytochrome P450 (P450). Here, we investigated whether NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) in the presence of cytochrome b5 can act as sole electron donor to human P450 1A1 during BaP oxidation and replace the canonical NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) system. We also studied the efficiencies of the coenzymes of these reductases, NADPH as a coenzyme of POR, and NADH as a coenzyme of CBR, to mediate BaP oxidation. Two systems containing human P450 1A1 were utilized: human recombinant P450 1A1 expressed with POR, CBR, epoxide hydrolase, and cytochrome b5 in Supersomes and human recombinant P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR and/or with CBR and cytochrome b5 in liposomes. BaP-9,10-dihydrodiol, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-9-ol, BaP-3-ol, a metabolite of unknown structure, and two BaP-DNA adducts were generated by the P450 1A1-Supersomes system, both in the presence of NADPH and in the presence of NADH. The major BaP-DNA adduct detected by (32)P-postlabeling was characterized as 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BaP (assigned adduct 1), while the minor adduct is probably a guanine adduct derived from 9-hydroxy-BaP-4,5-epoxide (assigned adduct 2). BaP-3-ol as the major metabolite, BaP-9-ol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, an unknown metabolite, and adduct 2 were observed in the system using P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR plus NADPH. When P450 1A1 was reconstituted with CBR and cytochrome b5 plus NADH, BaP-3-ol was the predominant metabolite too, and an adduct 2 was also generated. Our results demonstrate that the NADH/cytochrome b5/CBR system can act as the sole electron donor both for the first and second reduction of P450 1A1 during the oxidation of BaP in vitro. They suggest that NADH-dependent CBR can replace NADPH-dependent POR in the P450 1A1-catalyzed metabolism of BaP.

  18. Endogenous ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2 in polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fendrick, J.L.; Iglewski, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney (pyBHK) cells were cultured in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and 105 (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum. A {sup 32}P-labeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 97 kDa was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antiserum to ADP-ribosylated elongation factor 2 (EF-2). The {sup 32}P labeling of the protein was enhanced by culturing cells in medium containing 2% serum instead of 10% serum. The {sup 32}P label was completely removed from the protein by treatment with snake venom phosphodiesterase and the digestion product was identified as ({sup 32}P)AMP, indicating the protein was mono-ADP-ribosylated. HPLC analysis of tryptic peptides of the {sup 32}P-labeled 97-kDa protein and purified EF-2, which was ADP-ribosylated in vitro with diphtheria toxin fragment A and ({sup 32}P)NAD, demonstrated an identical labeled peptide in the two proteins. The data strongly suggest that EF-2 was endogenously ADP-ribosylated in pyBHK cells. Maximum incorporation of radioactivity in EF-2 occurred by 12 hr and remained constant over the subsequent 12 hr. It was estimated that 30-35% of the EF-2 was ADP-ribosylated in cells cultured in medium containing 2% serum. When {sup 32}P-labeled cultures were incubated in medium containing unlabeled phosphate, the {sup 32}P label was lost from the EF-2 within 30 min.

  19. Environmental pollutant and potent mutagen 3-nitrobenzanthrone forms DNA adducts after reduction by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and conjugation by acetyltransferases and sulfotransferases in human hepatic cytosols.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M; Stiborova, Marie; Henderson, Colin J; Osborne, Martin R; Bieler, Christian A; Frei, Eva; Martinek, Vaclav; Sopko, Bruno; Wolf, C Roland; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H

    2005-04-01

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one, 3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and air pollution. We compared the ability of human hepatic cytosolic samples to catalyze DNA adduct formation by 3-NBA. Using the (32)P-postlabeling method, we found that 12/12 hepatic cytosols activated 3-NBA to form multiple DNA adducts similar to those formed in vivo in rodents. By comparing 3-NBA-DNA adduct formation in the presence of cofactors of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and xanthine oxidase, most of the reductive activation of 3-NBA in human hepatic cytosols was attributed to NQO1. Inhibition of adduct formation by dicoumarol, an NQO1 inhibitor, supported this finding and was confirmed with human recombinant NQO1. When cofactors of N,O-acetyltransferases (NAT) and sulfotransferases (SULT) were added to cytosolic samples, 3-NBA-DNA adduct formation increased 10- to 35-fold. Using human recombinant NQO1 and NATs or SULTs, we found that mainly NAT2, followed by SULT1A2, NAT1, and, to a lesser extent, SULT1A1 activate 3-NBA. We also evaluated the role of hepatic NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in the activation of 3-NBA in vivo by treating hepatic POR-null mice and wild-type littermates i.p. with 0.2 or 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA. No difference in DNA binding was found in any tissue examined (liver, lung, kidney, bladder, and colon) between null and wild-type mice, indicating that 3-NBA is predominantly activated by cytosolic nitroreductases rather than microsomal POR. Collectively, these results show the role of human hepatic NQO1 to reduce 3-NBA to species being further activated by NATs and SULTs.

  20. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  1. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  2. Tendencia de los egresos hospitalarios por enfermedades infecciosas intestinales en niños en Argentina, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Degiuseppe, Juan I

    2017-08-01

    Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious public health problems in developing countries because it is generally associated with unfavorable living conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in children under age 5 recorded in official public hospitals from Argentina in the 2005-2013 period. This was an ecological, time-series study based on data provided by the Health Statistics and Information Department, at a national and regional level. Specific hospital discharge rates were estimated, and seasonal behavior and trends were analyzed in relation to this event. In Argentina, 2 521 729 patients under age 5 were discharged in this period; of these, 9.0% were diagnosed with intestinal infectious disease. Children under age 1 accounted for a third of hospitalizations; two annual peaks (summer and winter) were observed in the seasonality analysis. Overall, a downward trend was observed, with a mild increase in the 2007-2009 period. Rates were up to 3 or 4 times higher in Northwest and Northeast Argentina than in the Pampa region. Hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in the public subsector account for approximately 10% of all discharges of children under age 5. This event shows a seasonal pattern, with a slightly downward trend over the past years in spite of its heterogeneous distribution across the different Argentine regions.

  3. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  4. Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables por el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…

  5. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  6. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  7. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolândia County, Paraná State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  8. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  9. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  10. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  11. [Gastos hospitalarios por neumonía neumocóccica invasora en adultos en un hospital general en Chile].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Álvaro; Lagos, Isabel; Fica, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Pneumococcal infections are important for their morbidity and economic burden, but there is no economical data from adults patients in Chile. Estimate direct medical costs of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia among adult patients hospitalized in a general hospital and to evaluate the sensitivity of ICD 10 discharge codes to capture infections from this pathogen. Analysis of hospital charges by components in a group of patients admitted for bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, correction of values by inflation and conversion from CLP to US$. Data were collected from 59 patients admitted during 2005-2010, mean age 71.9 years. Average hospital charges for those managed in general wards reached 2,756 US$, 8,978 US$ for those managed in critical care units (CCU) and 6,025 for the whole group. Charges were higher in CCU (p < 0.001), and patients managed in these units generated 78.3% of the whole cost (n = 31; 52.5% from total). The median cost in general wards was 1,558 US$, and 3,993 in CCU. Main components were bed occupancy (37.8% of charges), and medications (27.4%). There were no differences associated to age, comorbidities, severity scores or mortality. No single ICD discharge code involved a S. pneumoniae bacteremic case (0% sensitivity) and only 2 cases were coded as pneumococcal pneumonia (3.4%). Mean hospital charges (~6,000 US dollars) or median values (~2,400 US dollars) were high, underlying the economic impact of this condition. Costs were higher among patients managed in CCU. Recognition of bacteremic pneumococcal infections by ICD 10 discharge codes has a very low sensitivity.

  12. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  13. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  14. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  15. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  16. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  17. Phosphorylation of the C proteins in heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) particles in HeLa cells: Characterization of in vivo phosphorylation, comparison with in vitro phosphorylation using casein kinase II, and preliminary studies on the effects of phosphorylation on particle structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiman, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Newly formed pre-messenger RNA associates with protein to form heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) particles. In HeLa cells, hnRNP particles contain six core proteins. Two proteins, termed C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}, are phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase 11 (CKII). C{sub 1} protein became {sup 32}P-labeled after HeLa cells were incubated with ({sup 32}P)-orthophosphate in vivo (ibid). Because phosphorylation is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism, C protein phosphorylation was studied in greater detail. C protein phosphorylation in hnRNP particles was investigated in HeLa cells incubated with ({sup 32}P)-orthophosphate in vivo. Immunoblotting in pH 3.5-10 isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels indicated that C proteins focus only at pH 5.0. In pH 4.5-5.5 IEF gels, individually purified C, and 2 proteins resolve into the same four closely spaced, {sup 32}P-labeled bands. A fifth, unlabeled, more basic species was detached when hnRNP particles were purified without NaF. All {sup 32}P-labeled species contained identical amounts of {sup 32}P per unit protein suggesting that charge heterogeneity is not due to differential phosphorylation. Attempts to detect bound carbohydrate were unsuccessful. {sup 32}P-labeled phosphate was readily removed by potato acid phosphatase. E. coli alkaline phosphatase and snake venom phosphodiesterase were ineffective. {sup 32}P-label was found exclusively in phosphoserine. One-dimensional peptide mapping with chymotrypsin and S. aureus protease detected two phosphorylated peptides. C protein phosphorylation was also investigated in vitro. Incubation of hnRNP particles with rabbit liver CKII and {sup 32}P-ATP followed by IEF in pH 4.5-5.5 gels indicated that all four C protein species were {sup 32}P-labeled. {sup 32}P-label was found exclusively in phosphoserine.

  18. Inhibitory effect of endostatin gene therapy combined with phosphorus-32 colloid on tumour growth in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huiqi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Yong; Fu, Peng; Shen, Baozhong

    2016-07-01

    Eighty healthy male Wistar rats, aged 5 weeks, weighing 100-120 g, were utilized for establishing tumour-bearing models by immediate Walker-256 cancerous ascites injection and randomly divided to four groups (n=20) treated with 0.2 ml solution containing saline, (32)P-colloid (0.3 mCi), endostatin gene (20 μg), endostatin gene combined with colloid (32)P. The effect of endostatin combined with a small dose of (32)P-colloidal on tumour growth in vivo was evaluated and the potential mechanism underlying the combined therapy was explored. We found that (32)P-colloid combined with endostatin exhibited higher inhibitory effect upon tumour growth compared with application of (32)P-colloid or endostatin alone, although three therapies all significantly inhibited tumour growth compared with saline control group. The higher inhibitory effect of (32)P-colloid combined with endostatin upon tumour growth might be attributed to a synergistic effect of inhibiting angiogenesis by endostatin and inducing apoptosis by (32)P-colloid, as demonstrated by microvessel density (MVD) and apoptotic index (AI) measurement. Combined therapy of (32)P-colloid and endostatin probably serves as a novel and efficacious therapy of tumour growth.

  19. Long Distance Transport in Macrocystis integrifolia

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Klaus; Srivastava, Lalit M.

    1979-01-01

    Discs from mature regions of Macrocystis blades picked up significantly more [32P]phosphate from the ambient medium than similar discs from young meristematic regions, and this uptake was higher in light than in darkness. Double-labeling experiments with NaH14CO3 and [32P]phosphate, using intact fronds as well as cut frond segments, indicated that 32P was translocated from mature blades to sink regions at velocities of 25 to 45 centimeters per hour, velocities comparable to 14C translocation velocity in the same material. There was a slight delay in transport of 32P which may be due to a delay in loading or to a high metabolism of 32P in the transporting channels. Histoautoradiography of stipe segments in the translocation pathway indicated that transport of label occurred in the peripheral parts of medulla. An analysis of 32P-labeled compounds in the fed blade and in the sieve tube sap, collected from basal cut ends of stipes, indicated major differences in labeling patterns. In the blade, a high proportion of 32P was recovered as inorganic phosphate and relatively small amounts were found in hexose mono- and diphosphates, UDPG and ATP. In the sieve tube sap, however, only a small amount of 32P was present as inorganic phosphate, a large proportion was found in hexose mono- and diphosphates, and appreciable amounts were present in ATP and UDPG. Images PMID:16660847

  20. The association between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer: Effect on its aggressiveness and progression.

