Science.gov

Sample records for 34-m test bed

  1. Analysis/test correlation using VAWT-SDS on a step-relaxation test for the rotating Sandia 34 m test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Argueello, J.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.; Veers, P.S.

    1993-11-01

    The combined analysis/test effort described in this paper compares predictions with measured data from a step-relaxation test in the absence of significant wind-driven aerodynamic loading. The process described here is intended to illustrate a method for validation of time domain codes for structural analysis of wind turbine structures. Preliminary analyses were performed to investigate the transient dynamic response that the rotating Sandia 34 m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) would undergo when one of the two blades was excited by step-relaxation. The calculations served two purposes. The first was for pretest planning to evaluate the relative importance of the various forces that would be acting on the structure during the test and to determine if the applied force in the step-relaxation would be sufficient to produce an excitation that was distinguishable from that produced by the aerodynamic loads. The second was to provide predictions that could subsequently be compared to the data from the test. The test was carried out specifically to help in the validation of the time-domain structural dynamics code, VAWT-SDS, which predicts the dynamic response of VAWTs subject to transient events. Post-test comparisons with the data were performed and showed a qualitative agreement between pretest predictions and measured response. However, they also showed that there was significantly more damping in the measurements than included in the predictions. Efforts to resolve this difference, including post-test analyses, were undertaken and are reported herein. The overall effort described in this paper represents a major step in the process of arriving at a validated structural dynamics code.

  2. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  3. Polishing and testing of the 3.4 m diameter f/1.5 primary mirror of the INO telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Tapio; Keinänen, Perttu; Pasanen, Mikko; Darudi, Ahmad; Maxwell, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Polishing and testing methods used in the manufacture of the 3.4 m primary mirror of the Iranian National Observatory (INO) telescope are described and the test results of the finished mirror are presented. Mirror lapping and polishing was performed using several rectangular non-rotating tools arranged in a linear array across the mirror radius. Each tool is equipped with two computer controlled force actuators for regulating the surface pressure and removal efficiency during the lapping and polishing operations. The same tool system was used from the lapping phase to the end of the final polishing. The principal optical test method was the interferometric Hartmann test with the aid of a two component null lens in the mirror center of curvature. Mirror measurements were made also with pentaprism test to verify its correct conic constant. The mirror was finished to extremely good surface accuracy and smoothness.

  4. Particle fuel bed tests

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H/sub 2/ for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss.

  5. Virtual Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    project is to develop a benchmark system for evaluating models for predicting the characteristics of ocean wind waves. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES A...to be assembled within the virtual test bed. Wind fields for running these tests will be obtained from Oceanweather, Inc. from a separate ONR

  6. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  7. SMART NAS Test Bed Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palopo, Kee

    2016-01-01

    These slides presents an overview of SMART NAS Test Bed. The test bed is envisioned to be connected to operational systems and to allow a new concept and technology to be evaluated in its realistic environment. Its role as an accelerator of concepts and technologies development, its use-case-driven development approach, and its state are presented.

  8. Avionics test bed development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.; Parks, J. M.; Murdock, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A development plan for a proposed avionics test bed facility for the early investigation and evaluation of new concepts for the control of large space structures, orbiter attached flex body experiments, and orbiter enhancements is presented. A distributed data processing facility that utilizes the current laboratory resources for the test bed development is outlined. Future studies required for implementation, the management system for project control, and the baseline system configuration are defined. A background analysis of the specific hardware system for the preliminary baseline avionics test bed system is included.

  9. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  10. Linear test bed. Volume 1: Test bed no. 1. [aerospike test bed with segmented combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Linear Test Bed program was to design, fabricate, and evaluation test an advanced aerospike test bed which employed the segmented combustor concept. The system is designated as a linear aerospike system and consists of a thrust chamber assembly, a power package, and a thrust frame. It was designed as an experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of the linear aerospike-segmented combustor concept. The overall dimensions are 120 inches long by 120 inches wide by 96 inches in height. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure, at a mixture ratio of 5.5. At the design conditions, the sea level thrust is 200,000 pounds. The complete program including concept selection, design, fabrication, component test, system test, supporting analysis and posttest hardware inspection is described.

  11. Avionics test bed development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.; Parks, J. M.; Murdock, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The plan is for a facility for the early investigation and evaluation of new concepts for the control of large space structures, orbiter attached flex body experiments, and orbiter enhancements. This plan outlines a distributed data processing facility that will utilize the current JSC laboratory resources for the test bed development. The future studies required for implementation, the management system for project control, and the baseline system configuration are described.

  12. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  13. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine technology component technology for the next space engine. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced missions focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The split-expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  14. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations

  15. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  16. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccardi, D. P.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust. Contract work began 27 Apr. 1990. During 1992, a major milestone was achieved with the review of the final design of the oxidizer turbopump in Sep. 1992.

  17. Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip; Coffey, Brian

    2008-04-01

    The Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is a modular software environment that is based on the Ptolemy II software environment. The BCVTB can be used for design and analysis of heterogenous systems, such as building energy and controls systems. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to Couple to Ptolemy II simulation software such as EnergyPlus, MATLAB/Simulink or Dymola for data exchange during run-time. Future versions of the BCVTS will also contain an interface to BACnet which is a communication protocol for building Control systems, and interfaces to digital/analog converters that allow communication with controls hardware. Through Ptolemy II, the BCVTB provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run- time.

  18. Kashima 34-m Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, Mamoru; Kawai, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The Kashima 34-m radio telescope has been continuously operated and maintained by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) as a facility of the Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) in Japan. This brief report summarizes the status of this telescope, the staff, and activities during 2012.

  19. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  20. Conceptual design of ECLSS microgravity test beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodney, Matt; Dall-Bauman, Liese

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual designs were prepared for Space Station Freedom ECLSS test beds for both the Air Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) and the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem (WRMS), which will allow extended testing of equipment under microgravity conditions. The separate designs for the ARS and the WRMS include storage tanks, plumbing, and limited instrumentation that would be expected to be common to all air or water treatment equipment of interest. The beds are designed to recycle process fluids to the greatest extent possible, thus minimizing the spacecraft/test bed interface requirements. Schematic diagrams of both the ARS and the WRMS test beds are included.

  1. The Virtual Test Bed Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis C.

    2002-01-01

    This is a report of my activities as a NASA Fellow during the summer of 2002 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The core of these activities is the assigned project: the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) from the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate. The VTB Project has its foundations in the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Intelligent Launch & Range Operations program. The objective of the VTB project is to develop a new and unique collaborative computing environment where simulation models can be hosted and integrated in a seamless fashion. This collaborative computing environment will be used to build a Virtual Range as well as a Virtual Spaceport. This project will work as a technology pipeline to research, develop, test and validate R&D efforts against real time operations without interfering with the actual operations or consuming the operational personnel s time. This report will also focus on the systems issues required to conceptualize and provide form to a systems architecture capable of handling the different demands.

  2. Test bed ion engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Deininger, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    A test bed ion (TBI) engine was developed to serve as a tool in exploring the limits of electrostatic ion thruster performance. A description of three key ion engine components, the decoupled extraction and amplified current (DE-AC) accelerator system, field enhanced refractory metal (FERM) hollow cathode and divergent line cusp (DLC) discharge chamber, whose designs and operating philosophies differ markedly from conventional thruster technology is given. Significant program achievements were: (1) high current density DE-AC accelerator system operation at low electric field stress with indicated feasibility of a 60 mA/sq cm argon ion beam; (2) reliable FERM cathode start up times of 1 to 2 secs. and demonstrated 35 ampere emission levels; (3) DLC discharge chamber plasma potentials negative of anode potential; and (4) identification of an efficient high plasma density engine operating mode. Using the performance projections of this program and reasonable estimates of other parameter values, a 1.0 Newton thrust ion engine is identified as a realizable technology goal. Calculations show that such an engine, comparable in beam area to a J series 30 cm thruster, could, operating on Xe or Hg, have thruster efficiencies as high as 0.76 and 0.78 respectively, with a 100 eV/ion discharge loss.

  3. NASA/MSFC nozzle test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crose, James G.; Mack, Thomas E.; Marx, Douglas A.; Goldberg, Benjamin; Shrader, John E.

    1989-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve the state-of-the-art in nozzle technology, a solid propulsion test bed facility is being designed and will be located at Marshall Space Flight Center. The test bed will consist of a plasma arc facility and several small scale rocket motor test facilities ranging in size from the ballistic environmental generator motor with a 1/2 in. diameter throat to the MNASA motor with a 9 and 1/2 in. diameter throat capability. The test bed system will be used primarily to study materials behavior from the standpoint of char, erosion, and thermal stress phenomena.

  4. CCD Multi-Function Processor Test Bed.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    AD-A111 335 MITRE CORP BEDFORDMA F/6 9/5 CCD MULTIFUNCTION PROCESSOR TEST BED.(U) JAN 82 M W PACZAN. S M WALOSTEIN F19628-81-C-OO01 UNCLASSIFIED MTR...HAIAf III 4 ESD-TR-81-394 MTR-8417 CCD MULTI-FUNCTION PROCESSOR TEST BED By M. W. Paczan and S. M. Waldstein JANUARY 1982 Prepared for DEPUTY FOR...TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED CCD MULTI-FUNCTION PROCESSOR TEST BED 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER MTR-8417 7 AUT-OR(s) S

  5. Post Combustion Test Bed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Cabe, James E.; King, Dale A.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-12-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assessment methodology and slip-stream testing platform enables the comprehensive early-stage evaluation of carbon capture solvents and sorbents utilizing a breadth of laboratory experimental capability as well as a testing platform at a nearby 600 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  6. FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Jones, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network performance evaluation; 2) traditional approaches; 3) software simulation; 4) hardware emulation; 5) test bed highlights; 6) design environment; 7) test bed architecture; 8) abstract sheared-memory switch; 9) detailed switch diagram; 10) traffic generator; 11) data collection circuit and user interface; 12) initial results; and 13) the following conclusions: Advances in FPGA make hardware emulation feasible for performance evaluation, hardware emulation can provide several orders of magnitude speed-up over software simulation; due to the complexity of hardware synthesis process, development in emulation is much more difficult than simulation and requires knowledge in both networks and digital design.

  7. Cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Wikner, David A.; Martone, Anthony; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    Providing situational awareness to the warfighter requires radar, communications, and other electronic systems that operate in increasingly cluttered and dynamic electromagnetic environments. There is a growing need for cognitive RF systems that are capable of monitoring, adapting to, and learning from their environments in order to maintain their effectiveness and functionality. Additionally, radar systems are needed that are capable of adapting to an increased number of targets of interest. Cognitive nonlinear radar may offer critical solutions to these growing problems. This work focuses on ongoing efforts at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to develop a cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed. ARL is working toward developing a test-bed that uses spectrum sensing to monitor the RF environment and dynamically change the transmit waveforms to achieve detection of nonlinear targets with high confidence. This work presents the architecture of the test-bed system along with a discussion of its current capabilities and limitations. A brief outlook is presented for the project along with a discussion of a future cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed.

  8. Hardware survey for the avionics test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of maor hardware items that could possibly be used in the development of an avionics test bed for space shuttle attached or autonomous large space structures was conducted in NASA Johnson Space Center building 16. The results of the survey are organized to show the hardware by laboratory usage. Computer systems in each laboratory are described in some detail.

  9. Pulse Detonation Engine Test Bed Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A detonation is a supersonic combustion wave. A Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) repetitively creates a series of detonation waves to take advantage of rapid burning and high peak pressures to efficiently produce thrust. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Branch has developed a PDE test bed that can reproduce the operating conditions that might be encountered in an actual engine. It allows the rapid and cost-efficient evaluation of the technical issues and technologies associated with these engines. The test bed is modular in design. It consists of various length sections of both 2- and 2.6- in. internal-diameter combustor tubes. These tubes can be bolted together to create a variety of combustor configurations. A series of bosses allow instrumentation to be inserted on the tubes. Dynamic pressure sensors and heat flux gauges have been used to characterize the performance of the test bed. The PDE test bed is designed to utilize an existing calorimeter (for heat load measurement) and windowed (for optical access) combustor sections. It uses hydrogen as the fuel, and oxygen and nitrogen are mixed to simulate air. An electronic controller is used to open the hydrogen and air valves (or a continuous flow of air is used) and to fire the spark at the appropriate times. Scheduled tests on the test bed include an evaluation of the pumping ability of the train of detonation waves for use in an ejector and an evaluation of the pollutants formed in a PDE combustor. Glenn's Combustion Branch uses the National Combustor Code (NCC) to perform numerical analyses of PDE's as well as to evaluate alternative detonative combustion devices. Pulse Detonation Engine testbed.

  10. Telerobotics test bed for space structure assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitami, M.; Ogimoto, K.; Yasumoto, F.; Katsuragawa, T.; Itoko, T.; Kurosaki, Y.; Hirai, S.; Machida, K.

    1994-01-01

    A cooperative research on super long distance space telerobotics is now in progress both in Japan and USA. In this program. several key features will be tested, which can be applicable to the control of space robots as well as to terrestrial robots. Local (control) and remote (work) sites will be shared between Electrotechnical Lab (ETL) of MITI in Japan and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in USA. The details of a test bed for this international program are discussed in this report.

  11. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  12. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  13. SSME technology test bed fast shutdown assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebman, A.; Vilja, J. O.

    1988-01-01

    The fastest practical shutdown sequence for the Technology Test Bed Engine is developed. A sequence is defined and key issues addressed. The conclusion of the study is that a fastest shutdown sequence within the existing SSME design capability is practical and can cut oxidizer consumption by 50 percent. However, the revised sequence would not have prevented any of the prior experienced SSME incidents and would introduce development risk to the program.

  14. Mechanism test bed. Flexible body model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Jimmy

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed is a six degree-of-freedom motion simulation facility used to evaluate docking and berthing hardware mechanisms. A generalized rigid body math model was developed which allowed the computation of vehicle relative motion in six DOF due to forces and moments from mechanism contact, attitude control systems, and gravity. No vehicle size limitations were imposed in the model. The equations of motion were based on Hill's equations for translational motion with respect to a nominal circular earth orbit and Newton-Euler equations for rotational motion. This rigid body model and supporting software were being refined.

  15. Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

  16. Deep Space Test Bed for Radiation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other Exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation and flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status.

  17. IPv6 Test Bed for Testing Aeronautical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Ryan; Zernic, Michael; Dhas, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Aviation industries in United States and in Europe are undergoing a major paradigm shift in the introduction of new network technologies. In the US, NASA is also actively investigating the feasibility of IPv6 based networks for the aviation needs of the United States. In Europe, the Eurocontrol lead, Internet Protocol for Aviation Exchange (iPAX) Working Group is actively investigating the various ways of migrating the aviation authorities backbone infrastructure from X.25 based networks to an IPv6 based network. For the last 15 years, the global aviation community has pursued the development and implementation of an industry-specific set of communications standards known as the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN). These standards are now beginning to affect the emerging military Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) community as well as the commercial air transport community. Efforts are continuing to gain a full understanding of the differences and similarities between ATN and Internet architectures as related to Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) infrastructure choices. This research paper describes the implementation of the IPv6 test bed at NASA GRC, and Computer Networks & Software, Inc. and these two test beds are interface to Eurocontrol over the IPv4 Internet. This research work looks into the possibility of providing QoS performance for Aviation application in an IPv6 network as is provided in an ATN based network. The test bed consists of three autonomous systems. The autonomous system represents CNS domain, NASA domain and a EUROCONTROL domain. The primary mode of connection between CNS IPv6 testbed and NASA and EUROCONTROL IPv6 testbed is initially a set of IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels. The aviation application under test (CPDLC) consists of two processes running on different IPv6 enabled machines.

  18. Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Communications, Navigation, and Network Reconfigurable Test-bed Flight Hardware Compatibility Test Sets and Networks Integration Management Office Testing for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

  19. A Test Bed for ASW Predictive Mechanisms - Concepts and Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    for a test bed are presented in terms of a computer program. Some of the underlying theoretical problems are addressed such as the role of Bayes ...8217 Theorem , completeness of mission specification, and estimating input probabilities.

  20. Hubble space telescope six-battery test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajak, J. A.; Bush, J. R., Jr.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A test bed for a large space power system breadboard for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed and built to test the system under simulated orbital conditions. A discussion of the data acquisition and control subsystems designed to provide for continuous 24 hr per day operation and a general overview of the test bed is presented. The data acquisition and control subsystems provided the necessary monitoring and protection to assure safe shutdown with protection of test articles in case of loss of power or equipment failure over the life of the test (up to 5 years).

  1. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG&G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided.

  2. Simulation test beds for the Space Station electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, Gerald G.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center and its prime contractor are respnsible for developing the electrical power system on the Space Station. The power system will be controlled by a network of distributed processors. Control software will be verified, validated, and tested in hardware and software test beds. Current plans for the software test bed involve using real time and nonreal time simulations of the power system. This paper will discuss the general simulation objectives and configurations, control architecture, interfaces between simulator and controls, types of tests, and facility configurations.

  3. Simulation test beds for the space station electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, Gerald G.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center and its prime contractor are responsible for developing the electrical power system on the space station. The power system will be controlled by a network of distributed processors. Control software will be verified, validated, and tested in hardware and software test beds. Current plans for the software test bed involve using real time and nonreal time simulations of the power system. This paper will discuss the general simulation objectives and configurations, control architecture, interfaces between simulator and controls, types of tests, and facility configurations.

  4. Experimental Test-Bed for Intelligent Passive Array Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solano, Wanda M.; Torres, Miguel; David, Sunil; Isom, Adam; Cotto, Jose; Sharaiha, Samer

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the test-bed designed for the investigation of passive direction finding, recognition, and classification of speech and sound sources using sensor arrays. The test-bed forms the experimental basis of the Intelligent Small-Scale Spatial Direction Finder (ISS-SDF) project, aimed at furthering digital signal processing and intelligent sensor capabilities of sensor array technology in applications such as rocket engine diagnostics, sensor health prognostics, and structural anomaly detection. This form of intelligent sensor technology has potential for significant impact on NASA exploration, earth science and propulsion test capabilities. The test-bed consists of microphone arrays, power and signal distribution modules, web-based data acquisition, wireless Ethernet, modeling, simulation and visualization software tools. The Acoustic Sensor Array Modeler I (ASAM I) is used for studying steering capabilities of acoustic arrays and testing DSP techniques. Spatial sound distribution visualization is modeled using the Acoustic Sphere Analysis and Visualization (ASAV-I) tool.

  5. Integrated microfluidic test-bed for energy conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Modestino, Miguel A; Diaz-Botia, Camilo A; Haussener, Sophia; Gomez-Sjoberg, Rafael; Ager, Joel W; Segalman, Rachel A

    2013-05-21

    Energy conversion devices require the parallel functionality of a variety of components for efficient operation. We present a versatile microfluidic test-bed for facile testing of integrated catalysis and mass transport components for energy conversion via water electrolysis. This system can be readily extended to solar-fuels generators and fuel-cell devices.

  6. Lightning Over the Technology Test Bed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Multiple lightning bolts struck the Technology Test Bed, formerly the S-IC Static Test Stand, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a thunderstorm. This spectacular image of lightning was photographed by MSFC photographer Dernis Olive on August 29, 1990.

  7. Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

  8. Thermal Protection Test Bed Pathfinder Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snapp, Cooper

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase thermal protection capabilities for future reentry vehicles, a method to obtain relevant test data is required. Although arc jet testing can be used to obtain some data on materials, the best method to obtain these data is to actually expose them to an atmospheric reentry. The overprediction of the Orion EFT-1 flight data is an example of how the ground test to flight traceability is not fully understood. The RED-Data small reentry capsule developed by Terminal Velocity Aerospace is critical to understanding this traceability. In order to begin to utilize this technology, ES3 needs to be ready to build and integrate heat shields onto the RED-Data vehicle. Using a heritage Shuttle tile material for the heat shield will both allow valuable insight into the environment that the RED-Data vehicle can provide and give ES3 the knowledge and capability to build and integrate future heat shields for this vehicle.

  9. Plan for CELSS test bed project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) testbed project will achieve two major goals: It will develop the knowledge and technology needed to build and test biological or combined biological physiochemical regenerative life support systems. It will fabricate, test, and operate ground based facilities to accomplish proof-of-concent testing and evaluation leading to flight experimentation. The project will combine basic research and applied research/engineering to achieve a phased, integrated development of hardware, systems, and techniques for food and oxygen production, food processing, and waste processing in closed systems. The project will design, fabricate, and operate within three years a botanical production system scaled to a sufficient size to verify oxygen and nutrient load production (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) at a useable level. It will develop within five years a waste management system compatible with the botanical production system and a food processing system that converts available biomass into edible products. It will design, construct, and operate within ten years a ground based candidate CELSS that includes man as an active participant in the system. It will design a flight CELSS module within twelve years and construct and conduct initial flight tests within fifteen years.

  10. FY-2015 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear fission produces fission and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2015 according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. Updates to the deep-bed test system have also been performed to enable the inclusion of evaporated HNO3 and increased NO2 concentrations in future tests. This report summarizes the result of those activities. Test results showed that iodine adsorption from gaseous methyl iodide using reduced silver zeolite (AgZ) resulted in initial iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) under 1,000 for the conditions of the long-duration test performed this year (45 ppm CH3I, 1,000 ppm each NO and NO2, very low H2O levels [3 ppm] in balance air). The mass transfer zone depth exceeded the cumulative 5-inch depth of 4 bed segments, which is deeper than the 2-4 inch depth estimated for the mass transfer zone for adsorbing I2 using AgZ in prior deep-bed tests. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity for the AgZ under the conditions of this test was 6.2% (6.2 g adsorbed I per 100 g sorbent). The maximum Ag utilization was 51%. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  11. Test plan for the 34 meter vertical axis wind turbine test bed located at Bushland, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, W.A.

    1986-12-01

    A plan is presented for the testing and evaluation of a new 500 kw vertical axis wind turbine test bed. The plan starts with the initial measurements made during construction, proceeds through evaluation of the design, the development of control methods, and finally to the test bed phase where new concepts are evaluated and in-depth studies are performed.

  12. A satellite observation test bed for cloud parameterization development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebsock, M. D.; Suselj, K.

    2015-12-01

    We present an observational test-bed of cloud and precipitation properties derived from CloudSat, CALIPSO, and the the A-Train. The focus of the test-bed is on marine boundary layer clouds including stratocumulus and cumulus and the transition between these cloud regimes. Test-bed properties include the cloud cover and three dimensional cloud fraction along with the cloud water path and precipitation water content, and associated radiative fluxes. We also include the subgrid scale distribution of cloud and precipitation, and radiaitive quantities, which must be diagnosed by a model parameterization. The test-bed further includes meterological variables from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). MERRA variables provide the initialization and forcing datasets to run a parameterization in Single Column Model (SCM) mode. We show comparisons of an Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-FLux (EDMF) parameterization coupled to micorphsycis and macrophysics packages run in SCM mode with observed clouds. Comparsions are performed regionally in areas of climatological subsidence as well stratified by dynamical and thermodynamical variables. Comparisons demonstrate the ability of the EDMF model to capture the observed transitions between subtropical stratocumulus and cumulus cloud regimes.

  13. Space station propulsion technology: Space station propulsion system test bed test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Testing of the hydrogen/oxygen Space Station Propulsion System will demonstrate the technology readiness for the IOC application. To facilitate early demonstration of this technology and to allow demonstration of maturing technology, this testing will be performed with the components installed on a test bed which simulated the Space Station Structure. The test plan contains a description of the test bed, test objective, instrumentation plan, and controls plan. Each of these is discussed in detail.

  14. Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed performance - Lettuce crop characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Eckhardt, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    System performance in terms of human life support requirements was evaluated for two crops of lettuce (Lactuca sative cv. Waldmann's Green) grown in the Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed. Each crop, grown in separate pots under identical environmental and cultural conditions, was irrigated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution, with the frequency of irrigation being increased as the crop aged over the 30-day crop tests. Averaging over both crop tests, the test bed met the requirements of 2.1 person-days of oxygen production, 2.4 person-days of CO2 removal, and 129 person-days of potential potable water production. Gains in the mass of water and O2 produced and CO2 removed could be achieved by optimizing environmental conditions to increase plant growth rate and by optimizing cultural management methods.

  15. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  16. Full motion video geopositioning algorithm integrated test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolloff, John; Hottel, Bryant; Doucette, Peter; Braun, Aaron; Theiss, Henry; Gurson, Adam

    2015-05-01

    In order to better understand the issues associated with Full Motion Video (FMV) geopositioning and to develop corresponding strategies and algorithms, an integrated test bed is required. It is used to evaluate the performance of various candidate algorithms associated with registration of the video frames and subsequent geopositioning using the registered frames. Major issues include reliable error propagation or predicted solution accuracy, optimal vs. suboptimal vs. divergent solutions, robust processing in the presence of poor or non-existent a priori estimates of sensor metadata, difficulty in the measurement of tie points between adjacent frames, poor imaging geometry including small field-of-view and little vertical relief, and no control (points). The test bed modules must be integrated with appropriate data flows between them. The test bed must also ingest/generate real and simulated data and support evaluation of corresponding performance based on module-internal metrics as well as comparisons to real or simulated "ground truth". Selection of the appropriate modules and algorithms must be both operator specifiable and specifiable as automatic. An FMV test bed has been developed and continues to be improved with the above characteristics. The paper describes its overall design as well as key underlying algorithms, including a recent update to "A matrix" generation, which allows for the computation of arbitrary inter-frame error cross-covariance matrices associated with Kalman filter (KF) registration in the presence of dynamic state vector definition, necessary for rigorous error propagation when the contents/definition of the KF state vector changes due to added/dropped tie points. Performance of a tested scenario is also presented.

  17. Space station experiment definition: Advanced power system test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, H. E.; Neff, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for an advanced photovoltaic power system test bed was provided and the requirements for advanced photovoltaic power system experiments better defined. Results of this study will be used in the design efforts conducted in phase B and phase C/D of the space station program so that the test bed capabilities will be responsive to user needs. Critical PV and energy storage technologies were identified and inputs were received from the idustry (government and commercial, U.S. and international) which identified experimental requirements. These inputs were used to develop a number of different conceptual designs. Pros and cons of each were discussed and a strawman candidate identified. A preliminary evolutionary plan, which included necessary precursor activities, was established and cost estimates presented which would allow for a successful implementation to the space station in the 1994 time frame.

  18. Enhanced INL Power Grid Test Bed Infrastructure – Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Carol Ann; West, Grayson Shawn; McBride, Scott Alan

    2014-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, owns, operates, and maintains transmission and distribution power grid infrastructure to support the INL multi program mission. Sections of this power infrastructure, known as the INL Power Grid Test Bed, have been and are being used by government and industry to develop, demonstrate, and validate technologies for the modern grid, including smart grid, on a full scale utility test bed. INL’s power grid includes 61 miles of 140 MW, 138 kV rated electrical power transmission supplying seven main substations, each feeding a separate facility complex (or ‘city’) within the INL’s 890 square mile Site. This power grid is fed by three commercial utilities into the INL’s main control substation, but is operated independently from the commercial utility through its primary substation and command and control center. Within the INL complex, one of the seven complexes, the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC), has been designated as the INL complex for supporting critical infrastructure research and testing. This complex includes its own substation and 13.8kV distribution network, all configurable and controlled by the INL research and development programs. Through investment partnership with the DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE OE), INL is enhancing its existing distribution infrastructure to expand the types of testing that can be conducted and increase flexibility for testing configurations. The enhancement of the INL Power Grid Test Bed will enable development and full scale testing of smart-grid-related technologies and smart devices including testing interoperability, operational performance, reliability, and resiliency contribution at multiple distribution voltage classes, specifically 15kV, 25kV, and 35kV. The expected time frame for completion of the Phase I portion of the enhancement would be 4th quarter fiscal year (FY) 2015.

  19. Cloud Computing Test Bed for NASA Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klene, S. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Fertetta, M.; Law, E.; Wilson, B. D.; Hua, H.; Huang, T.

    2014-12-01

    In order to develop a deeper understanding of utilizing cloud computing technologies for using earth observation data processing a test bed was created to ease access to the technology. Users had expressed concerns about accruing large compute bills by accident while they are learning to use the technology. The test bed is to support NASA efforts such as: Developing a Science Data Service platform to handle big earth data for supporting scalable time and space searches, on-the-fly climatologies, data extraction and data transformation such as data re-gridding. Multi-sensor climate data fusion where users can select, merge and cache variables from multiple sensors to compare data over multiple years. Facilitate rapid prototype efforts to provide an infrastructure so that new development efforts do not need to spend time and effort obtaining a platform. Once successful development is done the application could then scale to very large platform on larger or commercial clouds. Goals of the test bed are: To provide a greater understanding of cloud computing so informed choices can be made on future efforts to handle the over 15 Petabytes of NASA earth science data. Provide an environment where a set of science tools can be developed and reused by multiple earth science disciplines. Develop a Platform as a Service (PaaS) capability for general earth science use. This talk will present the lessons learned from building a community cloud for earth science data.

  20. Development of slab amplifiers for integration-test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanbin; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yong; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Kuixing; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-10-01

    Integration-Test-Bed(ITB) is China's first laser devices with single-beam ten-thousand joules output for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. In this paper we describe the development of single-segment slab amplifiers for Integration-Test-Bed (ITB) with 400mm× 400mm aperture. The experiment results shows that the average small signal gain coefficient in 400mm×400mm aperture reach 5.28%/cm with the gain uniformity is about 1.09:1(maximum value/ average value), and up to 1.063:1 (maximum value/ average value) in 360mm×360mm beam-diameter clear aperture. The storage efficiency of system is about 1.47%. The pump-induced wave-front distortion is 5.3λ for the laser beams, which within the correction range of deformable mirror; the thermal recovery time was less than 4 hours. All of this guaranteed the output of 19.6kJ/5ns with wavelength of 1053nm from the Integration-Test-Bed (ITB) device.

  1. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  2. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Eto, Joseph H.; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Klapp, Dave; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Stevens, John; Volkommer, Harry

    2008-07-25

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating small energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of small generating sources. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation; 2) an approach to electrical protection within the microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications. The techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protections system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust and under all conditions, including difficult motor starts. The results from these test are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field demonstrations involving microgrids that involve one or mroe of the CERTS Microgrid concepts.

  3. Cost effective development of a national test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, H. B.; Jones, V. L.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    For several years, the Marshall Space Flight Center has pursued the coordinated development of a Large Space Structures (LSS) National Test Bed for the investigation of numerous technical issues involved in the use of LSS in space. The origins of this development, the current status of the various test facilities and the plans laid down for the next five years' activities are described. Particular emphasis on the control and structural interaction issues has been paid so far; however, immediately emerging are user applications (such as the proposed pinhole occulter facility). In the immediate future, such emerging technologies as smart robots and multibody interactions will be studied. These areas are covered.

  4. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  5. Metrics for the National SCADA Test Bed Program

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Philip A.; Mortensen, J.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2008-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program is providing valuable inputs into the electric industry by performing topical research and development (R&D) to secure next generation and legacy control systems. In addition, the program conducts vulnerability and risk analysis, develops tools, and performs industry liaison, outreach and awareness activities. These activities will enhance the secure and reliable delivery of energy for the United States. This report will describe metrics that could be utilized to provide feedback to help enhance the effectiveness of the NSTB Program.

  6. A Test-Bed Configuration: Toward an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Castillo, M.; Uranga, E.; Ponz, J. D.; TBT Consortium

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program of ESA, it is foreseen to deploy several large robotic telescopes in remote locations to provide surveillance and tracking services for man-made as well as natural near-Earth objects (NEOs). The present project, termed Telescope Test Bed (TBT) is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme, and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor NEO services. In order to fulfill all the security requirements for the TBT project, the use of a autonomous emergency system (AES) is foreseen to monitor the control system. The AES will monitor remotely the health of the observing system and the internal and external environment. It will incorporate both autonomous and interactive actuators to force the protection of the system (i.e., emergency dome close out).

  7. A Subsystem Test Bed for Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, An; Yan, Yihua; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph is a solar dedicated radio interferometric array that will produce high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution, and high spectral resolution images of the Sun simultaneously in decimetre and centimetre wave range. Digital processing of intermediate frequency signal is an important part in a radio telescope. This paper describes a flexible and high-speed digital down conversion system for the CSRH by applying complex mixing, parallel filtering, and extracting algorithms to process IF signal at the time of being designed and incorporates canonic-signed digit coding and bit-plane method to improve program efficiency. The DDC system is intended to be a subsystem test bed for simulation and testing for CSRH. Software algorithms for simulation and hardware language algorithms based on FPGA are written which use less hardware resources and at the same time achieve high performances such as processing high-speed data flow (1 GHz) with 10 MHz spectral resolution. An experiment with the test bed is illustrated by using geostationary satellite data observed on March 20, 2014. Due to the easy alterability of the algorithms on FPGA, the data can be recomputed with different digital signal processing algorithms for selecting optimum algorithm.

  8. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-08-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that

  9. A modular electric power system test bed for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1994-01-01

    In the new climate of smaller, faster, and cheaper space science satellites, a new power system topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This new topology is based on a series connected boost converter (SCBC) and can greatly affect the size, weight, fault tolerance, and cost of any small spacecraft using photovoltaic solar arrays. The paper presents electric power system design factors and requirements as background information. The series connected boost converter topology is discussed and several advantages over existing technologies are illustrated. Besides being small, lightweight, and efficient, this topology has the added benefit of inherent fault tolerance. A positive ground power system test bed has been developed for the TROPIX spacecraft program. Performance of the SCBC in the test bed is described in detail. SCBC efficiencies of 95 percent to 98 percent have been measured. Finally, a modular, photovoltaic regulator 'kit' concept is presented. Two SCBC's are used to regulate solar array charging of batteries and to provide 'utilitytype' power to the user loads. The kit's modularity will allow a spacecraft electric power system to be built from off-the-shelf hardware; resulting in smaller, faster, and cheaper spacecraft.

  10. A modular electric power system test bed for small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Robert M.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1994-12-01

    In the new climate of smaller, faster, and cheaper space science satellites, a new power system topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This new topology is based on a series connected boost converter (SCBC) and can greatly affect the size, weight, fault tolerance, and cost of any small spacecraft using photovoltaic solar arrays. The paper presents electric power system design factors and requirements as background information. The series connected boost converter topology is discussed and several advantages over existing technologies are illustrated. Besides being small, lightweight, and efficient, this topology has the added benefit of inherent fault tolerance. A positive ground power system test bed has been developed for the TROPIX spacecraft program. Performance of the SCBC in the test bed is described in detail. SCBC efficiencies of 95 percent to 98 percent have been measured. Finally, a modular, photovoltaic regulator 'kit' concept is presented. Two SCBC's are used to regulate solar array charging of batteries and to provide 'utilitytype' power to the user loads. The kit's modularity will allow a spacecraft electric power system to be built from off-the-shelf hardware; resulting in smaller, faster, and cheaper spacecraft.

  11. Test bed experiments for various telerobotic system characteristics and configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffie, Neil A.; Wiker, Steven F.; Zik, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation and grasping in telerobotic systems depends on the integration of high-performance sensors, displays, actuators and controls into systems in which careful consideration has been given to human perception and tolerance. Research underway at the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) has the objective of enhancing the performance of these systems and their components, and quantifying the effects of the many electrical, mechanical, control, and human factors that affect their performance. This will lead to a fundamental understanding of performance issues which will in turn allow designers to evaluate sensor, actuator, display, and control technologies with respect to generic measures of dexterous performance. As part of this effort, an experimental test bed was developed which has telerobotic components with exceptionally high fidelity in master/slave operation. A Telerobotic Performance Analysis System has also been developed which allows performance to be determined for various system configurations and electro-mechanical characteristics. Both this performance analysis system and test bed experiments are described.