    PubMed

    Sanchís-Bonet, A; Ortiz-Vico, F; Morales-Palacios, N; Sánchez-Chapado, M

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome and its individual components on prostate biopsy findings, the radical prostatectomy specimen and on biochemical recurrence. An observational study was conducted of 1319 men who underwent prostate biopsy between January 2007 and December 2011. The impact on the biopsy findings, the radical prostatectomy specimen and biochemical recurrence was evaluated using logistic regression and Cox regression. Of the 1319 patients, 275 (21%) had metabolic syndrome, and 517 prostate cancers were diagnosed. A greater percentage of metabolic syndrome was found among patients with prostate cancer than among patients without prostate cancer (25% vs. 18%; P=.002). Poorer results were found in the radical prostatectomy specimens (Gleason score ≥ 7, P<.001; stage ≥ T2c, P<.001; positive surgical margins, P<.001), and there was a greater percentage of biochemical recurrence in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without metabolic syndrome (24% vs. 13%; P=.003). Metabolic syndrome behaved as an independent predictive factor of finding a Gleason score ≥ 7 for the specimen, as well as for finding a specimen stage ≥ T2c. Metabolic syndrome was also able to independently predict a greater rate of biochemical recurrence (OR: 3.6, P<.001; OR: 3.2, P=.03; HR: 1.7; respectively). Metabolic syndrome is associated with poorer findings in the radical prostatectomy specimens and is an independent prognostic factor of biochemical recurrence. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of the 64 kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein as phosphoglucomutase. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Salvucci, M.E.; Drake, R.R.; Broadbent, K.P.; Haley, B.E. ); Hanson, K.R.; McHale, N.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Phosphorylation of the 64 kilodalton stromal phosphoprotein by incubation of pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP decreased in the presence of Glc-6-P and Glc-1,6-P{sub 2}, but was stimulated by glucose. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis following incubation of intact chloroplasts and stromal extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP, or incubation of stromal extracts and partially purified phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) with ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P showed that the identical 64 kilodalton polypeptide was labeled. A 62 kilodalton polypeptide was phosphorylated by incubation of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) stromal extracts with either ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP or ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P. In contrast, an analogous polypeptide was not phosphorylated in extracts from a tobacco mutant deficient in plastid phosphoglucomutase activity. The results indicate that the 64 (or 62) kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein is phosphoglucomutase.

  2. Lean Six Sigma Implementation for Military Logistics to Improve Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    as one that uses only the absolute minimum of resources to add value to the service or product. Lean manufacturing can also be viewed as a management...Motion and Scrap) in manufacturing or service processes (“ Lean Manufacturing ,” 2006). By eliminating waste (muda), quality is improved, production...References Apte, U. M., & Goh, C. H. (2004, Fall). Applying Lean Manufacturing Principles to information- intensive services. International Journal of

  3. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-08

    Aug 85) 21 VOMD Carries Party National Day Statement (Voice of Malayan Democracy, 19 Sep 85) 22 Briefs Talks With SRV Counterpart 25...Avoid ’Wrongful Acts’ (BANGKOK POST, 20 Sep 85) ■ Bank Chairman Interviewed on Economy (Amnuai Wirawan Interview; BANGKOK POST, 8 Sep 85) Karen...speculation that the MIC’s invest- ment arm, Maika Hold- ings Berhad , has bought the Kuala Muda Estate in Kedah. CSOs 4200/1562 16 ARMY CONFIRMS

  4. Future climate change impact assessment of watershed scale hydrologic processes in Peninsular Malaysia by a regional climate model coupled with a physically-based hydrology modelo.

    PubMed

    Amin, M Z M; Shaaban, A J; Ercan, A; Ishida, K; Kavvas, M L; Chen, Z Q; Jang, S

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on the hydrologic processes under future climate change conditions were assessed over Muda and Dungun watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia by means of a coupled regional climate and physically-based hydrology model utilizing an ensemble of future climate change projections. An ensemble of 15 different future climate realizations from coarse resolution global climate models' (GCMs) projections for the 21st century was dynamically downscaled to 6km resolution over Peninsular Malaysia by a regional climate model, which was then coupled with the watershed hydrology model WEHY through the atmospheric boundary layer over Muda and Dungun watersheds. Hydrologic simulations were carried out at hourly increments and at hillslope-scale in order to assess the impacts of climate change on the water balances and flooding conditions in the 21st century. The coupled regional climate and hydrology model was simulated for a duration of 90years for each of the 15 realizations. It is demonstrated that the increase in mean monthly flows due to the impact of expected climate change during 2040-2100 is statistically significant from April to May and from July to October at Muda watershed. Also, the increase in mean monthly flows is shown to be significant in November during 2030-2070 and from November to December during 2070-2100 at Dungun watershed. In other words, the impact of the expected climate change will be significant during the northeast and southwest monsoon seasons at Muda watershed and during the northeast monsoon season at Dungun watershed. Furthermore, the flood frequency analyses for both watersheds indicated an overall increasing trend in the second half of the 21st century.

  5. Capsule endoscopy has a significantly higher diagnostic yield in patients with suspected and established small-bowel Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Paula M; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Leighton, Jonathan A; Leontiadis, Grigoris I; Fleischer, David E; Hara, Amy K; Heigh, Russell I; Shiff, Arthur D; Sharma, Virender K

    2010-06-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has demonstrated superior performance compared with other modalities in its ability to detect early small-bowel (SB) Crohn's disease (CD), especially when ileoscopy is negative or unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of CE compared with other modalities in patients with suspected and established CD using a meta-analysis. A thorough literature search for prospective studies comparing the diagnostic yield of CE with other modalities in patients with CD was undertaken. Other modalities included push enteroscopy (PE), colonoscopy with ileoscopy (C+IL), SB radiography (SBR), computed tomography enterography (CTE), and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). Data on diagnostic yield among various modalities were extracted, pooled, and analyzed. Data on patients with suspected and established CD were analyzed separately. Weighted incremental yield (IYW) (diagnostic yield of CE-diagnostic yield of comparative modality) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CE over comparative modalities were calculated. A total of 12 trials (n=428) compared the yield of CE with SBR in patients with CD. Eight trials (n=236) compared CE with C+IL, four trials (n=119) compared CE with CTE, two trials (n=102) compared CE with PE, and four trials (n=123) compared CE with MRE. For the suspected CD subgroup, several comparisons met statistical significance. Yields in this subgroup were CE vs. SBR: 52 vs. 16% (IYw=32%, P<0.0001, 95% CI=16-48%), CE vs. CTE: 68 vs. 21% (IYw=47%, P<0.00001, 95% CI=31-63%), and CE vs. C+IL: 47 vs. 25% (IYw=22%, P=0.009, 95% CI=5-39%). Statistically significant yields for CE vs. an alternate diagnostic modality in established CD patients were seen in CE vs. PE: 66 vs. 9% (IYw=57%, P<0.00001, 95% CI=43-71%), CE vs. SBR: 71 vs. 36% (IYw=38%, P<0.00001, 95% CI=22-54%), and in CE vs. CTE: 71 vs. 39% (IYw=32%, P=or<0.0001, 95% CI=16-47%). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that CE is superior to SBR, CTE, and C+IL in the

  6. Microwave-Accelerated Surface Modification of Plasmonic Gold Thin Films with Self-Assembled Monolayers of Alkanethiols

    PubMed Central

    Grell, Tsehai A.J.; Alabanza, Anginelle M.; Gaskell, Karen; Aslan, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    A rapid surface modification technique for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols on gold thin films using microwave heating in less than 10 min is reported. In this regard, SAMs of two model alkanethiols, 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUDA, to generate a hydrophilic surface) and undecanethiol (UDET, a hydrophobic surface), were successfully formed on gold thin films using selective microwave heating in 1) a semi-continuous and 2) a continuous fashion and at room temperature (24 hours, control experiment, no microwave heating). The formation of SAMs of 11-MUDA and UDET were confirmed by contact angle measurements, Fourier–transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angles for water on SAMs formed by the selective microwave heating and conventional room temperature incubation technique (24 hours) were measured to be similar for 11-MUDA and UDET. FT-IR spectroscopy results confirmed that the internal structure of SAMs prepared using both microwave heating and at room temperature were similar. XPS results revealed that the organic and sulfate contaminants found on bare gold thin films were replaced by SAMs after the surface modification process was carried out using both microwave heating and at room temperature. PMID:24083414

  7. Microwave-accelerated surface modification of plasmonic gold thin films with self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols.

    PubMed

    Grell, Tsehai A J; Alabanza, Anginelle M; Gaskell, Karen; Aslan, Kadir

    2013-10-29

    A rapid surface modification technique for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols on gold thin films using microwave heating in <10 min is reported. In this regard, SAMs of two model alkanethiols, 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUDA, to generate a hydrophilic surface) and undecanethiol (UDET, a hydrophobic surface), were successfully formed on gold thin films using selective microwave heating in (1) a semicontinuous fashion and (2) a continuous fashion at room temperature (24 h, control experiment, no microwave heating). The formation of SAMs of 11-MUDA and UDET was confirmed by contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angles for water on SAMs formed by the selective microwave heating and conventional room temperature incubation technique (24 h) were measured to be similar for 11-MUDA and UDET. FT-IR spectroscopy results confirmed that the internal structures of SAMs prepared using both microwave heating and room temperature were similar. XPS results revealed that the organic and sulfate contaminants found on bare gold thin films were replaced by SAMs after the surface modification process had been conducted using both microwave heating and room temperature.

  8. The effects of barbiturates on the metabolism of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J C; Leung, I

    1979-01-01

    Barbiturates and diphenylhydantoin inhibit the carbamoylcholine-stimulated increase in 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, but have a relatively slight effect on the incorporation of 32P into these lipids in the absence of carbamoylcholine and no effect on 32P incorporation into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Inhibition of the carbamoylcholine-stimulated increase was observed for pentobarbital, thiopental, phenobarbital, 5-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-5-ethylbarbiturate, (+)- and (-)-5-ethyl-N-methyl-5-propylbarbituate and diphenylhydantoin. Similar concentrations of barbiturates and diphenylhydantoin were previously reported to inhibit the K+-stimulated Ca2+ influx, and therefore other agents that affect Ca2+ influx were tested to find whether they had any effect on 32P incorporation into these lipids. K+ (35 mM) increases 32P incorporation into phosphatidic acid, but to a smaller degree than 100 micrometer-carbamoylcholine, and its effect was inhibited by pentobarbital. Veratridine (75 micrometer) does not increase 32P incorporation into either phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylinositol, but did inhibit the carbamoylcholine-stimulated increase in 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol. The possible relationship between the phospholipid effect and stimulated Ca2+ influx is discussed. PMID:435289

  9. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase of spinach acts as a phosphoenzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Z.B.; Seal, S.N.

    1987-05-01

    When /sup 32/P-glycolate and phosphoglycolate phosphatase from spinach are mixed, /sup 32/P is incorporated into acid precipitated protein. Properties that relate this phosphorylation to the enzyme are: The K/sub m/ value for P-glycolate is similar for protein phosphorylation and substrate hydrolysis; the /sup 32/P appearing in the phosphoenzyme is diluted by unlabeled P-glycolate or the alternative substrate, ethyl-P; the activator Cl/sup -/ enhances the effectiveness of ethyl-P as a substrate and as an inhibitor of the formation of /sup 32/P-enzyme; and /sup 32/P is lost from the enzyme when /sup 32/P-glycolate is consumed. The acid denatured phosphorylated protein is a molecule of 34,000 Da, which is half of the molecular weight of the native protein and is similar in size to the labeled band that is seen on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme-bound phosphoryl group appears to be an acyl-phosphate from its pH stability, being quite stable at pH 1, less stable at pH 5, and very unstable above pH 5. The bond is readily hydrolyzed in acid molybdate and it is sensitive to cleavage by hydroxylamine at pH 6.8. The demonstration of enzyme phosphorylation by /sup 32/P-glycolate resolves the dilemma presented by initial rate studies in which alternative substrates appeared to have different mechanisms.

  10. Incorporation of P and C into Photosynthetic Products of Ankistrodesmus braunii as Affected by X-Rays.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, W D; Gimmler, H; Simonis, W

    1967-03-01

    The incorporation of (32)P and (14)C into organic compounds by Ankistrodesmus is strongly inhibited by X-rays. In the same phosphorylated compounds (32)P-incorporation apparently is more severely inhibited by X-rays than the (14)C-labelling. The (32)P-incorporation into organic compounds is more strongly inhibited than (32)P-labelling of inorganic phosphate in the cell. The inhibition of (32)P-incorporation into a number of compounds is strikingly uniform. It is concluded that the inhibition of (32)P-incorporation and of (14)C-incorporation into phosphorylated compounds in vivo is due to an uncoupling by X-rays of photophosphorylation as in vitro. The difference in X-ray sensitivity of (14)C- and (32)P-incorporation into one organic phosphorous compound is attributed to a dual action of X-rays on (32)P-incorporation in organic compounds (both via the uncoupling of photophosphorylation) and only a single effect on (14)C-incorporation and (32)P-labelling of inorganic phosphate. The effect of X-rays on (14)C-incorporation into organic compounds included inhibition in most cases but also stimulation as in the case of glycolic acid. These differences may be due to interference in the intercellular regulations following the application of X-rays. The inhibition of (14)C-incorporation in many cases exhibits different behaviour at low (<200 krad) and high doses. These changes are discussed on the assumption that at the lower doses X-rays cause uncoupling of photophosphorylation and at the higher doses an additional inhibition of electron transport.

  11. Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning: two syndromes.

    PubMed

    Vendramin, Andreja; Brvar, Miran

    2014-11-01

    Amanita muscaria contains more excitatory ibotenic acid and less depressant muscimol compared to Amanita pantherina. In this study A. muscaria poisoned patients were more often confused (26/32, p = 0.01) and agitated (20/32, p = 0.03) compared to those poisoned with A. pantherina (8/17 and 5/17). Patients poisoned with A. pantherina were more commonly comatose (5/17) compared to those poisoned with A. muscaria (2/32) (p = 0.03). In conclusion, the so-called ibotenic or pantherina-muscaria syndrome might be divided into two subtypes.

  12. Fibronectin from chicken embryo fibroblasts contains covalently bound phosphate

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Fibronectin isolated from cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) contains phosphorus linked to serine and threonine by monoester bonds. Normal and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-transformed cells were incubated with [32P]orthophosphate, and fibronectin was isolated from the cell surfaces and conditioned media. 32P was stably associated with fibronectin during immunoprecipitation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, phospholipid solvent extraction, and hot acid but not alkaline treatment. After a limited acid hydrolysis of fibronectin, both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine were found. The specific radioactivity of the 32P-labeled fibronectin from the conditioned medium of normal CEF was higher than that from the cultures of transformed CEF. PMID:457771

  13. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  14. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  15. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  16. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  17. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  18. Escucheme Por Favor/Please Listen to Me: An Analysis of the Perceptions of Latino Students and Teachers in a High School Multilingual Teacher Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Peter Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This case study used photo elicitation interviewing (PEI) to analyze perceptions of Latino students and their teachers in a multilanguage high school academy. It examined student involvement in school, dropout rate, and pursuit of a college education. Ten academy teachers and 10 Latino senior students were interviewed. Observations obtained…

  19. Calentamiento de arcos coronales en una región activa por reconfiguración topológica del campo magnético.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Fuentes, M.; Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Fletcher, L.; Mason, H.

    We study the active region (AR) 8048 observed on June 1997 in several wavelenghts. The combined observations obtained using CDS (SOHO) and SXT (Yohkoh) show the heating of the coronal magnetic loops at different atmospheric altitudes. Extrapolating the magnetic field in the corona from longitudinal magnetograms from MDI (SOHO), we determine the location of Bald Patches in the surroundings of the leading spot. This magnetic feature, the emergence of parasitic magnetic polarities and the observed photospheric motions provide the conditions to explain the observed heating.

  20. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  1. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  2. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  3. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  4. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  5. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  6. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  7. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  8. Vientos impulsados por radiación en supergigantes B en rotación: análisis de los regímenes de soluciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R. O. J.; Curé, M.; Cidale, L.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of radiation driven winds for rotating early-type stars gives three classes of hydrodynamic solutions. These are: the classical m-CAK solution or fast solution, the solution for fast rotators, and the solution for special ionization conditions along the wind structure. In this work we study the domains of every kind of solution in the and parameter space, where is the equatorial rotation speed in terms of the critical rotation velocity, and is the radiation force parameter that determines the ionization structure of the wind. This analysis is performed for different values of effective temperature corresponding to the spectral subtypes among B supergiants. We propose that the winds of B-type supergiants could change between the different velocity regimes, if small variations in the plasma ionization conditions take place. These variations could happen between two consecutive evolutionary stages of B supergiants or, in a short term, explaining the variability observed in the spectra of these stars.

  9. Effect of por-SiC buffer layer on the parameters of thin Er2O3 layers on silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Konakova, R. V.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Berezovska, N. I.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Svetlichnyi, A. M.; Svetlichnaya, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    Using optical absorption and Auger spectrometry techniques, we studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the properties of erbium oxide films deposited onto a porous silicon carbide buffer layer formed on 4H-SiC substrates. An analysis of atomic composition of the films under investigation as a function of RTA duration was performed. It is shown that phase composition of erbium oxide films on silicon carbide substrates with a porous SiC layer can be changed by varying RTA duration.

  10. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  11. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  12. "Que Luchen por sus Intereses" (To Fight for Your Interests): Unearthing Critical Counter-Narratives of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roxas, Kevin; Gabriel, Maria L.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a year-long research project conducted during the 2012-2013 school year in a PK-12 school district, located in the Mountain West region of the United States, utilizing the Photovoice method. The findings in the project point to the important critical counter-narratives Spanish-speaking immigrant parents…

  13. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  14. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  15. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  16. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  17. 10 CFR Appendix L to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Byproduct Materials Under NRC Export/Import Licensing Authority a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Os 193) Oxygen 15 (O 15) Palladium 103 (Pd 103) Palladium 109 (Pd 109) Phosphorus 32 (P 32) Phosphorus 33 (P 33) Platinum 191 (Pt 191) Platinum 193m (Pt 193m) Platinum 193 (Pt 193) Platinum 197m (Pt...

  18. Orbital Rolls to Launch Pad at Wallops for Station Flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rolled out to launch Pad-0A at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Sunday, January 5, 2014, in advance of a planned Wednesday, Jan. 8th, 1:32 p.m. EST launch. Th...

  19. Phosphorus cycling and partitioning in an oligotrophic Everglades wetland ecosystem: A radioisotope tracing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, G.B.; Scinto, L.J.; Taylor, J.; Childers, D.L.; Jones, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    1. Our goal was to quantify short-term phosphorus (P) partitioning and identify the ecosystem components important to P cycling in wetland ecosystems. To do this, we added P radiotracer to oligotrophic, P-limited Everglades marshes. 32PO4 was added to the water column in six 1-m2 enclosed mesocosms located in long-hydroperiod marshes of Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park. Ecosystem components were then repeatedly sampled over 18 days. 2. Water column particulates (>0.45 ??m) incorporated radiotracer within the first minute after dosing and stored 95-99% of total water column 32P activity throughout the study. Soluble (<0.45 ??m) 32P in the water column, in contrast, was always <5% of the 32P in surface water. Periphyton, both floating and attached to emergent macrophytes, had the highest specific activity of 32P (Bq g-131P) among the different ecosystem components. Fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates also had high affinity for P, whereas emergent macrophytes, soil and flocculent detrital organic matter (floc) had the lowest specific activities of radiotracer. 3. Within the calcareous, floating periphyton mats, 81% of the initial 32P uptake was associated with Ca, but most of this 32P entered and remained within the organic pool (Ca-associated = 14% of total) after 1 day. In the floc layer, 32P rapidly entered the microbial pool and the labile fraction was negligible for most of the study. 4. Budgeting of the radiotracer indicated that 32P moved from particulates in the water column to periphyton and floc and then to the floc and soil over the course of the 18 days incubations. Floc (35% of total) and soil (27%) dominated 32P storage after 18 days, with floating periphyton (12%) and surface water (10%) holding smaller proportions of total ecosystem 32P. 5. To summarise, oligotrophic Everglades marshes exhibited rapid uptake and retention of labile 32P. Components dominated by microbes appear to control short-term P cycling in this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  20. Mechanism of the mRNA guanylyltransferase reaction: isolation of N epsilon-phospholysine and GMP (5' leads to N epsilon) lysine from the guanylyl-enzyme intermediate.

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, R; Mizumoto, K; Nakahara, Y; Tatsuno, T; Kaziro, Y

    1983-01-01

    The mRNA capping reaction catalyzed by rat liver mRNA guanylyltransferase proceeds through an enzyme-GMP intermediate in which GMP is linked to the enzyme by a phosphoamide linkage. The studies described here show that GMP is bound to the epsilon-amino group of lysine of rat liver guanylyltransferase. The enzyme-[32P]GMP intermediate was digested with pronase to a [32P]GMP-peptide which was then converted to [32P]phosphoryl-peptide through periodate oxidation followed by beta-elimination. After alkaline hydrolysis of the [32P]phosphoryl-peptide, the major radioactive product co-electrophoresed with the authentic N epsilon-phospholysine on DEAE-cellulose paper. Neither [32P]Nimid-phosphohistidine nor Nguanido-phosphoarginine was detected in the hydrolysates. Furthermore, formation of N epsilon-guanylyl-lysine linkage on the enzyme was more directly shown by isolation of [32P]GMP(5' leads to N epsilon)lysine when the steps of periodate oxidation and beta-elimination were omitted. The results indicate that the nucleophile in the guanylyltransferase to which the guanylyl residue is linked is the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue. [32P]Phosphoryl-lysine was also isolated from the vaccinia virus capping enzyme-[32P]GMP intermediate. Guanylyltransferase from HeLa cells, wheat germ, Artemia salina and yeast also formed the enzyme-GMP complex and, from the stability of the complex, the linkage between the enzyme and GMP was suggested to be a phosphoamide. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6321153

  1. 32-Phosphorus selectively delivered by listeria to pancreatic cancer demonstrates a strong therapeutic effect.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Dinesh; Selvanesan, Benson Chellakkan; Yuan, Ziqiang; Libutti, Steven K; Koba, Wade; Beck, Amanda; Zhu, Kun; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2017-02-06

    Our laboratory has developed a novel delivery platform using an attenuated non-toxic and non-pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that infects tumor cells and selectively survives and multiplies in metastases and primary tumors with help of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). 32P was efficiently incorporated into the Listeria bacteria by starvation of the bacteria in saline, and then cultured in phosphorus-free medium complemented with 32P as a nutrient. Listeria-32P kills tumor cells through both 32P-induced ionizing radiation and Listeria-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of 32P and Listeria were studied in various normal and tumor tissues, at sequential time points after injection of mice with pancreatic cancer (syngeneic model Panc-02). We found that 32P and Listeria predominantly accumulated in tumors and metastases, with their highest accumulation 4 hrs (32P) and 3 days (Listeria) after injection. Listeria also penetrated the transgenic KPC (conditionally express endogenous Kras-G12D and p53-R172H mutant alleles) pancreatic tumors and metastases. This is remarkable since KPC tumors, like human tumors, exhibit a stromal barrier, which prevents most drugs from penetrating the pancreatic tumors. Therapeutic treatment with Listeria -32P resulted in a strong reduction of the growth of pancreatic cancer at early and late stages in Panc-02 and KPC mice. These results highlight the power of Listeria as new delivery platform of anticancer agents to the TME. Not only were therapeutic levels of radioactive Listeria reached in tumors and metastases but the selective delivery also led to minimal side effects.

  2. Phospholipid turnover and ultrastructural correlates during spontaneous germinal vesicle breakdown of the bovine oocyte: Effects of a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Homa, S.T.; Webster, S.D.; Russell, R.K. )

    1991-08-01

    The turnover of (32P)orthophosphate in bovine oocyte phospholipids was studied during the early stages of spontaneous meiotic maturation, and during inhibition of this process by the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX). Radioactive lipids were separated by TLC and the meiotic stage was determined cytogenetically. Ultrastructure of the nuclear membrane was examined using transmission EM. During the commitment period to meiotic resumption, which precedes germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), small localized convolutions appeared in the intact nuclear membrane. This was accompanied by a decrease in (32P)phosphatidic acid (PA) and an increase in (32P)-phosphatidylcholine (PC). This was followed by extensive convolutions, and subsequent dissociation, of the nuclear membrane, concomitant with a tremendous surge in (32P)PC and (32P)phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The cAMP-mediated maintenance of meiotic arrest involved retention of entire nuclear envelope integrity and total inhibition of the surge in (32P)PC and (32P)PE which accompanied GVBD. The increase in (32P)phosphatidylinositol (PI) associated with all stages of early meiotic resumption was unaffected by IBMX. Microinjection of heparin inhibited GVBD, and injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) overrode IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in almost 40% of the oocytes. The results suggest that there may be several functions for phospholipid turnover in the regulation of spontaneous meiotic resumption in the bovine oocyte. The first precedes the commitment period, and involves IP3 generation to serve as the primary signal for meiotic resumption. The second occurs concomitant with the commitment period, is unaffected by the level of intracellular cAMP, and is associated with the general turnover of phospholipid.