  12. Design of the Dual Conjugate Adaptive Optics Test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, Inna; Bell, K.; Crampton, D.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Herriot, Glen; Jolissaint, Laurent; Lee, B.; Richardson, H.; van der Kamp, D.; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    In this paper, we describe the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics laboratory test-bed presently under construction at the University of Victoria, Canada. The test-bench will be used to support research in the performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics, turbulence simulators, laser guide stars and miniaturizing adaptive optics. The main components of the test-bed include two micro-machined deformable mirrors, a tip-tilt mirror, four wavefront sensors, a source simulator, a dual-layer turbulence simulator, as well as computational and control hardware. The paper will describe in detail the opto-mechanical design of the adaptive optics module, the design of the hot-air turbulence generator and the configuration chosen for the source simulator. Below, we present a summary of these aspects of the bench. The optical and mechanical design of the test-bed has been largely driven by the particular choice of the deformable mirrors. These are continuous micro-machined mirrors manufactured by Boston Micromachines Corporation. They have a clear aperture of 3.3 mm and are deformed with 140 actuators arranged in a square grid. Although the mirrors have an open-loop bandwidth of 6.6 KHz, their shape can be updated at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In our optical design, the mirrors are conjugated at 0km and 10 km in the atmosphere. A planar optical layout was achieved by using four off-axis paraboloids and several folding mirrors. These optics will be mounted on two solid blocks which can be aligned with respect to each other. The wavefront path design accommodates 3 monochromatic guide stars that can be placed at either 90 km or at infinity. The design relies on the natural separation of the beam into 3 parts because of differences in locations of the guide stars in the field of view. In total four wavefront sensors will be procured from Adaptive Optics Associates (AOA) or built in-house: three for the guide stars and the fourth to collect data from the science source output in

  13. Periodic Slug Tests in a Sandstone Bedding Plane Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M. W.; Guiltinan, E.

    2009-12-01

    Periodic aquifer tests are conducted by varying the flow and/or head in a well at repeated intervals. The primary difference between periodic tests and traditional slug and pump tests is that the well is kept in a continuously transient state. Increased hydraulic transience leads to unique interpretations of aquifer storage as water is alternately withdrawn from and returned to the formation. We show results from period slug tests conducted in a sandstone bedding-plane fracture. A sinusoidal head variation is induced in a well by oscillating a slug with a programmed step motor. Head in four observation wells is monitored. All wells are 7 meters from the disturbed well and the fracture is isolated using inflatable packers. In spite of the fact that all wells are isolated in single fracture and are in close proximity, the observation wells exhibit a wide variation in both amplitude and phase response to head oscillations. Cross-hole pumping tests in the same well set show similar response in 3 of 4 monitoring wells, indicating that the periodic tests may be more sensitive to local changes in hydraulic conductivity and/or storativity. Independent hydraulic, tracer, and GPR experiments in this formation suggest that the periodic tests may be responding to flow channels that develop in response to hydraulic disturbance in the formation.

  14. Stability Testing and Analysis of a PMAD DC Test Bed for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Brush, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    The Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC Test Bed at the NASA Lewis Research Center is introduced. Its usefulness to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power (EPS) development and design are discussed in context of verifying system stability. Stability criteria developed by Middlebrook and Cuk are discussed as they apply to constant power DC to DC converters exhibiting negative input impedance at low frequencies. The utility-type Secondary Subsystem is presented and each component is described. The instrumentation used to measure input and output impedance under load is defined. Test results obtained from input and output impedance measurements of test bed components are presented. It is shown that the PMAD DC Test Bed Secondary Subsystem meets the Middlebrook stability criterion for certain loading conditions.

  15. Stability testing and analysis of a PMAD dc test bed for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Brush, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    The Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) dc Test Bed at the NASA Lewis Research Center is introduced. Its usefulness to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power (EPS) development and design are discussed in context of verifying system stability. Stability criteria developed by Middlebrook and Cuk are discussed as they apply to constant power dc to dc converters exhibiting negative input impedance at low frequencies. The utility-type Secondary Subsystem is presented and each component is described. The instrumentation used to measure input and output impedance under load is defined. Test results obtained from input and output impedance measurements of test bed components are presented. It is shown that the PMAD dc Test Bed Secondary Subsystem meets the Middlebrook stability criterion for certain loading conditions.

  16. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  17. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    BETSILL,J. DAVID; ELKINS,NED Z.; WU,CHUAN-FU; MEWHINNEY,JAMES D.; AAMODT,PAUL

    2000-01-27

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ``The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  18. Summary of Technical Meeting To Compare US/French Approaches for Physical Protection Test Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Thomas Kimball; Martinez, Ruben; Thomas, Gerald; Palut, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, representatives of the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration, including test bed professionals from Sandia National Laboratories, and representatives of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission participated in a one-week workshop to share best practices in design, organization, operations, utilization, improvement, and performance testing of physical protection test beds. The intended workshop outcomes were to (1) share methods of improving respective test bed methodologies and programs and (2) prepare recommendations for standards regarding creating and operating testing facilities for nations new to nuclear operations. At the workshop, the French and American subject matter experts compared best practices as developed at their respective test bed sites; discussed access delay test bed considerations; and presented the limitations/ constraints of physical protection test beds.

  19. Reconfigurable Data Communications Packet-Switch Emulation Test Bed Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Jones, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    The Communications Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center has an ongoing program to develop advanced switching and routing technology concepts for future satellite onboard processing systems. Through a university grant as a part of this research, the Cleveland State University is using a flexible reconfigurable data communications packet switch emulation test bed to investigate packet switching techniques. Because of the switching speed and protocol complexity, implementing a data communications network is a tremendous task. Various alternatives should be carefully studied and evaluated in the development stage so that the optimal system configuration can be obtained and implemented later. Therefore, it is desirable to predict the performance of the network before it is actually constructed. This is especially true in the case of satellite systems. In the past, theoretical analysis, software simulation, and prototyping were used to evaluate performance. However, each method has its drawback. There are basic tradeoffs among accuracy, cost, and required evaluation time. No method is completely satisfactory.

  20. Results from the NREL Variable-Speed Test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Fingersh, L.J.; Carlin, P.W.

    1997-11-01

    The NREL Variable-Speed Test bed turbine has been used to examine the performance and controllability of a variable-speed, variable-pitch turbine. Control strategies that eliminate drive-train torque fluctuations in high winds have been published before and example data are given here. The energy capture of a variable-speed wind turbine depends in part on its ability to successfully operate at the peak of the C{sub p}-{lambda} curve. The losses associated with the inability of the rotor to stay exactly on top of the curve at all have been found and quantified. New control strategies for improving energy capture in moderate winds are also proposed. The potential exists to improve overall energy capture by 5% or more.

  1. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed.

    PubMed

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  2. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Howard; Lusby, Brian; Villemarette, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA?s Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, a liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) Integrated Propulsion System Test Bed (IPSTB) was designed and advanced to the Critical Design Review (CDR) stage at the Johnson Space Center. The IPSTB?s primary objectives are to study LO2/LCH4 propulsion system steady state and transient performance, operational characteristics and to validate fluid and thermal models of a LO2/LCH4 propulsion system for use in future flight design work. Two phase thermal and dynamic fluid flow models of the IPSTB were built to predict the system performance characteristics under a variety of operating modes and to aid in the overall system design work. While at ambient temperature and simulated altitude conditions at the White Sands Test Facility, the IPSTB and its approximately 600 channels of system instrumentation would be operated to perform a variety of integrated main engine and reaction control engine hot fire tests. The pressure, temperature, and flow rate data collected during this testing would then be used to validate the analytical models of the IPSTB?s thermal and dynamic fluid flow performance. An overview of the IPSTB design and analytical model development will be presented.

  3. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  4. Intelligent transient transitions detection of LRE test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fengyu; Shen, Zhengguang; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Health Monitoring Systems is an implementation of monitoring strategies for complex systems whereby avoiding catastrophic failure, extending life and leading to improved asset management. A Health Monitoring Systems generally encompasses intelligence at many levels and sub-systems including sensors, actuators, devices, etc. In this paper, a smart sensor is studied, which is use to detect transient transitions of liquid-propellant rocket engines test bed. In consideration of dramatic changes of variable condition, wavelet decomposition is used to work real time in areas. Contrast to traditional Fourier transform method, the major advantage of adding wavelet analysis is the ability to detect transient transitions as well as obtaining the frequency content using a much smaller data set. Historically, transient transitions were only detected by offline analysis of the data. The methods proposed in this paper provide an opportunity to detect transient transitions automatically as well as many additional data anomalies, and provide improved data-correction and sensor health diagnostic abilities. The developed algorithms have been tested on actual rocket test data.

  5. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Two Aerogel sorption tests that have been performed this fiscal year. The maximum iodine decontamination factor (DF) was measured to be over 10,000, above the 1,000-10,000 target DF range. The mass transfer zone may be as short as 0.5 inches under the sorption conditions of the first test. Only a small fraction of the iodine sorbed on Bed 1 was desorbed during the purge periods. The silver-functionalized Aerogel appears to have potential to be a very effective and efficient iodine sorbent.

  6. Test bed control center design concept for Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the design concept for the control center for the Single Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System test bed and the design process behind the concept. The design concept supports all phases of the test bed mission, including technology demonstration, comprehensive system testing, and comparative evaluation for further development and refinement of the TWRMS for field operations.

  7. Virtual Employment Test Bed Operational Research and Systems Analysis to Test Armaments Designs Early in the Life Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Employment Test Bed Configuration 10 Click to edit Master title style Unclassified • Unreal gaming engine is used to create the simulated environment • Vicon...1 Click to edit Master title style U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center Virtual Employment Test Bed Operational Research...as a way of achieving early insight to the capabilities or improvements of a new design. The Virtual Employment Test bed (VETB) allows engineers to

  8. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  9. Model validation of the Sandia 34-Meter Test Bed Turbine using substructure modal-testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Ashwill, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Sandia 34-Meter Test Bed Turbine is a vertical-axis wind turbine, thirty-four meters in diameter, designed to provide a test-bed for research in aerodynamics, structures and control. In order to design a large wind turbine, knowledge of the modal frequencies and mode shapes is essential for predicting structural response. During the design, analytical or finite element models are utilized for estimates of these modal parameters. However, when hardware becomes available, modal testing can be used to verify or update the models. The concept of substructure modal testing was developed for the Sandia 34-Meter Test Bed in order to more fully evaluate the accuracy of the finite element model. Instead of performing only one test on the entire turbine, separate tests and analyses were performed on major substructures of the turbine, including three separate blade sections, the tower supported by the guy cables, and the entire turbine. The results were then compared to analytical predictions from the finite element models of the substructures and the entire turbine. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope primary mirror integration: testing the multiwavelength interferometer on the test bed telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olczak, Gene; Fischer, David J.; Connelly, Mark; Wells, Conrad

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) integration includes a center of curvature test on its 18 primary mirror segment assemblies (PMSAs). This important test is the only ground test that will demonstrate the ability to align all 18 PMSAs. Using a multi-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) integrated to the test bed telescope (TBT), a one-sixth scale model of the JWST, we verify our ability to align and phase the 18 PMSAs. In this paper we will discuss data analysis and test results when using the MWIF to align the segments of the TBT in preparation for alignment of the JWST.

  11. Sustain: An experimental test bed for building energy simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Donald; Pratt, Kevin; Hencey, Brandon; Jones, Nathaniel; Schumann, Lars; Dobbs, Justin; Dong, Zhao; Bosworth, David; Walter, Bruce

    2013-03-01

    Current building energy simulation technology requires extensive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, substantial computational time for accurate simulations, and generates data in formats that make results difficult to interpret. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. This paper describes a novel test bed environment which offers an interactive graphical interface, provides access to simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphic visualization methods for the interpretation of simulation results. Its modular structure makes it suitable for use in early stage building design, for use as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and for use as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are illustrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules.

  12. Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Tri, Terry O.; Barta, Daniel J.; Stahl, Randal S.

    1991-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for the evaluation of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m(exp 2) growing area. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), will be capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in Lunar or Martian habitats; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) will operate at ambient atmospheric pressure. The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: (1) in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; (2) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; (3) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and (4) monitoring and control strategies.

  13. 77 FR 18793 - Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test-Bed Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test-Bed Pilot... conduct in Phase II/III of the Spectrum Sharing Innovation Test-Bed pilot program to assess whether... Communications Commission (FCC) and other federal agencies, established a Spectrum Sharing Innovation...

  14. Development of a flexible test-bed for robotics, telemanipulation and servicing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Barry F.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a flexible operation test-bed, based around a commercially available ASEA industrial robot is described. The test-bed was designed to investigate fundamental human factors issues concerned with the unique problems of robotic manipulation in the hostile environment of Space.

  15. Fluidized-bed testing of Z-SORB III sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R. P.; Gangwal, S. K.; Khare, G. P.

    1994-08-01

    Phillips Petroleum Company (PPCo) successfully developed a fluidizable version of their proprietary Z-SORB sorbent. Z-SORB sorbent is a ZnO-based regenerable sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS). RTI conducted a life-cycle test on this sorbent in the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) semi-batch fluidized-bed reactor. This test consisted of 50 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration to demonstrate the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of the Z-SORB sorbent. A simulated air-blown gasifier coal gas was used at 20 atm and 538 {degree}C (1,000{degree}F). The Z-SORB sorbent exhibited excellent sulfur removal capability; the prebreakthrough H{sub 2}S levels were below the detection limit of the analyzer (<10 ppmv). The sulfur capacity of the sorbent at breakthrough (500 ppM H{sub 2}S in reactor exit gas) was 20.2 g S/100 g sorbent in Cycle 1 and was 10 g S/100 g sorbent in Cycle 50. The sorbent loss from the reactor due to fines generation was small. While no significant change in particle size was observed, the bulk density increased by 8 percent over 51 cycles. The attrition resistance of the sorbent after the 51 cycles was slightly lower than the fresh material. The thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) tests on fresh and reacted sorbents confirmed the sulfur capacity decline in the bench tests; however, the TGA data indicated no change in the H{sub 2}S absorption rate between the fresh and reacted sorbents. The regeneration of the sulfided sorbent was successfully carried out using 2 to 2.5 percent 0{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at a temperature of 649 to 704{degree}C (1,200 to 1,300{degree}F) with no evidence of sulfate formation. Overall, the sorbent exhibited good performance.

  16. Test research of bed ash coolers for a 50 MWe CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Lin, Z.J.; Liu, D.C.; Hu, L.L.; Xie, P.J.; Yan, H.X.; Liu, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    CFB boilers have been developed and commercialized in China. As one of the main auxiliaries of FBC boilers, the bed ash cooler plays an important role in regular operation of the boilers. A 50 MWe 2-shaped CFB boiler will be put into operation in North China. Many kinds of bed ash cooling systems for this boiler had been designed and compared. Then the optimum bed ash coolers were determined and made. Experimental research and pilot-scale test for the bed ash coolers were also carried out. The result indicates that the bed ash cooler can be operated reliably and can meet the demand for cooling bed ash of the 50 MWe CFB boiler. The test data are very useful for further improving the performance of ash coolers.

  17. Flow-Field Survey in the Test Region of the SR-71 Aircraft Test Bed Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Jones, Daniel; Weinstock, Vladimir D.

    2000-01-01

    A flat plate and faired pod have been mounted on a NASA SR-71A aircraft for use as a supersonic flight experiment test bed. A test article can be placed on the flat plate; the pod can contain supporting systems. A series of test flights has been conducted to validate this test bed configuration. Flight speeds to a maximum of Mach 3.0 have been attained. Steady-state sideslip maneuvers to a maximum of 2 deg have been conducted, and the flow field in the test region has been surveyed. Two total-pressure rakes, each with two flow-angle probes, have been placed in the expected vicinity of an experiment. Static-pressure measurements have been made on the flat plate. At subsonic and low supersonic speeds with no sideslip, the flow in the surveyed region is quite uniform. During sideslip maneuvers, localized flow distortions impinge on the test region. Aircraft sideslip does not produce a uniform sidewash over the test region. At speeds faster than Mach 1.5, variable-pressure distortions were observed in the test region. Boundary-layer thickness on the flat plate at the rake was less than 2.1 in. For future experiments, a more focused and detailed flow-field survey than this one would be desirable.

  18. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  19. UltraSciencenet: High- Performance Network Research Test-Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S; Wing, William R; Poole, Stephen W; Hicks, Susan Elaine; DeNap, Frank A; Carter, Steven M; Wu, Qishi

    2009-04-01

    The high-performance networking requirements for next generation large-scale applications belong to two broad classes: (a) high bandwidths, typically multiples of 10Gbps, to support bulk data transfers, and (b) stable bandwidths, typically at much lower bandwidths, to support computational steering, remote visualization, and remote control of instrumentation. Current Internet technologies, however, are severely limited in meeting these demands because such bulk bandwidths are available only in the backbone, and stable control channels are hard to realize over shared connections. The UltraScience Net (USN) facilitates the development of such technologies by providing dynamic, cross-country dedicated 10Gbps channels for large data transfers, and 150 Mbps channels for interactive and control operations. Contributions of the USN project are two-fold: (a) Infrastructure Technologies for Network Experimental Facility: USN developed and/or demonstrated a number of infrastructure technologies needed for a national-scale network experimental facility. Compared to Internet, USN's data-plane is different in that it can be partitioned into isolated layer-1 or layer-2 connections, and its control-plane is different in the ability of users and applications to setup and tear down channels as needed. Its design required several new components including a Virtual Private Network infrastructure, a bandwidth and channel scheduler, and a dynamic signaling daemon. The control-plane employs a centralized scheduler to compute the channel allocations and a signaling daemon to generate configuration signals to switches. In a nutshell, USN demonstrated the ability to build and operate a stable national-scale switched network. (b) Structured Network Research Experiments: A number of network research experiments have been conducted on USN that cannot be easily supported over existing network facilities, including test-beds and production networks. It settled an open matter by demonstrating

  20. Hawaii PTTI test bed. [characteristics and operation on time measurement facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and installation of a test bed for a Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI). A prime goal in the effort is to develop a repertoire of techniques and equipment that will permit communications facilities to be served most effectively by their ties to a common time reference. The test bed provides guidance for the implementation of precise time and frequency discipline at other facilities. One product of the test-bed problem is an assessment of the accuracy of the time-discipline chain from the observatory to each level of use.

  1. Application of native prick test in diagnosis of bed bug allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Sokołowski, Lukasz; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was case report of the patient with systemic reaction after a bed bug (Cimex lectularius) bite. A 23-year-old female, previously healthy, reports systemic reaction, including rash on her corpus and limbs, itching, nausea, conciseness disorder, forcing her to call the ambulance. The interview revealed that the bed bug occurs in the patient's apartment. A prick-by-prick test with bed bug excretion was made. The skin test with native allergen was strongly positive (histamine 5 mm/5 mm, prick-by-prick 12 mm/8 mm). The prick-by-prick test was useful in objective confirmation of the source of symptoms.

  2. Towards an autonomous telescope system: the Test-Bed Telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; Ocaña, F.; Ponz, D.; the TBT Consortium

    2015-05-01

    In the context of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of ESA, it is foreseen to deploy several large robotic telescopes in remote locations to provide surveillance and tracking services for man-made as well as natural near-Earth objects (NEOs). The present project, termed Telescope Test Bed (TBT) is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme, and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor NEO services. It is foreseen that this test-bed environment will be used to validate future prototype software systems as well as to evaluate remote monitoring and control techniques. The test-bed system will be capable to deliver astrometric and photometric data of the observed objects in near real-time. This contribution describes the current status of the project.

  3. Effects of head-down bed rest on complex heart rate variability: Response to LBNP testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Mietus, Joseph E.; Rigney, David R.; Wood, Margie L.; Fortney, Suzanne M.

    1994-01-01

    Head-down bed rest is used to model physiological changes during spaceflight. We postulated that bed rest would decrease the degree of complex physiological heart rate variability. We analyzed continuous heart rate data from digitized Holter recordings in eight healthy female volunteers (age 28-34 yr) who underwent a 13-day 6 deg head-down bed rest study with serial lower body negative pressure (LBNP) trials. Heart rate variability was measured on a 4-min data sets using conventional time and frequency domain measures as well as with a new measure of signal 'complexity' (approximate entropy). Data were obtained pre-bed rest (control), during bed rest (day 4 and day 9 or 11), and 2 days post-bed rest (recovery). Tolerance to LBNP was significantly reduced on both bed rest days vs. pre-bed rest. Heart rate variability was assessed at peak LBNP. Heart rate approximate entropy was significantly decreased at day 4 and day 9 or 11, returning toward normal during recovery. Heart rate standard deviation and the ratio of high- to low-power frequency did not change significantly. We conclude that short-term bed rest is associated with a decrease in the complex variability of heart rate during LBNP testing in healthy young adult women. Measurement of heart rate complexity, using a method derived from nonlinear dynamics ('chaos theory'), may provide a sensitive marker of this loss of physiological variability, complementing conventional time and frequency domain statistical measures.

  4. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) as an irradiation test bed for fusion materials and components

    SciTech Connect

    Greenslade, D.L.; Puigh, R.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Grover, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The relatively large irradiation volume, instrumentation capabilities, and fast neutron flux associated with the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) make this reactor an ideal test bed for fusion materials and components irradiations. Significant fusion materials irradiations are presently being performed in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) in FFTF. The MOTA is providing a controlled temperature and high neutron flux environment for such materials as the low activation alloys, copper alloys, ceramic insulators, and high heat flux materials. Conceptual designs utilizing the versatile MOTA irradiation vehicle have been developed to investigate irradiation effects on the mechanical and tritium breeding behaviors of solid breeder materials. More aggressive conceptual designs have also been developed to irradiate solid breeder blanket submodules in the FFTF. These specific component test designs will be presented and their potential roles in the development of fusion technology discussed.

  5. Response of a 2-story test-bed structure for the seismic evaluation of nonstructural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroushian, Siavash; Maragakis, E. "Manos"; Zaghi, Arash E.; Rahmanishamsi, Esmaeel; Itani, Ahmad M.; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2016-03-01

    A full-scale, two-story, two-by-one bay, steel braced-frame was subjected to a number of unidirectional ground motions using three shake tables at the UNR-NEES site. The test-bed frame was designed to study the seismic performance of nonstructural systems including steel-framed gypsum partition walls, suspended ceilings and fire sprinkler systems. The frame can be configured to perform as an elastic or inelastic system to generate large floor accelerations or large inter story drift, respectively. In this study, the dynamic performance of the linear and nonlinear test-beds was comprehensively studied. The seismic performance of nonstructural systems installed in the linear and nonlinear test-beds were assessed during extreme excitations. In addition, the dynamic interactions of the test-bed and installed nonstructural systems are investigated.

  6. Test study of salty paper mill waste in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Sellakumar, K.M.; Chelian, P.K.; Bleice, C.; Shaw, I.

    1999-07-01

    Foster Wheeler Pyropower Inc. has supplied a 73.7 kg/s bubbling fluidized bed boiler to MacMillan Bloedel's Powell River paper mill (now Pacifica Paper). The BFB boiler was designed to fire a fuel mixture of a mill effluent sludge and a hog fuel (bark) that is contaminated with seawater. Due to its very high alkali content and low ash content, the fuel is prone to cause problems such as agglomeration in the fluidized bed. Foster Wheeler and MacMillan Bloedel took a proactive approach to quantify likely problems and to identify solutions. A 200 hour-long test program was carried out at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in Livingston, New Jersey with the Powell River feedstock. This paper provides the project background, an outline of the test facility, test matrix, fuel and bed material characteristics, followed by a test process overview. A summary of fuel alkali related agglomeration mechanism in fluidized bed is also included. The paper offers further observations on in-bed alkali accumulation as well as examinations of different types of bed material agglomerates found during the tests. A recommended boiler operating strategy for preventing agglomeration in the BFB boiler developed based on the test results is described. These recommendations have been successfully implemented during the start up of the boiler. The boiler has been in operation since November 1997. Boiler performance tests completed in April 1998 have demonstrated all guaranteed process conditions.

  7. Environmental hardening of equipment operating in an automated test bed enclosure. Special Isotope Separation Program (SIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, M.L.

    1990-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Plutonium Systems Engineering plans to demonstrate a materials handling system in an automated test bed located in the cold test facility, in FY91. The equipment operating in the automated glove box test bed consists of a modified, bridge mounted robot that is electrically driven, robot tooling, a tilt-pour furnace, mechanisms for loading and unloading the furnace, mechanisms for loading and unloading the crucible, and mechanisms for button breakout and can opening. Each of the pieces of equipment mentioned have components such as motors (with or without brushes), bearings, resolvers, encoders, sliding surfaces, cabling, and electrical connectors that must function in the harsh environment of the test bed enclosure, and each of the components described must be hardened to the enclosure environment. The automated test bed is to provide a representation of a weapons-grade plutonium enclosure. Although the decision to operate the enclosure in a nitrogen or argon atmosphere has not been made, this report considers the dry argon atmosphere as the more difficult case. Other environmental requirements on the equipment operating in the test bed enclosure are: Low moisture and low oxygen atmosphere, and some abrasive dust resulting from the process. A surrogate material will provide flow and dusting characteristics of weapons-grade plutonium oxide. Weapons-grade plutonium will not be introduced into the test bed enclosure. However, for future reference, radiation effects on materials are addressed.

  8. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  9. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Jared A.; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability. PMID:27556464

  10. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jared A; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram

    2016-08-20

    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability.

  11. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  12. Preparation of a Frozen Regolith Simulant Bed for ISRU Component Testing in a Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenhenz, Julie; Linne, Diane

    2013-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems and components have undergone extensive laboratory and field tests to expose hardware to relevant soil environments. The next step is to combine these soil environments with relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Previous testing has demonstrated how to incorporate large bins of unconsolidated lunar regolith into sufficiently sized vacuum chambers. In order to create appropriate depth dependent soil characteristics that are needed to test drilling operations for the lunar surface, the regolith simulant bed must by properly compacted and frozen. While small cryogenic simulant beds have been created for laboratory tests, this scale effort will allow testing of a full 1m drill which has been developed for a potential lunar prospector mission. Compacted bulk densities were measured at various moisture contents for GRC-3 and Chenobi regolith simulants. Vibrational compaction methods were compared with the previously used hammer compaction, or "Proctor", method. All testing was done per ASTM standard methods. A full 6.13 m3 simulant bed with 6 percent moisture by weight was prepared, compacted in layers, and frozen in a commercial freezer. Temperature and desiccation data was collected to determine logistics for preparation and transport of the simulant bed for thermal vacuum testing. Once in the vacuum facility, the simulant bed will be cryogenically frozen with liquid nitrogen. These cryogenic vacuum tests are underway, but results will not be included in this manuscript.

  13. Test-bed development and testing of the electrostatic positioning system for the satellite test of the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambekar, Paritosh P.

    The Satellite Test of Equivalence Principle (STEP) is a NASA experiment to test the Equivalence Principle (EP) in space to at least 5 orders of magnitude beyond the current state of art. To achieve precision of 1 part in 10 18, many engineering subsystems have been developed to reduce disturbance and forces other than gravity. Testing is essential in order to generate confidence that the engineering systems will perform as expected in space. For this purpose, an Accelerometer Test Facility (ATF) has been built. The ATF simulates the environment that the test mass will 'see' in space. To facilitate testing, a six degrees of freedom (DOF) test-bed, in the form of a cryogenic-probe, has been designed, implemented and tested. The 6 DOF test-bed is innovatively broken down in a 4 DOF stage at room temperature and 2 DOF cryogenic tilt table. The test-bed is used to test one of the STEP systems, called the Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS). This subsystem employs capacitive electrodes and facilitated measurement of five of the DOFs of the STEP test mass. Before testing in the facility, an end to end simulation is performed. This simulation imitated the STEP accelerometer electrostatically and produced capacitance matrices as output. The simulation generated expectations for the test results and also allowed further analysis of the 'ideal' STEP accelerometer such as forces and nonlinearities which are difficult to measure directly. These results will be useful for the next generation STEP prototype. The simulations are followed by testing of the EPS subsystem in the ATF facility and the results show acceptable matching of experimental and simulated values. Some improvements in the STEP design, the prototype and the test facility are suggested for future implementation. Roll of the test mass around the science data direction is important as it may produce systematic errors and degrade the science experiment. An analysis, for measuring and controlling this roll rate

  14. The SR-71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Moes, Timothy R.; Mizukami, Masashi; Hass, Neal E.; Jones, Daniel; Monaghan, Richard C.; Ray, Ronald J.; Jarvis, Michele L.; Palumbo, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments to supersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described. This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane" flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection plane, as heavy as 14,500 lb can be mounted on the aircraft and flight-tested to speeds as fast as Mach 3.2 and altitudes as high as 80,000 ft. A brief description of the SR-71 aircraft is given, including details of the structural modifications to the fuselage, modifications to the J58 engines to provide increased thrust, and the addition of a research instrumentation system. Information is presented based on flight data that describes the SR-71 test bed aerodynamics, stability and control, structural and thermal loads, the canoe internal environment, and reflection plane flow quality. Guidelines for designing SR-71 test bed experiments are also provided.

  15. Cryogenic Orbital Test Bed 3 (CRYOTE3) Overview and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Jonathan; Martin, Jim; Smith, James; Sisco, Jim; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul; Wanzie, Nathaniel; Piryk, David; Bauer, Jeffrey; Piazza, Nino; Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Williams, Scott; Kutter, Bernard; Clark, Scott; Lira, Eric; Wood, Jessica; Bradley, David; Rhys, Noah; Kimberlin, Erin

    2015-01-01

    CRYOTE3 is a grassroots CFM test effort with contributing government and industry partners focused on developing and testing hardware to produce needed data for model validation and implementation into flight systems.

  16. Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Test Bed and Data Infrastructure Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Foster, I.; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese; Shipman, G.

    2014-05-04

    The collaborative Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project started in July 2011 with the goal of accelerating the development of climate model components (i.e., atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, and land surface) and enhancing their predictive capabilities while incorporating uncertainty quantification (UQ). This effort required accessing and converting observational data sets into specialized model testing and verification data sets and building a model development test bed, where model components and sub-models can be rapidly evaluated. CSSEF’s prototype test bed demonstrated, how an integrated testbed could eliminate tedious activities associated with model development and evaluation, by providing the capability to constantly compare model output—where scientists store, acquire, reformat, regrid, and analyze data sets one-by-one—to observational measurements in a controlled test bed.

  17. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  18. Model-Based Diagnosis in a Power Distribution Test-Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarl, E.; McCall, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Rodon model-based diagnosis shell was applied to a breadboard test-bed, modeling an automated power distribution system. The constraint-based modeling paradigm and diagnostic algorithm were found to adequately represent the selected set of test scenarios.

  19. An adaptable, low cost test-bed for unmanned vehicle systems research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goppert, James M.

    2011-12-01

    An unmanned vehicle systems test-bed has been developed. The test-bed has been designed to accommodate hardware changes and various vehicle types and algorithms. The creation of this test-bed allows research teams to focus on algorithm development and employ a common well-tested experimental framework. The ArduPilotOne autopilot was developed to provide the necessary level of abstraction for multiple vehicle types. The autopilot was also designed to be highly integrated with the Mavlink protocol for Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) communication. Mavlink is the native protocol for QGroundControl, a MAV ground control program. Features were added to QGroundControl to accommodate outdoor usage. Next, the Mavsim toolbox was developed for Scicoslab to allow hardware-in-the-loop testing, control design and analysis, and estimation algorithm testing and verification. In order to obtain linear models of aircraft dynamics, the JSBSim flight dynamics engine was extended to use a probabilistic Nelder-Mead simplex method. The JSBSim aircraft dynamics were compared with wind-tunnel data collected. Finally, a structured methodology for successive loop closure control design is proposed. This methodology is demonstrated along with the rest of the test-bed tools on a quadrotor, a fixed wing RC plane, and a ground vehicle. Test results for the ground vehicle are presented.

  20. System test results from the GNC experiments on the PRISMA in-orbit test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Per; Noteborn, Ron; Larsson, Robin; Chasset, Camille

    2011-04-01

    The PRISMA in-orbit test bed will demonstrate guidance, navigation, and control strategies for spacecraft formation flying and rendezvous. The project is funded by the Swedish National Space Board and the prime contractor is the Swedish Space Corporation. The project is further supported by the German Aerospace Center, the Technical University of Denmark, and the French Space Agency. PRISMA was launched on June 15, 2010 and after three weeks of operations, all on-board systems and units have passed an initial commissioning phase. Separation of the two PRISMA satellites from each other is expected by mid-August 2010. PRISMA consists of two spacecraft: MAIN and TARGET. The MAIN spacecraft has full orbit control capability while TARGET is attitude controlled only. The Swedish Space Corporation is responsible for three groups of guidance, navigation, and control experiments. These experiments include GPS- and vision-based formation flying during which the spacecraft will fly in passive as well as forced motion. The three experiments are: autonomous formation flying, proximity operations with final approach/recede maneuvers, and autonomous rendezvous. This paper presents system test results from two of these experiments as obtained with the flight-ready system. The system tests consist of a series of simulations performed on the flight model spacecraft with a large amount of hardware in the loop.

  1. The hypercluster: A parallel processing test-bed architecture for computational mechanics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of numerical methods and software tools for parallel processors can be aided through the use of a hardware test-bed. The test-bed architecture must be flexible enough to support investigations into architecture-algorithm interactions. One way to implement a test-bed is to use a commercial parallel processor. Unfortunately, most commercial parallel processors are fixed in their interconnection and/or processor architecture. In this paper, we describe a modified n cube architecture, called the hypercluster, which is a superset of many other processor and interconnection architectures. The hypercluster is intended to support research into parallel processing of computational fluid and structural mechanics problems which may require a number of different architectural configurations. An example of how a typical partial differential equation solution algorithm maps on to the hypercluster is given.

  2. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste: test program results

    SciTech Connect

    Preuit, L C; Wilson, K B

    1980-05-01

    Air classified municipal solid waste (MSW) was fired in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor at low excess air to simulate boiler conditions. The 7 ft/sup 2/ combustor at Combustion Power Company's energy laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and recycles elutriated particles to the bed. System operation was stable while firing processed MSW for the duration of a 300-h test. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluidized bed combustion of MSW. During the 300-h test, combustion efficiency averaged 99%. Excess air was typically 44% while an average bed temperature of 1400/sup 0/F and an average superficial gas velocity of 4.6 fps were maintained. Typical exhaust emission levels were 30 ppM SO/sub 2/, 160 ppM NO/sub x/, 200 ppM CO, and 25 ppM hydrocarbons. No agglomeration of bed material or detrimental change in fluidization properties was experienced. A conceptual design study of a full scale plant to be located at Stanford University was based on process conditions from the 300-h test. The plant would produce 250,000 lb/hr steam at the maximum firing rate of 1000 tons per day (TPD) processed MSW. The average 800 TPD firing rate would utilize approximately 1200 TPD raw MSW from surrounding communities. The Stanford Solid Waste energy Program was aimed at development of a MSW-fired fluidized bed boiler and cogeneration plant to supply most of the energy needs of Stanford University.

  3. Operational Results From a High Power Alternator Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and its interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the current Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. These results successfully demonstrated excellent ATU power bus characteristics and rectified user load power quality during steady state and transient conditions. Information gained from this work could be used to assist the design and primary power quality considerations for a possible future FSPS. This paper describes the LPSF components and some preliminary test results.

  4. Development free-piston Stirling test-bed engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochat, G. R.; Vitale, N. G.; Moynihan, T. M.

    The free-piston Stirling Technology Demonstrator Engine (TDE) designed and instrumented to provide data to aid in understanding free-piston Stirling engine operation and performance, is described. It is noted that the system includes instrumentation to measure the internal thermodynamic operation and to permit calculation of system power flows. Near-term testing of the engine will assess three mechanisms for engine loss. It is pointed out that recent testing has demonstrated that the power and efficiency are strong functions of heater head temperature. A maximum power output of 1,800 watts and a thermodynamic efficiency of 30% have been demonstrated at 450 C and 40 bar.

  5. EMTP based stability analysis of Space Station Electric Power System in a test bed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dravid, Narayan V.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; O'Connor, Andrew M.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) will convert solar energy into electric energy and distribute the same using an 'all dc', Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. Power conditioning devices (dc to dc converters) are needed to interconnect parts of this system operating at different nominal voltage levels. Operation of such devices could generate under damped oscillations (instability) under certain conditions. Criteria for instability are examined and verified for a single device. Suggested extension of the criteria to a system operation is examined by using the EMTP model of the PMAD dc test bed. Wherever possible, data from the test bed is compared with the modeling results.

  6. EMTP based stability analysis of space station electric power system in a test bed environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dravid, Narayan V.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Oconnor, Andrew M.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Electric Power System (EPS) will convert solar energy into electric energy and distribute the same using an 'all dc', Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. Power conditioning devices (dc to dc converters) are needed to interconnect parts of this system operating at different nominal voltage levels. Operation of such devices could generate under damped oscillations (instability) under certain conditions. Criteria for instability are examined and verified for a single device. Suggested extension of the criteria to a system operation is examined by using the EMTP model of the PMAD DC test bed. Wherever possible, data from the test bed is compared with the modeling results.

  7. Post-quasistatic approximation as a test bed for numerical relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, W.

    2009-05-15

    It is shown that observers in the standard ADM 3+1 treatment of matter are the same as the observers used in the matter treatment of Bondi: they are comoving and local Minkowskian. Bondi's observers are the basis of the post-quasistatic approximation (PQSA) to study a contracting distribution of matter. This correspondence suggests the possibility of using the PQSA as a test bed for numerical relativity. The treatment of matter by the PQSA and its connection with the ADM 3+1 treatment are presented, for its practical use as a calibration tool and as a test bed for numerical relativistic hydrodynamic codes.

  8. Classrooms as Test-Beds for Educational Software Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes efforts to adapt R-WISE (Reading and Writing in a Supportive Environment), a computer program developed for the military, for public education. Field testing at MacArthur High School (Texas) using ninth-grade classes is discussed, including fostering higher-order thinking skills, coping with change, and integrating software into the…

  9. Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent Launch and Range Operations Virtual Test Bed (ILRO-VTB) is a real-time web-based command and control, communication, and intelligent simulation environment of ground-vehicle, launch and range operation activities. ILRO-VTB consists of a variety of simulation models combined with commercial and indigenous software developments (NASA Ames). It creates a hybrid software/hardware environment suitable for testing various integrated control system components of launch and range. The dynamic interactions of the integrated simulated control systems are not well understood. Insight into such systems can only be achieved through simulation/emulation. For that reason, NASA has established a VTB where we can learn the actual control and dynamics of designs for future space programs, including testing and performance evaluation. The current implementation of the VTB simulates the operations of a sub-orbital vehicle of mission, control, ground-vehicle engineering, launch and range operations. The present development of the test bed simulates the operations of Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test bed supports a wide variety of shuttle missions with ancillary modeling capabilities like weather forecasting, lightning tracker, toxic gas dispersion model, debris dispersion model, telemetry, trajectory modeling, ground operations, payload models and etc. To achieve the simulations, all models are linked using Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The test bed provides opportunities for government, universities, researchers and industries to do a real time of shuttle launch in cyber space.

  10. JPL control/structure interaction test bed real-time control computer architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structure Interaction Program is a technology development program for spacecraft that exhibit interactions between the control system and structural dynamics. The program objectives include development and verification of new design concepts - such as active structure - and new tools - such as combined structure and control optimization algorithm - and their verification in ground and possibly flight test. A focus mission spacecraft was designed based upon a space interferometer and is the basis for design of the ground test article. The ground test bed objectives include verification of the spacecraft design concepts, the active structure elements and certain design tools such as the new combined structures and controls optimization tool. In anticipation of CSI technology flight experiments, the test bed control electronics must emulate the computation capacity and control architectures of space qualifiable systems as well as the command and control networks that will be used to connect investigators with the flight experiment hardware. The Test Bed facility electronics were functionally partitioned into three units: a laboratory data acquisition system for structural parameter identification and performance verification; an experiment supervisory computer to oversee the experiment, monitor the environmental parameters and perform data logging; and a multilevel real-time control computing system. The design of the Test Bed electronics is presented along with hardware and software component descriptions. The system should break new ground in experimental control electronics and is of interest to anyone working in the verification of control concepts for large structures.

  11. Alexandria fluidized-bed process development unit: cold-mode testing

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    The objectives of the current test program include: validation of predictions from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Coal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor System Model; experimental studies supporting AFBC process developments; and the collection of transient data for process control design. This topical report summarizes results from cold mode testing, i.e., experiments performed without combustion for MIT Model verification. During these tests, sulfated limestone (generated from normal AFBC operations) was fluidized with air at temperatures ranging from 80 to 500/sup 0/F in the 3' x 3' (nominal) size PDU at Alexandria, VA. The MIT Model predictions tested include: slumped bed height, minimum fluidization velocity, and expanded bed height. In all cases, there were large discrepancies between the Model predictions and corresponding experimental results. Other results obtained included solids size distribution and particle size profiles in the bed. Size distribution was adequately modeled by the Rosin-Rammler equation. No transient process data was collected due to hardware problems with the Data Acquisition System. Tests were also performed to determine the effect of maldistribution of air, caused by leaks in the air distributor, on experimental results. The data indicated that effects of these leaks seemed to be undetectable.

  12. Centaur Test Bed (CTB) for Cryogenic Fluid Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakla, Steven; Kutter, Bernard; Wall, John

    2006-01-01

    Future missions such as NASA s space exploration vision and DOD satellite servicing will require significant increases in the understanding and knowledge of space based cryogenic fluid management (CFM), including the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids. Existing CFM capabilities are based on flight of upper stage cryogenic vehicles, scientific dewars, a few dedicated flight demonstrations and ground testing. This current capability is inadequate to support development of the CEV cryogenic propulsion system, other aspects of robust space exploration or the refueling of satellite cryo propulsion systems with reasonable risk. In addition, these technologies can provide significant performance increases for missions beyond low-earth orbit to enable manned missions to the Moon and beyond. The Centaur upper-stage vehicle can provide a low cost test platform for performing numerous flight demonstrations of the full breadth of required CFM technologies to support CEV development. These flight demonstrations can be performed as secondary mission objectives using excess LH2 and/or LO2 from the main vehicle propellant tanks following primary spacecraft separation at minimal cost and risk.

  13. Configurable test bed design for nanosats to qualify commercial and customized integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guareschi, W.; Azambuja, J.; Kastensmidt, F.; Reis, R.; Durao, O.; Schuch, N.; Dessbesel, G.

    The use of small satellites has increased substantially in recent years due to the reduced cost of their development and launch, as well to the flexibility offered by commercial components. The test bed is a platform that allows components to be evaluated and tested in space. It is a flexible platform, which can be adjusted to a wide quantity of components and interfaces. This work proposes the design and implementation of a test bed suitable for test and evaluation of commercial circuits used in nanosatellites. The development of such a platform allows developers to reduce the efforts in the integration of components and therefore speed up the overall system development time. The proposed test bed is a configurable platform implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that controls the communication protocols and connections to the devices under test. The Flash-based ProASIC3E FPGA from Microsemi is used as a control system. This adaptive system enables the control of new payloads and softcores for test and validation in space. Thus, the integration can be easily performed through configuration parameters. It is intended for modularity. Each component connected to the test bed can have a specific interface programmed using a hardware description language (HDL). The data of each component is stored in embedded memories. Each component has its own memory space. The size of the allocated memory can be also configured. The data transfer priority can be set and packaging can be added to the logic, when needed. Communication with peripheral devices and with the Onboard Computer (OBC) is done through the pre-implemented protocols, such as I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit), SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and external memory control. In loco primary tests demonstrated the control system's functionality. The commercial ProASIC3E FPGA family is not space-flight qualified, but tests have been made under Total Ionizing Dose (TID) showing its robustness up to 25 kr

  14. Concept for on orbit liquid hydrogen test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, D.; Nast, T.; Mix, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is growing interest in the utilization of cryogenic propellants for future space missions. The utilization of these propellants for long duration in space presents substantial challenges in fluid management in the low g environment. Lockheed Martin (LM) is developing the concept for a space borne system for demonstration of long term storage, various fluid management tests involving control of tank pressure, location and identification of vapor and liquid phases, venting in low g, mass gauging, and extension of life with cryocoolers and location of liquid for transfer. In addition the concept includes autonomous coupling and hydrogen transfer from tank to tank. The concept is based on a flight qualified flight proven hydrogen Dewar design from a previous program The concept for this system is described.

  15. Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer

  16. 76 FR 22030 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toddler Beds: Requirements for Accreditation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1217 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toddler Beds: Requirements... children's products for conformity with ``other children's product safety rules.'' Section 14(f)(1) of the CPSA defines ``children's product safety rule'' as ``a consumer product safety rule under [the CPSA]...

  17. Migration to a distributed system architecture at the National Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hoebelheinrich, R.

    1991-09-01

    This is a study to consider the mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization's National Test Bed (NTB) and the current directions of gigabit networking and distributed computing research and to produce a report describing a 5- to 10-year vision of an NTB computing architecture and migration path to that architecture. 97 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Particle-In-Cell Multi-Algorithm Numerical Test-Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, M. D.; Yu, P.; Tableman, A.; Decyk, V. K.; Mori, W. B.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a numerical test-bed that allows for the direct comparison of different numerical simulation schemes using only a single code. It is built from the UPIC Framework, which is a set of codes and modules for constructing parallel PIC codes. In this test-bed code, Maxwell's equations are solved in Fourier space in two dimensions. One can readily examine the numerical properties of a real space finite difference scheme by including its operators' Fourier space representations in the Maxwell solver. The fields can be defined at the same location in a simulation cell or can be offset appropriately by half-cells, as in the Yee finite difference time domain scheme. This allows for the accurate comparison of numerical properties (dispersion relations, numerical stability, etc.) across finite difference schemes, or against the original spectral scheme. We have also included different options for the charge and current deposits, including a strict charge conserving current deposit. The test-bed also includes options for studying the analytic time domain scheme, which eliminates numerical dispersion errors in vacuum. We will show examples from the test-bed that illustrate how the properties of some numerical instabilities vary between different PIC algorithms. Work supported by the NSF grant ACI 1339893 and DOE grant DE-SC0008491.

  19. The development of test beds to support the definition and evolution of the Space Station Freedom power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.; Frye, Robert J.; Phillips, Rudy L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International have had extensive efforts underway to develop test beds to support the definition of the detailed electrical power system design. Because of the extensive redirections that have taken place in the Space Station Freedom Program in the past several years, the test bed effort was forced to accommodate a large number of changes. A short history of these program changes and their impact on the LeRC test beds is presented to understand how the current test bed configuration has evolved. The current test objectives and the development approach for the current DC Test Bed are discussed. A description of the test bed configuration, along with its power and controller hardware and its software components, is presented. Next, the uses of the test bed during the mature design and verification phase of SSFP are examined. Finally, the uses of the test bed in operation and evolution of the SSF are addressed.

  20. An Analysis of Near Fields of 34m Antennas of JPL/NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Juan, Nuria Llombart

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of calculating near fields of the 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas of the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). Calculating the near fields of DSN antennas are of interest in receive mode where the transmitting signals from nearby flying objects such as helicopters and airplanes could interfere with the operation of sensitive RF receiving system of DSN antennas, and in the transmit mode where fields from high-powered DSN antennas interfere with receivers on nearby flying objects, as well as safety considerations for the operators and visitors to the grounds surrounding the antenna sites. A complete and detailed analysis has been performed using PO/PTD techniques, including surface errors and support struts effects. Some results are presented, including comparisons with preliminary field tests.

  1. S/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34-m Beam-Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veruttipong, W.; Khayatian, B.; Imbriale, W.

    2016-02-01

    An S-/Ka-band frequency selective surface (FSS) or a dichroic plate is designed, manufactured, and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-m beam-waveguide (BWG) antennas. Due to its large size, the proposed dichroic incorporates a new design feature: waveguides with rounded corners to cut cost and allow ease of manufacturing the plate. The dichroic is designed using an analysis that combines the finite-element method (FEM) for arbitrarily shaped guides with the method of moments and Floquet mode theory for periodic structures. The software was verified by comparison with previously measured and computed dichroic plates. The large plate was manufactured with end-mill machining. The RF performance was measured and is in excellent agreement with the analytical results. The dichroic has been successfully installed and is operational at DSS-24, DSS-34, and DSS-54.

  2. A Physical Protection Systems Test Bed for International Counter-Trafficking System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Brad J; Kuhn, Michael J; Donaldson, Terrence L; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Pickett, Chris A

    2011-01-01

    Physical protection systems have a widespread impact on the nuclear industry in areas such as nuclear safeguards, arms control, and trafficking of illicit goods (e.g., nuclear materials) across international borders around the world. Many challenges must be overcome in design and deployment of foreign border security systems such as lack of infrastructure, extreme environmental conditions, limited knowledge of terrain, insider threats, and occasional cultural resistance. Successful security systems, whether it be a system designed to secure a single facility or a whole border security system, rely on the entire integrated system composed of multiple subsystems. This test bed is composed of many unique sensors and subsystems, including wireless unattended ground sensors, a buried fiber-optic acoustic sensor, a lossy coaxial distributed sensor, wireless links, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, mobile power generation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and fiber-optic-fence intrusion detection systems. A Common Operating Picture software architecture is utilized to integrate a number of these subsystems. We are currently performance testing each system for border security and perimeter security applications by examining metrics such as probability of sense and a qualitative understanding of the sensor s vulnerability of defeat. The testing process includes different soil conditions for buried sensors (e.g., dry, wet, and frozen) and an array of different tests including walking, running, stealth detection, and vehicle detection. Also, long term sustainability of systems is tested including performance differences due to seasonal variations (e.g. summer versus winter, while raining, in foggy conditions). The capabilities of the test bed are discussed. Performance testing results, both at the individual component level and integrated into a larger system for a specific deployment (in situ), help illustrate the usefulness and need for integrated testing facilities to carry out this

  3. Development of a drilling and coring test-bed for lunar subsurface exploration and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Deng, Zongquan; Quan, Qiquan; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan

    2014-07-01

    Drill sampling has been widely employed as an effective way to acquire deep samples in extraterrestrial exploration. A novel sampling method, namely, flexible-tube coring, was adopted for the Chang'e mission to acquire drilling cores without damaging stratification information. Since the extraterrestrial environment is uncertain and different from the terrestrial environment, automated drill sampling missions are at risk of failure. The principles of drilling and coring for the lunar subsurface should be fully tested and verified on earth before launch. This paper proposes a test-bed for conducting the aforementioned experiments on earth. The test-bed comprises a rotary-percussive drilling mechanism, penetrating mechanism, drilling medium container, and signal acquisition and control system. For granular soil, coring experiments indicate that the sampling method has a high coring rate greater than 80%. For hard rock, drilling experiments indicate that the percussive frequency greatly affects the drilling efficiency. A multi-layered simulant composed of granular soil and hard rock is built to test the adaptability of drilling and coring. To tackle complex drilling media, an intelligent drilling strategy based on online recognition is proposed to improve the adaptability of the sampling drill. The primary features of this research are the proposal of a scheme for drilling and coring a test-bed for validation on earth and the execution of drilling experiments in complex media.

  4. Hazard classification for the supercritical water oxidation test bed. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    A hazard classification of ``routinely accepted by the public`` has been determined for the operation of the supercritical water oxidation test bed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This determination is based on the fact that the design and proposed operation meet or exceed appropriate national standards so that the risks are equivalent to those present in similar activities conducted in private industry. Each of the 17 criteria for hazards ``routinely accepted by the public,`` identified in the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Safety Manual, were analyzed. The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed will treat simulated mixed waste without the radioactive component. It will be designed to operate with eight test wastes. These test wastes have been chosen to represent a broad cross-section of candidate mixed wastes anticipated for storage or generation by DOE. In particular, the test bed will generate data to evaluate the ability of the technology to treat chlorinated waste and other wastes that have in the past caused severe corrosion and deposition in SCWO reactors.

  5. Rigging Test Bed Development for Validation of Multi-Stage Decelerator Extractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenig, Sivan J.; Gallon, John C.; Adams, Douglas S.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Density Supersonic Decelerator project is developing new decelerator systems for Mars entry which would include testing with a Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test Vehicle. One of the decelerator systems being developed is a large supersonic ringsail parachute. Due to the configuration of the vehicle it is not possible to deploy the parachute with a mortar which would be the preferred method for a spacecraft in a supersonic flow. Alternatively, a multi-stage extraction process using a ballute as a pilot is being developed for the test vehicle. The Rigging Test Bed is a test venue being constructed to perform verification and validation of this extraction process. The test bed consists of a long pneumatic piston device capable of providing a constant force simulating the ballute drag force during the extraction events. The extraction tests will take place both inside a high-bay for frequent tests of individual extraction stages and outdoors using a mobile hydraulic crane for complete deployment tests from initial pack pull out to canopy extraction. These tests will measure line tensions and use photogrammetry to track motion of the elements involved. The resulting data will be used to verify packing and rigging as well, as validate models and identify potential failure modes in order to finalize the design of the extraction system.

  6. Hydrologic properties of coal-beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana. II. Aquifer test analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    A multiple well aquifer test to determine anisotropic transmissivity was conducted on a coal-bed in the Powder River Basin, southeastern Montana, as part of a multidisciplinary investigation to determine hydrologic conditions of coal-beds in the area. For the test, three wells were drilled equidistant from and at different angles to a production well tapping the Flowers-Goodale coal seam, a 7.6-m thick seam confined at a depth of about 110 m. The test was conducted by air-lift pumping for 9 h, and water levels were monitored in the three observation wells using pressure transducers. Drawdown data collected early in the test were affected by interporosity flow between the coal fracture network and the matrix, but later data were suitable to determine aquifer anisotropy, as the slopes of the late-time semilog time-drawdown curves are nearly identical, and the zero-drawdown intercepts are different. The maximum transmissivity, trending N87??E, is 14.9 m2/d, and the minimum transmissivity 6.8 m2/d, giving an anisotropy ratio of 2.2:1. Combined specific storage of the fractures and matrix is 2??10 -5/m, and of the fracture network alone 5??10-6/m. The principal direction of the anisotropy tensor is not aligned with the face cleats, but instead is aligned with another fracture set and with dominant east-west tectonic compression. Results of the test indicate that the Flowers-Goodale coal-bed is more permeable than many coals in the Powder River Basin, but the anisotropy ratio and specific storage are similar to those found for other coal-beds in the basin.

  7. Ground test bed design for self-forming network in disaggregated satellites system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2016-02-01

    Disaggregated spacecraft architecture arouses an increasing attention in the realm of distributed space systems in recent years. One of the main technical challenges for disaggregated spacecraft system is self-forming network, in which new satellite nodes are allowed to join in a 'plug-and-play' fashion. To facilitate the protocol design for self-forming network, high-fidelity simulation tools are required. To that end, with the aid of OPNET Modeler's co-simulation mechanism provided by the external system (Esys) module, a ground test bed solution for self-forming network in disaggregated satellites system is presented, and then tested in a self-forming network scenario during the ingress process of a new-added satellite module. Simulation results show that this test bed can support for the evaluation of network performance, as well as mobility modeling which enables reflecting both the effects of orbital dynamic behaviors and in-orbit maneuver or control efforts. Though this test bed is mainly developed for the purpose of further study in disaggregated satellites system, its architecture can also be extended to other satellite network applications.

  8. Space station common module thermal management: Design and construction of a test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    In this project, a thermal test bed was designed, simulated, and planned for construction. The thermal system features interior and exterior thermal loads and interfacing with the central-radiator thermal bus. Components of the test bed include body mounted radiator loop with interface heat exchangers (600 Btu/hr); an internal loop with cabin air-conditioning and cold plates (3400 Btu/hr); interface heat exchangers to the central bus (13,000 Btu/hr); and provisions for new technology including advanced radiators, thermal storage, and refrigeration. The apparatus will be mounted in a chamber, heated with lamps, and tested in a vacuum chamber with LN2-cooled walls. Simulation of the test bed was accomplished using a DEC PRO 350 computer and the software package TK! olver. Key input variables were absorbed solar radiation and cold plate loads. The results indicate temperatures on the two loops will be nominal when the radiation and cold plate loads are in the range of 25% to 75% of peak loads. If all loads fall to zero, except the cabin air system which was fixed, the radiator fluid will drop below -100 F and may cause excessive pressure drop. If all loads reach 100%, the cabin air temperature could rise to 96 F.

  9. Four Corners: Jicarillas look for gas in exotic test of coal beds in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, R.

    1981-11-01

    The Jicarilla Energy Company, owned and operated by the Jicarilla Apache Indian tribe, plans to be come an active operating company with an exploratory venture near Dulce, New Mexico. The company is planning 2 wells that, if successful, would supply valuable information to researchers and natural gas to a portion of the Dulce community. The project is an exotic test of coal beds in the Fruitland and Middle Mesaverde formations for gas. Although coal beds are not considered to be primary commercial drilling objectives in the area, there are a number of wells farther south and west in the San Juan basin that appear to produce from coal seams as well as from interbedded sands. Although the Jicarilla project is not expected to result in highly productive wells it could aid researchers who are evaluating coal beds in a number of areas for occluded gas content. The 2 wells planned are apparently some of the first to be drilled with the coal beds as primary objective.

  10. An investigation of DTNS2D for use as an incompressible turbulence modelling test-bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper documents an investigation of a two dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes solver for use as a test-bed for turbulence modelling. DTNS2D is the code under consideration for use at the Center for Modelling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT). This code was created by Gorski at the David Taylor Research Center and incorporates the pseudo compressibility method. Two laminar benchmark flows are used to measure the performance and implementation of the method. The classical solution of the Blasius boundary layer is used for validating the flat plate flow, while experimental data is incorporated in the validation of backward facing step flow. Velocity profiles, convergence histories, and reattachment lengths are used to quantify these calculations. The organization and adaptability of the code are also examined in light of the role as a numerical test-bed.

  11. ARA TestBed background data analysis and neutrino sensitivity limit study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Eugene; Connolly, Amy; Pfendner, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic neutrino detector located at the south pole. The cosmic ray flux cut off above primary energies of 10^19.5eV lead us to expect an UHE neutrino flux due to the GZK effect. The detection of these UHE cosmic neutrinos will add to the understanding of the sources and physics of UHE cosmic rays. The radio Cherenkov technique is one of the most promising technologies for the detection of UHE cosmic neutrinos. ARA uses the radio Cherenkov technique by deploying radio frequency antennas at 200m depth in the Antarctic ice. A prototype ARA TestBed station was deployed in the 2010-2011 season and the first ARA station was deployed in the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. We present the results of the first neutrino search with ARA, using data taken from 2011-2012 with the ARA TestBed.

  12. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  13. Two phase capillary pumped heat transfer in the Instrument Thermal Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.; Martins, Mario S.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study of the thermal performance of two evaporators installed in the Instrument Thermal Test Bed (ITTB) was conducted. The ITTB was operated as a capillary pumped loop (CPL) with a transport length of approximately 12 meters. Empirical determinations of a general start up procedure, overall heat transfer coefficient, and minimum operating power were accomplished for each evaporator. Additionally, a detailed thermal model was developed for the High Power Spacecraft Thermal Management (HPSTM) evaporator and validated.

  14. Experimental Studies in a Reconfigurable C4 Test-bed for Network Enabled Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Cross1, Dr R. Houghton1, and Mr R. McMaster1 Defence Technology Centre for Human factors Integration (DTC HFI ) BITlab, School of Engineering and Design...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defence Technology Centre for Human factors Integration (DTC HFI ) BITlab, School of...studies into NEC by the Human Factors Integration Defence Technology Centre ( HFI -DTC). DEVELOPMENT OF THE TESTBED In brief, the C4 test-bed

  15. Work Performance Ratings: Measurement Test Bed for Validity and Accuracy Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    validity theory (Fiske, 1987) suggests that invalidity of performance measurement is due to method effects. Nonetheless, attention to the measurement...the test bed. 3 Table.~ Definitions of Performance Dimensions Planning and OrganizingT. Establishing a course of action for self and/or others to...accomplish a specific goal; planning proper assignments of personnel and appropriate allocation of resources. Structuring or arranging resources to

  16. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    SciTech Connect

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  17. The development of test beds to support the definition and evolution of the Space Station Freedom power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.; Frye, Robert J.; Phillips, Rudy L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International have had extensive efforts underway to develop testbeds to support the definition of the detailed electrical power system design. Because of the extensive redirections that have taken place in the Space Station Freedom Program in the past several years, the test bed effort was forced to accommodate a large number of changes. A short history of these program changes and their impact on the LeRC test beds is presented to understand how the current test bed configuration has evolved. The current test objectives and the development approach for the current DC test bed are discussed. A description of the test bed configuration, along with its power and controller hardware and its software components, is presented. Next, the uses of the test bed during the mature design and verification phase of SSFP are examined. Finally, the uses of the test bed in the operation and evolution of the SSF are addressed.

  18. Development and Testing of a Moving Granular Bed Filter at the Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.Y.; Hsiau, S-S.; Lee, H-T.; Smid, J.; Wu, T-C.

    2002-09-18

    The main purpose of developing high temperature gas cleaning technologies are to clean the gas under high temperature in order to be cost effective and to improve energy efficiency. Moving granular bed filters are technically and economically applicable for high temperature cleaning system because of low cost, possible to keep operation at a constant pressure drop, simple structure, easy in operation and maintenance, no high risk internals, and more tolerant to process thermal flow. Energy and Resource Laboratories, Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute (ERL/ITRI) has been developing a moving granular bed filter (MGBF) for BIGCC(Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) high temperature gas cleanup. The filter granules move downwards directed by louver-like guide plates and the hot gases penetrate the MGBF horizontally. Filtration mechanisms include collection of the dust cake over the bed media surface and deep bed filtration. Stagnant zones of filter granules combining with the dusts always exist along the louver walls. Such stagnant zones often corrode the louver-like guide plates, increase the system pressure drop and decrease the total reaction efficiency that may endanger MGBF operation. Series louver and inert structure research that modify the granular flow pattern have been designed to eliminate the formation of these stagnant zones. By connecting to an auxiliary dust/bed media separation system, MGBF can be operated continuously at a stable pressure drop with a stable high efficiency. There are several MGBF R&D activities in progress: (1) a 3-dimensional cold flow system for testing the MGBF filtration efficiency; (2) a high temperature gas cleanup experimental system that has been designed and installed; (3) a 2-dimensional flow pattern experimental system for approving design concepts.

  19. Test plan for valveless ash removal from pressurized fluid bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1989-07-01

    This is a test plan to demonstrate a method of ash removal from pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) systems through small beds of crushed rock rather than conventional pressure let-down valves and lock hoppers. The economic advantage of such a method is that process-inherent erosive damage will be inflicted upon the cheaply replaceable crushed rock, rather than upon expensive, fabricated valve trim components. The concept to be tested is an extension of the gravel bucket'' principle in which an erosive, high pressure slurry stream passes through a bed of crushed rock with an adjustable flow path and cross-section. The original gravel bucket concept was inspired by the costly valve erosion problems projected for coal liquefaction plants. This project extends the same approach to systems where solids are to be removed from PFBC systems, with more limited possibilities of application to some coal gasification processes. If proven successful, a hot-gas gravel bucket could offer an economic alternative to a lock hopper plus a pair of expensive block valves. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Test Results of the Modified Space Shuttle Main Engine at the Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Test Bed Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J.; Dumbacher, D.; Ise, M.; Singer, C.

    1990-01-01

    A modified space shuttle main engine (SSME), which primarily includes an enlarged throat main combustion chamber with the acoustic cavities removed and a main injector with the stability control baffles removed, was tested. This one-of-a-kind engine's design changes are being evaluated for potential incorporation in the shuttle flight program in the mid-1990's. Engine testing was initiated on September 15, 1988 and has accumulated 1,915 seconds and 19 starts. Testing is being conducted to characterize the engine system performance, combustion stability with the baffle-less injector, and both low pressure oxidizer turbopump (LPOTP) and high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) for suction performance. These test results are summarized and compared with the SSME flight configuration data base. Testing of this new generation SSME is the first product from the technology test bed (TTB). Figure test plans for the TTB include the highly instrumented flight configuration SSME and advanced liquid propulsion technology items.

  1. Low cost test bed tool development for validation of mission control events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montanez, L.; Cervantes, D.; Tatge, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Cassini Program is one of the last large interplanetary spacecraft missions. It is a joint effort between the European Space Agency, the Italian Space Agency and NASA.The U.S. portion of the mission is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The primary mission is to survey the complex Saturnian system and release the ESA-Huygens probe at Titan. The success of the Cassini Mission has been largely due its many simulation test beds and its rigorous test program.

  2. Space station environmental control and life support systems test bed program - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrend, Albert F.

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) begins to intensify activities for development of the Space Station, decisions must be made concerning the technical state of the art that will be baselined for the initial Space Station system. These decisions are important because significant potential exists for enhancing system performance and for reducing life-cycle costs. However, intelligent decisions cannot be made without an adequate assessment of new and ready technologies, i.e., technologies which are sufficiently mature to allow predevelopment demonstrations to prove their application feasibility and to quantify the risk associated with their development. Therefore, the NASA has implemented a technology development program which includes the establishment of generic test bed capabilities in which these new technologies and approaches can be tested at the prototype level. One major Space Station subsystem discipline in which this program has been implemented is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS). Previous manned space programs such as Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle have relied heavily on consumables to provide environmental control and life support services. However, with the advent of a long-duration Space Station, consumables must be reduced within technological limits to minimize Space Station resupply penalties and operational costs. The use of advanced environmental control and life support approaches involving regenerative processes offers the best solution for significant consumables reduction while also providing system evolutionary growth capability. Consequently, the demonstration of these "new technologies" as viable options for inclusion in the baseline that will be available to support a Space Station initial operational capability in the early 1990's becomes of paramount importance. The mechanism by which the maturity of these new regenerative life support technologies will be demonstrated is the Space

  3. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities.

  4. Development of an In-Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network Test Bed for Structural Condition Monitoring - 12156

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, Kristine E.; Ferguson, Blythe A.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has established an In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Sensor Network Test Bed, a unique, small scale, configurable environment, for the assessment of prospective sensors on actual ISD system material, at minimal cost. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently implementing permanent entombment of contaminated, large nuclear structures via ISD. The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. Validation of ISD system performance models and verification of actual system conditions can be achieved through the development a system of sensors to monitor the materials and condition of the structure. The ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed to addresses the DOE-Environmental Management Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building at the Savannah River Site. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring, strain gauges for crack growth monitoring, tilt-meters for settlement monitoring, and a communication system for data collection. Baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment. The Sensor Network Test Bed at SRNL uses COTS sensors on concrete blocks from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building to measure conditions expected to occur in ISD structures. Knowledge and lessons learned gained from installation, testing, and monitoring of the equipment will be applied to sensor installation in a meso-scale test bed at FIU and in future ISD structures. The initial data collected from the sensors

  5. Effects of bedding systems selected by manual muscle testing on sleep and sleep-related respiratory disturbances.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Liu, Hau-Min

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying manual muscle testing (MMT) for bedding selection and examined the bedding effect on sleep. Four lay testers with limited training in MMT performed muscle tests for the selection of the bedding systems from five different mattresses and eight different pillows for 14 participants with mild sleep-related respiratory disturbances. For each participant individually, two bedding systems-one inducing stronger muscle forces and the other inducing weaker forces-were selected. The tester-participant pairs showed 85% and 100% agreement, respectively, for the selection of mattresses and pillows that induced the strongest muscle forces. The firmness of the mattress and the height of the pillow were significantly correlated with the body weight and body mass index of the participants for the selected strong bedding system but not for the weak bedding system. Finally, differences were observed between the strong and the weak bedding systems with regard to sleep-related respiratory disturbances and the percentage of slow-wave sleep. It was concluded that MMT can be performed by inexperienced testers for the selection of bedding systems.

  6. A test bed for investigating the flow of outlet glaciers and ice streams embedded in the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calov, Reinhard; Rückamp, Martin; Schlegel, Rebecca; Ganopolski, Andrey; Humbert, Angelika

    2016-04-01

    Here, we define a test bed for fast flow regions and its vicinity embedded in an ice sheet. This test bed is designed for outlet glaciers and ice streams of the Greenland ice sheet. It consists of a fine resolution part with a manufactured basal trough over which the professional software COMSOL (Multiphysics Modeling Software) operates as a full-Stokes model. Results by COMSOL are compared with coarse resolution simulations with the ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS operating in shallow-ice-approximation mode and using parameterizations of the fast flow effects. For simplification, in this preliminary approach, both models run in isothermal mode. Definition of surface mass balance follows the EISMINT intercomparison project with parameters adapted to the Greenland ice sheet. In particular, we inspect with this test bed upstream and lateral flow effects of ice streams and outlet glaciers. We present first simulations with this approach, although presentation of the test bed itself is the main emphasis of this presentation.

  7. Single-Pass Flow Through (SPFT) Testing of Fluidized-Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T. H.; Pareizs, J. M.; Jantzen, C. M.

    2005-08-15

    Two samples of fluidized-bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineral waste form product were subjected to single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing. Sample LAW 1123 resulted from pilot-scale FBSR processing with a Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant. Sample SBW 1173 resulted from pilot-scale FBSR processing with an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The pilot-scale waste forms were made at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The durability of the two FBSR waste forms was assessed via the SPFT test in this study. Both samples were multiphase mineral waste forms, so the SPFT test results provide an overall release rate from the multiple mineral species in each sample and are dependent on the amount of each phase present and the mineralogy of the phases present. SPFT testing was performed at temperatures of 25, 40, 70, and 90 C on LAW 1123, while SBW 1173 was only tested at 70 and 90 C. The 70 and 90 C data were compared to each other and the LAW-1123 results were compared to previous testing performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on a LAW Envelope C (high organic content) waste simulant. The objectives of this study were to obtain forward dissolution rate data for both STAR FBSR bed products (using SPFT tests). Also, a qualitative comparison of the FBSR bed products to a glass waste form (specifically the low-activity reference material (LRM) glass) was performed. For these comparisons, the relative surface areas of the FBSR and glass products had to be measured. Due to the more porous and irregular surface of FBSR bed products, the surface area of the bed products was determined using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) measurement method. The surface area of a glass is much smoother and the calculated geometric surface area is typically used for determining dissolution behavior. Presently there are no specifications or

  8. A Framework to Evaluate Unified Parameterizations for Seasonal Prediction: An LES/SCM Parameterization Test-Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Seasonal Prediction: An LES/ SCM Parameterization Test-Bed Joao Teixeira Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology, MS 169-237...a Single Column Model ( SCM ) version of the latest operational NAVGEM that can be used to simulate GEWEX Cloud Systems Study (GCSS) case-studies; ii...use the NAVGEM SCM and the LES model as a parameterization test-bed. APPROACH It is well accepted that sub-grid physical processes such as

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A SENSOR NETWORK TEST BED FOR ISD MATERIALS AND STRUCUTRAL CONDITION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, K.; Ferguson, B.; Karapatakis, D.; Herbst, C.; Stripling, C.

    2011-07-06

    The P Reactor at the Savannah River Site is one of the first reactor facilities in the US DOE complex that has been placed in its end state through in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD end state consists of a grout-filled concrete civil structure within the concrete frame of the original building. To evaluate the feasibility and utility of remote sensors to provide verification of ISD system conditions and performance characteristics, an ISD Sensor Network Test Bed has been designed and deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The test bed addresses the DOE-EM Technology Need to develop a remote monitoring system to determine and verify ISD system performance. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors have been installed on concrete blocks taken from walls of the P Reactor Building. Deployment of this low-cost structural monitoring system provides hands-on experience with sensor networks. The initial sensor system consists of: (1) Groutable thermistors for temperature and moisture monitoring; (2) Strain gauges for crack growth monitoring; (3) Tiltmeters for settlement monitoring; and (4) A communication system for data collection. Preliminary baseline data and lessons learned from system design and installation and initial field testing will be utilized for future ISD sensor network development and deployment.

  10. A low-cost test-bed for real-time landmark tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csaszar, Ambrus; Hanan, Jay C.; Moreels, Pierre; Assad, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    A low-cost vehicle test-bed system was developed to iteratively test, refine and demonstrate navigation algorithms before attempting to transfer the algorithms to more advanced rover prototypes. The platform used here was a modified radio controlled (RC) car. A microcontroller board and onboard laptop computer allow for either autonomous or remote operation via a computer workstation. The sensors onboard the vehicle represent the types currently used on NASA-JPL rover prototypes. For dead-reckoning navigation, optical wheel encoders, a single axis gyroscope, and 2-axis accelerometer were used. An ultrasound ranger is available to calculate distance as a substitute for the stereo vision systems presently used on rovers. The prototype also carries a small laptop computer with a USB camera and wireless transmitter to send real time video to an off-board computer. A real-time user interface was implemented that combines an automatic image feature selector, tracking parameter controls, streaming video viewer, and user generated or autonomous driving commands. Using the test-bed, real-time landmark tracking was demonstrated by autonomously driving the vehicle through the JPL Mars yard. The algorithms tracked rocks as waypoints. This generated coordinates calculating relative motion and visually servoing to science targets. A limitation for the current system is serial computing-each additional landmark is tracked in order-but since each landmark is tracked independently, if transferred to appropriate parallel hardware, adding targets would not significantly diminish system speed.

  11. Fluidized-bed potato waste drying experiments at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, L.T.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1980-06-01

    A fluidized-bed dryer was built and operated at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in south central Idaho to test the feasibility of using low-temperature (145/sup 0/C or lower) geothermal fluids as an energy source for drying operations. The dryer performed successfully on two potato industry waste products that had a solid content of 5 to 13%. The dried product was removed as a sand-like granular material or as fines with a flour-like texture. Test results, observations, and design recommendations are presented. Also presented is an economic evaluation for commercial-scale drying plants using either geothermal low-temperature water or oil as a heat source.