  3. Phosphatidylinositol turnover in mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Suppression by low-density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David Y.; Harmony, Judith A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Low-density (LD) lipoproteins inhibit phytohaemagglutinin-enhanced turnover of phosphatidylinositol in human peripheral lymphocytes. Turnover was assessed by 32P incorporation into phospholipids and by loss of 32P from [32P]phosphatidylinositol. Inhibition of lipid turnover by LD lipoproteins is not the result of a change in the amount of phytohaemagglutinin required for maximum cellular response. Neither phytohaemagglutinin nor LD lipoproteins influence 32P incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine during the first 60min after mitogenic challenge. The extent of inhibition of phosphatidylinositol turnover by LD lipoproteins depends on the concentration of LD lipoproteins present in the incubation medium: 50% of maximum inhibition occurs at a low-density-lipoprotein protein concentration of 33μg/ml and maximum inhibition occurs at low-density-lipoprotein protein concentrations above 100μg/ml. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulates 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol phosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. However, LD lipoproteins abolish 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol without affecting incorporation into phosphatidylinositol phosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate. The ability of LD lipoproteins to inhibit phytohaemagglutinin-induced phosphatidylinositol turnover is mimicked by EGTA. Furthermore, inhibition of LD lipoproteins by phytohaemagglutinin-induced 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol correlates directly with inhibition by LD lipoproteins of Ca2+ accumulation. These results suggest that Ca2+ accumulation and turnover of phosphatidylinositol are coupled responses in lymphocytes challenged by mitogens. The step in phosphatidylinositol metabolism that is sensitive to LD lipoproteins and, by inference, that is coupled to Ca2+ accumulation is release of [32P]phosphoinositol from phosphatidylinositol. PMID:6796039

  4. Platelet-activating factor stimulates metabolism of phosphoinositides in horse platelets: possible relationship to Ca2+ mobilization during stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Billah, M M; Lapetina, E G

    1983-01-01

    Stimulation of horse platelets with platelet-activating factor (PAF) induces a rapid degradation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. Addition of 0.1 microM PAF for 5 sec to platelets prelabeled with 32P induces a 50% loss of [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2. 32P-Labeled phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PtdIns4P) and [32P]phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) also are decreased, albeit at a slower rate. Loss of 32P radioactivity correlates with a net loss of fatty acids from both polyphosphoinositides. Stimulation of platelets with PAF also produces formation of [32P]phosphatidic acid and [32P]lysophosphatidylinositol. The initial disappearance of inositol lipids is subsequently followed by resynthesis, as evidenced by increased incorporation of 32P into PtdIns(4,5)P2, PtdIns4P, and PtdIns. The resynthesis of the inositides increases with time and is proportional to the concentration of PAF. Prostacyclin (1 microM) inhibits (i) the formation of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidylinositol and (ii) the resynthesis of polyphosphoinositides induced by 0.03 microM PAF without affecting the initial loss of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The loss of inositol lipids appears to be a primary event of platelet activation. The initial loss of polyphosphoinositides might be linked to the initiation of cellular activation by mobilizing membrane-bound Ca2+, whereas the subsequent formation of these lipids might be involved in mechanisms to prevent overstimulation of the cell. PMID:6341992

  5. 32-Phosphorus selectively delivered by listeria to pancreatic cancer demonstrates a strong therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dinesh; Selvanesan, Benson Chellakkan; Yuan, Ziqiang; Libutti, Steven K; Koba, Wade; Beck, Amanda; Zhu, Kun; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Our laboratory has developed a novel delivery platform using an attenuated non-toxic and non-pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that infects tumor cells and selectively survives and multiplies in metastases and primary tumors with help of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). 32P was efficiently incorporated into the Listeria bacteria by starvation of the bacteria in saline, and then cultured in phosphorus-free medium complemented with 32P as a nutrient. Listeria-32P kills tumor cells through both 32P-induced ionizing radiation and Listeria-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of 32P and Listeria were studied in various normal and tumor tissues, at sequential time points after injection of mice with pancreatic cancer (syngeneic model Panc-02). We found that 32P and Listeria predominantly accumulated in tumors and metastases, with their highest accumulation 4 hrs (32P) and 3 days (Listeria) after injection. Listeria also penetrated the transgenic KPC (conditionally express endogenous Kras-G12D and p53-R172H mutant alleles) pancreatic tumors and metastases. This is remarkable since KPC tumors, like human tumors, exhibit a stromal barrier, which prevents most drugs from penetrating the pancreatic tumors. Therapeutic treatment with Listeria -32P resulted in a strong reduction of the growth of pancreatic cancer at early and late stages in Panc-02 and KPC mice. These results highlight the power of Listeria as new delivery platform of anticancer agents to the TME. Not only were therapeutic levels of radioactive Listeria reached in tumors and metastases but the selective delivery also led to minimal side effects. PMID:28186976

  6. Biosynthesis of rat enamel matrix components in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.; Shimokawa, H.; Tanaka, K.

    1982-12-01

    The biosynthesis of enamel matrix components of developing rat incisors was investigated by measuring the incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline, /sup 32/P-phosphate, and /sup 35/S-sulfate in vivo. /sup 3/H- and /sup 32/P-radioactivity was found in what seemed to be a prototype of enamel proteins. Subsequent shifts in other protein and peptide fractions were observed. /sup 35/S was also incorporated into components other than the above-mentioned proteins.

  7. Mode of Action of Shigella Toxin: Effects on Ribosome Structure and Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    at 40C/12hr. with [32P-5’]pCp, S.A.=2500 Ci/mmol, and T4 ligase as described by Peattie (38). The sample was precipitated with 70% ethanol and...32P-5’]pCp and T4 ligase , subjected to electrophoresis in urea-polyacrylamide gels and analyzed following autoradiography. The results indicate that

  8. Role of hepatic cytochromes P450 in bioactivation of the anticancer drug ellipticine: Studies with the hepatic NADPH:Cytochrome P450 reductase null mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Stiborova, Marie Arlt, Volker M.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland; Kotrbova, Vera; Moserova, Michaela; Hudecek, Jiri; Phillips, David H.; Frei, Eva

    2008-02-01

    Ellipticine is an antineoplastic agent, which forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. We evaluated the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of ellipticine, using the HRN (Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Reductase Null) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is deleted in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated i.p. with 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight of ellipticine. Multiple ellipticine-DNA adducts detected by {sup 32}P-postlabelling were observed in organs from both mouse strains. Highest total DNA binding levels were found in liver, followed by lung, kidney, urinary bladder, colon and spleen. Ellipticine-DNA adduct levels in the liver of HRN mice were up to 65% lower relative to WT mice, confirming the importance of CYP enzymes for the activation of ellipticine in livers, recently shown in vitro with human and rat hepatic microsomes. When hepatic microsomes of both mouse strains were incubated with ellipticine, ellipticine-DNA adduct levels with WT microsomes were up to 2.9-fold higher than with those from HRN mice. The ratios of ellipticine-DNA adducts in extra-hepatic organs between HRN and WT mice of up to 4.7 suggest that these organs can activate ellipticine and that more ellipticine is available in the circulation. These results and the DNA adduct patterns found in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that both CYP1A or 3A and peroxidases participate in activation of ellipticine to reactive species forming DNA adducts in the mouse model used in this study.

  9. Metabolic regulation during early frog development: flow of glycolytic carbon into phospholipids in Xenopus oocytes and fertilized eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Dworkin, M.B.; Dworkin-Rastl, E.

    1989-04-01

    /sup 32/P-labeled glucose 6-phosphate, (/sup 32/P)phosphoenolpyruvate, and (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP were injected into oocytes and fertilized eggs of Xenopus laevis, and the incorporation of the /sup 32/P label was followed into phospholipids. Several classes of phospholipids incorporated /sup 32/P label from the injected glycolytic intermediates, including lysophosphatidic acid, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylinositol phosphates, inferring de novo synthesis of these lipids from dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glycerol 3-phosphate. Injection of (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP into oocytes and fertilized eggs led to labeling of phosphatidylinositol phosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate, indicating an active phosphatidylinositol cycle in resting oocytes and fertilized eggs. Maturation and fertilization of the oocyte led to a qualitative change in phosphatidylinositol metabolism, increased labeling of phosphatidylinositol phosphate compared to phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (either from glycerol 3-phosphate or from ATP). This change occurs late in the maturation process, and the new pattern of phosphatidylinositol metabolism is maintained during the rapid cleavage stages of early embryogenesis.

  10. The phosphorylated intermediate in the phosphoglyceromutase reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zwaig, N.; Milstein, C.

    1966-01-01

    1. High-voltage paper-electrophoresis methods have been used for the separation of 32P-labelled phosphoesters. 2. Evidence is presented which indicates that 32P-labelled phosphopeptides, obtained after acid hydrolysis of phosphoglyceromutase incubated with impure 2,3-di[32P]phosphoglycerate, are derived from phosphoglucomutase contamination. 3. The hydrolysis of 2,3-di[32P]phosphoglycerate by phosphoglyceromutase has been studied. After an apparent instantaneous hydrolysis of 1 mole of coenzyme/mole of enzyme the reaction proceeds at a very low rate. 4. This hydrolysis seems to be due to the destruction of an enzyme–coenzyme complex. The proportions of the decomposition products of the complex vary according to further handling (pH of ionophoresis). 5. The inorganic [32P]phosphate produced by the hydrolysis of the complex and the inorganic [32P]phosphate produced by the slow phosphatase activity can be differentiated by the ability of the former to be incorporated into non-radioactive substrate before enzyme denaturation. 6. The effect of enzyme concentration on the stoicheiometry of the slow phosphatase hydrolysis of the diphosphoglycerate is described and this suggests that it may occur via two independent reactions, one of them being the decomposition of the enzyme–coenzyme complex on standing. PMID:5941332

  11. Relationship between stimulated phosphatidic acid production and inositol lipid hydrolysis in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mallows, R S; Bolton, T B

    1987-06-15

    Accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) and total [3H]inositol phosphates (IPs) was measured in the longitudinal smooth-muscle layer from guinea-pig small intestine. Stimulation with carbachol, histamine and substance P produced increases in accumulation of both [3H]IPs and [32P]PA over the same concentration range. The increase in [32P]PA accumulation in response to carbachol (1 microM-0.1 mM) was inhibited in the presence of atropine (0.5 microM). Buffering the external free [Ca2+] to 10 nM did not prevent the carbachol-stimulated increase in [32P]PA accumulation. Carbachol and Ca2+ appear to act synergistically to increase accumulation of [32P]PA. In contrast, although incubation with noradrenaline also increased accumulation of [3H]IPs, no increase in accumulation of [32P]PA could be detected. These results suggest that an increase in formation of IPs is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in PA formation, and imply the existence of receptor-modulated pathways regulating PA concentrations other than by phospholipase-C-catalysed inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  12. Phosphate fluxes in single muscle fibres of the spider crab, Maia squinado.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, P C; Lowe, A G

    1980-01-01

    1. The rates of influx and efflux of [32P]orthophosphate (Pi) have bben measured in single muscle fibres of the spider crab, Maia squinado. 2. Rates of influx of 32Pi from salines containing 0 . 11 to 0 . 37 mM-Pi ranged from 0 . 11 to 0 . 41 p-mole cm-2 sec-1. 3. After injection of [32P]orthophosphate there was an early rapid phase of 32P efflux which was maximal after about 5-10 min, then a gradual decline until a low steady-state efflux rate was established after about 100 min. The rate of decline of 32P efflux was similar to the rate of equilibration of injected 32Pi with arginine phosphate and ATP. 4. The steady-state rate of 32P efflux was typically about 0 . 70 p-mole cm-2 sec-1 when the sarcoplasmic Pi concentraion was 5 m-mole kg-1. Exposure of mucle fibres to conditions which caused contraction and increased the sarcoplasmic concentration of Pi also increased the rate of 32P efflux, which appeared to be linearly related to sarcoplasmic Pi concentration. 5. The results are compared with previous measurements of phosphate fluxes in nerve. PMID:7411440

  13. Phosphate fluxes in single muscle fibres of the spider crab, Maia squinado.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, P C; Lowe, A G

    1980-04-01

    1. The rates of influx and efflux of [32P]orthophosphate (Pi) have bben measured in single muscle fibres of the spider crab, Maia squinado. 2. Rates of influx of 32Pi from salines containing 0 . 11 to 0 . 37 mM-Pi ranged from 0 . 11 to 0 . 41 p-mole cm-2 sec-1. 3. After injection of [32P]orthophosphate there was an early rapid phase of 32P efflux which was maximal after about 5-10 min, then a gradual decline until a low steady-state efflux rate was established after about 100 min. The rate of decline of 32P efflux was similar to the rate of equilibration of injected 32Pi with arginine phosphate and ATP. 4. The steady-state rate of 32P efflux was typically about 0 . 70 p-mole cm-2 sec-1 when the sarcoplasmic Pi concentraion was 5 m-mole kg-1. Exposure of mucle fibres to conditions which caused contraction and increased the sarcoplasmic concentration of Pi also increased the rate of 32P efflux, which appeared to be linearly related to sarcoplasmic Pi concentration. 5. The results are compared with previous measurements of phosphate fluxes in nerve.

  14. Influence of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP) on inositol phospholipid (InsPL) metabolism in cultured mesangial (MS) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, D.A.; Venkatachalam, M.A.; Bonventre, J.V.; Kreisberg, J.I.