  12. Testing of the United Stirling 4-95 solar Stirling engine on test bed concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelving, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives with the testing, test set-ups, component designs, and the results of the testing of the solar Stirling engine in a parabolic dish system are presented. The most important tests are characterization of receivers, full day performance of complete system, cavity and aperture window test including influence from windeffects, control system tests, radiator system tests and special temperature measurements with infrared camera. The influence on performance of flux distribution depnding on concentrator alignment, and the optimum receiver operating criteria when balancing flux and temperatures on cooled receiver surface while avoiding flux on uncooled surfaces are also discussed.

  13. The satellite formation flying in lab: PROBA-3/ASPIICS metrology subsystems test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capobianco, G.; Loreggia, D.; Fineschi, S.; Focardi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Casti, M.; Noce, V.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Pancrazzi, M.; Romoli, M.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Cernica, I.; Purica, M.; Budianu, E.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J.-S.; Mechmech, I.; Renotte, Etienne

    2016-07-01

    Formation flying is one of the most promising techniques for the future of astronomy and astrophysics from the space. The capabilities of the rockets strongly affect the dimensions and the weights of telescopes and instrumentation to be launched. Telescopes composed by several smallest satellites in formation flying, could be the key for build big space telescopes. With this aim, the ESA PROBA-3 mission will demonstrate the capabilities of this technology, maintaining two satellites aligned within 1 mm (longitudinal) when the nominal distance between the two is of around 144m. The scientific objective of the mission is the observation of the solar corona down to 1.08 solar radii. The Coronagraph Spacecraft (CSC) will observe the Sun, when the second spacecraft, the Occulter Spacecraft (OSC) will work as an external occulter, eclipsing to the CSC the sun disk. The finest metrology sub-systems, the Shadow Position Sensors (SPS) and the Occulter Position Sensor Emitters (OPSE) identifying respectively the CSC-Sun axis and the formation flying (i.e., CSC-OSC) axis will be considered here. In particular, this paper is dedicated to the test-bed for the characterization, the performance analysis and the algorithms capabilities analysis of the both the metrology subsystems. The test-bed is able to simulate the different flight conditions of the two spacecraft and will give the opportunity to check the response of the subsystems in the conditions as close as possible to the flight ones.

  14. Design of an oxygen turbopump for use in an Advanced Expander Test Bed engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, William W.; Cooley, Christine B.; Carek, Jerry

    1993-06-01

    A liquid oxygen (LOX) turbopump with a gaseous hydrogen turbine drive was designed for the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB), which is a technology test bed to develop future space engines. This turbopump features a single stage, full admission, high reaction turbine: a three-bladed axial flow inducer, a high efficiency single stage centrifugal pump with an integrally shrouded impeller; an interpropellant seal package with an oxygen vaporizer; and a subcritical rotor with two ball bearings for axial loads and one roller bearing for turbine radial loads. Material selections were based on compatibility with operating fluids and temperatures. The pump was designed to operate over a 20:1 power range with a maximum performance point of 283.0 GPM of liquid oxygen at a pump discharge pressure of 2198 psia, and a shaft speed of 47,914 rpm. The split expander cycle engine and the performance it requires of the LOX turbopump is discussed as well as the design of the turbopump components.

  15. US-VISIT Independent Verification and Validation Project: Test Bed Establishment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, N W; Gansemer, J D

    2011-01-21

    This document describes the computational and data systems available at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use on the US-VISIT Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) project. This system - composed of data, software and hardware - is designed to be as close as a representation of the operational ADIS system as is required to verify and validate US-VISIT methodologies. It is not required to reproduce the computational capabilities of the enterprise-class operational system. During FY10, the test bed was simplified from the FY09 version by reducing the number of database host computers from three to one, significantly reducing the maintenance and overhead while simultaneously increasing system throughput. During the current performance period, a database transfer was performed as a set of Data Pump Export files. The previous RMAN backup from 2007 required the availability of an AIX system which is not required when using data pump. Due to efficiencies in the new system and process, loading of the database refresh was able to be accomplished in a much shorter time frame than was previously required. The FY10 Oracle Test Bed now consists of a single Linux platform hosting two Oracle databases including the 2007 copy as well as the October 2010 refresh.

  16. Test-bed for the remote health monitoring system for bridge structures using FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chin-Hyung; Park, Ki-Tae; Joo, Bong-Chul; Hwang, Yoon-Koog

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on test-bed for the long-term health monitoring system for bridge structures employing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, which is remotely accessible via the web, to provide real-time quantitative information on a bridge's response to live loading and environmental changes, and fast prediction of the structure's integrity. The sensors are attached on several locations of the structure and connected to a data acquisition system permanently installed onsite. The system can be accessed through remote communication using an optical cable network, through which the evaluation of the bridge behavior under live loading can be allowed at place far away from the field. Live structural data are transmitted continuously to the server computer at the central office. The server computer is connected securely to the internet, where data can be retrieved, processed and stored for the remote web-based health monitoring. Test-bed revealed that the remote health monitoring technology will enable practical, cost-effective, and reliable condition assessment and maintenance of bridge structures.

  17. Development and testing of a 20-kHz component test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    A history of the General Dynamics Space Systems Division 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including its current configuration and its role in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Highlights and results are presented on a series of tests conducted on the 20 kHz Breadboard. The first test presented is the 20 kHz Breadboard Acceptance test. This test verified the operation of the delivered Breadboard and also characterized the main components of the system. Next, an indepth efficiency testing effort is presented. The tests attempted to apportion all the power losses in the 20 kHz Breadboard Main Invert Units. Distortion test data is presented showing the distortion characteristics of a Mapham inverter. Lastly, current work on the 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including Main Inverter Unit paralleling tests. Conclusions are summarized and references given.

  18. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  19. Relevance of Item Analysis in Standardizing an Achievement Test in Teaching of Physical Science in B.Ed Syllabus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, S. Maria Josephine Arokia; Edannur, Sreekala

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on the analysis of test items constructed in the paper of teaching Physical Science for B.Ed. class. It involved the analysis of difficulty level and discrimination power of each test item. Item analysis allows selecting or omitting items from the test, but more importantly item analysis is a tool to help the item writer improve…

  20. An Airborne Parachute Compartment Test Bed for the Orion Parachute Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, James W.; Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The test program developing parachutes for the Orion/MPCV includes drop tests with parachutes deployed from an Orion-like parachute compartment at a wide range of dynamic pressures. Aircraft and altitude constraints precluded the use of an Orion boilerplate capsule for several test points. Therefore, a dart-shaped test vehicle with a hi-fidelity mock-up of the Orion parachute compartment has been developed. The available aircraft options imposed constraints on the test vehicle development and concept of operations. Delivery of this test vehicle to the desired velocity, altitude, and orientation required for the test is a di cult problem involving multiple engineering disciplines. This paper describes the development of the test technique. The engineering challenges include extraction from an aircraft, reposition of the extraction parachute, and mid-air separation of two vehicles, neither of which has an active attitude control system. The desired separation behavior is achieved by precisely controlling the release point using on-board monitoring of the motion. The design of the test vehicle is also described. The trajectory simulations and other analyses used to develop this technique and predict the behavior of the test vehicle are reviewed in detail. The application of the technique on several successful drop tests is summarized.

  1. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  2. Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.

  3. Development and Implementation of a Hardware In-the-Loop Test Bed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.

  4. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C

    2008-07-31

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  5. False-Positive Results after Environmental Pinworm PCR Testing due to Rhabditid Nematodes in Corncob Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  6. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding.

  7. Using bedding in a test environment critically affects 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Natusch, C; Schwarting, R K W

    2010-09-01

    Rats utter distinct classes of ultrasonic vocalizations depending on their developmental stage, current state, and situational factors. One class, comprising the so-called 50-kHz calls, is typical for situations where rats are anticipating or actually experiencing rewarding stimuli, like being tickled by an experimenter, or when treated with drugs of abuse, such as the psychostimulant amphetamine. Furthermore, rats emit 50-kHz calls when exposed to a clean housing cage. Here, we show that such vocalization effects can depend on subtle details of the testing situation, namely the presence of fresh rodent bedding. Actually, we found that adult males vocalize more in bedded cages than in bare ones. Also, two experiments showed that adult rats emitted more 50-kHz calls when tickled on fresh bedding. Furthermore, ip amphetamine led to more 50-kHz vocalization in activity boxes containing such bedding as compared to bare ones. The analysis of psychomotor activation did not yield such group differences in case of locomotion and centre time, except for rearing duration in rats tested on bedding. Also, the temporal profile of vocalization did not parallel that of behavioural activation, since the effects on vocalization peaked and started to decline again before those of psychomotor activation. Therefore, 50-kHz calls are not a simple correlate of psychomotor activation. A final experiment with a choice procedure showed that rats prefer bedded conditions. Overall, we assume that bedded environments induce a positive affective state, which increases the likelihood of 50-kHz calling. Based on these findings, we recommend that contextual factors, like bedding, should receive more research attention, since they can apparently decrease the aversiveness of a testing situation. Also, we recommend to more routinely measure rat ultrasonic vocalization, especially when studying emotion and motivation, since this analysis can provide information about the subject's status, which may

  8. Creating a Test Validated Structural Dynamic Finite Element Model of the Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Truong, Samson S.

    2014-01-01

    Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test Bed, X-56A, aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of X-56A. The ground vibration test validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A is improved using a model tuning tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of the X-56A have been improved in a single optimization run.

  9. Moving granular-bed filter development program, Option III: Development of moving granular-bed filter technology for multi-contaminant control. Task 14: Test plan; Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, J.C.; Olivo, C.A.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-04-01

    An experimental test plan has been prepared for DOE/METC review and approval to develop a filter media suitable for multi-contaminant control in granular-bed filter (GBF) applications. The plan includes identification, development, and demonstration of methods for enhanced media morphology, chemical reactivity, and mechanical strength. The test plan includes media preparation methods, physical and chemical characterization methods for fresh and reacted media, media evaluation criteria, details of test and analytical equipment, and test matrix of the proposed media testing. A filter media composed of agglomerated limestone and clay was determined to be the best candidate for multi-contaminate control in GBF operation. The combined limestone/clay agglomerate has the potential to remove sulfur and alkali species, in addition to particulate, and possibly halogens and trace heavy metals from coal process streams.

  10. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Lyon, Kevin Lawrence; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-08-31

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  11. Integration test project of CEEF--a test bed for Closed Ecological Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K; Otsubo, K; Ashida, A

    2000-01-01

    CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) were installed at Rokkasho village in northern Japan, for the purpose of clarifying life-support mechanisms in a completely closed space, such as a Lunar or Mars base. An integration test using the Closed Plantation Experiment Facility and Closed Animal Breeding & Habitation Experiment Facility is needed before conducting an entire closed experiment including plants, animals and humans. These integration tests are planned to be conducted step by step from fiscal 2001 to 2008.

  12. Testing the bed-blocking hypothesis: does nursing and care home supply reduce delayed hospital discharges?

    PubMed

    Gaughan, James; Gravelle, Hugh; Siciliani, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Hospital bed-blocking occurs when hospital patients are ready to be discharged to a nursing home, but no place is available, so that hospital care acts as a more costly substitute for long-term care. We investigate the extent to which greater supply of nursing home beds or lower prices can reduce hospital bed-blocking using a new Local Authority (LA) level administrative data from England on hospital delayed discharges in 2009-2013. The results suggest that delayed discharges respond to the availability of care home beds, but the effect is modest: an increase in care home beds by 10% (250 additional beds per LA) would reduce social care delayed discharges by about 6-9%. We also find strong evidence of spillover effects across LAs: more care home beds or fewer patients aged over 65 years in nearby LAs are associated with fewer delayed discharges.

  13. Space Shuttle Main Engine instrumented High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump technology test bed testing results summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbl, Mary E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the test results from the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) instrumented High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP). The turbopump was tested on Engine 3001, a highly instrumented engine, in an effort to characterize the turbopump and the engine system. Seven tests, for a total duration of 766 seconds, were performed over a five month time period. The testing was performed at a wide variety of engine conditions. Changes in engine mixture ratio, power level, engine inlet oxidizer pressure, engine inlet fuel pressure, and engine start sequence were made. A discussion of all the HPOTP pressure and temperature data obtained are presented with comparisons to supporting analyses made where applicable. The effect of the various engine conditions on the measured data is addressed. This paper also discusses the challenges that were overcome to obtain the data. The significant instrumentation related problems encountered during the design, fabrication, and testing of this turbopump are summarized. Only those issues that affected the data obtained or the instrumentation itself are discussed. The relevance of the data to other noninstrumented turbomachinery is outlined. Conclusions and recommendations resulting from the test series will be presented.

  14. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash

  15. Antenna servo control system characterization: Rate loop analysis for 34-m antenna at DSS 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, J. A.; Cox, D. G.; Smith, H. K.; Engel, J. H.; Ahlstrom, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The elevation and azimuth servo rate loops at the 34-m High Efficiency Deep Space Station 15 (DSS 15) are described. Time and frequency response performance criteria were measured. The results are compared to theoretically deduced performance criteria. Unexpected anomalies in the frequency response are observed and identified.

  16. Commerce Lab - An enabling facility and test bed for commercial flight opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Jack; Atkins, Harry L.; Williams, John R.

    1986-01-01

    Commerce Lab is conceived as an adjunct to the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) by providing a focal point for commercial missions which could utilize existing NSTS carrier and resource capabilities for on-orbit experimentation in the microgravity sciences. In this context, the Commerce Lab provides an enabling facility and test bed for commercial flight opportunities. Commerce Lab program activities to date have focused on mission planning for private sector involvement in the space program to facilitate the commercial exploitation of the microgravity environment for materials processing research and development. It is expected that Commerce Lab will provide a logical transition between currently planned NSTS missions and future microgravity science and commercial R&D missions centered around the Space Station. The present study identifies candidate Commerce Lab flight experiments and their development status and projects a mission traffic model that can be used in commercial mission planning.

  17. Analysis of Quantum Information Test-Bed by Parametric Down-Converted Photons Interference Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    To, Wing H.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum optical experiments require all the components involved to be extremely stable relative to each other. The stability can be "measured" by using an interferometric experiment. A pair of coherent photons produced by parametric down-conversion could be chosen to be orthogonally polarized initially. By rotating the polarization of one of the wave packets, they can be recombined at a beam splitter such that interference will occur. Theoretically, the interference will create four terms in the wave function. Two terms with both photons going to the same detector, and two terms will have the photons each going to different detectors. However, the latter will cancel each other out, thus no photons will arrive at the two detectors simultaneously under ideal conditions. The stability Of the test-bed can then be inferred by the dependence of coincidence count on the rotation angle.

  18. Design of an Advanced Expander Test Bed. [for future space engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, Arthur I.; Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is the key element for development of technology for future space engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions and conduct investigations of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The AETB will use oxygen/hydrogen propellants and a split expander cycle with nominal operation at a combustion chamber pressure of 1200 psia, a mixture ratio of 6.0, and an equivalent vacuum thrust of 20,000 lbf. It will function over a wide range of conditions including throttling to 5 percent thrust, operation at a mixture ratio of 12.0, and operation in tank head idle and pumped idle modes.

  19. Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic trade-off analysis of a small hypersonic flying test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzella, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic trade-off analysis aiming to design a small hypersonic flying test bed with a relatively simple vehicle architecture. Such vehicle will have to be launched with a sounding rocket and shall re-enter the Earth atmosphere allowing to perform several experiments on critical re-entry technologies such as boundary-layer transition and shock-shock interaction phenomena. The flight shall be conducted at hypersonic Mach number, in the range 6-8 at moderate angles of attack. In the paper some design analyses are shown as, for example, the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability analysis. A preliminary optimization of the configuration has been also done to improve the aerodynamic performance and stability of the vehicle. Several design results, based both on engineering approach and computational fluid dynamics, are reported and discussed in the paper. The aerodynamic model of vehicle is also provided.

  20. Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

    2011-05-31

    The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

  1. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT & PRODUCTION TESTING FOR COAL BED METHANE IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Cortland Eble; James Drahovzal; David Morse; Ilham Demir; John Rupp; Maria Mastalerz; Wilfrido Solano

    2004-06-01

    The geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky have completed the initial geologic assessment of their respective parts of the Illinois Basin. Cumulative thickness maps have been generated and target areas for drilling have been selected. The first well in the Illinois area of the Illinois Basin coal bed methane project was drilled in White County, Illinois in October 2003. This well was cored in the major coal interval from the Danville to the Davis Coals and provided a broad spectrum of samples for further analyses. Sixteen coal samples and three black shale samples were taken from these cores for canister desorption tests and were the subject of analyses that were completed over the following months, including desorbed gas volume, gas chemical and isotope composition, coal proximate, calorific content and sulfur analyses. Drilling programs in Indiana and Kentucky are expected to begin shortly.

  2. Some preliminary results from the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, P.W.; Fingersh, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    With the remarkable rise in interest in variable-speed operation of larger wind turbines, it has become important for the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) to have access to a variable-speed test bed that can be specially instrumented for research. Accordingly, a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind, Grumman Windstream machine has been equipped with a set of composite blades and a direct-coupled, permanent-magnet, 20 kilowatt generator. This machine and its associated control system and data collection system are discussed. Several variations of a maximum power control algorithm have been installed on the control computer. To provide a baseline for comparison, several constant speed algorithms have also been installed. The present major effort is devoted to daytime, semi-autonomous data collection.

  3. Characterization and fixed-bed testing of a nickel-based hot gas desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Swisher, J.H.; Hammerbeck, K.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this project was to (1) extend a preliminary investigation completed earlier on dispersed nickel sorbents by developing new processing methods, characterizing sorbent materials more extensively, and evaluating the materials in fixed bed reactor tests, and (2) to determine the feasibility of using dispersed nickel sorbents with reductive regeneration for hot gas desulfurization. One of the properties of nickel that is somewhat unique is that it forms a liquid sulfide at sufficiently high temperatures with high sulfur potentials or H{sub 2}S levels. A eutectic exists in the Ni-S phase diagram at 637 C and a composition of 33.4 wt% or 21.5 wt% S. Under controlled conditions, the formation of a liquid phase can be used to advantage in hot gas desulfurization. Sorbent preparation, the experimental unit, and experimental procedure are described. Results from the sorbent, 24Ni-7Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, are given.

  4. High-Resolution Adaptive Optics Test-Bed for Vision Science

    SciTech Connect

    Wilks, S C; Thomspon, C A; Olivier, S S; Bauman, B J; Barnes, T; Werner, J S

    2001-09-27

    We discuss the design and implementation of a low-cost, high-resolution adaptive optics test-bed for vision research. It is well known that high-order aberrations in the human eye reduce optical resolution and limit visual acuity. However, the effects of aberration-free eyesight on vision are only now beginning to be studied using adaptive optics to sense and correct the aberrations in the eye. We are developing a high-resolution adaptive optics system for this purpose using a Hamamatsu Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator. Phase-wrapping is used to extend the effective stroke of the device, and the wavefront sensing and wavefront correction are done at different wavelengths. Issues associated with these techniques will be discussed.

  5. Real-Time Building Energy Simulation Using EnergyPlus and the Building Controls Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Xiufeng; Bhattachayra, Prajesh; O'Neill, Zheng; Haves, Philip; Wetter, Michael; Bailey, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    Most commercial buildings do not perform as well in practice as intended by the design and their performances often deteriorate over time. Reasons include faulty construction, malfunctioning equipment, incorrectly configured control systems and inappropriate operating procedures (Haves et al., 2001, Lee et al., 2007). To address this problem, the paper presents a simulation-based whole building performance monitoring tool that allows a comparison of building actual performance and expected performance in real time. The tool continuously acquires relevant building model input variables from existing Energy Management and Control System (EMCS). It then reports expected energy consumption as simulated of EnergyPlus. The Building Control Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is used as the software platform to provide data linkage between the EMCS, an EnergyPlus model, and a database. This paper describes the integrated real-time simulation environment. A proof-of-concept demonstration is also presented in the paper.

  6. A message passing kernel for the hypercluster parallel processing test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    A Message-Passing Kernel (MPK) for the Hypercluster parallel-processing test bed is described. The Hypercluster is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to support investigations of parallel algorithms and architectures for computational fluid and structural mechanics applications. The Hypercluster resembles the hypercube architecture except that each node consists of multiple processors communicating through shared memory. The MPK efficiently routes information through the Hypercluster, using a message-passing protocol when necessary and faster shared-memory communication whenever possible. The MPK also interfaces all of the processors with the Hypercluster operating system (HYCLOPS), which runs on a Front-End Processor (FEP). This approach distributes many of the I/O tasks to the Hypercluster processors and eliminates the need for a separate I/O support program on the FEP.

  7. Plans of a test bed for ionospheric modelling based on Fennoscandian ground-based instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Kero, Antti; Verronen, Pekka T.; Aikio, Anita; Vierinen, Juha; Lehtinen, Markku; Turunen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Virtanen, Ilkka; Norberg, Johannes; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Kallio, Esa; Kestilä, Antti; Partamies, Noora; Syrjäsuo, Mikko

    2016-07-01

    One of the recommendations for teaming among research groups in the COSPAR/ILWS roadmap is about building test beds in which coordinated observing supports model development. In the presentation we will describe a test bed initiative supporting research on ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere interactions. The EISCAT incoherent scatter radars with their future extension, EISCAT3D, form the backbone of the proposed system. The EISCAT radars are surrounded by versatile and dense arrays of ground-based instrumentation: magnetometers and auroral cameras (the MIRACLE and IMAGE networks), ionospheric tomography receivers (the TomoScand network) and other novel technology for upper atmospheric probing with radio waves (e.g. the KAIRA facility, riometers and the ionosonde maintained by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory). As a new opening, close coordination with the Finnish national cubesat program is planned. We will investigate opportunities to establish a cost efficient nanosatellite program which would support the ground-based observations in a systematic and persistent manner. First experiences will be gathered with the Aalto-1 and Aalto-2 satellites, latter of which will be the Finnish contribution to the international QB50 mission. We envisage close collaboration also in the development of data analysis tools with the goal to integrate routines and models from different research groups to one system, where the different elements support each other. In the longer run we are aiming for a modelling framework with observational guidance which gives a holistic description on ionosphere-thermosphere processes and this way enables reliable forecasts on upper atmospheric space weather activity.

  8. Dynamical tests on fiber optic data taken from the riser section of a circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, E.M.; Guenther, C.P.; Breault, R.W.

    2007-11-01

    Dynamical tests have been applied to fiber optic data taken from a cold-flow circulating fluidized bed to characterize flow conditions, identify three time and/or length scales (macro, meso, and micro), and understand the contribution these scales have on the raw data. The characteristic variable analyzed is the raw voltage signal obtained from a fiber-optic probe taken at various axial and radial positions under different loading conditions so that different flow regimes could be attained. These experiments were carried out with the bed material of 812 μm cork particles. The characterization was accomplished through analysis of the distribution of the signal through the third and fourth moments of skewness and excess kurtosis. A generalization of the autocorrelation function known as the average mutual information function was analyzed by examining the function’s first minimum, identifying the point at which successive elements are no longer correlated. Further characterization was accomplished through the correlation dimension, a measure of the complexity of the attractor. Lastly, the amount of disorder of the system is described by a Kolmogorov-type entropy estimate. All six aforementioned tests were also implemented on ten levels of detail coefficients resulting from a discrete wavelet transformation of the same signal as used above. Through this analysis it is possible to identify and describe micro (particle level), meso (clustering or turbulence level), and macro (physical or dimensional level) length scales even though some literature considers these scales inseparable [6]. This investigation also used detail wavelet coefficients in conjunction with ANOVA analysis to show which scales have the most impact on the raw signal resulting from local hydrodynamic conditions.

  9. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  10. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  11. Enabling Scientific and Technological Improvements to Meet Core Partner Service Requirements in Alaska - An Arctic Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, E. M.; Scott, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA/NWS Test beds, such as the Joint Hurricane Test Bed (Miami, FL) and the Hazardous Weather Test Bed (Norman, OK) have been highly effective in meeting unique or pressing science and service challenges for the NWS. NWS Alaska Region leadership has developed plans for a significant enhancement to our operational forecast and decision support capabilities in Alaska to address the emerging requirements of the Arctic: An Arctic Test Bed. Historically, the complexity of forecast operations and the inherent challenges in Alaska have not been addressed well by the R&D programs and projects that support the CONUS regions of the NWS. In addition, there are unique science,technology, and support challenges (e.g., sea ice forecasts and arctic drilling prospects) and opportunities (Bilateral agreements with Canada, Russia, and Norway) that would best be worked through Alaska operations. A dedicated test bed will provide a mechanism to transfer technology, research results, and observations advances into operations in a timely and effective manner in support of Weather Ready Nation goals and to enhance decision support services in Alaska. A NOAA Arctic Test Bed will provide a crucial nexus for ensuring NOAA's developers understand Alaska's needs, which are often cross disciplinary (atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and hydrologic), to improve NOAA's responsiveness to its Arctic-related science and service priorities among the NWS and OAR (CPO and ESRL), and enable better leveraging of other research initiatives and data sources external to NOAA, including academia, other government agencies, and the private sector, which are particular to the polar region (e.g., WWRP Polar Prediction Project). Organization, capabilities and opportunities will be presentation.

  12. Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, C L [RE Wawersik, W. R.; Carlson, L. V.; Henfling, J. A.; Borns, D. J.; Beauheim, R. L.; Roberts, R. M.

    1997-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

  13. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  14. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  15. Testing and verification of granular-bed filters for the removal of particulate and alkalis. Eleventh quarterly project report, April 1, 1983-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation with Ducon, Inc. and Burns and Roe, Inc. are conducting a test and evaluation program of a Granular-Bed Filter (GBF) for gas-cleaning applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion processes. This work is funded by DOE PRDA for Exploratory Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation of Systems or Devices for Hot Gas Clean-up. This report describes the status of the testing of the subpilot scale GBF unit under simulated Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) conditions through Phase IV and the design of a bench-scale, single-bed cylindrical element that will be utilized in Test Phase V.

  16. Lewis Research Center's coal-fired, pressurized, fluidized-bed reactor test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobak, J. A.; Rollbuhler, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A 200-kilowatt-thermal, pressurized, fluidized-bed (PFB) reactor, research test facility was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a NASA-funded project to assess and evaluate the effect of PFB hot-gas effluent on aircraft turbine engine materials that might have applications in stationary-power-plant turbogenerators. Some of the techniques and components developed for this PFB system are described. One of the more important items was the development of a two-in-one, gas-solids separator that removed 95+ percent of the solids in 1600 F to 1900 F gases. Another was a coal and sorbent feed and mixing system for injecting the fuel into the pressurized combustor. Also important were the controls and data-acquisition systems that enabled one person to operate the entire facility. The solid, liquid, and gas sub-systems all had problems that were solved over the 2-year operating time of the facility, which culminated in a 400-hour, hot-gas, turbine test.

  17. Reference Architecture Test-Bed for Avionics (RASTA): A Software Building Blocks Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana Sanchez, Aitor; Taylor, Chris

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Reference Architecture System Test-bed for Avionics (RASTA) being developed within the ESA Estec Data Systems Division. This activity aims to benefit from interface standardization to provide a hardware/software reference infrastructure into which incoming R&D activities can be integrated, thus providing a generic but standardized test and development environment rather than dedicated facilities for each activity. Rasta is composed of by both HW and SW building blocks constituting the main elements of a typical Data Handling System. This includes a core processor (LEON2), Telemetry and Telecommand links, digital interfaces, and mass memory. The range of digital serial interfaces includes CAN bus, MIL-STD-1553 and SpaceWire. The paper will focus on the Software aspects of RASTA and in particular the software building blocks provided to ease development activities and allow hardware independency. To support the take-up of RASTA by European Industry, all RASTA software developed internally by ESA is provided free under license. Significant outputs are already available and include: Basic SW and SW drivers (CAN/1553/SpW, TT&C), OS abstraction layer, CFDP flight implementation, highly portable and independent file system for space, ground segment telecommand/telemetry router. In the future, additional SW building blocks are planned (e.g. ECSS CAN library). The present focus of RASTA is related to a prototype implementation of the SOIS services and protocols under development by the CCSDS (Consultative committee for Space Data Standards)

  18. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  20. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as an integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gòdia, F.; Albiol, J.; Pérez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montràs, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  1. The Melissa Pilot Plant Facility as an Integration Test-bed for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, C.

    The MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory provides the site where the different advances around the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project coordinated and fostered by the European Space Agency, as well as other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated. During its first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re- designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of MELISSA as life support system, and to use this facility as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological systems. This includes the testing the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the loop, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. This new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. The presentation will summarize the present status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  2. Lewis Research Center's coal-fired, pressurized, fluidized-bed reactor test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobak, J. A.; Rollbuhler, R. J.

    1981-10-01

    A 200-kilowatt-thermal, pressurized, fluidized-bed (PFB) reactor, research test facility was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a NASA-funded project to assess and evaluate the effect of PFB hot-gas effluent on aircraft turbine engine materials that might have applications in stationary-power-plant turbogenerators. Some of the techniques and components developed for this PFB system are described. One of the more important items was the development of a two-in-one, gas-solids separator that removed 95+ percent of the solids in 1600 F to 1900 F gases. Another was a coal and sorbent feed and mixing system for injecting the fuel into the pressurized combustor. Also important were the controls and data-acquisition systems that enabled one person to operate the entire facility. The solid, liquid, and gas sub-systems all had problems that were solved over the 2-year operating time of the facility, which culminated in a 400-hour, hot-gas, turbine test.

  3. Comparison of System Identification Techniques for the Hydraulic Manipulator Test Bed (HMTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis linear, dynamic, multivariable state-space models for three joints of the ground-based Hydraulic Manipulator Test Bed (HMTB) are identified. HMTB, housed at the NASA Langley Research Center, is a ground-based version of the Dexterous Orbital Servicing System (DOSS), a representative space station manipulator. The dynamic models of the HMTB manipulator will first be estimated by applying nonparametric identification methods to determine each joint's response characteristics using various input excitations. These excitations include sum of sinusoids, pseudorandom binary sequences (PRBS), bipolar ramping pulses, and chirp input signals. Next, two different parametric system identification techniques will be applied to identify the best dynamical description of the joints. The manipulator is localized about a representative space station orbital replacement unit (ORU) task allowing the use of linear system identification methods. Comparisons, observations, and results of both parametric system identification techniques are discussed. The thesis concludes by proposing a model reference control system to aid in astronaut ground tests. This approach would allow the identified models to mimic on-orbit dynamic characteristics of the actual flight manipulator thus providing astronauts with realistic on-orbit responses to perform space station tasks in a ground-based environment.

  4. Conventional pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustion testing of San Miguel lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.; Goblirsch, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The information generated at GFETC can be summarized in the following way: (1) The ash fouling furnace is an empirical tool which provides good information on relative fouling potential of various fuels. In the case of San Miguel lignite, tests suggest a severe fouling problem if conventional boiler designs are employed. (2) No effect in either deposition rate or deposit strength was seen when MgO and CaCO/sub 3/ were used as additives. For these tests a single addition rate was utilized at two different injection points in the system. (3) Deposits from the combustion of San Miguel lignite are very different from those observed when burning a Northern Great Plains lignite, primarily because of the building of deposits from the refractory wall. (4) No bed agglomeration was noted under the varied run conditions used in AFBC testing of this lignite fuel. (5) The AFBC NO/sub chi/ level emitted in the flue gas were always less than the NSPS limit of 0.6 lbs NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu. (6) Utilization of inherent alkali was less than that observed for North Dakota lignites. It was possible to meet NSPS standards of 90% sulfur capture using limestone addition. Use of lower grade fuels such as the lignite from the San Miguel mine is inevitable if we are to meet the expanding needs for energy in the United States today. To make use of these different fuels extensive testing on laboratory and pilot scales will be beneficial in avoiding major problems due to the different characteristics these materials possess. The present successful operation of a full scale boiler using the San Miguel lignite is a good example of the value pilot scale studies can have on the road to successful operation.

  5. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  6. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  7. Monitoring, Modeling, and Emergent Toxicology in the East Fork Watershed: Developing a Test Bed for Water Quality Management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overarching objectives for the development of the East Fork Watershed Test Bed in Southwestern Ohio include: 1) providing research infrastructure for integrating risk assessment and management research on the scale of a large multi-use watershed (1295 km2); 2) Focusing on process...

  8. Testing the Bed-Blocking Hypothesis: Does Nursing and Care Home Supply Reduce Delayed Hospital Discharges?

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, James; Gravelle, Hugh; Siciliani, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Hospital bed-blocking occurs when hospital patients are ready to be discharged to a nursing home, but no place is available, so that hospital care acts as a more costly substitute for long-term care. We investigate the extent to which greater supply of nursing home beds or lower prices can reduce hospital bed-blocking using a new Local Authority (LA) level administrative data from England on hospital delayed discharges in 2009–2013. The results suggest that delayed discharges respond to the availability of care home beds, but the effect is modest: an increase in care home beds by 10% (250 additional beds per LA) would reduce social care delayed discharges by about 6–9%. We also find strong evidence of spillover effects across LAs: more care home beds or fewer patients aged over 65 years in nearby LAs are associated with fewer delayed discharges. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760581

  9. Fluidised-bed combustion. IEA Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidised-Bed Test Facility back-end valves: history and modification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The pressure of the combustor freeboard is controlled by one of three back-end pressure control valves. The back-end valves are so called as they are situated at the back end of the exhaust gas system at the outlet of the main exhaust gas heat exchanger. In normal operation one of the valves is on pressure control duty, another on pressure relief duty, and the third is shut and available for operation on control or relief duty. These valves are subjected to a very arduous duty: temperatures of up to 350/sup 0/C to 375/sup 0/C with pressure drops of approximately 8 bar, and an estimated solids content of up to 400 ppM in the exhaust gases. Severe erosion on the valves seats, shafts, seals and upstream and downstream pipework has occurred and a large amount of remedial work has been carried out on the valves and adjacent pipework. This report describes the history of the valve erosion, the maintenance/remedial work carried out, and the steps being taken to attempt to solve the problem for future tests.

  10. Development of a Multi-bus, Multi-source Reconfigurable Stirling Radioisotope Power System Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has typically used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) as their source of electric power for deep space missions. A more efficient and potentially more cost effective alternative to the RTG, the high efficiency 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator 110 (SRG110) is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), Stirling Technology Company (STC) and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The SRG110 consists of two Stirling convertors (Stirling Engine and Linear Alternator) in a dual-opposed configuration, and two General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Although Stirling convertors have been successfully operated as a power source for the utility grid and as a stand-alone portable generator, demonstration of the technology required to interconnect two Stirling convertors for a spacecraft power system has not been attempted. NASA GRC is developing a Power System Test Bed (PSTB) to evaluate the performance of a Stirling convertor in an integrated electrical power system application. This paper will describe the status of the PSTB and on-going activities pertaining to the PSTB in the NASA Thermal-Energy Conversion Branch of the Power and On-Board Propulsion Technology Division.

  11. Networked seduction: a test-bed for the study of strategic communication on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, F

    2001-02-01

    One of the emerging features of the Internet is its relational and communicative nature: the initial centrality of the information exchange is moving to the building of online relationships, from friendship to romantic and even sexual relationships. The main goal of this paper is to define a theoretical model for the study of seductive processes on the Internet. In particular, taking up the perspective of the user, a shift of focus is proposed: from the description of the development of interpersonal attraction to the investigation of seduction, considered as a strategic communication process. According to the presented model, the key effort of the subjects involved in a computer-mediated seductive interaction is the negotiation of the meaning of the situation they are involved in. This process usually requires two tasks: the analysis of the characteristics of the communicative environment in which the play of interpersonal attraction develops, and the exploitation of the affordances offered by the communicative environment according to specific strategic goals. The main features of the model are both the focus on the communicative tools employed by the users to reach their relational goals, and the ergonomic characteristics of the networked environment. This approach can be used as a test-bed for the definition of specific hypotheses concerning the development of seductive interaction online.

  12. MPEG-7 audio-visual indexing test-bed for video retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Foucher, Samuel; Gouaillier, Valerie; Brun, Christelle; Brousseau, Julie; Boulianne, Gilles; Osterrath, Frederic; Chapdelaine, Claude; Dutrisac, Julie; St-Onge, Francis; Champagne, Benoit; Lu, Xiaojian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports on the development status of a Multimedia Asset Management (MAM) test-bed for content-based indexing and retrieval of audio-visual documents within the MPEG-7 standard. The project, called "MPEG-7 Audio-Visual Document Indexing System" (MADIS), specifically targets the indexing and retrieval of video shots and key frames from documentary film archives, based on audio-visual content like face recognition, motion activity, speech recognition and semantic clustering. The MPEG-7/XML encoding of the film database is done off-line. The description decomposition is based on a temporal decomposition into visual segments (shots), key frames and audio/speech sub-segments. The visible outcome will be a web site that allows video retrieval using a proprietary XQuery-based search engine and accessible to members at the Canadian National Film Board (NFB) Cineroute site. For example, end-user will be able to ask to point on movie shots in the database that have been produced in a specific year, that contain the face of a specific actor who tells a specific word and in which there is no motion activity. Video streaming is performed over the high bandwidth CA*net network deployed by CANARIE, a public Canadian Internet development organization.

  13. Evaluation of FTIR emission spectrometry for the determination of turbine exhaust composition in test beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg; Lister, Dave H.; Lindermeir, Erwin; Hilton, Moira; Bishop, Gary; Wiesen, Peter; Bernard, Marc

    1999-09-01

    The capability of taking non-intrusive species measurements in a jet plume of a modified mid-size low by-pass aero-engine running on a sea level test bed at several thrust levels was demonstrated. Also conventional intrusive measurements were performed with a spatially resolved method using a traversing single-point sampling probe which fulfills ICAO standards. The FTIR spectrometry measurements included both emission and absorption mode with a multi-path reflection compartment as well as the single emission mode. Due to the lack of a common/unique definition for the exhaust plume diameter it was found that the column density was the best measure to compare the different techniques. The FTIR engine measurement results for CO2, CO, and NO have been proven to be in agreement with the intrusive data within plus or minus 30%. Several error sources during the radiometric radiance calibration were identified which lead to uncertainties in the FTIR retrievals, namely (1) incomplete knowledge of the optical surface emissivities, (2) incomplete knowledge and inhomogeneities of the optical surface temperature, and (3) undefined instrumental drifts and non-linearities during the calibration.

  14. Testing of zinc titanate desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Gal, E.; Gupta, R.P.

    1993-09-01

    Sorbents developed for moving-bed systems must comply with a minimum of chemical and mechanical durability performance characteristics in order to be considered acceptable for long-term operation. Among the desired properties, a sorbent must have: (1) High chemical reactivity, as measured by the rate of sulfur absorption and the total sulfur loading on the sorbent. (2) High mechanical strength, as measured by the pellet crush strength and the attrition resistance; (3) Suitable pellet morphology, as given by pellet size and shape to promote good bulk flow ability and seasonable porosity to increase reactivity. Formulation 2A1.7M (UCI designation L-3787M) was selected by DOE as the baseline formulation for performance evaluation of Option 3 sorbents. This baseline formulation is a rounded zinc titanate sorbent containing a 2:1 Zn:Ti molar ratio, 1.7% molybdenum (equivalent to 2.5% MoO{sub 3}), and 3% bentonite binder that had been previously tested under the Option 2 program. Zinc titanate sorbents were prepared by UCI as rounded spherical or ellipsoidal pellets. The fabrication procedure is targeted at achieving a balance of mechanical strength (crush strength and attrition resistance) and chemical reactivity by controlling the pellet internal porosity.

  15. Initial operational capability of the ASTREX large space structures test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Future DOD, NASA, and SDI space systems will be larger than any spacecraft flown before. The economics of placing these large space systems (LSS) into orbit dictates that they be as low in mass as possible. The combination of very large size and relatively low mass produces systems which possess little structural rigidity. This flexibility causes severe technical problems when combined with the precise shape and pointing requirements associated with many future LSS missions. Development of new control technologies which can solve these problems and enable future LSS missions is under way, but a test bed is needed for demonstration and evaluation of the emerging control hardware (sensors and actuators) and methodologies. In particular, the need exists for a facility which enables both large angle slewing and subsequent pointing/shape control of a variety of flexible bodies. The Air Force Astronautics Laboratory (AFAL) has conceived the Advanced Space Structures Technology Research Experiments (ASTREX) facility to fill this need. An overview of the ASTREX facility is given.

  16. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-08-22

    This article describes the implementation of the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). The BCVTB is a software environment that allows connecting different simulation programs to exchange data during the time integration, and that allows conducting hardware in the loop simulation. The software architecture is a modular design based on Ptolemy II, a software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. The BCVTB provides additions to Ptolemy II that allow the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB, Simulink and the Modelica modelling and simulation environment Dymola. The additions also allow executing system commands, such as a script that executes a Radiance simulation. In this article, the software architecture is presented and the mathematical model used to implement the co-simulation is discussed. The simulation program interface that the BCVTB provides is explained. The article concludes by presenting applications in which different state of the art simulation programs are linked for run-time data exchange. This link allows the use of the simulation program that is best suited for the particular problem to model building heat transfer, HVAC system dynamics and control algorithms, and to compute a solution to the coupled problem using co-simulation.

  17. A Modular Building Controls Virtual Test Bed for the Integrations of Heterogeneous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip

    2008-06-30

    This paper describes the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) that is currently under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An earlier prototype linked EnergyPlus with controls hardware through embedded SPARK models and demonstrated its value in more cost-effective envelope design and improved controls sequences for the San Francisco Federal Building. The BCVTB presented here is a more modular design based on a middleware that we built using Ptolemy II, a modular software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to couple to Ptolemy II a prototype version of EnergyPlus,MATLAB/Simulink or other simulation programs for data exchange during run-time. In future work we will also implement a BACnet interface that allows coupling BACnet compliant building automation systems to Ptolemy II. We will present the architecture of the BCVTB and explain how users can add their own simulation programs to the BCVTB. We will then present an example application in which the building envelope and the HVAC system was simulated in EnergyPlus, the supervisory control logic was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and Ptolemy II was used to exchange data during run-time and to provide realtime visualization as the simulation progresses.

  18. Vision development test bed: The cradle of the MSS artificial vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucherman, Leon; Stovman, John

    This paper presents the concept of the Vision Development Test-Bed (VDTB) developed at Spar Aerospace Ltd. in order to assist development work on the Artificial Vision System (AVS) for the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) of Space Station Freedom in providing reliable and robust target auto acquisition and robotic auto-tracking capabilities when operating in the extremely contrasty illumination of the space environment. The paper illustrates how the VDTB will be used to understand the problems and to evaluate the methods of solving them. The VDTB is based on the use of conventional but high speed image processing hardware and software. Auxiliary equipment, such as TV cameras, illumination sources, monitors, will be added to provide completeness and flexibility. A special feature will be the use of solar simulation so that the impact of the harsh illumination conditions in space on image quality can be evaluated. The VDTB will be used to assess the required techniques, algorithms, hardware and software characteristics, and to utilize this information in overcoming the target-recognition and false-target rejection problems. The problems associated with NTSC video processing and the use of color will also be investigated. The paper concludes with a review of applications for the VDTB work, such as AVS real-time simulations, application software development, evaluations, and trade-offs studies.

  19. Direct-detection Free-space Laser Transceiver Test-bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Dabney, Philip W.; Ferrara, Jeffrey F.; Fong, Wai H.; Martino, Anthony J.; McGarry Jan. F.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.; Principe, Caleb M.; Sun, Siaoli; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a direct-detection free-space laser communications transceiver test bed. The laser transmitter is a master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration using a 1060 nm wavelength laser-diode with a two-stage multi-watt Ytterbium fiber amplifier. Dual Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulators provide an extinction ratio greater than 40 dB. The MOPA design delivered 10-W average power with low-duty-cycle PPM waveforms and achieved 1.7 kW peak power. We use pulse-position modulation format with a pseudo-noise code header to assist clock recovery and frame boundary identification. We are examining the use of low-density-parity-check (LDPC) codes for forward error correction. Our receiver uses an InGaAsP 1 mm diameter photocathode hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) cooled with a thermo-electric cooler. The HPMT has 25% single-photon detection efficiency at 1064 nm wavelength with a dark count rate of 60,000/s at -22 degrees Celsius and a single-photon impulse response of 0.9 ns. We report on progress toward demonstrating a combined laser communications and ranging field experiment.

  20. Development of sludge filterability test to assess the solids removal potential of a sludge bed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Nidal; Zandvoort, Marcel; van Lier, Jules; Zeeman, Grietje

    2006-12-01

    A qualitative sludge characterisation technique called "sludge filterability technique" has been developed. This technique enables the determination of the sludge potential for the physical removal of solids, weighing the effect of different process parameters on solids removal and identifying the mechanisms of solids removal in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed system. In this paper guidelines for conducting the test are given and a "standardised" set-up is presented. The experimental set-up and protocol are simple and the results can be obtained in a period as short as a few hours. A sludge sample is added to an upflow reactor incubated at 4 degrees C, to limit gas production, washed with an anaerobically pre-treated and suspended solids free wastewater to remove solids washed out from the sludge, and then fed with a model substrate, prepared from fish meal with a standard procedure. Several experimental runs were conducted to validate and optimise the technique. The results showed that the technique is reliable, workable and reproducible.

  1. Test results from the Department of Energy`s Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Hot Gas Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Presented here is a summary of operations and conclusions from the last two test campaigns of the Department of Energy`s Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Hot Gas Cleanup Program which was implemented by the American Electric Power Service Corporation. In these tests, the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter (APF) operated on a one-seventh flow from the Tidd 70-MWe Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor. During these tests, the filter operated as predicted with extremely high particulate removal. During the combined test periods, more than 2,800 hours of operation were accumulated -- two operational periods lasted more than 650 hours. The completion of this program brings the total coal fired operating time of the APF to 5,854 hours.

  2. Preliminary Flight Results of the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed: NASA DR1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, George L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl; Barth, Janet; Seidleck, Christina; Marshall, Paul

    1998-01-01

    NASA Goddard Spare Flight Center's (GSFC) Dual Rate 1773 (DR1773) Experiment on the Microelectronic and Photonic Test Bed (MPTB) has provided valuable information on the performance of the AS 1773 fiber optic data bus in the space radiation environment. Correlation of preliminary experiment data to ground based radiation test results show the AS 1773 bus is employable in future spacecraft applications requiring radiation tolerant communication links.

  3. Remote Satellite Soil Moisture Mapping for the ERDC Countermine Simulation Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    river beds, deserts, riparian areas and forests; 2. Development of a reliable downscaling procedure for Landsat soil moisture maps (30 m) to Quickbird...on roads and in river beds, deserts, riparian areas and forests; 2. Development of a reliable downscaling procedure for Landsat soil moisture maps... river the QuickBird soil moisture seems to be too low (Figures 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) while on the asphalt road the soil moisture is estimated too high (13

  4. Large-N Over the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase I and Phase II Test Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelson, C. M.; Carmichael, J. D.; Mellors, R. J.; Abbott, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    One of the current challenges in the field of monitoring and verification is source discrimination of low-yield nuclear explosions from background seismicity, both natural and anthropogenic. Work is underway at the Nevada National Security Site to conduct a series of chemical explosion experiments using a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary approach. The goal of this series of experiments, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is to refine the understanding of the effect of earth structures on source phenomenology and energy partitioning in the source region, the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field, and the development of S waves observed in the far field. To fully explore these problems, the SPE series includes tests in both hard and soft rock geologic environments. The project comprises a number of activities, which range from characterizing the shallow subsurface to acquiring new explosion data from both the near field (<100 m) and the far field (>100 m). SPE includes a series of planned explosions (with different yields and depths of burials), which are conducted in the same hole and monitored by a diverse set of sensors recording characteristics of the explosions, ground-shock, seismo-acoustic energy propagation. This presentation focuses on imaging the full 3D wavefield over hard rock and soft rock test beds using a large number of seismic sensors. This overview presents statistical analyses of optimal sensor layout required to estimate wavefield discriminants and the planned deployment for the upcoming experiments. This work was conducted under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Mars ecopoiesis test bed: on earth and on the red planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David; Scherzer, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The concept of autotrophic organisms serving as planetary pioneers as a precursor to terraforming has been under consideration for several decades, and the term Ecopoiesis was introduced by the ecopoiets C. Sagan, M. Avener, R. Haynes and C. McKay to call attention to this possibility. There is a continuing need for experimental evidence to support this concept, one of them being the need to evaluate the survivability of terrestrial autotrophic microbes in a planetary environment. For this and other purposes a planetary simulation facility was constructed and operated at Techshot, Inc. in Indiana, USA. This facility has an accumulated record of more than one year's worth of experimentation under simulated Mars conditions. In a recent study this facility was operated for five weeks in a mode that simulated 35 sols on and just below the surface of Mars at low latitude. The diurnal lighting period was 12 hours:12 hours using xenon arc light filtered to simulate the solar intensity and spectrum on the Martian surface. A daily temperature profile followed that recorded at low latitudes with night-time minima at -80 C and noontime maxima at +26 C. Atmosphere was CO _{2} at <11 mbar. Moisture was monitored to confirm that no water could exist in the liquid phase. Test organisms included the cyanobacteria Anabena, sp., Chroococcidiopsis CCMEE171 and Plectonema boryanum and Eukaryota: Chlorella ellipsoidia maintained in the simulator under the above-described conditions. The exposed specimens were tested for intracellular esterase activity, chlorophyll content and reproductive survival. All tests yielded low-level positive survival results for these organisms. No definitive data relating to function and/or growth during exposure were sought. In parallel to these terrestrial studies a planned design study was undertaken for a proposed test bed to be operated on the surface of Mars. Design requirements include compact assembly for transport and installation on the planetary

  6. Batch Tests To Determine Activity Distribution and Kinetic Parameters for Acetate Utilization in Expanded-Bed Anaerobic Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Peter; Suidan, Makram T.

    1990-01-01

    Batch tests to measure maximum acetate utilization rates were used to determine the distribution of acetate utilizers in expanded-bed sand and expanded-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) reactors. The reactors were fed a mixture of acetate and 3-ethylphenol, and they contained the same predominant aceticlastic methanogen, Methanothrix sp. Batch tests were performed both on the entire reactor contents and with media removed from the reactors. Results indicated that activity was evenly distributed within the GAC reactors, whereas in the sand reactor a sludge blanket on top of the sand bed contained approximately 50% of the activity. The Monod half-velocity constant (Ks) for the acetate-utilizing methanogens in two expanded-bed GAC reactors was searched for by combining steady-state results with batch test data. All parameters necessary to develop a model with Monod kinetics were experimentally determined except for Ks. However, Ks was a function of the effluent 3-ethylphenol concentration, and batch test results demonstrated that maximum acetate utilization rates were not a function of the effluent 3-ethylphenol concentration. Addition of a competitive inhibition term into the Monod expression predicted the dependence of Ks on the effluent 3-ethylphenol concentration. A two-parameter search determined a Ks of 8.99 mg of acetate per liter and a Ki of 2.41 mg of 3-ethylphenol per liter. Model predictions were in agreement with experimental observations for all effluent 3-ethylphenol concentrations. Batch tests measured the activity for a specific substrate and determined the distribution of activity in the reactor. The use of steady-state data in conjunction with batch test results reduced the number of unknown kinetic parameters and thereby reduced the uncertainty in the results and the assumptions made. PMID:16348175

  7. An office building used as a federal test bed for energy-efficient roofs

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, H.A.; Christian, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    The energy savings benefits of re-covering the roof of an existing federal office building with a sprayed polyurethane foam system are documented. The building is a 12,880 ft{sup 2} (1,197 m{sup 2}), 1 story, masonry structure located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN. Prior to re-covering, the roof had a thin fiberglass insulation layer, which had become partially soaked because of water leakage through the failed built-up roof membrane. The average R-value for this roof measured at 2 hr{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degrees}F/Btu (0.3 m{sup 2} {center_dot}K/W). After re-covering the roof, it measured at 13 hr{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{degrees}F/Btu (2.3 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W). The building itself is being used as a test bed to document the benefits of a number of energy efficiency improvements. As such, it was instrumented to measure the half-hourly energy consumption of the whole building and of the individual rooftop air conditioners, the roof heat fluxes and the interior air and roof temperatures. These data were used to evaluate the energy effectiveness of the roof re-covering action. The energy savings analysis was done using the DOE-2.lE building simulation program, which was calibrated to match the measured data. The roof re-covering led to around 10% cooling energy savings and around 50% heating energy savings. The resulting energy cost reductions alone are not sufficient to justify re-covered roofs for buildings having high internal loads, such as the building investigated here. However the energy savings do contribute significantly to the measure`s Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR).

  8. Load converter interactions with the secondary system in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution dc test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Ramon C.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA LeRC in Cleveland, Ohio, is responsible for the design, development, and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Electrical Power System (EPS). In order to identify and understand system level issues during the SSF program design and development phases, a system Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) dc test bed was assembled. Some of the objectives of this test bed facility are the evaluation of, system efficiency, power quality, system stability, and system protection and reconfiguration schemes. In order to provide a realistic operating scenario, dc Load Converter Units are used in the PMAD dc test bed to characterize the user interface with the power system. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. This final regulation is required on the actual space station because the majority of user loads will require voltage levels different from the secondary bus voltage. This paper describes the testing of load converters in an end to end system environment (from solar array to loads) where their interactions and compatibility with other system components are considered. Some of the system effects of interest that are presented include load converters transient behavior interactions with protective current limiting switchgear, load converters ripple effects, and the effects of load converter constant power behavior with protective features such as foldback.

  9. Load converter interactions with the secondary system in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution DC test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Ramon C.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA LeRC in Cleveland, Ohio, is responsible for the design, development, and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Electrical Power System (EPS). In order to identify and understand system level issues during the SSF Program design and development phases, a system Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC test bed was assembled. Some of the objectives of this test bed facility are the evaluation of, system efficiency, power quality, system stability, and system protection and reconfiguration schemes. In order to provide a realistic operating scenario, dc Load Converter Units are used in the PMAD dc test bed to characterize the user interface with the power system. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. This final regulation is required on the actual space station because the majority of user loads will require voltage levels different from the secondary bus voltage. This paper describes the testing of load converters in an end to end system environment (from solar array to loads) where their interactions and compatibility with other system components are considered. Some of the system effects of interest that are presented include load converters transient behavior interactions with protective current limiting switchgear, load converters ripple effects, and the effects of load converter constant power behavior with protective features such as foldback.

  10. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER WASTE FORMS FOR SODIUM BEARING WASTE AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C; Carol Jantzen, C

    2007-08-27

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) processing of Sodium Bearing Waste simulants was performed in December 2006 by THOR{sup sm} Treatment Technologies LLC (TTT) The testing was performed at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) pilot plant facilities in Golden, CO. FBSR products from these pilot tests on simulated waste representative of the SBW at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) were subsequently transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and leach testing. Four as-received Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) granular/powder samples and four High Temperature Filter (HTF) powder samples were received by SRNL. FBSR DMR samples had been taken from the ''active'' bed, while the HTF samples were the fines collected as carryover from the DMR. The process operated at high fluidizing velocities during the mineralization test such that nearly all of the product collected was from the HTF. Active bed samples were collected from the DMR to monitor bed particle size distribution. Characterization of these crystalline powder samples shows that they are primarily Al, Na and Si, with > 1 wt% Ca, Fe and K. The DMR samples contained less than 1 wt% carbon and the HTF samples ranged from 13 to 26 wt% carbon. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the DMR samples contained significant quantities of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} startup bed. The DMR samples became progressively lower in starting bed alumina with major Na/Al/Si crystalline phases (nepheline and sodium aluminosilicate) present as cumulative bed turnover occurred but 100% bed turnover was not achieved. The HTF samples also contained these major crystalline phases. Durability testing of the DMR and HTF samples using the ASTM C1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT) 7-day leach test at 90 C was performed along with several reference glass samples. Comparison of the normalized leach rates for the various DMR and HTF components was made with the reference glasses and

  11. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Frailey, Scott; Parris, Thomas; Damico, James; Okwen, Roland; McKaskle, Ray; Monson, Charles; Goodwin, Jonathan; Beck, E; Berger, Peter; Butsch, Robert; Garner, Damon; Grube, John; Hackley, Keith; Hinton, Jessica; Iranmanesh, Abbas; Korose, Christopher; Mehnert, Edward; Monson, Charles; Roy, William; Sargent, Steven; Wimmer, Bracken

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well design an injection well and three monitoring wells was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A continuous injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6-0.7 tonne/day (0.66-0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at

  12. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  13. Functional Specifications for Selected Staff Workstations Within the Close Combat Test Bed’s Automated Battalion Tactical Operations Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    COL, AR Commanding Research accomplished under contract for the Department of the Army Micro Analysis & Design Inc. Technical review by Michael J...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Micro Analysis & Design Inc. REPORT NUMBER 3300 Mitchell Lane, Suite 175 Boulder, CO 80301 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Staff Workstations Within the Close Combat Test Bed’s Automated Battalion Tactical Operations Center Nils D. LaVine Micro Analysis & Design Inc. Field

  14. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  15. Evaluating De-centralised and Distributional Options for the Distributed Electronic Warfare Situation Awareness and Response Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Electronic Support EO Electro-Optic FPGAs Field Programmable Gate Arrays IR Infra-red LADAR Laser Detection and Ranging OSX Mac OS X; the apple...resolution scanning laser radar (LADAR). Effectors which have been developed for the test bed include autonomous electronic attack (Division) payloads...sensors, the steering agent must ensure that the target is observed from multiple, sufficiently different angles in order to reduce triangulation error

  16. Recent Developments in the Design, Capabilities and Autonomous Operations of a Lightweight Surface Manipulation System and Test-bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, W. R.; Brady, Jeffrey S.; Berry, Felecia C.; Ganoe, George G.; Anderson, Eric; King, Bruce D.; Mercer, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The first generation of a versatile high performance device for performing payload handling and assembly operations on planetary surfaces, the Lightweight Surface Manipulation System (LSMS), has been designed and built. Over the course of its development, conventional crane type payload handling configurations and operations have been successfully demonstrated and the range of motion, types of operations and the versatility greatly expanded. This enhanced set of 1st generation LSMS hardware is now serving as a laboratory test-bed allowing the continuing development of end effectors, operational techniques and remotely controlled and automated operations. This paper describes the most recent LSMS and test-bed development activities, that have focused on two major efforts. The first effort was to complete a preliminary design of the 2nd generation LSMS that has the capability for limited mobility and can reposition itself between lander decks, mobility chassis, and fixed base locations. A major portion of this effort involved conducting a study to establish the feasibility of, and define, the specifications for a lightweight cable-drive waist joint. The second effort was to continue expanding the versatility and autonomy of large planetary surface manipulators using the 1st generation LSMS as a test-bed. This has been accomplished by increasing manipulator capabilities and efficiencies through both design changes and tool and end effector development. A software development effort has expanded the operational capabilities of the LSMS test-bed to include; autonomous operations based on stored paths, use of a vision system for target acquisition and tracking, and remote command and control over a communications bridge.

  17. A cut-based search for ultra-high energy neutrinos with the ARA TestBed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Eugene; Connolly, Amy; Pfendner, Carl

    2014-03-01

    The cosmic ray flux cut off above primary energies of 1019.5 eV lead us to expect an UHE neutrino flux due to the GZK effect. Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is an ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic neutrino detector located at the South Pole that uses the radio Cherenkov technique by deploying radio frequency antennas at a depth of 200m in the Antarctic ice. While there are three complementary ARA neutrino searches in progress, I present the result of the first neutrino search with 2011-2012 ARA TestBed data using a cut-based analysis. For the analysis, I use a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation named AraSim that is calibrated against TestBed calibration pulser data and thermal noise data. We generate custom radio Cherenkov signals in the ice in the time domain for each event with a fully parameterized model. Using timing differences measured at antennas within a single station, we use interferometric techniques to reject thermal noise and continuous wave (CW) backgrounds, and reconstructed directions to search for neutrino candidates in the ice. I will present the UHE neutrino flux constraints from all ARA TestBed analyses.

  18. Countermeasures and Functional Testing in Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest (CFT 70)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2013-01-01

    This 70-day bed rest campaign was comprised of 6 integrated studies and conducted at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU). The FARU is located at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas and is a satellite unit of the Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center. This presentation will describe the FARU, discuss the utility of the bed rest platform for use in these studies, and introduce the studies that participated in the CFT 70 bed rest campaign. Information in this presentation will serve as the background for subsequent talks from each individual study. Individual study presentations will discuss preliminary results from completed subjects. Studies included in CFT70 were: ? Physiological Factors Contributing to Post Flight Changes in Functional Performance. J. Bloomberg, NASA ? Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study. L. Ploutz-Snyder, USRA ? Testosterone Supplementation as a Countermeasure Against Musculoskeletal losses during Space Exploration. R. Urban, University of Texas Medical Branch ? Effects of Retronasal Smelling, Variety and Choice on Appetite & Satiety. J. Hunter, Cornell University ? AD ASTRA: Automated Detection of Attitudes and States through Transaction Recordings Analysis. C. Miller, Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC ? Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analog to Study Neuro-cognitive Changes: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases. R. Seidler, University of Michigan

  19. Evaluation of bedding and nesting materials for laboratory mice by preference tests.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohei; Shimosaki, Shunsuke; Tongu, Miki; Kobayashi, Yuta; Nabika, Toru; Nomura, Masato; Yamada, Takaya

    2007-10-01

    Bedding and nesting materials can improve the health and environmental welfare of laboratory mice. This study was carried out to examine which items are actually preferred by mice. Two series of studies were performed on four types of floor-covering materials (Wood-shavings (Clean-chip), Cloth (Agrebe), Recycled-paper (Paper-clean), Paper (Care-feeaz), and on four types of nesting materials (Recycled-paper (Shepherd-shack), Cloth (Agrebe), Wood (Wood-cylinder), and Polycarbonate (Mouse-igloo). Preference of bedding materials was judged by the time length of staying in a cage. The results indicate that mice stayed in the cloth material (Agrebe) longer than in other bedding materials (light 51.1 +/- 5.3%, dark 51.5 +/- 2.6%). In the second experiment, the duration of stay in Agrebe was significantly longer than that in the other nesting materials in the light phase (70.9 +/- 2.4%). In the dark phase, staying time both in Agrebe and Shepherd-shack were significantly longer. These data suggest that cloth bedding and nesting is recommended for the environmental enrichment of laboratory mice.

  20. Pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor testing cofiring animal-tissue biomass with coal as a carcass disposal option

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Elizabeth M. Fedorowicz; David W. Harlan; Linda A. Detwiler; Michelle L. Rossman

    2006-10-15

    This study was performed to demonstrate the technical viability of cofiring animal-tissue biomass (ATB) in a coal-fired fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) as an option for disposing of specified risk materials (SRMs) and carcasses. The purpose of this study was to assess the technical issues of feeding/combusting ATB and not to investigate prion deactivation/pathogen destruction. Overall, the project successfully demonstrated that carcasses and SRMs can be cofired with coal in a bubbling FBC. Feeding ATB into the FBC did, however, present several challenges. Specifically, handling/feeding issues resulting from the small scale of the equipment and the extremely heterogeneous nature of the ATB were encountered during the testing. Feeder modifications and an overbed firing system were necessary. Through statistical analysis, it was shown that the ATB feed location had a greater effect on CO emissions, which were used as an indication of combustion performance, than the fuel type due to the feeding difficulties. Baseline coal tests and tests cofiring ATB into the bed were statistically indistinguishable. Fuel feeding issues would not be expected at the full scale since full-scale units routinely handle low-quality fuels. In a full-scale unit, the disproportionate ratio of feed line size to unit diameter would be eliminated thereby eliminating feed slugging. Also, the ATB would either be injected into the bed, thereby ensuring uniform mixing and complete combustion, or be injected directly above the bed with overfire air ports used to ensure complete combustion. Therefore, it is anticipated that a demonstration at the full scale, which is the next activity in demonstrating this concept, should be successful. As the statistical analysis shows, emissions cofiring ATB with coal would be expected to be similar to that when firing coal only. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Little Bear River Test-Bed: Tools for Environmental Observatory Design and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, D. K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mesner, N. O.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrologic and Environmental Observatories are needed to better understand how the fluxes and stores of water, sediment and nutrients are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment. The Little Bear River test-bed project is addressing critical questions to be answered for the design of Hydrologic and Environmental Observatories by examining the observing infrastructure needed to quantify constituent fluxes in surface waters. The hypothesis is that high frequency measurements of surrogate quantities can be dynamically assimilated into an integrated observing system that uses Bayesian Decision Networks to trigger intermittent sampling of the constituent of interest at critical times and thereby improve the estimates of constituent fluxes of interest. Phosphorous is being used as a specific example of an important constituent whose flux is difficult to quantify due to it being associated with sediment, with a significant fraction of the annual load often occurring during episodic storm events that are not well captured by typical infrequent sampling. In addition, in situ sensor technology to measure phosphorus concentrations is currently unavailable. Turbidity provides an easier-to-measure surrogate for Phosphorous concentration, but the relationship requires dynamic adjusting based on watershed conditions. This project is using existing measurement infrastructure and information assembled for the Little Bear Watershed within the prospective Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory where there are ongoing research and water quality improvement projects. Additional sensors and telemetry capability are being added to collect and transmit high frequency streamflow, turbidity, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen observations to a data warehouse that is based on the Hydrologic Observations Data Model developed by the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information Systems project. Bayesian Decision Network models are being developed to predict the load of

  2. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Ibarra, Aitor; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. All these characteristics ensure good survey performance for transients and fast moving objects. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Nominal exposures are in the range from 2 to 30 seconds, depending on the observational strategy. Part of the validation scenario involves the scheduling concept integrated in the robotic operations for both sensors. Every night it takes all the input needed and prepares a schedule following predefined rules allocating tasks for the telescopes. Telescopes are managed by RTS2 control software, that performs the real-time scheduling of the observation and manages all the devices at the observatory.1 At the end of the night the observing systems report astrometric positions and photometry of the objects detected. The first telescope was installed in Cebreros Satellite Tracking Station in mid-2015. It is currently in the commissioning phase and we present here the first results of the telescope. We evaluate the site characteristics and the performance of the TBT Cebreros

  3. PMU Data Integrity Evaluation through Analytics on a Virtual Test-Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2014-01-01

    Power systems are rapidly becoming populated by phasor measurement units (PMUs) in ever increasing numbers. PMUs are critical components of today s energy management systems, designed to enable near real-time wide area monitoring and control of the electric power system. They are able to measure highly accurate bus voltage phasors as well as branch current phasors incident to the buses at which PMUs are equipped. Synchrophasor data is used for applications varying from state estimation, islanding control, identifying outages, voltage stability detection and correction, disturbance recording, and others. However, PMU-measured readings may suffer from errors due to meter biases or drifts, incorrect configurations, or even cyber-attacks. Furthermore, the testing of early PMUs showed a large disparity between the reported values from PMUs provided by different manufacturers, particularly when frequency was off-nominal, during dynamic events, and when harmonic/inter-harmonic content was present. Detection and identification of PMU gross measurement errors are thus crucial in maintaining highly accurate phasor readings throughout the system. In this paper, we present our work in conducting analytics to determine the trustworthiness and worth of the PMU readings collected across an electric network system. By implementing the IEEE 118 bus test case on a virtual test bed (VTB) , we are able to emulate PMU readings (bus voltage and branch current phasors in addition to bus frequencies) under normal and abnormal conditions using (virtual) PMU sensors deployed across major substations in the network. We emulate a variety of failures such as bus, line, transformer, generator, and/or load failures. Data analytics on the voltage phase angles and frequencies collected from the PMUs show that specious (or compromised) PMU device(s) can be identified through abnormal behaviour by comparing the trend of its frequency and phase angle reading with the ensemble of all other PMU

  4. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  5. High-temperature-staged fluidized-bed combustion (HITS), bench scale experimental test program conducted during 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R E; Jassowski, D M; Newton, R A; Rudnicki, M L

    1981-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the process feasibility of the first stage of the HITS two-stage coal combustion system. Tests were run in a small (12-in. ID) fluidized bed facility at the Energy Engineering Laboratory, Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, Sacramento, California. The first stage reactor was run with low (0.70%) and high (4.06%) sulfur coals with ash fusion temperatures of 2450/sup 0/ and 2220/sup 0/F, respectively. Limestone was used to scavenge the sulfur. The produced low-Btu gas was burned in a combustor. Bed temperature and inlet gas percent oxygen were varied in the course of testing. Key results are summarized as follows: the process was stable and readily controllable, and generated a free-flowing char product using coals with low (2220/sup 0/F) and high (2450/sup 0/F) ash fusion temperatures at bed temperatures of at least 1700/sup 0/ and 1800/sup 0/F, respectively; the gaseous product was found to have a total heating value of about 120 Btu/SCF at 1350/sup 0/F, and the practicality of cleaning the hot product gas and delivering it to the combustor was demonstrated; sulfur capture efficiencies above 80% were demonstrated for both low and high sulfur coals with a calcium/sulfur mole ratio of approximately two; gasification rates of about 5,000 SCF/ft/sup 2/-hr were obtained for coal input rates ranging from 40 to 135 lbm/hr, as required to maintain the desired bed temperatures; and the gaseous product yielded combustion temperatures in excess of 3000/sup 0/F when burned with preheated (900/sup 0/F) air. The above test results support the promise of the HITS system to provide a practical means of converting high sulfur coal to a clean gas for industrial applications. Sulfur capture, gas heating value, and gas production rate are all in the range required for an effective system. Planning is underway for additional testing of the system in the 12-in. fluid bed facility, including demonstration of the second stage char burnup

  6. Resource Assessment & Production Testing for Coal Bed Methane in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cortland Eble; James Drahovzal; David Morse; Ilham Demir; John Rupp; Maria Mastalerz; Wilfrido Solano

    2005-11-01

    In order to assess the economic coal bed methane potential of the Illinois Basin, the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky performed a geological assessment of their respective parts of the Illinois Basin. A considerable effort went into generating cumulative coal thickness and bed structure maps to identify target areas for exploratory drilling. Following this, the first project well was drilled in White County, Illinois in October 2003. Eight additional wells were subsequently drilled in Indiana (3) and Kentucky (5) during 2004 and 2005. In addition, a five spot pilot completion program was started with three wells being completed. Gas contents were found to be variable, but generally higher than indicated by historical data. Gas contents of more than 300 scf/ton were recovered from one of the bore holes in Kentucky. Collectively, our findings indicate that the Illinois Basin represents a potentially large source of economic coal bed methane. Additional exploration will be required to refine gas contents and the economics of potential production.