    1986-03-01

    Elevation of cAMP inhibits hormone-induced contraction of MS cells, and in other cell types, reduces stimulated InsPL metabolism. The authors found that neither isobutylmethylxanthine (MIX, 0.5 mM), which increases MS cell cAMP levels 4-fold, nor forskolin (100 ..mu..M) altered vasopressin (VP, 10 nM) induced release of /sup 3/H-inositol trisphosphate from prelabelled MS cells. Also, maneuvers which elevated cAMP did not block the VP-induced rise of intracellular calcium as measured by quin-2. Further, neither MIX nor isoproterenol affected the stimulation of glycolysis by VP as measured by lactic acid production. MIX diminished VP stimulated /sup 32/P orthophosphate (/sup 32/P) incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol. The /sup 32/P content in phosphoinositides of cells treated with MIX and VP was 65% of that in cells treated with VP only. However, the authors found that the specific activity of /sup 32/P in ATP in the presence of MIX + VP was 74% of that with VP alone. Thus, the apparent suppression of /sup 32/P incorporation due to MIX was attributable to a concurrent diminution of the specific activity of /sup 32/P in ATP. The authors conclude that increases of cAMP interfere with contraction distal to PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis, inositol phosphate release, calcium mobilization, and enhancement of glycolysis.

  15. [Change in the therapeutic strategy when faced with an inadequate response to the pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Gandía-Benetó, Rubén; Mulas, Fernando; Roca, Patricia; Ortiz-Sánchez, Pedro; Abad-Mas, Luis

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. El trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo cerebral de origen biologico. Se estima que el 3-7% de los niños en edad escolar presentan TDAH. Dentro del tratamiento farmacologico, las anfetaminas y el metilfenidato (MPH) son los mas utilizados. Aunque las tasas de respuesta al MPH son altas, las tasas de remision completa llegan solo al 56%. Un 25% de los pacientes que no responden al MPH si lo haria a otros estimulantes, y viceversa. Objetivo. Valorar clinicamente a los pacientes con deteccion de respuestas inadecuadas y la eficacia de un cambio a lisdexanfetamina dimesilato (LDX). Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo. Se considero respuesta inadecuada al MPH aquella que presentaba falta de cobertura o de efecto. Se utilizaron las escalas de evaluacion Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) y Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) para la valoracion clinica, asi como la escala de evaluacion del deterioro funcional de Weiss (WFIRS) y el perfil de salud infantil (CHIP-AE). Tambien se recogieron los efectos adversos. Resultados. Cumplieron criterios de respuesta inadecuada al tratamiento 41 pacientes: 13,6 ± 3,4 años, 54,6 ± 13,2 kg, 158,5 ± 17,2 cm e indice de masa corporal de 20,9 ± 3,5 kg/m2. Motivos del cambio (no excluyentes): falta de cobertura (76%), falta de intensidad del efecto (68%) y presencia de efectos adversos con la medicacion anterior (16%). La puntuacion media basal y a los nueve meses, en la ADHD-RS, fue de 24,54 ± 6,3 frente a 12,01 ± 3,2 (p < 0,01), respectivamente, y para la CGI-S, de 5,09 ± 0,5 frente a 2,91 ± 0,8 (p < 0,01), respectivamente. El perfil de seguridad coincidio con el de otros tratamientos estimulantes para el TDAH. Conclusion. Cuando la respuesta al MPH presenta falta de cobertura o falta de efecto, el cambio a LDX se ha mostrado eficaz, con una mejoria en el 86,7% de los casos, similar a la de otros

  16. Creating an environment for caring using lean principles of the Virginia Mason Production System.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Peterson, Dana L; Leppa, Carol J

    2007-06-01

    As healthcare leaders search for viable options to cut costs, increase efficiencies, and improve the product that they offer to customers, many are looking at different business models to adopt. At the same time, an aging workforce of nurses feel the pressure of being overworked and understaffed, resulting in both decreased job and patient satisfaction. Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle, Wash, has implemented the Virginia Mason Production System, using proven concepts adapted from the Toyota Production System that effectively eliminate "muda" or waste, in workplace processes. The authors discuss the application of the Virginia Mason Production System and how it has resulted in increased time for nurses to care for their patients.

  17. Role of zinc in the structure and function of ssDNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.E.; Giedroc, D.P.; Keating, K.M.; Williams, K.R.

    1987-05-01

    Gene 32 protein (g32P), the ssDNA binding protein required for replication, recombination and translational control in the phage T4 life cycle contains 1 g at Zn per mol bound in a tetrahedral complex to -S/sup -/ ligands. Chemical modification and spectroscopic evidence suggest binding to Cys 77, His 81, Cys 87 and Cys 90. The Zn-binding domain is at the N-terminal end of AA residues 72 to 116 which contains 6 of the 8 Tyr residues in g32P, shown by /sup 1/H-NMR to be involved in deoxynucleotide binding. Limited proteolysis of g32P with trypsin removes residues 1-21 and 254-301 leaving a trypsin-resistant core, g32P. The latter retains high affinity for a single site nucleotide lattice, but has lost cooperative binding to DNA. Removal of Zn from native g32P renders the molecule susceptible to proteolysis and the core is hydrolyzed to small peptides. Rebinding of Zn restores the core stability. Apo g32P binds 3 orders of magnitude less tightly to ssDNA and cannot melt polyd(AT) at 150 mM NaCl. Loss of binding affinity is primarily due to loss of cooperative protein-protein interactions accompanying Zn removal. Thus, both the N-terminal domain and the Zn-binding domain are required for cooperative binding to DNA. G5P from fd and ssB from E. coli do not contain Zn, but small basic proteins, products of the gag gene of retroviruses, e.g., p10 from MuLV, p15 from HTLVI and p15 from HTLV-III contain tandem repeats of a -C-X/sub 2/-C-X/sub 4/-H-X/sub 4/-C- sequence similar to the Zn-binding sequence found in g32P.

  18. [Phosphorus translocation and distribution in intercropping systems of soybean (Glycine max) and citrus (Citrus poonensis)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weijun; Wang, Kairong; Li, Hesong

    2004-02-01

    A field mini-plot experiment was conducted on clay loamy oxisol using 32P trace technique when P fertilizer was applied in three depth soil (15, 35 and 55 cm soil layer) to compare P absorption, distribution and translocation in plant organ and soil profile under soybean and citrus monoculture and intercropping at Taoyuan Experimental Station of Agroecosystem Research of Chinese Academy of Science. Total P uptake (PT) and P accumulation in different parts (PA) of soybean were remarkably decreased under intercropping. When 32P was applied in topsoil (15 cm soil layer), 32P uptake (32PT) by soybean was significantly lower in intercropping than in monoculture. Whereas 32PT uptake by soybean was significantly greater in intercropping than in monoculture when 32P was applied in deep soil layer (35 cm or 55 cm soil layer). However, considerable difference was not observed for 32P translocation and distribution among soybean organs. 32PT uptake by citrus was much lower under intercropping than under monoculture. The P uptake by citrus newly could be transferred rapidly to aboveground and prior to active growing organ. Intercropping did not affect 32P distribution in citrus organ, but when P was applied in deep soil layer, the speed of 32P transferred to aboveground and active organ was slowed down. P mobility was strengthened in soil profile, and P of deep soil layer was promoted to move to topsoil in intercropping. The experimental results showed the optimal depth of applied P should be within 20 cm soil layer in soybean-citrus intercropping system.

  19. Rapid phosphatidic acid accumulation in response to low temperature stress in Arabidopsis is generated through diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Arisz, Steven A; van Wijk, Ringo; Roels, Wendy; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Haring, Michel A; Munnik, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is emerging as an important signaling lipid in abiotic stress responses in plants. The effect of cold stress was monitored using (32)P-labeled seedlings and leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Low, non-freezing temperatures were found to trigger a very rapid (32)P-PtdOH increase, peaking within 2 and 5 min, respectively. In principle, PtdOH can be generated through three different pathways, i.e., (1) via de novo phospholipid biosynthesis (through acylation of lyso-PtdOH), (2) via phospholipase D hydrolysis of structural phospholipids, or (3) via phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by DAG kinase (DGK). Using a differential (32)P-labeling protocol and a PLD-transphosphatidylation assay, evidence is provided that the rapid (32)P-PtdOH response was primarily generated through DGK. A simultaneous decrease in the levels of (32)P-PtdInsP, correlating in time, temperature dependency, and magnitude with the increase in (32)P-PtdOH, suggested that a PtdInsP-hydrolyzing PLC generated the DAG in this reaction. Testing T-DNA insertion lines available for the seven DGK genes, revealed no clear changes in (32)P-PtdOH responses, suggesting functional redundancy. Similarly, known cold-stress mutants were analyzed to investigate whether the PtdOH response acted downstream of the respective gene products. The hos1, los1, and fry1 mutants were found to exhibit normal PtdOH responses. Slight changes were found for ice1, snow1, and the overexpression line Super-ICE1, however, this was not cold-specific and likely due to pleiotropic effects. A tentative model illustrating direct cold effects on phospholipid metabolism is presented.

  20. Potential use of P-32 ophthalmic applicator: Monte Carlo simulations for design and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yang Kyun; Ye, Sung-Joon; Kim, Il Han; Wee, Won Ryang; Kim, Mee Kum; Han, Hyon Soo; Son, Kwang-Jae; Park, Ul Jae

    2008-05-15

    Postoperative {beta}-irradiation after pterygium excision has been considered a valuable therapeutic procedure to reduce the recurrence rate. Recently, it was reported that {beta}-irradiation also substantially reduced the risk of surgical failure after glaucoma surgery. Pure {beta}-irradiation using a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator has been almost exclusively used for this purpose. As an alternative to {sup 90}Sr/Y {beta}-irradiation, we propose treatment with betas of a {sup 32}P source. While {sup 32}P has a lower maximum energy (1.71 MeV) than {sup 90}Sr/Y (2.27 MeV), it has an average energy comparable to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. Furthermore, it can be produced easily in a nuclear reactor by neutron activation and is considered a less hazardous material. Monte Carlo simulations for the dosimetry of proposed {sup 32}P applicators were performed using the MCNP5 code. The structure and dimension of the {sup 32}P applicators were based on those of the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicators currently available, while medical plastic encapsulation and liquid source were chosen to enhance {beta}-dose to the surface of the conjunctiva. The {sup 32}P applicator showed that the surface dose distribution (up to 0.75 mm depth) is very similar to that of {sup 90}Sr/Y. However, beyond 0.75 mm depth, the {sup 32}P doses decrease with depths more rapidly than {sup 90}Sr/Y doses. In order to achieve the same surface dose rate, the required {sup 32}P activity is about three times that for a {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. We conclude that the proposed {sup 32}P applicator can deliver therapeutic doses to the target lesion while sparing the lens better than the {sup 90}Sr/Y applicator. The {sup 32}P activity required to deliver therapeutic doses can be produced in a 30 MW reactor available at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

  1. Protein Phosphorylation during Coconut Zygotic Embryo Development1

    PubMed Central

    Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Oropeza, Carlos; Hernández-Sotomayor, S.M. Teresa

    1998-01-01

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species. PMID:9733545

  2. Field and laboratory investigations of inactivation of viruses (PRD1 and MS2) attached to iron oxide-coated quartz san

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Joseph N.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Elimelech, Menachem; Navigato, Theresa; Pieper, Ann P.

    2002-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate inactivation of viruses attached to mineral surfaces. In a natural gradient transport field experiment, bacteriophage PRD1, radiolabeled with 32P, was injected into a ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand aquifer with bromide and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. In a zone of the aquifer contaminated by secondary sewage infiltration, small fractions of infective and 32P-labeled PRD1 broke through with the bromide tracer, followed by the slow release of 84% of the 32P activity and only 0.011% of the infective PRD1. In the laboratory experiments, the inactivation of PRD1, labeled with 35S (protein capsid), and MS2, dual radiolabeled with 35S (protein capsid) and 32P (nucleic acid), was monitored in the presence of groundwater and sediment from the contaminated zone of the field site. Release of infective viruses decreased at a much faster rate than release of the radiolabels, indicating that attached viruses were undergoing surface inactivation. Disparities between 32P and35S release suggest that the inactivated viruses were released in a disintegrated state. Comparison of estimated solution and surface inactivation rates indicates solution inactivation is ∼3 times as fast as surface inactivation. The actual rate of surface inactivation may be substantially underestimated owing to slow release of inactivated viruses.

  3. Effect of mercuric chloride feeding on sexual maturity, egg production and fertility in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1973-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 8, 16 or 32 p.p.m. of mercury as mercuric chloride from 3 days of age through 20 weeks of age. The onset of egg production generally occurred earlier for hens fed HgCl2. Average age in days at first oviposition for the control, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m. and 32 p.p.m. was 48.4, 50.9, 46.9 and 44.0 respectively. The average rate of egg productivity from first oviposition to attainment of full growth (9 weeks of age) correlated positively with in increased dietary mercury (controls, 8 p.p.m., 16 p.p.m., 32 p.p.m. ? 75.2, 69.3, 86.1 and 93.3% respectively). By 20 weeks of age productivity was 81.0, 80.6, 87.5 and 92.9% for control, 8, 16 and 32 p.p.m. groups respectively. Fertility was depressed when hens were fed HgCl2. At 9 weeks of age average control fertility was 59% contrasted with 25% for the 32 p.p.m. group. At 12 weeks fertility increased to 89% and 57% for these groups. From this study it is apparent. that the onset and rate of egg production was stimulated by HgCl2, but fertility was adversely affected.