  7. Analysis of particle trajectories in both low and intense bed-load regimes in flume tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraccarollo, L.; Hassan, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport in streams consists of the statistics of individual grains movements, paths and rest periods associated to the forcing hydrodynamics and to the bed morphology. In this paper we present results from experimental work to obtain statistical information for the grain movements under wide range of sediment transport regimes, that is from low to high transport intensities. We use image techniques to track the particles and to identify also the particle at rest, laying on the bed surface. Using the method, almost all particles are identified, so that consistent statistics is obtained for theoretical analysis. In our flumes we are able to observe the particle movements from either the transparent sidewall of from the top. Side view is opportune when the bed load layer is thicker than one grain diameter, as in this case the movements of most of the grains is precluded from the top view. This is the case of intense sediment transport rates. Vice versa, at low sediment transport intensity, the isolated and irregular movement of grains may be better looked from above, if the image distortion and blur induced by the presence of free surface is acceptable. Short runs of a few seconds are useful to identify 104-105 trajectories. On the contrary, we need long lasting runs to describe the statistics of the rest periods. This part has been performed by image comparison after removal of the footprint of particles under motion. Our results concern, at the moment, experiments where the bed surface is about flat, i.e. without clear bed form appearance. From low to intense bed load we document how the main statistical features of grain movements and rest periods are characterized qualitatively and quantitatively, including the interesting transitional stage. In the field we observe an increasing effort in tracking a relatively high number of tagged clasts. This activity is recently performed mainly by exploiting magnetically tagged tracers. In spite of all the

  8. Development and Validation of a Lifecycle-based Prognostics Architecture with Test Bed Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, J. Wesley; Upadhyaya, Belle; Sharp, Michael; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Jeffries, Brien; Nam, Alan; Strong, Eric; Tong, Matthew; Welz, Zachary; Barbieri, Federico; Langford, Seth; Meinweiser, Gregory; Weeks, Matthew

    2014-11-06

    On-line monitoring and tracking of nuclear plant system and component degradation is being investigated as a method for improving the safety, reliability, and maintainability of aging nuclear power plants. Accurate prediction of the current degradation state of system components and structures is important for accurate estimates of their remaining useful life (RUL). The correct quantification and propagation of both the measurement uncertainty and model uncertainty is necessary for quantifying the uncertainty of the RUL prediction. This research project developed and validated methods to perform RUL estimation throughout the lifecycle of plant components. Prognostic methods should seamlessly operate from beginning of component life (BOL) to end of component life (EOL). We term this "Lifecycle Prognostics." When a component is put into use, the only information available may be past failure times of similar components used in similar conditions, and the predicted failure distribution can be estimated with reliability methods such as Weibull Analysis (Type I Prognostics). As the component operates, it begins to degrade and consume its available life. This life consumption may be a function of system stresses, and the failure distribution should be updated to account for the system operational stress levels (Type II Prognostics). When degradation becomes apparent, this information can be used to again improve the RUL estimate (Type III Prognostics). This research focused on developing prognostics algorithms for the three types of prognostics, developing uncertainty quantification methods for each of the algorithms, and, most importantly, developing a framework using Bayesian methods to transition between prognostic model types and update failure distribution estimates as new information becomes available. The developed methods were then validated on a range of accelerated degradation test beds. The ultimate goal of prognostics is to provide an accurate assessment for

  9. National SCADA Test Bed: FY05 Progress on Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Erik J.; Michalski, John M.; Brian P. Van Leeuwen

    2006-07-01

    This document provides the status of the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) under development at Sandia National Laboratories. This development effort is funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program. Specifically the document presents a Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and software interface capability that supports the analysis of Process Control Systems (PCS) used in critical infrastructures. This document describes the development activities performed through June 2006 and the current status of the VCSE development task. Initial activities performed by the development team included researching the needs of critical infrastructure systems that depend on PCS. A primary source describing the security needs of a critical infrastructure is the Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector. A literature search of PCS analysis tools was performed and we identified a void in system-wide PCS M&S capability. No existing tools provide a capability to simulate control system devices and the underlying supporting communication network. The design team identified the requirements for an analysis tool to fill this void. Since PCS are comprised of multiple subsystems, an analysis framework that is modular was selected for the VCSE. The need for a framework to support the interoperability of multiple simulators with a PCS device model library was identified. The framework supports emulation of a system that is represented by models in a simulation interacting with actual hardware via a System-in-the-Loop (SITL) interface. To identify specific features for the VCSE analysis tool the design team created a questionnaire that briefly described the range of potential capabilities the analysis tool could include and requested feedback from potential industry users. This initial industry outreach was also intended to identify several industry users that are willing to participate in a dialog through the development process so that we

  10. Towards a Data-Optimized Coronal Magnetic Field Model (DOC-FM): Synthetic Test Beds and Multiwavelength Forward Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. E.; Dalmasse, K.; Fan, Y.; Fineschi, S.; MacKay, D.; Rempel, M.; White, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the physical state of the solar corona is key to deciphering the origins of space weather as well as to realistically representing the environment to be navigated by missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus. However, inverting solar coronal observations to reconstruct this physical state -- and in particular the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field - is complicated by limited lines of sight and by projection effects. On the other hand, the sensitivity of multiwavelength observations to different physical mechanisms implies a potential for simultaneous probing of different parts of the coronal plasma. In order to study this complementarity, and to ultimately establish an optimal set of observations for constraining the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field, we are developing a suite of representative simulations to act as diagnostic test beds. We will present three such test beds: a coronal active region, a quiescent prominence, and a global corona. Each fully define the physical state of density, temperature, and vector magnetic field in three dimensions throughout the simulation domain. From these test beds, and using the FORWARD SolarSoft IDL codes, we will create a broad range of synthetic data. Radio observables will include intensity and circular polarization (including gyroresonance effects) and Faraday rotation for a range of frequencies. Infrared and visible forbidden line diagnostics of Zeeman and saturated Hanle effects will yield full Stokes vector (I, Q, U, V) synthetic data, and UV permitted line Hanle diagnostics will yield intensity and linear polarization. In addition, we will synthesize UV and SXR imager data, UV/EUV spectrometric data, and white light brightness and polarized brightness. All of these synthetic data, along with the "ground truth" physical state of the simulations from which they are derived, will be made available to the community for the purpose of testing coronal inversion techniques.

  11. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  12. A Test Bed for Self-regulating Distribution Systems: Modeling Intergrated Renewable Energy and Demand Response in the GridLAB-D/MATLAB Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dan; de Wit, Braydon; Parkinson, Simon; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2012-01-16

    This paper discusses the development of a simulation test bed permitting the study of integrated renewable energy generators and controlled distributed heat pumps operating within distribution systems. The test bed is demonstrated in this paper by addressing the important issue of the self-regulating effect of consumer-owned air-source heat pumps on the variability induced by wind power integration, particularly when coupled with increased access to demand response realized through a centralized load control strategy.

  13. Sensors, Cyberinfrastructure, and Examination of Hydrologic and Hydrochemical Response in the Little Bear River Observatory Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Stevens, D. K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Mesner, N. O.; Spackman Jones, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Little Bear River environmental observatory test bed is one of 11 test bed projects that are focused on developing techniques and technologies for environmental observatories ranging from innovative application of environmental sensors to publishing observations data in common formats that can be accessed by investigators nationwide. Specific objectives of the Little Bear test bed include the estimation of water quality constituent fluxes from surrogate data, relation of fluxes to watershed attributes and management practices, examination of high frequency hydrologic and hydrochemical responses, and development of cyberinfrastructure that supports these analyses and publication of the data. We have installed high frequency water quality and discharge monitoring instrumentation at seven locations in the Little Bear, along with two continuous weather stations. Cyberinfrastructure that has been implemented includes the sensors, a telemetry system that transmits data from the field to a central location, a central observations database, software that automates the ingestion of these data into the database so they are available in near real time, and software tools for screening and quality control of the raw data. We have implemented a CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) Server that includes an instance of the Observations Data Model (ODM) relational database that stores the data, web services that provide programmatic data access over the Internet using WaterML, the Data Access System for Hydrology (DASH) that provides an Internet map based interface for data access, and the Time Series Analyst that provides Internet-based plotting and summary functionality. The high frequency data have illustrated the dynamic nature of hydrologic and hydrochemical response in the Little Bear as well as the importance of sampling frequency on estimation of constituent fluxes. Annual estimates of total phosphorus and total suspended solids loads vary over orders of magnitude

  14. Fixed bed testing of a molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate for hot gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Mei, J.S.; Everitt, C.E.; Katta, S.

    1993-09-01

    The following conclusions were made, based upon this study of T-2535 molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate: (1) Results of the half-cycle sulfidation experiments showed that sorbent efficiency and capacity of this formulation of zinc titanate were weak functions of operating-bed temperature. Evidence of diffusion limitations on the sulfidation reaction were observed, particularly at superficial velocities greater than 30 cm/s (1 ft/s). Sorbent performance appeared to be affected by the concentration of reducing gases and/or water content of the simulated coal gas mixtures. Sorbent capacity and efficiency deteriorated during the first three cycles, but stabilized thereafter. (2) Sorbent spalling was observed and appeared to increase with sulfur loading. Possible causes of spalling may be attributed to the induced crystal lattice stresses due to the formation of ZnS and especially ZnSO{sub 4}, which have relative molar volumes that are approximately 1-1/2 and 3 times larger, respectively, than that of the original ZnO. (3) Based on these results, it is apparent that the molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate with Zn/Ti molar ratio of 1.91 may not be a suitable sorbent for hot gas desulfurization in the fixed bed reactor for the Pinon Pine project, due to problems with spalling and loss of reactivity during sulfidation/regeneration cycling.

  15. Rapid testing for respiratory syncytial virus in a paediatric emergency department: benefits for infection control and bed management.

    PubMed

    Mills, J M; Harper, J; Broomfield, D; Templeton, K E

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for annual winter outbreaks of respiratory tract infection among children in temperate climates, placing severe pressure on hospital beds. Cohorting of affected infants has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in reducing nosocomial transmission of RSV, and may keep cubicles free for other patients who require them. Testing of symptomatic children for RSV is standard practice, but unfortunately traditional laboratory testing is not rapid enough to aid decision-making processes. Rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) in the emergency department has been suggested as an alternative. We performed a prospective study to quantify the amount of cubicle time saved by using POCT results to allow a targeted cohorting strategy. Over the four-month study period, the POCT allowed 183 children to be admitted directly to a designated cohort area, thus saving 568.5 cubicle-days for other patients. This is equivalent to five cubicles being left free for each day of the study period. This is the first time the benefits of using POCT have been quantified in this way. POCT for RSV is a safe, cost-effective and efficient way to improve bed management.

  16. Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  17. Design of a D-Strut and its application results in the JPL, MIT, and LaRC test beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. P.; Workman, Brian J.; Chu, Cheng-Chih; Anderson, Eric H.

    1992-01-01

    High damping at very low magnitudes of vibration is provided by an 'Arched Flexure' D-Strut. Five of these devices have been incorporated in JPL's CSI truss structure, and five more in MIT's interferometer test bed. Two were also temporarily installed in the LaRC CSI test structure. Damping factors in the 50 percent category are being provided at vibration motions as small as 50 nm. The 'Arched Flexure' used in the D-Strut maximizes the volumetric stiffness parameter relative to its axial stiffness. In turn, this enables high damping factors, even in a very rigid truss structure. This paper includes a presentation and discussion of both element and system test data taken at JPL, LaRC, and MIT. Also provided is a detailed description of the D-Strut, the dynamic model, and several graphs showing design parameter variations that will make it possible to evaluate the D-Strut for other applications.

  18. Design and construction of an optical test bed for LISA imaging systems and tilt-to-length coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwalla, M.; Danzmann, K.; Fernández Barranco, G.; Fitzsimons, E.; Gerberding, O.; Heinzel, G.; Killow, C. J.; Lieser, M.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Schuster, S.; Schwarze, T. S.; Tröbs, M.; Ward, H.; Zwetz, M.

    2016-12-01

    The laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) is a future space-based interferometric gravitational-wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in a triangular configuration. The interferometric measurements of path length changes between satellites will be performed on optical benches in the satellites. Angular misalignments of the interfering beams couple into the length measurement and represent a significant noise source. Imaging systems will be used to reduce this tilt-to-length coupling. We designed and constructed an optical test bed to experimentally investigate tilt-to-length coupling. It consists of two separate structures, a minimal optical bench and a telescope simulator. The minimal optical bench comprises the science interferometer where the local laser is interfered with light from a remote spacecraft. In our experiment, a simulated version of this received beam is generated on the telescope simulator. The telescope simulator provides a tilting beam, a reference interferometer and an additional static beam as a phase reference. The tilting beam can either be a flat-top beam or a Gaussian beam. We avoid tilt-to-length coupling in the reference interferometer by using a small photo diode placed at an image of the beam rotation point. We show that the test bed is operational with an initial measurement of tilt-to-length coupling without imaging systems. Furthermore, we show the design of two different imaging systems whose performance will be investigated in future experiments.

  19. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  20. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  1. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, Air-Cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and Sabatier Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Miller, Lee; Campbell, Melissa; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from the space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. The Sabatier Engineering Development Unit (EDU) processes waste CO2 to provide water to the crew. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS, air-cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor (TSAC), and Sabatier EDU testing. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of the 4BMS and Sabatier.

  2. Simultaneous calcium fluorescence imaging and MR of ex vivo organotypic cortical cultures: a new test bed for functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ruiliang; Klaus, Andreas; Bellay, Tim; Stewart, Craig; Pajevic, Sinisa; Nevo, Uri; Merkle, Hellmut; Plenz, Dietmar; Basser, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Recently, several new functional (f)MRI contrast mechanisms including diffusion, phase imaging, proton density, etc. have been proposed to measure neuronal activity more directly and accurately than blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI. However, these approaches have proved difficult to reproduce, mainly because of the dearth of reliable and robust test systems to vet and validate them. Here we describe the development and testing of such a test bed for non-BOLD fMRI. Organotypic cortical cultures were used as a stable and reproducible biological model of neuronal activity that shows spontaneous activity similar to that of in vivo brain cortex without any hemodynamic confounds. An open-access, single-sided magnetic resonance (MR) "profiler" consisting of four permanent magnets with magnetic field of 0.32 T was used in this study to perform MR acquisition. A fluorescence microscope with long working distance objective was mounted on the top of a custom-designed chamber that keeps the organotypic culture vital, and the MR system was mounted on the bottom of the chamber to achieve real-time simultaneous calcium fluorescence optical imaging and MR acquisition on the same specimen. In this study, the reliability and performance of the proposed test bed were demonstrated by a conventional CPMG MR sequence acquired simultaneously with calcium imaging, which is a well-characterized measurement of neuronal activity. This experimental design will make it possible to correlate directly the other candidate functional MR signals to the optical indicia of neuronal activity in the future.

  3. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem.

  4. Combustion tests of a turbine simulator burning low Btu fuel from a fixed bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.S.; Abuaf, N.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Najewicz, D.J.; Samuels, M.S.

    1993-11-01

    One of the most efficient and environmentally compatible coal fueled power generation technologies is the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) concept. Commercialization of the IGCC/HGCU concept requires successful development of combustion systems for high temperature low Btu fuel in gas turbines. Toward this goal, a turbine combustion system simulator has been designed, constructed, and fired with high temperature low Btu fuel. Fuel is supplied by a pilot scale fixed bed gasifier and hot gas desulfurization system. The primary objectives of this project are: (1) demonstration of long term operability of the turbine simulator with high temperature low Btu fuel; (2) measurement of NO{sub x}, CO, and particulate emissions; and (3) characterization of particulates in the fuel as well as deposits in the fuel nozzle, combustor, and first stage nozzle. In a related project, a reduced scale rich-quench-lean (RQL) gas turbine combustor has been designed, constructed, and fired with simulated low Btu fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop an RQL combustor with lower conversion of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) to NO{sub x} than a conventional combustor.

  5. Performance Support Technology to Assess Training Effectiveness: Functional and Test-Bed Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    tests . Journal of Educational Measurement, Fall, 21(3 , 221- 224. This article focuses upon the importance of a minimal level of internal reliability ...An ideal PST would automate construction of items as much as possible, and rely very little on teaching the SME to build them. The test plan feature...MOS multiple choice tests require about 60 items for adequate reliability . This, in fact, is the number suggested by TRADOC guidelines for SDTs. But CRT

  6. Description and performance of uranium beds used to getter tritium-deuterium at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Walthers, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly, (TSTA), a full size simulation of the fuel loop for a fusion reactor, will circulate 360 g mol/day (1800 g) of DT and will have an inventory of 150 g of tritium. During shutdown, a safe storage system for hydrogen isotopes, primarily DT, is needed. Uranium reacts readily with hydrogen, deuterium or tritium at room temperatures to form U(H,D,T)/sub 3/ having a dissociation pressure of approximately 10/sup -4/ torr. Upon heating to 720 K, the isotopes will desorb at pressures of one to two atmospheres. Uranium beds were selected as a means for long-term storage of the fuel loop inventory.

  7. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization - 13400

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Peterson, Reid A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2013-07-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. The goal of this campaign was to study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the encapsulated FBSR product in a geo-polymer monolith. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory. (authors)

  8. UBC's Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) Will Serve as Test Bed for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The University of British Columbia (UBC) recently celebrated the opening of its Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS), a living laboratory for researchers to teach, test, and study the long-term impact of sustainable practices and technologies. Featuring advanced building controls, sensing technology, and management software…

  9. TIMO-2-A cryogenic test bed for the ITER cryosorption pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Horst; Day, Christian; Herzog, Friedhelm

    2012-06-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been carrying out research and development in the field of vacuum cryopumps for nuclear fusion devices over the last decade. Together with the development activities also experience in the operation of the needed cryogenic systems necessary for such type of large scale cryopumps was collected. Due to the specific requirements of a large fusion device, such as ITER, the cryogenic distribution is based on gaseous helium at the needed temperature levels rather than liquid nitrogen or liquid helium. KIT has set up a large scale research facility, called TIMO-2, fully equipped with supercritical helium supply at large flow rates to be able to perform cryogenic tests of components under ITER-relevant conditions. During first test campaigns at TIMO-2 with a large scale model cryopump the ITER cryosorption vacuum pumping concept was successfully validated. After major refurbishments and upgrades, the TIMO-2 facility is now ready for the acceptance tests of the ITER torus cryopump. This paper describes the modified test facility TIMO-2 with particular attention to the available cryogenic supply at different temperature levels. The new 100 K helium supply facility will be described in detail.

  10. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, Amy Keil; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  11. Dynamic Test Bed Analysis of Gas Energy Balance for a Diesel Exhaust System Fit with a Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Dobrzyński, Michal

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the energy balance for an exhaust system of a diesel engine fit with an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design has been carried out. A special measurement system and dedicated software were developed to measure the power generated by the modules. The research object was a 1.3-l small diesel engine with power output of 66 kW. The tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed that allows reproduction of an actual driving cycle expressed as a function V = f(t), simulating drivetrain (clutch, transmission) operating characteristics, vehicle geometrical parameters, and driver behavior. Measurements of exhaust gas thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and mass flow) as well as the voltage and current generated by the thermoelectric modules were performed during tests of our own design. Based on the results obtained, the flow of exhaust gas energy in the entire exhaust system was determined along with the ATEG power output. The ideal area of the exhaust system for location of the ATEG was defined to ensure the highest thermal energy recovery efficiency.

  12. Techniques for the Installation of Internal Fiber Optic Instrumentation on an 11-Inch Hybrid Motor Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Michael; Smartt, Ziba; Henrie, Vaughn; Johnson, Mont

    2003-01-01

    The recent developments in Fabry-Perot fiber optic instruments have resulted in accurate transducers with some of the physical characteristics required for use in obtaining internal data from solid rocket motors. These characteristics include small size, non-electrical excitation, and immunity to electro-magnetic interference. These transducers have not been previously utilized in this environment due to the high temperatures typically encountered. A series of tests were conducted using a 1 1-Inch Hybrid test bed to develop installation techniques that will allow the fiber optic instruments to survive and obtain data for a short period of time following the motor ignition. The installation methods developed during this test series have the potential to allow data to be acquired in the motor chamber, propellant bore, and nozzle during the ignition transient. These measurements would prove to be very useful in the characterization of current motor designs and provide insight into the requirements for further refinements. The process of developing these protective methods and the installation techniques used to apply them is summarized.

  13. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom Power Management and distribution DC test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station Freedom dc Electrical Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switchmode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and tests results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  14. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution dc test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station freedom dc Electric Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switch-mode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and test results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  15. PAU-SA: a synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer test bed for potential improvements in future missions.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavi; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia-Domènech, Enric; Park, Hyuk; Forte, Giuseppe; Vall-Llosera, Merce

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission from the European Space Agency (ESA). Its goal is to produce global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity using the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS). The purpose of the Passive Advanced Unit Synthetic Aperture (PAU-SA) instrument is to study and test some potential improvements that could eventually be implemented in future missions using interferometric radiometers such as the Geoestacionary Atmosferic Sounder (GAS), the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) and the Geostationary Interferometric Microwave Sounder (GIMS). Both MIRAS and PAU-SA are Y-shaped arrays with uniformly distributed antennas, but the receiver topology and the processing unit are quite different. The purpose of this work is to identify the elements in the MIRAS's design susceptible of improvement and apply them in the PAU-SA instrument demonstrator, to test them in view of these future interferometric radiometer missions.

  16. Systems Engineering Management Plan NASA Traffic Aware Planner Integration Into P-180 Airborne Test-Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that provides aircrew with vertical and lateral flight-path optimizations with the intent of achieving significant fuel and time savings, while automatically avoiding traffic, weather, and restricted airspace conflicts. A key step towards the maturation and deployment of TAP concerned its operational evaluation in a representative flight environment. This Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) addresses the test-vehicle design, systems integration, and flight-test planning for the first TAP operational flight evaluations, which were successfully completed in November 2013. The trial outcomes are documented in the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) flight evaluation paper presented at the 14th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, Atlanta, GA. (AIAA-2014-2166, Maris, J. M., Haynes, M. A., Wing, D. J., Burke, K. A., Henderson, J., & Woods, S. E., 2014).

  17. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 -- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 1, Test results

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume of the report.

  18. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  19. Evaluation of power control concepts using the PMAD systems test bed. [Power Management and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Kimnach, G. L.; Jett, T. A.; Trash, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System testbed and its use in the evaluation of control concepts applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) are described. The facility was constructed to allow testing of control hardware and software in an environment functionally similar to the space station electric power system. Control hardware and software have been developed to allow operation of the testbed power system in a manner similar to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system employed by utility power systems for control. The system hardware and software are described.

  20. The Virtual Employment Test Bed: An Immersive Synthetic Environment Allows Engineers to Test and Evaluate Material Solutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-03

    synthetic environment allows engineers to test and evaluate material solutions Robert DeMarco, MSBME; Gordon Cooke, MEME ; John Riedener, MSSE...ROBERT DEMARCO, MSBME, is a Project Lead Engineer and Certified LabVIEW Associate Developer. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the

  1. Robotic Lunar Ecopoiesis Test Bed: Bringing the Experimental Method to Terraforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, Penelope J.; Todd, Paul; McMillen, Keli R.

    2004-02-01

    The notion of ecologically terraforming another planet (aka ecopoiesis) has been discussed by a number of scholars. Some theoretical treatments of various aspects of ecopoiesis have appeared in the literature. However, experimental terraforming studies have been rare to non-existent. This is not surprising because of the planetary scale and long durations typically discussed. We describe a concept to perform basic ecopoietic experiments in a test facility constructed on the lunar surface. Such a facility can provide long-term observation of organisms and their ecological, physiological, and evolutionary interactions in a low gravity environment. Salient features of other extraterrestrial environments (e.g. the 0.38g Mars gravity) can be simulated more easily in the lunar milieu than on Earth while providing much greater access for experimenters than ecopoiesis experiments on Mars itself. Besides application of these proposed studies to possible future terraforming efforts, basic evolutionary and ecological processes could be studied under extreme selection pressures including fractional gravity, high radiation, and with a variety of atmospheres, soils, and other parameters. Novel, genetically engineered and selectively bred organisms could be tested in such a facility without concern for accidental release into Earth's environment.

  2. PAU-SA: A Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer Test Bed for Potential Improvements in Future Missions

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavi; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia-Domènech, Enric; Park, Hyuk; Forte, Giuseppe; Vall-llosera, Merce

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission from the European Space Agency (ESA). Its goal is to produce global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity using the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS). The purpose of the Passive Advanced Unit Synthetic Aperture (PAU-SA) instrument is to study and test some potential improvements that could eventually be implemented in future missions using interferometric radiometers such as the Geoestacionary Atmosferic Sounder (GAS), the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) and the Geostationary Interferometric Microwave Sounder (GIMS). Both MIRAS and PAU-SA are Y-shaped arrays with uniformly distributed antennas, but the receiver topology and the processing unit are quite different. The purpose of this work is to identify the elements in the MIRAS's design susceptible of improvement and apply them in the PAU-SA instrument demonstrator, to test them in view of these future interferometric radiometer missions. PMID:22969371

  3. FIRE, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dale M. Meade

    2004-10-21

    The overall vision for FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx}150-300 MW, and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma-facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. ''Steady-state'' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high beta, high bootstrap fraction, and 100% noninductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/A T operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE high-confinement modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3-10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2-4 MWm{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  4. NASA Stennis Space Center Integrated System Health Management Test Bed and Development Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Holland, Randy; Coote, David

    2006-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is a capability that focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex System (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, prognosis of future anomalies), and provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK)-not just data-to control systems for safe and effective operation. This capability is currently done by large teams of people, primarily from ground, but needs to be embedded on-board systems to a higher degree to enable NASA's new Exploration Mission (long term travel and stay in space), while increasing safety and decreasing life cycle costs of spacecraft (vehicles; platforms; bases or outposts; and ground test, launch, and processing operations). The topics related to this capability include: 1) ISHM Related News Articles; 2) ISHM Vision For Exploration; 3) Layers Representing How ISHM is Currently Performed; 4) ISHM Testbeds & Prototypes at NASA SSC; 5) ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL); 6) ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) and Technology Readiness Level (TRL); 7) Core Elements: Capabilities Needed; 8) Core Elements; 9) Open Systems Architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM); 10) Core Elements: Architecture, taxonomy, and ontology (ATO) for DIaK management; 11) Core Elements: ATO for DIaK Management; 12) ISHM Architecture Physical Implementation; 13) Core Elements: Standards; 14) Systematic Implementation; 15) Sketch of Work Phasing; 16) Interrelationship Between Traditional Avionics Systems, Time Critical ISHM and Advanced ISHM; 17) Testbeds and On-Board ISHM; 18) Testbed Requirements: RETS AND ISS; 19) Sustainable Development and Validation Process; 20) Development of on-board ISHM; 21) Taxonomy/Ontology of Object Oriented Implementation; 22) ISHM Capability on the E1 Test Stand Hydraulic System; 23) Define Relationships to Embed Intelligence; 24) Intelligent Elements Physical and Virtual; 25) ISHM Testbeds and Prototypes at SSC Current Implementations; 26) Trailer

  5. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David; Epp, Chirold; Robertson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  6. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  7. The Cambric Ditch at the Nevada Test Site as a Long-term Vadose Zone Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompson, A. F.; Hunt, J. R.; Hudson, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    Atomic weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced many tracers for quantifying hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. The particular experiment at the Cambric site in Frenchman Flat represents an ongoing 29-year field test that could never be repeated and continues to offer opportunities for vadose zone studies. The Cambric test released the energy yield equivalent of 0.75 kt of TNT when it was detonated 294 m below the land surface and 73 m below the water table in Frenchman Flat in May 1965. Beginning in 1975, groundwater was pumped steadily from a well located 91 m from the detonation point in order to elicit information on radionuclide migration. The pumping well effluent was monitored, discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to flow towards a dry lake 1.6 km away. Approximately one third of this flow was lost to infiltration. Over the next 16 years, pumped groundwater was shown to contain tritium, fission products (technetium-99, iodine-129) and activation products (chlorine-36), all of which can be used to trace water flow in the vadose zone. Bromide was also added as an additional tracer into the ditch. Multi-year records exist for water migration in the shallow vadose zone along with temperature profiles. Over the course of the pumping experiment, vegetation developed in and near the ditch, providing an additional pathway for water loss by transpiration and selective radionuclide transport. Significant water has not flowed in the ditch since 1991 and the site remains an ideal analog site for the studying drying in arid climates, the adaptability of vegetation under changing water conditions, and the use of helium-3 as a tracer of soil-atmosphere exchange and vadose zone - groundwater interactions. In addition, there is evidence that tritiated water and chlorine-36 have infiltrated over 200 meters vertically in the vadose zone and have become a source term for groundwater contamination. The Cambric Ditch remains as a field site ideally

  8. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in aModular Classroom Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Fisk,William J.; Lai, Chi-Ming; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2005-08-01

    supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms.

  9. Distributed medical services within the ATM-based Berlin regional test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Krauss, Manfred; Schulz, Sandra; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1996-05-01

    The ATM-based Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) of Berlin connects two university hospitals (Benjamin Franklin University Hospital and Charite) with the computer resources of the Technical University of Berlin (TUB). Distributed new medical services have been implemented and will be evaluated within the highspeed MAN of Berlin. The network with its data transmission rates of up to 155 Mbit/s renders these medical services externally available to practicing physicians. Resource and application sharing is demonstrated by the use of two software systems. The first software system is an interactive 3D reconstruction tool (3D- Medbild), based on a client-server mechanism. This structure allows the use of high- performance computers at the TUB from the low-level workstations in the hospitals. A second software system, RAMSES, utilizes a tissue database of Magnetic Resonance Images. For the remote control of the software, the developed applications use standards such as DICOM 3.0 and features of the World Wide Web. Data security concepts are being tested and integrated for the needs of the sensitive medical data. The highspeed network is the necessary prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of data in a joint teleconference. The transmission of digitized real-time sequences such as video and ultrasound and the interactive manipulation of data are made possible by Multi Media tools.

  10. Laboratory Testing of a Fluidized-Bed Dry-Scrubbing Process for the Removal of Acidic Gases from a Simulated Incinerator Flue Gas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Kuni and Levenspiel ) W0 Gildart clo,,itiat ion" Group ItI l rotI ed r desc r i bed in ASTM St arda rd C 110-87. 22 REFERENCES 1. W. M. Bradshaw...Cement; Lime; Gyp- sum, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1988. 3. D. Kuni and 0. Levenspiel , Fluidization

  11. A Discussion of Behavioral Technology Laboratories CAI Projects In Relation to a CAI Test-Bed Concept. Technical Report Number 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.

    The elements of an instructional system are discussed and some literature bearing on these is reviewed. The discussion is intended to stimulate thought about an instructional system as a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) test-bed and to point out some noteworthy laboratory research results, particularly in cognitive psychology. Following this,…

  12. Retrieval process development and enhancements: Hydraulic test bed integrated testing. Fiscal year 1995 technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, B.K.; Smalley, J.T.; Tucker, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, is testing the performance of a technology of high-pressure waterjet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside waste storage tanks. Waste stimulants have been designed to challenge this retrieval process, and this technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste stimulants, at target retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of postulated deployment systems. The approach has been demonstrated to be versatile in dislodging and conveying a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes, through the use of simple and reliable in-tank components.

  13. Cold test with a benchtop set-up for fluidized bed reactor using quartz sand to simulate gasification of coal cokes by concentrated solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Kodama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of internal circulation of a mixture of coal-coke particles and quartz sand on the fluidization state in a fluidized bed reactor are investigated by a cold test with a benchtop set-up in order to design 10-30 kWth scale prototype windowed fluidized-bed reactor. Firstly, a basic relationship between pressure loss of inlet gas and gas velocity was experimentally examined using quartz sand with different particle sizes by a small-scale quartz tube with a distributor at ambient pressure and temperature. Based on the results, an appropriate particle range of quartz sand and layer height/layer diameter ratio (L/D ratio) was determined for a design of the fluidized bed reactor. Secondly, a windowed reactor mock-up was designed and fabricated for solar coke gasification using quartz sand as a bed material. The pressure loss between the inlet and outlet gases was examined, and descending cokes and sand particles on the sidewall of the reactor was observed in the reactor mock-up. The moving velocity and distance of descending particles/sands from the top to bottom of fluidized bed were measured by the visual observation of the colored tracer particles on outside wall of the reactor.

  14. Self-Pressurization and Spray Cooling Simulations of the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) Ground-Based Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kartuzova, O.; Kassemi, M.; Agui, J.; Moder, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the self-pressurization of a large scale liquid hydrogen storage tank. In this model, the kinetics-based Schrage equation is used to account for the evaporative and condensing interfacial mass flows. Laminar and turbulent approaches to modeling natural convection in the tank and heat and mass transfer at the interface are compared. The flow, temperature, and interfacial mass fluxes predicted by these two approaches during tank self-pressurization are compared against each other. The ullage pressure and vapor temperature evolutions are also compared against experimental data obtained from the MHTB (Multipuprpose Hydrogen Test Bed) self-pressurization experiment. A CFD model for cooling cryogenic storage tanks by spraying cold liquid in the ullage is also presented. The Euler- Lagrange approach is utilized for tracking the spray droplets and for modeling interaction between the droplets and the continuous phase (ullage). The spray model is coupled with the VOF (volume of fluid) model by performing particle tracking in the ullage, removing particles from the ullage when they reach the interface, and then adding their contributions to the liquid. Droplet ullage heat and mass transfer are modeled. The flow, temperature, and interfacial mass flux predicted by the model are presented. The ullage pressure is compared with experimental data obtained from the MHTB spray bar mixing experiment. The results of the models with only droplet/ullage heat transfer and with heat and mass transfer between the droplets and ullage are compared.

  15. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  16. Assessment of simulated water balance from Noah, Noah-MP, CLM, and VIC over CONUS using the NLDAS test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Xitian; Yang, Zong-Liang; Xia, Youlong; Huang, Maoyi; Wei, Helin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ek, Michael

    2014-12-27

    This study assesses the hydrologic performance of four land surface models (LSMs) for the conterminous United States using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) test bed. The four LSMs are the baseline community Noah LSM (Noah, version 2.8), the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC, version 4.0.5) model, the substantially augmented Noah LSM with multiparameterization options (hence Noah-MP), and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). All four models are driven by the same NLDAS-2 atmospheric forcing. Modeled terrestrial water storage (TWS), streamflow, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture are compared with each other and evaluated against the identical observations. Relative to Noah, the other three models offer significant improvements in simulating TWS and streamflow and moderate improvements in simulating ET and soil moisture. Noah-MP provides the best performance in simulating soil moisture and is among the best in simulating TWS, CLM4 shows the best performance in simulating ET, and VIC ranks the highest in performing the streamflow simulations. Despite these improvements, CLM4, Noah-MP, and VIC exhibit deficiencies, such as the low variability of soil moisture in CLM4, the fast growth of spring ET in Noah-MP, and the constant overestimation of ET in VIC.

  17. Developing a test-bed for robust research governance of geoengineering: the contribution of ocean iron biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Bressac, Matthieu

    2016-11-01

    Geoengineering to mitigate climate change has long been proposed, but remains nebulous. Exploration of the feasibility of geoengineering first requires the development of research governance to move beyond the conceptual towards scientifically designed pilot studies. Fortuitously, 12 mesoscale (approx. 1000 km2) iron enrichments, funded to investigate how ocean iron biogeochemistry altered Earth's carbon cycle in the geological past, provide proxies to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of geoengineering. The utility of these iron enrichments in the geoengineering debate is enhanced by the GEOTRACES global survey. Here, we outline how GEOTRACES surveys and process studies can provide invaluable insights into geoengineering. Surveys inform key unknowns including the regional influence and magnitude of modes of iron supply, and stimulate iron biogeochemical modelling. These advances will enable quantification of interannual variability of iron supply to assess whether any future purposeful multi-year iron-fertilization meets the principle of `additionality' (sensu Kyoto protocol). Process studies address issues including upscaling of geoengineering, and how differing iron-enrichment strategies could stimulate wide-ranging biogeochemical outcomes. In summary, the availability of databases on both mesoscale iron-enrichment studies and the GEOTRACES survey, along with modelling, policy initiatives and legislation have positioned the iron-enrichment approach as a robust multifaceted test-bed to assess proposed research into climate intervention. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  18. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  19. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  20. Calf venous volume during stand-test after a 90-day bed-rest study with or without exercise countermeasure

    PubMed Central

    de Chantemèle, Eric Belin; Pascaud, Ludovic; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Capri, Arnaud; Louisy, Francis; Ferretti, Guido; Gharib, Claude; Arbeille, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The objectives to determine both the contribution to orthostatic intolerance (OI) of calf venous volume during a stand-test, and the effects of a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure on both vein response to orthostatic test and OI, after 90-day head-down tilt bed-rest (HDT). The subjects consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n = 9) and an exercise countermeasure group (CM-gr, n = 9). Calf volume and vein cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by plethysmography and echography during pre- and post-HDT stand-tests. From supine to standing (post-HDT), the tibial and gastronemius vein CSA increased significantly in intolerant subjects (tibial vein, +122% from pre-HDT; gastronemius veins, +145%; P < 0.05) whereas it did not in tolerant subjects. Intolerant subjects tended to have a higher increase in calf filling volume than tolerant subjects, in both sitting and standing positions. The countermeasure did not reduce OI. Absolute calf volume decreased similarly in both groups. Tibial and gastrocnemius vein CSA at rest did not change during HDT in either group. During the post-HDT stand-test, the calf filling volume increased more in the CM-gr than in the Co-gr both in the sitting (+1.3 ± 5.1%, vs.–7.3 ± 4.3%; P < 0.05) and the standing positions (+56.1 ± 23.7%vs.+1.6 ± 9.6%; P < 0.05). The volume ejected by the muscle venous pump increased only in the CM-gr (+38.3 ± 21.8%). This study showed that intolerant subjects had a higher increase in vein CSA in the standing position and a tendency to present a higher calf filling volume in the sitting and standing positions. It also showed that a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure had no effects on either post-HDT OI or on the venous parameters related to it. PMID:15331681

  1. Ability of bed bug-detecting canines to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

    PubMed

    Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M

    2008-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., like other bed bug species, is difficult to visually locate because it is cryptic. Detector dogs are useful for locating bed bugs because they use olfaction rather than vision. Dogs were trained to detect the bed bug (as few as one adult male or female) and viable bed bug eggs (five, collected 5-6 d after feeding) by using a modified food and verbal reward system. Their efficacy was tested with bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs placed in vented polyvinyl chloride containers. Dogs were able to discriminate bed bugs from Camponotus floridanus Buckley, Blattella germanica (L.), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), with a 97.5% positive indication rate (correct indication of bed bugs when present) and 0% false positives (incorrect indication of bed bugs when not present). Dogs also were able to discriminate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs from dead bed bugs, cast skins, and feces, with a 95% positive indication rate and a 3% false positive rate on bed bug feces. In a controlled experiment in hotel rooms, dogs were 98% accurate in locating live bed bugs. A pseudoscent prepared from pentane extraction of bed bugs was recognized by trained dogs as bed bug scent (100% indication). The pseudoscent could be used to facilitate detector dog training and quality assurance programs. If trained properly, dogs can be used effectively to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.