  4. Phosphorus-32, a Clinically Available Drug, Inhibits Cancer Growth by Inducing DNA Double-Strand Breakage

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yulan; Kiess, Ana P.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pomper, Martin G.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Abraham, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotopes that emit electrons (beta particles), such as radioiodine, can effectively kill target cells, including cancer cells. Aqueous 32P[PO4] is a pure beta-emitter that has been used for several decades to treat non-malignant human myeloproliferative diseases. 32P[PO4] was directly compared to a more powerful pure beta-emitter, the clinically important 90Y isotope. In vitro, 32P[PO4] was more effective at killing cells than was the more powerful isotope 90Y (P ≤ 0.001) and also caused substantially more double-stranded DNA breaks than did 90Y. In vivo, a single low-dose intravenous dose of aqueous elemental 32P significantly inhibited tumor growth in the syngeneic murine cancer model (P ≤ 0.001). This effect is exerted by direct incorporation into nascent DNA chains, resulting in double-stranded breakage, a unique mechanism not duplicatable by other, more powerful electron-emitting radioisotopes. 32P[PO4] should be considered for human clinical trials as a potential novel anti-cancer drug. PMID:26030880

  5. Phosphorus-32 absorption and translocation to host plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at low root-zone temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Funakoshi, D M; Dalpé, Y; Hamel, C

    2002-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) mycelia persist in soil over winter. Functioning of the AM symbiosis very early in the spring when the soil temperature is low may be of ecological significance for perennial and biannual plants in cool climates. An indoor experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of low root-zone temperatures on 32P uptake by 10-week-old leek plants (Allium porrum L.) inoculated or not with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. Plants were grown in a greenhouse at approximately 23 degrees C prior to exposing their roots to 23 degrees C, 15 degrees C or 0 degree C. Mycorrhizal colonization increased 32P activity of leek leaves at a root-zone temperature of 23 degrees C seven days after injection of 32P into the soil, whereas 14 days after injection, 32P increases were measured at both 23 degrees C and 15 degrees C. The lack of difference in 32P activity between AM and non-AM plants at 0 degree C, both 7 and 14 days after injection, suggests that the AM fungus is not functional at this low root-zone temperature.

  6. Acetylglyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC; platelet-activating factor)-induced stimulation of rabbit platelets: correlation between phosphatidic acid level, 45Ca2+ uptake, and (3H)serotonin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.D.; Hanahan, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    When 32P-labeled rabbits platelet were incubated with 5 X 10(-10) M 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AGEPC), either in the presence or absence (0.1 mM EGTA) of added Ca2+, there was a three- to five-fold increase in the (32P)phosphatidic acid (PA) pool within 15 to 20 s. This event was followed by a gradual decrease in the (32P)PA level to near basal level in 5 min. AGEPC effected this change in (32P)PA in a characteristic dose- and time-dependent manner. Polar head group analogs of AGEPC, such as AGEDME and AGEMME, also effected an increase in PA labeling at levels comparable to those previously reported for their activity toward rabbit platelets. Other analogs, i.e., lysoGEPC and the enantiomer, sn-1-AGEPC, which are inactive toward rabbit platelets, also showed no effect on the level of (32P)PA. The finding that the PA level in rabbit platelets could be manipulated by the addition of AGEPC, without any added Ca2+, provided an excellent model system for establishing a correlation between the uptake of Ca2+, serotonin release, and PA level. Thus, PA must be regarded as a sensitive indicator of a reaction mechanism important to the platelet response to AGEPC, and could be the focal point in promoting calcium uptake during the stimulation process.

  7. Okadaic acid-induced inhibition of B-50 dephosphorylation by presynaptic membrane-associated protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Han, Y F; Dokas, L A

    1991-10-01

    The neuronal tissue-specific protein kinase C (PKC) substrate B-50 can be dephosphorylated by endogenous protein phosphatases (PPs) in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs). The present study characterizes membrane-associated B-50 phosphatase activity by using okadaic acid (OA) and purified 32P-labeled substrates. At a low concentration of [gamma-32P]ATP, PKC-mediated [32P]phosphate incorporation into B-50 in SPMs reached a maximal value at 30 s, followed by dephosphorylation. OA, added 30 s after the initiation of phosphorylation, partially prevented the dephosphorylation of B-50 at 2 nM, a dose that inhibits PP-2A. At the higher concentration of 1 microM, a dose of OA that inhibits PP-1 as well as PP-2A, a nearly complete blockade of B-50 dephosphorylation was seen. Heat-stable PP inhibitor-2 (I-2) also inhibited dephosphorylation of B-50. The effects of OA and I-2 on B-50 phosphatase activity were additive. Endogenous PP-1- and PP-2A-like activities in SPMs were also demonstrated by their capabilities of dephosphorylating [32P]phosphorylase a and [32P]casein. With these exogenous substrates, sensitivities of the membrane-bound phosphatases to OA and I-2 were found to be similar to those of purified forms of these enzymes. These results indicate that PP-1- and PP-2A-like enzymes are the major B-50 phosphatases in SPMs.

  8. Phosphate dynamics in an acidic mountain stream: Interactions involving algal uptake, sorption by iron oxide, and photoreduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, Cathy M.; Broshears, Robert E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    Acid mine drainage streams in the Rocky Mountains typically have few algal species and abundant iron oxide deposits which can sorb phosphate. An instream injection of radiolabeled phosphate (32P0,) into St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, was used to test the ability of a dominant algal species, Ulothrix sp., to rapidly assimilate phosphate. Approximately 90% of the injected phosphate was removed from the water column in the 175-m stream reach. When shaded stream reaches were exposed to full sunlight after the injection ended, photoreductive dissolution of iron oxide released sorbed 32P, which was then also removed downstream. The removal from the stream was modeled as a first-order process by using a reactive solute transport transient storage model. Concentrations of 32P mass-’ of algae were typically lo-fold greater than concentrations in hydrous iron oxides. During the injection, concentrations of 32P increased in the cellular P pool containing soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds and confirmed direct algal uptake of 32P0, from water. Mass balance calculations indicated that algal uptake and sorption on iron oxides were significant in removing phosphate. We conclude that in stream ecosystems, PO, sorbed by iron oxides can act as a dynamic nutrient reservoir regulated by photoreduction.

  9. Protein phosphorylation: Localization in regenerating optic axons

    SciTech Connect

    Larrivee, D. )

    1990-09-01

    A number of axonal proteins display changes in phosphorylation during goldfish optic nerve regeneration. (1) To determine whether the phosphorylation of these proteins was closely linked to their synthesis in the retinal ganglion cell body, cycloheximide was injected intraocularly into goldfish whose optic nerves had been regenerating for 3 weeks. Cycloheximide reduced the incorporation of (3H)proline and 32P orthophosphate into total nerve protein by 84% and 46%, respectively. Of the 20 individual proteins examined, 17 contained less than 15% of the (3H)proline label measured in corresponding controls, whereas 18 proteins contained 50% or more of the 32P label, suggesting that phosphorylation was largely independent of synthesis. (2) To determine whether the proteins were phosphorylated in the ganglion cell axons, axonal transport of proteins was blocked by intraocular injection of vincristine. Vincristine reduced (3H)proline labeling of total protein by 88% and 32P labeling by 49%. Among the individual proteins (3H)proline labeling was reduced by 90% or more in 18 cases but 32P labeling was reduced only by 50% or less. (3) When 32P was injected into the cranial cavity near the ends of the optic axons, all of the phosphoproteins were labeled more intensely in the optic tract than in the optic nerve. These results suggest that most of the major phosphoproteins that undergo changes in phosphorylation in the course of regeneration are phosphorylated in the optic axons.

  10. Rapid Crystallization of L-Alanine on Engineered Surfaces using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Alabanza, Anginelle M.; Pozharski, Edwin; Aslan, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique to rapid crystallization of L-alanine on surface engineered silver nanostructures. In this regard, silver island films (SIFs) were modified with hexamethylenediamine (HMA), 1-undecanethiol (UDET), and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA), which introduced -NH2, -CH3 and -COOH functional groups to SIFs, respectively. L-Alanine was crystallized on these engineered surfaces and blank SIFs at room temperature and using MA-MAEC technique. Significant improvements in crystal size, shape, and quality were observed on HMA-, MUDA- and UDET-modified SIFs at room temperature (crystallization time = 144, 40 and 147 min, respectively) as compared to those crystals grown on blank SIFs. Using the MA-MAEC technique, the crystallization time of L-alanine on engineered surfaces were reduced to 17 sec for microwave power level 10 (i.e., duty cycle 100%) and 7 min for microwave power level 1 (duty cycle 10%). Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that L-Alanine crystals grown on engineered surfaces using MA-MAEC technique had identical characteristic peaks of L-alanine crystals grown using traditional evaporative crystallization. PMID:22267957

  11. 3-D Resistivity Imaging on Archaeology Characterization at Sungai Batu area in Kedah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinmin, M.; Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Muhammad, S. B.; Mokhtar, S.

    2017-08-01

    Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) was conducted at the archaeological site of Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang in Kedah, Malaysia and it is located between Gunung Jerai in the North and Muda River in the South, Kuala Muda, Kedah. This paper presents the geophysical results that aimed to identify the characterization at Sungai Batu, Kedah. ERI survey was performed at plot SB2ZZ, Sungai Batu with total of 15 survey lines using pole-dipole array with electrode spacing of 0.75 m. The ERI results were then processed with Res2DInv and Res3Dinv softwares. Resistivity contrast shows good variation to correlate well with lithology of the earth materials. To enhance the results, data were visualized using isosurface resistivity surface. The ERI shows interesting anomaly with resistivity of 400 - 500 Ωm varies from 0.34 - 1.17 m and few spotted anomalies detected at deeper depth which varies from 2 m - 4 m. Based on-site calibration at partly exhumed sites, anomalies were interpreted as baked clay bricks. The results obtained in this study area gives reliable interpretation for archaeological interest.

  12. Physicochemical Properties Of Starch From Sago (Metroxylon Sagu) Palm Grown In Mineral Soil At Different Growth Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthumporn, U.; Wahidah, N.; Karim, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical properties of sago starch from sago palm grown in mineral soil at different growth stages. Four stages of sago palm, namely, Plawei (P), Bubul (B), Angau Muda (AM) and Angau Tua (AT) were studied. Sago starch granules were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the x-ray diffraction patterns were examined to study the starch crystallinity. The highest starch content was found at Plawei stage (94.2%) and Angau Muda stage (97.9%), respectively. The amylose content varied between 29.4 to 31.2% for each growth stages. The highest swelling power was found at the earliest growth stages (P) late growth stages (AT) which are 13.3 g/g and 13.2 g/g, respectively. Granule size distributions were similar as the palm grows to the later growth stages, where highest mean diameter of sago starches granules was found at AM. Variation of starch, amylose and proximate content was observed for starches derived from sago palm different growth stages were insignificant.

  13. Monthly streamflow forecasting with auto-regressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Najah; Samsudin, Ruhaidah; Shabri, Ani

    2017-09-01

    Forecasting of streamflow is one of the many ways that can contribute to better decision making for water resource management. The auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was selected in this research for monthly streamflow forecasting with enhancement made by pre-processing the data using singular spectrum analysis (SSA). This study also proposed an extension of the SSA technique to include a step where clustering was performed on the eigenvector pairs before reconstruction of the time series. The monthly streamflow data of Sungai Muda at Jeniang, Sungai Muda at Jambatan Syed Omar and Sungai Ketil at Kuala Pegang was gathered from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia. A ratio of 9:1 was used to divide the data into training and testing sets. The ARIMA, SSA-ARIMA and Clustered SSA-ARIMA models were all developed in R software. Results from the proposed model are then compared to a conventional auto-regressive integrated moving average model using the root-mean-square error and mean absolute error values. It was found that the proposed model can outperform the conventional model.

  14. Electron transport in gold colloidal nanoparticle-based strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Helena; Grisolia, Jérémie; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M.; Decorde, Nicolas; Farcau, Cosmin; Viallet, Benoit; Chen, Ke; Viau, Guillaume; Ressier, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    A systematic approach for understanding the electron transport mechanisms in resistive strain gauges based on assemblies of gold colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) protected by organic ligands is described. The strain gauges were fabricated from parallel micrometer wide wires made of 14 nm gold (Au) colloidal NPs on polyethylene terephthalate substrates, elaborated by convective self-assembly. Electron transport in such devices occurs by inter-particle electron tunneling through the tunnel barrier imposed by the organic ligands protecting the NPs. This tunnel barrier was varied by changing the nature of organic ligands coating the nanoparticles: citrate (CIT), phosphines (BSPP, TDSP) and thiols (MPA, MUDA). Electro-mechanical tests indicate that only the gold NPs protected by phosphine and thiol ligands yield high gauge sensitivity. Temperature-dependent resistance measurements are explained using the ‘regular island array model’ that extracts transport parameters, i.e., the tunneling decay constant β and the Coulomb charging energy EC. This reveals that the Au@CIT nanoparticle assemblies exhibit a behavior characteristic of a strong-coupling regime, whereas those of Au@BSPP, Au@TDSP, Au@MPA and Au@MUDA nanoparticles manifest a weak-coupling regime. A comparison of the parameters extracted from the two methods indicates that the most sensitive gauges in the weak-coupling regime feature the highest β. Moreover, the EC values of these 14 nm NPs cannot be neglected in determining the β values.