  2. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  3. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  4. A test bed for investigating and evaluating the use of biometric-encoded driver licenses and their impact on law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Crowley, Todd A.; Vidacic, Dragan; Stetson, Barrett; Nadel, Lawrence D.; Nichols, Linda J.; Harris, Carol

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the Mitretek Systems (MTS) Center for Criminal Justice Technology (CCJT). Mitretek conducted an investigation into the impact of anticipated biometrically encoded driver licenses (DLs) on law enforcement. As part of this activity, Mitretek teamed with UNH to leverage the results of UNH's Project54 and develop a pilot Driver License Interoperability Test Bed to explore both implementation and operational aspects associated with reading and authenticating biometrically encoded DLs in law enforcement scenarios. The test bed enables the exploration of new methods, techniques (both hardware and software), and standards in a structured fashion. Spearheaded by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and the International Committee for Information Technology Standards Technical Group M1 (INCITS-M1) initiatives, standards involving both DLs and biometrics, respectively, are evolving at a rapid pace. In order to ensure that the proposed standards will provide for interstate interoperability and proper functionality for the law enforcement community, it is critical to investigate the implementation and deployment issues surrounding biometrically encoded DLs. The test bed described in this paper addresses this and will provide valuable feedback to the standards organizations, the states, and law enforcement officials with respect to implementation and functional issues that are exposed through exploration of actual test systems. The knowledge gained was incorporated into a report prepared by MTS to describe the anticipated impact of biometrically encoded DLs on law enforcement practice.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF APPROPRIATE QUALIFICATION TESTING AND END-OF-LIFE WASTE STORAGE CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEEP BED SAND FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, K.

    2010-06-02

    Deep bed sand (DBS) filters have filtered radioactive particulates at two United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites since 1948. Some early DBS filters experienced issues with chemical attack on support tiles, requiring significant repairs. Designs of DBS filters constructed since 1970 paid greater attention to chemical compatibility, resulting in decades of reliable performance since 1975.

  6. Multi-Scale Science Framework for Attributing and Tracking Greenhouse Gas Fluxes at LANL's Four Corners New Mexico Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigan, K. R.; Dubey, M. K.; Chylek, P.; Love, S. P.; Henderson, B. G.; Flowers, B. A.; Reisner, J. M.; Rahn, T.; Quick, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    /gas wells. All of this makes the site an ideal test-bed. Our approach is to execute a systematic and coordinated observational, satellite validation and modeling program. We are instrumenting the Four Corners ground site with an array of state-of-the art, in situ and remote sensors, including LANL’s solar FTS and in situ sensors for continuous long term monitoring. Satellite measurements are also analyzed and have revealed that recent environmental upgrades have reduced NOx emissions, verifying bottom up inventories. A coordinated field campaign is planned, which will interrogate the power plant plume and regional dynamics and chemistry. Modeling using the plants’ reported emissions will be compared with observations to test the veracity of our approach. Early modeling, satellite analyses and measurements will be presented.

  7. Strut Shaping of 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna for Reductions in Near-Field RF and Noise Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Britcliffe, Michael J.; Gama, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Strut shaping of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antenna has been implemented to reduce near-field RF exposure while improving the antenna noise temperature. Strut shaping was achieved by introducing an RF shield that does not compromise the structural integrity of the existing antenna. Reduction in the RF near-field level will compensate for the planned transmit power increase of the antenna from 20 kW to 80 kW while satisfying safety requirements for RF exposure. Measured antenna noise temperature was also improved by as much as 1.5 K for the low elevation angles and 0.5 K in other areas.

  8. Strut Shaping of 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna for Reductions in Near-Field RF and Noise Temeperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Britcliffe, Michael J.; Gama, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Struts shaping of the NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antenna has been implemented to reduce near-field RF exposure while improving the antenna noise temperature. Strut shaping was achieved by introducing an RF shield that does not compromise the structural integrity of the existing structure. Reduction in the RF near-field exposure will compensate for the planned transmit power increase of the antenna from 20 kW to 80 kW while satisfying safety requirements for RF exposure. Antenna noise temperature was also improved by as much as 1.5 K for the low elevation angles and 0.5 K in other areas. Both reductions of RF near-field exposure and antenna noise temperature were verified through measurements and agree very well with calculated results.

  9. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M.; Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T.; Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  10. The NASA Short-term Prediction and Research Transition (SPoRT) Center: A Research to Operations Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    to the Florida coastal WFOs. A SPoRT Test bed, together with input from other interagency and university partners, will provide a means and a process to effectively transition ESE observations and technology to NWS operations and decision makers at both the globdnational and regional scales. The transition of emerging experimental products into operations through the SPoRT infrastructure will allow NASA to foster and accelerate the progress of this Science Mission Directorate research strategy over the coming years.

  11. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  12. Preliminary Climate Uncertainty Quantification Study on Model-Observation Test Beds at Earth Systems Grid Federation Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Stephan, E.; Elsethagen, T.; Meng, D.; Riihimaki, L. D.; McFarlane, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    . Moreover, noise removal is done at the same time during the process of computing missing values by using only several large PCs. The uncertainty quantification is done through statistical analysis of the distribution of different PCs. To record above UQ process, and provide an explanation on the uncertainty before and after the UQ process on the observation data sets, additional data provenance ontology, such as ProvEn, is necessary. In this study, we demonstrate how to reduce observation data uncertainty on climate model-observation test beds and using ProvEn to record the UQ process on ESGF. ProvEn demonstrates how a scientific team conducting UQ studies can discover dataset links using its domain knowledgebase, allowing them to better understand and convey the UQ study research objectives, the experimental protocol used, the resulting dataset lineage, related analytical findings, ancillary literature citations, along with the social network of scientists associated with the study. Climate scientists will not only benefit from understanding a particular dataset within a knowledge context, but also benefit from the cross reference of knowledge among the numerous UQ studies being stored in ESGF.

  13. Impact of air traffic emissions on airport air quality. Multi-scale modeling, test bed and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.; Vuillot, F.; Durand, Y.; Courbet, B.; Janin, F.; Copalle, A.; Guin, C.; Paux, E.; Vannier, F.; Talbaut, M.; Weill, M.

    2004-12-01

    engines. Evidence of NOx regime is simulated for the ozone formation at and surrounding airports. At the boarding area, during aircraft parking, APU are generally operated for supplementary electrical power supply for cabin cooling or heating. APU emission indices of NOx, CO, HC and PM equipping civil aircraft are still badly known as they are not certified. Emission indices of soot, NOx, CO, CO2, have been measured on test bed for a specific APU consuming kerosene. Results show that APU emissions are comparable to aero-engine indices for gas, but are far more important for soot. Consequently it is expected that APU emissions are potentially important at airports. Finally, real-time continuous measurements of airborne PM, size distribution and number concentration, have been performed at Nice airport-France, along taxiways for 3 days, in summer 2003 using a 13-stage ELPI. Results show that, when road traffic emissions are not transported into the airport, the observed PM concentration does not exceed the French national threshold for PM mass in summer 2003.

  14. Development of NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Test Bed Aboard ISS to Investigate SDR, On-Board Networking and Navigation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an experimental flight payload (referred to as the Space Communication and Navigation (SCAN) Test Bed) to investigate software defined radio (SDR), networking, and navigation technologies, operationally in the space environment. The payload consists of three software defined radios each compliant to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture, a common software interface description standard for software defined radios. The software defined radios are new technology developments underway by NASA and industry partners. Planned for launch in early 2012, the payload will be externally mounted to the International Space Station truss and conduct experiments representative of future mission capability.

  15. Granulation of core particles suitable for film coating by agitation fluidized bed I. Optimum formulation for core particles and development of a novel friability test method.

    PubMed

    Hamashita, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yasuo; Aketo, Takao; Watano, Satoru

    2007-08-01

    To prepare powdered medicines without bitter taste, film coating is required to cover the surface of core particles. In this study, effect of formulation and operating conditions of agitation fluidized bed on the core particle properties was investigated. In order to prevent breakage of the core particles during coating process, which sometimes causes variation of drug dissolution rate, addition of maltose syrup powder during the formulation process of the core particles was investigated. Also, a method for friability test in which the core particles were subjected to strong impact was proposed to evaluate strength of the core particles. The friability of the core particles determined by this test method correlated well with the actual friability of the particles during the coating process. Based on this result, we confirmed this novel friability test method could predict the core particle endurance during the coating process.

  16. Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    column with an overall height of 22 ft (6.7 m) and a bed of GAC occupying approximately 11 ft (3.4 m) when expanded. Water was recirculated through the...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ER D C /C ER L TR -0 5- 8 Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for...Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant Stephen W. Maloney and Robert L. Heine Construction

  17. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  18. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS and liquid-cooled TSAC testing conducted during the period of March 3 to April 18, 2003. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  19. Testing fluidized bed incinerators for energy-efficient operation for the Southtowns Sewage Treatment Agency. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Two methods for improving the energy efficiency of fluidized bed sludge incinerators were evaluated. The first method used paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents for municipal sludge instead of lime and ferric chloride. Automatic control of the incinerator was the second method evaluated for energy savings. To evaluate the use of paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents, varying quantities of paper pulp were added to the liquid sludge to determine the optimal sludge-to-paper pulp ratio. The effect of the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge on plant operations also was evaluated. When compared to sludge conditioned with lime and ferric chloride, the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge had similar cake release and feed characteristics, higher BTU values for the dry sludge solids, required less auxiliary fuel for incineration, and generated less ash for disposal. The paper pulp and polymer did not have any appreciable negative effects on the operation of the wastewater treatment plant. It was estimated that processing and incinerating the sludge conditioned with paper pulp and polymer resulted in a cost savings of up to $91.73 per dry ton of activated sludge solids. To evaluate the effect of automatic control, all the incinerator operating parameters including air flow rates, fuel oil feed rates, and sludge feed rates, were automatically monitored and controlled to minimize auxiliary fuel oil use and to keep the incinerator running at optimal conditions. Although effective, the estimated cost savings for automatic control of the incinerator were small.

  20. Detecting glacier-bed overdeepenings for glaciers in the Western Italian Alps using the GlabTop2 model: the test site of the Rutor Glacier, Aosta Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It is expected that the rapid retreat of glaciers, observed in the European Alps and other mountain regions of the world, will continue in the future. One of the most evident and relevant consequences of this phenomenon is the formation of new glacier lakes in recently deglaciated areas. During glacier retreat overdeepened parts of the glacier bed become exposed and, in some cases, filled with water. It is important to understand where these new lakes can appear because of the associated potential risks (i.e. lake outburst and consequent flood) and opportunities (tourism, hydroelectricity, water reservoir, etc.) especially in densely populated areas such as the European Alps. GlabTop2 (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2) allows to model glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas combining digital terrain information and slope-related estimates of glacier thickness. The model requires a minimum set of input data: glaciers outlines and a surface digital elevation model (DEM). In this work we tested the model on the Rutor Glacier (8,1 km2) located in the Aosta Valley. The glacier has a well-known history of a series of glacier lake outburst floods between 1430 AD and 1864 AD due to front fluctuations. After the last advance occurred during the 70s of the previous century, glacier shrinkage has been continuous and new lakes have formed in newly exposed overdeepenings. We applied GlabTop2 to DEMs derived from historical data (topographic maps and aerial photos pair) representing conditions before the proglacial lake formation. The results obtained have been compared with the present situation and existing lakes. Successively we used the model also on present-day DEMs, which are of higher resolution than the historical derived ones, and compared the modeled bed topography with an existing bedrock map obtained by in-situ geophysical investigations (GPR surveys). Preliminary results, obtained with the 1991 surface model, confirm the robustness of GlabTop2 in

  1. Second generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) research and development, Phase 2 --- Task 4, carbonizer testing. Volume 2, Data reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, R.; Robertson, A.; Vanhook, J.; Goyal, A.; Rehmat, A.; Newby, R.

    1994-11-01

    During the period beginning November 1991 and ending September 1992, a series of tests were conducted at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in a fluidized-bed coal carbonizer to determine its performance characteristics. The carbonizer was operated for 533 hours in a jetting fluidized-bed configuration during which 36 set points (steady-state periods) were achieved. Extensive data were collected on the feed and product stream compositions, heating values, temperatures, and flow rates. With these data, elemental and energy balances were computed to evaluate and confirm accuracy of the data. The carbonizer data were not as self-consistent as could be desired (balance closure imperfection). A software package developed by Science Ventures, Inc., of California, called BALAID, was used to reconcile the carbonizer data; the details of the reconciliation have been given in Volume 1 of this report. The reconciled data for the carbonizer were rigorously analyzed, correlations were developed, and the model was updated accordingly. The model was then used in simulating each of the 36 steady-state periods achieved in the pilot plant. The details are given in this Volume one. This Volume 2 provides details of the carbonizer data reconciliation.

  2. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  3. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  4. Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds: Phase III. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1981. [Rawlins Test 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Preparations are being made for the August start-up of Rawlins Test 2. Site construction activities began May 4 with the mobilization of the construction subcontractor. The drilling program was completed this quarter with the installation of instrumentation wells. The Experimental Basis Document, PGA Operating Manual, and DAS Operating Manual have also been completed.

  5. Solar Variability and the Near-Earth Environment: Mining Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity Data From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turflinger, T.; Schmeichel, W.; Krieg, J.; Titus, J.; Campbell, A.; Reeves, M.; Marshall (P.); Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This effort is a detailed analysis of existing microelectronics and photonics test bed satellite data from one experiment, the bipolar test board, looking to improve our understanding of the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) phenomenon. Over the past several years, extensive total dose irradiations of bipolar devices have demonstrated that many of these devices exhibited ELDRS. In sensitive bipolar transistors, ELDRS produced enhanced degradation of base current, resulting in enhanced gain degradation at dose rates <0.1 rd(Si)/s compared to similar transistors irradiated at dose rates >1 rd(Si)/s. This Technical Publication provides updated information about the test devices, the in-flight experiment, and both flight-and ground-based observations. Flight data are presented for the past 5 yr of the mission. These data are compared to ground-based data taken on devices from the same date code lots. Information about temperature fluctuations, power shutdowns, and other variables encountered during the space flight are documented.

  6. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

  7. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  8. Rocket plume spectrometry: A system permitting engine condition monitoring, as applied to the technology test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. T.

    1989-01-01

    The appearance of visible objects in the exhaust plume of space shuttle main engines (SSME) during test firings is discussed. A program was undertaken to attempt to identify anomalous material resulting from wear, normal or excessive, of internal parts, allowing time monitoring of engine condition or detection of failure precursors. Measurements were taken during test firings at Stennis Space Center and at the Santa Suzanna facility in California. The results indicated that a system having high spectral resolution, a fast time response, and a wide spectral range was required to meet all requirements, thus two special systems have been designed and built. One is the Optical Plume Anomaly Detector (OPAD). The other instrument, which is described in this report, is the superspectrometer, an optical multichannel analyzer having 8,192 channels covering the spectral band 250 to 1,000 nm.

  9. Test-bed and Full-Scale Demonstration of Plasma Flow Control for Wind Turbines. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-15

    that year, half of the Navy’s shore-based operations will be “net-zero energy consumers, using solar, wind, ocean, and geothermal power generated on...sources such as wind, solar, geothermal and hydro power. The data, which was published in the Energy Information Administration’s 2012 Annual...manually- controlled plasma flow control system on a 20 kW test turbine. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Wind energy , active flow control, plasma actuation 16

  10. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  11. Modeling the effect of clay drapes on pumping test response in a cross-bedded aquifer using multiple-point geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2012-07-01

    SummaryThis study investigates whether fine-scale clay drapes can cause an anisotropic pumping test response at a much larger scale. A pumping test was performed in a sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded units composed of materials with different grain sizes and hydraulic conductivities. The measured drawdown values in the different observation wells reveal an anisotropic or elliptically-shaped pumping cone. The major axis of the pumping ellipse is parallel with the strike of cm to m-scale clay drapes that are observed in several outcrops. To determine (1) whether this large-scale anisotropy can be the result of fine-scale clay drapes and (2) whether application of multiple-point geostatistics can improve interpretation of pumping tests, this pumping test is analyzed with a local 3D groundwater model in which fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneity is modelled using multiple-point geostatistics. To reduce CPU and RAM demand of the multiple-point geostatistical simulation step, edge properties indicating the presence of irregularly-shaped surfaces are directly simulated. Results show that the anisotropic pumping cone can be attributed to the presence of the clay drapes. Incorporating fine-scale clay drapes results in a better fit between observed and calculated drawdowns. These results thus show that fine-scale clay drapes can cause an anisotropic pumping test response at a much larger scale and that the combined approach of multiple-point geostatistics and cell edge properties is an efficient method for integrating fine-scale features in larger scale models.

  12. Route Optimization for Mobile IPV6 Using the Return Routability Procedure: Test Bed Implementation and Security Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Linux [http://www.mipl.mediapoli.com/ Last visited on January 10, 2007]), “ KAME ” project (Mobile IPv6 for BSD based Oss [http://www.kame.net Last...conformance testing events such as the ETSI IPv6 Plugtests and TAHI Interoperability events. The " KAME " and "USAGI", projects are working on research...and development on the implementation of the IPv6 and IPsec protocols, which operates on BSD based OSs for the " KAME " project and on a Linux based

  13. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Follow on Research for Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (FY13 Progress Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2013-01-01

    Modern aircraft employ a significant fraction of their weight in composite materials to reduce weight and improve performance. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to the composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test-bed (MUTT) aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of MUTT aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the MUTT aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of MUTT aircraft is improved using the in-house Multi-disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of MUTT aircraft have been improved simultaneously in a single model tuning procedure.

  15. Particle pressures in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Hu, X.; Jin, C.; Potapov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This is an experimental project to make detailed measurements of the particle pressures generated in fluidized beds. The focus lies in two principle areas: (1) the particle pressure distribution around single bubbles rising in a two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed and (2) the particle pressures measured in liquid-fluidized beds. This first year has largely been to constructing the experiments The design of the particle pressure probe has been improved and tested. A two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed has been constructed in order to measure the particle pressure generated around injected bubbles. The probe is also being adapted to work in a liquid fluidized bed. Finally, a two-dimensional liquid fluidized bed is also under construction. Preliminary measurements show that the majority of the particle pressures are generated in the wake of a bubble. However, the particle pressures generated in the liquid bed appear to be extremely small. Finally, while not directly associated with the particle pressure studies, some NERSC supercomputer time was granted alongside this project. This is being used to make large scale computer simulation of the flow of granular materials in hoppers.

  16. Measuring and modeling solids movement in a large, cold fluidized bed test facility. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T. J.; Mrazek, R. V.; Crane, S. D.

    1980-03-01

    The plume model is developed to represent a tube-filled AFBC with large particles, in which air-entrained coal enters in a number of feed ports from below. It assumes that the volatiles are rapidly released from the coal at the feed entry ports to rise as plumes of combustible vapors. Graphs have been prepared to display the predictions of this model for narrow size cuts of a typical coal feed. For a feed of wide size distribution, use these single size charts and properly sum. The lowest carbon efficiency always comes with an intermediate size of feed coal, not with very large or very small feed sizes. Thus the coal feed to the AFBC should try to avoid this critical size. The plume behavior, whether it breaks the surface of the bed, the temperature jump above the bed, concentration variations across the bed, etc., are all governed by one dimensionless group HD/u/sub 0/L/sub 2//sup 2/, which depends primarily on the spacing of feed ports in the bed. For a given coal feed, the carbon efficiency depends only on superficial gas velocity in the bed, the excess air, and elutriation rate constant. A special case and simplification of this model views the coal as being uniformly distributed all over the bed before the volatiles are released. Here analysis is very much simpler, not involving plumes and no volatiles leaving the bed. This plumeless model should reasonably represent AFBC using large feed particles, introduced across the top of the bed and then rapidly mixed by large scale convective flow of solids. The analysis shows that, even in beds with plumes, the simpler plumeless model can be used with negligible error to calculate carbon efficiency; for volatile efficiency, temperature jumps and composition variations across the bed, the complete plume model must be used.

  17. Bacillus cereus in free-stall bedding.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, M; Svensson, B; Kolstrup, C; Christiansson, A

    2007-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found in the entire beds. On average, 4.1 log(10) B. cereus spores, 5.5 log(10) B. cereus, and 6.7 log(10) coliforms per gram of bedding could be found in the upper layers of the sawdust likely to be in contact with the cows' udders. The highest counts of B. cereus spores, B. cereus, and coliforms were found in the bedding before fresh bedding was added, and the lowest immediately afterwards. Different factors of importance for the growth of B. cereus in the bedding material were explored in laboratory tests. These were found to be the type of bedding, pH, and the type and availability of nutrients. Alternative bedding material such as peat and mixtures of peat and sawdust inhibited the bacterial growth of B. cereus. The extent of growth of B. cereus in the sawdust was increased in a dose-dependent manner by the availability of feces. Urine added to different bedding material raised the pH and also led to bacterial growth of B. cereus in the peat. In sawdust, a dry matter content greater than 70% was needed to lower the water activity to 0.95, which is needed to inhibit the growth of B. cereus. In an attempt to reduce the bacterial growth of B. cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust beds on the farm, the effect of giving bedding daily or a full replacement of the beds was studied. The spore count of B. cereus in the back part of the free stalls before fresh bedding was added was 0.9 log units lower in stalls given daily bedding than in stalls given bedding twice weekly. No effect on coliform counts was found. Replacement of the entire sawdust bedding had an effect for a short period, but by 1 to 2 mo after replacement, the counts of B. cereus spores in the

  18. Design and Testing of a Labview- Controlled Catalytic Packed- Bed Reactor System For Production of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Street, J.; Yu, F.; Warnock, J.; Wooten, J.; Columbus, E.; White, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Gasified woody biomass (producer gas) was converted over a Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst to produce gasolinerange hydrocarbons. The effect of contaminants in the producer gas showed that key retardants in the system included ammonia and oxygen. The production of gasoline-range hydrocarbons derived from producer gas was studied and compared with gasoline-range hydrocarbon production from two control syngas mixes. Certain mole ratios of syngas mixes were introduced into the system to evaluate whether or not the heat created from the exothermic reaction could be properly controlled. Contaminant-free syngas was used to determine hydrocarbon production with similar mole values of the producer gas from the gasifier. Contaminant-free syngas was also used to test an ideal contaminant-free synthesis gas situation to mimic our particular downdraft gasifier. Producer gas was used in this study to determine the feasibility of using producer gas to create gasoline-range hydrocarbons on an industrial scale using a specific Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst. It was determined that after removing the ammonia, other contaminants poisoned the catalyst and retarded the hydrocarbon production process as well.

  19. The Inverse Z-Pinch as a Physics Test Bed, and a Possible Target Plasma for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemuth, Irvin; Bauer, Bruno; Fuelling, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Ronald; Makhin, Volodymyr; Presura, Radu; Sheehey, Peter; Siemon, Richard

    2002-12-01

    From an overall fusion system perspective, there remains an untested and interesting possibility of compressing a magnetized target plasma with beta greater than unity by a magnetically driven imploding liner, or other target pusher driver. This approach, known as Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), operates in an intermediate density regime and time scale between magnetic and inertial fusion, which are separated by twelve orders of magnitude. Even if magnetized plasma transport is Bohm-like, fusion gain in the MTF parameter space appears accessible with existing drivers, which means MTF does not require a major financial investment in driver technology. The physics of plasma confinement by material walls, and the thermal transport of magnetized high-beta plasma in the MTF regime, has received relatively little study theoretically, computationally, or experimentally. This paper describes a proposed experiment to test wall confinement in a regime of plasma parameters relevant to MTF. The geometry being considered is an inverse pinch designed to heat plasma to 100-eV temperatures. By using a current crowbar, the plasma formed in the pinch can be held against an outer wall (the return conductor) and the rate of cooling can be measured and compared with predictions from theory and numerical models. The well-benchmarked two-dimensional radiation-MHD code MHRDR is being used to guide the design activity. The existing 2-terawatt Zebra generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility is the power supply under consideration. Results from the code show adequate heating, formation of a quasi-static magnetic equilibrium, and a near-classical cooling rate to a room temperature boundary, even in the presence of substantial plasma convection.

  20. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  1. High-resolution Digital Mapping of Historical Lava Flows as a Test-bed for Lava Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, D. M.; Parks, M.; Nomikou, P.; Mather, T. A.; Simou, E.; Kalnins, L. M.; Paulatto, M.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    eruption volume and pre-eruption interval, which will in turn improve our capacity to forecast the size and duration of future dome-forming events at Santorini. The new topographic dataset, and the detailed historical accounts of the eruptions which formed those lava flows, offers a tremendous opportunity to test the current generation of lava flow models.

  2. Using virtual instruments to develop an actuator-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation test-bed for autopilot of unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun-Ping; Ju, Jiun-Yan; Liang, Yen-Chu

    2008-12-01

    Since the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bring forth many innovative applications in scientific, civilian, and military fields, the development of UAVs is rapidly growing every year. The on-board autopilot that reliably performs attitude and guidance control is a vital part for out-of-sight flights. However, the control law in autopilot is designed according to a simplified plant model in which the dynamics of real hardware are usually not taken into consideration. It is a necessity to develop a test-bed including real servos to make real-time control experiments for prototype autopilots, so called hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. In this paper on the basis of the graphical application software LabVIEW, the real-time HIL simulation system is realized efficiently by the virtual instrumentation approach. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller in autopilot for the pitch angle control loop is experimentally determined by the classical Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule and exhibits good transient and steady-state response in real-time HIL simulation. From the results the differences between numerical simulation and real-time HIL simulation are also clearly presented. The effectiveness of HIL simulation for UAV autopilot design is definitely confirmed

  3. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  4. A social cybernetic analysis of simulation-based, remotely delivered medical skills training in an austere environment: developing a test bed for spaceflight medicine.

    PubMed

    Musson, David M; Doyle, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes analysis of medical skills training exercises that were conducted at an arctic research station. These were conducted as part of an ongoing effort to establish high fidelity medical simulation test bed capabilities in remote and extreme "space analogue" environments for the purpose studying medical care in spaceflight. The methodological orientation followed by the authors is that of "second order cybernetics," or the science of studying human systems where the observer is involved within the system in question. Analyses presented include the identification of three distinct phases of the training activity, and two distinct levels of work groups-- termed "first-order teams" and "second-order teams." Depending on the phase of activity, first-order and second-order teams are identified, each having it own unique structure, composition, communications, goals, and challenges. Several specific teams are highlighted as case examples. Limitations of this approach are discussed, as are potential benefits to ongoing and planned research activity in this area.

  5. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  6. Fluidized-bed sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc oxide-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor. In this program, regenerable ZnO-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents are being developed and tested. These include zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-SORB sorbents. The Z-SORB sorbent is a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company (PPCo).

  7. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  8. Generic Test Bed (GTB) Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    December 1981 Final Report for Period 1 May 1980 - 1 October 1981 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DIPECTORATE OF EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING...Division (AFSC) Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPOR’ DATE December 1981 Deputy for...operations. Electrical power is provided by two 30KVA generators. Maximum level speed and rate of climb at sea level are 562 knots and 9,400 fpm respectively

  9. Big Data Analytics Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Open Virtual Format PaaS Platform as a Service SaaS Software as a Service SELinux Security-Enhanced Linux SP2 Service Pack Two SQL Structured Query...computing power, storage, platforms , and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet. [1] In general, cloud computing is a...service(s) via the Internet on demand. In broad terms, the hosted services are broken down into three categories: Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform

  10. RF Photonic Link Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Note 1,5,6,10) F CP197-A 5V @ 50A (Note 1,5,6,10) F HA15-0.9-A 12V @ 0.9A (Note 2) B HB12-1.7-A 12V @ 1.7A (Note 5) B HC12-3.4-A 12V @ 3.4A (Note 5) C... 12V HN12-5.1-A 12V @ 5.1A (Note 5) N HD12-6.8-A 12V @ 6.8A (Note 5) D HE12-10.2-A 12V @ 10.2A (Note 5) E F15-15-A 12V @ 16A (Note 2,5,6,10) F HA15-0.9-A...Note 1,4,5) 5V @ 6A (Note 1,4,5) CC ± 12V HAD12-0.4-A + 12V @ 0.4A (Note 3) - 12V @ 0.4A (Note 3) B ± 15V HAD15-0.4-A +15V @ 0.4A (Note 3) -15V @ 0.4A

  11. Advanced Expander Test Bed Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    performance data will be provided to NASA -LeRC for verifying the ROCETS computer model and evaluating various RLI0 modifications. 22 SECTION IV CURRENT...RL10 modeling data for the ROCETS computer program. 23 NASA Report Documentation Page Nafi~aj AfWflWuIC Wd Sow@ Ad-lvhlsto, 1 eport No. 2. Government... NASA have identified the need for a new Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Propulsion System. The new system will be an oxygen/hydrogen expander cycle engine

  12. Advanced Expander Test Bed Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    1562. TIP SPEED 1934. 1563. 1563. DELTA H (ACT) 202.5 166.3 VOL FLOW 501. 524 . 540. GAMMA 1.39 1.39 HEAD COEF 0.648 0.323 0.287 FLOW PARAMETER 0.0318...result from the 916°F temperati-e -adient caused by 524 ’F fuel inlet temperature and -392*F bearing cof ,dnt temperature. A heat shield is used to

  13. The Squad Performance Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army, ARDEC, Target Behavioral Response Laboratory,RDAR-EIQ-SD,Building 3518, Picatinny Arsenal,NJ...K; DeMarco, R; Reidener, J. Active Shooter Training Evaluation: West Orange Police Department (TBRL-WOASTR- 14-001). Picatinny Arsenal, NJ: Target...Master title style UNCLASSIFIED Questions? US Army - Target Behavioral Response Lab Mr. Gladstone V. Reid Jr. Picatinny Arsenal, NJ

  14. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) systems study. Appendix E: Pressure-fed booster test bed for the liquid rocket booster study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The stress analysis/structural design of the Pressure-Fed Booster Engine Test Bed using the existing F-1 Test Facility Test Stand at Huntsville, Alabama is described. The analysis has been coded and set up for solution on NASTRAN. A separate stress program was established to take the NASTRAN output and perform stress checks on the members. Joint checks and other necessary additional checks were performed by hand. The notes include a brief description of other programs which assist in reproducing and reviewing the NASTRAN results. The redesign of the test stand members and the stress analysis was performed per the A.I.S.C. Code. Loads on the stand consist of the loaded run tanks; wind loads; seismic loads; live loads consisting of snow and ice: live and dead loads of steel; and loaded pressurant bottle. In combining loads, wind loads and seismic loads were each combined with full live loads. Wind and seismic loads were not combined. No one third increase in allowables was taken for the environmental loads except at decks 147 and 214, where the increase was used when considering the stay rods, brackets and stay beams. Wind and seismic loads were considered from each of the four coordinate directions (i.e. N,S,E,W) to give eight basic conditions. The analysis was run with the pressurant tank mounted at level 125. One seismic condition was also run with the tank mounted at levels 169 and 214. No failures were noted with mounting at level 169, but extensive deck failure with mounting at level 214 (the loadsets used are included on the tape, but no detailed results are included in the package). Decking support beams at levels 147 and 214 are not included in the model. The stress program thus does not reduce strut lengths to the length between support beams (the struts are attached to the beams at intersection points) and gives stress ratios larger than one for some of the struts. The affected members were therefore checked by hand.

  15. A Test of a Major-ion Toxicity Model to Predict the Toxicity of Coal Bed Methane Product Waters to Aquatic Biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, M. B.; Meyer, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) accounts for about 7.5% of the total natural gas production in the United States, and the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Montana and Wyoming has recently become a major production area. During CBM extraction, a coal seam is partially de-watered to relieve hydraulic pressure, thus causing methane gas to desorb. Some of this water (called product water) is discharged on the land surface and allowed to run into local drainages in the PRB. Due to the massive amounts of product water being discharged (rates up to 64,000 L/day per well), studies are needed to examine the potential effects on aquatic organisms. Additionally, models to predict such effects would be useful regulatory screening tools. To that end, we tested the ability of a multivariate logistic regression model of the toxicity of major inorganic ions (i.e., Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-) to predict the acute toxicity of CBM-related waters to two aquatic invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). First, we entered water chemistry data for several CBM product and receiving waters from the PRB into the major-ion model. Then we compared the model's predicted survival to the survival of the three species in toxicity tests we had previously conducted with those waters. For the majority of CBM product water and stream water samples in which CBM product water constituted the entire flow of the stream, the major-ion model consistently under-predicted survival by >50%. Therefore, from a regulatory standpoint, this model is conservative for detecting toxicity of CBM product waters (i.e., it over-predicts toxicity). Although the model appeared to be an excellent predictor of survival for receiving waters that contained no inputs from CBM processing (i.e., the difference between predicted and observed survival was <=10%), the majority of those cases were inconclusive tests of the model because the predicted and observed survival were

  16. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  17. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  18. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  19. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  20. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  1. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  2. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  3. Measurement of hand dynamics in a microsurgery environment: Preliminary data in the design of a bimanual telemicro-operation test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy

    1989-01-01

    Data describing the microsurgeon's hand dynamics was recorded and analyzed in order to provide an accurate model for the telemicrosurgery application of the Bimanual Telemicro-operation Test Bed. The model, in turn, will guide the development of algorithms for the control of robotic systems in bimanual telemicro-operation tasks. Measurements were made at the hand-tool interface and include position, acceleration and force between the tool-finger interface. Position information was captured using an orthogonal pulsed magnetic field positioning system resulting in measurements in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). Acceleration data at the hands was obtained using accelerometers positioned in a triaxial arrangement on the back of the hand allowing measurements in all three cartesian-coordinate axes. Force data was obtained by using miniature load cells positioned between the tool and the finger and included those forces experienced perpendicular to the tool shaft and those transferred from the tool-tissue site. Position data will provide a minimum/maximum reference frame for the robotic system's work space or envelope. Acceleration data will define the response times needed by the robotic system in order to emulate and subsequently outperform the human operator's tool movements. The force measurements will aid in designing a force-reflective, force-scaling system as well as defining the range of forces the robotic system will encounter. All analog data was acquired by a 16-channel analog-to-digital conversion system residing in a IBM PC/AT-compatible computer at the Center's laboratory. The same system was also used to analyze and present the data.

  4. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  6. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    PubMed

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  7. Bed Bugs and Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  8. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the inferior vena cava. How Can I Deal with Discomfort from Bed Rest? Bed rest can ... Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  9. Early development of a test-bed to measure fractoluminescence in scintillators & simulation of a 24Na source for the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mony, Emilie

    This thesis consists of two parts; the first part pertains to fractoluminescence as a potential background in crystal scintillator detectors, and the second part bears on the simulation of a 24Na source to be used during the liquid scintillator phase of the SNO+ experiment. I participated in early work to develop a test-bed to study fractoluminescence in scintillators, and report here on preliminary results I obtained before I shifted my focus to SNO+. Full results obtained by the group have since been reported in PRL 111 154301. This project follows the discovery that mechanical stress on a dark matter detector's crystals was causing a background signal. The response of inorganic crystal scintillators (Bi4Ge3O 12, ZnWO4, CdWO4) compressed to the point of rupture was studied. The double cleavage drilled compression geometry was used to create controlled cracks in 20x5x3 mm3 samples. A correlation between a sudden drop of the force, a burst of photonic and of acoustic emissions was discovered and a lower bound was set on the conversion efficiency from strain energy to light energy. SNO+ is a large underground experiment that aims primarily to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The SNO+ detector consists of an acrylic vessel of liquid scintillator surrounded by light detectors. A tagged 24Na source was proposed as one of several radioactive sources to be deployed within the vessel to calibrate the detector. To achieve this an activated NaI(Tl) crystal would be coupled to a photomultiplier tube and lowered into the center of the vessel. The second half of this thesis explores options for implementing this plan and presents the detector response to a 24Na source as simulated by the Monte Carlo software developed by SNO+. The size of the crystal influences the type of information that can be gleaned from using this source so four different crystal sizes are presented for comparison. The simulations show that the source can be used to test the linearity of the

  10. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. EPA and other agencies all consider bed bugs a public health pest, but bed bugs are not known to transmit disease.

  11. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  12. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  14. Thermal properties of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range tuff and of Tunnel Bed 5, G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lappin, A.R.; Nimick, F.B.