  15. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. )

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  16. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-11-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of ({sup 32}P) ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of {sup 32}P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on {sup 32}P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K{sub m} values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins.

  17. Prolonged RNA changes in the Hermissenda eye induced by classical conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.J.; Alkon, D.L. )

    1988-10-01

    The incorporation of {sup 32}P into mRNA and the total amount of mRNA were increased 3- to 4-fold in eyes isolated from Hermissenda crassicornis trained to associate light with rotation on a turntable compared with animals trained with equal numbers of light and rotation events presented randomly and with naive animals. Incorporation of {sup 32}P into poly(A){sup {minus}} RNA was reduced by as much as 60%. The RNA changes were strongly correlated with the degree of learning and could not be accounted for by changes in ({sup 32}P)ATP content. The RNA changes were maximal at 24 hr and were still detectable after 4 days, indicating that associative conditioning produces a period of increased DNA transcription that could be an intermediate step in memory consolidation. The RNA changes may in part account for recently observed conditioning-specific changes in the synthesis rates of specific proteins.

  18. Direct nonchromatographic assay for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekharan, R.; Ray, T.K.; Cronan, J.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also called lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase) which catalyzes the acylation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid is generally assayed by the use of a radioactive substrate followed by a time-consuming chromatographic separation of substrate and product. We report a direct and highly sensitive nonchromatographic assay for this enzyme based on the ability of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase to dephosphorylate 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate but not phosphatidic acid. This selective hydrolysis coupled with the use of /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate as substrate permits measurement of the product, /sup 32/P-labeled phosphatidic acid by solvent extraction or precipitation. We also report a series of enzymatic reactions for the efficient conversion of /sup 32/Pi to /sup 32/P-labeled 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate.

  19. Further investigations into hormone-directed transport in stems.

    PubMed

    Bowen, M R; Wareing, P F

    1971-06-01

    The effect of IAA and three synthetic auxins on the upward movement of (32)P-orthophosphate and (14)C-sucrose has been investigated in decapitated stems of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., Coleus blumci L. and Helianthus annuus L. IAA greatly enhanced the accumulation of (32)P-orthophosphate in Phaseolus vulgaris and Pisum sativum, whereas in C. blumei and H. annuus it did not. 2,4-D like IAA, caused an increase in (14)C-sucrose and (32)P-orthophosphate accumulation in Phaseolus vulgaris but, unlike IAA, caused no increase in Pisum sativum. The downward transport of (14)C-IAA, (14)C-NAA, (14)C-2,4-D and (14)C-2,4,5-T from the decapitated apex was also studied. Results are discussed in terms of current theories of hormone-directed transport.

  20. Proteins that interact with GTP during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.; Vary, J.C. )

    1989-06-01

    During sporulation of Bacillus subtilis, several proteins were shown to interact with GTP in specific ways. UV light was used to cross-link ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP to proteins in cell extracts at different stages of growth. After electrophoresis, 11 bands of radioactivity were found in vegetative cells, 4 more appeared during sporulation, and only 9 remained in mature spores. Based on the labeling pattern with or without UV light to cross-link either ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP or ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)GTP, 11 bands of radioactivity were apparent guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, and 5 bands appeared to be phosphorylated and/or guanylated. Similar results were found with Bacillus megaterium. Assuming the GTP might be a type of signal for sporulation, it could interact with and regulate proteins by at least three mechanisms.

  1. An enzymic radiochemical method for determining phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, L.; Walker, S.I.; Robin, N.I.

    1983-05-01

    We describe an enzymic quantification of phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid. Phosphatidylglycerol is hydrolyzed in alkali and the resulting glycerol is then enzymatically phosphorylated with adenosine 5'-(gamma-/sup 32/P)triphosphate to yield glycero(/sup 32/P)phosphate. After removal of excess (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP by charcoal, the radioactivity of the glycerophosphate is measured in a liquid scintillation counter. Triglyceride in the amniotic fluid is hydrolyzed by lipase before extraction and thus does not interfere with the analysis. This method is specific for phosphatidylglycerol. Preliminary studies suggest that a phosphatidylglycerol value greater than or equal to 10 nmol/mL correlates with fetal lung maturity.

  2. Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Proteins Induced by Auxins in Maize Embryonic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Laura; Aguilar, Raúl; Méndez, Alma Pérez; de Jiménez, Estela Sánchez

    1990-01-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of [32P] ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of 32P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on 32P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent Km values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins. Images Figure 3 PMID:16667828

  3. Studies on the Biochemistry and Fine Structure of Silica Shell Formation in Diatoms. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Silicon-Starvation Synchrony of Navicula pelliculosa 1

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, J.; Spanis, C.; Volcani, B. E.

    1967-01-01

    Rates of photosynthesis, measured by oxygen electrode or by 14CO2 fixation, dark respiration and 32P-phosphate incorporation are reported for the silicon-starvation synchrony of the fresh water diatom Navicula pelliculosa. During late exponential growth the rates were consistent with increase in carbon mass. During silicon starvation, rates of carbon dioxide fixation, oxygen evolution and 32P incorporation fell, and the saturating light intensity decreased from 27,000 lux to 5000 lux. Reintroduction of silicon led to immediate transients in all parameters studied, followed by a prolonged increase in rate of dark respiration and a gradual increase in apparent photosynthesis. During release of daughter cells, the rates of dark respiration decreased as photosynthesis and 32P incorporation increased. These results are discussed in relation to effects of silicon on the energy metabolism of the diatom. PMID:6080873

  4. Bioassay for neutron-dose estimations of three patients in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura by measuring beta-ray emitters.

    PubMed

    Takeda, H; Miyamoto, K; Yukawa, M; Nishimura, Y; Watanabe, Y; Kim, H S; Fuma, S; Kuroda, N; Kouno, F; Joshima, H; Hirama, T; Akashi, M

    2001-09-01

    The measurement of beta-emitters in biological samples (hair, urine and bone) from three patients in the JCO criticality accident was performed to assess the neutron dose to individuals. The result of the measurements of 32P in hair and urine collected immediately after the accident showed that sufficient 32P activities had been induced in the hair by fast neutrons and in the urine by thermal neutrons to know the severity of the exposure to the individuals and to the position. From the measurement of 32P and 45Ca in bone from various anatomical parts of two patients who died 82 and 210 days after the accident, it was suggested that the distribution of the induced beta-emitters activities could prove the position and posture of the patients at the moment of exposure.

  5. In-vivo effect of Lithospermum ruderale on LHRH activity in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, F.J.; Breneman, W.R.

    1981-07-01

    Lithospermum (LSPM) plant extracts can inhibit gonadotropin action in mammals and birds. The experiments reported in this paper were performed to note the possible effect of LSPM on the ability of LHRH to stimulate /sup 32/P testis uptake in immature chicks. LHRH injected 2 h before autopsy significantly increased /sup 32/P uptake in these animals. Water extracts of Lithospermum ruderale roots were administered subcutaneously at various concentrations and times before LHRH. LSPM injections of 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mg equivalents of dried material given 10 h before LHRH significantly suppressed the releasing hormone effect. 4.0 mg LSPM was not inhibitory at 16, 22, 38 or 46 h before LHRH. Interestingly, LHRH had a greater effect, as measured by /sup 32/P testis uptake, when given to these latter 3 groups then when given to controls. This suggests that LSPM may have prevented the release but not the synthesis of anterior pituitary gonadotropins.

  6. Phosphorus Compounds in Translocating Phloem

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    Phosphate-32P was introduced into a turnip leaf, and 3 hr later, the vascular bundles were stripped from the petiole and their phosphate ester pattern was studied. The pattern did not alter along their length and was like that of other tissues. Pumpkin leaves were painted with phosphate-32P; and later, the petioles were cut, the sieve tube exudates were collected and their phosphate ester patterns were studied. Exudates collected after 10 min had a high proportion of their 32P present in Pi and nucleoside triphosphates, while exudates collected after long translocation times (4-22 hr) had a lower proportion in these, and a higher proportion in hexose monophosphates and UDP glucose. In general, the ester patterns were like those of other tissues. The results indicate that sieve tubes are metabolically active, and that Pi is the primary form in which phosphorus moves in the phloem. Images PMID:16657091

  7. Enzymatic method for radiolabelling vertebrate vitellogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, L.; Wiley, H.S.

    1984-08-01

    Phosphoprotein kinases from Xenopus and chicken liver have been purified and these enzymes have been used to label Xenopus vitellogenin, a phosphoprotein, to high specific activity with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The enzymes were isolated by (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ fractionation followed by chromatography on DE-52 cellulose and phosphocellulose. This procedure resulted in greater than 20,000-fold enrichment for the enzymes. Both enzyme preparations were used to selectively label vitellogenin in the serum of estrogen-treated animals. Thus, isolation of the vitellogenin prior to radiolabeling was not necessary. The (/sup 32/P)vitellogenin labeled in situ was incorporated by oocytes at a rate similar to (/sup 32/P)vitellogenin labeled in vivo, was translocated to the yolk platelets, and was correctly processed into the yolk proteins.

  8. Stimulatory effect of bombesin on phosphoinositide metabolism in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Novotná, R; Novotný, I

    1997-10-03

    The pineal gland is under complex peptidergic nervous control originating from hypothalamic nuclei. The daily rhythm of bombesin-like peptide in the hypothalamus suggests that this neuropeptide, similarly as other neuropeptides, might be involved in modulation of the physiological activity of the pineal gland. In our experiments we studied the mechanism of signal transduction of bombesin in the isolated pineal glands of rats. The phosphoinositide signalling system was examined by measuring 32P-labelling of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), which reflects phosphoinositide cycle activation. Bombesin induced a significant increase in 32P-labelling of PI, PIP and PIP2. The antagonist of this neuropeptide, (D-Phe12-Leu14)-bombesin, suppressed the increase in 32P-labelling of all phosphoinositides. Bombesin was without effect on cAMP dependent protein phosphorylation. The data indicate that bombesin activates the PI signalling system via specific receptors.

  9. Superconductive ADC Project Fabrication Package. Final Design Review Package (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-07

    Simulation Results Iin 1.45mV 2.5Ω 1pH 4pH 100fF 310uA 1fΩ Ic = 300uA Rn = 0.8Ω Cs = 0.32pF Ic = 300uA Rn = 0.8Ω Cs = 0.32pF Iin Vout Vout Ic = 500uA Rn...0.55Ω Cs = 0.32pF ONR Superconductive ADC CLIN/SLIN 0001AD September 2010, Brad Perranoski Pg. 17 Modulator Design Documentation Comparator Design...Comparator Design - Cadence Schematic & Simulation Comparator Testbench Simulation Results 1.45mV 2.5Ω 1pH 4pH 100fF 310uA 1fΩSine wave 100uApk Iin Ic

  10. Protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for regulation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.L.A.; Huber, S.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation has been identified as a mechanism for the light-dark regulation of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, previously shown to involve some type of covalent modification of the enzyme. The 120 kD subunit of SPS in extracts of light-treated leaves was labeled with {sup 32}P in the presence of ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP. In this in vitro system, {sup 32}P incorporation into light-activated SPS was dependent upon ATP and magnesium concentrations as well as time, and was closely paralleled by inactivation of the enzyme. The soluble protein kinase involved in the interconversion of SPS between activated and deactivated forms may be specific for SPS as it co-purifies with SPS during partial purification of the enzyme. The kinase appears not to be calcium activated and no evidence has been obtained for metabolite control of SPS phosphorylation/inactivation.

  11. Succinyl-CoA synthetase is a phosphate target for the activation of mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Darci; Aponte, Angel M; French, Stephanie A; Chess, David J; Balaban, Robert S

    2009-08-04

    Succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) is the only mitochondrial enzyme capable of ATP production via substrate level phosphorylation in the absence of oxygen, but it also plays a key role in the citric acid cycle, ketone metabolism, and heme synthesis. Inorganic phosphate (P(i)) is a signaling molecule capable of activating oxidative phosphorylation at several sites, including NADH generation and as a substrate for ATP formation. In this study, it was shown that P(i) binds the porcine heart SCS alpha-subunit (SCSalpha) in a noncovalent manner and enhances its enzymatic activity, thereby providing a new target for P(i) activation in mitochondria. Coupling 32P labeling of intact mitochondria with SDS gel electrophoresis revealed that 32P labeling of SCSalpha was enhanced in substrate-depleted mitochondria. Using mitochondrial extracts and purified bacterial SCS (BSCS), we showed that this enhanced 32P labeling resulted from a simple binding of 32P, not covalent protein phosphorylation. The ability of SCSalpha to retain its 32P throughout the SDS denaturing gel process was unique over the entire mitochondrial proteome. In vitro studies also revealed a P(i)-induced activation of SCS activity by more than 2-fold when mitochondrial extracts and purified BSCS were incubated with millimolar concentrations of P(i). Since the level of 32P binding to SCSalpha was increased in substrate-depleted mitochondria, where the matrix P(i) concentration is increased, we conclude that SCS activation by P(i) binding represents another mitochondrial target for the P(i)-induced activation of oxidative phosphorylation and anaerobic ATP production in energy-limited mitochondria.

  12. The Measurements of Affinity Constants of Osmptrophs For P and Release Rates of P From Microbial Food Web From Late Summer To Early Winter In The Bay of Villefranche, The NW Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Rassoulzadegan, F.; Thingstad, T. F.

    Orthophosphate uptake by bacteria and phytoplankton was measured with 32P for wa- ter from the Bay of Villefranche (NW Mediterranean) from September to December 2001. The 32P release rate was measured for waters with different size of micro- bial community. During this period, the thermocline was gradually declined and the vertical mixing started, showing the transition from nutrient depleted to replete pe- riods. Before the vertical mixing started, orthophosphate turnover time ranged from 1 to 5 h. The fraction of orthophosphate uptake was dominated (mean 70%) by the 0.6-2 µm fraction where cyanobacteria biomass was dominant. Based on the theo- retical considerations proposed by Thingstad and Rassoulzadegan (1999), the affinity constants were estimated for bacteria, cyanobacteria and autotrophic nanoflagellates, respectively. They ranged from 0.001 to 0.028 L/nM-P/h for bacteria, from 0.047 to 0.103 L/nM-P/h for cyanobacteria and from 0.002 to 0.032 L/nM-P/h for autotrophic nanoflagellates when 32P turnover time was relatively shorter (<5 h). This may sup- port the previous report in which cyanobacteria were dominant in the primary pro- duction in autumn at the study site. The 32P release rates after the addition of cold chase were always less than 0.5%/h. This release appeared to be from the 0.2-0.6 or 0.6-2 µm fractions. The increase of 32P in the >2 µm fraction suggests P transfer by predation. Virus appeared to not contribute to 32P release from bacteria during the study period. These results indicate long P turnover times within particulate fraction and thus less contribution of P release from microbial food web.

  13. Photoaffinity labeling of high affinity nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-binding proteins in sea urchin egg.

    PubMed

    Walseth, Timothy F; Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Jain, Pooja; Ruas, Margarida; Parrington, John; Galione, Antony; Marchant, Jonathan S; Slama, James T

    2012-01-20

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a messenger that regulates calcium release from intracellular acidic stores. Recent studies have identified two-pore channels (TPCs) as endolysosomal channels that are regulated by NAADP; however, the nature of the NAADP receptor binding site is unknown. To further study NAADP binding sites, we have synthesized and characterized [(32)P-5-azido]nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate ([(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP) as a photoaffinity probe. Photolysis of sea urchin egg homogenates preincubated with [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP resulted in specific labeling of 45-, 40-, and 30-kDa proteins, which was prevented by inclusion of nanomolar concentrations of unlabeled NAADP or 5N(3)-NAADP, but not by micromolar concentrations of structurally related nucleotides such as NAD, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinic acid, or nicotinamide. [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP binding was saturable and displayed high affinity (K(d) ∼10 nM) in both binding and photolabeling experiments. [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP photolabeling was irreversible in a high K(+) buffer, a hallmark feature of NAADP binding in the egg system. The proteins photolabeled by [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP have molecular masses smaller than the sea urchin TPCs, and antibodies to TPCs do not detect any immunoreactivity that comigrates with either the 45-kDa or the 40-kDa photolabeled proteins. Interestingly, antibodies to TPC1 and TPC3 were able to immunoprecipitate a small fraction of the 45- and 40-kDa photolabeled proteins, suggesting that these proteins associate with TPCs. These data suggest that high affinity NAADP binding sites are distinct from TPCs.

  14. GTP binding to the. beta. -subunit of tubulin is greatly reduced in Alzheimers disease

    SciTech Connect

    Khatoon, S.; Slevin, J.T.; Haley, B.E.

    1987-05-01

    A decrease occurs (80-100%) in the (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP photoinsertion into a cytosolic protein (55K M/sub r/) of Alzheimer's (AD) brain, tentatively identified as the ..beta..-subunit of tubulin (co-migration with purified tubulin, concentration dependence of interaction with GTP, ATP and their 8-azido photoprobes, and similar effects of Ca/sup 2 +/ and EDTA on photoinsertion). This agrees with prior observations of (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP interactions with brain tubulin and a recent report on faulty microtubular assembly in AD brain. The decrease in (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP photoinsertion into the 55K M/sub r/ protein of AD brain was in contrast with other photolabeled proteins, which remained at equal levels in AD and age-matched normal brain tissues. The 55K and 45K M/sub r/ were the two major (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP photoinsertion species in non-AD brain. Of 5 AD brains, the photoinsertion of (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP into the 55K M/sub r/ region was low or absent in 4 (55K/45K=0.1); one was 75% below normals (55K/45K=0.24). Total protein migrating at 55K M/sub r/ was similar in AD and controls. AD brain tubulin, while present, has its exchangeable GTP binding site on ..beta..-tubulin blocked/modified such that (/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/GTP cannot interact normally with this site.

  15. GTP-blot analysis of small GTP-binding proteins. The C-terminus is involved in renaturation of blotted proteins.

    PubMed

    Klinz, F J

    1994-10-01

    Recombinant c-Ha-ras, ralA and rap2, but not rap1A or rap1B proteins retained their ability to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after SDS/PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose. Recombinant c-Has-ras missing the C-terminal 23 amino acid residues failed to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after the blot, and the ability of recombinant ralA missing the C-terminal 28 amino acid residues to bind [alpha-32P]GTP was decreased many-fold. The presence of nonionic detergents of the polyoxyethylene type such as Tween 20, Triton X-100, Nonidet P40 or Lubrol PX in the incubation buffer was necessary to induce renaturation of blotted recombinant c-Ha-ras protein, whereas other types of detergents were ineffective. We propose that detergents of the polyoxyethylene type induce the refolding of some types of blotted small GTP-binding proteins and that the C-terminus is involved in the refolding process. Membranes from NIH3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing c-Ha-ras protein showed much weaker binding of [alpha-32P]GTP as expected from the level of ras immunoreactivity. Treatment of fibroblasts with lovastatin, an inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, caused the accumulation of the unfarnesylated form of c-Ha-ras in the cytosol. Examination of [alpha-32P]GTP-binding and immunoreactivity for cytosolic and membrane-bound c-Ha-ras revealed that binding of [alpha-32P]GTP to unprocessed c-Ha-ras was increased about threefold compared to the same amount of processed c-Ha-ras. Our results demonstrate that detection and quantification of small GTP-binding proteins in eukaryotic cells by GTP-blot analysis is hampered by the fact that these proteins differ strongly in their ability to renature after blotting to nitrocellulose.

  16. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  17. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  18. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  19. Correlación entre síntomas gastrointestinales funcionales y la histopatología de la mucosa gástrica, incluyendo la infección por Helicobacter pylori, en Lima, Perú.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katharine; Shopinski, Samuel; Wilkinson, Ariana; Meza, Claudia; Cok, Jaime; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Valdivieso, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between functional gastrointestinal disorders and histopathology characteristics, including H. pylori infection, of gastric mucosa, at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital, Lima-Peru, in 2013. 112 patients were interviewed prospectively between June and July 2013 in the gastroenterology service. Dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and postprandial distress syndrome were characterized using the Rome III Survey. Pathology results were determined by gastric biopsies obtained by endoscopy. Of the patients interviewed, biopsy results were obtained for 101. 22.8% had atrophy, 24.8% had intestinal metaplasia, 57.4% presented with H pylori. Using chi-square analysis, no statistically significant relationship could be identified between clinical presentation and biopsy results.

  20. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  1. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  2. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  3. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  4. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  5. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  6. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  7. [Criterios utilizados por médicos de atención primaria para el diagnóstico y derivación al reumatólogo del paciente con artritis reumatoide].

    PubMed

    Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel; Mondragón-Flores, Victor; de la Rosa, César Horcasitas

    2006-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an important cause of disability, affects 1% of the population. Early diagnosis and referral to a rheumatologist are positive prognostic factor but diagnosis in many cases is in the hands of primary care physicians (PCP). To determine the criteria used by PCP for diagnosis of RA and referral of these patients to a rheumatologist; to evaluate how many cases can be classified as RA according to the ACR. Retrospective study of 530 patients referred by PCP and seen as outpatients at a rheumatology clinic in 2002. Patients with referral diagnosis of RA were identified and symptoms, signs, functional capacity and ACR criteria for RA were evaluated by 2 rheumatologists. 302 patients had a referral diagnosis of RA, 33 male (10.9%) and 269 female (89.1%), median age 50.5 years, with a median time since diagnosis of 45.2 months. 57.9% had FC stage II. 100% of cases had "generalized" joint pain, 67.5% arthritis of 3 or more joints and 51.7% arthritis of hand joints. Arthritis was symmetrical in 58.9% and 77.2% of the patients had morning stiffness (> 30 min). 49.7% of the cases had positive rheumatoid factor, 19.2% had a negative RF and 31.1% had none reported. In 2% ESR was measured. X-ray erosions were reported in 6.6% of cases. When using the ACR criteria, 17.8% of patients had 1, 28.7% had 2 and 53.5% had 3 or more criteria. In only 59 cases (20%) did the rheumatologist agree with the referral diagnosis of RA. 80% of PCP referrals of RA to the rheumatologist were another disease. A poor clinical evaluation and little support from laboratory and x-rays was noticed. The delay in diagnosis and referral was 3 years, worsening prognosis. A vigorous effort in educating PCP is needed to achieve early diagnosis and referral of RA cases. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier España S.L. Barcelona. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  9. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  10. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance (Cómo animar a los estudiantes para que mejoren su desempeño en comprensión oral por sí mismos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Ocampo, Sonia Patricia; Vargas, Sonia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve…

  11. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  12. Test of partners in flight effective detection distance for Cerulean Warbler / Evaluación de distancia efectiva de detección para la Reinita Cerúlea (Dendroica cerulea) seleccionada por Compañeros En Vuelo

    Treesearch

    Paul Hamel; Melinda J. Welton; Carl G. Smith; Robert R. Ford

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of population sizes of North American avian species has been attempted in the North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Such estimated numbers have considerable conservation value as starting points to estimate extinction probability, as was done for Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) during the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service evaluation of the petition to...

  13. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  14. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  15. Experimental poisoning by Niedenzuella stannea in cattle and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate (Intoxicação experimental por Niedenzuella stannea em bovinos e correspondente detecção de monofluoroacetato)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Brazil monofluoroacetate containing plants are represented by 11 species that belong to three principle genera: Palicourea (Rubiaceae), Amorimia (Malpighiaceae), and Tanaecium (Bignoniaceae). These plants can cause acute cardiac failure often referred to as sudden death syndrome. The objective of...

  16. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  17. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  18. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  19. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  20. The comparison of algorithms for key points extraction in simplification of hybrid digital terrain models. (Polish Title: Porównanie algorytmów ekstrakcji punktów istotnych w upraszczaniu numerycznych modeli terenu o strukturze hybrydowej)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.

    2014-12-01

    The presented research concerns methods related to reduction of elevation data contained in digital terrain model (DTM) from airborne laser scanning (ALS) in hydraulic modelling. The reduction is necessary in the preparation of large datasets of geospatial data describing terrain re lief. Its course should not be associated with regular data filtering, which o ften occurs in practice. Such a method leads to a number of important forms important for hydraulic modeling being missed. One of the proposed solutions for the reduction of elevation data contained in DTM is to change the regular grid into the hybrid structure with regularly distributed points and irregularly located critical points. The purpose of this paper is to compare algorithms for extracting these key points from DTM. They are used in hybrid mod el generation as a part of elevation data reduction process that retains DTM accuracy and reduces the size of output files. In experiments, the following algorithms were tested: Topographic Position Index (TPI), Very Important Points (VIP) and Z - tolerance. Their effectiveness in reduction (maintaining the accuracy and reducing datasets) was evaluated in respect to input DTM from ALS. The best results were obtained for the Z - tolerance algorithm, but they do not diminish the capabilities of the other two algorithms: VIP and TPI which can generalize DTM quite well. The results confirm the possibility of obtaining a high degree of reduction reaching only a few percent of the input data with a relatively low decrease of vertical DTM accuracy to a few centimetres.