    1985-08-01

    Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion data for tuffs of the devitrified welded Grouse Canyon Member and for the zeolitized nonwelded Tunnel Bed 5 are presented. Thermal properties have been found to be a function of mineralogy and saturation. Thermal conductivity results also are affected by matrix and fracture porosity, and thermal expansion behavior is a function of confining and fluid pressures. This work is being performed as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. 17 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Laboratory Testing of a Fluidized Bed Dry Scrubbing Process for Removal of Sulfur Dioxide and Phosphorous Pentoxide from an Inert Carrier Gas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Vol. II, June 1986. 7. D. Kunni and 0. Levenspiel , Fluidization Engineering, Robert E. % Krieger Publishing Company, Inc., Huntington, N.Y., 1977. 8. R...20 to 30% of the pressure drop across r the bed. Levenspiel recommends that the pressure drop across the dis- tributor be the maximum of ( 1) 10% of...02VELOCITY 0.1 I:.’ 1 10 50 UAJj~ Fig. B.1. Ideal fluidization. Adapted from D. Kunni and 0. Levenspiel , Fluidization Engineering, Robert E. Krieger

  16. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  17. Effect of bed rest and exercise on body balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A battery of 11 body balance tests was administered to 7 men before and after 14 days of bedrest. Seven men who had not undergone bed rest served as controls. During bed rest, each subject underwent daily either isotonic, isometric, or no leg exercise. The results showed that, for the bed-rested no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isometric exercise groups, 2 weeks of bed rest produces significant body balance decrements on 3, 4, and 5 of the 11 tests, respectively. Daily leg exercise did not prevent the debilitating effects of bed rest on body balance. After bed rest, balance skill was relearned rapidly so that in most tests, performance had reached prebed-rest levels by the third recovery day. These data suggest that balance impairment is not due to loss of muscular strength in the legs but, perhaps, to a bed-rest-related change in the neurally coded information to postural control centers.

  18. Gum-compliant uncertainty propagations for Pu and U concentration measurements using the 1st-prototype XOS/LANL hiRX instrument; an SRNL H-Canyon Test Bed performance evaluation project

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Michael K.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    2016-05-04

    An SRNL H-Canyon Test Bed performance evaluation project was completed jointly by SRNL and LANL on a prototype monochromatic energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence instrument, the hiRX. A series of uncertainty propagations were generated based upon plutonium and uranium measurements performed using the alpha-prototype hiRX instrument. Data reduction and uncertainty modeling provided in this report were performed by the SRNL authors. Observations and lessons learned from this evaluation were also used to predict the expected uncertainties that should be achievable at multiple plutonium and uranium concentration levels provided instrument hardware and software upgrades being recommended by LANL and SRNL are performed.

  19. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the current state of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. The fundamentals of fluidized-bed combustion and design considerations are first discussed. Tables provide details of manufacturers, worldwide, and of the boilers now installed. Eight plants in various countries and burning a variety of fuels, are described more fully.

  20. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  1. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... allow them to fit into the smallest of spaces and stay there for long periods of time, even without a blood meal. Bed bugs are usually transported from place to place as people travel. The bed bugs travel in the seams and ...

  2. Continuous thorium biosorption--dynamic study for critical bed depth determination in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Marta Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the biosorption of thorium by the seaweed Sargassum filipendula in a dynamic system. Different bed depths were tested with the purpose of evaluating the critical bed depth for total uptake of the radioactive element. Several bed depths were tested, ranging from 5.0 to 40.0 cm. Bed depths tested presented distinct capacities to accumulate thorium. An increase in biosorption efficiency was observed with an increase in bed depth. The 30.0 cm bed produced an effluent still containing detectable levels of thorium. The critical bed depth suitable for a complete removal of thorium by S.filipendula biomass was equal to 40.0 cm.

  3. Preference for bedding material in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, M; Reebs, S G

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether Syrian (golden) hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, prefer certain bedding materials and whether bedding material can affect paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity. In a first experiment, 26 male hamsters had access to two connected cages, each cage containing a different bedding material (either pine shavings, aspen shavings, corn cob or wood pellets). In a second experiment, 14 male hamsters had access to four connected cages that contained the different bedding materials and also a piece of paper towel to serve as nest material. In a third experiment, 30 male hamsters were each placed in a single cage, 10 of them with pine shavings, 10 with aspen shavings and 10 with corn cob, and they were monitored for 50 days. Significant preferences in the first experiment were: pine shavings over aspen shavings, corn cob over wood pellets, pine shavings over corn cob and aspen shavings over wood pellets (aspen shavings versus corn cob was not tested). However, there was no significant preference expressed in the second experiment, suggesting that the general preference for shavings in the first experiment was based on bedding material suitability as a nesting material. No significant effect of bedding material on paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity was detected. None of the four bedding materials tested in this study can be judged to be inappropriate in the short term if nesting material is added to the cage and if the litter is changed regularly.

  4. Evaluation of fluid bed heat exchanger optimization parameters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Uncertainty in the relationship of specific bed material properties to gas-side heat transfer in fluidized beds has inhibited the search for optimum bed materials and has led to over-conservative assumptions in the design of fluid bed heat exchangers. An experimental program was carried out to isolate the effects of particle density, thermal conductivity, and heat capacitance upon fluid bed heat transfer. A total of 31 tests were run with 18 different bed material loads on 12 material types; particle size variations were tested on several material types. The conceptual design of a fluidized bed evaporator unit was completed for a diesel exhaust heat recovery system. The evaporator heat transfer surface area was substantially reduced while the physical dimensions of the unit increased. Despite the overall increase in unit size, the overall cost was reduced. A study of relative economics associated with bed material selection was conducted. For the fluidized bed evaporator, it was found that zircon sand was the best choice among materials tested in this program, and that the selection of bed material substantially influences the overall system costs. The optimized fluid bed heat exchanger has an estimated cost 19% below a fin augmented tubular heat exchanger; 31% below a commercial design fluid bed heat exchanger; and 50% below a conventional plain tube heat exchanger. The comparisons being made for a 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h waste heat boiler. The fluidized bed approach potentially has other advantages such as resistance to fouling. It is recommended that a study be conducted to develop a systematic selection of bed materials for fluidized bed heat exchanger applications, based upon findings of the study reported herein.

  5. Turning patients over in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Roll patients in bed ... following steps should be followed: Explain to the patient what you are planning to do so the ... Stand on the side of the bed the patient will be turning towards and lower the bed ...

  6. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  7. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  8. Bed Bug Tips

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  9. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  10. Moving-bed sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Gupta, R.P.; Chuck, T.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop mixed-metal oxide sorbent formulations that are suitable for moving-bed, high-temperature, desulfurization of coal gas. Work continues on zinc titanates formulations and Z-sorb III sorbent.

  11. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  12. Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents.

  13. Development of fluidized bed cement sintering technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Katsuji

    1994-12-31

    In the new system presented in this paper, the cement clinker is sintered, not in a rotary kiln, but in two different furnaces: a spouted bed kiln and a fluidized bed kiln. The heat generated in the process of cooling the cement clinker is recovered by a fluidized bed cooler and a packed bed cooler, which are more efficient than the conventional coolers. Compared with the rotary kiln system, the new technology significantly reduces NO{sub x} emissions, appreciably cuts energy consumption, and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions as well. Thus, the new system is an efficient cement sintering system that is friendly to the global environment. In this paper, we describe this new technology as one of the applied technologies at an industrial level that is being developed in the Clean Coal Technology Project, and we present the results from test operations at our pilot plant.

  14. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  15. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  16. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pest Bed Bugs EPA Registered Bed Bug Products EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products Resources Bed Bug Main ... Bugs Tips Joint Statement on Bed Bug Control EPA has developed a search tool that can help ...

  17. Cross hospital bed management system.

    PubMed

    Abedian, S; Kazemi, H; Riazi, H; Bitaraf, E

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate numbers of hospital beds to accommodate the injured is a main problem in public hospitals. For control of occupancy of bed, we design a dynamic system that announces status of bed when it change with admission or discharge of a patient. This system provide a wide network in country for bed management, especially for ICU and CCU beds that help us to distribute injured patient in the hospitals.

  18. In Situ Erosion Flume (ISEF): determination of bed-shear stress and erosion of a kaolinite bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houwing, Erik-Jan; van Rijn, Leo C.

    1998-06-01

    The strength of a cohesive sediment bed is difficult to determine and must be found experimentally from laboratory tests or through in situ field tests. A new in situ erosion instrument, the In situ Erosion Flume (ISEF), has been developed which is a circulating flow system in the vertical plane. The erosion process of sediment particles of the bed in the test section of the ISEF is related to the prevailing bed-shear stress induced by a unidirectional current. The bed-shear stress can be determined from the measured velocity profile in the test section assuming a logarithmic distribution in a vertical direction. The bed-shear stress equation has been calibrated under various conditions characterised by initiation of motion of sand and gravel particles at a flat bed where the bed-shear stresses mobilising the particles are known from the Shields curve. Three reproducibility tests were carried out under laboratory conditions. The bed consisted of kaolinite and was formed by sedimentation in still fresh water. The results of the three tests showed similar values. The erosion of a kaolinite sediment bed is more precisely determined under laboratory conditions by means of the ISEF. The results are compared with data from the literature. The ISEF is a relatively simple instrument for the determination of the strength of (cohesive) sediment beds. The results based on the ISEF measurements represent the minimum shear stress exerted at initiation of erosion of the bed, which will lead to the maximum shear strength of the top layer of the (cohesive) sediment bed.

  19. Bed inventory overturn in a circulating fluid bed riser with pant-leg structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jinjing Li; Wei Wang; Hairui Yang; Junfu Lv; Guangxi Yue

    2009-05-15

    The special phenomenon, nominated as bed inventory overturn, in circulating fluid bed (CFB) riser with pant-leg structure was studied with model calculation and experimental work. A compounded pressure drop mathematic model was developed and validated with the experimental data in a cold experimental test rig. The model calculation results agree well with the measured data. In addition, the intensity of bed inventory overturn is directly proportional to the fluidizing velocity and is inversely proportional to the branch point height. The results in the present study provide significant information for the design and operation of a CFB boiler with pant-leg structure. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. AFBC bed material performance with low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G.M.; Benson, S.A.; Karner, F.R.; Rindt, D.K.; Hajicek, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reasons for carefully screening any candidate bed material for use in low-rank coal atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, before the final selection is made. The sections of this paper describe: (1) the experimental equipment used to obtain the data, as well as the experimental and analytical procedures used in evaluation; (2) the results of tests utilizing various bed materials with particular emphasis on the problem of bed material agglomeration; and (3) the conclusions and recommendations for bed material selection and control for use with low-rank coal. Bed materials of aluminum oxide, quartz, limestone, dolomite, granite, gabbro, and mixtures of some of these materials have been used in the testing. Of these materials, gabbro appears most suitable for use with high available sodium lignites. 17 figures, 8 tables. (DMC)

  1. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  2. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  3. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  4. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  5. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  6. Itegrated Test and Evaluation of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) Carbon Dioxide Removtal System (CDRA), Mechanical Compressor Engineering Development Unit (EDU), and Sabitier Engineering Development Unit (EDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Campbell, Melissa; Murdoch, Karen; Miller, Lee A.; Jeng, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station s (ISS) U.S. Segment, carbon dioxide (CO2) scrubbed from the cabin by a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) is vented overboard as a waste product. Likewise, the product hydrogen (H2) that will be generated by the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) planned for installation will also be vented. A flight experiment has been proposed that will take the waste CO2 removed from the cabin, and via the catalytic Sabatier process, reduce it with waste H2 to generate water and methane. The water produced may provide cost and logistics savings for ISS by reducing the amount of water periodically re-supplied to orbit. To make this concept viable, a mechanical piston compressor and accumulator were developed for collecting and storing the CO2 from the CDRA. The compressor, accumulator and Sabatier system would be packaged together as one unit and referred to as the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). Testing was required to evaluate the performance of a 4BMS CDRA, compressor, accumulator, and Sabatier performance along with their operating rules when integrated together. This had been numerically modeled and simulated; however, testing was necessary to verify the results from the engineering analyses. Testing also allowed a better understanding of the practical inefficiencies and control issues involved in a fully integrated system versus the theoretical ideals in the model. This paper presents and discusses the results of an integrated engineering development unit test.

  7. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 sdAb Produced by U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Biosurveillance (JPMO BSV), Critical Reagents Program instituted a quality program for the standardization of test methods to support more...standardization of antibody testing provides JPMO BSV with an invaluable platform for providing consistent, high- quality assays and reagents for current...Program (ATP) Quality MS2 coat protein (MS2CP) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  8. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 Human IgG Antibody Produced by AnaptysBio, Inc.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Quality Testing MS2 coat protein (MS2CP) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...CRP) members instituted a quality program for the standardization of test methods to more fully characterize and compare the physical and functional...platform for providing consistent, high- quality assays and reagents, not only for use in current biodetection platforms, but also for developing and

  9. Tritium Loading of Pinellas U-Bed No. 874

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1999-09-15

    The DOE-Richland Office has requested WSRC to supply PNNL with a Pinellas U-bed loaded with tritium for permeation experiments. It is desired to have less than 1000 Ci tritium in the bed to allow shipping without excessive packaging requirements. Pinellas U-Bed No. 874 was loaded with approximately 955 Ci of 98 percent purity tritium on the ETM manifold in the Materials Test Facility in Building 232-H.

  10. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  11. Distributor for multistage fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wormser, A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a multibed fluidized bed system. It comprises a fluidized bed vessel having a casing surrounding a first distributor and a second distributor downstream from the first distributor; a first bed material placed on the first distributor and a second bed material placed on the second distributor; each of the bed materials having an angle of repose; and wherein the angle formed by the substantially straight elongated tubular passages and the upper surface is less than the angle of repose of the second bed material.

  12. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  13. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  14. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  15. Bed Bug Myths

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  16. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  17. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M

    2005-08-01

    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  18. Synthesising Evidence on the Impacts of Programmes and Policies in Education, Crime and Justice, and Social Welfare: Practical Recommendations Based on 14 Test-Bed Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottingham, Phoebe; Maynard, Rebecca; Stagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Review teams tested the systematic review procedures and principles developed under the Campbell Collaboration Fourteen review teams selected topics for intervention reviews in social policy, education, and criminal justice. Review protocols gave criteria for the extensive research literature search. Randomised Controlled Trials were selected.…

  19. Resistance to airflow through bedding materials used in infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, D J; Helms, P; Matthew, D J; Skinner, D

    1982-01-01

    Various bedding materials used in infancy, including duvets (or continental quilts), were tested for airflow using the British Standards Institution tests for pillows or fabrics. Resistance was also measured when the items were placed on a dummy infant face. Measurements were made on washed and unwashed garments, which were tested both dry and wet. Results suggest that all the bedding materials tested are safe for use even in the newborn period. The duvets produced slightly lower resistance to breathing than conventional blankets and sheets. In view of the wide variety of infant bedding fabrics it seems desirable for standard airflow performance requirements to be introduced. PMID:7092309

  20. Loading and Unloading Finishing Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; McGlone, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Current guidelines suggest the use of ramps below 20 degrees to load and unload pigs; however, they do not suggest the use of any specific bedding. Bedding types (nothing, feed, sand, wood shavings, and hay) were tested with finishing pigs (70–120 kg) to determine which was most effective in reducing slips, falls, and vocalizations at three ramp angles, two moisture levels, over two seasons. Slips, falls, and vocalizations were summed to establish a scoring system for the types of beddings. Heart rate and the total time it took to load and unload pigs, increased as the slope increased. Bedding, bedding moisture, season, and ramp slope interacted to impact the total time it took for finishing pigs to load and unload the ramp. Selection of the best bedding depends on ramp slope, season, and wetness of bedding. Abstract The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of finishing pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps with a slope below 20 degrees to load and unload pigs. However, the total time it takes to load and unload animals and slips, falls, and vocalizations are a welfare concern. Three ramp angles (0, 10 or 20 degrees), five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay), two moistures (dry or wet bedding, >50% moisture) over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter) were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 2400 pig observations) and analyzed with a scoring system. The use of bedding during summer or winter played a role in the total time it took to load and unload the ramp (p < 0.05). Bedding, bedding moisture, season, and slope significantly interacted to impact the total time to load and unload finishing pigs (p < 0.05). Heart rate and the total time it took to load and unload the ramp increased as the slope of the ramp increased (p < 0.05). Heart rates were higher during the

  1. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  2. Effluent characterization from a conical pressurized fluid bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, R. J.; Rollbuhler, R. J.; Patch, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain useable corrosion and erosion results it was necessary to have data with several levels of particulate matter in the hot gases. One level of particulate loading was as low as possible so that ideally no erosion and only corrosion occurred. A conical fluidized bed was used to obtain some degree of filtration through the top of the bed which would not be highly fluidized. This would minimize the filtration required for the hot gases or conversely the amount of particulate matter in the hot gases after a given level of filtration by cyclones and/or filters. The data obtained during testing characterized the effluent from the bed at different test conditions. A range of bed heights, coal flows, air flows, limestone flows, and pressure are represented. These tests were made to determine the best operating conditions prior to using the bed to determine erosion and corrosion rates of typical turbine blade materials.

  3. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

    2012-04-01

    near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

  4. Development and Design of Sludge Freezing Beds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    predicting the design depth were developed; values for the input parameters to the models were obtained from the literature or from laboratory and pilot...the freezing and thawing models reveals tit, the design of a freezing bed will depend on the duration and intensity of the freezing and thawing seasons...13 Drying tests ...................................................... 20 Development of design models

  5. Lake bed classification using acoustic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Karen K.; Li, Xing; Bonde, John; Richards, Carl; Cholwek, Gary

    1998-01-01

    As part of our effort to identify the lake bed surficial substrates using remote sensing data, this work designs pattern classifiers by multivariate statistical methods. Probability distribution of the preprocessed acoustic signal is analyzed first. A confidence region approach is then adopted to improve the design of the existing classifier. A technique for further isolation is proposed which minimizes the expected loss from misclassification. The devices constructed are applicable for real-time lake bed categorization. A mimimax approach is suggested to treat more general cases where the a priori probability distribution of the substrate types is unknown. Comparison of the suggested methods with the traditional likelihood ratio tests is discussed.

  6. Proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, induce expression of interleukin-34 mRNA via JNK- and p44/42 MAPK-NF-κB pathway but not p38 pathway in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Eda, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Hideaki; Beidler, David R; Monahan, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the induction of interleukin-34 (IL-34) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) mRNA by inflammatory cytokines and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in this signaling pathway in human osteoblasts as both IL-34 and M-CSF bind to the same receptor c-FMS. Among four inflammatory cytokines [(IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], IL-34 mRNA expression level was dramatically induced by IL-1β (17-fold) and TNF-α (74-fold). IL-1β and TNF-α activated the intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): p44/42 MAPK, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in osteoblasts. IL-1β- and TNF-α-mediated induction of IL-34 mRNA expression was decreased by JNK inhibitor. Interestingly, although treatment of MEK-1/2 inhibitor showed no reduction in the increase of IL-34 mRNA expression by cytokines, combination of MEK-1/2 inhibitor and JNK inhibitor significantly inhibited IL-1β- and TNF-α-mediated IL-34 mRNA expression level compared to those by each inhibitor alone. On the other hand, M-CSF mRNA expression level was significantly induced by both IL-1β and TNF-α by up to 7- and 11-fold, respectively. IL-1β- and TNF-α-mediated induction of M-CSF mRNA was not affected by p38, JNK, and MEK-1/2 inhibitors. However, NF-κB inhibitor completely inhibited the elevation of M-CSF mRNA expression by these cytokines. These results showed that proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, induced the expression of IL-34 mRNA via JNK and p44/42 MAPK but not p38 in human osteoblasts while p38, JNK, and p44/42 MAPK were not involved in the induction of M-CSF mRNA expression by these cytokines.

  7. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.D.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed boilers is in progress. Preliminary results indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. In these instances it was observed that large particles were forming within the bed which were larger that the feed. Four operators could confirm that the larger bed particles had formed due to bed particles sticking together or agglomerating. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with these deposits being found most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Examples of these agglomerates and deposits have been received from five of the surveyed facilities. Also during this quarter, a bulk sample of Illinois No. 6 coal was obtained from the Fossil Energy Program at Ames Laboratory here at Iowa State University and prepared for combustion tests. This sample was first ground to a top-size of 3/8`` using a jaw crusher then a size fraction of 3/8`` {times} 8 (US mesh) was then obtained by sieving using a Gilson Test-Master. This size fraction was selected for the preliminary laboratory-scale experiments designed to simulate the dense bed conditions that exist in the bottom of CFB combustors. To ensure uniformity of fuel composition among combustion runs, the sized coal was riffled using, a cone and long row method and stored in bags for each experiment. During this quarter additional modifications were made to achieve better control of fluidization regimes and to aid in monitoring the hydrodynamic and chemical conditions within the reactor.

  8. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.

    2005-06-01

    Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible.

  9. Debris-Bed Friction of Hard-Bedded Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500~kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which non-rotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if ice is Newtonian. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a 200~m thick glacier sliding at 20~m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006~m a-1 can exceed 100~kPa. Debris-bed friction can, therefore, be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible.

  10. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The US DOE pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) research and development program is designed to develop the technology and data base required for the successful commercialization of the PFBC concept. A cooperative program with the US, West Germany, and the UK has resulted in the construction of the 25 MWe IEA-Grimethorpe combined-cycle pilot plant in England which will be tested in 1981. A 13 MWe coal-fired gas turbine (air cycle) at Curtis-Wright has been designed and construction scheduled. Start-up is planned to begin in early 1983. A 75 MWe pilot plant is planned for completion in 1986. Each of these PFBC combined-cycle programs is discussed. The current status of PFB technology may be summarized as follows: turbine erosion tolerance/hot gas cleanup issues have emerged as the barrier technology issues; promising turbine corrosion-resistant materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking; first-generation PFB combustor technology development is maturing at the PDU level; however, scale-up to larger size has not been demonstrated; and in-bed heat exchanger materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking. The DOE-PFB development plan is directed at the resolution of these key technical issues. (LCL)

  11. Physiology of prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.

  12. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    Discusses atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boilers with regard to designs available, manufacturers involved, and operating experience. Proven fuel flexibility and satisfactory SO/sub 2/ control without scrubbers make AFB boilers a viable option for industrial steam generation worldwide. Technical concepts on which AFB application is based are a departure from the more familiar methods of burning solid fuels. Behind US thrust for AFB development is the need to burn coal within pollution regulations.

  13. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  14. Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Herrera, Adriana; Rinaldi, Carlos; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:24790441

  15. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors.

  16. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of Beauveria bassiana for bed bug control.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Jenkins, Nina E; Rajotte, Edwin G; Thomas, Matthew B

    2012-09-15

    Residual biopesticide treatments of Beauveria bassiana were tested against the bed bug Cimex lectularius. An oil formulation of conidia was applied to different substrates. Bed bugs were exposed for 1 h, transferred to an unsprayed environment and monitored for mortality. Separate bioassays evaluated the effect of bed bug strain, sex, life stage, and exposure substrate on mortality. Rapid mortality was observed in all bioassays, with bed bugs exposed to treated jersey knit cotton dying most rapidly. A further assay demonstrated efficient autodissemination of conidia from exposed bed bugs to unexposed bed bugs within artificial harborages.

  17. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA.

  18. Measuring bed shear stress along vegetated river beds using FST-hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Bockelmann-Evans, B N; Davies, R; Falconer, R A

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of the bed shear stress along vegetated river beds is essential for accurately predicting the water level, velocity and solute and sediment transport fluxes in computational hydroenvironmental models. Details are given herein of an experimental and theoretical study to determine the bed boundary shear stress along vegetated river beds introducing a novel field measuring method, namely the FliessWasserStammtisch (FST)-hemispheres. Although investigations have been conducted previously for sedimentary channels using the FST-hemispheres, this preliminary study is thought to be the first time that such hemispheres have been used to investigate the bed shear stresses in vegetated channels. FST-hemispheres were first developed by Statzner and Müller [1989. Standard hemispheres as indicators of flow characteristics in lotic benthos research. Freshwater Biology 21, 445-459] to act as an integrated indicator of the gross hydrodynamic stresses present near the bed. Test and validation data were found to be at least of the same order of magnitude for the stresses predicted from literature for sedimentary channels, with this study establishing the commencement of a database of calibrated FST-hemisphere laboratory data for vegetated channel beds. In a series of experiments, depths ranging from 0.1 to 0.28 m were considered, equating directly to comparable conditions in small rivers or streams. The results of this study provide a basis for enabling the FST-hemispheres to be used to evaluate the boundary shear stress for a wider range of applications in the future, including vegetated river beds.

  19. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  20. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  1. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  2. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  3. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  4. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  5. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  6. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  7. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  8. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  9. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  10. Sludge incineration in a spinning fluidized bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Swithenbank, J.; Basire, S.; Wong, W.Y.; Lu, Y.; Nasserzadeh, V.

    1999-07-01

    At the present time, the sewage treatment plants in the UK produce about 25 million tonnes of sewage sludge each year at a concentration of 4% solids. New regulations forbid sea dumping and in the near future new incinerators will be required to dispose of about five million tonnes per year. Bubbling fluidized bed incinerators are widely used to burn sewage sludge at a typical consumption rate of about 0.02 kg(dry)/s/m{sup 2}, and it follows that over 300 conventional fluidized bed incinerators of 3 meters bed diameter could be required to cope with the increased demand. At Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) research work is being carried out to develop a novel spinning fluidized bed incinerator. The key factor to note is that when air flows up through a bed of near mono-sized particles, it fluidizes when the pressure drop across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. Normally, the weight of the bed is determined by gravity. However, if the bed is contained by a cylindrical air distributor plate that is rotating rapidly about its axis, then the effective weight of the bed can be increased dramatically. The airflow passing through the bed can be increased proportionally to the g level produced by the rotation and it follows that the process has been intensified. In exploratory tests with a spinning fluidized bed the authors have achieved combustion intensities with coal combustion as high as 100 MW/m{sup 3}. A problem with burning coal is that it was difficult to remove the heat and rotating water seals had to be used to transfer cooling water into the bed. In the case of sewage and other sludges, this problem does not exist since the flue gases can remove the small amount of heat released. The rotating fluidized bed sludge incinerator is a novel device, which is very compact. It is able to solve the turndown problem encountered with conventional fluidized beds by simply changing the rotation speed. Bearing in mind that a centrifugal sludge

  11. Effects of ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments on bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of bed bugs has always been problematic, balancing among efficacy, safety, and cost. In this study, ultralow oxygen (ULO) and vacuum treatments were tested on bed bugs to develop a safer, effective, and environmental friendly solution to bed bug infestations. ULO treatments were establishe...

  12. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  13. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  14. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  15. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  16. Impact on Granular Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Devaraj

    2017-01-01

    The impact of an object on a granular solid is an ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, the scale of which ranges from the impact of a raindrop onto sand all the way to that of a large asteroid on a planet. Despite the obvious relevance of these impact events, the study of the underlying physics mechanisms that guide them is relatively young, with most work concentrated in the past decade. Upon impact, an object starts to interact with a granular bed and experiences a drag force from the sand. This ultimately leads to phenomena such as crater formation and the creation of a transient cavity that upon collapse may cause a jet to appear from above the surface of the sand. This review provides an overview of research that targets these phenomena, from the perspective of the analogous but markedly different impact of an object on a liquid. It successively addresses the drag an object experiences inside a granular bed, the expansion and collapse of the cavity created by the object leading to the formation of a jet, and the remarkable role played by the air that resides within the pores between the grains.

  17. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  18. Multi-Camera Persistent Surveillance Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    interest (ROI). An asset is any capability that aids or enhances the ability of a combat unit to perform its mission, including humans , software, and...and out of the box while still retaining its weather resistance and portability needed to be designed. The box required four connections: AC power in...system. The surveillance system also makes use of a preexisting video server application known as MCVideoAgent. MCVideoAgent is a portable C

  19. Stormwater and Wastewater Infrastructure Monitoring Test Bed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing application of stormwater and wastewater management in urban and urbanizing environments is increasing the demand for monitoring technologies and systems that can provide reliable performance data, in real-time or near real-time, for operation and maintenance decision...

  20. Infrastructure for 3D Imaging Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-11

    analysis. (c.) Real time detection & analysis of human gait: using a video camera we capture walking human silhouette for pattern modeling and gait ... analysis . Fig. 5 shows the scanning result result that is fed into a Geo-magic software tool for 3D meshing. Fig. 5: 3D scanning result In

  1. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    operating temperature data from the spouted bed monitoring system are used to determine the bed operating regime and monitor the particle characteristics. Tests have been conducted to determine the sensitivity of the monitoring system to the different operating regimes of the spouted particle bed. The pressure transducer signal response was monitored over a range of particle sizes and gas flow rates while holding bed height constant. During initial testing, the bed monitoring system successfully identified the spouting regime as well as when particles became interlocked and spouting ceased. The particle characterization capabilities of the bed monitoring system are currently being tested and refined. A feedback control module for the bed monitoring system is currently under development. The feedback control module will correlate changes in the bed response to changes in the particle characteristics and bed spouting regime resulting from the coating and/or conversion process. The feedback control module will then adjust the gas composition, gas flow rate, and run duration accordingly to maintain the bed in the desired spouting regime and produce optimally coated/converted particles.

  2. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  3. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOEpatents

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  5. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  6. Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1994-04-01

    Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

  7. Development of a new method for improving load turndown in fluidized bed combustors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate a new concept in fluidized bed design that improves load turndown capability. This improvement is accomplished by independently controlling heat transfer and combustion in the combustor. The design consists of two fluidized beds, one central and one annular. The central bed serves as the combustion bed. The annular bed is fluidized separately from the combustion bed and its level of fluidization determine the overall heat transfer rate from the combustion bed to the surrounding water jacket. Early theoretical considerations suggested a load turndown exceeding ten was possible for this design. This research consisted of three major phases: development of a computational model to predict heat transfer in the two-bed combustor, heat transfer measurements in hot-and-cold flow models of the combustor, and combustion tests in an optimally designed combustor. The computation model was useful in selecting the design of the combustor. Annular bed width and particle sizes were chosen with the aid of the model. The heat transfer tests were performed to determine if the existing correlations for fluidized bed heat transfer coefficients were sufficiently accurate for high aspect ratio fluidized beds (such as the annular bed in the combustor). Combustion tests were performed in an optimally designed combustor. Three fuel forms were used: double screened, crushed coal, coal-water-limestone mixtures (CWLM), and coal-limestone briquettes. 18 refs., 30 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  9. Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

  10. Behavioral responses of the bed bug to insecticide residues.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alvaro; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2009-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), has increased the demand for information about effective control tactics. Several studies have focused on determining the susceptibility of bed bug populations to insecticides. However, behavioral responses of bed bugs to insecticide residues could influence their efficacy. The behavioral responses of bed bugs to deltamethrin and chlorfenapyr, two commonly used insecticides for bed bug control in the United States, were evaluated. In two-choice tests, grouped insects and individual insects avoided resting on filter paper treated with deltamethrin. Insects did not avoid surfaces treated with chlorfenapyr. Harborages, containing feces and eggs and treated with a deltamethrin-based product, remained attractive to individuals from a strain resistant to pyrethroids. Video recordings of bed bugs indicated that insects increased activity when they contacted sublethal doses of deltamethrin. Insecticide barriers of chlorfenapyr or deltamethrin did not prevent bed bugs from reaching a warmed blood source and acquiring blood meals. We discuss the impact of these responses on bed bug control practices.

  11. Pressure Fluctuations as a Diagnostic Tool for Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Ethan Bure; Joel R. Schroeder; Ramon De La Cruz; Robert C. Brown

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the origin of pressure fluctuations in fluidized bed systems. The study assessed the potential for using pressure fluctuations as an indicator of fluidized bed hydrodynamics in both laboratory scale cold-models and industrial scale boilers. Both bubbling fluidized beds and circulating fluidized beds were evaluated. Testing including both cold-flow models and laboratory and industrial-scale combustors operating at elevated temperatures. The study yielded several conclusions on the relationship of pressure fluctuations and hydrodynamic behavior in fluidized beds. The study revealed the importance of collecting sufficiently long data sets to capture low frequency (on the order of 1 Hz) pressure phenomena in fluidized beds. Past research has tended toward truncated data sets collected with high frequency response transducers, which miss much of the spectral structure of fluidized bed hydrodynamics. As a result, many previous studies have drawn conclusions concerning hydrodynamic similitude between model and prototype fluidized beds that is insupportable from the low resolution data presented.

  12. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, K.E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

  13. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  14. A bioassay for studying behavioural responses of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to bed bug-derived volatiles.

    PubMed

    Weeks, E N I; Logan, J G; Gezan, S A; Woodcock, C M; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

    2011-02-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has recently re-emerged in increasing numbers, distribution and intensity of infestation in many countries. Current control relies on the application of residual pesticides; but, due to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemicals (behaviour and physiology modifying chemicals) could be exploited for management of bed bugs. However, in order to identify semiochemicals that can be utilised in monitoring or control, a suitable olfactometer is needed that enables the study of the responses of bed bugs to volatile chemicals. Previous studies have used olfactometers that do not separate olfactory responses from responses to physical contact. In this study, a still-air olfactometer was used to measure behavioural responses to different bed bug-derived volatiles presented in an odour pot. Bed bugs were significantly more likely to visit the area above the odour pot first, and more frequently, in the presence of volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper but not in the presence of volatiles from conspecific bed bugs. Bed bug activity was found to be dependent on the presence of the volatiles from bed bug-exposed paper, the time during the scotophase and the sex of the insect being tested. The still-air olfactometer could be used to test putative semiochemicals, which would allow an understanding of their behavioural role in bed bug ecology. Ultimately, this could lead to the identification of new semiochemical tools for bed bug monitoring and control.

  15. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  16. Modeling RDX Reduction within Iron Bed Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    completely flushed. The third test case for the hypothetical batch reactor was conducted with a constant RDX loading as prescribed for a water...of RDX. Likewise, constant concentrations of RDX degradation products are produced. The results for all three of the hypothetical batch reactor ...a model to predict the degradation of RDX and its degradation products within an iron bed reactor . A batch reactor model and a one- dimensional (1D

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Bedded Rocks and Its Implication for High Sidewall Caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang-Yi; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xu, Ding-Ping; Fan, Qi-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    The stability of high sidewalls of large-span underground powerhouses will be a major issue when the cavern axis forms a small angle to the steeply inclined rock strata. A synthetic test scheme composed of four experiments was performed on two rocks with clear bedding features, aiming at better understanding the otherwise confusing deformation behavior and failure patterns of bedded rocks. Bedding orientations with respect to stress direction impose significant effect on the mechanical behavior of bedded rocks. Excessive tensile strain is observed in the direction perpendicular to bedding or across material interface in uniaxial test. Under low confinement in true triaxial test, the σ 2 angle mainly influences the deformation and fracture propagation but not strength. Deformation dependence of bedded rocks on two stress paths is thoroughly investigated. Confining pressure unloading leads to pronounced volumetric dilation accompanied by moduli drop. Samples with large bedding angle exhibit more obvious lateral dilation. Post-peak degradation of deformation parameters is confirmed by cyclic test. Fractures entirely or partly along bedding occurred under different stress states depend not only on the bonding strength between beds but on the anisotropic deformation field. Based on these observations, it is deduced that the possible reasons for the failure of steeply dipping rock mass after excavation are a combination of (1) the pervasive bedding planes, (2) the more pronounced deformation normal to bedding, and (3) the excavation-induced unloading of confinement.

  18. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  19. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also take into accounts factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  20. Reduction in peak oxygen uptake after prolonged bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that the magnitude of the reduction in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) after bed rest is directly proportional to the level of pre-bed rest peak VO2 is tested. Complete pre and post-bed rest working capacity and body weight data were obtained from studies involving 24 men (19-24 years old) and 8 women (23-34 years old) who underwent bed rest for 14-20 days with no remedial treatments. Results of regression analyses of the present change in post-bed rest peak VO2 on pre-bed rest peak VO2 with 32 subjects show correlation coefficients of -0.03 (NS) for data expressed in 1/min and -0.17 for data expressed in ml/min-kg. In addition, significant correlations are found that support the hypothesis only when peak VO2 data are analyzed separately from studies that utilized the cycle ergometer, particularly with subjects in the supine position, as opposed to data obtained from treadmill peak VO2 tests. It is concluded that orthostatic factors, associated with the upright body position and relatively high levels of physical fitness from endurance training, appear to increase the variability of pre and particularly post-bed rest peak VO2 data, which would lead to rejection of the hypothesis.